Sample records for p-gp protein expression

  1. Effect of FosPeg® mediated photoactivation on P-gp/ABCB1 protein expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, R W K; Chu, E S M; Huang, Z; Xu, C S; Ip, C W; Yow, C M N

    2015-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) refers to the ability of cancer cells to develop cross resistance to a range of anticancer drugs which are structurally and functionally unrelated. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is the best studied MDR phenotype in photodynamic therapy (PDT) treated cells. Our pervious study demonstrated that FosPeg® mediated PDT is effective to NPC cell line models. In this in vitro study, the expression of MDR1 gene and its product P-gp in undifferentiated, poorly differentiated and well differentiated human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells were investigated. The influence of P-gp efflux activities on photosensitizer FosPeg® was also examined. Regardless of the differentiation status, PDT tested NPC cell lines all expressed P-gp protein. Results indicated that FosPeg® photoactivation could heighten the expression of MDR1 gene and P-gp transporter protein in a dose dependent manner. Up to 2-fold increase of P-gp protein expression were seen in NPC cells after FosPeg® mediated PDT. Interestingly, our finding demonstrated that FosPeg® mediated PDT efficiency is independent to the MDR1 gene and P-gp protein expression in NPC cells. FosPeg® itself is not the substrate of P-gp transporter protein and no efflux of FosPeg® were observed in NPC cells. Therefore, the PDT efficiency would not be affected even though FosPeg® mediated PDT could induce MDR1 gene and P-gp protein expression in NPC cells. FosPeg® mediated PDT could be a potential therapeutic approach for MDR cancer patients. PMID:25900553

  2. Chitosan Influences the Expression of P-gp and Metabolism of Norfloxacin in Grass Carp.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kun; Xie, Xinyan; Zhao, Yi-Ni; Li, Yi; Ruan, Jiming; Li, Hao-Ran; Jin, Tianyi; Yang, Xian-Le

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the administration of chitosan (CTS), expression of permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), and the metabolism of norfloxacin (NOR) in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were administrated with a single dose of either NOR, CTS, 1:5 NOR-CTS or 1:10 NOR-CTS. The P-gp expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. The concentration of NOR was determined using HPLC. The mRNA and protein expression of P-gp in the fish intestine was significantly enhanced following a single dosage of 40 mg/kg NOR, and peak expression occurred at 3 h after drug administration (P < 0.05). A single dosage of both 1:5 NOR-CTS and 1:10 NOR-CTS reduced the intestinal P-gp expression to levels significantly lower than that from NOR alone (P < 0.05), but significantly higher than that from the control (P < 0.05). Interestingly, CTS alone also led to a slight decrease in P-gp expression. In addition, pharmacokinetic assays revealed a marked increase in area under the curve (AUC) of NOR with 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS, by approximately 1.5-fold and threefold, respectively. Finally, the relative bioavailability of NOR after a single oral dosage of 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS was enhanced to 148.02% and 304.98%, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated that the transmembrane glycoprotein P-gp regulates NOR metabolism in the intestine of Grass Carp, suggesting that NOR may be a direct substrate of P-gp. More importantly, we showed that CTS can inhibit P-gp expression in a dose-dependent manner and improve the relative bioavailability of NOR in this species. Received August 25, 2014; accepted November 12, 2014. PMID:25997556

  3. P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2013-01-01

    Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous "membrane detoxification proteins" implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality. PMID:24305632

  4. Neferine increases STI571 chemosensitivity via inhibition of P-gp expression in STI571-resistant K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qun; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Zhou-Sheng; Xiao, Yu-Hang; Min, Hui; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the effects of neferine (Nef) on STI571 sensitivity and the possible mechanism in STI571-resistant K562/G01 cells. We observed cell proliferation by the modified MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assay. We determined the intracellular concentration of STI571 in K562/G01 cells by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by Western blotting, and the expression of MDR-1 mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed that drug resistance to STI571 for K562/G01 cells was 43.99-fold higher than that for K562 cells. We also observed that a low concentration of Nef (<8 ?M) and verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) (<10 ?M) showed no direct cytotoxicity but significantly reduced the 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of STI571 in K562/G01 cells. The reverse multiples for 8 ?M Nef and 10 ?M VRP were approximately two-fold. Both Nef (8 ?M) and VRP (10 ?M) decreased MDR-1 mRNA and P-gp protein expression and increased intracellular STI57I concentrations significantly in K562/G01 cells. Nef is a candidate chemical that can increase STI571 chemosensitivity in STI571-resistant K562 cells by inhibition of P-gp expression and increasing intracellular STI571 accumulation. PMID:21261505

  5. Quantification of proteins by flow cytometry: Quantification of human hepatic transporter P-gp and OATP1B1 using flow cytometry and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Karen; Thomas, Jerry; Ashford, David; Cartwright, Jared; Coldwell, Ruth; Weston, Daniel J; Pillmoor, John; Surry, Dominic; O'Toole, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for the quantitation of fluorescence and is proven to be able to correlate the fluorescence intensity to the number of protein on cells surface. Mass spectroscopy can also be used to determine the number of proteins per cell. Here we have developed two methods, using flow cytometry and mass spectroscopy to quantify number of transporters in human cells. These two approaches were then used to analyse the same samples so that a direct comparison could be made. Transporters have a major impact on the behaviour of a diverse number of drugs in human systems. While active uptake studies by transmembrane protein transporters using model substrates are routinely undertaken in human cell lines and hepatocytes as part of drug discovery and development, the interpretation of these results is currently limited by the inability to quantify the number of transporters present in the test samples. Here we provide a flow cytometric method for accurate quantification of transporter levels both on the cell surface and within the cell, and compare this to a quantitative mass spectrometric approach. Two transporters were selected for the study: OATP1B1 (also known as SLCO1B1, LST-1, OATP-C, OATP2) due to its important role in hepatic drug uptake and elimination; P-gp (also known as P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1) as a well characterised system and due to its potential impact on oral bioavailability, biliary and renal clearance, and brain penetration of drugs that are substrates for this transporter. In all cases the mass spectrometric method gave higher levels than the flow cytometry method. However, the two methods showed very similar trends in the relative ratios of both transporters in the hepatocyte samples investigated. The P-gp antibody allowed quantitative discrimination between externally facing transporters located in the cytoplasmic membrane and the total number of transporters on and in the cell. The proportion of externally facing transporter varied considerably in the four hepatocyte samples analysed, ranging from only 6% to 35% of intact and viable cells. The sample with only 6% externally facing transporter was further analysed by confocal microscopy which qualitatively confirmed the low level of transporter in the membrane and the large internal population. Here we prove that flow cytometry is an important tool for future protein analysis as it can not only quantify the number of proteins that a cell express but also identify the number of proteins on the surface and it is easy to apply for routine assays. PMID:25916617

  6. Expression of P-gp in acute myeloid leukemia and the reversal function of As2O3 on drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    GAO, FENG; DONG, WANWEI; YANG, WEI; LIU, JIA; ZHENG, ZHIHONG; SUN, KAILAI

    2015-01-01

    To study the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the reversal function of As2O3, the active ingredient of arsenic, on drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, P-gp and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) were examined in primary mononuclear and resistant cells, with or without As2O3. In addition, multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) mRNA expression was investigated in K562/D cells and AML patients. In total, 28.6% of newly-treated (NT) patients and 59.1% of relapsed/refractory (RR) patients were P-gpfunction+, and 31.7% of NT patients and 59.1% of RR patients were CD34+. The positivity rate of P-gpfunction and CD34+ expression in the RR group were significantly higher compared with that in the NT group (P<0.05). In addition, higher CD34+, P-gpexpression+ and P-gpfunction+ values were observed in older patients compared with younger patients. MDR1 expression was downregulated in certain patients following treatment with AS2O3. In the present study, the overexpression of P-gp was the primary cause of drug resistance in the AML patients, and MDR1 expression was downregulated by As2O3 in primary leukemia and drug-resistant cells. PMID:25435954

  7. Optimization of 2,4-diamino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives as protein kinase C theta inhibitors with mitigated time-dependent drug-drug interactions and P-gp liability.

    PubMed

    Kunikawa, Shigeki; Tanaka, Akira; Mukoyoshi, Koichiro; Nagashima, Shinya; Tominaga, Hiroaki; Chida, Noboru; Tasaki, Mamoru; Shirai, Fumiyuki

    2015-07-01

    Protein kinase C theta (PKC?) plays a critical role in T cell signaling and has therapeutic potential for T cell-mediated diseases such as transplant rejection and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, a series of 2,4-diamino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their inhibition of PKC?. Of these compounds, 14f was found to exhibit potent PKC? inhibitory activity and significantly weak CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) liability. PMID:25982074

  8. The putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan does not affect the transcellular permeability and cellular uptake of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil in the P-glycoprotein expressing cell line MDCK II MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Saaby, Lasse; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Brodin, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is used in high doses for the treatment of cluster headache. Verapamil has been described as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) substrate. We wished to evaluate in vitro whether co administration of a P-gp inhibitor with verapamil could be a feasible strategy for increasing CNS uptake of verapamil. Fluxes of radiolabelled verapamil across MDCK II MDR1 monolayers were measured in the absence and presence of the putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan (a clinically approved drug compound). Verapamil displayed a vectorial basolateral-to-apical transepithelial efflux across the MDCK II MDR1 monolayers with a permeability of 5.7 × 10?5 cm sec?1 compared to an apical to basolateral permeability of 1.3 × 10?5 cm sec-1. The efflux could be inhibited with the P-gp inhibitor zosuquidar. Zosuquidar (0.4 ?mol/L) reduced the efflux ratio (PB-A/PA-B) for verapamil 4.6–1.6. The presence of telmisartan, however, only caused a slight reduction in P-gp-mediated verapamil transport to an efflux ratio of 3.4. Overall, the results of the present in vitro approach indicate, that clinical use of telmisartan as a P-gp inhibitor may not be an effective strategy for increasing brain uptake of verapamil by co-administration with telmisartan. PMID:26171231

  9. Expression of P-glycoprotein in southeastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Keppler, C J; Ringwood, A H

    2001-07-01

    These studies provide important fundamental information regarding the expression of P-glycoprotein (p-gp) in southeastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Using rhodamine transport studies, p-gp activity was detected in newly fertilized embryos. A monoclonal antibody (C219) was used to evaluate p-gp expression in oyster tissues. On the basis of laboratory studies, p-gp expression tended to be higher in gill tissues than mantle tissues, and was generally not related to salinity differences. Seasonal studies were conducted with oysters collected monthly for 1 year from Lighthouse Creek, an unpolluted site. There was a general pattern of higher p-gp expression in the warmer months and lower expression in the colder months. In contrast, total gill protein concentrations decreased during the warmer months and increased during the colder months. These studies indicate that there are seasonal patterns in p-gp expression which may represent an adaptive response to natural stressors associated with summer conditions. PMID:11488357

  10. Rat precision-cut intestinal slices to study P-gp activity and the potency of its inhibitors ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; de Graaf, Inge A M; de Jager, Marina H; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2015-08-01

    Rat Precision-Cut Intestinal Slices (PCIS) were evaluated as ex vivo model to study the regional gradient of P-gp activity, and to investigate whether the rank order of inhibitory potency of P-gp inhibitors can be correctly reproduced in this model with more accurate IC50 values than with current in vitro models. PCIS were prepared from small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) and colon. Rhodamine 123 (R123) was used as P-gp substrate, while verapamil, cyclosporine A, quinidine, ketoconazole, PSC833 and CP100356 were employed as P-gp inhibitors. Increase in tissue accumulation of R123 in the presence of the inhibitors was considered as an indication of the inhibitory effect. The P-gp inhibitors increased the tissue accumulation of R123 in a concentration dependent manner. Fluorescence microscopy elucidated that this increase occurred predominantly in the enterocytes. The rank order of the corresponding IC50 values agreed well with reported values from cell lines expressing rat P-gp. The activity of and inhibitory effects on P-gp were significantly higher in ileum compared to the other regions. These data suggest that rat PCIS are a reliable ex vivo model to study the activity of intestinal P-gp and the inhibitory effect of drugs. PCIS have potential as ex vivo model for the prediction of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. PMID:25917215

  11. P-gp efflux pump inhibition potential of common environmental contaminants determined in vitro.

    PubMed

    Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Skoczy?ska, Ewa; Van den Berg, Johannes H J; Brand, Walter; Legay, Sylvain; Klein, Sebastian G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2014-04-01

    Across different species, cellular efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also termed multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) serve as a first line of defense by transporting toxic xenobiotics out of the cell. This mechanism is also active in aquatic organisms such as mussels, fish, and their larvae. Modulation of this resistance mechanism by chemical agents occurring in the environment could result in either higher or lower internal concentrations of toxic or endogenous compounds in cells. The aim of the present study was to explore and quantify the inhibition of the P-gp efflux pumps by several ubiquitous aquatic contaminants. The calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) assay commonly used in pharmacological research was established with P-gp-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII-MDR1) in a 96-well plate, avoiding extra washing, centrifugation, and lysis steps. This calcein-AM-based P-gp cellular efflux pump inhibition assay (CEPIA) was used to study the inhibition by commonly occurring environmental contaminants. Among others, the compounds pentachlorophenol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate strongly inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-AM while the chloninated alkanes did not seem to interact with the transporter. The fact that common pollutants can be potent modulators of the efflux transporters is a motive to further study whether this increases the toxicity of other contaminants present in the same matrices. PMID:24375866

  12. An electrically tight in vitro blood-brain barrier model displays net brain-to-blood efflux of substrates for the ABC transporters, P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1.

    PubMed

    Helms, Hans Christian; Hersom, Maria; Kuhlmann, Louise Borella; Badolo, Lasina; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2014-09-01

    Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily including breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp's/Abcc's) are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate if a bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte in vitro BBB co-culture model displayed polarized transport of known efflux transporter substrates. The co-culture model displayed low mannitol permeabilities of 0.95?±?0.1?·?10(-6) cm·s(-1) and high transendothelial electrical resistances of 1,177?±?101 ?·cm(2). Bidirectional transport studies with (3)H-digoxin, (3)H-estrone-3-sulphate and (3)H-etoposide revealed polarized transport favouring the brain-to-blood direction for all substrates. Steady state efflux ratios of 2.5?±?0.2 for digoxin, 4.4?±?0.5 for estrone-3-sulphate and 2.4?±?0.1 for etoposide were observed. These were reduced to 1.1?±?0.08, 1.4?±?0.2 and 1.5?±?0.1, by addition of verapamil (digoxin), Ko143 (estrone-3-sulphate) or zosuquidar?+?reversan (etoposide), respectively. Brain-to-blood permeability of all substrates was investigated in the presence of the efflux transporter inhibitors verapamil, Ko143, zosuquidar, reversan and MK 571 alone or in combinations. Digoxin was mainly transported via P-gp, estrone-3-sulphate via Bcrp and Mrp's and etoposide via P-gp and Mrp's. The expression of P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1 was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The findings indicate that P-gp, Bcrp and at least one isoform of Mrp are functionally expressed in our bovine/rat co-culture model and that the model is suitable for investigations of small molecule transport. PMID:24934296

  13. Expression and significance of glucose transporter-1, P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein and glutathione S-transferase-? in laryngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    MAO, ZHONG-PING; ZHAO, LI-JUN; ZHOU, SHUI-HONG; LIU, MENG-QIN; TAN, WEI-FENG; YAO, HONG-TIAN

    2015-01-01

    Increasing glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) activity is one of the most important ways to increase the cellular influx of glucose. We previously demonstrated that increased GLUT-1 expression was an independent predictor of survival in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Thus, GLUT-1 may present a novel therapeutic target in laryngeal carcinoma. In this study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and glutathione S-transferase-? (GST-?) in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, possible correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? and various clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. In this study, 52.9% (18/34), 58.8% (20/34), 20.6% (7/34) and 58.8% (20/34) of the laryngeal carcinomas were positive for GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-?, respectively. The expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? was higher in laryngeal carcinoma specimens when compared with laryngeal precancerous lesions (P<0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp (r=0.364; P=0.034), GLUT-1 and MRP1 (r=0.359; P=0.037) and P-gp and GST-? (r=0.426; P=0.012). GLUT-1 expression was found to significantly correlate with tumor-node-metastasis classification (P=0.02) and clinical stage (P=0.037). Furthermore, P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage (P=0.026). Univariate analysis showed that MRP1 expression was significantly associated with poor survival (c2=5.16; P=0.023). Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (P=0.009) and MRP1 overexpression (P=0.023) were significant predictors of poor survival. In the present study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated, as well as the correlations between these proteins. P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage, while MRP1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor survival. PMID:25621055

  14. Differential effect of P-gp and MRP2 on cellular translocation of gemifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Kwatra, Deep; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antibiotics widely indicated in the treatment of both human and animal diseases. The primary objective of this study was to assess short and long term affinity of gemifloxacin towards efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2) and nuclear hormone receptor (PXR). Uptake and dose dependent inhibition studies were performed with [14C] erythromycin (0.25?Ci/ml) on MDCKII-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells. Cellular accumulation of calcein-AM was further determined to confirm the affinity of gemifloxacin towards P-gp and MRP2. Transport studies were conducted to determine bi-directional permeability and to assess efflux ratio of gemifloxacin. LS-180 cells were treated with three different concentrations of gemifloxacin for 72hrs and real-time PCR analysis was performed to study the quantitative gene expression levels of PXR, MDR1 and MRP2. Further, [14C] erythromycin uptake was also performed on LS-180 treated cells to better delineate the functional activity of efflux transporters. Results from our study suggest that gemifloxacin may be a substrate of both the efflux transporters studied. This compound inhibited both P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of [14C] erythromycin in a dose dependent manner with IC50 values of 123 ± 2?M and 16 ± 2?M, respectively. The efflux ratio of [14C] erythromycin lowered from 3.56 to 1.63 on MDCKII-MDR1 cells and 4.93 to 1.26 on MDCKII-MRP2 cells. This significant reduction in efflux ratio further confirmed the substrate specificity of gemifloxacin towards P-gp and MRP2. Long term exposure significantly induced the expression of PXR (18 fold), MDR1 (6 fold) and MRP2 (6 fold). A decrease (20%) in [14C] erythromycin uptake further confirmed the elevated functional activity of P-gp and MRP2. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that gemifloxacin is effluxed by both P-gp and MRP2. Long term exposure induced their gene expression and functional activity. This substrate specificity of gemifloxacin towards these efflux transporters may be one of the major factors accounting for low oral bioavailability (71%). Better understanding of these mechanistic interactions may aid in the development of newer strategies to achieve adequate therapeutic levels and higher bioavailability. PMID:21864659

  15. Lack of modulation of MDR1 gene expression by dominant inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Parissenti, A M; Gannon, B R; Villeneuve, D J; Kirwan-rhude, A F; Chadderton, A; Glück, S

    1999-09-01

    The drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) appears to play an important role in the ability of tumor cells to evade killing by chemotherapeutic agents. Using pharmacological inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), it has been suggested that, similar to rodent model systems, the human P-gp gene (MDR1) is also under PKA-dependent control and that PKA inhibition may prove useful in reducing drug resistance in human cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, we stably transformed doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-resistant human MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7(ADR)) with a vector that inhibits PKA activity by inducing over-expression of mutant type Ialpha PKA regulatory (RIalpha) subunits. Two transformants (MCF-7(ADR-A) and MCF-7(ADR-B)) were found to express mutant RIalpha subunits and to possess markedly reduced PKA activity; another transformant (MCF-7(ADR-9)) lacked mutant RIalpha subunit expression and exhibited no inhibition of PKA activity. In contrast with findings in Chinese hamster ovary and Y1 adrenal cells, P-gp levels and cellular sensitivity to drugs which are P-gp substrates were unchanged in the PKA-inhibited transformants, suggesting that P-gp expression and function are not under PKA-dependent control in MCF-7(ADR) cells. Growth and saturation densities of the cell lines were highly correlated with level of PKA catalytic activity, suggesting that PKA inhibition may prove useful in inhibiting growth of breast tumor cells, even upon establishment of resistance to doxorubicin. However, our results challenge current proposals that drug sensitivity in P-gp-expressing human tumor cells may be restored by blocking MDR1 gene expression through inhibition of PKA activity. PMID:10446459

  16. Cbl-b inhibits P-gp transporter function by preventing its translocation into caveolae in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Teng, Yuee; Li, Zhi; Xu, Ling; Liu, Jing; Ma, Yanju; Fan, Yibo; Li, Ce; Liu, Shizhou; Wang, Zhenning; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Yunpeng

    2015-03-30

    The transport function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) requires its efficient localization to caveolae, a subset of lipid rafts, and disruption of caveolae suppresses P-gp transport function. However, the regulatory molecules involved in the translocation of P-gp into caveolae remain unknown. In the present study, we showed that c-Src dependent Caveolin-1 phosphorylation promoted the translocation of P-gp into caveolae, resulting in multidrug resistance in adriamycin resistant gastric cancer SGC7901/Adr and breast cancer MCF-7/Adr cells. In a negative feedback loop, the translocation of Cbl-b from the nucleus to the cytoplasm prevented the localization of P-gp to caveolae resulting in the reversal of MDR through the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Src. Clinical data showed a significant positive relationship between Cbl-b expression and survival in P-gp positive breast cancer patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Our findings identified a new regulatory mechanism of P-gp transport function in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers. PMID:25788263

  17. Cbl-b inhibits P-gp transporter function by preventing its translocation into caveolae in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Teng, Yuee; Li, Zhi; Xu, Ling; Liu, Jing; Ma, Yanju; Fan, Yibo; Li, Ce; Liu, Shizhou; Wang, Zhenning; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Yunpeng

    2015-01-01

    The transport function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) requires its efficient localization to caveolae, a subset of lipid rafts, and disruption of caveolae suppresses P-gp transport function. However, the regulatory molecules involved in the translocation of P-gp into caveolae remain unknown. In the present study, we showed that c-Src dependent Caveolin-1 phosphorylation promoted the translocation of P-gp into caveolae, resulting in multidrug resistance in adriamycin resistant gastric cancer SGC7901/Adr and breast cancer MCF-7/Adr cells. In a negative feedback loop, the translocation of Cbl-b from the nucleus to the cytoplasm prevented the localization of P-gp to caveolae resulting in the reversal of MDR through the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Src. Clinical data showed a significant positive relationship between Cbl-b expression and survival in P-gp positive breast cancer patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Our findings identified a new regulatory mechanism of P-gp transport function in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers. PMID:25788263

  18. Piperine, a piperidine alkaloid from Piper nigrum re-sensitizes P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP dependent multidrug resistant cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen Li; Yu Lei; Yingjie Jia; Na Li; Michael Wink; Yonggang Ma

    Over-expression of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP in tumor cells is one of the important mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance (MDR), which impairs the efficacy of chemotherapy. P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP are ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters, which can expel a variety of lipophilic anti-cancer drugs and protect tumor cells. During a screening of MDR reversal agents among alkaloids of various structural

  19. Protein Expression Xpress System

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    and Elution Under Denaturing Conditions..................................8 4.6 Cleavage Of The Fusion PeptideXpressŞ System Protein Expression pEBVHis Version D 180208 25-0042 XpressŞ System Protein Expression pEBVHis A Manual of Methods for Expression of Polyhistidine - Containing Recombinant Proteins

  20. Acetaminophen Modulates P-Glycoprotein Functional Expression at the Blood-Brain Barrier by a Constitutive Androstane Receptor–Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brandon J.; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Vanderah, Todd W.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Effective pharmacologic treatment of pain with opioids requires that these drugs attain efficacious concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A primary determinant of CNS drug permeation is P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an endogenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporter that is involved in brain-to-blood transport of opioid analgesics (i.e., morphine). Recently, the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been identified as a regulator of P-gp functional expression at the BBB. This is critical to pharmacotherapy of pain/inflammation, as patients are often administered acetaminophen (APAP), a CAR-activating ligand, in conjunction with an opioid. Our objective was to investigate, in vivo, the role of CAR in regulation of P-gp at the BBB. Following APAP treatment, P-gp protein expression was increased up to 1.4–1.6-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, APAP increased P-gp transport of BODIPY-verapamil in freshly isolated rat brain capillaries. This APAP-induced increase in P-gp expression and activity was attenuated in the presence of CAR pathway inhibitor okadaic acid or transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, suggesting P-gp regulation is CAR-dependent. Furthermore, morphine brain accumulation was enhanced by P-gp inhibitors in APAP-treated animals, suggesting P-gp–mediated transport. A warm-water (50°C) tail-flick assay revealed a significant decrease in morphine analgesia in animals treated with morphine 3 or 6 hours after APAP treatment, as compared with animals treated concurrently. Taken together, our data imply that inclusion of APAP in a pain treatment regimen activates CAR at the BBB and increases P-gp functional expression, a clinically significant drug-drug interaction that modulates opioid analgesic efficacy. PMID:24019224

  1. Crystal Structure of an EAL Domain in Complex with Reaction Product 5?-pGpG

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Paganin, Julien; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Réty, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438–686): one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5?-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5?-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains. PMID:23285035

  2. Crystal structure of an EAL domain in complex with reaction product 5'-pGpG.

    PubMed

    Robert-Paganin, Julien; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Réty, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438-686): one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5'-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5'-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains. PMID:23285035

  3. [11C]sorafenib: radiosynthesis and preliminary PET study of brain uptake in P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Chiharu; Ogawa, Masanao; Kumata, Katsushi; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Kato, Koichi; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Yui, Joji; Kawamura, Kazunori; Hatori, Akiko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2011-04-15

    Sorafenib (Nexavar, BAY43-9006, 1) is a second-generation, orally active multikinase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of some cancers in patients. In this Letter, we developed [(11)C]1 as a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe, and evaluated the influence of ABC transporters-mediated efflux on brain uptake using PET with [(11)C]1 in P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) knockout mice versus wild-type mice. [(11)C]1 was synthesized by the reaction of hydrochloride of aniline 2 with [(11)C]phosgene ([(11)C]COCl(2)) to give isocyanate [(11)C]6, followed by reaction with another aniline 3. Small-animal PET study with [(11)C]1 indicated that the radioactivity level (AUC(0-60 min), SUV×min) in the brains of P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice was about three times higher than in wild-type mice. PMID:21419625

  4. Expression and localization of p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 4, and breast cancer resistance protein in the female lower genital tract of human and pigtailed macaque.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy; Rohan, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters. PMID:24803409

  5. Cyclosporin A has low potency as a calcineurin inhibitor in cells expressing high levels of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fakata, K L; Elmquist, W F; Swanson, S A; Vorce, R L; Prince, C; Stemmer, P M

    1998-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a widely-used immunosuppressant drug whose therapeutic and toxic actions are mediated through inhibition of calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. Inhibition of CN by CsA requires drug binding to its protein cofactor in the inhibition, cyclophilin. Because cyclophilin is a high affinity target for CsA it is expected that this protein can act as a reservoir for the drug in the cell and may be able to inhibit cellular efflux of CsA. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is known to increase the rate of CsA efflux from CsA loaded cells but it is not clear if the P-gp drug efflux pump can compete effectively with cyclophilin at therapeutically relevant concentrations of CsA. To test the hypothesis that increased expression of P-gp confers protection against CsA-dependent inhibition of CN phosphatase activity, KB-V cells expressing varying levels of P-gp were analyzed to determine the potency of CsA as a CN inhibitor. When intact cells were treated with CsA, a positive correlation was observed between P-gp expression and resistance to CsA-dependent inhibition of CN: the IC50 is approximately 20-fold higher in the multidrug resistant epidermal carcinoma cell line, KB-V, which expresses P-gp at a high level than in the parental, KB, cell line expressing very low levels of P-gp. The resistance displayed by KB-V cells is abrogated by co-administration of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil, whereas verapamil has no effect on CsA potency in control KB cells. In cell lysates from KB-V cells with different amounts of P-gp CsA exhibits equivalent potency, indicating that the difference in sensitivity to CsA among the cell types requires maintenance of cell integrity. These observations support the view that resistance to CN inhibition by CsA occurs in cells with moderately elevated P-gp activity. Therefore, P-gp activity appears to be an important determinant of CsA cellular specificity for both therapeutic and toxic effects. PMID:9651111

  6. RhoGDI2 up-regulates P-glycoprotein expression via Rac1 in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Bingya; Wu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major clinical obstacle in treatment of gastric cancer. Previously, using 2D electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, we identified RhoGDI2 as a contributor to 5-FU resistance in colon cancer cells, and also confer gastric cancer cells resistance to 5-FU. Here, we reported RhoGDI2 also induced MDR in gastric cancer cell line (MKN-45). To explore the underlining mechanism, we detected the mRNA, protein expression, activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in MKN-45 stably transfected with RhoGDI2 expressing or control vector. All the mRNA, protein level, activity were increased by 130%, 230%, 35% respectively after ectopic expression of RhoGDI2. RhoGDI2 was correlated with P-gp expression in gastric cancer tissues as detected by immunohistochemistry. To further study how RhoGDI2 up-regulates P-gp expression, we tested the activity of Rac1 in MKN-45/RhoGDI2 and MKN-45/GFP. Ectopic expression of RhoGDI2 increased Rac1 activity (P?expression by siRNA decreased P-gp expression to undetectable level. Overall, these findings suggest that RhoGDI2 up-regulates P-gp expression via Rac1 to induce MDR. PMID:25901126

  7. Casein Kinase 2 (CK2)-mediated Phosphorylation of Hsp90? as a Novel Mechanism of Rifampin-induced MDR1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Won; Hasanuzzaman, Md; Cho, Munju; Heo, Ye Rang; Ryu, Min-Jung; Ha, Na-Young; Park, Hyun June; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2015-07-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR1 gene is a drug-exporting transporter located in the cellular membrane. P-gp induction is regarded as one of the main mechanisms underlying drug-induced resistance. Although there is great interest in the regulation of P-gp expression, little is known about its underlying regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that casein kinase 2 (CK2)-mediated phosphorylation of heat shock protein 90? (Hsp90?) and subsequent stabilization of PXR is a key mechanism in the regulation of MDR1 expression. Furthermore, we show that CK2 is directly activated by rifampin. Upon exposure to rifampin, CK2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of Hsp90? at the Ser-225/254 residues. Phosphorylated Hsp90? then interacts with PXR, causing a subsequent increase in its stability, leading to the induction of P-gp expression. In addition, inhibition of CK2 and Hsp90? enhances the down-regulation of PXR and P-gp expression. The results of this study may facilitate the development of new strategies to prevent multidrug resistance and provide a plausible mechanism for acquired drug resistance by CK2-mediated regulation of P-gp expression. PMID:25995454

  8. Tanshinone IIA potentiates the efficacy of 5-FU in Colo205 colon cancer cells in vivo through downregulation of P-gp and LC3-II

    PubMed Central

    SU, CHIN-CHENG

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines are widely accepted as an option for the treatment of colorectal cancers. Danshen (Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix) is widely prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine for cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA) is extracted from Danshen. Our previous studies have shown that Tan-IIA induces apoptosis in Colo205 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of Tan-IIA and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a Colo205 cell xenograft model. For in vivo studies, SCID mice were engrafted with Colo205 cells and from day 10 onwards were randomly divided into 3 groups and treated with 5-FU plus Tan-IIA, 5-FU plus corn oil, and the vehicle alone. At the end of a 4-week dosing schedule, the SCID mice were sacrificed and xenograft tumors were dissected for protein western blot analysis. Our results showed that the Colo205 xenograft model co-treated with Tan-IIA plus 5-FU caused a reduction in the xenograft tumor volumes and decreased P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II expression compared to 5-FU alone. Based on these observations, it may be possible to develop Tan-IIA plus 5-FU as therapeutic agents for human colon cancer. PMID:22969929

  9. Irradiation of rat brain reduces P-glycoprotein expression and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bart; W. B. Nagengast; R. P. Coppes; T. D. Wegman; H J M Groen; W. Vaalburg; E. G. F. de Vries; N. H. Hendrikse; EGE de Vries

    2007-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) hampers delivery of several drugs including chemotherapeutics to the brain. The drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed on brain capillary endothelial cells, is part of the BBB. P-gp expression on capillary endothelium decreases 5 days after brain irradiation, which may reduce P-gp function and increase brain levels of P-gp substrates. To elucidate whether radiation therapy reduces

  10. Protein Expression and Purification System

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    , Regeneration, and Storage 22 VIII. References 23 IX. Related Products 24 Appendix A: Vector Information 25 Sequence in Other Vectors 10 B. Transformation of Host Cells with BD HATTM Expression Vectors 10 V. BD HATTM System Protocol: General 11 A. General Information 11 B. Protein Expression 12 C. Buffers

  11. Protein derivitization-expressed protein ligation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah F; Lorsch, Jon R

    2014-01-01

    Expressed protein ligation (EPL) combines two methods to ligate a synthetic peptide to a recombinant protein. Native chemical ligation (NCL) is a process in which two synthesized peptides are ligated by reaction of a C-terminal thioester on one peptide with an N-terminal cysteine residue of another protein. The chemistry of inteins, self-excising protein fragments that ligate the surrounding protein back together, creates isolatable intermediates with the two chemical groups necessary for NCL, a C-terminal thioester and an N-terminal cysteine residue. This technique allows for the incorporation of synthetic amino acids, radiolabeled amino acids, and fluorescent moieties at specific locations in a protein. It has the advantage of allowing attachment of such synthetic peptides to the termini of a recombinant protein, allowing for the synthesis of large proteins with modified amino acids. This technique utilizes the IMPACT(TM)-System created by New England Biolabs, who provide a variety of vectors in which the multicloning site is directly upstream of an intein sequence fused to a chitin-binding domain (CBD). The CBD binds tightly and specifically to chitin beads, allowing for an efficient one-step purification. This step can be used to obtain highly purified proteins (see Protein Affinity Purification using Intein/Chitin Binding Protein Tags). After purification of the recombinant protein, cleavage from the intein is achieved through the addition of a reactive thiol compound, usually sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA) (see also Proteolytic affinity tag cleavage). This reaction creates a protein with a C-terminal thioester that can then react with a peptide containing an N-terminal cysteine residue, ligating the two proteins via a peptide bond. PMID:24423270

  12. Liquid Chromatographic Method for Irinotecan Estimation: Screening of P-gp Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, M.; Negi, L. M.; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, F. J.; Iqbal, Zeenat; Khan, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed to develop a simple, sensitive, robust and reliable HPLC method for the estimation of irinotecan in the physiological media in order to assess the permeability profile of irinotecan, using the everted gut sac, in the presence of various P-gp modulators. Separation was achieved using, C18 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.045 µM sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate buffer containing ion pair agent heptane sulphonic acid sodium salt (0.0054 µM), pH 3. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and analysis was performed at 254.9 nm using PDA detector. Calibration data showed an excellent linear relationship between peak-area verses drug concentration (r2, 0.9999). Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.060-10.0 µg/ml. Limits of detection and quantification were found to ~0.020 µg/ml and ~0.060 µg/ml, respectively. The developed method was found to be precise (RSD < 1.5%, for repeatability and <2.55% for intermediate precision, acceptable ranges of precision), accurate (The recovered content of irinotecan in the presence of various P-gp modulators varied from 96.11-101.51%, within acceptable range, 80-120%), specific and robust (% RSD < 2). Developed method has been applied successfully for the evaluation of eleven P-gp modulators from diverse chemical class. PMID:25767314

  13. Nanolipoparticles-mediated MDR1 siRNA delivery reduces doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells and silences MDR1 expression in xenograft model of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Mahnaz; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Lage, Hermann; Abnous, Khalil; mosaffa, Fatemeh; Badiee, Ali; Behravan, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux protein, the overexpression of which has been associated with multidrug resistance in various cancers. Although siRNA delivery to reverse P-gp expression may be promising for sensitizing of tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs, the therapeutic use of siRNA requires effective carriers that can deliver siRNA intracellularly with minimal toxicity on target cells. We investigated a special class of PEGylated lipid-based nanoparticles (NP), named nanolipoparticles (NLPs), for siRNA-mediated P-gp downregulation. Materials and Methods: NLPs were prepared based on low detergent dialysis method. After characterization, we evaluated the effect of NLPs on siRNA delivery, and P-gp downregulation compared to oligofectamine™ (OFA) in vitro and in vivo. Results: Our results showed a significant decrease in P-gp expression and subsequent enhancement of chemosensitivity to doxorubicin in vitro. Although the effectiveness of NLPs for in vitro siRNA delivery compared to OFA was limited, the results of in vivo studies showed noticeable effectiveness of NLPs for systemic siRNA delivery. siRNA delivery using NLPs could downregulate MDR1 in tumor cells more than 80%, while OFA had a reverse effect on MDR1 expression in vivo. Conclusion: The results indicated that the prepared NLPs could be suitable siRNA delivery systems for tumor therapy. PMID:26019802

  14. P-glycoprotein is functionally expressed in the placenta-derived bovine caruncular epithelial cell line 1 (BCEC-1).

    PubMed

    Waterkotte, B; Hambruch, N; Döring, B; Geyer, J; Tinneberg, H-R; Pfarrer, C

    2011-02-01

    Drug treatment is critical in pregnant cows due to the possibility of a maternal-to-fetal drug transfer across the placenta. Since the (syn)epitheliochorial bovine placental barrier includes an intact uterine epithelium, which in general limits drug transfer to the fetal trophoblast, the establishment of a species- and organ-specific in vitro model like the bovine caruncular epithelial cell line 1 (BCEC-1) for testing bovine placental drug transport is desirable. P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) is an important efflux carrier that limits drug permeability across blood-tissue barriers such as the placenta and transports a wide range of structurally unrelated compounds including many drugs commonly used in veterinary medicine. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the suitability of BCEC-1 as an appropriate in vitro model for P-gp mediated drug transport in the bovine placenta. P-gp mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR in BCEC-1 and placental tissue. Additionally, the carrier protein was localised in the apical membrane of BCEC-1 by immunofluorescence staining with the mouse monoclonal antibody C494. Drug transport in BCEC-1 was investigated by FACS analysis using the fluorescent P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123. Inhibition of Rhodamine 123 efflux by the P-gp inhibitors Verapamil and PSC833 confirmed functional expression of P-gp in BCEC-1. Furthermore, transport measurements in the transwell-system revealed a basal-to-apical net flux of the P-gp substrate digoxin at concentrations ranging from 10nM to 10 ?M. This transwell digoxin flux was inhibited by Verapamil. In conclusion, P-gp is functionally expressed in BCEC-1 and mediates a basal-to-apical flux of digoxin indicating dominant apical localization of P-gp in this cell culture model. Therefore, BCEC-1 may be an appropriate in vitro model to study drug transport across the maternal epithelium as part of the epitheliochorial placental barrier of the cow. PMID:21145107

  15. Active brain targeting of a fluorescent P-gp substrate using polymeric magnetic nanocarrier system.

    PubMed

    Kirthivasan, B; Singh, D; Bommana, M M; Raut, S L; Squillante, E; Sadoqi, M

    2012-06-29

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) were developed for the active brain targeting of water-soluble P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The NP matrix of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(lactic acid) (M-PEG-PLA) was prepared by single emulsion solvent evaporation of polymers with oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (OAMNP) and Rh123. All formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, magnetic content and Rh123 encapsulation efficiency. The maximum encapsulation efficiency of Rh123 was 45 ± 3% and of OAMNP was 42 ± 4%. The brain targeting and biodistribution study was performed on Sprague Dawley rats (3 groups, n = 6). Rh123 (0.4 mg kg(-1)) was administered in saline form, NP containing Rh123, and NP containing Rh123 in the presence of a magnetic field (0.8 T). The fluorimetric analysis of brain homogenates revealed a significant uptake (p < 0.05) of Rh123 in the magnetically targeted group relative to controls. These results were supported by fluorescence microscopy. This study reveals the ability of magnetically targeted nanoparticles to deliver substances to the brain, the permeation of which would otherwise be inhibited by the P-gp system. PMID:22652439

  16. Protein misinteraction avoidance causes highly expressed proteins to evolve slowly

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Protein misinteraction avoidance causes highly expressed proteins to evolve slowly Jian-Rong Yanga, 2012 (received for review October 21, 2011) The tempo and mode of protein evolution have been central questions in biology. Genomic data have shown a strong influence of the expression level of a protein on its

  17. [Effects of compound Zhe-Bei granule (CZBG) combined with doxorubicin on expression of membrane transport proteins in K562/A02 cell xenografts].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Yun; Zheng, Zhi; Hou, Li; Jiang, Miao; Dong, Qing; Tian, Shao-Dan; Ma, Wei; Chen, Ju; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xin-Yi

    2010-02-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the effects of compound Zhe-Bei granule (CZBG) combined with doxorubicin on expressions of P-gp, MRP, LRP in K562/A02 cell xenografts. Tumor xenograft model were established by injecting the multidrug resistant cell line K562/A02 in the axillary flank of BALB/c-nu-nu mice. CZBG-intragastric administration and doxorubicin-intraperitoneal injection in combination were given to the BALB/c-nu nude mice. The tumor xenografts were made into slice after the dissection, and the expression of P-gp, MRP, LRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts in mice were investigated by immunohistochemical technique. The integral optical density (IOD) of P-gp, MRP, LRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts were measured by Image Pro Plus 6.0. The results showed that as compared with the doxorubicin alone, the combination of the doxorubicin and CZBG with high, middle and low dosage could decrease IOD of P-gp, MRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts with statistical significance (p < 0.05). The LRP expression in K562/A02 tumor xenografts was not observed in five groups. It is concluded that the combination of CZBG with doxorubicin decreases the expressions of P-gp, MRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts of mice. PMID:20137116

  18. The use of microdialysis techniques in mice to study P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Sziráki, István; Erd?, Franciska; Trampus, Péter; Sike, Mirabella; Molnár, Petra Magdolna; Rajnai, Zsuzsanna; Molnár, Judit; Wilhelm, Imola; Fazakas, Csilla; Kis, Emese; Krizbai, István; Krajcsi, Péter

    2013-04-01

    An integrated assay system involving dual/triple-probe microdialysis techniques in rats was developed earlier for testing interactions with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier using quinidine/PSC-833 as a P-gp substrate/inhibitor combination. The aim of the present study was to expand our assay system to mice using microdialysis with simultaneous sampling of blood and brain and to compare the result with a primary mouse brain endothelial cell monolayer (pMBMEC) assay. Brain penetration of quinidine was dose dependent in both anesthetized and awake mice after intraperitoneal drug administration. PSC-833 pretreatment caused a 2.5- to 3.4-fold increase in quinidine levels of brain dialysate samples in anesthetized or awake animals, after single or repeated administration of PSC-833. In pMBMEC, a 2.0- to 2.5-fold efflux ratio was observed in the transcellular transport of quinidine. The P-gp-mediated vectorial transport of quinidine was eliminated by PSC-833. These results indicate that quinidine with PSC-833 is a good probe substrate-reference inhibitor combination for testing drug-drug interactions with P-gp in the in vivo and in vitro mouse systems. With increasing number of humanized transgenic mice, a test system with mouse microdialysis experimentation becomes more important to predict drug-drug interactions in humans. PMID:23204072

  19. Abraxane, the Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel Can Induce Drug Resistance by Up-Regulation of P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Gong, He; Liu, Juan; Fang, Xiangdong; Hu, Zhiyuan; Fang, Qiaojun

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can actively pump paclitaxel (PTX) out of cells and induces drug resistance. Abraxane, a nanoparticle (NP) formulation of PTX, has multiple clinical advantages over the single molecule form. However, it is still unclear whether Abraxane overcomes the common small molecule drug resistance problem mediated by P-gp. Here we were able to establish an Abraxane-resistant cell line from the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We compared the transcriptome of A549/Abr resistant cell line to that of its parental cell line using RNA-Seq technology. Several pathways were found to be up or down regulated. Specifically, the most significantly up-regulated gene was ABCB1, which translates into P-glycoprotein. We verified the overexpression of P-glycoprotein and confirmed its function by reversing the drug resistance with P-gp inhibitor Verapamil. The results suggest that efflux pathway plays an important role in the Abraxane-resistant cell line we established. However, the relevance of this P-gp mediated Abraxane resistance in tumors of lung cancer patients remains unknown. PMID:26182353

  20. [(11)C-carbonyl]CEP-32496: radiosynthesis, biodistribution and PET study of brain uptake in P-gp/BCRP knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Yui, Joji; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Xie, Lin; Kumata, Katsushi; Ogawa, Masanao; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Hatori, Akiko; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2014-08-01

    CEP-32496 is a novel, orally active serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf (BRAF) (V600E) kinase inhibitor that is being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of some cancers in patients. In this study, we developed [(11)C-carbonyl]CEP-32496 as a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe to study its biodistribution in the whole bodies of mice. [(11)C]CEP-32496 was synthesized by the reaction of 5-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-methylpropan-2-yl)isoxazol-3-amine hydrochloride (1·HCl) with [(11)C]phosgene, followed by treatment with 3-(6,7-dimethoxyquinozolin-4-yloxy)aniline (2). Small-animal PET studies with [(11)C]CEP-32496 indicated that radioactivity levels (AUC0-90 min, SUV×min) accumulated in the brains of P-gp/BCRP knockout mice at a 8-fold higher rate than in the brains of wild-type mice. PMID:24930831

  1. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Vierstra, Richard D. (Madison, WI); Walker, Joseph M. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  2. Comparison of (99m)tc-tetrofosmin and (99m)tc-sestamibi uptake in glioma cell lines: the role of p-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, George A; Xourgia, Xanthi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Kalef-Ezra, John A; Fotopoulos, Andreas D; Kyritsis, Athanasios P

    2014-01-01

    (99m)Tc-Tetrofosmin ((99m)Tc-TF) and (99m)Tc-Sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI) are SPECT tracers that have been used for brain tumor imaging. Tumor's multidrug resistance phenotype, namely, P-glycoprotein (p-gp), and the multidrug resistance related proteins (MRPs) expression have been suggested to influence both tracers' uptake. In the present study we set out to compare (99m)Tc-TF and (99m)Tc-MIBI uptake in high-grade glioma cell lines and to investigate the influence of gliomas p-gp expression on both tracers' uptake. We used four glioma cell lines (U251MG, A172, U87MG, and T98G). The expression of p-gp protein was evaluated by flow cytometry. Twenty ?Ci (7.4·10(5)?Bq) of (99m)Tc-TF and (99m)Tc-MIBI were used. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a dose calibrator. P-gp was significantly expressed only in the U251MG cell line (P < 0.001). In all gliomas cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, A172, and T98G) the (99m)Tc-TF uptake was significantly higher than (99m)Tc-sestamibi. The U251MG cell line, in which significant p-gp expression was documented, exhibited the strongest uptake difference. (99m)Tc-TF uptake was higher than (99m)Tc-MIBI in all studied high-grade glioma cell lines. Thus, (99m)Tc-TF may be superior to (99m)Tc-MIBI for glioma imaging in vivo. PMID:25436147

  3. Comparison of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin and 99mTc-Sestamibi Uptake in Glioma Cell Lines: The Role of P-Glycoprotein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A.; Xourgia, Xanthi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Fotopoulos, Andreas D.; Kyritsis, Athanasios P.

    2014-01-01

    99mTc-Tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) and 99mTc-Sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) are SPECT tracers that have been used for brain tumor imaging. Tumor's multidrug resistance phenotype, namely, P-glycoprotein (p-gp), and the multidrug resistance related proteins (MRPs) expression have been suggested to influence both tracers' uptake. In the present study we set out to compare 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in high-grade glioma cell lines and to investigate the influence of gliomas p-gp expression on both tracers' uptake. We used four glioma cell lines (U251MG, A172, U87MG, and T98G). The expression of p-gp protein was evaluated by flow cytometry. Twenty ?Ci (7.4·105?Bq) of 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI were used. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a dose calibrator. P-gp was significantly expressed only in the U251MG cell line (P < 0.001). In all gliomas cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, A172, and T98G) the 99mTc-TF uptake was significantly higher than 99mTc-sestamibi. The U251MG cell line, in which significant p-gp expression was documented, exhibited the strongest uptake difference. 99mTc-TF uptake was higher than 99mTc-MIBI in all studied high-grade glioma cell lines. Thus, 99mTc-TF may be superior to 99mTc-MIBI for glioma imaging in vivo. PMID:25436147

  4. Repeated dosing of piperine induced gene expression of P-glycoprotein via stimulated pregnane-X-receptor activity and altered pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in rats.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Fu; Kang, Keon-Wook; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of piperine on the gene expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) as well as pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) activity and also its implication on the bioavailability of diltiazem, a P-gp substrate. The effect of piperine on the systemic exposure of diltiazem was examined in rats after the intravenous and oral administration of diltiazem with/without 2 week pretreatment with piperine. Compared with the control group given diltiazem (20 mg/kg) alone, the pretreatment with piperine (10 or 20 mg/kg, once daily for 2 weeks) decreased the oral exposure of diltiazem by 36-48% in rats. Consequently, the bioavailability of oral diltiazem was significantly lower (p < 0.05) after the 2 week pretreatment with piperine. The pretreatment with piperine for 2 weeks also reduced the systemic exposure of desacetyldiltiazem, a major active metabolite of diltiazem by approximately 73%, accompanied by a significant decrease in the metabolite-parent ratio. In contrast to the oral pharmacokinetics, piperine did not affect the intravenous pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the protein expression level of intestinal P-gp was significantly enhanced after the 2 week pretreatment with piperine in rats. In addition, piperine increased the PXR reporter activity in human hepatoma cells. Taken together, the 2 week pretreatment with piperine significantly induced intestinal P-gp expression in conjunction with stimulated PXR activity and decreased the oral exposure of diltiazem and desacetyldiltiazem in rats. PMID:22927137

  5. Coevolution of gene expression among interacting proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Wall, Dennis P.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-03-01

    Physically interacting proteins or parts of proteins are expected to evolve in a coordinated manner that preserves proper interactions. Such coevolution at the amino acid-sequence level is well documented and has been used to predict interacting proteins, domains, and amino acids. Interacting proteins are also often precisely coexpressed with one another, presumably to maintain proper stoichiometry among interacting components. Here, we show that the expression levels of physically interacting proteins coevolve. We estimate average expression levels of genes from four closely related fungi of the genus Saccharomyces using the codon adaptation index and show that expression levels of interacting proteins exhibit coordinated changes in these different species. We find that this coevolution of expression is a more powerful predictor of physical interaction than is coevolution of amino acid sequence. These results demonstrate previously uncharacterized coevolution of gene expression, adding a different dimension to the study of the coevolution of interacting proteins and underscoring the importance of maintaining coexpression of interacting proteins over evolutionary time. Our results also suggest that expression coevolution can be used for computational prediction of protein protein interactions.

  6. Leishmania cell-free protein expression system.

    PubMed

    Kovtun, Oleksiy; Mureev, Sergey; Jung, WooRam; Kubala, Marta H; Johnston, Wayne; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2011-09-01

    Cell-free protein expression is an important tool for a rapid production, engineering and labeling of recombinant proteins. However the complex protocols for preparation of eukaryotic cell-free protein expression systems result in high manufacturing costs and limit their utility. Recently we reported a novel cell-free expression system based on the lysate of a fermentable protozoan Leishmania tarentolae. Herein we describe a protocol for high throughput protein expression using Leishmania cell-free lysate. The protocol combines PCR-based synthesis and engineering of translation templates with a combined transcription-translation system. The protocol is adapted to multiwell plate format and allows translation of large protein libraries. In the presented example we translate in vitro and isolate a nearly complete complement of mammalian Rab GTPases. Further applications and developments of the system are discussed. PMID:21704167

  7. Constructing and Expressing GFP Fusion Proteins.

    PubMed

    Spector, David L; Goldman, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONGFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins have been used to address a wide range of questions in individual cells, as well as in tissues of a particular organism. GFP fusion proteins can be transiently or stably expressed. Although transient expression is quick and can provide informative results, in many cases it is beneficial and/or essential to develop stable cell lines expressing the fusion protein of interest. In addition to providing more native levels of expression, individual clones can be generated from single cells, the integration site of the plasmid mapped, and the copy number determined. Because every cell in the population is expressing the fusion protein, cell cycle analyses and biochemical fractionation are significantly easier to accomplish. The following protocol can be used for the development of stable cell lines expressing GFP fusion proteins. Although optimal transfection procedures (e.g., calcium phosphate, electroporation, or FuGENE 6 [Roche Applied Science]) vary depending on cell type, this general transfection procedure has been successful for stable transfection of HeLa, A-431, U2OS, BHK, and HT1080 cells. PMID:22484672

  8. The Elementary Mass Action Rate Constants of P-gp Transport for a Confluent Monolayer of MDCKII-hMDR1 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thuy Thanh Tran; Aditya Mittal; Tanya Aldinger; Joseph W. Polli; Andrew Ayrton; Harma Ellens; Joe Bentz

    2005-01-01

    The human multi-drug resistance membrane transporter, P-glycoprotein, or P-gp, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. Thus far, the kinetic analysis of P-gp transport has been limited to steady-state Michaelis-Menten approaches or to compartmental models, neither of which can prove molecular mechanisms. Determination of the elementary kinetic rate constants of transport will be essential

  9. Expression Vector Engineering for Recombinant Protein Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Kim; John Laudemann; Jennitte Stevens; Michelle Wu

    \\u000a The first step in the process of generating a high expressing mammalian cell line for production of therapeutic recombinant\\u000a protein is developing a robust expression vector that is compatible with the host cell line of choice. Transcription of the\\u000a recombinant gene will largely depend on the strength of the expression vector and the site of genomic integration of the vector.

  10. Restricted brain penetration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib due to the drug transporters P-gp and BCRP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nienke A. de Vries; Tessa Buckle; Jin Zhao; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens; Olaf van Tellingen

    Summary  \\u000a Purpose Erlotinib (Tarceva®, OSI-774) is a small molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase.\\u000a As high-grade gliomas frequently show amplification, overexpression and\\/or mutation of EGFR, this drug has been tested in\\u000a several clinical trials with glioblastoma patients, but unfortunately, with little success. As erlotinib is a known substrate\\u000a of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance

  11. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  12. Mismatch repair protein expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nicola; Chang, Kah Hoong; Curran, Catherine; Hennessey, Emer; Sheehan, Margaret; Kerin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alterations in at least six of the genes that encode proteins involved in the mismatch repair (MMR) system have been identified in either HNPCC or sporadic colon cancer. We aimed to analyse the proportion of patients with colorectal cancer with loss of immunostaining for MMR proteins in order to determine the feasibility of molecular screening for the loss of MMR proteins through the study of unselected patients with colorectal cancer. Methods A group of 33 patients with colorectal cancer was randomly selected from the department of surgery bio-bank to determine the expression of MMR proteins in their FFPE tumour tissues using immunohistochemistry techniques. Changes in protein expression following transfection of colorectal tissues were observed in stained cells using Olympus BX60 microscope and image analySIS software. Results Of the tissue specimens in which acceptable immunostaining was achieved, three samples showed loss of one or more of the MMR proteins. Both hMLH1 and hPMS2 proteins were not expressed in a 36 years old woman with cancer of the caecum. The expression of hMSH6 protein was undetermined in tumour tissues retrieved from a 61 years old man with cancer of the proximal colon. The third case was a 77 years old man with no documented family history of cancer, who had carcinoma of the rectum. He showed loss of hMLH1 expression in the tumour tissues Conclusions Our findings and the previous reports pointed out the importance of molecular screening of patients with colorectal cancer for MSI using immunohistochemistry. This strategy managed to identify mutations in patients otherwise would not have been detected. PMID:24294512

  13. Effect of MDR modulators verapamil and promethazine on gene expression levels of MDR1 and MRP1 in doxorubicin-resistant MCF7 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaprak Dönmez; Laila Akhmetova; Özlem Darcansoy ??eri; Meltem Demirel Kars; Ufuk Gündüz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  One of the major problems of cancer chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. Among the numerous\\u000a mechanisms of MDR, a prominent one is the increased expression of membrane transporter proteins, the action of which leads\\u000a to decreased intracellular drug concentration and cytotoxicity of drugs. Among them, P-gp and MRP1, encoded by MDR1 and MRP1 genes, respectively, have

  14. Alterations in function and expression of ABC transporters at blood-brain barrier under diabetes and the clinical significances

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a systematic metabolic disease, which often develops a number of well-recognized vascular complications including brain complications which may partly result from the dysfunction of blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB is generally considered as a mechanism for protecting the brain from unwanted actions resulting from substances in the blood and maintaining brain homeostasis via monitoring the entry or efflux of compounds. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters including P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and breast cancer-related protein (BCRP), widely expressed in the luminal membrane of the microvessel endothelium and in the apical membrane of the choroids plexus epithelium, play important roles in the function of BBB. However, these transporters are easily altered by some diseases. The present article was focused on the alteration in expression and function of both P-GP and BCRP at BBB by diabetes and the clinical significances. PMID:25540622

  15. Changes in the Expression of miR-381 and miR-495 Are Inversely Associated with the Expression of the MDR1 Gene and Development of Multi-Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Ohms, Stephen J.; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qiao; Gong, Guangming; Hu, Yiqiao; Mao, Zhiyong; Shannon, M. Frances; Fan, Jun Y.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) frequently develops in cancer patients exposed to chemotherapeutic agents and is usually brought about by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which acts as a drug efflux pump to reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug(s). Thus, inhibiting P-gp expression might assist in overcoming MDR in cancer chemotherapy. MiRNAome profiling using next-generation sequencing identified differentially expressed microRNAs (miRs) between parental K562 cells and MDR K562 cells (K562/ADM) induced by adriamycin treatment. Two miRs, miR-381 and miR-495, that were strongly down-regulated in K562/ADM cells, are validated to target the 3’-UTR of the MDR1 gene. These miRs are located within a miR cluster located at chromosome region 14q32.31, and all miRs in this cluster appear to be down-regulated in K562/ADM cells. Functional analysis indicated that restoring expression of miR-381 or miR-495 in K562/ADM cells was correlated with reduced expression of the MDR1 gene and its protein product, P-gp, and increased drug uptake by the cells. Thus, we have demonstrated that changing the levels of certain miR species modulates the MDR phenotype in leukemia cells, and propose further exploration of the use of miR-based therapies to overcome MDR. PMID:24303078

  16. Protein structure protection commits gene expression patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Chen; Han Liang; Ariel Fernández

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene co-expressions often determine module-defining spatial and temporal concurrences of proteins. Yet, little effort has been devoted to tracing coordinating signals for expression correlations to the three-dimensional structures of gene products. RESULTS: We performed a global structure-based analysis of the yeast and human proteomes and contrasted this information against their respective transcriptome organizations obtained from comprehensive microarray data. We

  17. Influence of breast cancer resistance protein (Abcg2) and p-glycoprotein (Abcb1a) on the transport of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) across the mouse blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Bihorel, Sébastien; Camenisch, Gian; Lemaire, Michel; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel

    2007-09-01

    Imatinib, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may prevent the growth of glioblastoma cells. Unfortunately, its brain distribution is restricted by p-glycoprotein (p-gp or multidrug resistance protein Mdr1a), and probably by breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1), two efflux pumps expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have used in situ brain perfusion to investigate the mechanisms of imatinib transport across the mouse BBB. The brain uptake of imatinib in wild-type mice was limited by saturable efflux processes. The inhibition of p-gp, by valspodar and zosuquidar, increased imatinib uptake (2.5-fold), as did the deficiency of p-gp in Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice (5.5-fold). Perfusing imatinib with the p-gp/Bcrp1 inhibitor, elacridar, enhanced the brain uptake of imatinib in wild-type (4.1-fold) and Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice (1.2-fold). However, the brain uptake of imatinib was similar in wild-type and Bcrp1(-/-) mice when it was perfused at a non-saturating concentration. The brain uptake of CGP74588, an active metabolite of imatinib, was low. It was increased by perfusion with elacridar (twofold), but not with valspodar and zosuquidar. CGP74588 uptake was 1.5 times greater in Bcrp1(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. These data suggest that imatinib transport at the mouse BBB is limited by p-gp and probably by Bcrp1, and that CGP74588 transport is restricted by Bcrp1. PMID:17696988

  18. Induction of expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein efflux transporter by bioactive plant natural products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alaa H. Abuznait; Hisham Qosa; Nicholas D. O’Connell; Jessica Akbarian-Tefaghi; Paul W. Sylvester; Khalid A. El Sayed; Amal Kaddoumi

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bioactive plant natural products on the expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is poorly understood. Interactions of bioactive plant-based food and dietary supplements with P-gp can cause significant alteration of pharmacokinetic properties of P-gp substrate drugs when used in combination. This can augment toxicity and\\/or interfere with the drug’s therapeutic outcomes. This study investigated the effects

  19. Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel-loaded Lipid-based Nanoparticles Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance by Inhibiting P-gp and Depleting ATP

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaowei; Mattingly, Cynthia A.; Tseng, Michael T.; Cho, Moo J.; Liu, Yang; Adams, Val R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2009-01-01

    To test the ability of nanoparticle (NP) formulations to overcome P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR), several different doxorubicin (Dox) and paclitaxel (PX)-loaded solid lipid NPs were prepared. Dox NPs showed 6-8-fold lower IC50 values in Pgp overexpressing human cancer cells than those of free Dox. The IC50 value of PX NPs was over 9-fold lower than that of Taxol® in P-gp-overexpressing cells. A series of in-vitro cell assays were used including quantitative studies on uptake and efflux, inhibition of calcein acetoxymethylester (Calcein AM) efflux, alteration of ATP levels, membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Enhanced uptake and prolonged retention of Dox were observed with NP-based formulations in P-gp-overexpressing cells. Calcein AM and ATP assays confirmed that blank NPs inhibited P-gp and transiently depleted ATP. Intravenous injection of pegylated PX BTM NPs showed marked anticancer efficacy in nude mice bearing resistant NCI/ADR-RES tumors versus all control groups. NPs may be used to both target drug and biological mechanisms to overcome MDR via P-gp inhibition and ATP depletion. PMID:19383919

  20. Expression and purification of ataxin-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Husain-Ponnampalam, Rhonda; Turnbull, Victor; Tarlac, Volga; Storey, Elsdon

    2010-05-30

    Ataxin-1 is part of a larger family of polyglutamine-containing proteins that is linked to nine distinct neurodegenerative disorders. There are no known effective therapies for any of these expanded polyglutamine tract disorders. One possible reason for this is the lack of sufficient amounts of pure polyglutamine-containing proteins suitable for biochemical and conformational studies. Here, we show that we were able to successfully purify a non-pathological, wild-type human ataxin-1 protein containing a 30-glutamine repeat sequence. This ataxin-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a GST tag at the N-terminus and a double (His)(6) tag at the C-terminus. The devised dual affinity tag strategy allowed successful purification of the full-length ataxin-1 fusion protein to 90% homogeneity as confirmed by Western blot analysis using the two monoclonal ataxin-1 antibodies developed in our laboratory. In addition, the GST tag was successfully removed from the purified ataxin-1 fusion protein by treatment with Tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease. Since polyglutamine-containing proteins tend to aggregate, solvents/buffers that minimize aggregation have been used in the purification process. This dual affinity purification protocol could serve as a useful basis for purifying aggregation-prone proteins that are involved in other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20304006

  1. Tools for protein expression & purification Strep-tag technology

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Tools for protein expression & purification Strep-tag technology 6xHis-tag & Ni-NTA technology Strep-Well HT purification plates Tools for high-throughput protein expression & purification Tools for high-throughput protein expression & purification Strep-tag technology High performance protein

  2. Engineering Genes for Predictable Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Claes; Minshull, Jeremy; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Ness, Jon; Villalobos, Alan; Welch, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The DNA sequence used to encode a polypeptide can have dramatic effects on its expression. Lack of readily available tools has until recently inhibited meaningful experimental investigation of this phenomenon. Advances in synthetic biology and the application of modern engineering approaches now provide the tools for systematic analysis of the sequence variables affecting heterologous expression of recombinant proteins. We here discuss how these new tools are being applied and how they circumvent the constraints of previous approaches, highlighting some of the surprising and promising results emerging from the developing field of gene engineering. PMID:22425659

  3. Cultured CD4T cells and primary human lymphocytes express hOATPs: intracellular accumulation of saquinavir and lopinavir

    PubMed Central

    Janneh, O; Hartkoorn, R C; Jones, E; Owen, A; Ward, S A; Davey, R; Back, D J; Khoo, S H

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Drug efflux tranporters (P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)) limit the cellular uptake of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors but the contribution of influx transporters in cells that (over)express P-gp or MRP is less clear. Here, we studied the expression of one influx transporter system, human organic anion-transporting polypeptide (hOATP), in some T-cell lines (CEM, CEMVBL, CEME1000) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and examined the effects of manipulation of influx/efflux transporters on the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir. Experimental approach: The expression of hOATPs was studied by PCR. We used hOATP substrate or inhibitor (estrone-3-sulphate (E-3-S) or montelukast, respectively) and inhibitors of P-gp (XR9576) and MRP (MK571 and frusemide) to study functional interactions between influx and efflux transporters in the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir. Lipophilicity of the drugs was measured by octanol/saline partition coefficient. Key results: CEM cells, their variants and PBMCs express various hOATP isoforms, with OATP3A1 detected in all of the cells. MK571, XR9576 and frusemide increased the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir. E-3-S and montelukast reduced the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir in some, but not all, of the cells. Pretreatment of the cells with MK571, XR9576 or frusemide, followed by E-3-S co-incubation reduced the cellular accumulation of saquinavir and lopinavir. Lopinavir is much more lipophilic than saquinavir. Conclusions and implications: Human OATPs, MRP, P-gp and lipophilicity determine the cellular uptake and retention of saquinavir and lopinavir. These data may have important implications for drug–drug interactions, drug safety and efficacy. PMID:19002102

  4. Global analysis of protein expression in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sina Ghaemmaghami; Won-Ki Huh; Kiowa Bower; Russell W. Howson; Archana Belle; Noah Dephoure; Erin K. O'Shea; Jonathan S. Weissman

    2003-01-01

    The availability of complete genomic sequences and technologies that allow comprehensive analysis of global expression profiles of messenger RNA have greatly expanded our ability to monitor the internal state of a cell. Yet biological systems ultimately need to be explained in terms of the activity, regulation and modification of proteins-and the ubiquitous occurrence of post-transcriptional regulation makes mRNA an imperfect

  5. p53 and P-glycoprotein are often co-expressed and are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Linn, S. C.; Honkoop, A. H.; Hoekman, K.; van der Valk, P.; Pinedo, H. M.; Giaccone, G.

    1996-01-01

    Expression of both P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and mutant p53 have recently been reported to be associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. The expression of P-gp is associated in vitro and in vivo with cross-resistance to several anti-cancer drugs. p53 plays a regulatory role in apoptosis, and mutant p53 has been suggested to be involved in drug resistance. Interestingly, in vitro experiments have shown that mutant p53 can activate the promoter of the MDR1 gene, which encodes P-gp. We investigated whether p53 and P-gp are simultaneously expressed in primary breast cancer cells and analysed the impact of the co-expression on patients prognosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate P-gp expression (JSB-1, C219) and nuclear p53 accumulation (DO-7) in 20 operable chemotherapy untreated and 30 locally advanced breast cancers undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Double immunostaining showed that P-gp expression and nuclear p53 accumulation often occur concomitantly in the same tumour cells. A correlation between p53 and P-gp expression was found in all 50 breast cancers (P = 0.003; Fisher's exact test). P-gp expression, nuclear p53 accumulation, and co-expression of p53 and P-gp were more frequently observed in locally advanced breast cancers than in operable breast cancers (P = 0.0004, P = 0.048; P = 0.002 respectively. Fisher's exact test). Co-expression of p53 and P-gp was the strongest prognostic factor for shorter survival by multivariate analysis (P = 0.004) in the group of locally advanced breast cancers (univariate analysis: P = 0.0007). Only 3 out of 13 samples sequentially taken before and after chemotherapy displayed a change in P-gp or p53 staining. In conclusion, nuclear p53 accumulation is often associated with P-gp expression in primary breast cancer, and simultaneous expression of p53 and P-gp is associated with shorter survival in locally advanced breast cancer patients. Co-expression of P-gp and mutant p53 belong to a series of molecular events resulting in a more aggressive phenotype, drug resistance and poor prognosis. Images Figure 1 PMID:8679460

  6. Reliable protein production in a Pseudomonas fluorescens expression system.

    PubMed

    Retallack, Diane M; Jin, Hongfan; Chew, Lawrence

    2012-02-01

    A bottleneck to product development can be reliable expression of active target protein. A wide array of recombinant proteins in development, including an ever growing number of non-natural proteins, is being expressed in a variety of expression systems. A Pseudomonas fluorescens expression platform has been developed specifically for recombinant protein production. The development of an integrated molecular toolbox of expression elements and host strains, along with automation of strain screening is described. Examples of strain screening and scale-up experiments show rapid development of expression strains producing a wide variety of proteins in a soluble active form. PMID:21968453

  7. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  8. C-di-GMP Hydrolysis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa HD-GYP Phosphodiesterases: Analysis of the Reaction Mechanism and Novel Roles for pGpG

    PubMed Central

    Stelitano, Valentina; Giardina, Giorgio; Paiardini, Alessandro; Castiglione, Nicoletta; Cutruzzolŕ, Francesca; Rinaldo, Serena

    2013-01-01

    In biofilms, the bacterial community optimizes the strategies to sense the environment and to communicate from cell to cell. A key player in the development of a bacterial biofilm is the second messenger c-di-GMP, whose intracellular levels are modulated by the opposite activity of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. Given the huge impact of bacterial biofilms on human health, understanding the molecular details of c-di-GMP metabolism represents a critical step in the development of novel therapeutic approaches against biofilms. In this study, we present a detailed biochemical characterization of two c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases of the HD-GYP subtype from the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, namely PA4781 and PA4108. Upstream of the catalytic HD-GYP domain, PA4781 contains a REC domain typical of two-component systems, while PA4108 contains an uncharacterized domain of unknown function. Our findings shed light on the activity and catalytic mechanism of these phosphodiesterases. We show that both enzymes hydrolyse c-di-GMP in a two-step reaction via the linear intermediate pGpG and that they produce GMP in vitro at a surprisingly low rate. In addition, our data indicate that the non-phosphorylated REC domain of PA4781 prevents accessibility of c-di-GMP to the active site. Both PA4108 and phosphorylated PA4781 are also capable to use pGpG as an alternative substrate and to hydrolyse it into GMP; the affinity of PA4781 for pGpG is one order of magnitude higher than that for c-di-GMP. These results suggest that these enzymes may not work (primarily) as genuine phosphodiesterases. Moreover, the unexpected affinity of PA4781 for pGpG may indicate that pGpG could also act as a signal molecule in its own right, thus further widening the c-di-GMP-related signalling scenario. PMID:24066157

  9. Protein Expression Boot Camp -Summer 2013 Part I -Expression in E.coli

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    to purification- AKTA exercise- Gel of day 1 to 3 Lecture - Selecting methods based on your protein Day 5: 1 PMSyllabus Protein Expression Boot Camp - Summer 2013 Part I - Expression in E.coli Day 1: 1PM- lecture The Big Picture about Expressing Proteins in Pro and Eucaryotes: Hosts - Pros and Cons Choosing

  10. Dual approach utilizing self microemulsifying technique and novel P-gp inhibitor for effective delivery of taxanes.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Akash; Singh, Ajeet K; Jain, Gaurav K; Warsi, Musarrat H; Sublet, Emmanuelle; Ahmad, Farhan J; Borchard, Gerrit; Khar, Roop K

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, concomitant use of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) and a novel third-generation P-gp inhibitor, GF120918 (elacridar), for the effective transport of taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) across an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium and uptake into tumor cells were investigated. On the basis of solubility studies and ternary phase diagrams, different SMEDDS formulations of taxanes were prepared and characterized. In caco-2 cell permeation study, paclitaxel-loaded SMEDDS along with GF120918 showed a four-fold increase in apparent permeability, while docetaxel-loaded SMEDDS in combination with GF120918 showed a nine-fold increase in permeability, as compared to plain drug solution. Cell uptake studies on A549 cells were performed with microemulsions formed from both SMEDDS formulations loaded with rhodamine 123 dye and showed good uptake than plain dye solution. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images further confirmed the higher uptake of both SMEDDS formulations in the presence of GF120918. PMID:22439872

  11. Expressing full-length functional PfEMP1 proteins in the HEK293 expression system.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anand; Durocher, Yves; Gamain, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Due to the A/T-richness of the genome of Plasmodium falciparum, expressing P. falciparum proteins in heterologous expression systems is challenging. In addition, many P. falciparum proteins have high cysteine content and high molecular weight, which further complicates expression of these proteins in heterologous systems. The high molecular weight Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesins expressed on the surface of the infected erythrocytes are among the most difficult proteins to express. Cost reduction in synthetic gene synthesis, as well as improved eukaryotic expression systems, now makes it possible to express such proteins. In this chapter, we describe the construction, production, purification, and functional assessment of the full-length extracellular region of the var2CSA PfEMP1 protein involved in pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM), using a human embryonic kidney (HEK) expression system. PMID:22990788

  12. High-efficiency protein expression in plants from agroinfection-compatible Tobacco mosaic virus expression vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A Lindbo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plants are increasingly being examined as alternative recombinant protein expression systems. Recombinant protein expression levels in plants from Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vectors are much higher than those possible from plant promoters. However the common TMV expression vectors are costly, and at times technically challenging, to work with. Therefore it was a goal to develop TMV expression vectors that

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana SEPALLATA3 protein prokaryotic expression and purification.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Fu, A Y; Zhang, G C; Li, T J; Zhang, J H

    2015-01-01

    SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) can be attributed to E class gene of the ABCE model of floral organ development. In order to reveal how SEP3 proteins form polymers, and the relationship between the polymers and their biological functions, the experiments of Arabidopsis thaliana AtSEP3 protein soluble expression in vitro were performed to construct a vector of prokaryotic expression, and investigate induced expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The protein soluble expression was analyzed through the aspects of different protein domains, induction time, induction temperature, etc. Different structural domains and expression conditions were screened, and 0.1% IPTG inducing at 22 oC for 15 h was estimated as an optimal expression strategy. The nickel chelating resin was used to purify the protein in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and the results indicated that AtSEP3 protein was present in the form of tetramer. PMID:26025404

  14. INVITED REVIEW: TARGETING AND EXPRESSION OF ANTIGENIC PROTEINS IN TRANSGENIC

    E-print Network

    Korban, Schuyler S.

    INVITED REVIEW: TARGETING AND EXPRESSION OF ANTIGENIC PROTEINS IN TRANSGENIC PLANTS FOR PRODUCTION, the tools of genetic engineering have allowed development of transgenic plants that can express various of accumulation of these proteins in transgenic plants by developing constructs whereby antigenic protein

  15. Original Research Communication Prion Protein Expression and Functional Importance in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 1 Original Research Communication Prion Protein Expression and Functional Importance illustrations: 7 Color illustrations: 2 (online 2) Page 1 of 48 Antioxidants&RedoxSignaling PrionProtein prion protein (PrPC ), a GPI-anchored glycoprotein, which we reported to be highly expressed in human

  16. Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) inhibition by tariquidar impacts on neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress

    PubMed Central

    Thoeringer, Christoph K.; Wultsch, Thomas; Shahbazian, Anaid; Painsipp, Evelin; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) is a major gate-keeper at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the central nervous system from accumulation of toxic xenobiotics and drugs. In addition, MDR1 p-gp has been found to control the intracerebral access of glucocorticoid hormones and thus to modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. In view of the implication of glucocorticoids in the control of behavior, we examined how acute pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB by tariquidar (XR9576; 12 mg/kg, PO) impacts on the neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress in C57BL/6JIcoHim inbred mice. Inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB did not alter emotional behavior at baseline. However, mice that were sensitized by water-avoidance stress, a mild psychological stressor, displayed significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze test when treated with tariquidar. Tariquidar, however, had no effect on stress-coping performance assessed in the forced swim test. Investigating the impact of acute MDR1 p-gp inhibition on the glucocorticoid system, we observed a significant attenuation of the mild stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone after tariquidar administration. In order to examine whether the anti-anxiety effect of tariquidar in sensitized animals is mediated by glucocorticoids, the animals were treated with corticosterone (1 mg/kg, SC immediately after exposure to water-avoidance stress. Corticosterone caused a significant anxiolytic-like effect in this stress-related anxiety protocol, whereas tariquidar could not further enhance corticosterone’s anti-anxiety effects. The current data show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the murine BBB by tariquidar alters emotional behavior and HPA axis activity. By facilitating the entry of corticosterone into the brain, tariquidar enhances feedback inhibition of the HPA system and in this way improves anxiety-related stress processing. These findings highlight a novel approach to the treatment of stress-related affective disorders in humans. PMID:17881135

  17. Ecto-5?-nucleotidase expression is associated with the progression of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    YU, YI; WANG, WEI; SONG, LEI; HU, WENTAO; DONG, CHI; PEI, HAILONG; ZHOU, GUANGMING; YUE, ZHONGJIN

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common tissue tumor that occurs across all age groups and has become one of the types of cancer with the fastest increasing incidence. Due to the resistance of RCC chemo- and radiotherapy, surgery is the only currently effective treatment. Therefore, specific markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC are expected to result in novel methods of treatment. Ecto-5?-nucleotidase, also termed cluster of differentiation (CD)73, is a protein that is activated in several types of aggressive cancer and may promote cancer progression. CD73 was examined in the present study to determine the association between the protein and RCC. The expression levels of CD73 in 159 RCC tissue sections and 30 paratumorous normal renal tissue samples obtained from 235 patients that underwent nephrectomy were examined by immunohistochemical staining. By contrast, the expression level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a potential prognostic factor in RCC, was also examined in 85 RCC and 13 normal tissue samples. Intense CD73 expression was identified in 75 out of 159 RCC cell membranes compared with normal renal tissues. In contrast, there was high P-gp expression in the blood vessels of 42 out of 85 RCC tissues and there was no significant difference between the P-gp expression identified in RCC cells (34 out of 85) and the cell membrane of normal renal cells (2 out of 13). The expression level of CD73 in RCC cells was significantly associated with tumor type, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and tumor grade. However, the expression of P-gp in RCC cells was only associated with the TNM stage and tumor grade. Using a multivariable Cox regression analysis, it was found that the median survival rate of RCC patients with intense CD73 expression in RCC cells was 62.06±5.35 months, which was drastically shorter compared with rare CD73 expression (103.72±3.67 months). In conclusion, the expression level of CD73 is significantly associated with RCC tumor progression and may serve as a favorable marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC, in addition to being a therapeutic target for the treatment of RCC.

  18. Characteristics Affecting Expression and Solubilization of Yeast Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael A.; Clark, Kathleen M.; Grayhack, Elizabeth J.; Dumont, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Biochemical and structural analysis of membrane proteins often critically depends on the ability to overexpress and solubilize them. To identify properties of eukaryotic membrane proteins that may be predictive of successful overexpression, we analyzed expression levels of the genomic complement of over 1,000 predicted membrane proteins in a recently completed Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein expression library. We detected statistically significant positive and negative correlations between high membrane protein expression and protein properties such as size, overall hydrophobicity, number of transmembrane helices, and amino acid composition of transmembrane segments. Although expression levels of membrane and soluble proteins exhibited similar negative correlations with overall hydrophobicity, high-level membrane protein expression was positively correlated with the hydrophobicity of predicted transmembrane segments. To further characterize yeast membrane proteins as potential targets for structure determination, we tested the solubility of 122 of the highest expressed yeast membrane proteins in six commonly used detergents. Almost all the tested proteins could be solubilized using a small number of detergents. Solubility in some detergents depended on protein size, number of transmembrane segments, and hydrophobicity of predicted transmembrane segments. These results suggest that bioinformatic approaches may be capable of identifying membrane proteins that are most amenable to overexpression and detergent solubilization for structural and biochemical analyses. Bioinformatic approaches could also be used in the redesign of proteins that are not intrinsically well-adapted to such studies. PMID:17078969

  19. Expression of foreign proteins in Escherichia coli by fusing with an archaeal FK506 binding protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ideno; M. Furutani; T. Iwabuchi; T. Iida; Y. Iba; Y. Kurosawa; H. Sakuraba; T. Ohshima; Y. Kawarabayashi; T. Maruyama

    2004-01-01

    Improper protein-folding often results in inclusion-body formation in a protein expression system using Escherichia coli. To express such proteins in the soluble fraction of E. coli cytoplasm, we developed an expression system by fusing the target protein with an archaeal FK506 binding protein (FKBP). It has been reported that an archaeal FKBP from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus sp. KS-1 (TcFKBP18),

  20. Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins in epithelial intestinal cells in vivo Short title: HCV protein expression in intestine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins in epithelial intestinal cells in vivo Short title: HCV protein expression in intestine Séverine Deforges1* , Alexey Evlashev1* , Magali Perret1 , Mireille RNA and core protein. These findings suggest that LVP synthesis could occur in liver and intestine

  1. Can the assessment of ABCB1 gene expression predict its function in vitro?

    PubMed

    Kosztyu, Petr; Dolezel, Petr; Vaclavikova, Radka; Mlejnek, Petr

    2015-08-01

    Increased expression of the ABCB1 gene in cancer cells is usually connected with occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and poor prognosis. However, the correlation between ABCB1 expression and MDR phenotype is difficult to prove in clinical samples. Most of the researchers believe that these difficulties are due to the poor reliability and sensitivity of assays for detection of ABCB1 expression in clinical samples. However, the complexity of P-gp mediated resistance cannot be reduced to the methodical difficulties only. Here, we addressed the question how widely used methods for detection of ABCB1 expression levels could predict its functional activity and thus its contribution to drug resistance in defined conditions in vitro. The ABCB1 expression was assessed at the mRNA level by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and at the protein level by flow cytometry using UIC2 antibody. The ABCB1 function was monitored using a calcein AM accumulation assay. We observed that K562 cells have approximately 320 times higher level of ABCB1 mRNA than HL-60 cells without detectable function. In addition, resistant K562/Dox cells exhibited significantly higher ABCB1 mRNA expression than resistant K562/HHT cells. However, the functional tests clearly indicated opposite results. Flow cytometric assessment of P-gp, although suggested as a reliable method, contradicted the functional test in K562/Dox and K562/HHT cells. We further used a set of MDR cells expressing various levels of P-gp. Similarly here, flow cytometry not always corresponded to the functional analysis. Our results strongly suggest that an approach which exclusively relies on a simple correlation between ABCB1 expression, either at the mRNA level or protein level, and overall resistance may fail to predict actual contribution of P-gp to overall resistance as the data indicating transporter expression reflect its function only roughly even in well-defined in vitro conditions. PMID:25323158

  2. Multiple efflux pumps are involved in the transepithelial transport of colchicine: combined effect of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 leads to decreased intestinal absorption throughout the entire small intestine.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to thoroughly characterize the efflux transporters involved in the intestinal permeability of the oral microtubule polymerization inhibitor colchicine and to evaluate the role of these transporters in limiting its oral absorption. The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on colchicine bidirectional permeability were studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibiting one versus multiple transporters simultaneously. Colchicine permeability was then investigated in different regions of the rat small intestine by in situ single-pass perfusion. Correlation with the P-gp/MRP2 expression level throughout different intestinal segments was investigated by immunoblotting. P-gp inhibitors [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918), verapamil, and quinidine], and MRP2 inhibitors [3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), indomethacin, and p-aminohippuric acid (p-AH)] significantly increased apical (AP)-basolateral (BL) and decreased BL-AP Caco-2 transport in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was obtained by the BCRP inhibitors fumitremorgin C (FTC) and pantoprazole. P-gp/MRP2 inhibitors combinations greatly reduced colchicine mucosal secretion, including complete abolishment of efflux (GF120918/MK571). Colchicine displayed low (versus metoprolol) and constant permeability along the rat small-intestine. GF120918 significantly increased colchicine permeability in the ileum with no effect in the jejunum, whereas MK571 augmented jejunal permeability without changing the ileal transport. The GF120918/MK571 combination caused an effect similar to that of MK571 alone in the jejunum and to that of GF120918 alone in the ileum. P-gp expression followed a gradient increasing from proximal to distal segments, whereas MRP2 decreased from proximal to distal small intestinal regions. Overall, it was revealed that the combined effect of P-gp and MRP2, but not BCRP, dominates colchicine transepithelial transport, leading to complete coverage of the entire small intestine, and makes the efflux transport dominate the intestinal permeability process. PMID:19589874

  3. Strep-tagged Protein Purification For expressing, purifying, and detecting

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Strep-tagged Protein Purification Handbook For expressing, purifying, and detecting proteins carrying a Strep-tag® II or a 6xHis tag and a Strep-tag II Two-step protein purification system His·Strep p-tagged Protein Purification Handbook 04/2007 Trademarks and disclaimers QIAGEN® (QIAGEN Group); Benzonase® (Merck

  4. Synergistic effect of folate-mediated targeting and verapamil-mediated P-gp inhibition with paclitaxel -polymer micelles to overcome multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feihu; Zhang, Dianrui; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yuxuan; Zheng, Dandan; Hao, Leilei; Duan, Cunxian; Jia, Lejiao; Liu, Guangpu; Liu, Yue

    2011-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is a significant obstacle for successful cancer chemotherapy. Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key factor contributing to the development of tumor drug resistance. Verapamil (VRP), a P-gp inhibitor, has been reported to be able to reverse completely the resistance caused by P-gp. For optimal synergy, the drug and inhibitor combination may need to be temporally colocalized in the tumor cells. Herein, we investigated the effectiveness of simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX), along with VRP, using DOMC-FA micelles to overcome tumor drug resistance. The floate-functionalized dual agent loaded micelles resulted in the similar cytotoxicity to PTX-loaded micelles/free VRP combination and co-administration of two single-agent loaded micelles, which was higher than that of PTX-loaded micelles. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent micelles could be ascribe to increased accumulation of PTX in drug-resistant tumor cells. We suggest that the synergistic effect of folate receptor-mediated internalization and VRP-mediated overcoming MDR could be beneficial in treatment of MDR solid tumors by targeting delivery of micellar PTX into tumor cells. As a result, the difunctional micelle systems is a very promising approach to overcome tumor drug resistance. PMID:21903258

  5. Differential expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in experimental glomerulonephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick WK Tam; Ayman M Karkar; Jennifer Smith; Teizo Yoshimura; Alexander Steinkasserer; Roland Kurrle; Klaus Langner; Andrew J Rees

    1996-01-01

    Differential expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in experimental glomerulonephritis. We examined the relation between glomerular expression of chemokines from ?-subfamily (macrophage inflammatory protein-2, MIP-2) and ?-subfamily (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1) and infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes in antibody mediated glomerulonephritis in rats. In the accelerated model of nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN), glomerular expression of MIP-2 and MCP-1

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Protein expression, survival and docetaxel benefit

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Protein expression, survival and docetaxel benefit in node samples from 1,099 recruited women were analyzed for the expression of 34 selected proteins using. Current histo-clinical prog- nostic factors and the factors predictive for response to a given therapy

  7. Relating protein adduction to gene expression changes: a systems approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Shi, Zhiao; Duncan, Dexter T; Prodduturi, Naresh; Marnett, Lawrence J; Liebler, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Modification of proteins by reactive electrophiles such as the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) plays a critical role in oxidant-associated human diseases. However, little is known about protein adduction and the mechanism by which protein damage elicits adaptive effects and toxicity. We developed a systems approach for relating protein adduction to gene expression changes through the integration of protein adduction, gene expression, protein-DNA interaction, and protein-protein interaction data. Using a random walk strategy, we expanded a list of responsive transcription factors inferred from gene expression studies to upstream signaling networks, which in turn allowed overlaying protein adduction data on the network for the prediction of stress sensors and their associated regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrated the general applicability of transcription factor-based signaling network inference using 103 known pathways. Applying our workflow on gene expression and protein adduction data from HNE-treatment not only rediscovered known mechanisms of electrophile stress but also generated novel hypotheses regarding protein damage sensors. Although developed for analyzing protein adduction data, the framework can be easily adapted for phosphoproteomics and other types of protein modification data. PMID:21594272

  8. Relating Whole-Genome Expression Data with Protein-Protein Interactions

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    strong relationship with expression, while transient ones do not. However, we note that several transient, and found them to have only a weak relationship with gene expression, similar to that of transient complexesRelating Whole-Genome Expression Data with Protein-Protein Interactions Ronald Jansen,1,4 Dov

  9. The S100 protein family: History, function, and expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danna B. Zimmer; Emily H. Cornwall; Aimee Landar; Wei Song

    1995-01-01

    The S100 family of calcium binding proteins contains approximately 16 members each of which exhibits a unique pattern of tissue\\/cell type specific expression. Although the distribution of these proteins is not restricted to the nervous system, the implication of several members of this family in nervous system development, function, and disease has sparked new interest in these proteins. We now

  10. Expression of heat shock protein genes in insect stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heat shock proteins (HSPs) that are abundantly expressed in insects are important modulators of insect survival. Expression of HSP genes in insects is not only developmentally regulated, but also induced by various stressors in order to confer protection against such stressors. The expression o...

  11. Distinct protein kinases regulate SNAP-25 expression in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Carmen; Mendoza, Isabel; García, Carlos J; Awad, Yusfeye; García-Olivares, Jennie; Solís-Garrido, Luisa M; Lara, Hernan; García, Antonio G; Cárdenas, Ana M

    2003-02-01

    The contribution of distinct Ca(2+)-sensitive protein kinases to the regulation of the expression of the synaptosomal-associated protein SNAP-25 was examined in bovine chromaffin cells. Prolonged incubation with high K(+) (38 mM) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP), a nicotinic receptor agonist, significantly increased SNAP-25 protein and mRNA expression, as assessed by immunoblotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Both stimuli preferentially enhanced mRNA coding for the SNAP-25a isoform. Increase of SNAP-25 expression induced by K(+) or DMPP was inhibited over 70% by KN-62 and KN-93, two Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) inhibitors, whereas the inactive analogue KN-92 only reduced the expression by 34%. The three compounds also inhibited the high K(+)-elicited [Ca(2+)](i) signal by 40%, suggesting that the effect of KN-62 and KN-93 was a combination of CaMK/ Ca(2+) influx inhibitory actions. Incubation of the cells with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 reduced protein expression elicited by high K(+) by 50%, but did not modify the response to DMPP. Interestingly, although protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition by H-89 did not affect the high K(+) or DMPP-induced SNAP-25 expression, basal protein levels were significantly modified upon activation or inhibition of this pathway. Basal expression of SNAP-25 was also modified by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not by Gö6976, a PKC-alpha inhibitor, suggesting that the Ca(2+)-insensitive PKC-epsilon isoform control basal expression of SNAP-25 in these cells. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that diverse protein kinases might converge in the induction of SNAP-25 expression in chromaffin cells. The preferential contribution of one or another kinase would depend on the physiological or experimental conditions. PMID:12526024

  12. SUMO Technology Fusion Tag Protein Expression System

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    of a library Directional cloning into vectors Expression and purification by Ni-NTA Cleavage to yield native Protease 1 SUMOpro-3 · Based on the human SUMO · For expression in E.Coli or Pichia Pastoris · Cleaved

  13. Chemometrics of differentially expressed proteins from colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Lay-Chin; Dharmaraj, Saravanan; Gooi, Boon-Hui; Singh, Manjit; Gam, Lay-Harn

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of differentially expressed proteins from colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues for differentiating cancer and normal tissues. METHODS: A Proteomic approach was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins between CRC and normal tissues. The proteins were extracted using Tris buffer and thiourea lysis buffer (TLB) for extraction of aqueous soluble and membrane-associated proteins, respectively. Chemometrics, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were used to assess the usefulness of these proteins for identifying the cancerous state of tissues. RESULTS: Differentially expressed proteins identified were 37 aqueous soluble proteins in Tris extracts and 24 membrane-associated proteins in TLB extracts. Based on the protein spots intensity on 2D-gel images, PCA by applying an eigenvalue > 1 was successfully used to reduce the number of principal components (PCs) into 12 and seven PCs for Tris and TLB extracts, respectively, and subsequently six PCs, respectively from both the extracts were used for LDA. The LDA classification for Tris extract showed 82.7% of original samples were correctly classified, whereas 82.7% were correctly classified for the cross-validated samples. The LDA for TLB extract showed that 78.8% of original samples and 71.2% of the cross-validated samples were correctly classified. CONCLUSION: The classification of CRC tissues by PCA and LDA provided a promising distinction between normal and cancer types. These methods can possibly be used for identification of potential biomarkers among the differentially expressed proteins identified. PMID:21547128

  14. Impact of Chronic Alcohol Ingestion on Cardiac Muscle Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Fogle, Rachel L.; Lynch, Christopher J.; Palopoli, Mary; Deiter, Gina; Stanley, Bruce A.; Vary, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol abuse contributes not only to an increased risk of health-related complications, but also to a premature mortality in adults. Myocardial dysfunction, including the development of a syndrome referred to as alcoholic cardiomyopathy, appears to be a major contributing factor. One mechanism to account for the pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy involves alterations in protein expression secondary to an inhibition of protein synthesis. However, the full extent to which myocardial proteins are affected by chronic alcohol consumption remains unresolved. Methods The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the expression of cardiac proteins. Male rats were maintained for 16 weeks on a 40% ethanol-containing diet in which alcohol was provided both in drinking water and agar blocks. Control animals were pair-fed to consume the same caloric intake. Heart homogenates from control- and ethanol-fed rats were labeled with the cleavable isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT™). Following the reaction with the ICAT™ reagent, we applied one-dimensional gel electrophoresis with in-gel trypsin digestion of proteins and subsequent MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometric techniques for identification of peptides. Differences in the expression of cardiac proteins from control- and ethanol-fed rats were determined by mass spectrometry approaches. Results Initial proteomic analysis identified and quantified hundreds of cardiac proteins. Major decreases in the expression of specific myocardial proteins were observed. Proteins were grouped depending on their contribution to multiple activities of cardiac function and metabolism, including mitochondrial-, glycolytic-, myofibrillar-, membrane-associated, and plasma proteins. Another group contained identified proteins that could not be properly categorized under the aforementioned classification system. Conclusions Based on the changes in proteins, we speculate modulation of cardiac muscle protein expression represents a fundamental alteration induced by chronic alcohol consumption, consistent with changes in myocardial wall thickness measured under the same conditions. PMID:20477769

  15. Clinicopathological significance of FHIT protein expression in gastric adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Po; Liu, Wu; Lu, Ya-Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) protein, and the possible relationship between FHIT expression and clinicopathological indices in gastric carcinoma. METHODS: FHIT protein expression was examined in 76 cases of gastric carcinoma, 58 cases of intraepithelial neoplasia, and 76 cases of corresponding normal mucosae by immunohistochemical method to analyze its relationship to histological grade, clinical stage, metastatic status and prognosis. RESULTS: The FHIT protein expression was positive in 28/76 (36.8%) cases of adenocarcinoma tissue, 22/58 (37.9%) cases of adjacent dysplastic tissue and 76/76 (100%) cases of distal normal gastric mucosa. There was a significant difference in the expression of FHIT protein between cancer or adjacent intraepithelial neoplasia and normal gastric mucosa (P = 0.000). FHIT protein expression was found in 64.3% (18/28) of grades I and II cancers, and 20.8% (10/48) of grade III cancers (P = 0.000), in 56.3% (18/32) of stages I and II cancers and 22.7% (10/44) of stages III and IV cancers (P = 0.004), and in 63.6% (14/22) of cancers without metastasis but only 25.9% (14/54) of those with metastasis (P = 0.003). The significant difference in the expression of FHIT was found between histological grade, clinical stage and metastatic status of cancer. Follow-up data showed that there was a significant difference in median survival time between cancer patients with expression of FHIT (71 mo) and those without (33 mo, log rank = 20.78, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: FHIT protein is an important tumor suppressor protein. Loss of FHIT protein expression may be associated with carcinogenesis, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:16237777

  16. Engineering Cells to Improve Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Su; Shiloach, Joseph; Betenbaugh, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular engineering of bacteria, fungi, insect cells and mammalian cells is a promising methodology to improve recombinant protein production for structural, biochemical, and commercial applications. Increased understanding of the host organism biology has suggested engineering strategies targeting bottlenecks in transcription, translation, protein processing and secretory pathways, as well as cell growth and survival. A combination of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology has been used to improve the properties of cells for protein production, which has resulted in enhanced yields of multiple protein classes. PMID:24704806

  17. Stress Protein Expression Kinetics Kenneth R. Diller

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    proteins, thermal stress, cell injury, molecular chaperone Abstract In all organisms there is an elevated of chemicals, ischemia, desiccation, and UV irradiation. The presence of stress proteins, often termed heat literature that addresses the structure and proper- ties of HSPs, their function in normal and injured cells

  18. Protein Expression Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Laeremans, Annelies; Van de Plas, Babs; Clerens, Stefan; Van den Bergh, Gert; Arckens, Lutgarde; Hu, Tjing-Tjing

    2013-01-01

    We explored differential protein expression profiles in the mouse forebrain at different stages of postnatal development, including 10-day (P10), 30-day (P30), and adult (Ad) mice, by large-scale screening of proteome maps using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 251 differentially expressed proteins. Most molecular changes were observed between P10 compared to both P30 and Ad. Computational ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) confirmed these proteins as crucial molecules in the biological function of nervous system development. Moreover, IPA revealed Semaphorin signaling in neurons and the protein ubiquitination pathway as essential canonical pathways in the mouse forebrain during postnatal development. For these main biological pathways, the transcriptional regulation of the age-dependent expression of selected proteins was validated by means of in situ hybridization. In conclusion, we suggest that proteolysis and neurite outgrowth guidance are key biological processes, particularly during early brain maturation. PMID:25157209

  19. Induction of Expression and Functional Activity of P-glycoprotein Efflux Transporter by Bioactive Plant Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Abuznait, Alaa H.; Qosa, Hisham; O’Connell, Nicholas D.; Akbarian-Tefaghi, Jessica; Sylvester, Paul W.; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bioactive plant natural products on the expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is poorly understood. Interactions of bioactive plant-based food and dietary supplements with P-gp can cause significant alteration of pharmacokinetic properties of P-gp substrate drugs when used in combination. This can augment toxicity and/or interfere with the drug’s therapeutic outcomes. This study investigated the effects of diverse commonly used plant natural products on the expression and activity of P-gp in human adenocarcinoma cells (LS-180). These natural products included the tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol (cembratriene), the palm oil-derived ?-tocotrienol, the extra-virgin olive oil-derived secoiridoid oleocanthal, and the triterpene acid asiatic acid derived from Melaleuca ericifolia and abundant in several other common plant dietary supplements. Treatment with 25 ?M of cembratriene, oleocanthal, ?-tocotrienol, or asiatic acid showed 2.3-3.0-fold increase in P-gp expression as demonstrated by Western blotting. These results were consistent with those obtained by quantitative analysis of fluorescent micrographs for P-gp. Accumulation studies demonstrated 31-38% decrease in rhodamine 123 intracellular levels when LS-180 cells were treated with the investigated compounds as a result of P-gp induction. Bioactive natural products can up-regulate the P-gp expression and functionality, which may induce herb/food-drug interactions when concomitantly used with P-gp substrate drugs. PMID:21851848

  20. Induction of expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein efflux transporter by bioactive plant natural products.

    PubMed

    Abuznait, Alaa H; Qosa, Hisham; O'Connell, Nicholas D; Akbarian-Tefaghi, Jessica; Sylvester, Paul W; El Sayed, Khalid A; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2011-11-01

    The effect of bioactive plant natural products on the expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is poorly understood. Interactions of bioactive plant-based food and dietary supplements with P-gp can cause significant alteration of pharmacokinetic properties of P-gp substrate drugs when used in combination. This can augment toxicity and/or interfere with the drug's therapeutic outcomes. This study investigated the effects of diverse commonly used plant natural products on the expression and activity of P-gp in human adenocarcinoma cells (LS-180). These natural products included the tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol (cembratriene), the palm oil-derived ?-tocotrienol, the extra-virgin olive oil-derived secoiridoid oleocanthal, and the triterpene acid asiatic acid derived from Melaleuca ericifolia and abundant in several other common plant dietary supplements. Treatment with 25?M of cembratriene, oleocanthal, ?-tocotrienol, or asiatic acid showed 2.3-3.0-fold increase in P-gp expression as demonstrated by Western blotting. These results were consistent with those obtained by quantitative analysis of fluorescent micrographs for P-gp. Accumulation studies demonstrated 31-38% decrease in rhodamine 123 intracellular levels when LS-180 cells were treated with the investigated compounds as a result of P-gp induction. Bioactive natural products can up-regulate the P-gp expression and functionality, which may induce herb/food-drug interactions when concomitantly used with P-gp substrate drugs. PMID:21851848

  1. EMBRYONIC EXPRESSION OF UNCOUPLING PROTEIN 2 GENES IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncoupling proteins are mitochondrial anion transporters that dissociate respiration from ATP synthesis through proton leaks. Uncoupling protein 2 reportedly plays a role in several physiological processes such as energy partitioning, nutrition and fatty acid metabolism. The mRNA expression of rainb...

  2. in mice expressing mutant (P301L) tau protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jada Lewis; Eileen McGowan; Julia Rockwood; Heather Melrose; Parimala Nacharaju; Marjon Van Slegtenhorst; Katrina Gwinn-Hardy; M. Paul Murphy; Matt Baker; Xin Yu; Karen Duff; John Hardy; Anthony Corral; Wen-Lang Lin; Shu-Hui Yen; Dennis W. Dickson; Peter Davies; Mike Hutton

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) composed of the microtubule-associ- ated protein tau are prominent in Alzheimer disease (AD), Pick disease, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration1 (CBD). Mutations in the gene (Mtapt) encoding tau protein cause frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), thereby proving that tau dysfunc- tion can directly result in neurodegeneration 2 . Expression of human

  3. Invited Review Functional expression of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights

    E-print Network

    Rao, Rajini

    Invited Review Functional expression of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights into Ca2 signaling of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights into Ca2 signaling and Ca2 -transporting ATPases. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 287: C580­C589, 2004; 10.1152/ajpcell.00135.2004.-- The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  4. InsectDirectTM Protein Expression & Purification System

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    -compatible His·Tag® fusion protein purification What does the InsectDirect System offer? When should I use Promoter(s) Signal sequence Fusion Tags Protease cleavage sites Ek/LIC vector option Size Cat. NoInsectDirectTM Protein Expression & Purification System Novagen® Researchers dealing with high

  5. Supplementary Methods Protein expression and purification of zebrafish Rad54

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    , Leupeptin, Pepetistatin, 45 units/L micrococcal nuclease. The GST fusion proteins were purified firstSupplementary Methods Protein expression and purification of zebrafish Rad54 Insect cells were by glutathione affinity chromatography, followed by cleavage with 5-10% thrombin at 4°C degrees overnight

  6. Enhanced membrane protein expression by engineering increased intracellular membrane production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Membrane protein research is frequently hampered by the low natural abundance of these proteins in cells and typically relies on recombinant gene expression. Different expression systems, like mammalian cells, insect cells, bacteria and yeast are being used, but very few research efforts have been directed towards specific host cell customization for enhanced expression of membrane proteins. Here we show that by increasing the intracellular membrane production by interfering with a key enzymatic step of lipid synthesis, enhanced expression of membrane proteins in yeast is achieved. Results We engineered the oleotrophic yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, by deleting the phosphatidic acid phosphatase, PAH1, which led to massive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. For all eight tested representatives of different integral membrane protein families, we obtained enhanced protein accumulation levels and in some cases enhanced proteolytic integrity in the ?pah1 strain. We analysed the adenosine A2AR G-protein coupled receptor case in more detail and found that concomitant induction of the unfolded protein response in the ?pah1 strain enhanced the specific ligand binding activity of the receptor. These data indicate an improved quality control mechanism for membrane proteins accumulating in yeast cells with proliferated ER. Conclusions We conclude that redirecting the metabolic flux of fatty acids away from triacylglycerol- and sterylester-storage towards membrane phospholipid synthesis by PAH1 gene inactivation, provides a valuable approach to enhance eukaryotic membrane protein production. Complementary to this improvement in membrane protein quantity, UPR co-induction further enhances the quality of the membrane protein in terms of its proper folding and biological activity. Importantly, since these pathways are conserved in all eukaryotes, it will be of interest to investigate similar engineering approaches in other cell types of biotechnological interest, such as insect cells and mammalian cells. PMID:24321035

  7. Translation Levels Control Multi-Spanning Membrane Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Cecilia; Bostrom, Jenny; Fuh, Germaine; Lee, Chingwei V.; Huang, Arthur; Vandlen, Richard L.; Yansura, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Attempts to express eukaryotic multi-spanning membrane proteins at high-levels have been generally unsuccessful. In order to investigate the cause of this limitation and gain insight into the rate limiting processes involved, we have analyzed the effect of translation levels on the expression of several human membrane proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli). These results demonstrate that excessive translation initiation rates of membrane proteins cause a block in protein synthesis and ultimately prevent the high-level accumulation of these proteins. Moderate translation rates allow coupling of peptide synthesis and membrane targeting, resulting in a significant increase in protein expression and accumulation over time. The current study evaluates four membrane proteins, CD20 (4-transmembrane (TM) helixes), the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, 7-TMs) RA1c and EG-VEGFR1, and Patched 1 (12-TMs), and demonstrates the critical role of translation initiation rates in the targeting, insertion and folding of integral membrane proteins in the E. coli membrane. PMID:22563408

  8. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  9. Colorectal cancers differ in respect of PARP-1 protein expression

    E-print Network

    Violetta Sulzyc-Bielicka; Pawel Domagala; Jolanta Hybiak; Anna Majewicz-Broda; Krzysztof Safranow; Wenancjusz Domagala

    2012-07-25

    Recent findings raise the possibility of PARP inhibitor therapy in colorectal cancers(CRCs). However, the extent of PARP-1 protein expression in clinical specimens of CRC is not known. Using immunohistochemistry we assessed PARP-1 protein expression in tissue microarrays of 151 CRCs and its association with the patient's age, sex, Astler-Coller stage, grade and site of the tumor. High PARP nuclear immunoreactivity was found in 68.2% (103/151) of all cases. In turn, 31.8% (48/151)of tumors showed low PARP expression, including 9 (6%) PARP-1 negative CRCs. There was a significant association of PARP-1 expression with the site of CRC and Astler-Coller stage. A high PARP expression was noted in 79.1% of colon vs. 53.9% of rectal tumors (p = 0.001). The mean PARP-1 score was 1.27 times higher in colon vs. rectal cancers (p = 0.009) and it was higher in stage B2 vs. stage C of CRCs (p = 0.018). In conclusion, the level of PARP-1 protein nuclear expression is associated with the tumor site and heterogeneous across clinical specimens of CRC, with the majority of CRCs expressing a high level but minority - low or no PARP-1 expression. These findings may have a clinical significance because the assessment of PARP-1 expression in tumor samples may improve selection of patients with CRC for PARP inhibitor therapy.

  10. Recent developments in therapeutic protein expression technologies in plants.

    PubMed

    Fahad, Shah; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Ahmed, Muhammad Mahmood; Liao, Yu Cai; Waheed, Muhammad Tahir; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Darkhshan; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Jan, Amanullah; Jan, Mohammad Tariq; Wu, Chao; Chun, Ma Xiao; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-02-01

    Infectious diseases and cancers are some of the commonest causes of deaths throughout the world. The previous two decades have witnessed a combined endeavor across various biological sciences to address this issue in novel ways. The advent of recombinant DNA technologies has provided the tools for producing recombinant proteins that can be used as therapeutic agents. A number of expression systems have been developed for the production of pharmaceutical products. Recently, advances have been made using plants as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins directed against infectious diseases and cancers. This review highlights the recent progress in therapeutic protein expression in plants (stable and transient), the factors affecting heterologous protein expression, vector systems and recent developments in existing technologies and steps towards the industrial production of plant-made vaccines, antibodies, and biopharmaceuticals. PMID:25326175

  11. Expression of a proline-enriched protein in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, T.T.; Cooney, C.L.; Gomez, R.F.

    1982-03-01

    The feasibility of expressing repeated synthetic codons in bacterial cells was demonstrated by showing that repeated codons for proline were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant DNA technology was used to clone synthetic polydeoxyguanylate: polydeoxycytidylate into the PstI site of plasmid pBR322. Recombinant plasmid pGC139 was shown by means of HaeIII restriction digestion to contain approximately 41 cloned base pairs; the cloned sequence was expressed as a fusion to an ampicillinase protein. The resulting protein, enriched in proline, was expressed from plasmid in pGC139 in E. coli maxicells. Extension of this technology could lead to improvement in the production of amino acids and to nutritional enrichment of single-cell protein. (Refs. 12).

  12. Ethnic variability in the expression of hepatic drug transporters: absolute quantification by an optimized targeted quantitative proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kuan-Wei; Bacon, James; Zheng, Ming; Guo, Yingying; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2015-07-01

    Hepatic OATPs 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1, as well as P-gp, play important roles in regulating liver uptake and biliary excretion of drugs. The intrinsic ethnic variability in OATP1B1-mediated hepatic uptake of statins has been proposed to underlie the ethnic variability in plasma exposures of statins between Caucasians and Asians. Using a targeted quantitative proteomic approach, we determined hepatic protein concentrations of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, P-gp, and PMCA4 (a housekeeping protein) in a panel of human livers (n = 141) and compared protein expression across Caucasian, Asian, African-American, and unidentified donors. Using an optimized protocol that included sodium deoxycholate as a membrane protein solubilizer, the hepatic protein expression levels (mean ± S.D.) of these transporters across all livers were determined to be 15.0 ± 6.0, 16.1 ± 8.1, 4.1 ± 1.3, 0.6 ± 0.2, and 2.4 ± 1.0 fmol/?g of total membrane protein, respectively. The scaling factor was 3.5 mg of total membrane protein in 100 mg of wet liver tissue. OATP1B1 protein expression was significantly associated with the c.388A>G (rs2306283, N130D) single nucleotide polymorphism. When compared across ethnicity, the hepatic expression levels of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were unexpectedly higher in Asians relative to Caucasians, suggesting that hepatic OATP expression alone does not explain the increased systemic statin levels in Asians compared with Caucasians. These findings may help improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to predict statin pharmacokinetic profiles and enable extrapolation of pharmacokinetic data of OATP substrates across ethnic groups. PMID:25926430

  13. Recombinant protein production using the Semliki Forest Virus expression system.

    PubMed

    Blasey, H D; Lundström, K; Tate, S; Bernard, A R

    1997-05-01

    We report here the successful scale up of transient recombinant protein expression to litre scale using Semliki Forest Virus System. The expression of bacterial ?-galactosidase was initially compared in BHK and CHO cells and the conditions for optimal infection of BHK cells were identified. 10% FCS in a medium at pH 6.9 and infection in small volumes were found to be optimal. A high MOI results in an increased recombinant protein yield. Stirring does not affect the infection process. Finally we applied these optimal conditions to the production of a microsomal enzyme, human cyclooxygenase-2 in suspension spinners. Five independant productions at the 1 litre scale yielded reproducible substantial amounts of recombinant protein (16 mg microsomal protein 10(9) cells(-1)) with an average specific activity of 3942 ± 765 pg PGE(2) ?g(-1) microsomal protein 5 min(-1). PMID:22358598

  14. Studies of ion channels using expressed protein ligation.

    PubMed

    Focke, Paul J; Valiyaveetil, Francis I

    2010-12-01

    Expressed protein ligation (EPL) is a semisynthetic technique for the chemoselective ligation of a synthetic peptide to a recombinant peptide that results in a native peptide bond at the ligation site. EPL therefore allows us to engineer proteins with chemically defined, site-specific modifications. While EPL has been used mainly in investigations of soluble proteins, in recent years it has been increasingly used in investigations of integral membrane proteins. These include studies on the KcsA K(+) channel, the non-selective cation channel NaK, and the porin OmpF. These studies are discussed in this review. PMID:20965773

  15. Papaya fruit softening, endoxylanase gene expression, protein and activity.

    PubMed

    Manenoi, Ashariya; Paull, Robert E

    2007-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cell wall matrix polysaccharides are modified as the fruit starts to soften during ripening and an endoxylanase is expressed that may play a role in the softening process. Endoxylanase gene expression, protein amount and activity were determined in papaya cultivars that differ in softening pattern and in one cultivar where softening was modified by the ethylene receptor inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Antibodies to the endoxylanase catalytic domain were used to determine protein accumulation. The three papaya varieties used in the study, 'Line 8', 'Sunset', and 'Line 4-16', differed in softening pattern, respiration rate, ethylene production and showed similar parallel relationships during ripening and softening in endoxylanase expression, protein level and activity. When fruit of the three papaya varieties showed the respiratory climacteric and started to soften, the level of endoxylanase gene expression increased and this increase was related to the amount of endoxylanase protein at 32 kDa and its activity. Fruit when treated at less than 10% skin yellow stage with 1-MCP showed a significant delay in the respiratory climacteric and softening, and reduced ethylene production, and when ripe was firmer and had a 'rubbery' texture. The 1-MCP-treated fruit that had the 'rubbery' texture showed suppressed endoxylanase gene expression, protein and enzymatic activity. Little or no delay occurred between endoxylanase gene expression and the appearance of activity during posttranslational processing from 65 to 32 kDa. The close relationship between endoxylanase gene expression, protein accumulation and activity in different varieties and the failure of the 1-MCP-treated fruit to fully soften, supported de novo synthesis of endoxylanase, rapid posttranslation processing and a role in papaya fruit softening. PMID:18251885

  16. Urokinase Expression by Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Praveenkumar; Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhandary, Yashodhar P.; Shetty, Rashmi S.; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Shetty, Sreerama

    2008-01-01

    Lung carcinoma (H1299) cells deficient in p53 (p53?/?) express large amounts of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) protein and uPA mRNA, and exhibit slower degradation of uPA mRNA than that of p53-expressing nonmalignant Beas2B human airway epithelial cells. Expression of p53 protein in H1299 cells, upon transfection with p53 cDNA, suppressed basal as well as uPA-induced expression of uPA protein in both conditioned media and cell lysates, and decreased the level of steady-state uPA mRNA primarily due to increased uPA mRNA turnover. Inhibition of p53 expression by RNA silencing (SiRNA) in Beas2B cells enhanced basal and uPA-mediated uPA protein and mRNA expression with stabilization of uPA mRNA. Purified p53 binds to the uPA mRNA 3? untranslated region (UTR) in a sequence-specific manner and endogenous uPA mRNA associates with p53 protein isolated from Beas2B cytosolic extracts. p53 binds to a 35-nucleotide uPA 3?UTR sequence and insertion of this sequence into ?-globin mRNA accelerates degradation of otherwise stable ?-globin mRNA. These observations confirm a new role for p53 as a uPA mRNA binding protein that down-regulates uPA mRNA stability and decreases cellular uPA expression. PMID:18390474

  17. RNA Binding Proteins that Control Human Papillomavirus Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kajitani, Naoko; Schwartz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is strictly linked to the differentiation program of the infected mucosal epithelial cell. In the basal and lower levels of the epithelium, early genes coding for pro-mitotic proteins and viral replication factors are expressed, while terminal cell differentiation is required for activation of late gene expression and production of viral particles at the very top of the epithelium. Such productive infections are normally cleared within 18–24 months. In rare cases, the HPV infection is stuck in the early stage of the infection. Such infections may give rise to cervical lesions that can progress to cancer, primarily cancer of the uterine cervix. Since cancer progression is strictly linked to HPV gene expression, it is of interest to understand how HPV gene expression is regulated. Cis-acting HPV RNA elements and cellular RNA-binding proteins control HPV mRNA splicing and polyadenylation. These interactions are believed to play a particularly important role in the switch from early to late gene expression, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HPV. Indeed, it has been shown that the levels of various RNA binding proteins change in response to differentiation and in response to HPV induced cervical lesions and cancer. Here we have compiled published data on RNA binding proteins involved in the regulation of HPV gene expression. PMID:25950509

  18. Express Your LOV: An Engineered Flavoprotein as a Reporter for Protein Expression and Purification

    PubMed Central

    Gawthorne, Jayde A.; Reddick, L. Evan; Akpunarlieva, Snezhana N.; Beckham, Katherine S. H.; Christie, John M.; Alto, Neal M.; Gabrielsen, Mads; Roe, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we describe the utility of Light, Oxygen, or Voltage-sensing (LOV) flavoprotein domains from plant phototropins as a reporter for protein expression and function. Specifically, we used iLOV, an enhanced and more photostable variant of LOV. A pET-based plasmid for protein expression was constructed, encoding a C terminal iLOV-octahistidine (His8)-tag and a HRV 3C protease cleavage recognition site. Ten different proteins, with various sub-cellular locations, were cloned into the plasmid, creating iLOV-His8 tag fusions. To test protein expression and how iLOV could be used as a reporter, the proteins were expressed in three different cell lines, in four different culture media, at two different temperatures. To establish whether the presence of the iLOV tag could have an impact on the functionality, one of the proteins, EspG, was over-expressed and purified. EspG is an “effector” protein normally produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains and “injected” into host cells via the T3SS. We tested functionality of EspG-iLOV fusion by performing functional studies of EspG in mammalian host cells. When EspG-iLOV was microinjected into the host cell, the Golgi apparatus was completely disrupted as had previously been observed for EspG. PMID:23300834

  19. Correlating gene and protein expression data using Correlated Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chuen Seng; Salim, Agus; Ploner, Alexander; Lehtiö, Janne; Chia, Kee Seng; Pawitan, Yudi

    2009-01-01

    Background Joint analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data taken from the same samples has the potential to elucidate complex biological mechanisms. Most current methods that integrate these datasets allow for the computation of the correlation between a gene and protein but only after a one-to-one matching of genes and proteins is done. However, genes and proteins are connected via biological pathways and their relationship is not necessarily one-to-one. In this paper, we investigate the use of Correlated Factor Analysis (CFA) for modeling the correlation of genome-scale gene and protein data. Unlike existing approaches, CFA considers all possible gene-protein pairs and utilizes all gene and protein information in its modeling framework. The Generalized Singular Value Decomposition (gSVD) is another method which takes into account all available transcriptomic and proteomic data. Comparison is made between CFA and gSVD. Results Our simulation study indicates that the CFA estimates can consistently capture the dominant patterns of correlation between two sets of measurements; in contrast, the gSVD estimates cannot do that. Applied to real cancer data, the list of co-regulated genes and proteins identified by CFA has biologically meaningful interpretation, where both the gene and protein expressions are pointing to the same processes. Among the GO terms for which the genes and proteins are most correlated, we observed blood vessel morphogenesis and development. Conclusion We demonstrate that CFA is a useful tool for gene-protein data integration and modeling, where the main question is in finding which patterns of gene expression are most correlated with protein expression. PMID:19723309

  20. Protein expression during the embryonic development of a gastropod.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2010-07-01

    Despite the potential use of gastropod embryos in basic and applied research, little is known about their protein expression. We examined, for the first time, changes in proteomic profile during embryonic development of Pomacea canaliculata from an embryo without a shell (stage II) to an embryo with a fully formed shell (stage III) to understand the roles that proteins play in critical developmental events, such as the formation of shell, operculum and heart, and the differentiation of head and foot. To analyze protein expression during development, we used 2-DE to detect, MS to analyze, and de novo peptide sequencing followed by MS-BLAST to identify the proteins. The de novo cross-species protein identification method was adopted because of a lack of genomic and proteomic data in the whole class of Gastropoda. 2-DE detected approximately 700 protein spots. Among the 125 spots that were abundant, 52% were identified, a marked improvement over the conventional direct MS-BLAST method. These proteins function in perivitelline fluid utilization, shell formation, protein synthesis and folding, and cell cycle and cell fate determination, providing evidence to support that this embryonic period is a period of dynamic protein synthesis and metabolism. The data shall provide a basis for further studies of how gastropod embryos respond to natural and human-induced changes in the environment. PMID:20455212

  1. Protein Co-Expression Network Analysis (ProCoNA)

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, David L.; Baratt, Arie; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Smith, Richard D.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Katze, Michael G.; Mcweeney, Shannon K.

    2013-06-01

    Biological networks are important for elucidating disease etiology due to their ability to model complex high dimensional data and biological systems. Proteomics provides a critical data source for such models, but currently lacks robust de novo methods for network construction, which could bring important insights in systems biology. We have evaluated the construction of network models using methods derived from weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). We show that approximately scale-free peptide networks, composed of statistically significant modules, are feasible and biologically meaningful using two mouse lung experiments and one human plasma experiment. Within each network, peptides derived from the same protein are shown to have a statistically higher topological overlap and concordance in abundance, which is potentially important for inferring protein abundance. The module representatives, called eigenpeptides, correlate significantly with biological phenotypes. Furthermore, within modules, we find significant enrichment for biological function and known interactions (gene ontology and protein-protein interactions). Biological networks are important tools in the analysis of complex systems. In this paper we evaluate the application of weighted co-expression network analysis to quantitative proteomics data. Protein co-expression networks allow novel approaches for biological interpretation, quality control, inference of protein abundance, a framework for potentially resolving degenerate peptide-protein mappings, and a biomarker signature discovery.

  2. Protein co-expression network analysis (ProCoNA)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological networks are important for elucidating disease etiology due to their ability to model complex high dimensional data and biological systems. Proteomics provides a critical data source for such models, but currently lacks robust de novo methods for network construction, which could bring important insights in systems biology. Results We have evaluated the construction of network models using methods derived from weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). We show that approximately scale-free peptide networks, composed of statistically significant modules, are feasible and biologically meaningful using two mouse lung experiments and one human plasma experiment. Within each network, peptides derived from the same protein are shown to have a statistically higher topological overlap and concordance in abundance, which is potentially important for inferring protein abundance. The module representatives, called eigenpeptides, correlate significantly with biological phenotypes. Furthermore, within modules, we find significant enrichment for biological function and known interactions (gene ontology and protein-protein interactions). Conclusions Biological networks are important tools in the analysis of complex systems. In this paper we evaluate the application of weighted co-expression network analysis to quantitative proteomics data. Protein co-expression networks allow novel approaches for biological interpretation, quality control, inference of protein abundance, a framework for potentially resolving degenerate peptide-protein mappings, and a biomarker signature discovery. PMID:23724967

  3. Expression, delivery and function of insecticidal proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal po...

  4. Green fluorescent protein-based expression screening of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bird, Louise E; Rada, Heather; Verma, Anil; Gasper, Raphael; Birch, James; Jennions, Matthew; L?we, Jan; Moraes, Isabel; Owens, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    The production of recombinant membrane proteins for structural and functional studies remains technically challenging due to low levels of expression and the inherent instability of many membrane proteins once solubilized in detergents. A protocol is described that combines ligation independent cloning of membrane proteins as GFP fusions with expression in Escherichia coli detected by GFP fluorescence. This enables the construction and expression screening of multiple membrane protein/variants to identify candidates suitable for further investment of time and effort. The GFP reporter is used in a primary screen of expression by visualizing GFP fluorescence following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Membrane proteins that show both a high expression level with minimum degradation as indicated by the absence of free GFP, are selected for a secondary screen. These constructs are scaled and a total membrane fraction prepared and solubilized in four different detergents. Following ultracentrifugation to remove detergent-insoluble material, lysates are analyzed by fluorescence detection size exclusion chromatography (FSEC). Monitoring the size exclusion profile by GFP fluorescence provides information about the mono-dispersity and integrity of the membrane proteins in different detergents. Protein: detergent combinations that elute with a symmetrical peak with little or no free GFP and minimum aggregation are candidates for subsequent purification. Using the above methodology, the heterologous expression in E. coli of SED (shape, elongation, division, and sporulation) proteins from 47 different species of bacteria was analyzed. These proteins typically have ten transmembrane domains and are essential for cell division. The results show that the production of the SEDs orthologues in E. coli was highly variable with respect to the expression levels and integrity of the GFP fusion proteins. The experiment identified a subset for further investigation. PMID:25590335

  5. Methods and constructs for expression of foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms

    DOEpatents

    Laible, Philip D. (Villa Park, IL); Hanson, Deborah K. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method for expressing and purifying foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms comprising the simultaneous expression of both the heterologous protein and a means for compartmentalizing or sequestering of the protein.

  6. Efficient expression screening of human membrane proteins in transiently transfected Human Embryonic Kidney 293S cells

    E-print Network

    Stroud, Robert

    Efficient expression screening of human membrane proteins in transiently transfected Human- fied as having high expression are instantly suitable for further downstream large scale transient of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States c Membrane Protein Expression Center, University

  7. Coordination of murine parotid secretory protein and salivary amylase expression.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, K; Jakobsen, B K; Mikkelsen, B M; Harmark, K; Nielsen, J T; Hjorth, J P

    1986-01-01

    PSP, parotid secretory protein, and salivary amylase are the major secretory proteins of mouse parotid gland where they appear in a constant ratio. Here we describe the isolation of the PSP gene and show through expression analysis on this and the salivary amylase gene that the two genes are transcribed in a coordinate fashion in adult animals, whereas the activation profiles are different during postnatal development. An explanation is put forward that involves activation of the genes at different stages of the acinar cell differentiation, leading in adults to the maximal and thus proportionate expression. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2428613

  8. The expression and significance of neuronal iconic proteins in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongxia; Hu, Ruimin; Sun, Jianyong; Mao, Xing; Zhao, Zhonghua; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that there are many common cell biological features shared by neurons and podocytes; however, the mechanism of podocyte foot process formation remains unclear. Comparing the mechanisms of process formation between two cell types should provide useful guidance from the progress of neuron research. Studies have shown that some mature proteins of podocytes, such as podocin, nephrin, and synaptopodin, were also expressed in neurons. In this study, using cell biological experiments and immunohistochemical techniques, we showed that some neuronal iconic molecules, such as Neuron-specific enolase, nestin and Neuron-specific nuclear protein, were also expressed in podocytes. We further inhibited the expression of Neuron-specific enolase, nestin, synaptopodin and Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-1 by Small interfering RNA in cultured mouse podocytes and observed the significant morphological changes in treated podocytes. When podocytes were treated with Adriamycin, the protein expression of Neuron-specific enolase, nestin, synaptopodin and Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-1 decreased over time. Meanwhile, the morphological changes in the podocytes were consistent with results of the Small interfering RNA treatment of these proteins. The data demonstrated that neuronal iconic proteins play important roles in maintaining and regulating the formation and function of podocyte processes. PMID:24699703

  9. p53 AND MDM2 PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN ACTINIC CHEILITIS

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Maria da Conceiçăo Andrade; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Moreira, André Luis Gomes; Reis, Sílvia Regina Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant lip lesion caused by excessive and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to histomorphological alterations indicative of abnormal cell differentiation. In this pathology, varying degrees of epithelial dysplasia may be found. There are few published studies regarding the p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis. Fifty-eight cases diagnosed with actinic cheilitis were histologically evaluated using Banóczy and Csiba (1976) parameters, and were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using the streptavidin-biotin method in order to assess p53 and MDM2 protein expression. All studied cases expressed p53 proteins in basal and suprabasal layers. In the basal layer, the nuclei testing positive for p53 were stained intensely, while in the suprabasal layer, cells with slightly stained nuclei were predominant. All cases also tested positive for the MDM2 protein, but with varying degrees of nuclear expression and a predominance of slightly stained cells. A statistically significant correlation between the percentage of p53 and MDM2-positive cells was established, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. The expression of p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis can be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. PMID:19082401

  10. Interfacial Polymerization for Colorimetric Labeling of Protein Expression in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Jacob L.; Sheldon, Phillip R.; Hoversten, Liv J.; Romero, Gabriela; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Berron, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the location of rare proteins in cells typically requires the use of on-sample amplification. Antibody based recognition and enzymatic amplification is used to produce large amounts of visible label at the site of protein expression, but these techniques suffer from the presence of nonspecific reactivity in the biological sample and from poor spatial control over the label. Polymerization based amplification is a recently developed alternative means of creating an on-sample amplification for fluorescence applications, while not suffering from endogenous labels or loss of signal localization. This manuscript builds upon polymerization based amplification by developing a stable, archivable, and colorimetric mode of amplification termed Polymer Dye Labeling. The basic concept involves an interfacial polymer grown at the site of protein expression and subsequent staining of this polymer with an appropriate dye. The dyes Evans Blue and eosin were initially investigated for colorimetric response in a microarray setting, where both specifically stained polymer films on glass. The process was translated to the staining of protein expression in human dermal fibroblast cells, and Polymer Dye Labeling was specific to regions consistent with desired protein expression. The labeling is stable for over 200 days in ambient conditions and is also compatible with modern mounting medium. PMID:25536421

  11. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and P-gp inhibitor by a reduction-sensitive liposome to overcome multidrug resistance, enhance anti-tumor efficiency and reduce toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Huile; Liu, Yayuan; Zhang, Qianyu; Ran, Rui; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2014-12-10

    Abstract To overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy with high efficiency and safety, a reduction-sensitive liposome (CL-R8-LP), which was co-modified with reduction-sensitive cleavable PEG and octaarginine (R8) to increase the tumor accumulation, cellular uptake and lysosome escape, was applied to co-encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor of verapamil (VER) in this study. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX and VER in the binary-drug loaded CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was about 95 and 70% (w/w), respectively. The uptake efficiencies, the cytotoxicity, and the apoptosis and necrosis-inducing efficiency of CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) were much higher than those of DOX and the other control liposomes in MCF-7/ADR cells or tumor spheroids. Besides, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was proven to be uptaken into MCF-7/ADR cells by clathrin-mediated and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis, followed by efficient lysosomal escape. In vivo, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7/ADR tumor and reduce the toxicity of DOX and VER, which could be ascribed to increased accumulation of drugs in drug-resistant tumor cells and reduced distribution in normal tissues. In summary, the co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and P-gp inhibitors by our reduction-sensitive liposome was a promising approach to overcome MDR, improve anti-tumor effect and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25491241

  12. Elevated Aurora Kinase A Protein Expression in Diabetic Skin Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Moon Kyun; An, Je Min; Kang, Sang Gue

    2014-01-01

    Background Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) plays an important role in the regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis. Dysregulated Aurora-A leads to mitotic faults and results in pathological conditions. No studies on Aurora-A expression in human diabetic skin tissue have been reported. In light of this, we explored the expression of Aurora-A in human diabetic skin tissue. Methods Aurora-A protein was evaluated by western blotting in 6 human diabetic skin tissue and 6 normal skin specimens. Results Increased expression of Aurora-A protein was detected in all diabetic skin tissue samples in both western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. However, in the case of the normal skin tissue, no bands of Aurora-A protein were detected in either the western blotting analysis or the immunohistochemical staining. Conclusions Thus far, there have been no studies on the expression of Aurora-A in diabetic skin tissue. However, we believe that oxidative DNA damage related to the expression of Aurora-A protein and Aurora-A could be involved inhuman diabetic skin tissue. PMID:24511492

  13. Widespread expression of Huntington's disease gene (IT15) protein product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan H Sharp; Scott J Loev; Gabriele Schilling; Shi-Hua Li; Xiao-Jiang Li; Jun Bao; Molly V Wagster; Joyce A Kotzuk; Joseph P Steiner; Amy Lo; John Hedreen; Sangram Sisodia; Solomon H Snyder; Ted M Dawson; David K Ryugo; Christopher A Ross

    1995-01-01

    Huntington's Disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat within a putative open reading frame of a recently identified gene, IT15. We have examined the expression of the gene's protein product using antibodies developed against the N-terminus and an internal epitope. Both antisera recognize a 350 kDa protein, the predicted size, indicating that the CAG repeat is translated

  14. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Narayanan, A. Sampath [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, UW, Seattle (United States); Zeichner-David, Margarita [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, USC, Los Angeles (United States); Reyes-Gasga, Jose [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM (Mexico); Molina-Guarneros, Juan [Facultad de Medicina, UNAM (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Chavarria, Ivet Gil [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Arzate, Higinio [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: harzate@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-07-06

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation.

  15. Regulation of urokinase receptor expression by protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sreerama; Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Idell, Steven; Tang, Hua; Shetty, Praveen Kumar

    2007-02-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play a major role in several physiological processes such as cell migration, proliferation, morphogenesis, and regulation of gene expression. Many of the biological activities of uPA depend on its association with uPAR. uPAR expression and its induction by uPA are regulated at the posttranscriptional level. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase-mediated dephosphorylation by sodium orthovanadate induces uPAR expression and, with uPA, additively induces cell surface uPAR expression. Sodium orthovanadate induces uPAR by increasing uPAR mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Both sodium orthovanadate and uPA induce uPAR mRNA stability, indicating that dephosphorylation could contribute to uPA-induced posttranscriptional regulation of uPAR expression. Induction of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in Beas2B and H157 cells inhibits basal cell surface uPAR expression and uPA-induced uPAR expression. Sodium orthovanadate also increases uPAR expression by decreasing the interaction of a uPAR mRNA coding region sequence with phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) as well as by enhancing the interaction between a uPAR mRNA 3' untranslated sequence with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC). On the contrary, overexpression of SHP2 in Beas2B cells increased interaction of PGK with the uPAR mRNA coding region and inhibited hnRNPC binding to the 3' untranslated sequence. These findings confirm a novel mechanism by which uPAR expression of lung airway epithelial cells is regulated at the level of mRNA stability by inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase-mediated dephosphorylation of uPAR mRNA binding proteins and demonstrate that the process involves SHP2. PMID:17028265

  16. Protein Dynamics: Implications for Nuclear Architecture and Gene Expression

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tom Mistelli (National Cancer Institute; )

    2001-02-02

    Studies of nuclear architecture reveal that the dynamic properties of proteins in the nucleus are critical for their function. The high mobility of proteins ensures their availability throughout the nucleus; their dynamic interplay generates an ever-changing, but overall stable, architectural framework, within which nuclear processes take place. As a consequence, overall nuclear morphology is determined by the functional interactions of nuclear components. The observed dynamic properties of nuclear proteins are consistent with a central role for stochastic mechanisms in gene expression and nuclear architecture.

  17. [Expression of fused protein A-green fluorescent protein (PA-GFP)].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhijing; Liu, Xiumei

    2002-02-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) of jellyfish victoria is an unusual protein with strong visible fluorescence both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, about 750 bp fragment of gfp gene was amplified by PCR and was inserted into pRIT2T vector containing protein A gene. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli JM101. GFP and protein A were fused and expressed in E. coli Top10. The bright green fluorescence on the plates could be visible under UV at 365 nm. The bacteria cells were disrupted by sonic oscillation. The fused protein PA-GFP could be obtained from the supernatants. PMID:12561575

  18. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) interacting proteins exhibit different expression patterns during development.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, C M; Spatuzza, M; Di Marco, B; Gloria, A; Barrancotto, G; Cupo, A; Musumeci, S A; D'Antoni, S; Bardoni, B; Catania, M V

    2015-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the lack of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and translation. FMRP is a component of mRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes and it can interact with a range of proteins either directly or indirectly, as demonstrated by two-hybrid selection and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. Most of FMRP-interacting proteins are RNA-binding proteins such as FXR1P, FXR2P and 82-FIP. Interestingly, FMRP can also interact directly with the cytoplasmic proteins CYFIP1 and CYFIP2, which do not bind RNA and link FMRP to the RhoGTPase pathway. The interaction with these different proteins may modulate the functions of FMRP by influencing its affinity to RNA and by affecting the FMRP ability of cytoskeleton remodeling through Rho/Rac GTPases. To better define the relationship of FMRP with its interacting proteins during brain development, we have analyzed the expression pattern of FMRP and its interacting proteins in the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum at different ages in wild type (WT) mice. FMRP and FXR2P were strongly expressed during the first week and gradually decreased thereafter, more rapidly in the cerebellum than in the cortex. FXR1P was also expressed early and showed a reduction at later stages of development with a similar developmental pattern in these two regions. CYFIP1 was expressed at all ages and peaked in the third post-natal week. In contrast, CYFIP2 and 82-FIP (only in forebrain regions) were moderately expressed at P3 and gradually increased after P7. In general, the expression pattern of each protein was similar in the regions examined, except for 82-FIP, which exhibited a strong expression at P3 and low levels at later developmental stages in the cerebellum. Our data indicate that FMRP and its interacting proteins have distinct developmental patterns of expression and suggest that FMRP may be preferentially associated to certain proteins in early and late developmental periods. In particular, the RNA-binding and cytoskeleton remodeling functions of FMRP may be differently modulated during development. PMID:25681562

  19. Using Green and Red Fluorescent Proteins to Teach Protein Expression, Purification, and Crystallization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhou, Yangbin; Song, Jiaping; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory curriculum using the green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) to visualize the cloning, expression, chromatography purification, crystallization, and protease-cleavage experiments of protein science. The EGFP and DsRed monomer (mDsRed)-coding sequences were amplified by PCR and cloned into pMAL (MBP-EGFP) or…

  20. Binary and ternary combinations of anti-HIV protease inhibitors: effect on gene expression and functional activity of CYP3A4 and efflux transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kwatra, Deep; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Khurana, Varun; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of binary and ternary combinations of anti-HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) on the expression of metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4) and efflux transporters [multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP)] in a model intestinal cell line (LS-180). Methods LS-180 cells were treated with various combinations of PIs (amprenavir, indinavir, saquinavir and lopinavir), and the mRNA expression levels of metabolizing enzyme and efflux transporters were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The alteration of gene expression was further correlated to the expression of nuclear hormone receptor PXR. Uptake of fluorescent and radioactive substrates was carried out to study the functional activity of these proteins. Cytotoxicity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were carried out to measure stress responses. Results Binary and ternary combinations of PIs appeared to modulate the expression of CYP3A4, MRP2, P-gp and BCRP in a considerable manner. Unlike the individual PIs, their binary combinations showed much greater induction of metabolizing enzyme and efflux proteins. However, such pronounced induction was not observed in the presence of ternary combinations. The observed trend of altered mRNA expression was found to correlate well with the change in expression levels of PXR. The gene expression was found to correlate with activity assays. Lack of cytotoxicity and ATP activity was observed in the treatment samples, suggesting that these alterations in expression levels were probably not stress responses. Conclusions In the present study, we demonstrated that combinations of drugs can have serious consequences toward the treatment of HIV infection by altering their bioavailability and disposition. PMID:24399676

  1. Reprint of: Expression and purification of ataxin-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Husain-Ponnampalam, Rhonda; Turnbull, Victor; Tarlac, Volga; Storey, Elsdon

    2011-09-01

    Ataxin-1 is part of a larger family of polyglutamine-containing proteins that is linked to nine distinct neurodegenerative disorders. There are no known effective therapies for any of these expanded polyglutamine tract disorders. One possible reason for this is the lack of sufficient amounts of pure polyglutamine-containing proteins suitable for biochemical and conformational studies. Here, we show that we were able to successfully purify a non-pathological, wild-type human ataxin-1 protein containing a 30-glutamine repeat sequence. This ataxin-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a GST tag at the N-terminus and a double (His)(6) tag at the C-terminus. The devised dual affinity tag strategy allowed successful purification of the full-length ataxin-1 fusion protein to 90% homogeneity as confirmed by Western blot analysis using the two monoclonal ataxin-1 antibodies developed in our laboratory. In addition, the GST tag was successfully removed from the purified ataxin-1 fusion protein by treatment with Tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease. Since polyglutamine-containing proteins tend to aggregate, solvents/buffers that minimize aggregation have been used in the purification process. This dual affinity purification protocol could serve as a useful basis for purifying aggregation-prone proteins that are involved in other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21893199

  2. Expression, delivery and function of insecticidal proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, Jeremy A; Bonning, Bryony C; Harrison, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  3. Production of therapeutic proteins in algae, analysis of expression of seven human proteins in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Rasala, Beth A; Muto, Machiko; Lee, Philip A; Jager, Michal; Cardoso, Rosa MF; Behnke, Craig A; Kirk, Peter; Hokanson, Craig A; Crea, Roberto; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recombinant proteins are widely used today in many industries, including the biopharmaceutical industry, and can be expressed in bacteria, yeasts, mammalian and insect cell cultures, or in transgenic plants and animals. In addition, transgenic algae have also been shown to support recombinant protein expression, both from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. However, to date, there are only a few reports on recombinant proteins expressed in the algal chloroplast. It is unclear if this is due to few attempts or to limitations of the system that preclude expression of many proteins. Thus, we sought to assess the versatility of transgenic algae as a recombinant protein production platform. To do this, we tested whether the algal chloroplast could support the expression of a diverse set of current or potential human therapeutic proteins. Of the seven proteins chosen, greater than 50% expressed at levels sufficient for commercial production. Three expressed at 2% to 3% of total soluble protein, while a forth protein accumulated to similar levels when translationally fused to a well-expressed serum amyloid protein. All of the algal chloroplast-expressed proteins are soluble and showed biological activity comparable to that of the same proteins expressed using traditional production platforms. Thus, the success rate, expression levels, and bioactivty achieved demonstrate the utility of C. reinhardtii as a robust platform for human therapeutic protein production. PMID:20230484

  4. Human testis expresses a specific poly(A)-binding protein.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Human testis expresses a specific poly(A)-binding protein. C. Féral, G. Guellaën and A. Pawlak*. Unité INSERM 99, Hôpital Henri Mondor, 94010 Créteil, France. Keywords : PABP, spermatogenesis, testis FRANCE Tel. 33 1 49 81 35 30 Fax. 33 1 48 98 09 08 E-mail : pawlak@im3.inserm.fr #12;Abstract In testis

  5. PLASMIDS FOR EXPRESSION OF HETEROLOGOUS PROTEINS IN RHIZOPUS ORYZAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus oryzae has long been used for enzyme production (e.g., glucoamylase and lipase), organic acid synthesis, and various fermented food applications. In this work, we describe a set of plasmid-based expression vectors that can be used for the production of heterologous proteins in R. oryzae. ...

  6. Lipid Transfer Proteins from Fruit: Cloning, Expression and Quantification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurian Zuidmeer; W. Astrid van Leeuwen; Ilona Kleine Budde; Jessica Cornelissen; Ingrid Bulder; Ilona Rafalska; Nočlia Telléz Besolí; Jaap H. Akkerdaas; Riccardo Asero; Montserrat Fernandez Rivas; Eloina Gonzalez Mancebo; Ronald van Ree

    2005-01-01

    Background: Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are stable, potentially life-threatening allergens in fruits and many other vegetable foods. The aim of this study was to clone and express recombinant apple LTP (Mal d 3), as has previously been done for peach LTP (Pru p 3) and set up quantitative tests for measuring fruit LTPs. Methods: cDNA for Mal d 3 and

  7. Changes in protein expression during honey bee larval development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Queenie WT Chan; Leonard J Foster

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The honey bee (Apis mellifera), besides its role in pollination and honey production, serves as a model for studying the biochemistry of development, metabolism, and immunity in a social organism. Here we use mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to quantify nearly 800 proteins during the 5- to 6-day larval developmental stage, tracking their expression profiles. RESULTS: We report that honey

  8. Directed evolution of proteins for heterologous expression and stability

    E-print Network

    Tawfik, Dan S.

    to achieve the efficient heterologous expression of proteins in Escherichia coli and yeast by increasing by the introduction of mutations with small yet cumulative stabilizing effects [8­11]. It is largely unknown, however, such as stability and performance under different con- ditions (e.g. at extreme temperatures and pH, and in organic

  9. Computational codon optimization of synthetic gene for protein expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The construction of customized nucleic acid sequences allows us to have greater flexibility in gene design for recombinant protein expression. Among the various parameters considered for such DNA sequence design, individual codon usage (ICU) has been implicated as one of the most crucial factors affecting mRNA translational efficiency. However, previous works have also reported the significant influence of codon pair usage, also known as codon context (CC), on the level of protein expression. Results In this study, we have developed novel computational procedures for evaluating the relative importance of optimizing ICU and CC for enhancing protein expression. By formulating appropriate mathematical expressions to quantify the ICU and CC fitness of a coding sequence, optimization procedures based on genetic algorithm were employed to maximize its ICU and/or CC fitness. Surprisingly, the in silico validation of the resultant optimized DNA sequences for Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that CC is a more relevant design criterion than the commonly considered ICU. Conclusions The proposed CC optimization framework can complement and enhance the capabilities of current gene design tools, with potential applications to heterologous protein production and even vaccine development in synthetic biotechnology. PMID:23083100

  10. Heterologous protein expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Lin Cereghino; James M. Cregg

    2000-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has developed into a highly successful system for the production of a variety of heterologous proteins. The increasing popularity of this particular expression system can be attributed to several factors, most importantly: (1) the simplicity of techniques needed for the molecular genetic manipulation of P. pastoris and their similarity to

  11. Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Chemotactic Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Chemotactic Proteins Hung-Yueh Yeh*, Kelli L. Hiett, John E. Line, Brian B. Oakley and Bruce S. Seal, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, Uni...

  12. VIRAL HEPATITIS Expression of Paramyxovirus V Proteins Promotes

    E-print Network

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Expression of Paramyxovirus V Proteins Promotes Replication and Spread of Hepatitis with laboratory strains of hepatitis C virus (HCV), although levels of virus replication vary significantly spreads in its natural host cell population. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;54:1901-1912) A cute hepatitis C virus (HCV

  13. Quorum-sensing Salmonella selectively trigger protein expression within tumors.

    PubMed

    Swofford, Charles A; Van Dessel, Nele; Forbes, Neil S

    2015-03-17

    Salmonella that secrete anticancer proteins have the potential to eliminate tumors, but nonspecific expression causes damage to healthy tissue. We hypothesize that Salmonella, integrated with a density-dependent switch, would only express proteins in tightly packed colonies within tumors. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the lux quorum-sensing (QS) system and a GFP reporter into nonpathogenic Salmonella. Fluorescence and bacterial density were measured in culture and in a tumor-on-a-chip device to determine the critical density necessary to initiate expression. QS Salmonella were injected into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice to quantify GFP expression in vivo using immunofluorescence. At densities below 0.6 × 10(10) cfu/g in tumors, less than 3% of QS Salmonella expressed GFP. Above densities of 4.2 × 10(10) cfu/g, QS Salmonella had similar expression levels to constitutive controls. GFP expression by QS colonies was dependent upon the distance to neighboring bacteria. No colonies expressed GFP when the average distance to neighbors was greater than 155 µm. Calculations of autoinducer concentrations showed that expression was sigmoidally dependent on density and inversely dependent on average radial distance. Based on bacterial counts from excised tissue, the liver density (0.0079 × 10(10) cfu/g) was less than the critical density (0.11 × 10(10) cfu/g) necessary to initiate expression. QS Salmonella are a promising tool for cancer treatment that will target drugs to tumors while preventing damage to healthy tissue. PMID:25737556

  14. SAMHD1's protein expression profile in humans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sarah; Schenkova, Kristina; Adam, Tarek; Erikson, Elina; Lehmann-Koch, Judith; Sertel, Serkan; Verhasselt, Bruno; Fackler, Oliver T; Lasitschka, Felix; Keppler, Oliver T

    2015-07-01

    The deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase and 3' ? 5' exonuclease SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection in noncycling hematopoietic cells in vitro, and SAMHD1 mutations are associated with AGS. Little is known about the in vivo expression and functional regulation of this cellular factor. Here, we first assessed the SAMHD1 protein expression profile on a microarray of 25 human tissues from >210 donors and in purified primary cell populations. In vivo, SAMHD1 was expressed in the majority of nucleated cells of hematopoietic origin, including tissue-resident macrophages, DCs, pDCs, all developmental stages of thymic T cells, monocytes, NK cells, as well as at lower levels in B cells. Of note, SAMHD1 was abundantly expressed in HIV target cells residing in the anogenital mucosa, providing a basis for its evaluation as a cellular factor that may impact the efficiency of HIV transmission. Next, we examined the effect of the activation status and proinflammatory cytokine treatment of cells on expression and phosphorylation of SAMHD1. Activated, HIV-susceptible CD4(+) T cells carried pSAMHD1(T592), whereas resting CD4(+) T cells and macrophages expressed the unphosphorylated protein with HIV-restrictive activity. Surprisingly, stimulation of these primary cells with IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18, IL-27, or TNF-? affected neither SAMHD1 expression levels nor threonine 592 phosphorylation. Only IL-1? moderately down-regulated SAMHD1 in activated CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, this study establishes the first cross-sectional protein expression profile of SAMHD1 in human tissues and provides insight into its cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and unresponsiveness to multiple proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:25646359

  15. Optimization of Translation Profiles Enhances Protein Expression and Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Anne-Katrin; Saffert, Paul; Liebeton, Klaus; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    mRNA is translated with a non-uniform speed that actively coordinates co-translational folding of protein domains. Using structure-based homology we identified the structural domains in epoxide hydrolases (EHs) and introduced slow-translating codons to delineate the translation of single domains. These changes in translation speed dramatically improved the solubility of two EHs of metagenomic origin in Escherichia coli. Conversely, the importance of transient attenuation for the folding, and consequently solubility, of EH was evidenced with a member of the EH family from Agrobacterium radiobacter, which partitions in the soluble fraction when expressed in E. coli. Synonymous substitutions of codons shaping the slow-transiting regions to fast-translating codons render this protein insoluble. Furthermore, we show that low protein yield can be enhanced by decreasing the free folding energy of the initial 5’-coding region, which can disrupt mRNA secondary structure and enhance ribosomal loading. This study provides direct experimental evidence that mRNA is not a mere messenger for translation of codons into amino acids but bears an additional layer of information for folding, solubility and expression level of the encoded protein. Furthermore, it provides a general frame on how to modulate and fine-tune gene expression of a target protein. PMID:25965266

  16. The expression of redox proteins in phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sewha; Kim, Do Hee; Jung, Woo Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between the expression of redox-related proteins which regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the histologic factors in phyllodes tumor (PT). We used tissue microarrays to analyze 193 PTs and performed immunohistochemical staining against five redox-related proteins including catalase, thioredoxin reductase (TxNR), glutathione S-transferase ? (GST ?), thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). We then compared the immunohistochemical results and histologic parameters. The 193 PTs were classified as benign (n = 145, 75.1 %), borderline (n = 33, 17.1 %), and malignant (n = 15, 7.8 %). With worsening histologic grade, the expression of catalase, TxNR, TxNIP, and MnSOD in the stromal component increased (P < 0.001), and GST ? and MnSOD expression in the epithelial component increased (P = 0.014, and 0.038). Significant associations were found between the expression of catalse-TxNR, catalase-TxNIP, catalase-MnSOD, TxNR-TxNIP, TxNR-MnSOD, and TxNIP-MnSOD in both the epithelial and stromal components (P < 0.05). This study confirmed that the stromal expression of catalase, TxNR, TxNIP, and MnSOD increased with worsening histologic grade in PT, reflecting the change in ROS production during the malignant transformation of PT. PMID:24068538

  17. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance; (Accel. Tech.); (deCODE)

    2009-12-01

    With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  18. Expression and Purification of Z Protein from Junín Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gońi, S. E.; Borio, C. S.; Romano, F. B.; Rota, R. P.; Pilloff, M. G.; Iserte, J. A.; Tortorici, M. A.; Stephan, B. I.; Bilen, M. F.; Ghiringhelli, P. D.; Lozano, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Arenaviridae comprises 23 recognized virus species with a bipartite ssRNA genome and an ambisense coding strategy. The virions are enveloped and include nonequimolar amounts of each genomic RNA species, designated L and S, coding for four ORFs (N, GPC, L, and Z). The arenavirus Junín (JUNV) is the etiological agent of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever, an acute disease with high mortality rate. It has been proposed that Z is the functional counterpart of the matrix proteins found in other negative-stranded enveloped RNA viruses. Here we report the optimized expression of a synthetic gene of Z protein, using three expression systems (two bacterial and a baculoviral one). One of these recombinant proteins was used to generate antibodies. A bioinformatic analysis was made where Z was subdivided into three domains. The data presented contributes methodologies for Z recombinant production and provides the basis for the development of new experiments to test its function. PMID:20652066

  19. Expression of human proteins at the Southeast Collaboratory for Structural Genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Mayer; Tamara A. Dailey; Clay M. Baucom; Jill L. Supernak; Michael C. Grady; Harris E. Hawk; Harry A. Dailey

    2004-01-01

    The human protein production group at the Southeast Collaboratory for Structural Genomics is charged with producing human proteins for both X-ray crystallography and NMR structural studies. Eukaryotic, and human proteins in particular, are notoriously difficult to express in bacterial systems. For various reasons, T7-based expression often results in protein expressed in an insoluble form. Overcoming this requires either introduction of

  20. Simplifying protein expression with ligation-free, traceless and tag-switching Venuka Durani a

    E-print Network

    Magliery, Thomas J.

    Available online 21 June 2012 Keywords: Plasmid Protein expression Co-expression Protease cleavage Ligation proteins and production of fusion proteins with purifica- tion and solubility tags are often desirableReview Simplifying protein expression with ligation-free, traceless and tag-switching plasmids

  1. G-protein coupled receptor expression patterns delineate medulloblastoma subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Genetic profiling has identified four principle tumor subgroups; each subgroup is characterized by different initiating mutations, genetic and clinical profiles, and prognoses. The two most well-defined subgroups are caused by overactive signaling in the WNT and SHH mitogenic pathways; less is understood about Groups 3 and 4 medulloblastoma. Identification of tumor subgroup using molecular classification is set to become an important component of medulloblastoma diagnosis and staging, and will likely guide therapeutic options. However, thus far, few druggable targets have emerged. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess characteristics that make them ideal targets for molecular imaging and therapeutics; drugs targeting GPCRs account for 30-40% of all current pharmaceuticals. While expression patterns of many proteins in human medulloblastoma subgroups have been discerned, the expression pattern of GPCRs in medulloblastoma has not been investigated. We hypothesized that analysis of GPCR expression would identify clear subsets of medulloblastoma and suggest distinct GPCRs that might serve as molecular targets for both imaging and therapy. Results Our study found that medulloblastoma tumors fall into distinct clusters based solely on GPCR expression patterns. Normal cerebellum clustered separately from the tumor samples. Further, two of the tumor clusters correspond with high fidelity to the WNT and SHH subgroups of medulloblastoma. Distinct over-expressed GPCRs emerge; for example, LGR5 and GPR64 are significantly and uniquely over-expressed in the WNT subgroup of tumors, while PTGER4 is over-expressed in the SHH subgroup. Uniquely under-expressed GPCRs were also observed. Our key findings were independently validated using a large international dataset. Conclusions Our results identify GPCRs with potential to act as imaging and therapeutic targets. Elucidating tumorigenic pathways is a secondary benefit to identifying differential GPCR expression patterns in medulloblastoma tumors. PMID:24252460

  2. Calcium-binding S100 protein expression in pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Riau, Andri K.; Wong, Tina T.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Pterygium is an ocular surface disease of unknown etiology associated with epithelial and fibrovascular outgrowth from the conjunctiva onto the cornea. S100 proteins are calcium-activated signaling proteins that interact with other proteins to modulate biological functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of various S100 proteins in pterygium compared to normal conjunctiva. Methods Immunofluorescent staining using antibodies against S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A11 were conducted to investigate the expression and tissue distribution. S100 protein secretions and expressions were confirmed using western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Results Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated the presence of S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A11 in both conjunctival and pterygial epithelium. No significant difference was found in the localization and expression of S100A4. In both conjunctiva and pterygium, S100A4-positive cells were found in superficial and suprabasal layers. S100A6 expression was strong in the superficial layer of pterygium epithelium but relatively weaker in the suprabasal and superficial cells of normal conjunctiva epithelium. S100A8 and S100A9 were localized in the superficial layer of both pterygium and normal conjunctiva epithelium, with higher levels in pterygium than uninvolved conjunctiva. S100A11 was expressed in the basal cells of conjunctival epithelium but in the suprabasal layers of pterygium epithelium. Western blot and RT–PCR confirmed the presence of S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A11 in pterygium and conjunctiva tissue. Conclusions Higher levels of S100A6, S100A8, and S100A9 expressions were detected in the pterygium tissue relative to normal conjunctiva. In addition, a distinct alteration of localization of S100A11 expression was observed in pterygium epithelium compared to the conjunctiva. Therefore, these S100 proteins may be associated with the formation of pterygium. PMID:19223989

  3. Stepwise optimization of a low-temperature Bacillus subtilis expression system for "difficult to express" proteins.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Norma; Homuth, Georg; Schweder, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the overproduction of "difficult to express" proteins, a low-temperature expression system for Bacillus subtilis based on the cold-inducible promoter of the desaturase-encoding des gene was constructed. Selected regulatory DNA sequence elements from B. subtilis genes known to be cold-inducible were fused to different model genes. It could be demonstrated that these regulatory elements are able to mediate increased heterologous gene expression, either by improved translation efficiency or by higher messenger RNA (mRNA) stability. In case of a cold-adapted ?-galactosidase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE79A serving as the model, significantly higher expression was achieved by fusing its coding sequence to the so-called "downstream box" sequence of cspB encoding the major B. subtilis cold-shock protein. The combination of this fusion with a cspB 5'-UTR stem-loop structure resulted in further enhancement of the ?-galactosidase expression. In addition, integration of the transcription terminator of the B. subtilis cold-inducible bkd operon downstream of the target genes caused a higher mRNA stability and enabled thus a further significant increase in expression. Finally, the fully optimized expression system was validated by overproducing a B. subtilis xylanase as well as an ?-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the latter known for tending to form inclusion bodies. These analyses verified the applicability of the engineered expression system for extracellular and intracellular protein synthesis in B. subtilis, thereby confirming the suitability of this host organism for the overproduction of critical, poorly soluble proteins. PMID:25851716

  4. Comparison of Expression Vectors for Transient Expression of Recombinant Proteins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kausar Hussain; Almaghrabi, Bachar; Bohlmann, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in plants is of increasing importance for practical applications. However, the production of stable transformed transgenic plants is a lengthy procedure. Transient expression, on the other hand, can deliver recombinant proteins within a week, and many viral vectors have been constructed for that purpose. Each of them is reported to be highly efficient, robust and cost-effective. Here, a variety of expression vectors which were designed for transient and stable plant transformation, including pPZP3425, pPZP5025, pPZPTRBO, pJLTRBO, pEAQ-HT and pBY030-2R, was compared for the expression of green fluorescent protein and ?-glucuronidase in Nicotiana benthamiana by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. Our results show that pPZPTRBO, pJLTRBO and pEAQ-HT had comparable expression levels without co-infiltration of a RNA-silencing inhibitor. The other vectors, including the non-viral vectors pPZP5025 and pPZP3425, needed co-infiltration of the RNA-silencing inhibitor P19 to give good expression levels. PMID:24415845

  5. Do Bovine Lymphocytes Express a Peculiar Prion Protein?

    PubMed Central

    Mélot, France; Thielen, Caroline; Labiet, Thouraya; Eisher, Sabine; Jolois, Olivier; Heinen, Ernst; Antoine, Nadine

    2002-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycolipid-anchored cell surface protein that usually exhibits three glycosylation states. Its post-translationally modified isoform, PrPsc, is involved in the pathogenesis of various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In bovine species, BSE infectivity appears to be restricted to the central nervous system; few or no detectable infectivity is found in lymphoid tissues in contrast to scrapie or variant CJD. Since expression of PrPc is a prerequisite for prion replication, we have investigated PrPc expression by bovine immune cells. Lymphocytes from blood and five different lymph organs were isolated from the same animal to assess intra- and interindividual variability of PrPc expression, considering six individuals. As shown by flow cytometry, this expression is absent or weak on granulocytes but is measurable on monocytes, B and T cells from blood and lymph organs. The activation of the bovine cells produces an upregulation of PrPc. The results of our in vitro study of PrPc biosynthesis are consistent with previous studies in other species. Interestingly, western blotting experiments showed only one form of the protein, the diglycosylated band. We propose that the glycosylation state could explain the lack of infectivity of the bovine immune cells. PMID:15144021

  6. Transcription factor activating protein-2beta: a positive regulator of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Motoyuki; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Obata, Toshiyuki; Ugi, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Morino, Katsutaro; Nakai, Yukie; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Maeda, Shiro; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2009-04-01

    We previously reported an association between the activating protein (AP)-2beta transcription factor gene and type 2 diabetes. This gene is preferentially expressed in adipose tissue, and subjects with a disease-susceptible allele of AP-2beta showed stronger AP-2beta expression in adipose tissue than those without the susceptible allele. Furthermore, overexpression of AP-2beta leads to lipid accumulation by enhancing glucose transport and inducing insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In this study, we found that overexpression of AP-2beta in 3T3-L1 adipocytes accelerated the promoter activity of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and subsequently increased both mRNA and protein expression and protein secretion. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous AP-2beta by RNA interference reduced the mRNA and the protein expression of MCP-1. EMSAs and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed specific binding of AP-2beta to MCP-1 promoter regions, in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, site-directed mutagenesis of the AP-2 binding site located at -137 to -129 relative to the transcription start site markedly diminished MCP-1 promoter activity, whereas other putative AP-2 binding sites did not. Our results clearly show that AP-2beta directly enhanced MCP-1 secretion by binding to its promoter. Thus, we propose that AP-2beta positively regulates MCP-1 expression; subsequently contributes to the infiltration of macrophages to adipose tissue; and leads to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19022887

  7. Astragaloside ? reduces the expression level of P-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant human hepatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Xu, Du-Juan; Huang, Can; Wang, Wei-Ping; Xu, Wen-Ke

    2014-06-01

    Astragaloside is a saponin widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and has been reported to be a potent multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent. The present study investigated the role of astragaloside ? (ASIV) in the regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by the mdr1 gene) and its effect on the reversal of MDR. The activity of ASIV was evaluated using human hepatic cancer cells Bel-7402 and the corresponding 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant cells Bel-7402/FU. ASIV (0.08 mg/ml) potentiated the cytotoxicity of 5-FU which was demonstrated using the MTT assay on Bel-7402/FU cells. ASIV reduced the expression of P-gp as was revealed by immunocytochemistry. Accumulation and efflux studies with the P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 (Rh123), demonstrated that ASIV inhibited P-gp-mediated drug efflux. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that AS? enhanced the drug accumulation of 5-FU using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for drug resistant cells. Furthermore, ASIV may downregulate the expression of P-gp, which was examined using western blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that ASIV reverses the drug resistance of Bel-7402/FU cells by downregulating the expression of mdr1. ASIV may represent a potent modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR in hepatic cancer therapy. PMID:24676670

  8. Germ line specific expression of a protein phosphatase Y interacting protein (PPYR1) in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kókai, Endre; Szuperák, Milán; Alphey, Luke; Gausz, János; Adám, Géza; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2006-10-01

    PPYR1, the product of the CG15031 gene, was identified as a protein phosphatase Y (PPY) interacting protein in Drosophila melanogaster using a yeast two-hybrid screen. PPYR1 displays a biphasic expression pattern: the maternal protein is abundant in the developing egg chambers and in the early embryos, while the zygotic protein appears later in development and is localized specifically in the testes of the males. The maternal and zygotic gene products differ from each other in their size having apparent molecular masses of 47 and 66 kDa, respectively. The maternal PPYR1 is localized in the cytoplasm of the follicular and nurse cells and is deposited as a ribonucleoprotein complex in the oocyte. In the early embryos, the PPYR1 is distributed evenly, and it gradually diminishes during embryonic development. Zygotic PPYR1 is expressed exclusively in the testes, predominantly in the cytoplasm of the spermatocytes. PPY is localized in the nuclei of the same cells. Our results suggest that PPYR1 has two distinct developmental isoforms: a maternal protein the expression of which is independent of PPY and a zygotic protein which is co-expressed with PPY. PMID:16530491

  9. Expression and purification of a truncated recombinant streptococcal protein G.

    PubMed Central

    Goward, C R; Murphy, J P; Atkinson, T; Barstow, D A

    1990-01-01

    The gene for Protein G from Streptococcus strain G148 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The regions on the gene corresponding to the albumin-binding domains and the Fab-binding region were then deleted by site-directed mutagenesis. The translation of regions corresponding to the cell-wall- and membrane-binding domains was prevented by introduction of stop codons upstream of these domains. This recombinant DNA sequence codes for a protein (G') that contains repetitive regions and that binds only the Fc portion of IgG, analogously to Protein A. Translation of the sequence produces a protein with an Mr of about 20,000. The nucleotide sequence differs from those published previously [Guss, Eliasson, Olsson, Uhlén, Frej, Jornvall, Flock & Lindberg (1986) EMBO J. 5, 1567-1575; Olsson, Eliasson, Guss, Nilsson, Hellman, Lindberg & Uhlén (1987) Eur. J. Biochem. 168, 319-324]. The protein can be substantially purified on a large scale by chromatography on IgG-Sepharose 4B. Homogeneous Protein G' can be prepared by anion-exchange f.p.l.c. on Mono Q HR. This Protein G' has a pI of 4.19 and SDS/PAGE gives an apparent anomalous Mr of 35,000. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2183792

  10. A role for P-glycoprotein in regulating cell growth and survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid A Ruefli; Ricky W Johnstone

    2003-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent drug efflux protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is a major obstacle to the successful treatment of cancer. P-gp is expressed in many types of cancers and the clinical success of chemotherapeutic treatment often correlates inversely with the level of P-gp expression. P-gp is a 170–180 kD cell-surface transporter protein and has historically been

  11. Cooperative working of bacterial chromosome replication proteins generated by a reconstituted protein expression system

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kei; Katayama, Tsutomu; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.

    2013-01-01

    Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription–translation–replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a reconstituted transcription–translation system (PURE system). We found that low temperature is essential to express a complex protein, DNA polymerase III, in a single tube using the PURE system. Addition of the 13 genes, encoding initiator, DNA helicase, helicase loader, RNA primase and DNA polymerase III to the PURE system gave rise to a DNA replication system by a coupling manner. An artificial genetic circuit demonstrated that the DNA produced as a result of the replication is able to provide genetic information for proteins, indicating the in vitro central dogma can sequentially undergo two rounds. PMID:23737447

  12. Disposable bioreactors for inoculum production and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Regine; Löffelholz, Christian; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Disposable bioreactors have been increasingly implemented over the past ten years. This relates to both R & D and commercial manufacture, in particular, in animal cell-based processes. Among the numerous disposable bioreactors which are available today, wave-mixed bag bioreactors and stirred bioreactors are predominant. Whereas wave-mixed bag bioreactors represent the system of choice for inoculum production, stirred systems are often preferred for protein expression. For this reason, the authors present protocols instructing the reader how to use the wave-mixed BIOSTAT CultiBag RM 20 L for inoculum production and the stirred UniVessel SU 2 L for recombinant protein production at benchtop scale. All methods described are based on a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) suspension cell line expressing the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP). PMID:24297422

  13. Splice Isoforms of Phosducin-like Protein Control the Expression of Heterotrimeric G Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueli; Sinha, Satyabrata; Belcastro, Marycharmain; Woodard, Catherine; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan; Stoilov, Peter; Sokolov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins play an essential role in cellular signaling; however, the mechanism regulating their synthesis and assembly remains poorly understood. A line of evidence indicates that the posttranslational processing of G protein ? subunits begins inside the protein-folding chamber of the chaperonin containing t-complex protein 1. This process is facilitated by the ubiquitously expressed phosducin-like protein (PhLP), which is thought to act as a CCT co-factor. Here we demonstrate that alternative splicing of the PhLP gene gives rise to a transcript encoding a truncated, short protein (PhLPs) that is broadly expressed in human tissues but absent in mice. Seeking to elucidate the function of PhLPs, we expressed this protein in the rod photoreceptors of mice and found that this manipulation caused a dramatic translational and posttranslational suppression of rod heterotrimeric G proteins. The investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that PhLPs disrupts the folding of G? and the assembly of G? and G? subunits, events normally assisted by PhLP, by forming a stable and apparently inactive tertiary complex with CCT preloaded with nascent G?. As a result, the cellular levels of G? and G?, which depends on G? for stability, decline. In addition, PhLPs evokes a profound and rather specific down-regulation of the G? transcript, leading to a complete disappearance of the protein. This study provides the first evidence of a generic mechanism, whereby the splicing of the PhLP gene could potentially and efficiently regulate the cellular levels of heterotrimeric G proteins. PMID:23888055

  14. Oleosin fusion expression systems for the production of recombinant proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Ling

    2007-01-01

    For the production of recombinant proteins, product purification is potentially difficult and expensive. Plant oleosins are\\u000a capable of anchoring onto the surface of natural or artificial oil bodies. The oleosin fusion expression systems allow products\\u000a to be extracted with oil bodies. In vivo, oleosin fusions are produced and directly localized to natural oil bodies in transgenic plant seeds. Via the

  15. Expression of rabies virus G protein in carrots ( Daucus carota )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith Rojas-Anaya; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Maria Teresa Olivera-Flores; Miguel Gomez-Lim

    2009-01-01

    Antigens derived from various pathogens can readily be synthesized at high levels in plants in their authentic forms. Such\\u000a antigens administered orally can induce an immune response and, in some cases, result in protection against a subsequent challenge.\\u000a We here report the expression of rabies virus G protein into carrots. The G gene was subcloned into the pUCpSSrabG vector\\u000a and

  16. Human Meissner corpuscles express Bcl2 but not Bax protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José A Ortiz-Rey; Carlos Álvarez-Álvarez; Iosu Antón-Badiola; Pilar San Miguel-Fraile; Ana De la Fuente-Buceta

    2002-01-01

    Bcl-2 and Bax proteins play major roles in the control of apoptosis. The Bcl-2\\/Bax ratio is considered a marker of a cell's susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli. Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in Meissner corpuscles was investigated in 30 human skin samples. All of the Meissner corpuscles showed immunoreactivity for Bcl-2 and Bax was negative. These data support a role

  17. Construction of a dual-tag system for gene expression, protein affinity purification and fusion protein processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Motejadded; Josef Altenbuchner

    2009-01-01

    An E. coli vector system was constructed which allows the expression of fusion genes via a l-rhamnose-inducible promotor. The corresponding fusion proteins consist of the maltose-binding protein and a His-tag sequence\\u000a for affinity purification, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Smt3 protein for protein processing by proteolytic cleavage and the protein of interest. The Smt3 gene was codon-optimized\\u000a for expression in E. coli.

  18. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? regulates glial proinflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Valente, Tony; Straccia, Marco; Gresa-Arribas, Nuria; Dentesano, Guido; Tusell, Josep M; Serratosa, Joan; Mancera, Pilar; Solŕ, Carme; Saura, Josep

    2013-09-01

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is expressed in activated astrocytes and microglia and can regulate the expression of potentially detrimental proinflammatory genes. The objective of this study was to determine the role of C/EBP? in glial activation. To this end, glial activation was analyzed in primary glial cultures and in the central nervous system from wild type and C/EBP?(-/-) mice. In vitro studies showed that the expression of proinflammatory genes nitric oxide (NO)synthase-2, cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 in glial cultures, and the neurotoxicity elicited by microglia in neuron-microglia cocultures, were decreased in the absence of C/EBP? when cultures were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon ?, but not with LPS alone. In C/EBP?(-/-) mice, systemic LPS-induced brain expression of NO synthase-2, tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 was attenuated. Finally, increased C/EBP? nuclear expression was observed in microglial cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and G93A-SOD1 mice spinal cord. These results demonstrate that C/EBP? plays a key role in the regulation of proinflammatory gene expression in glial activation and suggest that C/EBP? inhibition has potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23523267

  19. A Plasmodium Falciparum Bromodomain Protein Regulates Invasion Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Josling, Gabrielle A; Petter, Michaela; Oehring, Sophie C; Gupta, Archna P; Dietz, Olivier; Wilson, Danny W; Schubert, Thomas; Längst, Gernot; Gilson, Paul R; Crabb, Brendan S; Moes, Suzette; Jenoe, Paul; Lim, Shu Wei; Brown, Graham V; Bozdech, Zbynek; Voss, Till S; Duffy, Michael F

    2015-06-10

    During red-blood-cell-stage infection of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite undergoes repeated rounds of replication, egress, and invasion. Erythrocyte invasion involves specific interactions between host cell receptors and parasite ligands and coordinated expression of genes specific to this step of the life cycle. We show that a parasite-specific bromodomain protein, PfBDP1, binds to chromatin at transcriptional start sites of invasion-related genes and directly controls their expression. Conditional PfBDP1 knockdown causes a dramatic defect in parasite invasion and growth and results in transcriptional downregulation of multiple invasion-related genes at a time point critical for invasion. Conversely, PfBDP1 overexpression enhances expression of these same invasion-related genes. PfBDP1 binds to acetylated histone H3 and a second bromodomain protein, PfBDP2, suggesting a potential mechanism for gene recognition and control. Collectively, these findings show that PfBDP1 critically coordinates expression of invasion genes and indicate that targeting PfBDP1 could be an invaluable tool in malaria eradication. PMID:26067602

  20. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in ovarian cancer using high-density protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Michael E; Pozdnyakova, Irina; Haines, Kenneth; Mor, Gil; Snyder, Michael

    2007-10-30

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of deaths, yet many aspects of the biology of the disease and a routine means of its detection are lacking. We have used protein microarrays and autoantibodies from cancer patients to identify proteins that are aberrantly expressed in ovarian tissue. Sera from 30 cancer patients and 30 healthy individuals were used to probe microarrays containing 5,005 human proteins. Ninety-four antigens were identified that exhibited enhanced reactivity from sera in cancer patients relative to control sera. The differential reactivity of four antigens was tested by using immunoblot analysis and tissue microarrays. Lamin A/C, SSRP1, and RALBP1 were found to exhibit increased expression in the cancer tissue relative to controls. The combined signals from multiple antigens proved to be a robust test to identify cancerous ovarian tissue. These antigens were also reactive with tissue from other types of cancer and thus are not specific to ovarian cancer. Overall our studies identified candidate tissue marker proteins for ovarian cancer and demonstrate that protein microarrays provide a powerful approach to identify proteins aberrantly expressed in disease states. PMID:17954908

  1. The co-delivery of a low-dose P-glycoprotein inhibitor with doxorubicin sterically stabilized liposomes against breast cancer with low P-glycoprotein expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Lin, Zhiqiang; Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Xiucong; Cui, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaofei; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors are usually used to treat tumors that overexpress P-gps. However, most common types of breast cancers, such as Luminal A, are low-P-gp expressing, at least during the initial phases of treatment. Therefore, it would be interesting to know if P-gp inhibitors are still useful in treating low-P-gp-expressing tumors. Methods In the study reported here, the human breast-cancer cell line MCF-7, chosen as a model of Luminal A, was found to be low-P-gp expressing. We designed a novel doxorubicin (DOX) sterically stabilized liposome system co-loaded with the low-dose P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) (DOX/CsA/SSL). Results The co-delivery system showed good size uniformity, high encapsulation efficiency, and a desirable release profile. The cell-uptake and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that CsA could significantly enhance the intracellular accumulation and toxicity of free DOX and the liposomal DOX in MCF-7 cells. The confocal microscopy and in vivo imaging study confirmed the intracellular and in vivo targeting effect of DOX/CsA/SSL, respectively. Finally, the in vivo study proved that DOX/CsA/SSL could achieve significantly better antitumor effect against MCF-7 tumor than controls, without inducing obvious systemic toxicity. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the co-delivery of a low-dose P-gp inhibitor and liposomal DOX could improve the therapy of low-P-gp-expressing cancer, which is of significance in clinical tumor therapy. PMID:25092974

  2. Expression and characterization of a lepidopteran general odorant binding protein.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Prestwich, G D

    1997-05-01

    Olfaction in months involves the transport of volatile, hydrophobic odorant molecules through the aqueous interior of the antennal sensory hairs by soluble odorant binding proteins. Two subfamilies of the 17 kDa general odorant binding proteins, GOBP1 and GOBP2, are 47-57% identical to each other and 21-57% to the pheromone binding proteins (PBPs); identity within a GOBP subfamily exceeds 78% in all lepidopteran species examined. However, the ligands for GOBPs are unknown. In order to investigate odorant specificities of GOBPs, recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli using PCR-prepared expression cassettes based on the cDNA sequences of GOBP1 and GOBP2 from Manduca sexta. Both soluble and insoluble recombinant GOBPs (rGOBPs) were obtained, and the inclusion body GOBPs were solubilized, refolded and purified. The soluble and refolded rGOBPs were purified by preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), gel filtration, and finally by ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Only rGOBP2, but not rGOBP1, was crossreactive with an anti-GOBP2 (Antheraea polyphemus) antiserum. rGOBP2, but not rGOBP1, could be photoaffinity labelled by the diazoacetate pheromone analog [3H]-6E, 11Z, 16:Dza. For rGOBP2, plant odors such as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (3Z-6:OH), geraniol, geranyl acetate, and limonene showed significant competition for binding; binding specificity was sensitive to pH and to salt concentrations. Circular dichroism (CD) confirms that, as with the pheromone binding proteins, GOBP2 is predominantly alpha-helical. Although the characterization of rGOBP1 has resisted analysis, rGOBP2 is readily prepared and studied. We suggest that GOBP2 may be broadly tuned to a class of "green" and floral odors. PMID:9219366

  3. Expression of a human lactoferrin cDNA in tobacco cells produces antibacterial protein(s).

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, A; Zhang, Z

    1994-01-01

    A suspension tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell line was transformed to express human lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein. The transgenic calli produced a protein that was significantly smaller than the full-length lactoferrin protein. Total protein extracts made from transgenic tobacco callus exhibited much higher antibacterial activity than commercially available purified lactoferrin as determined by the decrease of colony-forming units when tested with four phytopathogenic species of bacteria. Introduction of the lactoferrin gene in crop plants may provide resistance against phytopathogenic bacteria. PMID:7824662

  4. Optimizing Escherichia coli as a protein expression platform to produce Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunogenic proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of valuable candidates as tuberculosis vaccine have been reported, some of which have already entered clinical trials. The new vaccines, especially subunit vaccines, need multiple administrations in order to maintain adequate life-long immune memory: this demands for high production levels and degree of purity. Results In this study, TB10.4, Ag85B and a TB10.4-Ag85B chimeric protein (here-after referred as full) - immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis - were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The rational design of expression constructs and optimization of fermentation and purification conditions allowed a marked increase in solubility and yield of the recombinant antigens. Indeed, scaling up of the process guaranteed mass production of all these three antigens (2.5-25 mg of pure protein/L cultivation broth). Quality of produced soluble proteins was evaluated both by mass spectrometry to assess the purity of final preparations, and by circular dichroism spectroscopy to ascertain the protein conformation. Immunological tests of the different protein products demonstrated that when TB10.4 was fused to Ag85B, the chimeric protein was more immunoreactive than either of the immunogenic protein alone. Conclusions We reached the goal of purifying large quantities of soluble antigens effective in generating immunological response against M. tuberculosis by a robust, controlled, scalable and economically feasible production process. PMID:24252280

  5. [Altered intestinal P-glycoprotein expression levels affect pharmacodynamics under diabetic condition].

    PubMed

    Nawa, Ayaka; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Kisioka, Shiroh; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), one of the important drug-efflux pumps, is known to affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of P-gp substrate drugs. We have previously reported that intestinal P-gp expression levels are transiently decreased in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mouse model. Herein, we examined the analgesic effects of orally administered morphine and its pharmacokinetic properties under diabetic conditions, specifically focusing on the involvement of intestinal P-gp in a type 1 diabetic mouse model. Type 1 diabetes was induced in male ddY mice by an i.p. injection of STZ (230 mg/kg). We assessed the oral morphine analgesia using the tail-flick test. Serum and brain morphine content were determined on a HPLC-ECD system. Intestinal P-gp expression levels were significantly decreased on day 9 after STZ administration. On the other hands, oral morphine analgesia, and serum and brain morphine content were significantly increased on day 9 after STZ administration. The decrease in the intestinal P-gp expression levels were suppressed by aminoguanidine, a specific iNOS inhibitor. Interestingly, the increase in the analgesic effect of morphine, as well as serum and brain morphine content, was suppressed by aminoguanidine. Conversely, there was no change in the analgesic effect obtained with subcutaneous morphine in STZ-treated mice. In conclusions, our findings suggest that the oral morphine analgesia is dependent on intestinal P-gp expression, and that may be one of the problems against obtaining stable pharmacological effects of morphine in diabetic patients. PMID:22293693

  6. Bacterial expression and photoaffinity labeling of a pheromone binding protein.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D

    1993-03-01

    The first high-level production of a binding-active odorant binding protein is described. The expression cassette polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a DNA fragment encoding the pheromone binding protein (PBP) of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus. Transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a vector containing this construct generated clones which, when induced with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, produced the 14-kDa PBP in both the soluble fraction and in inclusion bodies. Purification of the soluble recombinant PBP by preparative isoelectric focusing and gel filtration gave > 95% homogeneous protein, which was immunoreactive with an anti-PBP antiserum and exhibited specific, pheromone-displaceable covalent modification by the photoaffinity label [3H]6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl diazoacetate. Recombinant PBP was indistinguishable from the insect-derived PBP, as determined by both native and denaturing gel electrophoresis, immunoreactivity, and photoaffinity labeling properties. Moreover, the insoluble inclusion body protein could be solubilized, refolded, and purified by the same procedures to give a recombinant PBP indistinguishable from the soluble PBP. Proton NMR spectra of the soluble and refolded protein provide further evidence that they possess the same folded structure. PMID:8453379

  7. Concordance of gene expression in human protein complexes reveals tissue specificity

    E-print Network

    Concordance of gene expression in human protein complexes reveals tissue specificity and pathology susceptibility gene's tissue involvement was ranked based on coordinated expression with its interaction partners high concordant expression in biologic- ally relevant tissues. Our method identifies novel gene

  8. Cyclin D1 expression is regulated by the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, H; Lukas, J; Schneider, A; Warthoe, P; Bartek, J; Eilers, M; Strauss, M

    1994-01-01

    The product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene, pRb, acts as a tumor suppressor and loss of its function is involved in the development of various types of cancer. DNA tumor viruses are supposed to disturb the normal regulation of the cell cycle by inactivating pRb. However, a direct function of pRb in regulation of the cell cycle has hitherto not been shown. We demonstrate here that the cell cycle-dependent expression of one of the G1-phase cyclins, cyclin D1, is dependent on the presence of a functional Rb protein. Rb-deficient tumor cell lines as well as cells expressing viral oncoproteins (large tumor antigen of simian virus 40, early region 1A of adenovirus, early region 7 of papillomavirus) have low or barely detectable levels of cyclin D1. Expression of cyclin D1, but not of cyclins A and E, is induced by transfection of the Rb gene into Rb-deficient tumor cells. Cotransfection of a reporter gene under the control of the D1 promoter, together with the Rb gene, into Rb-deficient cell lines demonstrates stimulation of the D1 promoter by Rb, which parallels the stimulation of endogenous cyclin D1 gene expression. Our finding that pRb stimulates expression of a key component of cell cycle control, cyclin D1, suggests the existence of a regulatory loop between pRb and cyclin D1 and extends existing models of tumor suppressor function. Images PMID:8159685

  9. Glycolipid transfer protein expression is affected by glycosphingolipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, Matti A; Mattjus, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Members of the glycolipid transfer protein superfamily (GLTP) are found from animals and fungi to plants and red micro-alga. Eukaryotes that encode the glucosylceramide synthase responsible for the synthesis of glucosylceramide, the precursor for most glycosphingolipids, also produce GLTPs. Cells that does not synthesize glucosylceramide neither express GLTPs. Based on this genetic relationship there must be a strong correlation between the synthesis of glucosylceramide and GLTPs. To regulate the levels of glycolipids we have used inhibitors of intracellular trafficking, glycosphingolipid synthesis and degradation, and small interfering RNA to down-regulate the activity of glucosylceramide synthase activity. We found that GLTP expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, is elevated in cells that accumulate glucosylceramide. Monensin and brefeldin A block intracellular vesicular transport mechanisms. Brefeldin A treatment leads to accumulation of newly synthesized glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide and lactosylceramide in a fused endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex. On the other hand, inhibiting glycosphingolipid degradation with conduritol-B-epoxide, that generates glucosylceramide accumulation in the lysosomes, did not affect the levels of GLTP. However, glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors like PDMP, NB-DNJ and myriocin, all decreased glucosylceramide and GLTP below normal levels. We also found that an 80% loss of glucosylceramide due to glucosylceramide synthase knockdown resulted in a significant reduction in the expression of GLTP. We show here that interfering with membrane trafficking events and simple neutral glycosphingolipid synthesis will affect the expression of GLTP. We postulate that a change in the glucosylceramide balance causes a response in the GLTP expression, and put forward that GLTP might play a role in lipid directing and sensing of glucosylceramide at the ER-Golgi interface. PMID:23894633

  10. Modular Broad-Host-Range Expression Vectors for Single-Protein and Protein Complex Purification

    PubMed Central

    Fodor, Barna D.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Csáki, Róbert; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Klement, Éva; Maróti, Gergely; Mészáros, Lívia S.; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L.

    2004-01-01

    A set of modular broad-host-range expression vectors with various affinity tags (six-His-tag, FLAG-tag, Strep-tag II, T7-tag) was created. The complete nucleotide sequences of the vectors are known, and these small vectors can be mobilized by conjugation. They are useful in the purification of proteins and protein complexes from gram-negative bacterial species. The plasmids were easily customized for Thiocapsa roseopersicina, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Methylococcus capsulatus by inserting an appropriate promoter. These examples demonstrate the versatility and flexibility of the vectors. The constructs harbor the T7 promoter for easy overproduction of the desired protein in an appropriate Escherichia coli host. The vectors were useful in purifying different proteins from T. roseopersicina. The FLAG-tag-Strep-tag II combination was utilized for isolation of the HynL-HypC2 protein complex involved in hydrogenase maturation. These tools should be useful for protein purification and for studying protein-protein interactions in a range of bacterial species. PMID:14766546

  11. Structure and expression of a novel compact myelin protein – Small VCP-interacting protein (SVIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jiawen [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Peng, Dungeng [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Voehler, Markus [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University (United States)] [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University (United States); Sanders, Charles R. [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States) [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University (United States); Li, Jun, E-mail: jun.li.2@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States) [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (TVHS) – Nashville VA (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin. •We determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). •The helical content of SVIP increases dramatically during its interaction with negatively charged lipid membrane. •This study provides structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes. -- Abstract: SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) was initially identified as one of many cofactors regulating the valosin containing protein (VCP), an AAA+ ATPase involved in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Our previous study showed that SVIP is expressed exclusively in the nervous system. In the present study, SVIP and VCP were seen to be co-localized in neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, we also observed that SVIP co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin, where VCP was absent. Furthermore, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements, we determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). However, upon binding to the surface of membranes containing a net negative charge, the helical content of SVIP increases dramatically. These findings provide structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes.

  12. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Expresses Macrophage- and Tick Cell-Specific 28-Kilodalton Outer Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Singu, Vijayakrishna; Liu, Haijie; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Roman R.

    2005-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis, a tick-transmitted rickettsial agent, causes human monocyte/macrophage-tropic ehrlichiosis. In this study, proteomic approaches were used to demonstrate host cell-specific antigenic expression by E. chaffeensis. The differentially expressed antigens include those from the 28-kDa outer membrane protein (p28-Omp) multigene locus. The proteins expressed in infected macrophages are the products of p28-Omp19 and p28-Omp20 genes, whereas in tick cells, the protein expressed is the p28-Omp14 gene product. The differentially expressed proteins are posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation and glycosylation to generate multiple expressed forms. Host cell-specific protein expression is not influenced by growth temperatures and is reversible. Host cell-specific protein expression coupled with posttranslational modifications may be a hallmark for the pathogen's adaptation to a dual-host life cycle and its persistence. PMID:15618143

  13. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Expressing Cry1 Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef Bartsch; Yann Devos; Rosie Hails; Jozsef Kiss; Paul Henning Krogh; Sylvie Mestdagh; Marco Nuti; Angela Sessitsch; Jeremy Sweet; Achim Gathmann

    \\u000a \\u000a For more than a decade, genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (‘Bt’) that encode lepidopteran-specific protein toxins (Cry1Ab and\\u000a Cry1F) have been engineered into maize for protection against lepidopteran pests. An extensive body of research data and environmental\\u000a risk assessments (ERA) has been assembled on the potential environmental impact of Cry1 expressing maize. The available literature\\u000a so far suggests only minor environmental

  14. Chemical synthesis and expression of the HIV-1 Rev protein.

    PubMed

    Siman, Peter; Blatt, Ofrah; Moyal, Tal; Danieli, Tsafi; Lebendiker, Mario; Lashuel, Hilal A; Friedler, Assaf; Brik, Ashraf

    2011-05-01

    The HIV-1 Rev protein is responsible for shuttling partially spliced and unspliced viral mRNA out of the nucleus. This is a crucial step in the HIV-1 lifecycle, thus making Rev an attractive target for the design of anti-HIV drugs. Despite its importance, there is a lack of structural, biophysical, and quantitative information about Rev. This is mainly because of its tendency to undergo self-assembly and aggregation; this makes it very difficult to express and handle. To address this knowledge gap, we have developed two new highly efficient and reproducible methods to prepare Rev in large quantities for biochemical and structural studies: 1) Chemical synthesis by using native chemical ligation coupled with desulfurization. Notably, we have optimized our synthesis to allow for a one-pot approach for the ligation and desulfurization steps; this reduced the number of purification steps and enabled the obtaining of desired protein in excellent yield. Several challenges emerged during the design of this Rev synthesis, such as racemization, reduced solubility, formylation during thioester synthesis, and the necessity for using orthogonal protection during desulfurization; solutions to these problems were found. 2) A new method for expression and purification by using a vector that contained an HLT tag, followed by purification with a Ni column, a cation exchange column, and gel filtration. Both methods yielded highly pure and folded Rev. The CD spectra of the synthetic and recombinant Rev proteins were identical, and consistent with a predominantly helical structure. These advances should facilitate future studies that aim at a better understanding of the structure and function of the protein. PMID:21488138

  15. Evaluation of photodynamic therapy in adhesion protein expression

    PubMed Central

    PACHECO-SOARES, CRISTINA; MAFTOU-COSTA, MAIRA; DA CUNHA MENEZES COSTA, CAROLINA GENÚNCIO; DE SIQUEIRA SILVA, ANDREZA CRISTINA; MORAES, KAREN C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that has clinical applications in both non-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases. PDT involves a light-sensitive compound (photosensitizer), light and molecular oxygen. This procedure may lead to several different cellular responses, including cell death. Alterations in the attachment of cancer cells to the substratum and to each other are important consequences of photodynamic treatment. PDT may lead to changes in the expression of cellular adhesion structure and cytoskeleton integrity, which are key factors in decreasing tumor metastatic potential. HEp-2 cells were photosensitized with aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and zinc phthalocyanine, and the proteins ?1-integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assayed using fluorescence microscopy. The verification of expression changes in the genes for FAK and ?1 integrin were performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that HEp-2 cells do not express ?-integrin or FAK 12 h following PDT. It was concluded that the PDT reduces the adhesive ability of HEp-2 cells, inhibiting their metastatic potential. The present study aimed to analyze the changes in the expression and organization of cellular adhesion elements and the subsequent metastatic potential of HEp-2 cells following PDT treatment. PMID:25013490

  16. Modulation of multidrug resistance 1 expression and function in retinoblastoma cells by curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Seethalakshmi; Ravichandran, Sathyabaarathi; Vetrivel, Umashankar; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the possible interaction of curcumin with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function by in vitro and in silico studies. Materials and Methods: In this study, curcumin was compared for its potential to modulate the expression and function of P-gp in Y79 RB cells by western blot, RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and functional assay. Further, in silico molecular modeling and docking simulations were performed to deduce the inhibitory binding mode of curcumin. Results: Western blot and RT-PCR analysis decreased the expression of P-gp in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of curcumin on P-gp function was demonstrated by Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation and efflux study. Curcumin increased the accumulation of Rh123 and decreased its efflux in retinoblastoma (RB) cells. In addition, curcumin inhibited verapamil stimulated ATPase activity and photoaffinity labeling study showed no effect on the binding of 8-azido-ATP-biotin, indicating its interaction at the substrate binding site. Moreover, molecular docking studies concurrently infer the binding of curcumin into the substrate binding site of P-gp with a binding energy of -7.66 kcal/mol. Conclusion: These findings indicate that curcumin suppresses the MDR1 expression and function, and therefore may be useful as modulators of multidrug resistance in RB tumor. PMID:23761708

  17. Expressed Protein Ligation: A Resourceful Tool to Study Protein Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Berrade, Luis; Camarero, Julio A.

    2013-01-01

    This review outlines the use of expressed protein ligation (EPL) to study protein structure, function and stability. EPL is a chemoselective ligation method that allows the selective ligation of unprotected polypeptides from synthetic and recombinant origin for the production of semi-synthetic protein samples of well-defined and homogeneous chemical composition. This method has been extensively used for the site-specific introduction of biophysical probes, unnatural amino acids, and increasingly complex post-translational modifications. Since it was introduced 10 years ago, EPL applications have grown increasingly more sophisticated in order to address even more complex biological questions. In this review we highlight how this powerful technology combined with standard biochemical analysis techniques has been used to improve our ability to understand protein structure and function. PMID:19685006

  18. Mitochondria of a human multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line constitutively express inducible nitric oxide synthase in the inner membrane

    PubMed Central

    Fantappič, Ornella; Sassoli, Chiara; Tani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Marchetti, Serena; Formigli, Lucia; Mazzanti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in pathways of stress conditions. They can be transported from one cell to another, bringing their features to the cell where they are transported. It has been shown in cancer cells overexpressing multidrug resistance (MDR) that mitochondria express proteins involved in drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistant protein and multiple resistance protein-1. The MDR phenotype is associated with the constitutive expression of COX-2 and iNOS, whereas celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2 activity, reverses drug resistance of MDR cells by releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria. It is possible that COX-2 and iNOS are also expressed in mitochondria of cancer cells overexpressing the MDR phenotype. This study involved experiments using the human HCC PLC/PRF/5 cell line with and without MDR phenotype and melanoma A375 cells that do not express the MDR1 phenotype but they do iNOS. Western blot analysis, confocal immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy showed that iNOS is localized in mitochondria of MDR1-positive cells, whereas COX-2 is not. Low and moderate concentrations of celecoxib modulate the expression of iNOS and P-gp in mitochondria of MDR cancer cells independently from inhibition of COX-2 activity. However, A375 cells that express iNOS also in mitochondria, were not MDR1 positive. In conclusion, iNOS can be localized in mitochondria of HCC cells overexpressing MDR1 phenotype, however this phenomenon appears independent from the MDR1 phenotype occurrence. The presence of iNOS in mitochondria of human HCC cells phenotype probably concurs to a more aggressive behaviour of cancer cells. PMID:25691007

  19. Mitochondria of a human multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line constitutively express inducible nitric oxide synthase in the inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Fantappič, Ornella; Sassoli, Chiara; Tani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Marchetti, Serena; Formigli, Lucia; Mazzanti, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in pathways of stress conditions. They can be transported from one cell to another, bringing their features to the cell where they are transported. It has been shown in cancer cells overexpressing multidrug resistance (MDR) that mitochondria express proteins involved in drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistant protein and multiple resistance protein-1. The MDR phenotype is associated with the constitutive expression of COX-2 and iNOS, whereas celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2 activity, reverses drug resistance of MDR cells by releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria. It is possible that COX-2 and iNOS are also expressed in mitochondria of cancer cells overexpressing the MDR phenotype. This study involved experiments using the human HCC PLC/PRF/5 cell line with and without MDR phenotype and melanoma A375 cells that do not express the MDR1 phenotype but they do iNOS. Western blot analysis, confocal immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy showed that iNOS is localized in mitochondria of MDR1-positive cells, whereas COX-2 is not. Low and moderate concentrations of celecoxib modulate the expression of iNOS and P-gp in mitochondria of MDR cancer cells independently from inhibition of COX-2 activity. However, A375 cells that express iNOS also in mitochondria, were not MDR1 positive. In conclusion, iNOS can be localized in mitochondria of HCC cells overexpressing MDR1 phenotype, however this phenomenon appears independent from the MDR1 phenotype occurrence. The presence of iNOS in mitochondria of human HCC cells phenotype probably concurs to a more aggressive behaviour of cancer cells. PMID:25691007

  20. Expression of equine morbillivirus (EMV) matrix and fusion proteins and their evaluation as diagnostic reagents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L.-F. Wang; A. R. Gould; P. W. Selleck

    1997-01-01

    Summary.  ?Full-length cDNA clones coding for the matrix (M) and fusion (F) proteins of equine morbillivirus (EMV) were isolated by\\u000a RT-PCR, and expressed in Escherichia coli using two different expression systems. Western blot analysis indicated that the M and F proteins, expressed either by itself\\u000a or as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST), were insoluble and degraded after expression. Analysis of

  1. Identifying network biomarkers based on protein-protein interactions and expression data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Identifying effective biomarkers to battle complex diseases is an important but challenging task in biomedical research today. Molecular data of complex diseases is increasingly abundant due to the rapid advance of high throughput technologies. However, a great gap remains in identifying the massive molecular data to phenotypic changes, in particular, at a network level, i.e., a novel method for identifying network biomarkers is in pressing need to accurately classify and diagnose diseases from molecular data and shed light on the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Rather than seeking differential genes at an individual-molecule level, here we propose a novel method for identifying network biomarkers based on protein-protein interaction affinity (PPIA), which identify the differential interactions at a network level. Specifically, we firstly define PPIAs by estimating the concentrations of protein complexes based on the law of mass action upon gene expression data. Then we select a small and non-redundant group of protein-protein interactions and single proteins according to the PPIAs, that maximizes the discerning ability of cases from controls. This method is mathematically formulated as a linear programming, which can be efficiently solved and guarantees a globally optimal solution. Extensive results on experimental data in breast cancer demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method for identifying network biomarkers, which not only can accurately distinguish the phenotypes but also provides significant biological insights at a network or pathway level. In addition, our method provides a new way to integrate static protein-protein interaction information with dynamical gene expression data. PMID:26044366

  2. Identifying network biomarkers based on protein-protein interactions and expression data.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jingxue; Ren, Xianwen; Chen, Luonan; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Identifying effective biomarkers to battle complex diseases is an important but challenging task in biomedical research today. Molecular data of complex diseases is increasingly abundant due to the rapid advance of high throughput technologies. However, a great gap remains in identifying the massive molecular data to phenotypic changes, in particular, at a network level, i.e., a novel method for identifying network biomarkers is in pressing need to accurately classify and diagnose diseases from molecular data and shed light on the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Rather than seeking differential genes at an individual-molecule level, here we propose a novel method for identifying network biomarkers based on protein-protein interaction affinity (PPIA), which identify the differential interactions at a network level. Specifically, we firstly define PPIAs by estimating the concentrations of protein complexes based on the law of mass action upon gene expression data. Then we select a small and non-redundant group of protein-protein interactions and single proteins according to the PPIAs, that maximizes the discerning ability of cases from controls. This method is mathematically formulated as a linear programming, which can be efficiently solved and guarantees a globally optimal solution. Extensive results on experimental data in breast cancer demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method for identifying network biomarkers, which not only can accurately distinguish the phenotypes but also provides significant biological insights at a network or pathway level. In addition, our method provides a new way to integrate static protein-protein interaction information with dynamical gene expression data. PMID:26044366

  3. Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, X.; Chang, D.; Rottinghaus, S.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448), using the recombinant expression system pFPYV2. Recombinant VP2 was purified to near homogeneity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroelution, and Extracti-Gel chromatography. Polyclonal serum to this protein which reacted specifically with recombinant VP2 as well as polyomavirus virion VP2 and VP3 on Western blots (immunoblots) was produced. Purified VP2 was used to establish an in vitro protein-protein interaction assay with polyomavirus structural proteins and purified recombinant VP1. Recombinant VP2 interacted with recombinant VP1, virion VP1, and the four virion histones. Recombinant VP1 coimmunoprecipitated with recombinant VP2 or truncated VP2 (delta C12VP2), which lacked the carboxy-terminal 12 amino acids. These experiments confirmed the interaction between VP1 and VP2 and revealed that the carboxyterminal 12 amino acids of VP2 and VP3 were not necessary for formation of this interaction. In vivo VP1-VP2 interaction study accomplished by cotransfection of COS-7 cells with VP2 and truncated VP1 (delta N11VP1) lacking the nuclear localization signal demonstrated that VP2 was capable of translocating delta N11VP1 into the nucleus. These studies suggest that complexes of VP1 and VP2 may be formed in the cytoplasm and cotransported to the nucleus for virion assembly to occur.

  4. Embryonic Expression of the Myelin Basic Protein Gene: Identification of a Promoter Region That Targets Transgene Expression to Pioneer Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Landry; Thomas M. Pribyl; Julie A. Ellison; M. Irene Givogri; Kathy Kampf; Celia W. Campagnoni; Anthony T. Campagnoni

    1998-01-01

    The myelin basic protein (MBP) gene produces two families of structurally related proteins from three different promoters—the golli products, generated from the most upstream promoter, and the MBPs, produced from the two downstream promoters. In this report we describe the expression of golli proteins within some of the earliest neuronal populations of the brain, including Cajal-Retzius cells and preplate neurons

  5. Neurotoxocarosis alters myelin protein gene transcription and expression.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Lea; Beyerbach, Martin; Lühder, Fred; Beineke, Andreas; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Neurotoxocarosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by migrating larvae of the common dog and cat roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), which are zoonotic agents. As these parasites are prevalent worldwide and neuropathological and molecular investigations on neurotoxocarosis are scare, this study aims to characterise nerve fibre demyelination associated with neurotoxocarosis on a molecular level. Transcription of eight myelin-associated genes (Cnp, Mag, Mbp, Mog, Mrf-1, Nogo-A, Plp1, Olig2) was determined in the mouse model during six time points of the chronic phase of infection using qRT-PCR. Expression of selected proteins was analysed by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Additionally, demyelination and neuronal damage were investigated histologically. Significant differences (p???0.05) between transcription rates of T. canis-infected and uninfected control mice were detected for all analysed genes while T. cati affected five of eight investigated genes. Interestingly, 2', 3 ´-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (Cnp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) were upregulated in both T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice preceding demyelination. Later, CNPase expression was additionally enhanced. As expected, myelin basic protein (Mbp) was downregulated in cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice when severe demyelination was present 120 days post infectionem (dpi). The transcriptional pattern observed in the present study appears to reflect direct traumatic and hypoxic effects of larval migration as well as secondary processes including host immune reactions, demyelination and attempts to remyelinate damaged areas. PMID:25773181

  6. A fast and flexible PEG-mediated transient expression system in plants for high level expression of secreted recombinant proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Baur; Franz Kaufmann; Helene Rolli; Andreas Weise; Rasmus Luethje; Birgit Berg; Michael Braun; Wolfgang Baeumer; Manfred Kietzmann; Ralf Reski; Gilbert Gorr

    2005-01-01

    Plant expression systems offer a valuable alternative to traditional systems for the production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals. A highly efficient polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-mediated transient expression system for secreted recombinant proteins in plants has been developed. The human vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (rhVEGF) has been successfully expressed and efficiently secreted into the culture medium by transiently transformed moss protoplasts. In order to

  7. Structural Protein Interactions Predict Kinase-Inhibitor Interactions in Upregulated Pancreas Tumour Genes Expression Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gihan Dawelbait; Christian Pilarsky; Yanju Zhang; Robert Grützmann; Michael Schroeder

    2005-01-01

    Micro-arrays can identify co-expressed genes at large scale. The gene expression analysis does however not show functional relation- ships between co-expressed genes. To address this problem, we link gene expression data to protein interaction data. For the gene products of co- expressed genes, we identify structural domains by sequence alignment and threading. Next, we use the protein structure interaction PSIMAP

  8. Gene Expression in the Jimpy Mutant: Evidence for Fewer Oligodendrocytes Expressing Myelin Protein Genes and Impaired Translocation of Myelin Basic Protein mRNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Neil Verity; Michael S. Levine; Anthony T. Campagnoni

    1990-01-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP) gene expression was investigated in the murine dysmyelinating mutant, jimpy and age-matched normal mice. MBP and PLP mRNA expression was examined in several brain regions by in situ hybridization histochemistry between 10 and 20 days postpartum. The results showed a general reduction in both PLP and MBP mRNA expression throughout in jimpy

  9. Chronic Intermittent Mechanical Stress Increases MUC5AC Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Ah; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Increased abundance of mucin secretory cells is a characteristic feature of the epithelium in asthma and other chronic airway diseases. We showed previously that the mechanical stresses of airway constriction, both in the intact mouse lung and a cell culture model, activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known modulator of mucin expression in airway epithelial cells. Here we tested whether chronic, intermittent, short-duration compressive stress (30 cm H2O) is sufficient to increase the abundance of MUC5AC-positive cells and intracellular mucin levels in human bronchial epithelial cells cultured at an air–liquid interface. Compressive stress applied for 1 hour per day for 14 days significantly increased the percentage of cells staining positively for MUC5AC protein (22.0 ± 3.8%, mean ± SD) relative to unstimulated controls (8.6 ± 2.6%), and similarly changed intracellular MUC5AC protein levels measured by Western and slot blotting. The effect of compressive stress was gradual, with significant changes in MUC5AC-positive cell numbers evident by Day 7, but required as little as 10 minutes of compressive stress daily. Daily treatment of cells with an EGFR kinase inhibitor (AG1478, 1 ?M) significantly but incompletely attenuated the response to compressive stress. Complete attenuation could be accomplished by simultaneous treatment with the combination of AG1478 and a transforming growth factor (TGF)-?2 (1 ?g/ml)–neutralizing antibody, or with anti–TGF-?2 alone. Our findings demonstrate that short duration episodes of mechanical stress, representative of those occurring during bronchoconstriction, are sufficient to increase goblet cell number and MUC5AC protein expression in bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. We propose that the mechanical environment present in asthma may fundamentally bias the composition of airway epithelial lining in favor of mucin secretory cells. PMID:19168703

  10. From gene to protein: Prostatic acid phosphatase: Structure and expression of gene and protein*.

    PubMed

    Laidler, Piotr; Kuciel, Radoslawa; Duli?ska, Joanna; Gil, Dorota; Mazurkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Maria

    2004-11-01

    A set of classes for medical students is designed to reinforce an understanding of the basic laboratory methods of molecular biology and protein biochemistry in the context of a clinically important problem, prostate gland pathology. Students examine the gene coding for prostatic acid phosphatase and they assay expression of the gene in different lines of prostate cancer cell cultures (LNCaP and PC-3). The three-dimensional structure of the expressed protein is also investigated, in relation to its catalytic function. Students are encouraged to collect data for their experiments and to perform laboratory exercises on their own. The theory and practice should stimulate the students' discussion of various fields of biochemistry and molecular biology. PMID:21706764

  11. Nonnative Proteins Induce Expression of the Bacillus subtilis CIRCE Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Mogk, Axel; Völker, Andrea; Engelmann, Susanne; Hecker, Michael; Schumann, Wolfgang; Völker, Uwe

    1998-01-01

    The chaperone-encoding groESL and dnaK operons constitute the CIRCE regulon of Bacillus subtilis. Both operons are under negative control of the repressor protein HrcA, which interacts with the CIRCE operator and whose activity is modulated by the GroESL chaperone machine. In this report, we demonstrate that induction of the CIRCE regulon can also be accomplished by ethanol stress and puromycin. Introduction of the hrcA gene and a transcriptional fusion under the control of the CIRCE operator into Escherichia coli allowed induction of this fusion by heat shock, ethanol stress, and overproduction of GroESL substrates. The expression level of this hrcA-bgaB fusion inversely correlated with the amount of GroE machinery present in the cells. Therefore, all inducing conditions seem to lead to induction via titration of the GroE chaperonins by the increased level of nonnative proteins formed. Puromycin treatment failed to induce the ?B-dependent general stress regulon, indicating that nonnative proteins in general do not trigger this response. Reconstitution of HrcA-dependent heat shock regulation of B. subtilis in E. coli and complementation of E. coli groESL mutants by B. subtilis groESL indicate that the GroE chaperonin systems of the two bacterial species are functionally exchangeable. PMID:9603878

  12. Cell-free protein expression systems in microdroplets: Stabilization of interdroplet bilayers

    E-print Network

    Southampton, University of

    steps that are indicative of lipid packing defects. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that proteins are onlyCell-free protein expression systems in microdroplets: Stabilization of interdroplet bilayers Mark November 2012; accepted 29 January 2013; published online 6 February 2013) Cell-free protein expression

  13. Elevated expression and altered processing of fibulin-1 protein in human breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L M Greene; W O Twal; M J Duffy; E W McDermott; A D Hill; N J O'Higgins; A H McCann; P A Dervan; W S Argraves; W M Gallagher

    2003-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 suppresses the motility and invasiveness of a variety of tumour cell types in vitro as well as the growth of fibrosarcoma tumours in nude mice. In this study, fibulin-1 protein expression in breast carcinoma specimens and normal breast tissue was evaluated immunohistologically. Fibulin-1 protein expression was also semiquantitatively assessed by immunoblot analysis in a collection

  14. Gefiltin in zebrafish embryos: sequential gene expression of two neurofilament proteins in retinal ganglion cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devin Leake; William S. Asch; Anthony K. Canger; Nisson Schechter

    1999-01-01

    Neurogenesis is correlated with the progressive synthesis of diverse neuronal intermediate filaments (IF) proteins. This apparent developmental regulation of IF protein gene expression suggests that specific neurofilament proteins impart unique structural attributes that support the staged growth of the neuron. In the teleost visual pathway, the sequential expression of two IF genes, plasticin and gefiltin, is linked to the age

  15. Generation of High Density Protein Microarrays by Cell-free in Situ Expression of

    E-print Network

    Konthur, Zoltán

    to the success of DNA microarrays and the growing numbers of available protein expression clones, protein parameters in a highly parallel manner (1). Although in the last years DNA microarrays were the technologyGeneration of High Density Protein Microarrays by Cell-free in Situ Expression of Unpurified PCR

  16. Salivary Proline-rich Proteins: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Regulation of Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don M. Carlson

    1993-01-01

    The proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in mammalian salivary glands are encoded by tissue-specific multigene families whose members have diverged with respect to structure and regulation of expression. PRPs are expressed constitutively in humans, and comprise about [70%] of the total salivary proteins. Families of similar proteins are dramatically increased or induced in parotid and submandibular glands of rats, mice and hamsters

  17. Systematic optimization of active protein expression using GFP as a folding reporter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Omoya; Zenichiro Kato; Eiji Matsukuma; Ailian Li; Kazuyuki Hashimoto; Yutaka Yamamoto; Hidenori Ohnishi; Naomi Kondo

    2004-01-01

    Many recombinant proteins have been used as drugs; however, human proteins expressed using heterologous hosts are often insoluble. To obtain correctly folded active proteins, many optimizations of expression have been attempted but usually are found to be applicable only for specific targets. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has a key role in many severe disorders including autoimmune diseases, and therapeutic approaches using IL-18

  18. Rapid, transient expression of fluorescent fusion proteins in tobacco plants and generation of stably

    E-print Network

    Rapid, transient expression of fluorescent fusion proteins in tobacco plants and generation stable plant lines using a more time-consuming, cell culture technique. Transient expression takes from 2 into the leaf lamina of tobacco plants, resulting in transient expression of the fusion protein. Tissue culture

  19. Segmental expression and C-terminal labeling of protein ERp44 through protein trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xudong; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Meng, Qing

    2015-08-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 (ERp44) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family and functions in oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. A structurally flexible C-terminal tail (C-tail) of ERp44 plays critical roles in dynamically regulating ERp44's function in protein folding quality control. The structure-function dynamics of ERp44's C-tail may be studied further using fluorescence and other techniques, if methods are found to label the C-tail site-specifically with a fluorescent group or segmentally with other desired labels. Here we have developed such methods, employing split inteins capable of protein trans-splicing, and identifying atypical S1 split inteins able to function efficiently at a suitable split site in the ERp44 sequence. One method demonstrated segmental expression of ERp44 for segmental labeling of the C-tail, another method efficiently added a commercially available fluorescent group to the C-terminus of ERp44, and both methods may also be generally useful for studying other proteins. PMID:25907381

  20. Trichohyalin-like 1 protein, a member of fused S100 proteins, is expressed in normal and pathologic human skin.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Takako; Makino, Teruhiko; Ur Rehman, Mati; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Sugimori, Michiya; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2013-03-01

    Trichohyalin-like 1 (TCHHL1) protein is a novel member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of TCHHL1 contains an EF-hand domain in the N-terminus, one trans-membrane domain and a nuclear localization signal. We generated specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein and examined the expression of TCHHL1 proteins in normal and pathological human skin. An immunohistochemical study showed that TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. In addition, signals of TCHHL1 proteins were observed around the nuclei of cultured growing keratinocytes. Accordingly, TCHHL1 mRNA has been detected in normal skin and cultured growing keratinocytes. Furthermore, TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests in basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. A dramatic increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells was observed in TCHHL1-expressing areas. The expression of TCHHL1 proteins also increased in non-cancerous hyperproliferative epidermal tissues such as those of psoriasis vulgaris and lichen planus. These findings highlight the possibility that TCHHL1 proteins are expressed in growing keratinocytes of the epidermis and might be associated with the proliferation of keratinocytes. PMID:23376073

  1. Expression of Pokemon Protein in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LIANG Lanqing

    Objective: To detect the expression of pokemon protein and explore its relationship with the expression levels of p53 and Bcl-6 proteins in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods: Immunohisto- chemistry (SP) was used to examine the expression of pokemon, p53 and Bcl-6 proteins in DLBCL and reac- tive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH). Results: In 50 cases of DLBCL, 35 cases (70.0%)

  2. Expression and purification of SARS coronavirus proteins using SUMO-fusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xun Zuo; Michael R. Mattern; Robin Tan; Shuisen Li; John Hall; David E. Sterner; Joshua Shoo; Hiep Tran; Peter Lim; Stefan G. Sarafianos; Lubna Kazi; Sonia Navas-Martin; Susan R. Weiss; Tauseef R. Butt

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) proteins belong to a large group of proteins that is difficult to express in traditional expression systems. The ability to express and purify SARS-CoV proteins in large quantities is critical for basic research and for development of pharmaceutical agents. The work reported here demonstrates: (1) fusion of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier), a 100 amino

  3. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel klotho-related protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kensei Yahata; Kiyoshi Mori; Hiroshi Arai; Susumu Koide; Yoshihiro Ogawa; Masashi Mukoyama; Akira Sugawara; Shoichi Ozaki; Issei Tanaka; Yo-ichi Nabeshima; Kazuwa Nakao

    2000-01-01

    Klotho protein is a novel #-glucosidase-like protein produced predominantly in the kidney. The klotho mouse, which genetically lacks klotho gene expression, manifests various systemic phenotypes resembling aging. In the present study we succeeded in isolating a novel human protein structurally related to klotho protein. The protein possesses one #-glucosidase-like domain and is 42% identical with klotho protein at the amino

  4. PHYSIO-PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trabajos de Revisión; M Ballent; A Lifschitz; G Virkel; C Lanusse

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transporter protein associated with multidrug resis- tance to certain anticancer drugs (MDR). Initially P-gp was identified by its overexpression in multidrug resistant tumor cells. P-gp is also expressed in a wide range of normal tissues including liver, intestines, blood-brain barrier and kidneys. P-gp secrets a large number of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds from the intracellular to

  5. Imaging of P-glycoprotein of H69\\/VP small-cell lung cancer lines by scanning near-field optical microscopy and confocal laser microspectrofluorometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihong Qiao; Guangyi Shang; Franck H. Lei; Aurélie Trussardi-Regnier; Jean-F. Angiboust; Jean-M. Millot; Michel Manfait

    2005-01-01

    Chemoresistance remains the major obstacle to successful therapy of the lung cancer. The multi-drug resistance (MDR) is generally associated with altered expression of drug transporter proteins, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). So the distribution of P-gp on the membrane is of great importance to further study the interaction between drug and P-gp. In the present work, the P-gp of the H69\\/VP

  6. An Approach to Heterologous Expression of Membrane Proteins. The Case of Bacteriorhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Round, Ekaterina; Shevchenko, Vitaly; Gushchin, Ivan; Polovinkin, Vitaly; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Gordeliy, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous overexpression of functional membrane proteins is a major bottleneck of structural biology. Bacteriorhodopsin from Halobium salinarum (bR) is a striking example of the difficulties in membrane protein overexpression. We suggest a general approach with a finite number of steps which allows one to localize the underlying problem of poor expression of a membrane protein using bR as an example. Our approach is based on constructing chimeric proteins comprising parts of a protein of interest and complementary parts of a homologous protein demonstrating advantageous expression. This complementary protein approach allowed us to increase bR expression by two orders of magnitude through the introduction of two silent mutations into bR coding DNA. For the first time the high quality crystals of bR expressed in E. Coli were obtained using the produced protein. The crystals obtained with in meso nanovolume crystallization diffracted to 1.67 Ĺ. PMID:26046789

  7. Changes in protein expression in maturing equine testis: a quantitative DIGE analysis 

    E-print Network

    Roper-Foo, Pilar

    2011-01-11

    and protein expression levels in the light regions are factors contributing to successful sperm production. Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) and DeCyder Image analysis of testicular extracts from prepubertal stallions has identified forty proteins...

  8. The Up-Regulation of Ribosomal Proteins Further Regulates Protein Expression Profile in Female Schistosoma japonicum after Pairing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun; Li, Chen; Wang, Suwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Pairing of Schistosoma males and females leads to and maintains female sexual maturation. However, the mechanism by which pairing facilitates sexual maturation of females is not clear. An increasing body of evidence suggests that ribosomal proteins have regulatory rather than constitutive roles in protein translation. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the effect of ribosome regulation on female sex maturation, Solexa and iTRAQ techniques were used to analyze the relationship between ribosomal gene or protein expression and sexual development of Schistosoma females. In the present study, considerably higher number of ribosomal genes or proteins were found to be differentially expressed in paired 23-day-old females. Moreover, mature female-specific proteins associated with egg production, such as ferritin-1 heavy chain and superoxide dismutase, were selectively highly expressed in paired females, rather than higher level of protein synthesis of all transcripts compared with those in unpaired 23-day-old females. Furthermore, other developmental stages were utilized to investigate different expression pattern of ribosomal proteins in females by analysing 18-day-old female schistosomula from single- or double-sex infections to determine the relationship between ribosomal protein expression pattern and development. Results showed that undeveloped 18-day-old females from single- and double-sex infections, as well as 23-day-old unpaired females, possessed similar ribosomal protein expression patterns, which were distinct from those in 23-day-old paired females. Conclusions/Significance Our findings reveal that the pairing of females and males triggers a specialized ribosomal protein expression profile which further regulates the protein profile for sexual maturation in Schistosoma japonicum, based on its gene expression profile. PMID:26070205

  9. Differential Protein Expression in the Insular Cortex and the Amygdala after Taste Memory Acquisition and Retrieval 

    E-print Network

    Venkataraman, Archana

    2013-05-03

    conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as the learning paradigm and investigated the expression of pERK and ARC in brain regions critical for taste information processing such as the insular cortex and the amygdala. A differential pattern of protein expression...

  10. High-Throughput Proteomics: Protein Expression and Purification in the Postgenomic World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Lesley

    2001-01-01

    Proteomics has become a major focus as researchers attempt to understand the vast amount of genomic information. Protein complexity makes identifying and understanding gene function inherently difficult. The challenge of studying proteins in a global way is driving the development of new technologies for systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein structure and function. Protein expression and purification are key processes

  11. New and highly efficient expression systems for expressing selectively foreign protein in the silk glands of transgenic silkworm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Aichun; Zhao, Tianfu; Zhang, Yuansong; Xia, Qingyou; Lu, Cheng; Zhou, Zeyang; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Nakagaki, M

    2010-02-01

    We constructed three different fibroin H-chain expression systems to estimate the efficacy of producing recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. The results showed that the three different EGFP/H-chain fusion genes were all expressed selectively in the posterior silk gland of the transgenic silkworm. The recombinant protein content of transgenic silkworm cocoons is up to 15% (w/w) when using the most highly efficient H-chain expression system. To our knowledge, in comparison with silkworm silk gland expression systems in the literature, the highly efficient expression system developed in this study is the most efficient silkworm silk gland expression system to date. This expression system is the best candidate for foreign gene production and for creation of novel functional silk material. The results suggested the N-terminal domain and the intron of the H-chain gene are important in the secretion of fibroin and its transcription, respectively. PMID:19533404

  12. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the marine fish parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Mai, Yong-Zhan; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, Rui-Jun; Li, Wei; Huang, Xia-Zi; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, An-Xing

    2015-06-30

    Cryptocaryoniasis is a severe disease of farmed marine fish caused by the parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans. This disease can lead to considerable economic loss, but studies on proteins linked to disease development and antigenic proteins for vaccine development have been relatively scarce to date. In this study, 53 protein spots with differential abundance, representing 12 proteins, were identified based on a pair-wise comparison among theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Meanwhile, 33 protein spots that elicited serological responses in rabbits were identified, representing 9 proteins. In addition, 27 common antigenic protein spots reacted with grouper anti-sera, representing 10 proteins. Most of the identified proteins were involved in cytoskeletal and metabolic pathways. Among these proteins, actin and ?-tubulin appeared in all three developmental stages with differences in molecular weights and isoelectric points; 4 proteins (vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, mcm2-3-5 family protein, 26S proteasome subunit P45 family protein and dnaK protein) were highly expressed only in theronts; while protein kinase domain containing protein and heat shock protein 70 showed high levels of expression only in trophonts and tomonts, respectively. Moreover, actin was co-detected with 3 rabbit anti-sera while ?-tubulin, V-type ATPase ? subunit family protein, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial-type hsp70, and dnaK proteins showed immunoreactivity with corresponding rabbit anti-sera in theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Furthermore, ?-tubulin, the metabolic-related protein enolase, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75kDa subunit, malate dehydrogenase, as well as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, glutamine synthetase, protein kinase domain containing protein, TNFR/NGFR cysteine-rich region family protein, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, were commonly detected by grouper anti-sera. Therefore, these findings could contribute to an understanding of the differences in gene expression and phenotypes among the different stages of parasitic infection, and might be considered as a source of candidate proteins for disease diagnosis and vaccine development. PMID:25997646

  13. Multidrug resistance protein gene expression in Trichoplusia ni caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jason; D'Souza, Olivia; Rheault, Mark; Donly, Cam

    2013-02-01

    Many insect species exhibit pesticide-resistant phenotypes. One of the mechanisms capable of contributing to resistance is the overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter proteins. Here we describe the cloning of three genes encoding MDR proteins from Trichoplusia ni: trnMDR1, trnMDR2 and trnMDR3. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) detected trnMDR mRNA in the whole nervous system, midgut and Malpighian tubules of final instar T.?ni caterpillars. To test whether these genes are upregulated in response to chemical challenge in this insect, qPCR was used to compare trnMDR mRNA levels in unchallenged insects with those of insects fed the synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Only limited increases were detected in a single gene, trnMDR2, which is the most weakly expressed of the three MDR genes, suggesting that increased multidrug resistance of this type is not a significant part of the response to deltamethrin exposure. PMID:23170973

  14. Expression and characterisation of the NS1 and NS2 proteins of respiratory syncytial virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna E Evans; Patricia A Cane; Craig R Pringle

    1996-01-01

    The NS1 and NS2 proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were expressed using baculovirus. Antisera to these expressed proteins and to synthetic peptides were raised in rabbits and used to characterise the proteins. Multiple forms of both NS1 and NS2 proteins were detected in RSV infected cells by both immunoblotting and radioimmunoprecipitation when non-reducing, but not reducing, conditions were

  15. Inhibiting the Expression of DNA Replication-Initiation Proteins Induces Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daorong Feng; Zheng Tu; Wenyan Wu; Chun Liang

    2003-01-01

    DNA replication-initiation proteins are expressed in cancer cells, whereas some of these proteins are not expressed in nonproliferating normal cells. Therefore, replication-initiation proteins may present attrac- tive targets for anticancer therapy. Using selected antisense oligode- oxynucleotides and small interfering RNA molecules targeted to the mRNA encoding the DNA replication-initiation proteins hCdc6p, hMcm2p, and hCdc45p, we show that the target genes

  16. A method for rapid regulation of protein expression in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan Fen; Weiss, Louis M; Huang, Huan

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of gene function in Trypanosoma cruzi is limited due to the absence of rapid, simple and reversible genetic tools to regulate gene and corresponding protein expression. We have designed a modified pTREX vector which uses an N-terminal fusion of a ligand-controlled destabilization domain (ddFKBP) to a gene/protein of interest. This vector allows rapid and reversible protein expression and efficient functional analysis of proteins in different T. cruzi life cycle stages. PMID:22138018

  17. Prion Protein Expression and Functional Importance in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Moylan, Jennifer S.; Hardin, Brian J.; Chambers, Melissa A.; Estus, Steven; Telling, Glenn C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle expresses prion protein (PrP) that buffers oxidant activity in neurons. Aims We hypothesize that PrP deficiency would increase oxidant activity in skeletal muscle and alter redox-sensitive functions, including contraction and glucose uptake. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis to measure PrP mRNA and protein in human diaphragm, five murine muscles, and muscle-derived C2C12 cells. Effects of PrP deficiency were tested by comparing PrP-deficient mice versus wild-type mice and morpholino-knockdown versus vehicle-treated myotubes. Oxidant activity (dichlorofluorescin oxidation) and specific force were measured in murine diaphragm fiber bundles. Results PrP content differs among mouse muscles (gastrocnemius>extensor digitorum longus, EDL>tibialis anterior, TA; soleus>diaphragm) as does glycosylation (di-, mono-, nonglycosylated; gastrocnemius, EDL, TA=60%, 30%, 10%; soleus, 30%, 40%, 30%; diaphragm, 30%, 30%, 40%). PrP is predominantly di-glycosylated in human diaphragm. PrP deficiency decreases body weight (15%) and EDL mass (9%); increases cytosolic oxidant activity (fiber bundles, 36%; C2C12 myotubes, 7%); and depresses specific force (12%) in adult (8–12?mos) but not adolescent (2?mos) mice. Innovation This study is the first to directly assess a role of prion protein in skeletal muscle function. Conclusions PrP content varies among murine skeletal muscles and is essential for maintaining normal redox homeostasis, muscle size, and contractile function in adult animals. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2465—2475. PMID:21453198

  18. Neuroendocrine secretory protein 7B2: structure, expression and functions.

    PubMed Central

    Mbikay, M; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M

    2001-01-01

    7B2 is an acidic protein residing in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Its sequence has been elucidated in many phyla and species. It shows high similarity among mammals. A Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro polyproline motif is its most conserved feature, being carried by both vertebrate and invertebrate sequences. It is biosynthesized as a precursor protein that is cleaved into an N-terminal fragment and a C-terminal peptide. In neuroendocrine cells, 7B2 functions as a specific chaperone for the proprotein convertase (PC) 2. Through the sequence around its Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro motif, it binds to an inactive proPC2 and facilitates its transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to later compartments of the secretory pathway where the zymogen is proteolytically matured and activated. Its C-terminal peptide can inhibit PC2 in vitro and may contribute to keep the enzyme transiently inactive in vivo. The PC2-7B2 model defines a new neuroendocrine paradigm whereby proteolytic activation of prohormones and proneuropeptides in the secretory pathway is spatially and temporally regulated by the dynamics of interactions between converting enzymes and their binding proteins. Interestingly, unlike PC2-null mice, which are viable, 7B2-null mutants die early in life from Cushing's disease due to corticotropin ('ACTH') hypersecretion by the neurointermediate lobe, suggesting a possible involvement of 7B2 in secretory granule formation and in secretion regulation. The mechanism of this regulation is yet to be elucidated. 7B2 has been shown to be a good marker of several neuroendocrine cell dysfunctions in humans. The possibility that anomalies in its structure and expression could be aetiological causes of some of these dysfunctions warrants investigation. PMID:11439082

  19. Redox Regulation of Thylakoid Protein Kinases and Photosynthetic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Photosynthetic organisms are subjected to frequent changes in their environment that include fluctuations in light quality and quantity, temperature, CO2 concentration, and nutrient availability. They have evolved complex responses to these changes that allow them to protect themselves against photo-oxidative damage and to optimize their growth under these adverse conditions. In the case of light changes, these acclimatory processes can occur in either the short or the long term and are mainly mediated through the redox state of the plastoquinone pool and the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. Recent Advances: Short-term responses involve a dynamic reorganization of photosynthetic complexes, and long-term responses (LTRs) modulate the chloroplast and nuclear gene expression in such a way that the levels of the photosystems and their antennae are rebalanced for an optimal photosynthetic performance. These changes are mediated through a complex signaling network with several protein kinases and phosphatases that are conserved in land plants and algae. The phosphorylation status of the light-harvesting proteins of photosystem II and its core proteins is mainly determined by two complementary kinase–phosphatase pairs corresponding to STN7/PPH1 and STN8/PBCP, respectively. Critical Issues: The activity of the Stt7 kinase is principally regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool, which in turn depends on the light irradiance, ambient CO2 concentration, and cellular energy status. In addition, this kinase is also involved in the LTR. Future Directions: Other chloroplast kinases modulate the activity of the plastid transcriptional machinery, but the global signaling network that connects all of the identified kinases and phosphatases is still largely unknown. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2184–2201. PMID:23339452

  20. Mineralization and the Expression of Matrix Proteins During In Vivo Bone Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Cowles; M. E. DeRome; G. Pastizzo; L. L. Brailey; G. A. Gronowicz

    1998-01-01

    .   The in vivo expression of fibronectin, type I collagen, and several non-collagenous proteins was correlated with the development of bone\\u000a in fetal and early neonatal rat calvariae. Fibronectin was the earliest matrix protein expressed in calvariae, with a peak\\u000a expression in fetal 16- and 17-day (d) bones. Fibronectin expression coincided with the condensation of preosteoblasts prior\\u000a to calcification and

  1. A bi-cistronic baculovirus expression vector for improved recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Ying-Ju; Teng, Chao-Yi; Chen, Wen-Shuo; Villaflores, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Baculoviruses are one of the most studied insect viruses both in basic virology research and in biotechnology applications. Incorporating an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) into the baculovirus genome generates bi-cistronic baculoviruses expression vectors that produce two genes of interest. The bi-cistronic baculoviruses also facilitate recombinant virus isolation and titer determination when the green fluorescent protein was co-expressed. Furthermore, when the secretion proteins were co-expressed with the cytosolic green fluorescent protein, the cell lysis and cytosolic protein released into the culture medium could be monitored by the green fluorescence, thus facilitating purification of the secreted proteins. PMID:22539029

  2. New and highly efficient expression systems for expressing selectively foreign protein in the silk glands of transgenic silkworm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aichun Zhao; Tianfu Zhao; Yuansong Zhang; Qingyou Xia; Cheng Lu; Zeyang Zhou; Zhonghuai Xiang; M. Nakagaki

    2010-01-01

    We constructed three different fibroin H-chain expression systems to estimate the efficacy of producing recombinant proteins\\u000a in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. The results showed that the three different EGFP\\/H-chain fusion genes were all expressed\\u000a selectively in the posterior silk gland of the transgenic silkworm. The recombinant protein content of transgenic silkworm\\u000a cocoons is up to 15% (w\\/w) when using

  3. In planta expression of HIV1 p24 protein using and RNA plant virus-based expression vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guichang Zhang; Carly Leung; Lisa Murdin; Benjamin Rovinski; K. Andrew White

    2000-01-01

    Plant viruses show significant potential as expression vectors for the production of foreign proteins (e.g., antigens) in\\u000a plants. The HIV-1 p24 nucleocapsid protein is an important early marker of HIV infection and has been used as an antigen in\\u000a the development of HIV vaccines. Toward developing a plant-based expression system for the production of p24, we have investigated\\u000a the use

  4. Proteomic analysis of protein expression profiles during hyperthermia-induced apoptosis in Tca8113 cells

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, WEN; BIAN, LI; WANG, NING; HE, YONGWEN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore protein expression profiles during cancer cell apoptosis induced by hyperthermia. A hyperthermia-induced apoptosis model was established using a Tca8113 cell line derived from a human tongue squamous cell carcinoma, which underwent fluorescent differential display two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis at 2, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h following the induction of hyperthermia. Proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. Expression changes in the proteins were detected by western blot analysis. A total of 107 proteins were detected that exhibited different expression levels in the hyperthermia-treated cells compared with the controls, and 57 of these proteins were identified. Expression changes in the representative proteins were further verified by western blot analysis. These 57 proteins were identified according to the following functional groups: energy metabolism-related enzymes, cytoskeleton-related proteins, chaperones, transcription factors, protein synthesis-related proteins and cell division- and proliferation-related proteins. These groups included 44 upregulated and 13 downregulated proteins. Among the 44 upregulated proteins, 27 were upregulated continuously, eight were upregulated at an early time-point and nine were upregulated at a middle to late time-point. Among the 13 downregulated proteins, five were downregulated continuously, six were downregulated at an early time-point and two were downregulated at a middle to late time-point. These results indicate that hyperthermia-induced Tca8113 cell apoptosis is controlled by multiple factors, which include time and regulatory proteins. PMID:23946791

  5. Glucose enhances collectrin protein expression in insulin-producing MIN6 {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saisho, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yasuda, Tomoko [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)] [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sato, Yoshifumi; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Hatta, Mitsutoki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)] [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yamagata, Kazuya, E-mail: k-yamaga@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)] [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-11-06

    Collectrin is a novel target gene of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} in pancreatic {beta}-cells and controls insulin exocytosis. Although glucose is known to stimulate the expression of genes of the insulin secretory pathway, there is no information on how glucose regulates collectrin expression. We investigated the effects of glucose on the expression of collectrin in MIN6 {beta}-cell line. Glucose, in a dose-dependent manner, increased collectrin protein levels without changing collectrin mRNA levels and protein stability, indicating that glucose stimulation of collectrin protein expression is primarily mediated at a translational level. Although mannose and pyruvate also increased collectrin protein expression level, neither 2-deoxyglucose, mitochondrial fuels leucine and glutamate, sulphonylurea nor Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers, mimicked the effects of glucose. These data indicate the involvement of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates, distal to pyruvate, in the regulation of collectrin protein expression in {beta}-cells.

  6. Mapping tissue-specific expression of extracellular proteins using systematic glycoproteomic analysis of different mouse tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Zhang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Due to their easy accessibility, proteins outside of the plasma membrane represent an ideal but untapped resource for potential drug targets or disease biomarkers. They constitute the major biochemical class of current therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers. Recent advances in proteomic technologies have fueled interest in analysis of extracellular proteins such as membrane proteins, cell surface proteins, and secreted proteins. However, unlike the gene expression analyses from a variety of tissues and cells using genomic technologies, quantitative proteomic analysis of proteins from various biological sources is challenging due to the high complexity of different proteomes, and the lack of robust and consistent methods for analyses of different tissue sources, especially for specific enrichment of extracellular proteins. Since most extracellular proteins are modified by oligosaccharides, the population of glycoproteins therefore represents the majority of extracellular proteomes. Here, we quantitatively analyzed glycoproteins and determined the expression patterns of extracellular proteins from 12 mouse tissues using solid-phase extraction of N-linked glycopeptides and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We identified peptides enclosing 1231 possible N-linked glycosites from 826 unique proteins. We further determined the expression pattern of formerly N-linked glycopeptides and identified extracellular glycoproteins specifically expressed in each tissue. Furthermore, the tissue specificities of the overexpressed glycoproteins in a mouse skin tumor model were determined by comparing to the quantitative protein expression from the different tissues. These skin tumor-specific extracellular proteins might serve as potential candidates for cell surface drug targets or disease-specific protein markers. PMID:20828161

  7. Analysis of the protein-protein interaction networks of differentially expressed genes in pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HAO; WANG, CHEN; ZHANG, LEI; LU, YINGHUA; DUAN, QIANGLIN; GONG, ZHU; LIANG, AIBIN; SONG, HAOMING; WANG, LEMIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the function and interaction of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pulmonary embolism (PE). The gene expression profile GSE13535, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The DEGs 2 and 18 h post-PE initiation were identified using the affy package in R software. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the DEGs were analyzed using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) online analytical tools. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. The PPI network at 18 h was modularized using ClusterONE, and a functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs in the top three modules was performed with DAVID. Overall, 80 and 346 DEGs were identified 2 and 18 h after PE initiation, respectively. The KEGG pathways, including chemokine signaling and toll-like receptor signaling, were shown to be significantly enriched. The five highest degree nodes in the PPI networks at 2 or 18 h were screened. The module analysis of the PPI network at 18 h revealed 11 hub nodes. A Gene Ontology terms analysis demonstrated that the DEGs in the top three modules were associated with the inflammatory, defense and immune responses. The results of the present study suggest that the DEGs identified, including chemokine-related genes TFPI2 and TNF, may be potential target genes for the treatment of PE. The chemokine signaling pathway, inflammatory response and immune response were explored, and it may be suggested that these pathways have important roles in PE. PMID:25434468

  8. Altered brain protein expression profiles are associated with molecular neurological dysfunction in the PKU mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Imperlini, Esther; Orrů, Stefania; Corbo, Claudia; Daniele, Aurora; Salvatore, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), if not detected and treated in newborns, causes severe neurological dysfunction and cognitive and behavioral deficiencies. Despite the biochemical characterization of PKU, the molecular mechanisms underlying PKU-associated brain dysfunction remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the pathogenesis of this neurological damage by analyzing protein expression profiles in brain tissue of Black and Tan BRachyury-PahEnu2 mice (a mouse model of PKU). We compared the cerebral protein expression of homozygous PKU mice with that of their heterozygous counterparts using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis, and identified 21 differentially expressed proteins, four of which were over-expressed and 17 under-expressed. An in silico bioinformatic approach indicated that protein under-expression was related to neuronal differentiation and dendritic growth, and to such neurological disorders as progressive motor neuropathy and movement disorders. Moreover, functional annotation analyses showed that some identified proteins were involved in oxidative metabolism. To further investigate the proteins involved in the neurological damage, we validated two of the proteins that were most strikingly under-expressed, namely, Syn2 and Dpysl2, which are involved in synaptic function and neurotransmission. We found that Glu2/3 and NR1 receptor subunits were over-expressed in PKU mouse brain. Our results indicate that differential expression of these proteins may be associated with the processes underlying PKU brain dysfunction, namely, decreased synaptic plasticity and impaired neurotransmission. PMID:24548049

  9. Soluble expression of recombinant proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sřrensen, Hans Peter; Mortensen, Kim Kusk

    2005-01-01

    Pure, soluble and functional proteins are of high demand in modern biotechnology. Natural protein sources rarely meet the requirements for quantity, ease of isolation or price and hence recombinant technology is often the method of choice. Recombinant cell factories are constantly employed for the production of protein preparations bound for downstream purification and processing. Eschericia coli is a frequently used host, since it facilitates protein expression by its relative simplicity, its inexpensive and fast high density cultivation, the well known genetics and the large number of compatible molecular tools available. In spite of all these qualities, expression of recombinant proteins with E. coli as the host often results in insoluble and/or nonfunctional proteins. Here we review new approaches to overcome these obstacles by strategies that focus on either controlled expression of target protein in an unmodified form or by applying modifications using expressivity and solubility tags. PMID:15629064

  10. Osteomalacia in Hyp Mice Is Associated with Abnormal Phex Expression and with Altered Bone Matrix Protein Expression and Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENGSHUN MIAO; XIUYING BAI; DIBYENDU PANDA; MARC D. MCKEE; ANDREW C. KARAPLIS; DAVID GOLTZMAN

    2001-01-01

    To explore how the loss of Phex function contributes to the patho- genesis of osteomalacia, we examined the abnormalities of mineral- ization, Phex, and bone matrix protein expression occurring in Hyp mice in vivo and in ex vivo bone marrow cell cultures. The results in vivo show that mineralization was decreased significantly in Hyp mouse bone. Phex protein was identifiable

  11. The Junctional Proteins Cingulin and Paracingulin Modulate the Expression of Tight Junction Protein Genes through GATA-4

    PubMed Central

    Guillemot, Laurent; Spadaro, Domenica; Citi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The cytoplamic junctional proteins cingulin and paracingulin have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression in different cultured cell models. In renal epithelial MDCK cells, depletion of either protein results in a Rho-dependent increase in the expression of claudin-2. Here we examined MDCK cell clones depleted of both cingulin and paracingulin (double-KD cells), and we found that unexpectedly the expression of claudin-2, and also the expression of ZO-3 and claudin-3, were decreased, while RhoA activity was still higher than in control cells. The decreased expression of claudin-2 and other TJ proteins in double–KD cells correlated with reduced levels of the transcription factor GATA-4, and was rescued by overexpression of GATA-4, but not by inhibiting RhoA activity. These results indicate that in MDCK cells GATA-4 is required for the expression of claudin-2 and other TJ proteins, and that maintenance of GATA-4 expression requires either cingulin or paracingulin. These results and previous studies suggest a model whereby cingulin and paracingulin redundantly control the expression of specific TJ proteins through distinct GATA-4- and RhoA-dependent mechanisms, and that in the absence of sufficient levels of GATA-4 the RhoA-mediated upregulation of claudin-2 is inhibited. PMID:23409073

  12. Expression of selected proteins in breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Gojis, Ondrej; Kubecova, Martina; Rosina, Jozef; Vranova, Jana; Celko, Martin; Frajerova, Denisa; Zmrhal, Jan; Zahumensky, Jozef; Bacova, Tereza; Baca, Vaclav; Mandys, Vaclav; Kucera, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the immunohistochemical (IHC) profiles of SRC3, Pax2, ER, PgR, Her2, EGFR, CK5/6, and Ki67 proteins in breast-cancer brain metastasis. The study utilized tumor samples from 30 metastatic patients and calculated correlations between all IHC variables. In fourteen cases, primary breast cancers paired with secondary deposits were analyzed. We evaluated the association between IHC status in the primary and secondary deposits, grade, and histotype of the tumors. The examination of the metastatic deposits in all 30 patients resulted in positive detection in the following cases: SRC3 in 20 cases (66.6%), Pax2 in 22 (73.3%), ER in 22 (73.3%), PgR in 25 (83.3%), Her2 in 10 (33.3%), EGFR in 12 (40%), CK5/6 in 7 (23.3%), and Ki67 in 23 (76.6%). Grade 2 was found in 13.3% of all patients, and grade 3 in 86.7%. SRC3 and Pax2 were positive in both G2 and G3. Invasive lobular carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma were diagnosed in 23.3% and 76.7% of cases, respectively. There were no differences between the IHC expression of the studied proteins in either grading or histotype of the tumors. In the IHC profiles, which included SRC3, Pax2, ER, PgR, Her2, CK5/6, Ki67, and EGFR, we found no statistically significant differences between the primary cancer and the brain metastasis. In our study of metastatic breast carcinoma deposits, there was no correlation between SRC3, Pax2 status and histotype, and tumor grade. The IHC status of the paired primary and metastatic deposits did not differ in a statistically significant manner. PMID:24203627

  13. cAMP, an Activator of Protein Kinase A, Suppresses the Expression of Sonic Hedgehog

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    cAMP, an Activator of Protein Kinase A, Suppresses the Expression of Sonic Hedgehog Alexander Received December 8, 1995 In Drosophila, it has been shown that protein kinase A and hedgehog have antagonistic actions during the formation of imaginal disks. In vertebrate skin, sonic hedgehog is expressed

  14. DNA Vaccination against Tuberculosis: Expression of a Ubiquitin-Conjugated Tuberculosis Protein Enhances Antimycobacterial Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GIOVANNI DELOGU; ANGELA HOWARD; FRANK M. COLLINS; SHELDON L. MORRIS

    2000-01-01

    Genetic immunization is a promising new technology for developing vaccines against tuberculosis that are more effective. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intracellular turnover of antigens expressed by DNA vaccines on the immune response induced by these vaccines in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The mycobacterial culture filtrate protein MPT64 was expressed as a chimeric protein

  15. Automation and Optimization of Protein Expression and Purification on a Novel Robotic Platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C. Wollerton; Richard Wales; Jonathan A. Bullock; Ian R. Hudson; Mark Beggs

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a novel robotic system for protein expression and purification. This area has traditionally proved a bottleneck in pharmaceutical discovery owing to the difficulty and unpredictability of outcome in evaluating multiple sets of expression conditions that will yield biologically active protein in sufficient quantity to meet the demands of discovery teams. This position has been exacerbated by the

  16. Estrogen increases the expression of uterine protein kinase C isozymes in a tissue specific manner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre L. Ruzycky; Aaron Kulick

    1996-01-01

    The pattern of protein kinase C isozyme expression in uterine smooth muscle and ventricular cardiac muscle was examined in ovariectomized rats pretreated with estradiol-17? alone or with estradiol-17? and progesterone. Protein kinase C isozyme expression was examined in membrane and cytosolic subcellular fractions by immunoblot analysis using antisera specific for ?, ?, ?1, ?2, ?, ?, ?, and ? isozymes.

  17. Stress protein expression in early phase spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shanyong; Wu, Dankai; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Yongming; Wang, Guoxiang; Yang, Maoguang; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury is a stress injury to the spinal cord. Our previous studies using differential proteomics identified 21 differentially expressed proteins (n > 2) in rabbits with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Of these proteins, stress-related proteins included protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70. In this study, we established New Zealand rabbit models of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by abdominal aorta occlusion. Results demonstrated that hind limb function initially improved after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, but then deteriorated. The pathological morphology of the spinal cord became aggravated, but lessened 24 hours after reperfusion. However, the numbers of motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord gradually decreased. The expression of protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. The expression of these proteins increased within 12 hours after reperfusion, and then decreased, reached a minimum at 24 hours, but subsequently increased again to similar levels seen at 6–12 hours, showing a characterization of induction-inhibition-induction. These three proteins were expressed only in cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. Moreover, the expression was higher in interneurons than in motor neurons, and the survival rate of interneurons was greater than that of motor neurons. It is assumed that the expression of stress-related proteins exhibited a protective effect on neurons. PMID:25206532

  18. P-glycoprotein in sheep liver and small intestine: gene expression and transport efflux activity.

    PubMed

    Ballent, M; Wilkens, M R; Maté, L; Muscher, A S; Virkel, G; Sallovitz, J; Schröder, B; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2013-12-01

    The role of the transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the disposition kinetics of different drugs therapeutically used in veterinary medicine has been demonstrated. Considering the anatomo-physiological features of the ruminant species, the constitutive expression of P-gp (ABCB1) along the sheep gastrointestinal tract was studied. Additionally, the effect of repeated dexamethasone (DEX) administrations on the ABCB1 gene expression in the liver and small intestine was also assessed. The ABCB1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. P-gp activity was evaluated in diffusion chambers to determine the efflux of rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) in the ileum from experimental sheep. The constitutive ABCB1 expression was 65-fold higher in the liver than in the intestine (ileum). The highest ABCB1 mRNA expression along the small intestine was observed in the ileum (between 6- and 120-fold higher). The treatment with DEX did not elicit a significant effect on the P-gp gene expression levels in any of the investigated gastrointestinal tissues. Consistently, no significant differences were observed in the intestinal secretion of Rho 123, between untreated control (Peff S-M = 3.99 × 10(-6)  ± 2.07 × 10(-6) ) and DEX-treated animals (Peff S-M = 6.00 × 10(-6)  ± 2.5 × 10(-6) ). The understanding of the efflux transporters expression and activity along the digestive tract may help to elucidate clinical implications emerging from drug interactions in livestock. PMID:23409949

  19. Impact of Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Oligomerization and Protein Localization on Cellular Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Vink, Elizabeth I; Zheng, Yueting; Yeasmin, Rukhsana; Stamminger, Thomas; Krug, Laurie T; Hearing, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein facilitates virus replication through the relocalization of cellular proteins into nuclear inclusions termed tracks. This sequestration event disrupts antiviral properties associated with target proteins. Relocalization of Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 proteins prevents the DNA damage response from inhibiting Ad replication. Relocalization of PML and Daxx impedes the interferon-mediated antiviral response. Several E4-ORF3 targets regulate gene expression, linking E4-ORF3 to transcriptional control. Furthermore, E4-ORF3 was shown to promote the formation of heterochromatin, down-regulating p53-dependent gene expression. Here, we characterize how E4-ORF3 alters cellular gene expression. Using an inducible, E4-ORF3-expressing cell line, we performed microarray experiments to highlight cellular gene expression changes influenced by E4-ORF3 expression, identifying over four hundred target genes. Enrichment analysis of these genes suggests that E4-ORF3 influences factors involved in signal transduction and cellular defense, among others. The expression of mutant E4-ORF3 proteins revealed that nuclear track formation is necessary to induce these expression changes. Through the generation of knockdown cells, we demonstrate that the observed expression changes may be independent of Daxx and TRIM33 suggesting that an additional factor(s) may be responsible. The ability of E4-ORF3 to manipulate cellular gene expression through the sequestration of cellular proteins implicates a novel role for E4-ORF3 in transcriptional regulation. PMID:25984715

  20. Impact of Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Oligomerization and Protein Localization on Cellular Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vink, Elizabeth I.; Zheng, Yueting; Yeasmin, Rukhsana; Stamminger, Thomas; Krug, Laurie T.; Hearing, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein facilitates virus replication through the relocalization of cellular proteins into nuclear inclusions termed tracks. This sequestration event disrupts antiviral properties associated with target proteins. Relocalization of Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 proteins prevents the DNA damage response from inhibiting Ad replication. Relocalization of PML and Daxx impedes the interferon-mediated antiviral response. Several E4-ORF3 targets regulate gene expression, linking E4-ORF3 to transcriptional control. Furthermore, E4-ORF3 was shown to promote the formation of heterochromatin, down-regulating p53-dependent gene expression. Here, we characterize how E4-ORF3 alters cellular gene expression. Using an inducible, E4-ORF3-expressing cell line, we performed microarray experiments to highlight cellular gene expression changes influenced by E4-ORF3 expression, identifying over four hundred target genes. Enrichment analysis of these genes suggests that E4-ORF3 influences factors involved in signal transduction and cellular defense, among others. The expression of mutant E4-ORF3 proteins revealed that nuclear track formation is necessary to induce these expression changes. Through the generation of knockdown cells, we demonstrate that the observed expression changes may be independent of Daxx and TRIM33 suggesting that an additional factor(s) may be responsible. The ability of E4-ORF3 to manipulate cellular gene expression through the sequestration of cellular proteins implicates a novel role for E4-ORF3 in transcriptional regulation. PMID:25984715

  1. Heat shock protein expression enhances heat tolerance of reptile embryos.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Dang, Wei; Mou, Yi; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Bao-Jun; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-09-22

    The role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in heat tolerance has been demonstrated in cultured cells and animal tissues, but rarely in whole organisms because of methodological difficulties associated with gene manipulation. By comparing HSP70 expression patterns among representative species of reptiles and birds, and by determining the effect of HSP70 overexpression on embryonic development and hatchling traits, we have identified the role of HSP70 in the heat tolerance of amniote embryos. Consistent with their thermal environment, and high incubation temperatures and heat tolerance, the embryos of birds have higher onset and maximum temperatures for induced HSP70 than do reptiles, and turtles have higher onset and maximum temperatures than do lizards. Interestingly, the trade-off between benefits and costs of HSP70 overexpression occurred between life-history stages: when turtle embryos developed at extreme high temperatures, HSP70 overexpression generated benefits by enhancing embryo heat tolerance and hatching success, but subsequently imposed costs by decreasing heat tolerance of surviving hatchlings. Taken together, the correlative and causal links between HSP70 and heat tolerance provide, to our knowledge, the first unequivocal evidence that HSP70 promotes thermal tolerance of embryos in oviparous amniotes. PMID:25080340

  2. Interaction between Brome Mosaic Virus Proteins and RNAs: Effects on RNA Replication, Protein Expression, and RNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, K.; Dragnea, B.; Kao, C.

    2005-01-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replication has been examined in a number of systems, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed an efficient T-DNA-based gene delivery system using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transiently express BMV RNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana. The expressed RNAs can systemically infect plants and provide material to extract BMV replicase that can perform template-dependent RNA-dependent RNA synthesis in vitro. We also expressed the four BMV-encoded proteins from nonreplicating RNAs and analyzed their effects on BMV RNA accumulation. The capsid protein that coinfiltrated with constructs expressing RNA1 and RNA2 suppressed minus-strand levels but increased plus-strand RNA accumulation. The replication proteins 1a and 2a could function in trans to replicate and transcribe the BMV RNAs. None of the BMV proteins or RNA could efficiently suppress posttranscriptional silencing. However, 1a expressed in trans will suppress the production of a recombinant green fluorescent protein expressed from the nontranslated portions of BMV RNA1 and RNA2, suggesting that 1a may regulate translation from BMV RNAs. BMV replicase proteins 1a did not affect the accumulation of the BMV RNAs in the absence of RNA replication, unlike the situation reported for S. cerevisiae. This work demonstrates that the Agrobacterium-mediated gene delivery system can be used to study the cis- and trans-acting requirements for BMV RNA replication in plants and that significant differences can exist for BMV RNA replication in different hosts. PMID:16254357

  3. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  4. Induction of cells differentiation and ABC transporters expression by a myco-estrogen, zearalenone, in human choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo).

    PubMed

    Prouillac, Caroline; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

    2009-09-19

    The mycotoxin zearalenone, produced by Fusarium species, is a worldwide contaminant of concern in cereals and other plant products. Due to its estrogenic activity, zearalenone (ZEA) is known to have toxicological effect in animals on reproductive system and the placental transfer of ZEA was suggested by in vivo studies. Although passive diffusion is the principal transport mechanism across the placenta, several carrier-mediated transport protein such as ABC transporter (P-gp, MRP1, MRP2, BCRP) have been identified in the placenta. In this work, we have investigated the effect of ZEA on trophoblast differentiation and ABC transporter expression by using an in vitro model of transplacental barrier, the BeWo cell line. In the presence of 10 microM ZEA morphological (syncytium formation) and biochemical (hCG secretion) differentiation of BeWo cells were observed after a 48h exposure. Results were compared to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and an inducer of syncytialisation (forskolin). The influence of cell differentiation and ZEA exposure on expression profiles of major ABC transporters was investigated in BeWo cells: expression of mRNA MRP1, MRP2 and BCRP was induced after 24h of ZEA exposure. Induction of P-gp, MRP1, and MRP2 protein was observed after 48h of ZEA exposure. Similar results were obtained after forskolin exposure. Our study reported for the first time the implication of a food contaminant in biological effect and ABC transporter expression modulation in human choriocarcinoma cells. PMID:19580841

  5. Development of an expression system for eukarytoic proteins in methylotropic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstrom, M.E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an expression vector for methylotrophic bacteria for use in the production of C{sup 13} and H{sup 2} labelled eukaryotic proteins by growing methylotrophic bacteria on labelled methanol or methylamine. The eukaryotic proteins calmodulin and troponin C were chosen as test cases. Genes encoding both proteins were cloned into different constructions and tested for expression. Moderate amounts of troponin C were found with one of the constructions.

  6. Expression and immunological analysis of capsid protein precursor of swine vesicular disease virus HK\\/70

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Tian; Jing-yan Wu; You-jun Shang; Shuang-hui Ying; Hai-xue Zheng; Xiang-tao Liu

    2010-01-01

    VP1, a capsid protein of swine vesicular disease virus, was cloned from the SVDV HK\\/70 strain and inserted into retroviral\\u000a vector pBABE puro, and expressed in PK15 cells by an retroviral expression system. The ability of the VP1 protein to induce\\u000a an immune response was then evaluated in guinea pigs. Western blot and ELISA results indicated that the VP1 protein

  7. Survivin protein expression in bovine follicular oocytes and their in vitro developmental competence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kilsoo Jeon; Eun Young Kim; Jin Cheol Tae; Chang Hyun Lee; Keum Sil Lee; Yeon Ok Kim; Dong Kee Jeong; Somi K. Cho; Jae Hoon Kim; Hyo Yeon Lee; Key Zung Riu; Ssang Goo Cho; Se Pill Park

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between survivin expression and the stage of development of in vitro cultured bovine oocytes and embryos; and whether survivin expression is affected by the quality of cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCS) or the quality of pre-implantation embryos. A polyclonal antibody was prepared using recombinant bovine survivin protein. Expression of survivin mRNA and protein was analyzed by real-time

  8. p53 protein expression in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabha B. Rajan; David J. Scott; Robert H. Perry; Clive D. M. Griffith

    1997-01-01

    Abnormalities in p53 gene expression have been implicated in many inherited and sporadic forms of malignancies in humans. Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibody D0–7 for the p53 protein expression was performed in 81 cases of pure DCIS, 14 benign breast lesions and 2 cases with normal breast tissue. Expression of p53 protein was detected in 15 (18.5%) cases of pure

  9. Borrelia burgdorferi Proteins Whose Expression Is Similarly Affected by Culture Temperature and pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAMESH RAMAMOORTHY; DOROTHY SCHOLL-MEEKER

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we had demonstrated the upregulation in the expression of several proteins, including the lipoproteins OspC and P35, of Borrelia burgdorferi in the stationary growth phase. Since the expression of OspC is also known to be affected by culture temperature and pH, we examined the effects of both variables on the expression of the remaining stationary-phase-upregulated proteins. Our study revealed

  10. Expression of ERG protein in prostate cancer: variability and biological correlates.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Gustavo; Frolov, Anna; Chatterjee, Deyali; He, Dandan; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Ittmann, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death of men in the USA. The TMPRSS2/ERG (T/E) fusion gene is present in approximately 50% of prostate cancers and promotes tumor progression in vivo. The presence of the T/E fusion gene is strongly associated with the expression of ERG protein, but emerging evidence indicates a significant interfocal and intrafocal variability in the levels of ERG protein expression. We therefore analyzed ERG protein expression by image analysis to objectively quantitate the extent of such heterogeneity, and confirmed significant interfocal and intrafocal variability of ERG protein expression levels in cancer expressing ERG. To define the pathways associated with ERG and its variable expression in prostate cancer, we have analyzed the correlations of ERG expression, as evaluated by immunohistochemistry, with 46 key proteins associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and other processes using a large tissue microarray with more than 500 prostate cancers. We found a significant correlation of ERG expression with the markers of activation of the PI3K, MYC, and NF?B pathways, which had previously been linked directly or indirectly to ERG expression. We have also identified significant correlations with novel proteins that have not been previously linked to ERG expression, including serum response factor, the p160 coactivator SRC1, and Sprouty1. Notably, SKP2 only correlated with a high level of ERG protein expression. Thus ERG expression is variable in prostate cancer and is associated with activation of multiple pathways and proteins including several potentially targetable pathways. PMID:25972242

  11. Differential analysis of protein expression in RNA-binding-protein transgenic and parental rice seeds cultivated under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Rika; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Adachi, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Yamada, Akiyo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2014-02-01

    Transgenic plants tolerant to various environmental stresses are being developed to ensure a consistent food supply. We used a transgenic rice cultivar with high saline tolerance by introducing an RNA-binding protein (RBP) from the ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum); differences in salt-soluble protein expression between nontransgenic (NT) and RBP rice seeds were analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), a gel-based proteomic method. To identify RBP-related changes in protein expression under salt stress, NT and RBP rice were cultured with or without 200 mM sodium chloride. Only two protein spots differed between NT and RBP rice seeds cultured under normal conditions, one of which was identified as a putative abscisic acid-induced protein. In NT rice seeds, 91 spots significantly differed between normal and salt-stress conditions. Two allergenic proteins of NT rice seeds, RAG1 and RAG2, were induced by high salt. In contrast, RBP rice seeds yielded seven spots and no allergen spots with significant differences in protein expression between normal and salt-stress conditions. Therefore, expression of fewer proteins was altered in RBP rice seeds by high salt than those in NT rice seeds. PMID:24410502

  12. Insertion of the Designed Helical Linker Led to Increased Expression of Tf-Based Fusion Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurmamet Amet; Hsin-Fang Lee; Wei-Chiang Shen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To demonstrate a high-level expression of transferrin (Tf)-based fusion proteins by inserting a helical linker between two\\u000a protein domains.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Tf-based fusion proteins were designed to contain oligonucleotides encoding a helical linker inserted between the protein\\u000a domains. Plasmid constructs were transfected into HEK293 cells and the secreted fusion proteins were purified from conditioned\\u000a serum free media. Expression was assessed using both

  13. Using Biological Networks in Protein Function Prediction and Gene Expression Analysis

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    Using Biological Networks in Protein Function Prediction and Gene Expression Analysis Limsoon Wong. This paper presents a review on biological network databases and on approaches to protein function prediction@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract While sequence homology search has been the main work horse in protein function prediction

  14. Multigene expression of protein complexes by iterative modification of genomic Bacmid DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob J Noad; Meredith Stewart; Mark Boyce; Cristina C Celma; Keith R Willison; Polly Roy

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many cellular multi-protein complexes are naturally present in cells at low abundance. Baculovirus expression offers one approach to produce milligram quantities of correctly folded and processed eukaryotic protein complexes. However, current strategies suffer from the need to produce large transfer vectors, and the use of repeated promoter sequences in baculovirus, which itself produces proteins that promote homologous recombination. One

  15. PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND PURIFICATION 11, 116 (1997) ARTICLE NO. PT970767

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    1997-01-01

    PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND PURIFICATION 11, 1­16 (1997) ARTICLE NO. PT970767 REVIEW Affinity Fusion Strategies for Detection, Purification, and Immobilization of Recombinant Proteins Joakim Nilsson,1 Stefan products. Fusion industrial production of recombinant proteins, simple and fast purification methods

  16. A generic protocol for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using a

    E-print Network

    A generic protocol for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli for the overproduction and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The strategy utilizes a dual His6 the yield and solubility of the target protein; and (iii) the large-scale production and purification

  17. The FASEB Journal Research Communication Heterologous expression of functional G-protein-coupled

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    purification membrane proteins Modern pharmaceutical research relies increas- ingly on structural informationThe FASEB Journal · Research Communication Heterologous expression of functional G-protein-spanning G-protein-coupled re- ceptors (GPCRs) are constantly being developed because of their importance

  18. A Cadherin-like Protein in Eggs and Cleaving Embryos of XenopuslaevisIs Expressed in

    E-print Network

    Sehgal, Ravinder

    A Cadherin-like Protein in Eggs and Cleaving Embryos of XenopuslaevisIs Expressed in Oocytes Francisco, California94143 Abstract. A new cadherin-like protein (CLP) was identified in oocytes, eggs, and cleavage stage embryos of Xenopus laevis. As a probe for detecting new cadherin proteins, an antiserum

  19. Involvement of short-lived proteins in the regulation of expression of the LH recep-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , cells exhibited a transient over-expression of the LH receptor upon treatment with cycloheximideInvolvement of short-lived proteins in the regulation of expression of the LH recep- tor. B Goxe, R Jouy en-Josas Cedex, France) The expression of the LH receptor can be in- duced in porcine granulosa

  20. Gene 221 (1998) 3543 Cloning vectors for the expression of green fluorescent protein fusion

    E-print Network

    Deng, Xing-Wang

    1998-01-01

    Gene 221 (1998) 35­43 Cloning vectors for the expression of green fluorescent protein fusion. Martin Abstract A series of versatile cloning vectors has been constructed that facilitate the expression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and after transient expression in onion epidermal cells. Using tandem dimers

  1. Expression of microtubule-associated protein tau by gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of various antigens, including the protein tau associated with enteric neuronal differentiation; to compare their expression with that of c-kit, known to be associated with interstitial cell of Cajal differentiation; and to correlate their expression with the observation of ultrastructural features of gastrointestinal autonomic nerve

  2. Myomesin and M-protein: expression of two M-band proteins in pectoral muscle and heart during development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA KAY GROVE; LISBETH CERNY; JEAN-CLAUDE PERRIARD; HANS M. EPPENBERGER

    1985-01-01

    The expression of the myofibrillar M-band proteins myomesin and M-protein was studied in chicken pectoral muscle and heart during differentiation using monoclonal antibod- ies in a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. In presumptive pectoral muscle, myomesin accumulated first, increas- ing from 2% of the adult concentration at day 7 to 70% by day 16 in ovo. M-protein

  3. Evolved Lactococcus lactis strains for enhanced expression of recombinant membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Linares, Daniel M; Geertsma, Eric R; Poolman, Bert

    2010-08-01

    The production of complex multidomain (membrane) proteins is a major hurdle in structural genomics and a generic approach for optimizing membrane protein expression is still lacking. We have devised a selection method to isolate mutant strains with improved functional expression of recombinant membrane proteins. By fusing green fluorescent protein and an erythromycin resistance marker (ErmC) to the C-terminus of a target protein, one simultaneously selects for variants with enhanced expression (increased erythromycin resistance) and correct folding (green fluorescent protein fluorescence). Three evolved hosts, displaying 2- to 8-fold increased expression of a plethora of proteins, were fully sequenced and shown to carry single-site mutations in the nisK gene. NisK is the sensor protein of a two-component regulatory system that directs nisin-A-mediated expression. The levels of recombinant membrane proteins were increased in the evolved strains, and in some cases their folding states were improved. The generality and simplicity of our approach allow rapid improvements of protein production yields by directed evolution in a high-throughput way. PMID:20542040

  4. A mammalian germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein interacts with ubiquitously expressed proteins involved in splice site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David J.; Bourgeois, Cyril F.; Klink, Albrecht; Stévenin, James; Cooke, Howard J.

    2000-05-01

    RNA-binding motif (RBM) genes are found on all mammalian Y chromosomes and are implicated in spermatogenesis. Within human germ cells, RBM protein shows a similar nuclear distribution to components of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. To address the function of RBM, we have used protein-protein interaction assays to test for possible physical interactions between these proteins. We find that RBM protein directly interacts with members of the SR family of splicing factors and, in addition, strongly interacts with itself. We have mapped the protein domains responsible for mediating these interactions and expressed the mouse RBM interaction region as a bacterial fusion protein. This fusion protein can pull-down several functionally active SR protein species from cell extracts. Depletion and add-back experiments indicate that these SR proteins are the only splicing factors bound by RBM which are required for the splicing of a panel of pre-mRNAs. Our results suggest that RBM protein is an evolutionarily conserved mammalian splicing regulator which operates as a germ cell-specific cofactor for more ubiquitously expressed pre-mRNA splicing activators.

  5. Expression of synthetic human tropoelastin (hTE) protein in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Abdelghani, Mona; El-Heba, Ghada A Abu; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2015-01-01

    Plant molecular farming (PMF) is an important growing prospective approach in plant biotechnology; it includes production of recombinant pharmaceutical and industrial proteins in large quantities from engineered plants. Elastin is a major protein component of tissues that require elasticity, it helps keep skin smooth as it stretches to allow normal.  Elastin is used as a raw material for the cosmetic industry. In this work, we aimed to use plant as a bioreactor for the expression and production of the full human tropoelastin protein. Agrobacterium- mediated transient expression system into Nicotiana tabacum using syringe agroinfiltration was used to provide fast and convenient way to produce recombinant proteins with greater expression overall the plant leaf. This study aimed to establish an efficient and rapid system for transiently expression and production of human recombinant tropoelastin protein in transgenic N. tabacum plants. Modified elastin (ELN) gene was biosynthesized and cloned into pCambia1390 vector to be used into N. tabacum agroinfilteration. Optimization of codon usage for the human tropoelastin gene, without changing the primary structure of the protein was carried out to ensure high expression in tobacco plants. The obtained data proved that the 5(th) day post-infiltration is the optimum interval to obtain the maximum production of our recombinant protein. Southern blot analysis was able to detect 2175 bp fragment length representing the ELN orf (open reding frame). On the other hand, ELN -expression within plant's tissue was visualized by RT-PCR during the period 3-10 days post agroinfiltration. At the protein level, western and ELISA confirmed the expression of recombinant tropoelastin protein. Western blot analysis detected the tropoelastin protein as parent band at ?70 kDa from freshly extracted protein, while two degraded bands of ?55 and ?45 kDa, representing a pattern of tropoelastin were appeared with frozen samples. This study showed that biosynthetic ELN gene was successfully expressed into N. tabacum leaves using agroinfiltration technique. PMID:25984768

  6. Identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Essential proteins are vitally important for cellular survival and development, and identifying essential proteins is very meaningful research work in the post-genome era. Rapid increase of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has made it possible to detect protein essentiality at the network level. A series of centrality measures have been proposed to discover essential proteins based on the PPI networks. However, the PPI data obtained from large scale, high-throughput experiments generally contain false positives. It is insufficient to use original PPI data to identify essential proteins. How to improve the accuracy, has become the focus of identifying essential proteins. In this paper, we proposed a framework for identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression. Firstly, we process the dynamic gene expression profiles by using time-dependent model and time-independent model. Secondly, we construct an active PPI network based on co-expressed genes. Lastly, we apply six classical centrality measures in the active PPI network. For the purpose of comparison, other prediction methods are also performed to identify essential proteins based on the active PPI network. The experimental results on yeast network show that identifying essential proteins based on the active PPI network can improve the performance of centrality measures considerably in terms of the number of identified essential proteins and identification accuracy. At the same time, the results also indicate that most of essential proteins are active. PMID:25707432

  7. Can "normal" protein expression ranges be estimated with high-throughput proteomics?

    PubMed

    Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    Although biological science discovery often involves comparing conditions to a normal state, in proteomics little is actually known about normal. Two Human Proteome studies featured in Nature offer new insights into protein expression and an opportunity to assess how high-throughput proteomics measures normal protein ranges. We use data from these studies to estimate technical and biological variability in protein expression and compare them to other expression data sets from normal tissue. Results show that measured protein expression across same-tissue replicates vary by ±4- to 10-fold for most proteins. Coefficients of variation (CV) for protein expression measurements range from 62% to 117% across different tissue experiments; however, adjusting for technical variation reduced this variability by as much as 50%. In addition, the CV could also be reduced by limiting comparisons to proteins with at least 3 or more unique peptide identifications as the CV was on average 33% lower than for proteins with 2 or fewer peptide identifications. We also selected 13 housekeeping proteins and genes that were expressed across all tissues with low variability to determine their utility as a reference set for normalization and comparative purposes. These results present the first step toward estimating normal protein ranges by determining the variability in expression measurements through combining publicly available data. They support an approach that combines standard protocols with replicates of normal tissues to estimate normal protein ranges for large numbers of proteins and tissues. This would be a tremendous resource for normal cellular physiology and comparisons of proteomics studies. PMID:25877823

  8. Differential Expression of Mitogen Activating Protein Kinases in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Travan, Sunica; Li, Fei; D’Silva, Nisha J.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Kirkwood, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Following toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can stimulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines thus activating the innate immune response. The production of inflammatory cytokines results, in part, from the activation of kinase-induced signaling cascades and transcriptional factors. Of the four distinct classes of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases described in mammals, p38, c-Jun N-terminal activated kinases (JNK1-3) and extracellular activated kinases (ERK1,2) are the best studied. Previous data has established that p38 MAPK signaling is required for inflammation and bone loss in periodontal disease preclinical animal models. Materials and Methods In the present study, we obtained healthy and diseased periodontal tissues along with clinical parameters and microbiological parameters. Excised fixed tissues were immunostained with total and phospho-specific antibodies against p38, JNK, and ERK kinases. Results Intensity scoring from immunostained tissues was correlated with clinical periodontal parameters. Rank correlations with clinical indices were statistically significantly positive (p-value < 0.05) for total p38 (correlations ranging 0.49–0.68), phospho-p38 (range 0.44–0.56), and total ERK (range 0.52–0.59) levels, and correlations with JNK levels also supported association (range 0.42–0.59). Phospho-JNK and phospho-ERK showed no significant positive correlation with clinical parameters of disease. Conclusion These data strongly implicate p38 MAPK as a major MAPK involved in human periodontal inflammation and severity. PMID:23742695

  9. Expression of hunchback protein in a subset of ectodermal teloblasts of the oligochaete annelid Tubifex.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takashi; Savage, Robert M

    2002-12-01

    The early expression patterns of hunchback protein (T-hb protein) were examined in the oligochaete Tubifex, using an antibody raised to the LZF2 protein in leech. This antibody recognizes a 60-kDa polypeptide in the Tubifex embryo. Before teloblastogenesis, T-hb protein is expressed in every cleavage-stage blastomere. At the completion of teloblastogenesis, the only cells expressing T-hb are a fraction of the micromere-derived epithelial cells. During gastrulation, nuclear T-hb is seen in spreading micromere-derived epithelial cells and also in a subset of ectodermal teloblasts. Comparisons of these results with those from other annelids suggest that hb expression in the early cleavage blastomeres and the micromere-derived epithelium are features highly conserved among annelids. In contrast, hb expression in teloblasts appears to be an innovation evolved in the oligochaetes. PMID:12459920

  10. Protein expression profiles of intestinal epithelial co-cultures: effect of functionalised carbon nanotube exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xianyin; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L.; Clack, James W.; Fears, Sharry L.; Mitra, Somenath; Ntim, Susana Addo; Ringham, Heather N.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the biological effects of low level, water dispersible, functionalised carbon nanotube (f-CNT) exposure in an in vitro model simulating the digestive tract, cellular protein expression was quantified and compared using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS). Co-cultured cells were exposed to well-characterised SWCNT-COOH, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-PVP. The relative expression of 2,282 unique proteins was compared across the dose groups. 428 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. At the high dose, the extent of differential protein expression was CNT-specific and directly related to CNT colloidal stability. Cells responded to low level MWCNT-PVP exposure with three-fold greater differential expression. Bioinformatic analysis indicated significant and f-CNT-specific effects on relevant molecular and cellular functions and canonical pathways, with little overlap across f-CNT type and in the absence of overt toxicity. PMID:24228069

  11. Evolution of the Correlation between Expression Divergence and Protein Divergence in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Warnefors, Maria; Kaessmann, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Divergence of protein sequences and gene expression patterns are two fundamental mechanisms that generate organismal diversity. Here, we have used genome and transcriptome data from eight mammals and one bird to study the positive correlation of these two processes throughout mammalian evolution. We demonstrate that the correlation is stable over time and most pronounced in neural tissues, which indicates that it is the result of strong negative selection. The correlation is not driven by genes with specific functions and may instead best be viewed as an evolutionary default state, which can nevertheless be evaded by certain gene types. In particular, genes with developmental and neural functions are skewed toward changes in gene expression, consistent with selection against pleiotropic effects associated with changes in protein sequences. Surprisingly, we find that the correlation between expression divergence and protein divergence is not explained by between-gene variation in expression level, tissue specificity, protein connectivity, or other investigated gene characteristics, suggesting that it arises independently of these gene traits. The selective constraints on protein sequences and gene expression patterns also fluctuate in a coordinate manner across phylogenetic branches: We find that gene-specific changes in the rate of protein evolution in a specific mammalian lineage tend to be accompanied by similar changes in the rate of expression evolution. Taken together, our findings highlight many new aspects of the correlation between protein divergence and expression divergence, and attest to its role as a fundamental property of mammalian genome evolution. PMID:23781097

  12. Increased Expression and Protein Divergence in Duplicate Genes Is Associated with Morphological Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Hanada, Kousuke; Kuromori, Takashi; Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The differentiation of both gene expression and protein function is thought to be important as a mechanism of the functionalization of duplicate genes. However, it has not been addressed whether expression or protein divergence of duplicate genes is greater in those genes that have undergone functionalization compared with those that have not. We examined a total of 492 paralogous gene pairs associated with morphological diversification in a plant model organism (Arabidopsis thaliana). Classifying these paralogous gene pairs into high, low, and no morphological diversification groups, based on knock-out data, we found that the divergence rate of both gene expression and protein sequences were significantly higher in either high or low morphological diversification groups compared with those in the no morphological diversification group. These results strongly suggest that the divergence of both expression and protein sequence are important sources for morphological diversification of duplicate genes. Although both mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, our analysis suggested that changes of expression pattern play the minor role (33%–41%) and that changes of protein sequence play the major role (59%–67%) in morphological diversification. Finally, we examined to what extent duplicate genes are associated with expression or protein divergence exerting morphological diversification at the whole-genome level. Interestingly, duplicate genes randomly chosen from A. thaliana had not experienced expression or protein divergence that resulted in morphological diversification. These results indicate that most duplicate genes have experienced minor functionalization. PMID:20041196

  13. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  14. Mechanisms and functional consequences of PDEF protein expression loss during prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Turner, David P; Findlay, Victoria J; Moussa, Omar; Semenchenko, Victor I.; Watson, Patricia M.; LaRue, Amanda C.; Desouki, Mohamed M; Fraig, Mostafa; Watson, Dennis K

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ets is a large family of transcriptional regulators with functions in most biological processes. While the Ets family gene, PDEF (prostate derived epithelial factor), is expressed in epithelial tissues, PDEF protein expression has been found to be reduced or lost during cancer progression. The goal of this study was to examine the mechanism for and biologic impact of altered PDEF expression in prostate cancer. METHODS PDEF protein expression of prostate specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry. RNA and protein expression in cell lines were measured by q-PCR and western blot, respectively. Cellular growth was determined by quantifying viable and apoptotic cells over time. Cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. Migration and invasion were determined by transwell assays. PDEF promoter occupancy was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). RESULTS While normal prostate epithelium expresses PDEF mRNA and protein, tumors show no or decreased PDEF protein expression. Re-expression of PDEF in prostate cancer cells inhibits cell growth. PDEF expression is inversely correlated with survivin, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and slug expression and ChIP studies identify survivin and uPA as direct transcriptional targets of PDEF. This study also shows that PDEF expression is regulated via a functional microRNA-204 (miR-204) binding site within the 3’UTR. Furthermore, we demonstrate the biologic significance of miR-204 expression and that miR-204 is over-expressed in human prostate cancer specimens. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, the reported studies demonstrate that PDEF is a negative regulator of tumor progression and that the miR-204-PDEF regulatory axis contributes to PDEF protein loss and resultant cancer progression. PMID:21446014

  15. Expression of membrane proteins in the eyes of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, Yvonne; Joedicke, Lisa; Panneels, Valérie; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, improved protein expression and crystallization strategies, as well as advanced synchrotron radiation sources and crystallographic tools considerably increased the number of crystal structures of integral membrane proteins from higher eukaryotes. However, seen as a proportion of the total number of candidate proteins, these achievements still appear meager, reflecting the huge effort that is often required to obtain high-level and functional expression of eukaryotic membrane proteins. Besides bacteria, yeast, insect, or mammalian cells are frequently used for heterologous expression, but despite considerable investments in time, labor, and money, there are numerous drawbacks to these systems. Are there other strategies that allow for an effective, large-scale production of functional membrane proteins? This chapter describes the expression of proteins in photoreceptor cells of transgenic Drosophila as an easily accessible, versatile alternative. We present step-by-step protocols starting from the cloning of the target gene into a suitable vector for fly eye expression and ending with the harvest of transgenic Drosophila and subsequent protein purification from the eye. Our examples span a number of eukaryotic membrane proteins from different classes-including receptors, transporters, channels, and enzymes-that were successfully expressed without further optimization. The protocols provided here are robust and straightforward to follow even without prior experience in Drosophila work. PMID:25857784

  16. Identification of differentially expressed proteins between bull X and Y spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoli; Zhu, Huabin; Wu, Chengjiang; Han, Weidong; Hao, Haisheng; Zhao, Xueming; Du, Weihua; Qin, Tong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Dong

    2012-12-21

    Differential expression of genes leads to variation in phenotypes of X and Y sperm, even though some differential gene products are shared through an intercellular bridge. Differentially expressed proteins between X and Y sperm sorted from semen of nine bulls were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Overall, 663±12 and 647±22 protein spots were detected in X sperm and Y sperm, respectively, and 42 significant protein spots were differentially expressed between them (P<0.05). Sixteen of these protein spots were successfully identified by MS and tandem MS and were found to be closely relevant to energy metabolism, stress resistance, cytoskeletal structure and the activity of serine proteases. Expression levels of two of these proteins, CAPZB and UQCRC1, were verified by Western blot. We propose that these differentially expressed proteins may affect the phenotype of X and Y sperm, binding and fusion of sperm/oocyte and development of the zygotic embryo. Our preliminary results provide an overview of differential expression in total protein levels between X and Y spermatozoa. Identification of these altered proteins may provide a theoretical basis for understanding the biological differences between the two types of sperm. PMID:22820535

  17. Expression of the actin stress fiber-associated protein CLP36 in the human placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Miehe; Mamed Kadyrov; Peruka Neumaier-Wagner; Clemens Bartz; Werner Rath; Berthold Huppertz

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation processes in the trophoblast comprise polarization, cell fusion and migration. All these processes involve dramatic reorganizations of cytoskeletal proteins such as intermediate filaments or actin. Due to very restricted knowledge on cytoskeletal changes in trophoblast, we analyzed the protein expression of an actin stress fiber-associated protein, the carboxy-terminal LIM domain protein (CLP36). CLP36 belongs to the enigma family of

  18. Expression and Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine\\/Threonine Protein Kinase PknB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOSSEF AV-GAY; SARWAT JAMIL; STEVEN J. DREWS

    1999-01-01

    PknB is a member of the newly discovered eukaryotic-like protein serine\\/threonine kinase (PSTK) family of proteins. The pknB gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The active recombinant protein was purified and shown to be reactive with antiphosphoserine antibodies, as well as with antibodies to the phosphorylated eukaryotic Ser\\/Thr kinases mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 and 6, P38, and

  19. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins in mature and germinated maize pollen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunhao Zhu; Pengfei Zhao; Xiaolin Wu; Wei Wang; Monica Scali; Mauro Cresti

    2011-01-01

    The identification of proteins involved in pollen germination and tube growth is important for fundamental studies of fertility\\u000a and reproduction in flowering plants. We used 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS to identify differentially expressed proteins in mature\\u000a (P0) and 1-h germinated (P1) maize pollen. Among about 470 proteins separated in 2D gels, the abundances of 26 protein spots\\u000a changed (up- or down-regulation)

  20. Expression of a Chlamydia anticarbohydrate single-chain antibody as a maltose binding fusion protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Malinowski; Mary Gourley; Susan Edelstein; Robert E. Pearson

    1992-01-01

    A single-chain antibody fragment has been constructed for an antibody that binds to theChlamydia specific carbohydrate structure of the lipopolysaccharide. Single-chain protein was expressed and secreted into the periplasmic\\u000a space ofE. coli as a fusion protein with the maltose binding protein. The fusion protein was purified in one step by virtue of its ability\\u000a to bind to maltose. In a

  1. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein in L1210/VCR cells is associated with changes in several endoplasmic reticulum proteins that may be partially responsible for the lack of thapsigargin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Seres, M; Poláková, E; Krizanová, O; Hudecová, S; Klymenko, S V; Breier, A; Sulová, Z

    2008-09-01

    L1210/VCR cells, which express an abundant amount of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), were found to be resistant to thapsigargin--an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA). In the current paper, we have studied the possible differences among L1210 and L1210/VCR cells in expression of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and calcium-dependent processes. Amounts of mRNA encoding both calcium release channels (ryanodine receptor channels--RyR and IP3-receptor channels--IP3R) were found to be at similar levels in sensitive and resistant cells. However, mRNAs encoding IP3R1 or 2 were decreased in resistant cells cultivated in the presence of VCR (1.08 micromol/l), while mRNA encoding RyR remained unchanged. The amount of mRNA for SERCA2 was decreased in resistant cells when compared with sensitive cells. This decrease was more pronounced when resistant cells were cultivated in the presence of vincristine (VCR). Calnexin was found to be less expressed at the protein level in resistant as in sensitive cells. The level of mRNA encoding calnexin was decreased only when resistant cells were cultivated in the presence of VCR. Calnexin was found to be associated with immature P-gp in resistant cells. Thus, differences exist between sensitive and resistant cells in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involved in the control of intracellular calcium homeostasis or calcium-dependent processes. These changes may be at least partially responsible for the lack of sensitivity of resistant cells to thapsigargin. PMID:18981537

  2. Expression of the neoplastic phenotype by human thyroid carcinoma cell lines requires NF?B p65 protein expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Visconti; Janete Cerutti; Sabrina Battista; Monica Fedele; Francesco Trapasso; Kazuya Zeki; Maria Pia Miano; Filomena de Nigris; Laura Casalino; Francesco Curcio; Massimo Santoro; Alfredo Fusco

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the NF?B complex in the process of thyroid carcinogenesis by analysing thyroid carcinoma cell lines. A significant increase in p65 NF?B mRNA and protein expression, compared to normal thyroid cultures or tissue, was found in all of the cancer cell lines. Conversely, only a modest increase in the p50 NF?B mRNA and protein was

  3. Expression of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 Protein in Malignant Cutaneous Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Yong; Kim, Jin Young; Wee, Seo Yeong; Lee, Jang Hyun; Nam, Doo Hyun; Cho, Moon Kyun; Lee, Yoon Jin; Nam, Hae Seon; Lee, Sang Han; Cho, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages cell molecules, and modifies cell signaling. The nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) is a critical transcription regulator, which protects cells against oxidative damage. Nrf2 expression is increased in a large number of cancers. However, little information has been reported regarding the expression of Nrf2 in skin cancers. Hence, we explored the expression of Nrf2 protein in skin cancers. Methods The Nrf2 protein expression in 24 specimens, including 6 malignant melanomas (MM), 6 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 6 basal cell carcinomas (BCC), and 6 normal skin tissues, was evaluated by western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining was performed. The expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), the key regulator of Nrf2, was also analyzed by western blotting. Results Small interfering RNA transfection to the melanoma cell line G361 confirmed that an approximately 66 kDa band was the true Nrf2 band. The western blot revealed that the Nrf2 protein was definitely expressed in normal skin tissues, but the Nrf2 expression was decreased in MM, SCC, and BCC. Immunohistochemical examination showed that expression of Nrf2 was decreased in all skin cancer tissues compared to the normal skin tissues. Keap1 was not expressed in all malignant skin tumors and normal skin tissues by western blot. Conclusions ROS was increased in various types of cancers which proteins were highly expressed or underexpressed. This study demonstrated that the expression of Nrf2 protein was down-regulated in human malignant skin tumors. We suggest that decreased expression of Nrf2 is related to skin cancers. PMID:25396176

  4. Effects of nucleoid-associated proteins on bacterial chromosome structure and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Browning, Douglas F; Grainger, David C; Busby, Stephen Jw

    2010-12-01

    Bacterial nucleoid-associated proteins play a key role in the organisation, replication, segregation, repair and expression of bacterial chromosomes. Here, we review some recent progress in our understanding of the effects of these proteins on DNA and their biological role, focussing mainly on Escherichia coli and its chromosome. Certain nucleoid-associated proteins also regulate transcription initiation at specific promoters, and work in concert with dedicated transcription factors to regulate gene expression in response to growth phase and environmental change. Some specific examples, involving the E. coli IHF and Fis proteins, that illustrate new principles, are described in detail. PMID:20951079

  5. Expression and immunological analysis of capsid protein precursor of swine vesicular disease virus HK/70.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong; Wu, Jing-yan; Shang, You-jun; Ying, Shuang-hui; Zheng, Hai-xue; Liu, Xiang-tao

    2010-06-01

    VP1, a capsid protein of swine vesicular disease virus, was cloned from the SVDV HK/70 strain and inserted into retroviral vector pBABE puro, and expressed in PK15 cells by an retroviral expression system. The ability of the VP1 protein to induce an immune response was then evaluated in guinea pigs. Western blot and ELISA results indicated that the VP1 protein can be recognized by SVDV positive serum, Furthermore, anti-SVDV specific antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation were elicited and increased by VP1 protein after vaccination. These results encourage further work towards the development of a vaccine against SVDV infection. PMID:20960295

  6. Analysis of disease-associated protein expression using quantitative proteomics-fibulin-5 is expressed in association with hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Thilo; Schweinsberg, Vincent; Trippler, Martin; Kohl, Michael; Ahrens, Maike; Padden, Juliet; Naboulsi, Wael; Barkovits, Katalin; Megger, Dominik A; Eisenacher, Martin; Borchers, Christoph H; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis are major health problems worldwide. Until now, highly invasive biopsy remains the diagnostic gold standard despite many disadvantages. To develop noninvasive diagnostic assays for the assessment of liver fibrosis, it is urgently necessary to identify molecules that are robustly expressed in association with the disease. We analyzed biopsied tissue samples from 95 patients with HBV/HCV-associated hepatic fibrosis using three different quantification methods. We performed a label-free proteomics discovery study to identify novel disease-associated proteins using a subset of the cohort (n = 27). Subsequently, gene expression data from all available clinical samples were analyzed (n = 77). Finally, we performed a targeted proteomics approach, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), to verify the disease-associated expression in samples independent from the discovery approach (n = 68). We identified fibulin-5 (FBLN5) as a novel protein expressed in relation to hepatic fibrosis. Furthermore, we confirmed the altered expression of microfibril-associated glycoprotein 4 (MFAP4), lumican (LUM), and collagen alpha-1(XIV) chain (COL14A1) in association to hepatic fibrosis. To our knowledge, no tissue-based quantitative proteomics study for hepatic fibrosis has been performed using a cohort of comparable size. By this means, we add substantial evidence for the disease-related expression of the proteins examined in this study. PMID:25807371

  7. Receptor-associated protein promotes t-PA expression, reduces PAI-1 expression and improves neurorecovery after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan-Dong; Pang, Hong-Gang; Song, Jin-Ning; Zhao, Yong-Lin; Zhang, Bin-Fei; Ma, Xu-Dong; Sun, Peng

    2015-03-15

    Receptor-associated protein (RAP) is a receptor antagonist that inhibits ligand interactions with the receptors that belong to the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) has a crucial role in regulating tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) expression. Furthermore, the functional balance of these two proteins is directly associated with the initiation and development of cerebral ischemic stroke. In the present study, the effect of RAP post-treatment was investigated in a rat autologous thromboembolic model. The expression and activity of t-PA and PAI-1 were detected and the neurological function was tested. The results suggest that post-treatment with RAP is able to improve neurorecovery after ischemic stroke by decreasing vascular damage and regulating t-PA and PAI-1 expressions. Post-treatment with RAP promotes t-PA expression, suppresses PAI-1 expression, significantly improves functional outcomes and decreases the amount of TUNEL-positive cells. RAP-treated rats show lower intracranial hemoglobin levels and a smaller ischemic zone. In conclusion, post-treatment with RAP regulates t-PA and PAI-1 expressions and thereby contributes to the improvement of functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia. Our findings strongly suggest that RAP may be of value in neurorecovery after stroke. PMID:25702149

  8. [Ribosomal protein genes highly expressed in swamp eel gonads].

    PubMed

    Shang, Xuan; He, Yan; Zhang, Lei; He, Chun-Jiang; Xia, Lai-Xin; Gao, Shang; Guo, Yi-Qing; Cheng, Han-Hua; Zhou, Rong-Jia

    2005-03-01

    8 cDNA clones have been isolated from a cDNA library prepared from swamp eel testies by macroarray. DNA sequence analysis and database search showed that they encode 8 proteins which are highly homologous to 40S ribosomal proteins S4,S9,S16,S17,S20 and 60S riobosomal proteins L7, L18a,L29. Phylogenetic trees (ML) based on ribosomal protein genes from swamp eel and other organisms has been reconstructed, which showed that ribosomal protein genes were highly conserved during evolution. These results suggested that ribosomal protein genes as house keeping genes may play roles in developmental regulation such as sexual differentiation and can also be used as markers for the study of molecular evolution. PMID:15843350

  9. Evidence of Prognostic Relevant Expression Profiles of Heat-Shock Proteins and Glucose-Regulated Proteins in Oesophageal Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Karina; Wolff, Claudia; Malinowsky, Katharina; Bauer, Lukas; Drecoll, Enken; Bettstetter, Marcus; Feith, Marcus; Walch, Axel; Höfler, Heinz; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Langer, Rupert

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage of oesophageal adenocarcinomas show an aggressive clinical behaviour with a significant resistance to chemotherapy. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) are molecular chaperones that play an important role in tumour biology. Recently, novel therapeutic approaches targeting HSP90/GRP94 have been introduced for treating cancer. We performed a comprehensive investigation of HSP and GRP expression including HSP27, phosphorylated (p)-HSP27(Ser15), p-HSP27(Ser78), p-HSP27(Ser82), HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, GRP78 and GRP94 in 92 primary resected oesophageal adenocarcinomas by using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). Results were correlated with pathologic features and survival. HSP/GRP protein and mRNA expression was detected in all tumours at various levels. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed two distinct groups of tumours with specific protein expression patterns: The hallmark of the first group was a high expression of p-HSP27(Ser15, Ser78, Ser82) and low expression of GRP78, GRP94 and HSP60. The second group showed the inverse pattern with low p-HSP27 and high GRP78, GRP94 and HSP60 expression. The clinical outcome for patients from the first group was significantly improved compared to patients from the second group, both in univariate analysis (p?=?0.015) and multivariate analysis (p?=?0.029). Interestingly, these two groups could not be distinguished by immunohistochemistry or qPCR analysis. In summary, two distinct and prognostic relevant HSP/GRP protein expression patterns in adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus were detected by RPPA. Our approach may be helpful for identifying candidates for specific HSP/GRP-targeted therapies. PMID:22911792

  10. Do cysteine residues regulate transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel protein expression?

    PubMed

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina; Förste, Nora; Wittstock, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine (HC) or acetylcysteine (ACC) affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patients with chronic renal failure had significantly elevated HC levels and TRPC6 mRNA expression levels in monocytes compared with control subjects. We further observed that administration of HC or ACC significantly increased TRPC6 channel protein expression compared with control conditions. We, therefore, hypothesize that cysteine residues increase TRPC6 channel protein expression in humans. PMID:22004559

  11. Rift Valley Fever Virus Structural and Nonstructural Proteins: Recombinant Protein Expression and Immunoreactivity Against Antisera from Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Faburay, Bonto; Wilson, William; McVey, D. Scott; Drolet, Barbara S.; Weingartl, Hana; Madden, Daniel; Young, Alan; Ma, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) encodes the structural proteins nucleoprotein (N), aminoterminal glycoprotein (Gn), carboxyterminal glycoprotein (Gc), and L protein, 78-kD, and the nonstructural proteins NSm and NSs. Using the baculovirus system, we expressed the full-length coding sequence of N, NSs, NSm, Gc, and the ectodomain of the coding sequence of the Gn glycoprotein derived from the virulent strain of RVFV ZH548. Western blot analysis using anti-His antibodies and monoclonal antibodies against Gn and N confirmed expression of the recombinant proteins, and in vitro biochemical analysis showed that the two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, were expressed in glycosylated form. Immunoreactivity profiles of the recombinant proteins in western blot and in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against a panel of antisera obtained from vaccinated or wild type (RVFV)-challenged sheep confirmed the results obtained with anti-His antibodies and demonstrated the suitability of the baculo-expressed antigens for diagnostic assays. In addition, these recombinant proteins could be valuable for the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). PMID:23962238

  12. Expression and characterization of a lepidopteran general odorant binding protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Feng; Glenn D. Prestwich

    1997-01-01

    Olfaction in moths involves the transport of volatile, hydrophobic odorant molecules through the aqueous interior of the antennal sensory hairs by soluble odorant binding proteins. Two subfamilies of the 17 kDa general odorant binding proteins, GOBP1 and GOBP2, are 47–57% identical to each other and 21–57% to the pheromone binding proteins (PBPs); identity within a GOBP subfamily exceeds 78% in

  13. Differential protein expression in the nucleus accumbens of high and low active mice.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David P; Dangott, Lawrence J; Vellers, Heather L; Schmitt, Emily E; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2015-09-15

    Physical inactivity is associated with the development of a variety of chronic illnesses. Literature has shown that physical activity is genetically regulated; however there is limited information on the mechanisms that influence this process with existing studies primarily focused on genomic and/or transcription association studies. There have been no studies to determine differential protein expression in the nucleus accumbens, the brain site thought to be involved in activity regulation, between high and low active animals. We compared the global nucleus accumbens proteome signature from known high- and low-active mice and identified seven differentially expressed proteins. Low active mice generally over expressed proteins associated with neural stress (Stress 70 protein and V type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A), and the high-active mice over expressed proteins associated with metabolism (creatine kinase B, succinyl-CoA ligase). Previously suggested mechanisms associated with activity regulation in the nucleus accumbens have centered on dopamine receptor 1 and endocannabinoid receptor 1. However, these proteins and the associated pathways were not differentially expressed between high and low active mice. In conclusion, protein expression must be determined as part of the effort to identify involved mechanisms in regulating activity and there appears to be separate nucleus accumbens proteome signatures associated with high- and low-active mice. PMID:26008157

  14. Rational design of a fusion partner for membrane protein expression in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jianying; Choulet, Julie; Samuelson, James C

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a novel protein fusion partner (P8CBD) to utilize the co-translational SRP pathway in order to target heterologous proteins to the E. coli inner membrane. SRP-dependence was demonstrated by analyzing the membrane translocation of P8CBD-PhoA fusion proteins in wt and SRP-ffh77 mutant cells. We also demonstrate that the P8CBD N-terminal fusion partner promotes over-expression of a Thermotoga maritima polytopic membrane protein by replacement of the native signal anchor sequence. Furthermore, the yeast mitochondrial inner membrane protein Oxa1p was expressed as a P8CBD fusion and shown to function within the E. coli inner membrane. In this example, the mitochondrial targeting peptide was replaced by P8CBD. Several practical features were incorporated into the P8CBD expression system to aid in protein detection, purification, and optional in vitro processing by enterokinase. The basis of membrane protein over-expression toxicity is discussed and solutions to this problem are presented. We anticipate that this optimized expression system will aid in the isolation and study of various recombinant forms of membrane-associated protein. PMID:19530231

  15. Identification of proteins differentially expressed in the conventional renal cell carcinoma by proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Jeong Seok; Park, Hyo Jin; Jung, Jae Hun; Kam, Sung Chul; Park, Hyung Chul; Kim, Choong Won; Kang, Kee Ryeon; Hyun, Jea Seog; Chung, Ky Hyun

    2005-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most malignant tumors in urology, and due to its insidious onset patients frequently have advanced disease at the time of clinical presentation. Thus, early detection is crucial in management of RCC. To identify tumor specific proteins of RCC, we employed proteomic analysis. We prepared proteins from conventional RCC and the corresponding normal kidney tissues from seven patients with conventional RCC. The expression of proteins was determined by silver stain after two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The overall protein expression patterns in the RCC and the normal kidney tissues were quite similar except some areas. Of 66 differentially expressed protein spots (p<0.05 by Student t-test), 8 different proteins from 11 spots were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. The expression of the following proteins was repressed (p<0.05); aminoacylase-1, enoyl-CoA hydratase, aldehyde reductase, tropomyosin alpha-4 chain, agmatinase and ketohexokinase. Two proteins, vimentin and alpha-1 antitrypsin precursor, were dominantly expressed in RCC (p<0.05). PMID:15953868

  16. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Express and Secrete Human Surfactant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Worlitzsch, Dieter; Bensel, Tobias; Sawers, R. Gary; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant proteins (SP), originally known from human lung surfactant, are essential to proper respiratory function in that they lower the surface tension of the alveoli. They are also important components of the innate immune system. The functional significance of these proteins is currently reflected by a very large and growing number of publications. The objective goal of this study was to elucidate whether Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to express surfactant proteins. 10 different strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were analyzed by means of RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, ELISA, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. The unexpected and surprising finding revealed in this study is that different strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa express and secrete proteins that react with currently commercially available antibodies to known human surfactant proteins. Our results strongly suggest that the bacteria are either able to express ‘human-like’ surfactant proteins on their own or that commercially available primers and antibodies to human surfactant proteins detect identical bacterial proteins and genes. The results may reflect the existence of a new group of bacterial surfactant proteins and DNA currently lacking in the relevant sequence and structure databases. At any rate, our knowledge of human surfactant proteins obtained from immunological and molecular biological studies may have been falsified by the presence of bacterial proteins and DNA and therefore requires critical reassessment. PMID:23349731

  17. Differentially Expressed Proteins Associated with Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianghui; Fu, Jianming; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Pan, Hongyu; Bai, Guihua

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, substantially reduces wheat grain yield and quality worldwide. Proteins play important roles in defense against the fungal infection. This study characterized differentially expressed proteins between near-isogenic lines (NILs) contrasting in alleles of Fhb1, a major FHB resistance gene in wheat, to identify proteins underlining FHB resistance of Fhb1. Methods The two-dimensional protein profiles were compared between the Fusarium-inoculated spikes of the two NILs collected 72 h after inoculation. The protein profiles of mock- and Fusarium-inoculated Fhb1+NIL were also compared to identify pathogen-responsive proteins. Results Eight proteins were either induced or upregulated in inoculated Fhb1+NIL when compared with mock-inoculated Fhb1+NIL; nine proteins were either induced or upregulated in the Fusarium-inoculated Fhb1+NIL when compared with Fusarium-inoculated Fhb1?NIL. Proteins that were differentially expressed in the Fhb1+NIL, not in the Fhb1?NIL, after Fusarium inoculation included wheat proteins for defending fungal penetration, photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and detoxification. Conclusions Coordinated expression of the identified proteins resulted in FHB resistance in Fhb1+NIL. The results provide insight into the pathway of Fhb1-mediated FHB resistance. PMID:24376514

  18. Proteomic analysis of Lawsonia intracellularis reveals expression of outer membrane proteins during infection.

    PubMed

    Watson, Eleanor; Alberdi, M Pilar; Inglis, Neil F; Lainson, Alex; Porter, Megan E; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Mclean, Kevin; Smith, David G E

    2014-12-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the aetiological agent of the commercially significant porcine disease, proliferative enteropathy. Current understanding of host-pathogen interaction is limited due to the fastidious microaerophilic obligate intracellular nature of the bacterium. In the present study, expression of bacterial proteins during infection was investigated using a mass spectrometry approach. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of two isolates of L. intracellularis from heavily-infected epithelial cell cultures and database mining using fully annotated L. intracellularis genome sequences identified 19 proteins. According to the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional classification, proteins were identified with roles in cell metabolism, protein synthesis and oxidative stress protection; seven proteins with putative or unknown function were also identified. Detailed bioinformatic analyses of five uncharacterised proteins, which were expressed by both isolates, identified domains and motifs common to other outer membrane-associated proteins with important roles in pathogenesis including adherence and invasion. Analysis of recombinant proteins on Western blots using immune sera from L. intracellularis-infected pigs identified two proteins, LI0841 and LI0902 as antigenic. The detection of five outer membrane proteins expressed during infection, including two antigenic proteins, demonstrates the potential of this approach to interrogate L. intracellularis host-pathogen interactions and identify novel targets which may be exploited in disease control. PMID:25457368

  19. A cell-free expression platform for production of protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Zárate, Xristo; Galbraith, David W

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembling protein microarrays have recently emerged as a particularly useful and flexible platform supporting high-throughput analyses of proteins and their interactions. They are produced by printing an array containing a tag-specific antibody. The array is then covered with a solution containing a cell-free expression (linked transcription-translation) system and DNA templates encoding tagged fusion proteins. The proteins synthesized in situ are immobilized by the capture antibody at each array element. An efficient cell-free protein expression system is therefore a critical component in the production of these arrays. Here we describe the methodology for the construction of autofluorescent protein microarrays, by transcription and translation of chimeric proteins containing a C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag using different cell-free expression systems, based on either an Escherichia coli S30 extract, a wheat germ extract, or a hybrid system which combines both. The method is followed by a modified version that describes the use of fluorescence amplification as a means for detection of protein interactions. This protocol provides more sensitivity for protein detection on the arrays and allows the choice of different protein tags and/or fluorescent dyes. PMID:24395426

  20. Expression of a Phytophthora sojae necrosis-inducing protein occurs during transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy.

    PubMed

    Qutob, Dinah; Kamoun, Sophien; Gijzen, Mark

    2002-11-01

    Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete that causes stem and root rot on soybean plants. To discover pathogen factors that produce disease symptoms or activate plant defense responses, we identified putative secretory proteins from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and tested selected candidates using a heterologous expression assay. From an analysis of 3035 ESTs originating from mycelium, zoospore, and infected soybean tissues, we identified 176 putative secreted proteins. A total of 16 different cDNAs predicted to encode secreted proteins ranging in size from 6 to 26 kDa were selected for expression analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary potato virus X (PVX) vector. This resulted in the identification of a 25.6-kDa necrosis-inducing protein that is similar in sequence to other proteins from eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. The genomic region encoding the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein was isolated and the expression pattern of the corresponding gene determined by RNA blot hybridization and by RT-PCR. The activity of this P. sojae protein was compared to proteins of similar sequence from Fusarium oxysporum, Bacillus halodurans, and Streptomyces coelicolor by PVX-based expression in N. benthamiana and by transient expression via particle bombardment in soybean tissues. The P. sojae protein was a powerful inducer of necrosis and cell death in both assays, whereas related proteins from other species varied in their activity. This study suggests that the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein facilitates the colonization of host tissues during the necrotrophic phase of growth. PMID:12410814

  1. Generation and evaluation of mammalian secreted and membrane protein expression libraries for high-throughput target discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadas Panavas; Jin Lu; Xuesong Liu; Ann-Marie Winkis; Gordon Powers; Michael F. Naso; Bernard Amegadzie

    2011-01-01

    Expressed protein libraries are becoming a critical tool for new target discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to get the most meaningful and comprehensive results from protein library screens, it is essential to have library proteins in their native conformation with proper post-translation modifications. This goal is achieved by expressing untagged human proteins in a human cell background. We

  2. A second rhodopsin-like protein in Cyanophora paradoxa: gene sequence and protein expression in a cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Frassanito, Anna Maria; Barsanti, Laura; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Evangelista, Valtere; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    Here we report the identification and expression of a second rhodopsin-like protein in the alga Cyanophora paradoxa (Glaucophyta), named Cyanophopsin_2. This new protein was identified due to a serendipity event, since the RACE reaction performed to complete the sequence of Cyanophopsin_1, (the first rhodopsin-like protein of C. paradoxa identified in 2009 by our group), amplified a 619 bp sequence corresponding to a portion of a new gene of the same protein family. The full sequence consists of 1175 bp consisting of 849 bp coding DNA sequence and 4 introns of 326 bp. The protein is characterized by an N-terminal region of 47 amino acids, followed by a region with 7 ?-helices of 213 amino acids and a C-terminal region of 22 amino acids. This protein showed high identity with Cyanophopsin_1 and other rhodopsin-like proteins of Archea, Bacteria, Fungi and Algae. Cyanophosin_2 (CpR2) was expressed in a cell-free expression system, and characterized by means of absorption spectroscopy. PMID:23851421

  3. The hemagglutinin–neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaguna Seth; M. S. Shaila

    2001-01-01

    The genes coding for the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin–neuraminidase (HN) of the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and hemagglutinin (H) of rinderpest virus (RPV) were cloned in a cytomagalovirus promoter driven expression vector and expressed transiently in mammalian cells. The protein expression was apparent 24 h after transfection and the expressed proteins were detected at the cell surface. The transiently

  4. Analysis of incomplete gene expression dataset through protein-protein interaction information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimon Massanet-Vila; Teresa Padro; Anna Cardus; Lina Badimon; Pere Caminal; Alexandre Perera

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows a graph based method to analyze proteomic expression data. The method allows the prediction of the expression of genes not measured by the gene expression technology based on the local connectivity properties of the measured differentially expressed gene set. The prediction of the expression jointly with the stability of this prediction as a function of the variation

  5. Arabinogalactan-proteins: structure, expression and function A. M. Showalter

    E-print Network

    Showalter, Allan M.

    structure is described in terms of the protein component (including data from molecular cloning, from the whole plant to the cellular levels, using a variety of experimental techniques and tools recently, molecular cloning of several confirmed and putative AGP core proteins has CMLS, Cell. Mol. Life

  6. Proteins expressed in blue-green sharpshooter leafhoppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a metagenomics approach to identify proteins from the blue-green sharpshooter, Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) which is an important vector of Pierce’s disease of grapes. The 44 proteins are being used as markers to monitor and identify current and exotic introductions o...

  7. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan) [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)] [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  8. Attenuated Protein Expression Vectors for Use in siRNA Rescue Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Eiji; Arii, Jun; Christensen, Devin; Votteler, Jörg; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2013-01-01

    Transient transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) provides a powerful approach for studying cellular protein functions, particularly when the target protein can be re-expressed from an exogenous siRNA-resistant construct in order to rescue the knockdown phenotype, confirm siRNA target specificity and support mutational analyses. Rescue experiments often fail, however, when siRNA-resistant constructs are expressed at suboptimal levels. Here, we describe an ensemble of mammalian protein expression vectors with CMV promoters of differing strengths. We show, using CHMP2A rescue of HIV-1 budding, that these vectors can combine high transfection efficiencies with tunable protein expression levels to optimize the rescue of cellular phenotypes induced by siRNA transfection. PMID:22877307

  9. Genes encoding FAD-binding proteins in Volvariella volvacea exhibit differential expression in homokaryons and heterokaryons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Li; Yan, Junjie; Xie, Baogui; Li, Yu; Chen, Bingzhi; Liu, Shuyan; Li, Dan; Yang, Zhiyun; Zeng, Xiancheng; Deng, Youjin; Jiang, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding proteins play a vital role in energy transfer and utilization during fungal growth and mycelia aggregation. We sequenced the genome of Volvariella volvacea, an economically important edible fungus, and discovered 41 genes encoding FAD-binding proteins. Gene expression profiles revealed that the expression levels of four distinctly differentially expressed genes in heterokaryotic strain H1521 were higher than in homokaryotic strains PYd15 and PYd21 combined. These observations were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results suggest that the differential expression of FAD-binding proteins may be important in revealing the distinction between homokaryons and heterokaryons on the basis of FAD-binding protein functionality. PMID:23570970

  10. Context-dependent perturbation of neural systems in transgenic mice expressing a cytosolic prion protein

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    We analyzed the relationship between pathogenic protein expression and perturbations to brain anatomy and physiology in a genetic model of prion disease. In this model, the mouse line 1D4, neuropathology is promoted by ...

  11. Cloning and expression of Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chang-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

    2009-03-01

    A novel antifreeze protein cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR from the larva of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The coding fragment of 339 bp encodes a protein of 112 amino acid residues and was fused to the expression vectors pET32a and pTWIN1. The resulted expression plasmids were transformed into Escherischia coli strains BL21 (DE3), ER2566, and Origami B (DE3), respectively. Several strategies were used for expression of the highly disulfide-bonded beta-helix-contained protein with the activity of antifreeze in different expression systems. A protocol for production of refolded and active T. molitor antifreeze protein in bacteria was obtained. PMID:18256902

  12. Maternal Hypothyroidism Selectively Affects the Expression of Neuroendocrine-Specific Protein A

    E-print Network

    Zoeller, R. Thomas

    hormone of maternal origin exerts specific receptor-mediated effects on fetal brain developmentMaternal Hypothyroidism Selectively Affects the Expression of Neuroendocrine-Specific Protein brain development, but the mechanisms by which thyroid hormone exerts its effects, the developmental

  13. Computer-aided evaluation of protein expression in pathological tissue images Elisa Ficarra, Enrico Macii

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Computer-aided evaluation of protein expression in pathological tissue images Elisa Ficarra, Enrico Torino, Italy elisa.ficarra@polito.it, enrico.macii@polito.it Giovanni De Micheli Ecole Polythecnique

  14. GONADAL STEROIDS REGULATED THE EXPRESSION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN THE ADULT MALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates that gonadal steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone) can inhibit the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and it MRNA in the adult male rat brain. esticular hormones may influence the activity of astrocytes in the intact and lesion...

  15. In-Vivo Real-Time Control of Protein Expression from Endogenous and Synthetic Gene Networks

    E-print Network

    Menolascina, Filippo

    We describe an innovative experimental and computational approach to control the expression of a protein in a population of yeast cells. We designed a simple control algorithm to automatically regulate the administration ...

  16. Advanced method for high-throughput expression of mutated eukaryotic membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Keisuke; Sugawara, Taishi [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shiroishi, Mitsunori [Iwata Human Receptor Crystallography Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tokuda, Natsuko [Department of Medical Chemistry, Kyoto University, Faculty of Medicine, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kurokawa, Azusa; Misaka, Takumi [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Makyio, Hisayoshi; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shimamura, Tatsuro [Iwata Human Receptor Crystallography Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nomura, Norimichi; Murata, Takeshi [Iwata Human Receptor Crystallography Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Department of Medical Chemistry, Kyoto University, Faculty of Medicine, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Abe, Keiko [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Iwata, So [Iwata Human Receptor Crystallography Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Department of Medical Chemistry, Kyoto University, Faculty of Medicine, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Division of Molecular Biosciences, Membrane Protein Crystallography Group, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.iwata@mfour.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp (and others)

    2008-07-11

    Crystallization of eukaryotic membrane proteins is a challenging, iterative process. The protein of interest is often modified in an attempt to improve crystallization and diffraction results. To accelerate this process, we took advantage of a GFP-fusion yeast expression system that uses PCR to direct homologous recombination and gene cloning. We explored the possibility of employing more than one PCR fragment to introduce various mutations in a single step, and found that when up to five PCR fragments were co-transformed into yeast, the recombination frequency was maintained as the number of fragments was increased. All transformants expressed the model membrane protein, while the resulting plasmid from each clone contained the designed mutations only. Thus, we have demonstrated a technique allowing the expression of mutant membrane proteins within 5 days, combining a GFP-fusion expression system and yeast homologous recombination.

  17. Expression of Wnt-signaling pathway proteins in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of

    E-print Network

    Woodgett, Jim

    Expression of Wnt-signaling pathway proteins in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. This pathway has not been explored in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas). Keywords: Pancreas; Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm; Wnt signaling; b-catenin; APC; E

  18. Spermidine-binding proteins. Purification and expression analysis in maize.

    PubMed

    Tassoni, Annalisa; Napier, Richard M; Franceschetti, Marina; Venis, Michael A; Bagni, Nello

    2002-04-01

    Polyamine-binding proteins have been identified in a wide range of organisms, including mammals, yeasts, and bacteria. In this work, we have investigated specific spermidine binding to plant membrane proteins purified from microsomes of etiolated maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles. In the final purification step, specific spermidine-binding activity (K(d) 6.02 10(-7) M) was eluted from a HiTrapQ fast-protein liquid chromatography column at about 0.25 M NaCl, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the most active fraction showed a major polypeptide of about 60 kD and another copurifying 18-kD protein. Competition experiments, performed on HiTrapQ active fractions, confirmed the specificity of the binding. Upon Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, spermidine binding was associated almost exclusively with the 18-kD protein. On the basis of the N-terminal sequences, degenerate oligonucleotide probes were designed and used to isolate, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction, cDNA fragments of about 1 kb for the 60-kD protein, and 0.9 kb for the 18-kD protein. Northern-blot analysis performed on etiolated coleoptiles and different tissues from 10-d-old maize plants indicated the presence of two different mRNAs of 1.7 and 0.7 kb. Southern-blot analysis indicated that the genes encoding the 60- and 18-kD proteins are probably derived from differential processing of the same precursor mRNA. Using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against these proteins, affinity purification and dot-blot experiments detected analogous membrane proteins in monocot and dicot plants. PMID:11950979

  19. Heterologous expression of L. major proteins in S. cerevisiae: a test of solubility, purity, and gene recoding.

    PubMed

    Quartley, Erin; Alexandrov, Andrei; Mikucki, Maryann; Buckner, Frederick S; Hol, Wim G; DeTitta, George T; Phizicky, Eric M; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2009-09-01

    High level expression of many eukaryotic proteins for structural analysis is likely to require a eukaryotic host since many proteins are either insoluble or lack essential post-translational modifications when expressed in E. coli. The well-studied eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses several attributes of a good expression host: it is simple and inexpensive to culture, has proven genetic tractability, and has excellent recombinant DNA tools. We demonstrate here that this yeast exhibits three additional characteristics that are desirable in a eukaryotic expression host. First, expression in yeast significantly improves the solubility of proteins that are expressed but insoluble in E. coli. The expression and solubility of 83 Leishmania major ORFs were compared in S. cerevisiae and in E. coli, with the result that 42 of the 64 ORFs with good expression and poor solubility in E. coli are highly soluble in S. cerevisiae. Second, the yield and purity of heterologous proteins expressed in yeast is sufficient for structural analysis, as demonstrated with both small scale purifications of 21 highly expressed proteins and large scale purifications of 2 proteins, which yield highly homogeneous preparations. Third, protein expression can be improved by altering codon usage, based on the observation that a codon-optimized construct of one ORF yields three-fold more protein. Thus, these results provide direct verification that high level expression and purification of heterologous proteins in S. cerevisiae is feasible and likely to improve expression of proteins whose solubility in E. coli is poor. PMID:19701618

  20. Verapamil and Rifampin Effect on P-Glycoprotein Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Amir; Ghasemian, Sepideh; Najafzadeh, Hossein; Galehdari, Hamid; Seifi, Masoud Reza; Zangene, Fateme; Dehdardargahi, Shaiesteh

    2014-01-01

    Background: High expression of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is likely that P-gp overexpression is responsible for multidrug resistance in HCC. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of potent carcinogen nitrosamine with and without verapamil and rifampin drugs on P-gp expression at the mRNA level in HCC. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats (n = 5) were selected with different treatments and one group as control. mRNA concentration changes were monitored using quantitative PCR (QPCR). Results: A significant difference was found between verapamil treated group and the control regarding the mRNA level. The mdr1a mRNA was significantly decreased in the verapamil group (P ? 0.001). Rifampin administrated group had a decreased level of the mdr1a mRNA compared to the control group (P ? 0.006). No significant changes were observed in HCC induced rats regarding the mdr1a mRNA level when treated with verapamil and rifampin. An enhanced expression of the mdr1a gene was found In the HCC induced animals when treated with drugs. Conclusions: Verapamil and rifampin were found specific and effective against P-gp expression in HCC. In conclusion, treatment efficacy of most anticancer drugs is increased in combination with verapamil and rifampin against most advanced HCC. PMID:25625052

  1. Immobilization of foreign protein in BmNPV polyhedra by fusion expression with partial polyhedrin fragments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Yang, Rui; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Cuiping; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2013-12-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) produces large, proteinaceous crystal matrix named polyhedra, which occlude progeny virions which are produced during infection and protect virions from hostile environmental conditions. In this study, five overlapping N-terminal fragments of the BmNPV polyhedrin ORF were cloned and ligated with the foreign gene egfp, and five recombinant baculoviruses were constructed by BmNPV(Polh(+)) Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system was used to co-express the polyhedrin and fused protein. The results showed that the fusion proteins were highly expressed, and the foreign proteins fused with the 100aa fragment of polyhedrin could be embedded into polyhedra at a higher ratio. This study provides a new method for efficient preservation of useful proteins for the development of new biopesticide with toxin protein and delivery vector system of vaccines. PMID:24008009

  2. Chemokines derived from soluble fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli are biologically active

    SciTech Connect

    Magistrelli, Giovanni [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Gueneau, Franck [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Muslmani, Machadiya [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Ravn, Ulla [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Kosco-Vilbois, Marie [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Fischer, Nicolas [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: nfischer@novimmune.com

    2005-08-26

    Chemokines are a class of low molecular weight proteins that are involved in leukocytes trafficking. Due to their involvement in recruiting immune cells to sites of inflammation, chemokines, and chemokine receptors have become an attractive class of therapeutic targets. However, when expressed in Escherichia coli chemokines are poorly soluble and accumulate in inclusion bodies. Several purification methods have been described but involve time-consuming refolding, buffer exchange, and purification steps that complicate expression of these proteins. Here, we describe a simple and reliable method to express chemokines as fusions to the protein NusA. The fusion proteins were largely found in the soluble fraction and could be readily purified in a single step. Proteolytic cleavage was used to obtain soluble recombinant chemokines that were found to be very active in a novel in vitro chemotaxis assays. This method could be applied to several {alpha} and {beta} human chemokines, suggesting that it is generally applicable to this class of proteins.

  3. Small mitochondrial-targeted RNAs modulate endogenous mitochondrial protein expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Towheed, Atif; Markantone, Desiree M; Crain, Aaron T; Celotto, Alicia M; Palladino, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Endogenous mitochondrial genes encode critical oxidative phosphorylation components and their mutation results in a set of disorders known collectively as mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. There is intensive interest in modulating mitochondrial function as organelle dysfunction has been associated with numerous disease states. Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome cannot be genetically manipulated by current techniques. Here we report the development of a mitochondrial-targeted RNA expression system (mtTRES) utilizing distinct non-coding leader sequences (NCLs) and enabling in vivo expression of small mitochondrial-targeted RNAs. mtTRES expressing small chimeric antisense RNAs was used as translational inhibitors (TLIs) to target endogenous mitochondrial protein expression in vivo. By utilizing chimeric antisense RNA we successfully modulate expression of two mitochondrially-encoded proteins, ATP6 and COXII, and demonstrate the utility of this system in vivo and in human cells. This technique has important and obvious research and clinical implications. PMID:24807207

  4. Expression of IAP-family proteins in adult acute mixed lineage leukemia (AMLL).

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yasunori; Hasegawa, Maki; Kurata, Morito; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Abe, Shinya; Inoue, Miori; Takemura, Tamiko; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Suzuki, Kenshi; Kitagawa, Masanobu

    2005-03-01

    Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-family proteins suppress apoptotic signaling in normal/neoplastic cells in various settings. To determine the apoptosis-resistant mechanism in adult acute mixed lineage leukemia (AMLL) with biphenotypic blasts responsible for resistance against chemotherapy, the expression levels of IAP-family proteins in AMLL bone marrow cells were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The overall expression levels of IAPs were higher than those in control, AML, and ALL cells. A significant difference for the expression of survivin was observed between AMLL and AML (P <0.05), and differences between AMLL and ALL were significant for the expression of survivin (P <0.05), NAIP (P <0.05), and XIAP (P <0.05). These findings suggest that higher expression of various IAPs is associated with the chemotherapy-resistant nature of this specific type of leukemia. PMID:15726601

  5. Intraclonal Protein Expression Heterogeneity in Recombinant CHO Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pilbrough, Warren; Munro, Trent P.; Gray, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic glycoproteins have played a major role in the commercial success of biotechnology in the post-genomic era. But isolating recombinant mammalian cell lines for large-scale production remains costly and time-consuming, due to substantial variation and unpredictable stability of expression amongst transfected cells, requiring extensive clone screening to identify suitable high producers. Streamlining this process is of considerable interest to industry yet the underlying phenomena are still not well understood. Here we examine an antibody-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clone at single-cell resolution using flow cytometry and vectors, which couple light and heavy chain transcription to fluorescent markers. Expression variation has traditionally been attributed to genetic heterogeneity arising from random genomic integration of vector DNA. It follows that single cell cloning should yield a homogeneous cell population. We show, in fact, that expression in a clone can be surprisingly heterogeneous (standard deviation 50 to 70% of the mean), approaching the level of variation in mixed transfectant pools, and each antibody chain varies in tandem. Phenotypic variation is fully developed within just 18 days of cloning, yet is not entirely explained by measurement noise, cell size, or the cell cycle. By monitoring the dynamic response of subpopulations and subclones, we show that cells also undergo slow stochastic fluctuations in expression (half-life 2 to 11 generations). Non-genetic diversity may therefore play a greater role in clonal variation than previously thought. This also has unexpected implications for expression stability. Stochastic gene expression noise and selection bias lead to perturbations from steady state at the time of cloning. The resulting transient response as clones reestablish their expression distribution is not ordinarily accounted for but can contribute to declines in median expression over timescales of up to 50 days. Noise minimization may therefore be a novel strategy to reduce apparent expression instability and simplify cell line selection. PMID:20037651

  6. Effects of dietary fiber and carcinogen on fatty acid binding protein expression in exfoliated colonocytes 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Amy Eunice

    1997-01-01

    EFFECTS OF DIETARY FIBER AND CARCINOGEN ON FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN EXFOLIATED COLONOCYTES A Thesis by AMY EUNICE CLARK Submitted to the Office of Gmduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requireinents for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1997 Major Subject: Nutriuon EFFECTS OF DIETARY FIBER AND CARCINOGEN ON FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN EXFOLlATED COLONOCYTES by AMY EUNICE CLARK Submitted to Texas ARM University...

  7. GnRH mRNA and protein expression in human preimplantation embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Maria Casan; Francisco Raga; Mary Lake Polan

    1999-01-01

    for human embryos. We postulate that in humans GnRH may play a role in preimplantation embryonic development as well as in the implantation process. To examine this hypothesis, we assessed GnRH and GnRH-receptor mRNA and protein expression in human preimplantation embryos with three pronuclei. GnRH is expressed in peri-implantation human embryos at both the mRNA and protein level. GnRH-receptor mRNA

  8. Expression and characterization of recombinant human retinol-binding protein in Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Wysocka-Kapcinska; José Angel Campos-Sandoval; Akos Pal; John B. C. Findlay

    2010-01-01

    Plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP4) is the principal carrier of vitamin A in blood. Recent studies have suggested that RBP4 may have also a role in insulin resistance. To date the recombinant protein is usually produced by refolding inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Here we report the expression and characterization of recombinant human plasma RBP4 using the Pichia pastoris expression system.

  9. Investigation of differentially expressed proteins in rat gastrocnemius muscle during denervation–reinnervation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hualin Sun; Jie Liu; Fei Ding; Xiaodong Wang; Mei Liu; Xiaosong Gu

    2006-01-01

    To have a better insight into the molecular events involved in denervation-induced atrophy and reinnervation-induced regeneration of skeletal muscles, it is important to investigate the changes in expression levels of a great multitude of muscle proteins during the process of denervation–reinnervation. In this study, we employed an experimental model of rat sciatic nerve crush to examine the differentially expressed proteins

  10. Spatial and Temporal Expression of a Maize Lipid Transfer Protein Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucienne Sossountzov; Luis Ruiz-Avila; Florence Vignols; Alain Jolliot; Vincent Arondel; Françoise Tchang; Michčle Grosbois; Françoise Guerbette; Emite Miginiac; Michel Delseny; Pere Puigdomenčch; Jean-Claude Kader

    1991-01-01

    We studied the temporal and spatial pattern of lipid transfer protein (LTP) gene expression, as well as the localization of this protein, in maize. Using an LTP gene, we observed an accumulation of LTP mRNA in embryos and endosperms during seed maturation. LTP gene expression was also investigated in young seedlings. After germination, the leve1 of LTP mRNA in the

  11. Capsid Proteins of Cowpea Mosaic Virus Transiently Expressed in Protoplasts Form Virus-like Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Wellink; Jan Verver; Jan Van Lent; A. Van Kammen

    1996-01-01

    The coding regions for cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid proteins VP37 and VP23 were introduced separately into a transient plant expression vector containing an enhanced CaMV 35S promoter. Significant expression of either capsid protein was observed only in protoplasts transfected simultaneously with both constructs. Immunosorbent electron microscopy revealed the presence of virus-like particles in extracts of these protoplasts. An extract

  12. A chromoplast-specific protein in Capsicum annuum : characterization and expression of the corresponding gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Houlné; Marie-Luce Schantz; Béatrice Meyer; Javier Pozueta-Romero; Rodolphe Schantz

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA and genomic clones corresponding to a gene highly and specifically expressed at the late stage of fruit-ripening in bell-pepper. Antibodies raised against the expressed protein allowed determination of the cellular localization of the gene product. The encoded protein is present only in chromoplasts from fullyripe red fruits, as shown by Western analysis and import experiments. The

  13. Tn5 insertion mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa deficient in surface expression of ferripyochelin-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, P.A.

    1987-07-01

    Transposon (Tn5) insertion mutants were isolated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. These mutants were screened for expression of the ferripyochelin-binding protein with monoclonal antibody in a whole-cell immunoblot assay. Fourteen mutants were identified which did not express ferripyochelin-binding protein on the cell surface. These mutants did not take up /sup 59/Fe-labeled pyochelin and grew slowly in the presence of iron chelators.

  14. Cloning and kinetics of expression of Brucella abortus heat shock proteins by baculovirus recombinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joo-eun Bae; Thomas E Toth

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to develop genetically engineered Brucella abortus (BA) vaccines, the genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs) GroEL, GroES, and HtrA were cloned and expressed in the BAC-TO-BAC™ Baculovirus System, and the kinetics of protein expression were analyzed using various insect cell lines in suspension cultures, different cell densities in suspension cultures, multiplicities of infection and recombinant virus replication

  15. An efficient and cost-effective isotope labeling protocol for proteins expressed in shape Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mengli Cai; Ying Huang; Kazuyasu Sakaguchi; G. Marius Clore; Angela M. Gronenborn; Robert Craigie

    1998-01-01

    A cost-effective protocol for uniform 15N and\\/or13 C isotope labeling of bacterially expressed proteins is presented. Unlike most standard protocols, cells are initially grown in a medium containing nutrients at natural abundance and isotopically labeled nutrients are only supplied at the later stages of growth and during protein expression. This permits the accumulation of a large cell mass without the

  16. Cloning and expression analysis of YY1AP-related protein in the rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohtomo; T. Horii; M. Nomizu; T. Suga; J. Yamada

    2008-01-01

    Summary.  YY1AP-related protein (YARP) is a structural homolog of YY1AP, a transcriptional coactivator of the multifunctional transcription\\u000a factor YY1. We cloned a rat YARP cDNA that encoded a 2256 amino acid protein with 93% homology to the human counterpart. Northern\\u000a blots revealed significant expression of the YARP gene in the rat brain. In situ hybridization demonstrated its expression\\u000a in neurons throughout

  17. Regional Expression of Key Cell Cycle Proteins in Brain from Subjects with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rukhsana Sultana; D. Allan Butterfield

    2007-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is regarded as a transition stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and the more\\u000a serious problems caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies had demonstrated increased expression of cell cycle\\u000a proteins in AD brain. In the present study, we have analyzed the expression of the cell cycle proteins, CDK2, CDK5 and cyclin\\u000a G1 in

  18. Co-expression of human agouti-related protein enhances expression and stability of human melanocortin-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Kuglae; Jung, Youngjin; Park, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Weontae

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins, and they are considered major targets of approximately half of all therapeutic agents. Human melanocortin-4 receptor (hMC4R) plays an important role in the control of energy homeostasis, and its mutants are directly related to severe human obesity. Here, we describe optimized protocols for the high-yield expression and purification of hMC4R that will accelerate structural study. Truncations of the N- and C-termini of hMC4R with T4 lysozyme (T4L) insertion increase the solubility as well as stability of the protein. Strikingly, co-expression of human mini-agouti-related protein (mini-AgRP) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells enables excellent stability of hMC4R. The protein yield in the human mini-AgRP co-expression system is increased by about 3-4 times compared to that of hMC4R alone. Data from analytical size exclusion chromatography (aSEC) and thermostability assay show that hMC4R becomes homogeneous and stable with a melting temperature of 58°C in the presence of human mini-AgRP. PMID:25446108

  19. Single cell-level detection and quantitation of leaky protein expression from any strongly regulated bacterial system.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kanika; Mangale, Sachin S; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2015-09-01

    Extremely low levels of "leaky" expression of genes in bacterial protein expression systems can severely curtail cell viability when expressed proteins are toxic. A general method for sensitive detection of such expression is lacking. Here, we present a method based on microscopic visualization of a fluorescent "reporter" protein (RFP-HU-A) constructed by fusing red fluorescent protein (RFP) to the N-terminus of a nucleoid-associated, histone-like DNA-binding protein, HU-A. Localization of RFP-HU-A within nucleoids facilitates detection, quantitation, and characterization of leaky expression at the single-cell level. PMID:26079706

  20. Intracranial self stimulation upregulates the expression of synaptic plasticity related genes and Arc protein expression in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kádár, E; Huguet, G; Aldavert-Vera, L; Morgado-Bernal, I; Segura-Torres, P

    2013-11-01

    Post-training lateral hypothalamus (LH) intracranial self stimulation (ICSS) has a reliable enhancing effect on explicit memory formation evaluated in hippocampus-dependent tasks such as the Morris water maze. In this study, the effects of ICSS on gene expression in the hippocampus are examined 4.5 h post treatment by using oligonucleotide microarray and real-time PCR, and by measuring Arc protein levels in the different layers of hippocampal subfields through immunofluorescence. The microarray data analysis resulted in 65 significantly regulated genes in rat ICSS hippocampi compared to sham, including cAMP-mediated signaling as one of the most significantly enriched Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) functional categories. In particular, expression of CREB-dependent synaptic plasticity related genes (c-Fos, Arc, Bdnf, Ptgs-2 and Crem and Icer) was regulated in a time-dependent manner following treatment administration. Immunofluorescence results showed that ICSS treatment induced a significant increase in Arc protein expression in CA1 and DG hippocampal subfields. This empirical evidence supports our hypothesis that the effect of ICSS on improved or restored memory functions might be mediated by increased hippocampal expression of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity related genes, including Arc protein expression, as neural mechanisms related to memory consolidation. PMID:23898803

  1. High-level expression of G protein-coupled receptors with the aid of the Semliki Forest virus expression system.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, K; Mills, A; Allet, E; Ceszkowski, K; Agudo, G; Chollet, A; Liljestrom, P

    1995-01-01

    The expression of two G protein-coupled receptors was studied in several cell lines using the Semliki Forest virus expression system. Human neurokinin-2 and dopamine D3 receptor cDNAs were introduced into the pSFV1 vector. In vitro transcribed RNAs were coelectroporated with pSFV-Helper RNA into BHK cells resulting in in vivo packaging of high titer SFV-NK-2 and SFV-D3 virus stocks, respectively. Infection of BHK, HOS and CHO cells with the recombinant NK-2 virus resulted in high levels of receptor expression as detected by metabolic labelling with [35S]-methionine. The expression of the NK-2 receptors in the cell membrane was demonstrated by Flow cytometry experiments on infected BHK and CHO cells with fluoresceinyl-NKA as the ligand. Saturation binding assays on membranes prepared from SFV-NK-2 infected CHO cells with [3H] GR100679 showed maximum receptor densities of 6.5 pmol receptor/mg protein. Additionally, the expressed NK-2 receptors were able to stimulate Ca2+ mobilization in CHO cells indicating functional coupling to G proteins. CHO cells infected with SFV-D3 also produced high levels of receptor as evidenced by both [35S]methionine labelling and [3H]spiperone binding. PMID:8903928

  2. Evaluation of affinity-tagged protein expression strategies using local and global isotope ratio measurements.

    PubMed

    Hervey, W Judson; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai; Lankford, Patricia K; Owens, Elizabeth T; McKeown, Catherine K; Lu, Tse-Yuan; Foote, Linda J; Asano, Keiji G; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; McDonald, W Hayes; Pelletier, Dale A; Hurst, Gregory B

    2009-07-01

    Elucidation of protein-protein interactions can provide new knowledge on protein function. Enrichments of affinity-tagged (or "bait") proteins with interaction partners generally include background, nonspecific protein artifacts. Furthermore, in vivo bait expression may introduce additional artifacts arising from altered physiology or metabolism. In this study, we compared these effects for chromosome and plasmid encoding strategies for bait proteins in two microbes: Escherichia coli and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Differential metabolic labeling of strains expressing bait protein relative to the wild-type strain in each species allowed comparison by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). At the local level of the protein complex, authentic interacting proteins of RNA polymerase (RNAP) were successfully discerned from artifactual proteins by the isotopic differentiation of interactions as random or targeted (I-DIRT, Tackett, A. J.; et al. J. Proteome Res. 2005, 4, 1752-1756). To investigate global effects of bait protein production, we compared proteomes from strains harboring a plasmid encoding an affinity-tagged subunit (RpoA) of RNAP with the corresponding wild-type strains. The RpoA abundance ratios of 0.8 for R. palustris and 1.7 for E. coli in plasmid strains versus wild-type indicated only slightly altered expression. While most other proteins also showed no appreciable difference in abundance, several that did show altered levels were involved in amino acid metabolism. Measurements at both local and global levels proved useful for evaluating in vitro and in vivo artifacts of plasmid-encoding strategies for bait protein expression. PMID:19459691

  3. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  4. Periplasmic Expression of a Novel Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Mutant in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nematollahi, Leila; Khalaj, Vahid; Babazadeh, Seyedeh Maliheh; Rahimpour, Azam; Jahandar, Hoda; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Background Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily, and play an important role in bone metabolism. Recombinant forms of BMP-2 and BMP-7 are the only BMPs used clinically. In this study the mature part of human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) was engineered through substitution of the BMP-7 N-terminal sequence by heparin-binding site of BMP-2. This targeted substitution was made to enhance the binding affinity of the novel protein to the extracellular matrix components such as heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Methods The engineered protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (E.coli). The PelB signal sequence was used to translocate soluble proteins into the periplasmic space of E.coli. The protein was purified from periplasmic extract using Ni-NTA chromatography and the SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis confirmed the successful expression of the novel protein. Results The novel hBMP-7 mutant was produced as approximately 16 kDa monomer. It was found that the heparin binding of this protein was approximately 50% more than that of the wild-type at a protein concentration of 500 ng/ml. Conclusion The findings showed that the periplasmic expression may be suitable to produce complex proteins like BMPs. PMID:23407680

  5. Expression of fas protein on CD4+T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence on the Expression of Fas protein on CD4+ T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne laser in the cases of psoriasis. Methods:the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was determined in the casee of psoriasis(n=5) pre and post-low level laser irradiation(30 min?60min and 120min)by flow cytometry as compared withthe control(n=5). Results:In the cases of psoriasis,the expression of CD4+T FAS protein 21.4+/-3.1% was increased significantly than that of control group 16.8+/-2.1% pre-irradiation, p<0.05in the control,there is no difference between pre and post- irradiation,p>0.05in the cases , the expression of CD4+T Fas protein wae positively corelated to the irradiation times, when the energy density arrived to 22.92J/cm2?60 minutes?and 45.84J/cm2?120minutes?, the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was increased significantly as compared with pre-irradiation,p<0.05.Conclusion: The expression of CD4+T Fas protein may be increased by low level He-Ne laser irradiation ,the uncontrolled status of apoptosis could be corrected.

  6. Expression in animal cells and characterization of the hepatitis E virus structural proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, S; Zafrullah, M; Ozdener, M H; Panda, S K

    1996-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major human pathogen in much of the developing world. It is a positive-strand RNA virus with a 7.5-kb polyadenylated genome consisting of three open reading frames (ORFs). In the absence of an in vitro culture system, the replication and expression strategy of HEV and the nature of its encoded polypeptides are not well understood. We have expressed the two ORFs constituting the structural portion of the HEV genome in COS-1 cells by using simian virus 40-based expression vectors and in vitro by using a coupled transcription-translation system. We show here that the major capsid protein, encoded by ORF2, is an 88-kDa glycoprotein which is expressed intracellularly as well as on the cell surface and has the potential to form noncovalent homodimers. It is synthesized as a precursor (ppORF2) which is processed through signal sequence cleavage into the mature protein (pORF2), which is then glycosylated (gpORF2). The minor protein, pORF3, encoded by ORF3 is a 13.5-kDa nonglycosylated protein expressed intracellularly and does not show any major processing. pORF3 interacts with a cellular protein of about 18 kDa which we call 3IP, the pORF3-interacting protein. The significance of these findings are discussed in light of an existing model of HEV genome replication and expression. PMID:8523527

  7. Tumor redox metabolism correlation with the expression level of red fluorescent protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Shuang; Wang, Anle; Lin, Qiaoya; Zhang, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    The redox metabolism is variable and complicated with the progress of tumor development. Whether the tumor redox state will affect the exogenous gene expression or not, are still not clear now . To investigate the relationship between tumor endogenous redox state and the exogenous gene expression level, a far red fluorescent protein fRFP was used to monitor tumor cells proliferation and as an exogenous protein expression in tumors. NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and Fp (flavin protein) are two important coenzymes in the mitochondria respiratory chain, which can be as a standard representation for redox metabolism state. Three tumor subcutaneous models (melanoma, human pancreatic carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma) were used to observe their redox state and protein expression by our home-made redox scanner. The results showed that the distribution of fRFP fluorescent protein expression in the inner tumor regions are heterogeneous, and the fluorescent intensity of fRFP and the fluorescent intensity of NADH have high correlation. In addition, we also found the linear coefficient in three tumors are different, the value of coefficient is (R2 = 0.966 and R2 = 0.943) in melanoma, (R2 = 0.701 and R2 = 0.942) in human pancreatic carcinoma, and (R2 = 0.994) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, respectively. From these results, we consider that the exogenous protein expression of fRFP in tumor had some relationship with the tumor redox state of NADH.

  8. Isotopic labeling of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors heterologously expressed in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Salom, David; Cao, Pengxiu; Yuan, Yiyuan; Miyagi, Masaru; Feng, Zhaoyang; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution structural determination and dynamic characterization of membrane proteins by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) require their isotopic labeling. Although a number of labeled eukaryotic membrane proteins have been successfully expressed in bacteria, they lack post-translational modifications and usually need to be refolded from inclusion bodies. This shortcoming of bacterial expression systems is particularly detrimental for the functional expression of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of drug targets, due to their inherent instability. In this work, we show that proteins expressed by a eukaryotic organism can be isotopically labeled and produced with a quality and quantity suitable for NMR characterization. Using our previously described expression system in Caenorhabditis elegans, we showed the feasibility of labeling proteins produced by these worms with (15)N,(13)C by providing them with isotopically labeled bacteria. (2)H labeling also was achieved by growing C. elegans in the presence of 70% heavy water. Bovine rhodopsin, simultaneously expressed in muscular and neuronal worm tissues, was employed as the "test" GPCR to demonstrate the viability of this approach. Although the worms' cell cycle was slightly affected by the presence of heavy isotopes, the final protein yield and quality was appropriate for NMR structural characterization. PMID:25461480

  9. Annexin A1 protein regulates the expression of PMVEC cytoskeletal proteins in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by advanced liver disease, hypoxemia and intrapulmonary vascular dilatation (IPVD). The pathogenesis of HPS is not completely understood. Recent findings have established the role of proliferation and phenotype differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in IPVD of HPS; the change in cytoskeletal proteins and their molecular mechanism play an essential role in the proliferation, phenotype modulation and differentiation of PMVECs. However, little is known about the relevance of cytoskeletal protein expression and its molecular mechanism in IPVD of HPS. In addition, ANX A1 protein has been identified as a key regulator in some important signaling pathways, which influences cytoskeletal remodeling in many diseases, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, etc. Methods PMVECs were cultured from the normal rats and then divided into three groups(Ad-ANXA1-transfected group, a non-transfected group, and an adenovirus empty vector group) and incubated by nomal rat serum or hepatopulmonary syndrome rat serum respectively. mRNA level was evaluated by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was detected by western blot. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT and thymidine incorporation assay. Results In this study, we found that the serum from a common bile duct ligation(CBDL) Rat model decreased the expression levels of the ANX A1 mRNA and protein by at least two-fold in human PMVECs. We also found the expression of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin) in PMVECs significantly increased. After stimulating ANX A1 over-expression in PMVECs by adenovirus-mediated ANX A1 (Ad-ANXA1) transfection, we found the expression levels of cytoskeletal proteins were significantly suppressed in PMVECs at all time points. Additionally, we report here that serum from a CBDL Rat model increases the proliferation of PMVECs by nearly two-fold and that over-expression of Ad-ANXA1 significantly inhibits HPS-rat-serum-induced PMVEC proliferation (p <0.05). These findings suggest that the ANX A1 down-regulation of PMVEC proliferation in the presence of HPS-rat-serum may be the major cause of aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin) and may, therefore, play a fundamental role in the proliferation and phenotype differentiation of PMVECs in the PVD of HPS. Conclusion Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-ANXA1 results in inhibition of the aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins and proliferation of PMVECs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on PVD of HPS. PMID:23587191

  10. A transmitting tissue- and pollen-expressed protein from sunflower with sequence similarity to the human RTP protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina Kräuter-Canham; Roberte Bronner; Jean-Luc Evrard; Günther Hahne; Wolfgang Friedt; André Steinmetz

    1997-01-01

    A novel pistil- and pollen-expressed gene (sf21) encoding a 352 amino acid long polypeptide was isolated by differential screening of a floral cDNA library from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized. The deduced polypeptide is structurally related to the human protein RTP and the mouse protein Ndr1. It also shares significant sequence homology with an unidentified polypeptide from human cerebellum

  11. AP-1 elements and TCL1 protein regulate expression of the gene encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPROt in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Motiwala, Tasneem; Zanesi, Nicola; Datta, Jharna; Roy, Satavisha; Kutay, Huban; Checovich, Allyn M; Kaou, Mohamed; Zhong, Yiming; Johnson, Amy J; Lucas, David M; Heerema, Nyla A; Hagan, John; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C; Croce, Carlo M; Jacob, Samson T

    2011-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that the gene encoding PTPROt, the truncated form of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type O expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, is a candidate tumor suppressor and is down-regulated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we show that PTPROt expression is significantly reduced in CD19(+) spleen B cells from E?-T cell leukemia 1 (TCL1) transgenic mice relative to the wild-type mice. Strikingly, as much as a 60% decrease in PTPROt expression occurs at 7 weeks independently of promoter methylation. To elucidate the potential mechanism for this early suppression of PTPROt in these mice, we explored the role of activating protein-1 (AP-1) in its expression. We first demonstrate that AP-1 activation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induces PTPROt expression with concurrent recruitment of c-fos and c-jun to its promoter. The PTPROt promoter is also responsive to over- and underexpression of AP-1, confirming the role of AP-1 in PTPROt expression. Next, we demonstrate that TCL1 can repress the PTPROt promoter by altering c-fos expression and c-jun activation state. Finally, using primary CLL cells we have shown an inverse relationship between TCL1 and PTPROt expression. These findings further substantiate the role of TCL1 in PTPROt suppression and its importance in the pathogenesis of CLL. PMID:22001392

  12. Expression of equine morbillivirus (EMV) matrix and fusion proteins and their evaluation as diagnostic reagents.

    PubMed

    Wang, L F; Gould, A R; Selleck, P W

    1997-01-01

    Full-length cDNA clones coding for the matrix (M) and fusion (F) proteins of equine morbillivirus (EMV) were isolated by RT-PCR, and expressed in Escherichia coli using two different expression systems. Western blot analysis indicated that the M and F proteins, expressed either by itself or as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST), were insoluble and degraded after expression. Analysis of the degradation pattern of recombinant M protein suggested that the N-terminus of the matrix protein might be more stable and antigenic than the C-terminal region. Therefore a third system was used to express a truncated M protein, composed of the N-terminal amino acid residues 1-197, with a (His)6-tag attached at the N-terminus. This recombinant protein [(His)6-Mtr], was stable but was also insoluble. After one-step affinity purification under denaturing conditions, (His)6-Mtr was used to monitor the antibody response to EMV infection by Western blot and ELISA. We obtained a 100% correlation between Western blot and virus neutralisation testing although the number of positive sera available for testing was very limited, which included seven horse, two rabbit and one human sera. PMID:9672592

  13. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wu, Guo-Xing; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs onto the surface and inject venom into their hosts. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects are due to changes in expression of genes encoding physiologically relevant proteins. While the influence of parasitization on gene expression in several lepidopterans has been reported, the molecular details of parasitoid/beetle relationships remain mostly unknown. This shortcoming led us to pose the hypothesis that envenomation by the ectoparasitic ant-like bethylid wasp Scleroderma guani leads to changes in protein expression in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. We tested our hypothesis by comparing the proteomes of non-parasitized and parasitized host pupae using iTRAQ-based proteomics. We identified 41 proteins that were differentially expressed (32?- and 9?-regulated) in parasitized pupae. We assigned these proteins to functional categories, including immunity, stress and detoxification, energy metabolism, development, cytoskeleton, signaling and others. We recorded parallel changes in mRNA levels and protein abundance in 14 selected proteins following parasitization. Our findings support our hypothesis by documenting changes in protein expression in parasitized hosts. PMID:24852673

  14. Screening and large-scale expression of membrane proteins in mammalian cells for structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, April; Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Wang, Kevin H.; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Claxton, Derek P.; Baconguis, Isabelle; Althoff, Thorsten; Fischer, Suzanne; Garcia, K. Christopher; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Structural, biochemical and biophysical studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins are often hampered by difficulties in over-expression of the candidate molecule. Baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells (BacMam), although a powerful method to heterologously express membrane proteins, can be cumbersome for screening and expression of multiple constructs. We therefore developed plasmid Eric Gouaux (pEG) BacMam, a vector optimized for use in screening assays, as well as for efficient production of baculovirus and robust expression of the target protein. In this protocol we show how to use small-scale transient transfection and fluorescence-detection, size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) experiments using a GFP-His8 tagged candidate protein to screen for monodispersity and expression level. Once promising candidates are identified, we describe how to generate baculovirus, transduce HEK293S GnTI? (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-negative) cells in suspension culture, and over-express the candidate protein. We have used these methods to prepare pure samples of chicken acid-sensing ion channel 1a (cASIC1) and Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl), for X-ray crystallography, demonstrating how to rapidly and efficiently screen hundreds of constructs and accomplish large-scale expression in 4-6 weeks. PMID:25299155

  15. Expression of an Epitope-Tagged Virulence Protein in Rickettsia parkeri Using Transposon Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Matthew D.; Reed, Shawna C. O.; Lamason, Rebecca L.; Serio, Alisa W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advances in our ability to genetically manipulate Rickettsia, little has been done to employ genetic tools to study the expression and localization of Rickettsia virulence proteins. Using a mariner-based Himar1 transposition system, we expressed an epitope-tagged variant of the actin polymerizing protein RickA under the control of its native promoter in Rickettsia parkeri, allowing the detection of RickA using commercially-available antibodies. Native RickA and epitope-tagged RickA exhibited similar levels of expression and were specifically localized to bacteria. To further facilitate protein expression in Rickettsia, we also developed a plasmid for Rickettsia insertion and expression (pRIE), containing a variant Himar1 transposon with enhanced flexibility for gene insertion, and used it to generate R. parkeri strains expressing diverse fluorescent proteins. Expression of epitope-tagged proteins in Rickettsia will expand our ability to assess the regulation and function of important virulence factors. PMID:22624012

  16. Evaluation of Affinity-Tagged Protein Expression Strategies using Local and Global Isotope Ratio Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K [ORNL; Lankford, Patricia K [ORNL; Owens, Elizabeth T [ORNL; McKeown, Catherine K [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan S [ORNL; Foote, Linda J [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Protein enrichments of engineered, affinity-tagged (or bait ) fusion proteins with interaction partners are often laden with background, non-specific proteins, due to interactions that occur in vitro as an artifact of the technique. Furthermore, the in vivo expression of the bait protein may itself affect physiology or metabolism. In this study, intrinsic affinity purification challenges were investigated in a model protein complex, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), encompassing chromosome- and plasmid-encoding strategies for bait proteins in two different microbial species: Escherichia coli and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Isotope ratio measurements of bait protein expression strains relative to native, wild-type strains were performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to assess bait protein expression strategies in each species. Authentic interacting proteins of RNAP were successfully discerned from artifactual co-isolating proteins by the isotopic differentiation of interactions as random or targeted (I-DIRT) method (A. J. Tackett et al. J. Proteome Res. 2005, 4 (5), 1752-1756). To investigate broader effects of bait protein production in the bacteria, we compared proteomes from strains harboring a plasmid that encodes an affinity-tagged subunit (RpoA) of the RNAP complex with the corresponding wild-type strains using stable isotope metabolic labeling. The ratio of RpoA abundance in plasmid strains versus wild type was 0.8 for R. palustris and 1.7 for E. coli. While most other proteins showed no appreciable difference, proteins significantly increased in abundance in plasmid-encoded bait-expressing strains of both species included the plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance protein, GenR and proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis. Together, these local, complex-specific and more global, whole proteome isotopic abundance ratio measurements provided a tool for evaluating both in vivo and in vitro effects of plasmid-encoding strategies for bait protein expression. This approach has the potential for enabling discovery of protein-protein interactions among the growing number of sequenced microbial species without the need for development of chromosomal insertion systems.

  17. Mutation of cytotoxin-associated gene A affects expressions of antioxidant proteins of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-Gang; Duan, Guang-Cai; Fan, Qing-Tang; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Song, Chun-Hua; Huang, Xue-Yong; Zhang, Rong-Guang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine if disruption of the cagA gene of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has an effect on the expression of other proteins at proteome level. METHODS: Construction of a cagA knock out mutant Hp27_?cagA (cagA-) via homologous recombination with the wild-type strain Hp27 (cagA+) as a recipient was performed. The method of sonication-urea-CHAPS-DTT was employed to extract bacterial proteins from both strains. Soluble proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Images of 2-DE gels were digitalized and analyzed. Only spots that had a statistical significance in differential expression were selected and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Biological information was used to search protein database and identify the biological function of proteins. RESULTS: The proteome expressions between wild-type strain and isogenic mutant with the cagA gene knocked-out were compared. Five protein spots with high abundance in bacteria proteins of wild-type strains, down-regulated or absently expressed in bacteria proteins of mutants, were identified and analyzed. From a quantitative point of view, the identified proteins are related to the cagA gene and important antioxidant proteins of H pylori, including alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (Ahp), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and modulator of drug activity (Mda66), respectively, suggesting that cagA is important to maintain the normal activity of antioxidative stress and ensure H pylori persistent colonization in the host. CONCLUSION: cagA gene is relevant to the expressions of antioxidant proteins of H pylori, which may be a novel mechanism involved in H pylori cagA pathogenesis. PMID:19195063

  18. Foot protein isoforms are expressed at different times during embryonic chick skeletal muscle development

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the time course of expression of the alpha and beta triad junctional foot proteins in embryonic chick pectoral muscle. The level of [3H]ryanodine binding in muscle homogenates is low until day E20 of embryonic development, then increases dramatically at the time of hatching reaching adult levels by day N7 posthatch. The alpha and beta foot protein isoforms increase in abundance concomitantly with [3H]ryanodine binding. Using foot protein isoform-specific antibodies, the alpha foot protein is detected in a majority of fibers in day E10 muscle, while the beta isoform is first observed at low levels in a few fibers in day E15 muscle. A high molecular weight polypeptide, distinct from the alpha and beta proteins, is recognized by antifoot protein antibodies. This polypeptide is observed in day E8 muscle and declines in abundance with continued development. It appears to exist as a monomer and does not bind [3H]ryanodine. In contrast, the alpha isoform present in day E10 muscle and the beta isoform in day E20 muscle are oligomeric and bind [3H]ryanodine suggesting that they may exist as functional calcium channels in differentiating muscle. Comparison of the intracellular distributions of the alpha foot protein, f-actin, the heavy chain of myosin and titin in day E10 muscle indicates that the alpha foot protein is expressed during myofibril assembly and Z line formation. The differential expression of the foot protein isoforms in developing muscle, and their continued expression in mature muscle, is consistent with these proteins making different functional contributions. In addition, the expression of the alpha isoform during the time of organization of a differentiated muscle morphology suggests that foot proteins may participate in events involved in muscle differentiation. PMID:2026650

  19. Author's personal copy Protein expression following heat shock in the nervous system of Locusta migratoria

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Meldrum

    Author's personal copy Protein expression following heat shock in the nervous system of Locusta 9 August 2011 Keywords: Heat shock Nervous system Hsp70 Locusta migratoria Proteomics of Hsp70 transcript or protein in the nervous system. We compared Hsp70 increase following HS

  20. Lactococcus lactis, an Alternative System for Functional Expression of Peripheral and Intrinsic Arabidopsis Membrane Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Frelet-Barrand; Sylvain Boutigny; Lucas Moyet; Aurélien Deniaud; Daphné Seigneurin-Berny; Daniel Salvi; Florent Bernaudat; Pierre Richaud; Eva Pebay-Peyroula; Jacques Joyard; Norbert Rolland; Paulo Lee Ho

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundDespite their functional and biotechnological importance, the study of membrane proteins remains difficult due to their hydrophobicity and their low natural abundance in cells. Furthermore, into established heterologous systems, these proteins are frequently only produced at very low levels, toxic and mis- or unfolded. Lactococcus lactis, a Gram-positive lactic bacterium, has been traditionally used in food fermentations. This expression system

  1. Mitochondrial injury, oxidative stress, and antioxidant gene expression are induced by hepatitis C virus core protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiari Okuda; Kui Li; Michael R. Beard; Lori A. Showalter; Frank Scholle; Stanley M. Lemon; Steven A. Weinman

    2002-01-01

    Background & Aims:The mechanisms of liver injury in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are poorly understood. Indirect evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury play a role. The aim of this study was to determine if the HCV core protein itself alters mitochondrial function and contributes to oxidative stress.Methods:HCV core protein was expressed in 3 different cell lines,

  2. Canarypox virus expressing infectious bursal disease VP2 protein as immunogen for chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Grand, María Daniela Conte; Mitarotonda, Romina Cristina; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Canarypox viruses (CNPV) carrying the coding sequence of VP2 protein from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained. These viruses were able to express VP2 protein in vitro and to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies when inoculated in specific pathogen-free chickens demonstrating that CNPV platform is usefulness to develop immunogens for chickens. PMID:24948937

  3. Expression of A Kinase Anchoring Protein 79 and Synaptophysin in the Developing Human Red Nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ulfig; W. Y. Chan

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study showed that in the human fetal and neonatal brain, the magnocellular and parvocellular parts of the red nucleus can be well delineated by calcium-binding proteins. To study the development of rubral afferents, the expression of A kinase anchoring protein 79 (AKAP79) and synaptophysin (SYN) was examined in the human fetal red nucleus. It was found that during

  4. Cell Cycle Protein Expression and Proliferative Status in Human Corneal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy C. Joyce; Barry Meklir; Steven J. Joyce; James D. Zieske

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the relative expression of cell cycle-associated proteins in human corneal and limbal epithelium and corneal endothelium in situ, to correlate staining patterns of cell cycle-associated proteins with the known proliferative status of corneal and limbal epithelial cells, and to determine the relative proliferative status of corneal endothelial cells in situ by comparing their staining patterns with those

  5. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment leads to changes in nuclear protein expression and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunlan; Wu, Wei; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Guanglin; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Jun

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a potent pro-carcinogen generated from the combustion of fossil fuel and cigarette smoke. Previously, using a proteomic approach, we have shown that BaP can induce changes in the expression of many cellular proteins, including transcription regulators. In the present study, using a similar approach, we examined the nuclear protein response to BaP in HeLa cells and found that BaP treatment caused expression changes in many nuclear proteins. Twenty-four of these proteins were successfully identified, several of which are involved in the alternative splicing of mRNA, DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The changed expression levels were further confirmed by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies for two proteins, Lamin A and mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3. The nuclear localization of these two proteins was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. To determine whether alternative splicing was activated following BaP treatment, we examined Fas and CD44, two genes previously shown to be targets of alternative splicing in respond to DNA damage. While no significant activation of alternative splicing was observed for Fas, CD44 splicing variants were found after BaP treatment. Together, these data show that DNA damage induces dramatic changes in nuclear protein expression, and that alternative splicing might be involved in the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:20097212

  6. SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC AND DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED EXPRESSION OF TUBULIN-SPECIFIC CHAPERONE PROTEIN A IN THE

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC AND DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED EXPRESSION OF TUBULIN-SPECIFIC CHAPERONE PROTEIN develop- ment, sex chromosome. INTRODUCTION Sex differences in brain structure and function exist across; Tang et al., 2007; Tomaszycki et al., 2009; Wu et al., 2010). Tubulin-specific chaperone protein

  7. Omega3 fatty acids decrease protein kinase expression in human breast cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina G. Moore; Feng Wang-Johanning; Pi Ling Chang; Gary L. Johanning

    2001-01-01

    We report that 5-day exposure to physiological concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids resulted in a strong decrease in expression of the RIa regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and the PKC-a isozyme of protein kinase C in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  8. Expression of the amyloid protein precursor of Alzheimer's disease in the developing rat olfactory system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Clarris; K. Beyreuther; C. L. Masters; D. H. Small

    1995-01-01

    The expression of the amyloid protein precursor (APP) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was examined in the olfactory system of the developing rat. Two monoclonal antibodies were used to detect APP: Alz-90, which specifically recognizes APP, and 22C11 which recognizes both APP and the structurally related protein APLP-2. Very similar patterns of immunoreactivity were observed with both antibodies. APP immunoreactivity was

  9. Expression of specific sheath cell proteins during peripheral nerve growth and regeneration in mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Muller; Michael J. Ignatius Mfiller; Donald H. Hangen; Eric M. Shooter

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis in the nerve sheath of in- jured as well as intact mature and developing sciatic nerves from rat and rabbit was investigated by incu- bating segments of nerve with (-~SS)methionine in vi- tro. The composition of labeled proteins under the different conditions of nerve growth was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The expression of six secreted

  10. Functional expression of the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in transgenic lettuce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeon-Jin Sun; Min-long Cui; Biao Ma; Hiroshi Ezura

    2006-01-01

    Taste-modifying proteins are a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners and flavor enhancers and have been used in some cultures for centuries. The taste-modifying protein, miraculin, has the unusual property of being able to modify a sour taste into a sweet taste. Here, we report the use of a plant expression system for the production of miraculin. A synthetic gene encoding

  11. Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  12. Dietary proteins alter tissue-specific gene expression and adiposity in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary soy protein elicits anti-obesity effects in rodents. This study examined adiposity and gene expression in male Sprague-Dawley rats lifetime-fed diets containing casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI), or casein supplemented with genistein (250 mg/kg diet; GEN). At 48 days of age, retroper...

  13. Plasmodium falciparum: glycosylation status of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein expressed in the baculovirus system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamdouh H Kedees; Nahid Azzouz; Peter Gerold; Hosam Shams-Eldin; Jahangir Iqbal; Volker Eckert; Ralph T Schwarz

    2002-01-01

    We expressed the main surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), in High Five (Trichoplusia ni) insect cells using the baculovirus system. Significant amounts of the recombinant protein could be obtained, as judged by SDS–PAGE, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analysis. The cellular localization for recombinant CSP was determined by immunofluorescence. The high fluorescence signal of the permeabilized

  14. A baculovirus expression vector derived from the basic protein promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele S. Hill-Perkins; Robert D. Possee

    1990-01-01

    The basic protein of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) is associated with virus DNA in virion nucleocapsids and is produced in infected cells during the late phase of gene expression. A transfer vector was constructed containing the fl- galactosidase gene, under the control of a copy of the putative basic protein promoter, in place of the polyhedrin gene within

  15. Expression of Functional G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Photoreceptors of Transgenic Xenopus laeVis

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Expression of Functional G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Photoreceptors of Transgenic Xenopus lae Li*, NoVasite Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, California 92121, and Departments of OphthalmologyVised Manuscript ReceiVed September 1, 2005 ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest

  16. Differential Expression of Bone Matrix Regulatory Proteins in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cherida R. Dhore; Jack P. M. Cleutjens; Esther Lutgens; Kitty B. J. M. Cleutjens; Piet P. M. Geusens; Jan H. M. Tordoir; Henri M. H. Spronk; Cees Vermeer; Mat J. A. P. Daemen

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the expression of regulators of bone formation and osteoclastogenesis in human atherosclerosis because accumulating evidence suggests that atherosclerotic calcification shares features with bone calcification. The most striking finding of this study was the constitutive immunoreactivity of matrix Gla protein, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein in nondiseased aortas and the absence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2,

  17. Differential expression of neurofilament triplet proteins in brain development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerry Shaw; Klaus Weber

    1982-01-01

    Axonal transport studies and biochemical fractionation have led to the concept that the three `triplet' proteins [approximate molecular weights 200,000 (200K), 145,000 (145K) and 68,000 (68K)] are the essential components of mammalian neurofilaments1-5. Using a correlated biochemical and immunological approach, we have now shown that the 200K protein is under separate developmental control during rat brain differentiation and that the

  18. Aberrant Expression of Disintegrin-Metalloprotease Proteins in the Formation and Progression of Uterine Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Shaker; Yuhki Yokoyama; Seiji Mori; Masahiko Tsujimoto; Naomasa Kawaguchi; Tohru Kiyono; Toru Nakano; Nariaki Matsuura

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Dysregulated expression of disintegrin-metalloprotease proteins [a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) and ADAMs with thrombospondin motif (ADAMTSs)] has been reported in many types of cancers and is believed to play an important role in cancer formation and metastasis. However, little is known about the expression of ADAMs and ADAMTSs in the development of human cervical cancer. Methods: Reverse transcriptase polymerase

  19. Reporter Mice Express Green Fluorescent Protein at Initiation of Meiosis in Spermatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Paula R.; Odet, Fanny; Bortner, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated using a heat shock protein 2 (Hspa2) gene promoter to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the beginning of meiotic prophase I in spermatocytes. Expression was confirmed in four lines by in situ fluorescence, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and PCR assays. The expression and distribution of the GFP and HSPA2 proteins co-localized in spermatocytes and spermatids in three lines, but GFP expression was variegated in one line (F46), being present in some clones of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells and not in others. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) was used to isolate purified populations of spermatocytes and spermatids. Although bisulfite sequencing revealed differences in the DNA methylation patterns in the promoter regions of the transgene of the variegated expressing GFP line, a uniformly expressing GFP reporter line, and the Hspa2 gene, these differences did not correlate with variegated expression. The Hspa2-GFP reporter mice provide a novel tool for studies of meiosis by allowing detection of GFP in situ and in isolated spermatogenic cells. They will allow sorting of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells for characterization of molecular features and correlation of expression of GFP with stage-specific spermatogenic cell proteins and developmental events. PMID:25293348

  20. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DIVERGENCE OF EXPRESSION IN DUPLICATE BARLEY GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN-ENCODING GENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subfunctionalization is the process by which a pair of duplicate genes experiences a reduction of individual expression patterns while maintaining the complete expression pattern of the ancestral gene. Two germin-like protein (GLP) encoding genes, GerB and GerF, belong to a small gene family in barl...

  1. Challenges associated with heterologous expression of Flavobacterium psychrophilum proteins in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-parameter statistical model was used to predict the solubility of 96 putative virulence associated genes of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (CSF259-93) upon over expression in E. coli. This analysis indicated that 88.5% of the F. psychrophilum proteins would be expressed as insoluble aggregates c...

  2. CD47 protein expression in acute myeloid leukemia: A tissue microarray-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Galli, Serena; Zlobec, Inti; Schürch, Christian; Perren, Aurel; Ochsenbein, Adrian F; Banz, Yara

    2015-07-01

    Binding of CD47 to signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?), an inhibitory receptor, negatively regulates phagocytosis. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), CD47 is overexpressed on peripheral blasts and leukemia stem cells and inversely correlates with survival. Aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between CD47 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a bone marrow (BM) tissue microarray (TMA) and clinical outcome in AML patients. CD47 staining on BM leukemia blasts was scored semi-quantitatively and correlated with clinical parameters and known prognostic factors in AML. Low (scores 0-2) and high (score 3) CD47 protein expression were observed in 75% and 25% of AML patients. CD47 expression significantly correlated with percentage BM blast infiltration and peripheral blood blasts. Moreover, high CD47 expression was associated with nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene mutations. In contrast, CD47 expression did not significantly correlate with overall or progression free survival or response to therapy. In summary, a BM TMA permits rapid and reproducible semi-quantitative analysis of CD47 protein expression by IHC. While CD47 expression on circulating AML blasts has been shown to be a negative prognostic marker for a very defined population of AML patients with NK AML, CD47 expression on AML BM blasts is not. PMID:25943033

  3. Plasma Membrane Expression of Heat Shock Protein 60 In Vivo in Response to Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CINDY BELLES; ALICIA KUHL; RACHEL NOSHENY; SIMON R. CARDING

    1999-01-01

    Heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) is constitutively expressed in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. However, it has been identified in other subcellular compartments in several disease states and in transformed cells, and it is an immunogenic molecule in various infectious and autoimmune diseases. To better understand the factors that influence expression of hsp60 in normal cells in vivo, we analyzed

  4. Expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate chain synthesis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate, playing likely a major role in multiple myeloma biology. As heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate cells, we show that expression of enzymes required for heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate

  5. A novel copper-regulated promoter system for expression of heterologous proteins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    E-print Network

    Labbé, Simon

    A novel copper-regulated promoter system for expression of heterologous proteins the promoter of the ctr41 copper transporter gene from S. pombe, we created a series of vectors, named pctr41 -X, which regulate the expression of heterologous genes as a function of copper availability

  6. Cloning and kinetics of expression of Brucella abortus heat shock proteins by baculovirus recombinants.

    PubMed

    Bae, J E; Toth, T E

    2000-07-31

    In an effort to develop genetically engineered Brucella abortus (BA) vaccines, the genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs) GroEL, GroES, and HtrA were cloned and expressed in the BAC-TO-BAC Baculovirus System, and the kinetics of protein expression were analyzed using various insect cell lines in suspension cultures, different cell densities in suspension cultures, multiplicities of infection and recombinant virus replication times. Trichoplusia ni cells expressed only BA HtrA, but Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells expressed all three recombinant proteins. The best GroEL expression was achieved by infecting 2x10(6) Sf9 cells/ml with an MOI 10 of recombinant virus and harvesting the cells after 96h of virus replication. GroES and HtrA were best expressed when infecting 2x10(6) Sf9 cells/ml with an MOI 1 of recombinant viruses and harvesting the cells after 120h of virus replications. Under these conditions BA recombinant HSPs were expressed as follows: GroEL at 16% of the total cellular proteins (105microg/ml concentration); GroES 2% (15.25microg/ml); and HtrA 8% (84.48microg/ml). This is the first report of cloning and expression of BA genes in the baculovirus system. PMID:10889410

  7. Genetic Variation Underlying Protein Expression in Eggs of the Marine Mussel Mytilus edulis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel P. Diz; Edward Dudley; Barry W. MacDonald; Benjamin Pina; Ellen L. R. Kenchington; Eleftherios Zouros; David O. F. Skibinski

    2009-01-01

    Study of the genetic basis of gene expression variation is central to attempts to understand the causes of evolution- ary change. Although there are many transcriptomics studies estimating genetic variance and heritability in model organisms such as humans there is a lack of equiv- alent proteomics studies. In the present study, the herita- bility underlying egg protein expression was estimated

  8. Human ?-Defensin Expression Is Not Dependent on CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-? in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Glenthřj, Andreas; Dahl, Sara; Larsen, Maria T.; Cowland, Jack B.; Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by recurrent infections. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? (C/EBP-?) gene. As a consequence, specific and gelatinase granules lack most matrix proteins. Furthermore, azurophil granules contain diminished amounts of their most abundant proteins, ?-defensins, also known as human neutrophil peptides (HNPs). In accordance with this, in vitro models have demonstrated induction of HNPs by C/EBP-?. Since mice do not express myeloid defensins, they cannot per se be used to characterize the role of C/EBP-? in controlling HNP expression in vivo. We therefore crossed a transgenic HNP-1-expressing mouse with the Cebpe-/- mouse to study the in vivo significance of C/EBP-? for HNP-1 transcription and expression. Surprisingly, neither expression nor processing of HNP-1 was affected by lack of C/EBP-? in these mice. Transduction of C/EBP-? into primary bone marrow cells from HNP-1 mice induced some HNP-1 expression, but not to levels comparable to expression human cells. Taken together, our data infer that the HNP-1 of the transgenic mouse does not show an expression pattern equivalent to endogenous secondary granule proteins. This limits the use of these transgenic mice as a model for human conditions. PMID:24658030

  9. The jellyfish green fluorescent protein: A new tool for studying ion channel expression and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Marshall; Raymond Molloy; Guy W. J Moss; James R Howe; Thomas E Hughes

    1995-01-01

    Two methods are described for using the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for ion channel expression. GFP fluorescence can be used to identify the transfected cells, and to estimate the relative levels of ion channel expression, in cotransfection experiments. A GFP-NMDAR1 chimera can be constructed that produces a functional, fluorescent receptor subunit. These methods should facilitate

  10. Helicobacter pylori and mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate activator protein-1 (AP-1) subcomponent protein expression and DNA-binding activity in gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Song-Ze; Olekhnovich, Igor N.; Cover, Timothy L.; Peek, Richard M.; Smith, Michael F.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested a critical role for activator protein (AP)-1 in regulating various cellular functions. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of H. pylori and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) on AP-1 subcomponents expression and AP-1 DNA binding activity in gastric epithelial cells. We found that H. pylori infection resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in the expression of the proteins c-Jun, JunB, JunD, Fra-1, and c-Fos, which make up the major AP-1 DNA binding proteins in AGS and MKN45 cells, while the expression levels of Fra-2 and FosB remained unchanged. H. pylori infection and MAPK inhibition altered AP-1 subcomponent protein expression and AP-1 DNA-binding activity, but did not change the overall subcomponent composition. Different clinical isolates of H. pylori showed various abilities to induce AP-1 DNA binding. Mutation of cagA, cagPAI, or vacA, and the nonphosphorylateable CagA mutant (cagAEPISA) showed less H. pylori-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity, while mutation of the H. pylori flagella had no effect. ERK, p38, and JNK each selectively regulated AP-1 subcomponent expression and DNA binding activity. These results provide more insight into how H. pylori and MAPK modulate AP-1 subcomponents in gastric epithelial cells to alter the expression of downstream target genes and affect cellular functions. PMID:18625013

  11. Protein Expression Profile of Human Renal Mesangial Cells under High Glucose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    QiuLing Fan; ShuYan Du; Gang Yang; LiNing Wang; Yi Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Background: To understand the spectrum of proteins affected by diabetic nephropathy and to characterize the molecular functions and biological processes they control, the protein expression profile of human renal mesangial cells (HMCs) under high glucose was analyzed. Methods: HMCs were divided into a high glucose-cultured group (30 mmol\\/l) and a normal glucose-cultured group (5 mmol\\/l). The total proteins of the

  12. Human prion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by high-affinity column refolding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Zahn; Christine von Schroetter; Kurt Wüthrich

    1997-01-01

    An efficient method is presented for the production of intact mammalian prion proteins and partial sequences thereof. As an illustration we describe the production of polypeptides comprising residues 23–231, 81–231, 90–231 and 121–231 of the human prion protein (hPrP)1Sequence positions according to Syrian hamster PrP [1].1. Polypeptides were expressed as histidine tail fusion proteins into inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm

  13. Alternative splicing of parathyroid hormone-related protein mRNA: expression and stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R S Sellers; A I Luchin; V Richard; R M Brena; D Lima; T J Rosol

    2004-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a multifunctional protein that is often dysregulated in cancer. The human PTHrP gene is alternatively spliced into three isoforms, each with a unique 3'-untranslated region (38-UTR), encoding 139, 173 and 141 amino acid proteins. The regulation of PTHrP mRNA isoform expression has not been completely elucidated, but it may be affected by transforming growth factor-1

  14. Spatial and Temporal Expression of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein during Wound Healing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. G. Blomme; Hong Zhou; Vicky Kartsogiannis; Charles C. Capen; Thomas J. Rosol

    1999-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein is produced by many normal tissues including the skin, where it regulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes. To define better the role of parathyroid hormone-related protein in the skin, we investigated the spatial and temporal expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein and mRNA by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization during the healing of skin wounds, and the effects

  15. Selective expression of prion protein in peripheral tissues of the adult mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J Ford; L. J Burton; R. J Morris; S. M Hall

    2002-01-01

    The level of expression of normal cellular prion protein, PrPc (cellular prion protein), controls both the rate and the route of neuroinvasive infection, from peripheral entry portal to the CNS. Paradoxically, an overview of the distribution of PrPc within tissues outside the CNS is lacking. We have used novel antibodies that recognise cellular prion protein in glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue (in order

  16. Role of a COP1 Interactive Protein in Mediating Light-Regulated Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiharu Y. Yamamoto; Minami Matsui; Lay-Hong Ang; Xing-Wang Deng

    1998-01-01

    Arabidopsis seedlings display distinct patterns of gene expression and morphogenesis according to the ambient light condition. An Arabidopsis nuclear protein, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), acts to repress photomor- phogenesis in the absence of light. The Arabidopsis CIP7 protein was identified by its capability to interact with COP1. CIP7 is a novel nuclear protein that contains transcriptional activation activity without a recognizable

  17. Conserved Regulation of MAP Kinase Expression by PUF RNA-Binding Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myon-Hee Lee; Brad Hook; Guangjin Pan; Aaron M. Kershner; Christopher Merritt; Geraldine Seydoux; James A. Thomson; Marvin Wickens; Judith Kimble

    2007-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PUF (for Pumilio and FBF [fem-3 binding factor]) RNA-binding proteins control many cellular processes critical for animal development and tissue homeostasis. In the present work, we report that PUF proteins act directly on MAPK\\/ERK-encoding mRNAs to downregulate their expression in both the Caenorhabditis elegans germline and human embryonic stem cells. In C. elegans, FBF\\/PUF binds

  18. SLocX: Predicting Subcellular Localization of Arabidopsis Proteins Leveraging Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Ryngajllo, Malgorzata; Childs, Liam; Lohse, Marc; Giorgi, Federico M.; Lude, Anja; Selbig, Joachim; Usadel, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing volume of experimentally validated knowledge about the subcellular localization of plant proteins, a well performing in silico prediction tool is still a necessity. Existing tools, which employ information derived from protein sequence alone, offer limited accuracy and/or rely on full sequence availability. We explored whether gene expression profiling data can be harnessed to enhance prediction performance. To achieve this, we trained several support vector machines to predict the subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana proteins using sequence derived information, expression behavior, or a combination of these data and compared their predictive performance through a cross-validation test. We show that gene expression carries information about the subcellular localization not available in sequence information, yielding dramatic benefits for plastid localization prediction, and some notable improvements for other compartments such as the mitochondrion, the Golgi, and the plasma membrane. Based on these results, we constructed a novel subcellular localization prediction engine, SLocX, combining gene expression profiling data with protein sequence-based information. We then validated the results of this engine using an independent test set of annotated proteins and a transient expression of GFP fusion proteins. Here, we present the prediction framework and a website of predicted localizations for Arabidopsis. The relatively good accuracy of our prediction engine, even in cases where only partial protein sequence is available (e.g., in sequences lacking the N-terminal region), offers a promising opportunity for similar application to non-sequenced or poorly annotated plant species. Although the prediction scope of our method is currently limited by the availability of expression information on the ATH1 array, we believe that the advances in measuring gene expression technology will make our method applicable for all Arabidopsis proteins. PMID:22639594

  19. The choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo: syncytial fusion and expression of syncytium-specific proteins.

    PubMed

    Orendi, Kristina; Gauster, Martin; Moser, Gerit; Meiri, Hamutal; Huppertz, Berthold

    2010-11-01

    Fusion of the trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo can be triggered by forskolin. BeWo cells are regularly used as a cell culture model to mimic in vivo syncytialisation of placental villous trophoblast. The ? subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (CGB), placental alkaline phosphatase as well as placental protein 13 (PP13, LGALS13) are exclusively expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta, and CGB is commonly used as a marker of syncytial differentiation. Here we tested the hypothesis that syncytial fusion precedes CGB and LGALS13 expression in trophoblast-derived BeWo cells. BeWo cells were cultured for 48?h in the presence or absence of forskolin and varying concentrations of H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor that interferes with the forskolin-mediated pathway of syncytial fusion. LGALS13 and CGB expression were quantified by DELFIA and real-time PCR. Cell fusion was determined by morphological analysis and cell counting after immunofluorescence staining. In forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells that were hindered to fuse by treatment with H-89, levels of CGB protein expression were not altered, while LGALS13 protein and mRNA expression decreased significantly to control levels without forskolin. The LGALS13 protein expression data coincided with a significant decrease in syncytial fusion, while CGB protein expression was unaffected by rates of cell fusion and proliferation. We postulate that CGB protein expression is not necessarily linked to syncytial fusion, and thus CGB should be used with great caution as a marker of BeWo cell fusion. PMID:20696850

  20. High throughput proteome-wide precision measurements of protein expression using mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Pasa-Tolic; Pamela K. Jensen; Gordon A. Anderson; Mary S. Lipton; Kim K. Peden; S. Martinovic; N. Tolic; James E. Bruce; Richard D. Smith

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to a cell's virtually static genome, the proteome, the protein complement expressed by an organism, continually changes in response to external stimuli and internal processes. Global gene expression analysis at the mRNA level (i.e., transcriptome) has recently become feasible based on the serial analysis of gene expression and oligonucleotide micro-array assays. These techniques allow the activation states of

  1. Protection against Mycobacterium avium by DNA Vaccines Expressing Mycobacterial Antigens as Fusion Proteins with Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Velaz-Faircloth, Maria; Cobb, Alison J.; Horstman, Amanda L.; Henry, Stanley C.; Frothingham, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated disease in humans with AIDS, paratuberculosis in ruminants, lymphadenopathy in swine, and tuberculosis in birds. We constructed DNA vaccines expressing mycobacterial antigens as fusion proteins with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Plasmids p65K-EGFP, p85A-EGFP, and p85B-EGFP expressed the M. avium 65-kDa antigen, the Mycobacterium bovis BCG 85A antigen, and the M. avium 85B antigen, respectively, as EGFP fusion proteins. We visualized protein expression directly in cultured murine fibroblasts and intact muscle. p65K-EGFP expressed fusion protein in a diffuse cytoplasmic pattern, and p85A-EGFP and p85B-EGFP produced a speckled pattern. We vaccinated C57BL/6 mice with three doses of plasmid DNA and then challenged them intraperitoneally with M. avium. Negative controls received saline, and positive controls received one dose of BCG vaccine. Mice in all groups developed disseminated infection with a high burden of organisms. Compared to negative controls, mice vaccinated with p85A-EGFP had an eightfold reduction in spleen M. avium CFU at 4 weeks after infection and a fourfold reduction at 8 weeks, reductions similar to those generated by BCG vaccine. Mice vaccinated with p65K-EGFP had a fourfold CFU reduction at 4 weeks and no effect at 8 weeks. This is the first report of DNA vaccines expressing foreign antigens as fusion proteins with EGFP and the first report of successful DNA vaccination against M. avium. PMID:10417198

  2. Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; Chevillard, Lucie; Megarbane, Bruno; Pirnay, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Declčves, Xavier

    2010-08-01

    Drug interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may influence its tissue disposition including blood-brain barrier transport and result in potent drug-drug interactions. The limited data obtained using in-vitro models indicate that methadone, buprenorphine, and cannabinoids may interact with human P-gp; but almost nothing is known about drugs of abuse and BCRP. We used in vitro P-gp and BCRP inhibition flow cytometric assays with hMDR1- and hBCRP-transfected HEK293 cells to test 14 compounds or metabolites frequently involved in addiction, including buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, ibogaine, cocaine, cocaethylene, amphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, nicotine, ketamine, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), naloxone, and morphine. Drugs that in vitro inhibited P-gp or BCRP were tested in hMDR1- and hBCRP-MDCKII bidirectional transport studies. Human P-gp was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by norbuprenorphine>buprenorphine>methadone>ibogaine and THC. Similarly, BCRP was inhibited by buprenorphine>norbuprenorphine>ibogaine and THC. None of the other tested compounds inhibited either transporter, even at high concentration (100 microm). Norbuprenorphine (transport efflux ratio approoximately 11) and methadone (transport efflux ratio approoximately 1.9) transport was P-gp-mediated; however, with no significant stereo-selectivity regarding methadone enantiomers. BCRP did not transport any of the tested compounds. However, the clinical significance of the interaction of norbuprenorphine with P-gp remains to be evaluated. PMID:19887017

  3. Prokaryotic expression of f protein from PPRV and characterization of its polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuxia; Dou, Yongxi; Yang, Xiangfang; Meng, Xuelian; Zhai, Junjun; Zhu, Xueliang; Luo, Xuenong; Chen, Lei; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the specificity of a polyclonal antibody against the F protein from Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). A pET30a/F prokaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed and its recombinant protein was expressed. The result of Western blot analysis showed that the fusion protein pET30a/F possessed good immunoreactivity and the purified recombinant protein was then used as the antigen to raise anti-pET30a/F polyclonal antibody in rabbits. The polyclonal antibody titer against the recombinant F protein was confirmed by indirect ELISA, and the protein's specificity against pET30/F polyclonal antibody was confirmed by both Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay in transfected cells. In short, we obtained the high-level expression of recombinant F protein as well as high titers of rabbit polyclonal antibody specificity against F protein in pCAGGS/F transfected cells. This special polyclonal antibody offers a valuable and useful tool for further study of the pathogenesis of PPRV early infection and the structural and functional characterization of PPRV F protein. PMID:23600502

  4. Chaperones Divide Yeast Proteins into Classes of Expression Level and Evolutionary Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bogumil, David; Landan, Giddy; Ilhan, Judith; Dagan, Tal

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that many proteins require folding via molecular chaperones for their function. Although it has become apparent that folding imposes constraints on protein sequence evolution, the effects exerted by different chaperone classes are so far unknown. We have analyzed data of protein interaction with the chaperones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using network methods. The results reveal a distinct community structure within the network that was hitherto undetectable with standard statistical tools. Sixty-four yeast chaperones comprise ten distinct modules that are defined by interaction specificity for their 2,691 interacting proteins. The classes of interacting proteins that are in turn defined by their dedicated chaperone modules are distinguished by various physiochemical protein properties and are characterized by significantly different protein expression levels, codon usage, and amino acid substitution rates. Correlations between substitution rate, codon bias, and gene expression level that have long been known for yeast are apparent at the level of the chaperone-defined modules. This indicates that correlated expression, conservation, and codon bias levels for yeast genes are attributable to previously unrecognized effects of protein folding. Proteome-wide categories of chaperone–substrate specificity uncover novel hubs of functional constraint in protein evolution that are conserved across 20 fungal genomes. PMID:22417914

  5. Cleavable self-aggregating tags (cSAT) for protein expression and purification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhanglin; Zhao, Qing; Zhou, Bihong; Xing, Lei; Xu, Wanghui

    2015-01-01

    Rapid protein expression and purification remains a critical technological need, in particular as the number of proteins being identified is exploding. In this chapter, we describe a simple and rapid scheme for expression and purification of recombinant proteins using Escherichia coli, by taking advantage of two self-aggregating peptide fusion tags 18A (EWLKAFYEKVLEKLKELF) and ELK16 (LELELKLKLELELKLK) that can drive target proteins into active protein aggregates in vivo. In practice, a target protein is fused at the N-terminus of the self-cleavable Mxe GyrA intein, which is followed by the 18A or ELK16 tag. The fusion protein is first expressed in the form of active aggregate and then separated by centrifugation upon cell lysis. Subsequently, the DTT-mediated intein self-cleavage reaction releases the target protein into solution. These cleavable self-aggregating tags (cSAT, intein-18A/ELK16) provide a quick and efficient route for the production of proteins with modest purity (around 90% in the case of intein-ELK16). Two application examples are included in the chapter. PMID:25447859

  6. Heroin-Induces Differential Protein Expression by Normal Human Astrocytes (NHA)

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Jessica L.; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Sykes, Donald; Nair, Madhavan P.N.

    2006-01-01

    Heroin use is postulated to act as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Astrocytes, integral components of the CNS, are reported to be susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Upon activation, astrocytes release a number of immunoregulatory products or modulate the expression of a number of proteins that foster the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. However, the role of heroin on HIV-1 infectivity and the expression of the proteome of normal human astrocytes (NHA) have not been elucidated. We hypothesize that heroin modulates the expression of a number of proteins by NHA that foster the neuoropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. We utilized LTR amplification and the p24 antigen assay to quantitate the effect of heroin on HIV-1 infectivity while difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) combined with protein identification through high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to analyze the effects of heroin on the proteomic profile of NHA. Results demonstrate that heroin potentiates HIV-1 replication in NHA. Furthermore, heroin significantly increased protein expression levels for protein kinase C (PKC), reticulocalbin 1 precursor, reticulocalbin 1, tyrosine 3-monooxgenase/tryptophan 5-monooxgenase activation protein, chloride intracellular channel 1, cathepsin D preproprotein, galectin 1 and myosin light chain alkali. Heroin also significantly decreased protein expression for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, proteasome beta 6 subunit, tropomyosin 3, laminin receptor 1, tubulin alpha 6, vimentin, EF hand domain family member D2, Tumor protein D54 (hD54), ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex and ribosomal protein S14. Identification of unique, heroin-induced proteins may help to develop novel markers for diagnostic, preventative and therapeutic targeting in heroin using subjects. PMID:17235376

  7. Expression of p53 and mdm2 mRNA and protein in colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Broll, R; Stark, A; Windhövel, U; Best, R; Strik, M W; Schimmelpenning, H; Schwandner, O; Kujath, P; Bruch, H P; Duchrow, M

    1999-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of p53 and mdm2 mRNA and protein in colorectal adenocarcinoma. For the detection of mRNA, 60 fresh frozen human tumour samples and 12 samples of corresponding normal tissue were examined. After total RNA extraction, reverse transcription (RT) was performed followed by cDNA amplification with specific primers using RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunohistochemical detection of protein was examined in 81 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human tumour specimens as well as 15 samples of adjacent normal colorectal tissue. p53 mRNA was detected in 80% (48/60) of the tumours and in 67% (8/12) of normal tissue samples; 87% (52/60) of tumours had mdm2 mRNA in contrast to only 17% (2/12) of normal tissue specimens. Nuclear p53 protein expression was observed in 52% (42/81) of the tumour specimens and in none of the 15 normal specimens, whereas mdm2 protein was found in the nucleus (31%, 25/81) and also in the cytoplasm (86%, 70/81) of tumour samples. In normal tissue, mdm2 protein expression was only observed in the cytoplasm (13%, 2/15) and not in the nucleus. There was a significant correlation between coexpression of p53 and mdm2 protein and the occurrence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.03) as well as between p53 protein expression and the occurrence of distant metastases (P = 0.007). Additionally, significant associations were found between p53 mRNA and p53 protein, p53 mRNA and mdm2 mRNA or protein, and also between mdm2 mRNA and mdm2 protein expression, supporting the existence of a regulatory mechanism involving p53 and mdm2. PMID:10533452

  8. Bacterial lipid modification of proteins requires appropriate secretory signals even for expression - implications for biogenesis and protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Subramani; Balamurali, M M; Sankaran, Krishnan

    2014-09-01

    Sec- and Tat-mediated bacterial lipid modification of proteins are important posttranslational processes owing to their vital roles in cellular functions, membrane targeting and biotechnological applications like ELISA, biosensor, adjuvant-free vaccines, liposomal drug delivery etc. However a better understanding of the tight coupling of secretory and lipid modification machineries and the processes associated will help unravel this essential biological event and utilize it for engineering applications. Further, there is a need for a systematic and convincing investigation into membrane targeting, solubilization and ease-of-purification of engineered lipoproteins to facilitate scientists in readily applying this new protein engineering tool. Therefore, in this study, we have investigated systematically recombinant expression, translocation, solubilization and purification of three White Spot Syndrome Viral (WSSV) proteins, ICP11, VP28 and VP281. Our study shows that the lipid modification and secretion processes are tightly coupled to the extent that mismatch between folding kinetics and signal sequence of target proteins could lead to transcriptional-translational uncoupling or aborted translation. The proteins expressed as lipoproteins through Tat-pathway were targeted to the inner membrane achieving considerable enrichment. These His-tagged proteins were then purified to apparent homogeneity in detergent-free form using single-step Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography. This study has interesting findings in lipoprotein biogenesis enhancing the scope of this unique post-translational protein engineering tool for obtaining pure detergent-free, membrane or hydrophobic surface-associating diagnostic targets and vaccine candidates for WSSV. PMID:25156679

  9. Expression of a recombinant elastin-like protein in pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sallach, Rory E; Conticello, Vincent P; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2009-01-01

    The translation of highly repetitive gene sequences is often associated with reduced levels of protein expression and may be prone to mutational events. In this report, we describe a modified concatemerization strategy to construct a gene with enhanced sequence diversity that encodes a highly repetitive elastin-like protein polymer for expression in Pichia pastoris. Specifically, degenerate oligonucleotides were used to create a monomer library, which after concatemerization yielded a genetically nonrepetitive DNA sequence that encoded identical pentapeptide repeat sequences. By limiting genetic repetition, the risk of genetic deletions, rearrangements, or premature termination errors during protein synthesis is minimized. PMID:19827084

  10. Expression of a Recombinant Elastin-Like Protein in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Sallach, Rory E.; Conticello, Vincent P.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2009-01-01

    The translation of highly repetitive gene sequences is often associated with reduced levels of protein expression and may be prone to mutational events. In this report, we describe a modified concatemerization strategy to construct a gene with enhanced sequence diversity that encodes a highly repetitive elastin-like protein polymer for expression in Pichia pastoris. Specifically, degenerate oligonucleotides were used to create a monomer library, which after concatemerization yielded a genetically nonrepetitive DNA sequence that encoded identical pentapeptide repeat sequences. By limiting genetic repetition, the risk of genetic deletions, rearrangements, or premature termination errors during protein synthesis is minimized. PMID:19827084

  11. Suppression of hepatitis B viral gene expression by protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPN3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    En-Chi Hsu; Yen-Cheng Lin; Chia-Shia Hung; Chiu-Jung Huang; Mei-Yi Lee; Shun-Chun Yang; Ling-Pai Ting

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPN3 is a membrane-associated non-receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase. PTPN3 contains a N-terminal\\u000a FERM domain, a middle PDZ domain, and a C-terminal phosphatase domain. Upon co-expression of PTPN3, the level of human hepatitis\\u000a B viral (HBV) RNAs, 3.5 kb, 2.4\\/2.1 kb, and 0.7 kb transcribed from a replicating HBV expression plasmid is significantly\\u000a reduced in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells. When the expression of

  12. Turmeric and curcumin suppress presenilin 1 protein expression in Jurkat cells

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIDA, HITOMI; OKUMURA, NAOKO; NISHIMURA, YURI; KITAGISHI, YASUKO; MATSUDA, SATORU

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of herbs or spices on the expression of presenilin 1, a molecule involved in ?-secretase activity and the generation of amyloid-? peptide in Alzheimer's disease. Western blot analysis revealed that presenilin 1 protein expression was down-regulated by stimulation with turmeric or cinnamon extracts in vitro, while the effects on presenilin 1 gene expression examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were unaltered. Our results showed that curcumin, a component of turmeric, induced the down-regulation of presenilin 1 protein in Jurkat and K562 cell lines. PMID:22977552

  13. Analysis of proteins expressed at the time of murine organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Van Keuren, M L; Iacob, R A; Kurnit, D M

    1991-06-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoretograms were prepared from wild-type C57BL/6J embryos from day 7.5 through day 9.0 of development. This time period encompasses a critical window of development as the embryo traverses from an egg cylinder through major organogenesis. Consequently, we term this resource MOPED (for mouse organogenesis protein electrophoresis database). By resolving and analyzing the behavior of approximately 1,000 polypeptides per time point, we were able to track many of these polypeptides through this time period in development. Of special note was a burst of induced protein synthesis that was observed in mouse embryos development. Polypeptides observed in mouse embryos that match those identified previously in mouse fibroblasts were noted. Two of them (the intermediate filament-associated protein and tropomyosin-4) were significantly altered in 8.5 day embryos. As more polypeptides are designated, it will be possible to expand the known proteins in the database. MOPED establishes the patterns of synthesis of a large number of polypeptides during a crucial period of development. Thus MOPED is designed to analyze proteins relevant to mouse embryogenesis in the future. PMID:1878222

  14. Coat protein-mediated resistance in transgenic tobacco expressing the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein from tissue-specific promoters.

    PubMed

    Reimann-Philipp, U; Beachy, R N

    1993-01-01

    Coat protein-mediated resistance (CP-MR) was studied in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi nn' and 'Xanthi NN' that express chimeric tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein (CP) gene constructs using two different tissue-specific promoters. The Phaseolus vulgaris pal2 promoter leads to gene expression in the upper leaf epidermis and the xylem, while the rolC promoter from Agrobacterium rhizogenes leads to gene expression in pholem and leaf hair tip cells. Tissue-specific gene expression was verified using the gusA(uidA) reporter gene, while accumulation of TMV CP was verified by Western blot analysis. Transgenic Xanthi nn plants harboring the pal2-CP gene construct were partially resistant to TMV infection. On Xanthi NN plants that expressed the pal2-CP gene construct, fewer necrotic lesions were formed after TMV inoculation compared to nontransformed control plants. The level of resistance, however, was substantially less than in plant lines that expressed TMV CP from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. By contrast, expression of the rolC-CP construct did not confer resistance in either Xanthi nn or Xanthi NN. The results provide further evidence that CP-MR to systemic TMV infection in tobacco is probably due to inhibition of infection rather than to effects on long-distance spread through the phloem. PMID:8324249

  15. Expression of Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 2 Operon-Associated Proteins during Mammalian and Arthropod Infection

    PubMed Central

    Löhr, Christiane V.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Shkap, Varda; Molad, Thea; Barbet, Anthony F.; Brown, Wendy C.; Palmer, Guy H.

    2002-01-01

    The antigenically variant major surface protein 2 (MSP2) of Anaplasma marginale is expressed from a 3.5-kb operon that contains, in a 5?-to-3? direction, four open reading frames, opag3, opag2, opag1, and msp2. This operon structure was shown to be conserved among genotypically and phenotypically distinct A. marginale, A. ovis, and A. centrale strains. The individual OpAG amino acid sequences are highly conserved among A. marginale strains, with identities ranging from 95 to 99%. OpAG2 and OpAG3 were expressed by all examined A. marginale strains during the acute rickettsemia in the mammalian host and, like MSP2, localize to the bacterial surface. OpAG2 and OpAG3 were also expressed in an infected Ixodes scapularis tick cell line. In contrast, the same A. marginale strains expressed only OpAG2 in two different Dermacentor spp. during transmission feeding. OpAG1 expression was not detected in the infected mammalian host, the infected tick cell line, or within infected Dermacentor ticks. The differential expression of outer membrane proteins from within an operon is a novel finding in tick-transmitted bacteria, and the regulation of expression may be broadly applicable to understanding how the pathogen adapts to the mammalian host-tick vector transition. PMID:12379676

  16. Aberrant protein expression in the placenta of cloned mouse derived from embryonic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Rye; Han, Rong Xun; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Park, Chang Sik; Jin, Dong Il

    2010-10-01

    Placentomegaly is a common phenotype in cloned mice. To assess differences in protein expression between placentae of cloned and uncloned mice, we used a proteomic approach involving 2-dimensional electrophoresis (DE) and MALDI-TOF MS. Proteins within isoelectric point range of 4-11 separately were analyzed in 2-DE with 3 replications of each sample. A total of approximately 3500 spots were detected in placental 2-DE stained with Coomassie blue. In the comparison of normal and cloned samples, a total of 41 spots were identified as differentially expressed proteins, of which 25 spots were up-regulated proteins such as TIMP-2, glutamate-ammonia, and esterase 10, while 16 spots were down-regulated proteins such as PBEF and annexin A1. The TIMP-2, which is related to extracellular matrix degradation and tissue remodeling processes, is an inhibitor of MMP-2. The PBEF is related to inhibition of apoptosis and induction of spontaneous labor. Western blot analysis confirmed increased TIMP-2 expression and decreased PBEF expression in cloned placentae compared with normal controls. Our results demonstrated composite profiles of key proteins involved in abnormal hypertrophic placenta derived from cloned mice and suggested that the reason for the placentomegaly may be due to abnormal gene expression in cloned mice. PMID:20684987

  17. Atrazine Affects Phosphoprotein and Protein Expression in MCF-10A Human Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Song, Qisheng; Sheehan, David

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, a member of the 2-chloro-s-triazine family of herbicides, is the most widely used pesticide in the world and often detected in agriculture watersheds. Although it was generally considered as an endocrine disruptor, posing a potential threat to human health, the molecular mechanisms of atrazine effects remain unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we identified a panel of differentially expressed phosphoproteins and total proteins in human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells after being exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine. Atrazine treatments for 6 h resulted in differential expression of 4 phosphoproteins and 8 total-proteins as compared to the control cells (>1.5-fold, p < 0.05). MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins belong to various cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, membrane) and varied in function, including those regulating the stress response such as peroxiredoxin I, HSP70 and HSP27; structural proteins such as tropomyosin and profilin 1; and oncogenesis proteins such as ANP32A. Six of the 12 identified proteins were verified by quantitative PCR for their transcript levels. The most up-regulated phosphoprotein by atrazine treatment, ANP32A, was further analyzed for its expression, distribution and cellular localization using Western blot and immunocytochemical approaches. The results revealed that ANP32 expression after atrazine treatment increased dose and time dependently and was primarily located in the nucleus. This study may provide new evidence on the potential toxicity of atrazine in human cells. PMID:25275270

  18. Unique macrophage and tick cell-specific protein expression from the p28/p30-outer membrane protein multigene locus in Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Singu, Vijayakrishna; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Sirigireddy, Kamesh R; Cheng, Chuanmin; Munderloh, Ulrike; Ganta, Roman R

    2006-09-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis are tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogens that cause human and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis respectively. We tested the hypothesis that these pathogens express unique proteins in response to their growth in vertebrate and tick host cells and that this differential expression is similar in closely related Ehrlichia species. Evaluation of nine E. chaffeensis isolates and one E. canis isolate demonstrated that protein expression was host cell-dependent. The differentially expressed proteins included those from the p28/30-Omp multigene locus. E. chaffeensis and E. canis proteins expressed in infected macrophages were primarily the products of the p28-Omp 19 and 20 genes or their orthologues. In cultured tick cells, E. canis expressed only the p30-10 protein, an orthologue of the E. chaffeensis p28-Omp 14 protein which is the only protein expressed by E. chaffeensis propagated in cultured tick cells. The expressed Omp proteins were post-translationally modified to generate multiple molecular forms. E. chaffeensis gene expression from the p28/30-Omp locus was similar in tick cell lines derived from both vector (Amblyomma americanum) and non-vector (Ixodes scapularis) ticks. Differential expression of proteins within the p28/p30-Omp locus may therefore be vital for adaptation of Ehrlichia species to their dual host life cycle. PMID:16922866

  19. Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein and Doxorubicin Chemoresistance of Metastatic Breast Cancer Is Regulated by miR-298

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lili; Hazari, Sidhartha; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak; Moroz, Krzysztof; Dash, Srikanta

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in cancer; therefore, they offer great diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We have developed doxorubicin-resistant and -sensitive metastatic human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) to study the chemoresistant mechanisms regulated by miRNAs. We found that doxorubicin localized exclusively to the cytoplasm and was unable to reach the nuclei of resistant tumor cells because of the increased nuclear expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp). An miRNA array between doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells showed that reduced expression of miR-298 in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells was associated with increased expression of P-gp. In a transient transfection experiment, miR-298 directly bound to the MDR1 3? untranslated region and regulated the expression of firefly luciferase reporter in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of miR-298 down-regulated P-gp expression, increasing nuclear accumulation of doxorubicin and cytotoxicity in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-298 increased P-gp expression and induced doxorubicin resistance in sensitive breast cancer cells. In summary, these results suggest that miR-298 directly modulates P-gp expression and is associated with the chemoresistant mechanisms of metastatic human breast cancer. Therefore, miR-298 has diagnostic and therapeutic potential for predicting doxorubicin chemoresistance in human breast cancer. PMID:22521303

  20. Expression of hepatitis E virus putative structural proteins in recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Carl, M; Isaacs, S N; Kaur, M; He, J; Tam, A W; Yarbough, P O; Reyes, G R

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a polyadenylated, positive-stranded RNA virus which is a major cause of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis in many developing countries. The viral genome contains three different open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1, which is believed to encode nonstructural proteins, and ORF2 and ORF3, which are believed to encode structural proteins. The full-length putative structural proteins encoded by ORF2 and ORF3 of HEV have been cloned and expressed in recombinant vaccinia virus. Proteins encoded by ORF2 and ORF3 when expressed in vaccinia virus are recognized by pooled sera obtained from individuals with acute hepatitis E. Vaccinia-expressed viral gene products of HEV will have utility in characterizing the cell-mediated immune response to HEV. Images PMID:7496958

  1. Cloning and Secretion Expression of Heat-shock Protein 70 Gene of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Jie; Zhang, Zhao-Shan; Li, Shu-Qin; Huang, Cui-Fen

    2000-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70)was obtained by PCR method from Helicobacter pylori chromosomal DNA. Sequencing analysis exhibited that the hsp70 gene isolated from Hp Y(2) was highly homologous with the gene encoded in Helicobacter pylori 26695 and J99, which had been sequenced for complete genome. The hsp70 gene was recombined in vitro with fusion secretion expression vector pMAL-p2 and was transformed into E.coli cells. The E.coli strains, containing hsp70 recombinant plasmid, expressed a 113 kD fusion protein which accounted for 19.4% of the total bacterial periplasm protein after the induction with IPTG for 5 h at 30 degrees. The expressed fusion protein could react specifically with anti-Helicobacter pylori rabbit IgG, as proved by Western blot method. PMID:12058204

  2. In Vitro Expression and Production of Antibody Against Cymbidium mosaic virus Coat Protein.

    PubMed

    Sherpa, A R; Hallan, V; Zaidi, A A

    2012-06-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antisera were produced using coat protein of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) Indian isolate expressed in E. coli as GST fusion. The expressed protein was purified by GST-fusion protein purification kit for use as an immunogen in rabbits. Antisera prepared in this manner reacted in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS ELISA) with extract from CymMV-infected tissue. The results indicate that polyclonal antisera prepared from expressed CymMV coat proteins were useful for the detection of CymMV in an array of assays. The detection system developed is highly effective for detection of Indian strain of the virus in comparison to kits available in the international market. PMID:23730003

  3. Highly expressed proteins have an increased frequency of alanine in the second amino acid position

    PubMed Central

    Tats, Age; Remm, Maido; Tenson, Tanel

    2006-01-01

    Background Although the sequence requirements for translation initiation regions have been frequently analysed, usually the highly expressed genes are not treated as a separate dataset. Results To investigate this, we analysed the mRNA regions downstream of initiation codons in nine bacteria, three archaea and three unicellular eukaryotes, comparing the dataset of highly expressed genes to the dataset of all genes. In addition to the detailed analysis of the nucleotide and codon frequencies we compared the N-termini of highly expressed proteins to the N-termini of all proteins coded in the genome. Conclusion The most conserved pattern was observed at the amino acid level: strong alanine over-representation was observed at the second amino acid position of highly expressed proteins. This pattern is well conserved in all three domains of life. PMID:16483368

  4. Vector Development for the Expression of Foreign Proteins in the Vaccine Strain Brucella abortus S19

    PubMed Central

    Comerci, Diego J.; Pollevick, Guido D.; Vigliocco, Ana M.; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    1998-01-01

    A vector for the expression of foreign antigens in the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 was developed by using a DNA fragment containing the regulatory sequences and the signal peptide of the Brucella bcsp31 gene. This fragment was cloned in broad-host-range plasmid pBBR4MCS, resulting in plasmid pBEV. As a reporter protein, a repetitive antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. The recombinant fusion protein is stably expressed and secreted into the Brucella periplasmic space, inducing a good antibody response against the T. cruzi antigen. The expression of the repetitive antigen in Brucella neither altered its growth pattern nor generated a toxic or lethal effect during experimental infection. The application of this strategy for the generation of live recombinant vaccines and the tagging of B. abortus S19 vaccine is discussed. This is the first time that a recombinant protein has been expressed in the periplasm of brucellae. PMID:9673273

  5. Human Glycolipid Transfer Protein (GLTP) Expression Modulates Cell Shape

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongguang; Chung, Taeowan; Zou, Xianqiong; Pike, Helen M.; Brown, Rhoderick E.

    2011-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) accelerates glycosphingolipid (GSL) intermembrane transfer via a unique lipid transfer/binding fold (GLTP-fold) that defines the GLTP superfamily and is the prototype for GLTP-like domains in larger proteins, i.e. phosphoinositol 4-phosphate adaptor protein-2 (FAPP2). Although GLTP-folds are known to play roles in the nonvesicular intracellular trafficking of glycolipids, their ability to alter cell phenotype remains unexplored. In the present study, overexpression of human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) was found to dramatically alter cell phenotype, with cells becoming round between 24 and 48 h after transfection. By 48 h post transfection, ?70% conversion to the markedly round shape was evident in HeLa and HEK-293 cells, but not in A549 cells. In contrast, overexpression of W96A-GLTP, a liganding-site point mutant with abrogated ability to transfer glycolipid, did not alter cell shape. The round adherent cells exhibited diminished motility in wound healing assays and an inability to endocytose cholera toxin but remained viable and showed little increase in apoptosis as assessed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. A round cell phenotype also was induced by overexpression of FAPP2, which binds/transfers glycolipid via its C-terminal GLTP-like fold, but not by a plant GLTP ortholog (ACD11), which is incapable of glycolipid binding/transfer. Screening for human protein partners of GLTP by yeast two hybrid screening and by immuno-pulldown analyses revealed regulation of the GLTP-induced cell rounding response by interaction with ?-catenin. Remarkably, while ?-catenin overexpression alone induced dendritic outgrowths, coexpression of GLTP along with ?-catenin accelerated transition to the rounded phenotype. The findings represent the first known phenotypic changes triggered by GLTP overexpression and regulated by direct interaction with a p120-catenin protein family member. PMID:21625605

  6. Human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) expression modulates cell shape.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongguang; Chung, Taeowan; Zou, Xianqiong; Pike, Helen M; Brown, Rhoderick E

    2011-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) accelerates glycosphingolipid (GSL) intermembrane transfer via a unique lipid transfer/binding fold (GLTP-fold) that defines the GLTP superfamily and is the prototype for GLTP-like domains in larger proteins, i.e. phosphoinositol 4-phosphate adaptor protein-2 (FAPP2). Although GLTP-folds are known to play roles in the nonvesicular intracellular trafficking of glycolipids, their ability to alter cell phenotype remains unexplored. In the present study, overexpression of human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) was found to dramatically alter cell phenotype, with cells becoming round between 24 and 48 h after transfection. By 48 h post transfection, ?70% conversion to the markedly round shape was evident in HeLa and HEK-293 cells, but not in A549 cells. In contrast, overexpression of W96A-GLTP, a liganding-site point mutant with abrogated ability to transfer glycolipid, did not alter cell shape. The round adherent cells exhibited diminished motility in wound healing assays and an inability to endocytose cholera toxin but remained viable and showed little increase in apoptosis as assessed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. A round cell phenotype also was induced by overexpression of FAPP2, which binds/transfers glycolipid via its C-terminal GLTP-like fold, but not by a plant GLTP ortholog (ACD11), which is incapable of glycolipid binding/transfer. Screening for human protein partners of GLTP by yeast two hybrid screening and by immuno-pulldown analyses revealed regulation of the GLTP-induced cell rounding response by interaction with ?-catenin. Remarkably, while ?-catenin overexpression alone induced dendritic outgrowths, coexpression of GLTP along with ?-catenin accelerated transition to the rounded phenotype. The findings represent the first known phenotypic changes triggered by GLTP overexpression and regulated by direct interaction with a p120-catenin protein family member. PMID:21625605

  7. Homologous expression of the Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA reveals that the extracellular protein is glycosylated.

    PubMed

    Chung, Daehwan; Young, Jenna; Bomble, Yannick J; Vander Wall, Todd A; Groom, Joseph; Himmel, Michael E; Westpheling, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic microbes described with ability to digest lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. The cellulolytic ability of different species varies dramatically and correlates with the presence of the multimodular cellulase CelA, which contains both a glycoside hydrolase family 9 endoglucanase and a glycoside hydrolase family 48 exoglucanase known to be synergistic in their activity, connected by three cellulose-binding domains via linker peptides. This architecture exploits the cellulose surface ablation driven by its general cellulase processivity as well as excavates cavities into the surface of the substrate, revealing a novel paradigm for cellulase activity. We recently reported that a deletion of celA in C. bescii had a significant effect on its ability to utilize complex biomass. To analyze the structure and function of CelA and its role in biomass deconstruction, we constructed a new expression vector for C. bescii and were able, for the first time, to express significant quantities of full-length protein in vivo in the native host. The protein, which contains a Histidine tag, was active and excreted from the cell. Expression of CelA protein with and without its signal sequence allowed comparison of protein retained intracellularly to protein transported extracellularly. Analysis of protein in culture supernatants revealed that the extracellular CelA protein is glycosylated whereas the intracellular CelA is not, suggesting that either protein transport is required for this post-translational modification or that glycosylation is required for protein export. The mechanism and role of protein glycosylation in bacteria is poorly understood and the ability to express CelA in vivo in C. bescii will allow the study of the mechanism of protein glycosylation in this thermophile. It will also allow the study of glycosylation of CelA itself and its role in the structure and function of this important enzyme in biomass deconstruction. PMID:25799047

  8. The expression of selenium-binding protein 1 is decreased in uterine leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Selenium has been shown to inhibit cancer development and growth through the mediation of selenium-binding proteins. Decreased expression of selenium-binding protein 1 has been reported in cancers of the prostate, stomach, colon, and lungs. No information, however, is available concerning the roles of selenium-binding protein 1 in uterine leiomyoma. Methods Using Western Blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of selenium-binding protein 1 in uterine leiomyoma and normal myometrium in 20 patients who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma. Results and Discussion The patient age ranged from 34 to 58 years with a mean of 44.3 years. Proliferative endometrium was seen in 8 patients, secretory endometrium in 7 patients, and atrophic endometrium in 5 patients. Two patients showed solitary leiomyoma, and eighteen patients revealed 2 to 5 tumors. Tumor size ranged from 1 to 15.5 cm with a mean of 4.3 cm. Both Western Blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed a significant lower level of selenium-binding protein 1 in leiomyoma than in normal myometrium. Larger tumors had a tendency to show a lower level of selenium-binding protein 1 than smaller ones, but the difference did not reach a statistical significance. The expression of selenium-binding protein 1 was the same among patients with proliferative, secretory, and atrophic endometrium in either leiomyoma or normal myometrium. Also, we did not find a difference of selenium-binding protein 1 level between patients younger than 45 years and older patients in either leiomyoma or normal myometrium. Conclusions Decreased expression of selenium-binding protein 1 in uterine leiomyoma may indicate a role of the protein in tumorigenesis. Our findings may provide a basis for future studies concerning the molecular mechanisms of selenium-binding protein 1 in tumorigenesis as well as the possible use of selenium in prevention and treatment of uterine leiomyoma. PMID:21143902

  9. Expression of heterologous proteins inPichia pastoris: a useful experimental tool in protein engineering and production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Daly; Milton T. W. Hearn

    2005-01-01

    The use of the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, as a cellular host for the expression of recombinant proteins has become increasing popular in recent times. P. pastoris is easier to genetically manipulate and culture than mammalian cells and can be grown to high cell densities. Equally important, P. pastoris is also a eukaryote, and thereby provides the potential for producing

  10. Expression of hemidesmosomes and component proteins is lost by invasive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bergstraesser, L. M.; Srinivasan, G.; Jones, J. C.; Stahl, S.; Weitzman, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Hemidesmosomes are multiprotein structures that attach basal cells of stratified epithelia to basement membranes. Although normal human breast epithelia are not stratified, we observed expression of electron-dense hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome protein components by breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells at the basal lamina in vivo. Primary cultured normal human breast epithelial cells also contained hemidesmosomes and component proteins, and could be used as a model for hemidesmosome assembly and regulation. In these cultured cells, hemidesmosome proteins were expressed and localized basally in an unvaried temporal pattern, and electron-dense hemidesmosomes were not seen until the final protein was localized to the cell base. In addition, rate of localization was influenced by confluence, doubling time, and extracellular matrix. Invasive breast cancer cells did not express hemidesmosomes or most of the component proteins in vivo. In carcinoma in situ, cells away from the basement membrane lacked hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome proteins, and cells at the basement membrane exhibited abnormalities of hemidesmosome protein expression. Primary human malignant breast cells in culture exhibited a mix of hemidesmosome phenotypes. These data suggest that hemidesmosomes may be important subcellular structures in determining the cytoarchitecture of the breast epithelium. Further, their downregulation may influence cytoarchitecture remodeling closely linked with cell cycle, motility, and extracellular matrix interactions; and their loss in carcinoma may be associated with loss of normal cytoarchitecture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7495306

  11. Differential analysis of protein expression of Bifidobacterium grown on different carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Roelofsen, Han; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; de Vries, Marcel; Venema, Koen; Welling, Gjalt W; Vonk, Roel J

    2007-05-01

    We observed recently that colonic fermentation of lactose might be a major factor in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. Proteomic techniques could be helpful in interpreting the metabolic pathways of lactose fermentation. The objective of this study was to explore proteomic methodologies for studying bacterial lactose metabolism that can be used to detect and identify proteins associated with the onset of intolerance symptoms. Differential expression of cytoplasmic proteins of Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum grown on different carbohydrates (lactose, glucose, galactose) was analyzed with surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) MS and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After fractionation by SDS-PAGE, differentially-expressed proteins were identified with LC-MS/MS. The three strains grown on the same carbohydrate or the same strain grown on glucose or lactose showed differences in SELDI-TOF MS protein profiles. Differences in protein expression were observed in B. breve grown on glucose, galactose or lactose as analyzed with SDS-PAGE. With LC-MS/MS, proteins from Bifidobacterium were identified, which included enzymes for metabolism of lactose, glucose and galactose. In conclusion, the applied techniques can discern differences in protein expression of bacteria metabolizing different carbohydrates. These techniques are promising in studying metabolism of lactose and other substrates in a complex bacterial ecosystem such as the colonic microbiota. PMID:17397953

  12. Photocleavage Based Affinity Purification and Printing of Cell-free Expressed Proteins: Application to Proteome Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mark; Rothschild, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Proteome microarrays hold great promise for various biotechnological and biomedical applications including mapping protein-protein interactions, drug discovery and biomarker discovery. However, the need to express, purify and print thousands of functional proteins at high density on a microarray substrate presents challenges which limit their wide-spread availability and use. We report the development of new methods, based on photocleavage, for the purification and printing of nascent proteins. Photocleavable biotin (PC-biotin) is incorporated into nascent proteins by misaminoacylated tRNAs used in a coupled transcription/translation rabbit reticulocyte cell-free expression system. Proteins were affinity isolated onto (strept)avidin coated beads and then photo-released (PC-SNAG). Compared to polyhistidine tag based affinity purification, PC-SNAG provided a higher purity yet comparable yield using a GST test protein. Antibody mediated PC-SNAG is also demonstrated. PC-SNAG proteins were found to exhibit native enzymatic activity and were suitable for the printing of ordered protein microarrays used in protein-protein interaction assays. Alternatively, when beads carrying photocleavably tethered proteins were placed in close proximity to an activated planar surface and then illuminated, proteins were transferred directly to the surface (PC-PRINT) to form discrete spots whose dimensions match that of the beads. PC-PRINT can provide an inexpensive method to fabricate very large scale, high density proteome microarrays. Moreover, transferring the proteins off the beads significantly reduces background auto-fluorescence observed with common bead types. In order to decode nascent proteins which are deposited by PC-PRINT from individual beads, the feasibility of using photocleavable quantum dot codes is demonstrated. PMID:18762158

  13. A Transgenic Mouse Line Expressing the Red Fluorescent Protein tdTomato in GABAergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Stefanie; Sicker, Marit; Marx, Grit; Winkler, Ulrike; Eulenburg, Volker; Hülsmann, Swen; Hirrlinger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic inhibitory neurons are a large population of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals and crucially contribute to the function of the circuitry of the brain. To identify specific cell types and investigate their functions labelling of cell populations by transgenic expression of fluorescent proteins is a powerful approach. While a number of mouse lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in different subpopulations of GABAergic cells are available, GFP expressing mouse lines are not suitable for either crossbreeding to other mouse lines expressing GFP in other cell types or for Ca2+-imaging using the superior green Ca2+-indicator dyes. Therefore, we have generated a novel transgenic mouse line expressing the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in GABAergic neurons using a bacterial artificial chromosome based strategy and inserting the tdTomato open reading frame at the start codon within exon 1 of the GAD2 gene encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65). TdTomato expression was observed in all expected brain regions; however, the fluorescence intensity was highest in the olfactory bulb and the striatum. Robust expression was also observed in cortical and hippocampal neurons, Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, amacrine cells in the retina as well as in cells migrating along the rostral migratory stream. In cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and brainstem, 80% to 90% of neurons expressing endogenous GAD65 also expressed the fluorescent protein. Moreover, almost all tdTomato-expressing cells coexpressed GAD65, indicating that indeed only GABAergic neurons are labelled by tdTomato expression. This mouse line with its unique spectral properties for labelling GABAergic neurons will therefore be a valuable new tool for research addressing this fascinating cell type. PMID:26076353

  14. The adenovirus E1B 19-kilodalton protein stimulates gene expression by increasing DNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, C H; Mathews, M B

    1989-01-01

    In transient expression assays, the adenovirus E1B 19-kilodalton (19K) tumor antigen increases expression from viral promoters and the promoter for the cellular 70-kilodalton heat shock protein (hsp70). To study the mechanism of this effect, we constructed HeLa cell lines that contain stably integrated copies of the 19K gene. Compared with a 19K- control cell line, 19K+ cells produced a significantly higher level of expression from every promoter introduced into the cells by transfection. The 19K protein also increased expression of an RNA polymerase III-transcribed gene but did not affect the level of expression of the endogenous hsp70 gene. The rate of transcription from transfected promoters, as measured by a nuclear run-on assay, was higher in the 19K+ cells than in the 19K- control cells. Furthermore, the level of plasmid DNA remained higher in the 19K+ cell line, suggesting that the 19K protein stabilizes transfected plasmid DNA. The elevated DNA levels seemed to account in full for the increased transcription. The role of the 19K protein in increasing gene expression during viral infection was found to be due to a replication-dependent increase in viral DNA levels. Thus, the 19K protein activates transcription indirectly by producing a higher level of viral or plasmid DNA. The DNA stabilization function of the 19K protein is probably related to the protective role of the 19K protein during viral infection and represents the first example of a viral oncogene product that modulates gene expression by regulating viral and plasmid DNA levels. Images PMID:2531284

  15. Application of Cydia pomonella expressed sequence tags: Identification and expression of three general odorant binding proteins in codling moth.

    PubMed

    Garczynski, Stephen F; Coates, Brad S; Unruh, Thomas R; Schaeffer, Scott; Jiwan, Derick; Koepke, Tyson; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-10-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is one of the most important pests of pome fruits in the world, yet the molecular genetics and the physiology of this insect remain poorly understood. A combined assembly of 8?341 expressed sequence tags was generated from Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencing of eight tissue-specific cDNA libraries. Putative chemosensory proteins (12) and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) (18) were annotated, which included three putative general OBP (GOBP), one more than typically reported for other Lepidoptera. To further characterize CpomGOBPs, we cloned cDNA copies of their transcripts and determined their expression patterns in various tissues. Cloning and sequencing of the 698?nt transcript for CpomGOBP1 resulted in the prediction of a 163 amino acid coding region, and subsequent RT-PCR indicated that the transcripts were mainly expressed in antennae and mouthparts. The 1?289 nt (160 amino acid) CpomGOBP2 and the novel 702 nt (169 amino acid) CpomGOBP3 transcripts are mainly expressed in antennae, mouthparts, and female abdomen tips. These results indicate that next generation sequencing is useful for the identification of novel transcripts of interest, and that codling moth expresses a transcript encoding for a new member of the GOBP subfamily. PMID:23956229

  16. Cell Wall and Secreted Proteins of Candida albicans: Identification, Function, and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chaffin, W. Lajean; López-Ribot, José Luis; Casanova, Manuel; Gozalbo, Daniel; Martínez, José P.

    1998-01-01

    The cell wall is essential to nearly every aspect of the biology and pathogenicity of Candida albicans. Although it was intially considered an almost inert cellular structure that protected the protoplast against osmotic offense, more recent studies have demonstrated that it is a dynamic organelle. The major components of the cell wall are glucan and chitin, which are associated with structural rigidity, and mannoproteins. The protein component, including both mannoprotein and nonmannoproteins, comprises some 40 or more moieties. Wall proteins may differ in their expression, secretion, or topological location within the wall structure. Proteins may be modified by glycosylation (primarily addition of mannose residues), phosphorylation, and ubiquitination. Among the secreted enzymes are those that are postulated to have substrates within the cell wall and those that find substrates in the extracellular environment. Cell wall proteins have been implicated in adhesion to host tissues and ligands. Fibrinogen, complement fragments, and several extracellular matrix components are among the host proteins bound by cell wall proteins. Proteins related to the hsp70 and hsp90 families of conserved stress proteins and some glycolytic enzyme proteins are also found in the cell wall, apparently as bona fide components. In addition, the expression of some proteins is associated with the morphological growth form of the fungus and may play a role in morphogenesis. Finally, surface mannoproteins are strong immunogens that trigger and modulate the host immune response during candidiasis. PMID:9529890

  17. Multifunctional regulatory proteins that control gene expression in both

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Miles F.

    are transcribed into pre-messenger RNAs which undergo a series of nuclear processing steps. Mature m-lethal) regulates both nuclear RNA processing and translation. Other events controlled by multifunctional proteins cyto- plasmic signals (premature termination codons). We speculate that shuttling multifunctional

  18. Enhanced glial fibrillary acidic protein-? expression in human astrocytic tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung-Chan Choi; Sung-Eun Kwak; Ji-Eun Kim; Seung Hun Sheen; Tae-Cheon Kang

    2009-01-01

    Astrocytic tumor is one of the most common primary tumors of the adult brain. Although there are several biochemical markers for the categorization of astrocytic tumor, few markers are used for histopathological diagnosis. Therefore, we evaluated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-?, a product of alternative splicing variants of GFAP-?, as a diagnostic marker. GFAP-? immunoreactive (GFAP-?+) astrocyte was rarely detected

  19. Tools for Protein Expression, Purification & Detection in Bacterial,

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    . coli The cells were harvested and extracts prepared. Samples were taken to assess total cell protein by gravity flow using physiological buffer conditions (100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0) according to the standard elution. Due to the size and composition of the peptide, the Strep·Tag II peptide has negligible effect

  20. Expression of an uncoupling protein gene homolog in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina M. Evock-Clover; Stephen M. Poch; Mark P. Richards; Christopher M. Ashwell; John P. McMurtry

    2002-01-01

    An avian uncoupling protein (UCP) gene homolog was recently sequenced from skeletal muscle and was proposed to have a role in thermogenesis in chickens, ducks and hummingbirds. Since mammalian UCP 2 and UCP 3 also appear to have functions associated with energy and substrate partitioning and body weight regulation, the purpose of this study was to further characterize chicken UCP

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Differential expression of proteins in response to

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Brent

    ,andHarbin,aswell as the intermediate resistant genotype CDC Bold. On the contrary, the susceptible genotype Stander showed a decrease in abundance of these acidic PR-proteins. In the susceptible and intermediate resistant genotypes Stander), is a severe disease of barley and wheat grown in humid and semihumid climates [1, 2]. Disease symptoms develop

  2. Cysteine-to-serine shuffling using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system improves protein secretion: case of a nonglycosylated mutant of miraculin, a taste-modifying protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Ito; Taishi Sugawara; Ayako Koizumi; Ken-ichiro Nakajima; Akiko Shimizu-Ibuka; Mitsunori Shiroishi; Hidetsugu Asada; Takami Yurugi-Kobayashi; Tatsuro Shimamura; Tomiko Asakura; Takumi Misaka; So Iwata; Takuya Kobayashi; Keiko Abe

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of work  Soluble protein expression is an important first step during various types of protein studies. Here, we present the screening\\u000a strategy of secretable mutant. The strategy aimed to identify those cysteine residues that provoke protein misfolding in the\\u000a heterologous expression system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Intentional mutagenesis studies should consider the size of the library and the time required for expression screening. Here,

  3. Expression and Distribution of Calcium-Binding Protein S100P in Human Placenta during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hai-Yan; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Lin, Xiao-Na; Jiang, Ling-Ying; Wang, Jun-Xia; Zhang, Song-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background S100P is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, and it participates in pathophysiological events, such as tumor growth and invasion. Based on the striking similarities between trophoblast cells and tumor cells with regard to proliferative and invasive properties, we raised the question of whether and how S100P expresses in trophoblast cells during development. This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of S100P in the human placenta during pregnancy development. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we collected 16 first-trimester placental tissues, 10 second-trimester placental tissues, and 12 term placentas. The mRNA expression levels of S100P were detected by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR, the protein expression levels were detected by western blot, and the localization of S100P was measured by immunohistochemical staining. The values obtained from PCR and western blot analysis were expressed as the mean ± SD. Levene’s test was used to test equal variances, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups. Results Protein and mRNA expression of S100P could be detected in placenta during pregnancy, with minor higher levels in first-trimester (p>0.05). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that S100P protein was strongly expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts, and moderate expression was detected in villous cytotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblast columns. The S100P protein was localized to both cytoplasm and nuclei in syncytiotrophoblasts, while it only existed in the cytoplasm of cytotrophoblasts. Conclusion S100P was strongly detected in human placenta during pregnancy. The specific expression and distribution of S100P in human placenta throughout gestation suggested that S100P function might vary with its location in the placenta. PMID:25780527

  4. Gene cloning and prokaryotic expression of recombinant outer membrane protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Wang, Xiuli; Guo, Sheping; Qiu, Xuemei

    2011-06-01

    Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen in humans and marine animals. The outer membrane protein of bacteria plays an important role in the infection and pathogenicity to the host. Thus, the outer membrane proteins are an ideal target for vaccines. We amplified a complete outer membrane protein gene (ompW) from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. We then cloned and expressed the gene into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The gene coded for a protein that was 42.78 kDa. We purified the protein using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Anti-His antibody Western blotting, respectively. Our results provide a basis for future application of the OmpW protein as a vaccine candidate against infection by V. parahaemolyticus. In addition, the purified OmpW protein can be used for further functional and structural studies.

  5. PCD-GED: Protein complex detection considering PPI dynamics based on time series gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Lakizadeh, Amir; Jalili, Saeed; Marashi, Sayed-Amir

    2015-08-01

    Detection of protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is essential to understand the function of cell machinery. However, available PPIs are static, and cannot reflect the dynamics inherent in real networks. Our method uses time series gene expression data in addition to PPI networks to detect protein complexes. The proposed method generates a series of time-sequenced subnetworks (TSN) according to the time that the interactions are activated. It finds, from each TSN, the protein complexes by employing the weighted clustering coefficient and maximal weighted density concepts. The final set of detected protein complexes are obtained from union of all complexes from different subnetworks. Our findings suggest that by employing these considerations can produce far better results in protein complex detection problem. PMID:25934349

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling by hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodie L Babitt; Franklin W Huang; Diedra M Wrighting; Yin Xia; Yisrael Sidis; Tarek A Samad; Jason A Campagna; Raymond T Chung; Alan L Schneyer; Clifford J Woolf; Nancy C Andrews; Herbert Y Lin

    2006-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin deficiency induces iron overload, whereas hepcidin excess induces anemia. Mutations in the gene encoding hemojuvelin (HFE2, also known as HJV) cause severe iron overload and correlate with low hepcidin levels, suggesting that hemojuvelin positively regulates hepcidin expression. Hemojuvelin is a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, which also

  7. The Effect of ?-Mating Factor Secretion Signal Mutations on Recombinant Protein Expression in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P.; Stark, Carolyn M.; Kim, Daniel; Chang, Jennifer; Shaheen, Nadia; Poerwanto, Hansel; Agari, Kimiko; Moua, Pachai; Low, Lauren K.; Tran, Namphuong; Huang, Amy D.; Nattestad, Maria; Oshiro, Kristin T.; Chang, John William; Chavan, Archana; Tsai, Jerry W.; Lin-Cereghino, Joan

    2013-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, has been genetically engineered to produce many heterologous proteins for industrial and research purposes. In order to secrete proteins for easier purification from the extracellular medium, the coding sequence of recombinant proteins are initially fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-mating factor secretion signal leader. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis of the prepro region of the ?-mating factor secretion signal sequence was performed in order to determine the effects of various deletions and substitutions on expression. Though some mutations clearly dampened protein expression, deletion of amino acids 57-70, corresponding to the predicted 3rd alpha helix of ?-mating factor secretion signal, increased secretion of reporter proteins horseradish peroxidase and lipase at least 50% in small-scale cultures. These findings raise the possibility that the secretory efficiency of the leader can be further enhanced in the future. PMID:23454485

  8. Identification and Expression of Immunogenic Proteins of a Disease-Associated Marine Turtle Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Coberley, Sadie S.; Condit, Richard C.; Herbst, Lawrence H.; Klein, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    Herpesviruses are associated with several diseases of marine turtles, including lung-eye-trachea disease (LETD) and fibropapillomatosis. Two approaches were used to identify immunodominant antigens of LETV, the LETD-associated herpesvirus. The first approach targeted glycoprotein B, which is known to be immunogenic and neutralizing in other species. The second strategy identified LETV proteins recognized on Western blots by antibodies in immune green turtle plasma. A 38-kDa protein was resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, sequenced, and identified as a scaffolding protein encoded by the overlapping open reading frames of UL26 and UL26.5. Glycoprotein B and the scaffolding protein were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed proteins were recognized on Western blots by antibodies in immune green turtle plasma. Phylogenetic studies based on UL26, DNA polymerase, and glycoprotein B revealed that LETV clusters with the alphaherpesviruses. PMID:12239336

  9. Identification and expression of immunogenic proteins of a disease-associated marine turtle herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Coberley, Sadie S; Condit, Richard C; Herbst, Lawrence H; Klein, Paul A

    2002-10-01

    Herpesviruses are associated with several diseases of marine turtles, including lung-eye-trachea disease (LETD) and fibropapillomatosis. Two approaches were used to identify immunodominant antigens of LETV, the LETD-associated herpesvirus. The first approach targeted glycoprotein B, which is known to be immunogenic and neutralizing in other species. The second strategy identified LETV proteins recognized on Western blots by antibodies in immune green turtle plasma. A 38-kDa protein was resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, sequenced, and identified as a scaffolding protein encoded by the overlapping open reading frames of UL26 and UL26.5. Glycoprotein B and the scaffolding protein were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed proteins were recognized on Western blots by antibodies in immune green turtle plasma. Phylogenetic studies based on UL26, DNA polymerase, and glycoprotein B revealed that LETV clusters with the alphaherpesviruses. PMID:12239336

  10. Expression and characterization of recombinant human retinol-binding protein in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wysocka-Kapcinska, Monika; Campos-Sandoval, José Angel; Pal, Akos; Findlay, John B C

    2010-05-01

    Plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP4) is the principal carrier of vitamin A in blood. Recent studies have suggested that RBP4 may have also a role in insulin resistance. To date the recombinant protein is usually produced by refolding inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Here we report the expression and characterization of recombinant human plasma RBP4 using the Pichia pastoris expression system. Simple and rapid purification allowed us to obtain 5mg/L of purified protein from the fermentation supernatant with no need to perform denaturing and refolding steps. The identity of the protein was verified by ion-trap MS and Western blotting. The functionality of recombinant RBP4, i.e., the binding to its physiologic ligand, retinol, and the interaction with transthyretin (TTR), was tested by fluorimetric and pull-down assays, respectively. The apparent dissociation constant for retinol to the recombinant protein of 2 x 10(-7)M was consistent with published data for native human protein. The recombinant protein interacted specifically with TTR. These results suggest that expression of recombinant human RBP4 in P. pastoris provides an efficient source of fully functional protein in soluble form for biochemical and biophysical studies. PMID:20093188

  11. Comparison of protein expression ratios observed by sixplex and duplex TMT labeling method

    PubMed Central

    Rauniyar, Navin; Gao, Benbo; McClatchy, Daniel B.; Yates, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling via isobaric derivatization of peptides is a universally applicable approach that enables concurrent identification and quantification of proteins in different samples using tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, we evaluated the performance of amine-reactive isobaric Tandem Mass Tag (TMT), available as duplex and sixplex sets, with regard to their ability to elucidate protein expression changes. Using rat brain tissue from two different developmental time points, postnatal day 1 (p1) and 45 (p45), as a model system, we compared the protein expression ratios (p45/p1) observed using duplex TMT tags in triplicate measurements versus sixplex tag in a single LC-MS/MS analysis. A correlation of 0.79 in relative protein abundance was observed in the proteins quantified by these two sets of reagents. However, more proteins passed the criteria for significant fold change (-1.0 ? log2 ratio (p45/p1) ? +1.0 and p < 0.05) in the sixplex analysis. Nevertheless, in both methods most proteins showing significant fold change were identified by multiple spectra, increasing their quantification precision. Additionally, the fold change in p45 rats against p1, observed in TMT experiments, was corroborated by a metabolic labeling strategy where relative quantification of differentially expressed proteins was obtained using 15N-labeled p45 rats as an internal standard. PMID:23214967

  12. Serum Immune-Related Proteins are Differentially Expressed during Hibernation in the American Black Bear

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian A.; Donahue, Seth W.; Vaughan, Michael R.; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (?25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included ?2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin ? and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, ?2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears. PMID:23825529

  13. Efficient expression of influenza virus NS1 nonstructural proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Young, J F; Desselberger, U; Palese, P; Ferguson, B; Shatzman, A R; Rosenberg, M

    1983-01-01

    RNA segment 8 of the influenza A virus genome codes for two nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2, for which the functions are unknown. Cloned cDNA copies of this gene from three different influenza A virus strains were inserted into an Escherichia coli plasmid expression vector, pAS1, carrying the strong regulatable lambda phage promoter, PL. After induction, the NS1 proteins were overproduced to levels of 20-25% of total cellular protein. This was surprising in that the codon composition for these eukaryotic genes is similar to that for weakly expressed proteins in E. coli. Thus, under the appropriate conditions, it appears that high level expression of genes containing a relatively large proportion of minor codons can be obtained. The NS1 protein produced in bacteria from a cloned cDNA copy of the A/PR/8/34 virus NS gene was purified to apparent homogeneity and used to generate a high-titer monospecific rabbit antiserum. Immunoprecipitation studies showed this antibody to be crossreactive against the NS1 proteins produced by several different influenza A virus strains. Immunofluorescence experiments in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells showed the NS1 proteins to be located in the nucleoplasm early in infection for all strains examined. With some of the strains, NS1-specific immunofluorescence was observed predominantly in the nucleoli later in infection. This technology can be used to obtain other viral proteins in pure form for structural, functional, and immunological studies. Images PMID:6310615

  14. Baculovirus expression vectors that incorporate the foreign protein into viral occlusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Je, Y H; Jin, B R; Park, H W; Roh, J Y; Chang, J H; Seo, S J; Olszewski, J A; O'Reilly, D R; Kang, S K

    2003-01-01

    Current baculovirus expression systems typically produce soluble proteins that accumulate within the infected insect cell or are secreted into the growth medium. A system has now been developed for the incorporation of foreign proteins, along with the matrix protein, polyhedrin, into baculovirus occlusion bodies. Initial studies showed that a recombinant virus expressing a translational fusion between polyhedrin and GFP did not form occlusion bodies. However, a baculovirus coexpressing native polyhedrin and the polyhedrin-GFP fusion protein formed occlusion bodies that fluoresced under UV light, demonstrating that they included the polyhedrin-GFP fusion protein. This was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Thus, incorporation of a foreign protein into occlusion bodies depends on an interaction between native polyhedrin and the polyhedrin fusion protein. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the occlusion bodies containing GFP also incorporated virions as expected. These ColorPol occlusion bodies were as infectious to insect larvae as occlusion bodies produced by wild-type virus. This new system expands the capabilities for foreign gene expression by baculoviruses, which has implications for biopesticide design, novel vaccine delivery systems, and fusion protein purification applications. PMID:12545544

  15. Decreased expression of receptor tyrosine kinase of EphB1 protein in renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuigen; Wang, Longxin; Li, Guimei; Zhang, Zhengyu; Wang, Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    Receptors tyrosine kinase of Eph superfamily plays an important role in human cancers. We previously found that EphB1 subtype is down-regulated in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and ovary serous carcinoma. Fore the more, the decreased expression of EphB1 is related to invasion and metastasis in cancers. Although EphB1 has been revealed as an important receptor in cancers, our understanding of its roles in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is limited. In the present study, using specific anit-EphB1 polyclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated EphB1 protein expression levels in RCC specimens surgically resected from 82 patients (including 62 conventional clear-cell RCC, 10 papillary, and 10 chromophobic RCC cases). We found EphB1 protein is positively expressed in the epithelium of renal tubules. Decreased expression of EphB1 was found in all RCC carcinomas compared with expression in the normal epithelium of renal tubules. EphB1 protein moderately expressed in chromophobic RCC, weakly expressed in clear-cell RCC and negatively expressed in papillary RCC. Our results indicate that EphB1 may be involved in carcinogenesis of RCC, the molecular mechanisms of down-regulation of EphB1 including genetic and epigenetic alterations and the dedicated roles of EphB1 in occurrence and progress of RCC need to be explicated in next step. PMID:25120806

  16. Uncovering differentially expressed pathways with protein interaction and gene expression data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Qing Qiu; Shihua Zhang; Xiang-Sun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The identification of genes and pathways involved in biological processes is a central problem in systems biology. Recent microarray technologies and other high-throughput experi- ments provide information which sheds light on this problem. In this article, we propose a new method to identify differentially expressed pathways via integration of gene expression and inter- actomic data in a sophisticated and efficient

  17. Expression of mutant Ets protein at the neuromuscular synapse causes alterations in morphology and gene expression.

    PubMed

    de Kerchove D'Exaerde, Alban; Cartaud, Jean; Ravel-Chapuis, Aymeric; Seroz, Thierry; Pasteau, Fabien; Angus, Lindsay M; Jasmin, Bernard J; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Schaeffer, Laurent

    2002-11-01

    The localized transcription of several muscle genes at the motor endplate is controlled by the Ets transcription factor GABP. To evaluate directly its contribution to the formation of the neuromuscular junction, we generated transgenic mice expressing a general Ets dominant-negative mutant specifically in skeletal muscle. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of genes containing an Ets-binding site was severely affected in the mutant mice. Conversely, the expression of other synaptic genes, including MuSK and Rapsyn, was unchanged. In these animals, muscles expressing the mutant transcription factor developed normally, but examination of the post-synaptic morphology revealed marked alterations of both the primary gutters and secondary folds of the neuromuscular junction. Our results demonstrate that Ets transcription factors are crucial for the normal formation of the neuromuscular junction. They further show that Ets-independent mechanisms control the synaptic expression of a distinct set of synaptic genes. PMID:12393756

  18. Heat shock protein 70 binds its own messenger ribonucleic acid as part of a gene expression self-limiting mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karthik Balakrishnan; Antonio De Maio

    2006-01-01

    Expression of heat shock proteins is a cellular response to a variety of stressors. HSP70, the major stress- induced heat shock protein, is involved in repair and protection after the insult. However, the prolonged presence of this protein is detrimental. Consequently, Hsp70 expression must be tightly regulated. We have previously shown an increase in the degradation of Hsp70 messenger ribonucleic

  19. Protein Expression and Purification 61 (2008) 212219 1046-5928/$ -see front matter 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Weliky, David

    2008-01-01

    Protein Expression and Purification 61 (2008) 212­219 1046-5928/$ - see front matter © 2008Direct Protein Expression and Purification journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/yprep While there have been a number of high-resolution structures of bacterial membrane proteins in recent years, there have been

  20. pSAT vectors: a modular series of plasmids for autofluorescent protein tagging and expression of multiple genes in plants

    E-print Network

    Citovsky, Vitaly

    designed for fluorescent tagging and transient and stable expression of multiple proteins in plant cells into Agrobacterium binary plasmids, allowing efficient transient and stable expression of multiple autofluorescently#12;pSAT vectors: a modular series of plasmids for autofluorescent protein tagging and expression

  1. Effects of 17?-estradiol and progesterone on mitogen-activated protein kinase expression and activity in rat uterine smooth muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre L. Ruzycky

    1996-01-01

    Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is a critical event in mitogenic signal transduction. MAPKs are activated by tyrosine phosphorylation and translocate to different cellular compartments affecting protein function and gene expression. MAPK expression and activity was examined in uterine smooth muscle from rats pretreated with estradiol-17? alone or with estradiol-17? and progesterone. MAPK expression was detected by immunoblotting using

  2. Extracellular matrix protein gene expression in atherosclerotic hypertensive pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Botney, M D; Kaiser, L R; Cooper, J D; Mecham, R P; Parghi, D; Roby, J; Parks, W C

    1992-02-01

    Lobar pulmonary arteries from patients with unexplained pulmonary hypertension were obtained at the time of single-lung transplantation to determine the response of large elastic vessels to increased intraluminal pressure. Specifically, human pulmonary arteries were examined to determine if remodeling remained active at the time of surgery and whether remodeling was similar to previously reported remodeling observed in several animal models. Grossly, the hypertensive vessels appeared atherosclerotic. Histochemical stains revealed a thick, diffuse neointima in hypertensive vessels compared with normal vessels. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated elastin protein in the neointima and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated tropoelastin mRNA largely in the neointima. Similarly, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization detected cellular fibronectin, thrombospondin and type I collagen protein and mRNA within the thickened intima from hypertensive vessels. These studies provide evidence that hypertensive vessels in patients with severe chronic pulmonary hypertension are actively remodeling but that the pattern of remodeling is different from previously described animal models. PMID:1739129

  3. Multiple calcium pathways induce the expression of SNAP-25 protein in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    García-Palomero, E; Montiel, C; Herrero, C J; García, A G; Alvarez, R M; Arnalich, F M; Renart, J; Lara, H; Cárdenas, A M

    2000-03-01

    Incubation of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in high K+ (38 mM) during 24-48 h enhanced 2.5 to five times the expression of SNAP-25 protein and mRNA, respectively. This increase was reduced 86% by furnidipine (an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker) but was unaffected by either omega-conotoxin GVIA (an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker) or -agatoxin IVA (a P/Q-type Ca2+ channel blocker). Combined blockade of N and P/Q channels with omega-conotoxin MVIIC did, however, block by 76% the protein expression. The inhibitory effects of fumidipine were partially reversed when the external Ca2+ concentration was raised from 1.6 to 5 mM. These findings, together with the fact that nicotinic receptor activation or Ca2+ release from internal stores also enhanced SNAP-25 protein expression, suggest that an increment of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]), rather than its source or Ca2+ entry pathway, is the critical signal to induce the protein expression. The greater coupling between L-type Ca2+ channels and protein expression might be due to two facts: (a) L channels contributed 50% to the global [Ca2+]i rise induced by 38 mM K+ in indo-1-loaded chromaffin cells and (b) L channels undergo less inactivation than N or P/Q channels on sustained stimulation of these cells. PMID:10693936

  4. Screening and large-scale expression of membrane proteins in mammalian cells for structural studies.

    PubMed

    Goehring, April; Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Wang, Kevin H; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Claxton, Derek P; Baconguis, Isabelle; Althoff, Thorsten; Fischer, Suzanne; Garcia, K Christopher; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Structural, biochemical and biophysical studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins are often hampered by difficulties in overexpression of the candidate molecule. Baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells (BacMam), although a powerful method to heterologously express membrane proteins, can be cumbersome for screening and expression of multiple constructs. We therefore developed plasmid Eric Gouaux (pEG) BacMam, a vector optimized for use in screening assays, as well as for efficient production of baculovirus and robust expression of the target protein. In this protocol, we show how to use small-scale transient transfection and fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) experiments using a GFP-His8-tagged candidate protein to screen for monodispersity and expression level. Once promising candidates are identified, we describe how to generate baculovirus, transduce HEK293S GnTI(-) (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-negative) cells in suspension culture and overexpress the candidate protein. We have used these methods to prepare pure samples of chicken acid-sensing ion channel 1a (cASIC1) and Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) for X-ray crystallography, demonstrating how to rapidly and efficiently screen hundreds of constructs and accomplish large-scale expression in 4-6 weeks. PMID:25299155

  5. One third of dynamic protein expression profiles can be predicted by a simple rate equation.

    PubMed

    Tchourine, Konstantine; Poultney, Christopher S; Wang, Li; Silva, Gustavo M; Manohar, Sandhya; Mueller, Christian L; Bonneau, Richard; Vogel, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Cells respond to environmental stimuli with expression changes at both the mRNA and protein level, and a plethora of known and unknown regulators affect synthesis and degradation rates of the resulting proteins. To investigate the major principles of gene expression regulation in dynamic systems, we estimated protein synthesis and degradation rates from parallel time series data of mRNA and protein expression and tested the degree to which expression changes can be modeled by a simple linear differential equation. Examining three published datasets for yeast responding to diamide, rapamycin, and sodium chloride treatment, we find that almost one-third of genes can be well-modeled, and the estimated rates assume realistic values. Prediction quality is linked to low measurement noise and the shape of the expression profile. Synthesis and degradation rates do not correlate within one treatment, consistent with their independent regulation. When performing robustness analyses of the rate estimates, we observed that most genes adhere to one of two major modes of regulation, which we term synthesis- and degradation-independent regulation. These two modes, in which only one of the rates has to be tightly set, while the other one can assume various values, offer an efficient way for the cell to respond to stimuli and re-establish proteostasis. We experimentally validate degradation-independent regulation under oxidative stress for the heatshock protein Ssa4. PMID:25111754

  6. Developmental expression of the prion protein gene in glial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Moser; Raymond J Colello; Uwe Pott; Bruno Oesch

    1995-01-01

    Replication of prions is dependent on the presence of the host protein PrPc. During the course of disease, PrPc is converted into an abnormal isoform, PrPsc, which accumulates in the brain. Attempts to identify the cell type(s) in which prion replication and PrP conversion occur have reached conflicting results. Although PrP mRNA is present in high amounts in neurons throughout

  7. Aberrant expression of DNA damage response proteins is associated with breast cancer subtype and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Gulnur; Himmetoglu, Cigdem; Jimenez, Rafael E.; Geyer, Susan M.; Wang, Wenle P.; Costinean, Stefan; Pilarski, Robert T.; Morrison, Carl; Suren, Dinc; Liu, Jianhua; Chen, Jingchun; Kamal, Jyoti; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Landmark studies of the status of DNA damage checkpoints and associated repair functions in preneoplastic and neoplastic cells has focused attention on importance of these pathways in cancer development, and inhibitors of repair pathways are in clinical trials for treatment of triple negative breast cancer. Cancer heterogeneity suggests that specific cancer subtypes will have distinct mechanisms of DNA damage survival, dependent on biological context. In this study, status of DNA damage response (DDR)-associated proteins was examined in breast cancer subtypes in association with clinical features; 479 breast cancers were examined for expression of DDR proteins ?H2AX, BRCA1, pChk2, and p53, DNA damage-sensitive tumor suppressors Fhit and Wwox, and Wwox-interacting proteins Ap2?, Ap2?, ErbB4, and correlations among proteins, tumor subtypes, and clinical features were assessed. In a multivariable model, triple negative cancers showed significantly reduced Fhit and Wwox, increased p53 and Ap2? protein expression, and were significantly more likely than other subtype tumors to exhibit aberrant expression of two or more DDR-associated proteins. Disease-free survival was associated with subtype, Fhit and membrane ErbB4 expression level and aberrant expression of multiple DDR-associated proteins. These results suggest that definition of specific DNA repair and checkpoint defects in subgroups of triple negative cancer might identify new treatment targets. Expression of Wwox and its interactor, ErbB4, was highly significantly reduced in metastatic tissues vs. matched primary tissues, suggesting that Wwox signal pathway loss contributes to lymph node metastasis, perhaps by allowing survival of tumor cells that have detached from basement membranes, as proposed for the role of Wwox in ovarian cancer spread. PMID:21069451

  8. Urokinase expression by tumor suppressor protein p53: a novel role in mRNA turnover.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Praveenkumar; Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhandary, Yashodhar P; Shetty, Rashmi S; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Shetty, Sreerama

    2008-09-01

    Lung carcinoma (H1299) cells deficient in p53 (p53(-/-)) express large amounts of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) protein and uPA mRNA, and exhibit slower degradation of uPA mRNA than that of p53-expressing nonmalignant Beas2B human airway epithelial cells. Expression of p53 protein in H1299 cells, upon transfection with p53 cDNA, suppressed basal as well as uPA-induced expression of uPA protein in both conditioned media and cell lysates, and decreased the level of steady-state uPA mRNA primarily due to increased uPA mRNA turnover. Inhibition of p53 expression by RNA silencing (SiRNA) in Beas2B cells enhanced basal and uPA-mediated uPA protein and mRNA expression with stabilization of uPA mRNA. Purified p53 binds to the uPA mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR) in a sequence-specific manner and endogenous uPA mRNA associates with p53 protein isolated from Beas2B cytosolic extracts. p53 binds to a 35-nucleotide uPA 3'UTR sequence and insertion of this sequence into beta-globin mRNA accelerates degradation of otherwise stable beta-globin mRNA. These observations confirm a new role for p53 as a uPA mRNA binding protein that down-regulates uPA mRNA stability and decreases cellular uPA expression. PMID:18390474

  9. Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.

    PubMed

    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

    2013-05-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers. PMID:23570752

  10. LAPTM5: A novel lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adra, C.N.; Zhu, Shaochun; Ko, Jone-Long [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); and others

    1996-07-15

    While a large body of knowledge about cell membrane proteins exists, much less is known about the repertoire and function of integral membrane proteins of intracellular organelles. In looking for novel classes of genes that are functionally important to hematopoietic cells, we have cloned the cDNA for a gene preferentially expressed in adult hematopoietic tissues. During embryonic development the gene is expressed in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues. In cell lines the gene is expressed specifically in hematopoietic lineages, whereas in normal adult tissues the mRNA is preferentially detected at high levels in lymphoid and myeloid tissues. The predicted protein is a pentaspanner with no homology to known genes and conserved across evolution. Immunocytological and cell fractionation studies with a specific antibody revealed a protein localizing in lysosomes. The gene, provisionally named LAPTM5, maps to chromosome 1p34. The expression pattern of the gene together with preliminary evidence that the protein interacts with ubiquitin indicates that the protein may have a special functional role during embryogenesis and in adult hematopoietic cells. 53 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Relationship between differentially expressed mRNA and mRNA-protein correlations in a xenograft model system

    PubMed Central

    Koussounadis, Antonis; Langdon, Simon P.; Um, In Hwa; Harrison, David J.; Smith, V. Anne

    2015-01-01

    Differential mRNA expression studies implicitly assume that changes in mRNA expression have biological meaning, most likely mediated by corresponding changes in protein levels. Yet studies into mRNA-protein correspondence have shown notoriously poor correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels, creating concern for inferences from only mRNA expression data. However, none of these studies have examined in particular differentially expressed mRNA. Here, we examined this question in an ovarian cancer xenograft model. We measured protein and mRNA expression for twenty-nine genes in four drug-treatment conditions and in untreated controls. We identified mRNAs differentially expressed between drug-treated xenografts and controls, then analysed mRNA-protein expression correlation across a five-point time-course within each of the four experimental conditions. We evaluated correlations between mRNAs and their protein products for mRNAs differentially expressed within an experimental condition compared to those that are not. We found that differentially expressed mRNAs correlate significantly better with their protein product than non-differentially expressed mRNAs. This result increases confidence for the use of differential mRNA expression for biological discovery in this system, as well as providing optimism for the usefulness of inferences from mRNA expression in general. PMID:26053859

  12. Relationship between differentially expressed mRNA and mRNA-protein correlations in a xenograft model system.

    PubMed

    Koussounadis, Antonis; Langdon, Simon P; Um, In Hwa; Harrison, David J; Smith, V Anne

    2015-01-01

    Differential mRNA expression studies implicitly assume that changes in mRNA expression have biological meaning, most likely mediated by corresponding changes in protein levels. Yet studies into mRNA-protein correspondence have shown notoriously poor correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels, creating concern for inferences from only mRNA expression data. However, none of these studies have examined in particular differentially expressed mRNA. Here, we examined this question in an ovarian cancer xenograft model. We measured protein and mRNA expression for twenty-nine genes in four drug-treatment conditions and in untreated controls. We identified mRNAs differentially expressed between drug-treated xenografts and controls, then analysed mRNA-protein expression correlation across a five-point time-course within each of the four experimental conditions. We evaluated correlations between mRNAs and their protein products for mRNAs differentially expressed within an experimental condition compared to those that are not. We found that differentially expressed mRNAs correlate significantly better with their protein product than non-differentially expressed mRNAs. This result increases confidence for the use of differential mRNA expression for biological discovery in this system, as well as providing optimism for the usefulness of inferences from mRNA expression in general. PMID:26053859

  13. Neurotrophin and Neurotrophin Receptor Protein Expression in the Human Lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Ricci; Laura Felici; Salvatore Mariotta; Francesco Mannino; Giovanni Schmid; Claudio Terzano; Giuseppe Cardillo; Francesco Amenta; Elena Bronzetti

    Neurotrophins (NTs) promote survival and differentiation of central and peripheral neurons, and display several activities also in non-neuronal cells. Human lungs synthesize and release NTs, which are probably involved in the pathophysiology of pulmonary disturbances. In this article the expression and ana- tomic localization of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neuro- trophic factor, and NT-3 and of corresponding high-affinity receptors TrkA,

  14. Stable Plastid Transformation for High-Level Recombinant Protein Expression: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Xue, Xiaochang; Wang, Xianfeng; Long, Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    Plants are a promising expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. However, low protein productivity remains a major obstacle that limits extensive commercialization of whole plant and plant cell bioproduction platform. Plastid genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgenic expression, transgenic containment via maternal inheritance, and multigene expression in a single transformation event. In recent years, the development of optimized expression strategies has given a huge boost to the exploitation of plastids in molecular farming. The driving forces behind the high expression level of plastid bioreactors include codon optimization, promoters and UTRs, genotypic modifications, endogenous enhancer and regulatory elements, posttranslational modification, and proteolysis. Exciting progress of the high expression level has been made with the plastid-based production of two particularly important classes of pharmaceuticals: vaccine antigens, therapeutic proteins, and antibiotics and enzymes. Approaches to overcome and solve the associated challenges of this culture system that include low transformation frequencies, the formation of inclusion bodies, and purification of recombinant proteins will also be discussed. PMID:23093835

  15. S100A10 protein expression is associated with oxaliplatin sensitivity in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Individual responses to oxaliplatin (L-OHP)-based chemotherapy remain unpredictable. The objective of our study was to find candidate protein markers for tumor sensitivity to L-OHP from intracellular proteins of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. We performed expression difference mapping (EDM) analysis of whole cell lysates from 11 human CRC cell lines with different sensitivities to L-OHP by using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS), and identified a candidate protein by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry ion trap time-of-flight (LCMS-IT-TOF). Results Of the qualified mass peaks obtained by EDM analysis, 41 proteins were differentially expressed in 11 human colorectal cancer cell lines. Among these proteins, the peak intensity of 11.1 kDa protein was strongly correlated with the L-OHP sensitivity (50% inhibitory concentrations) (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.80). We identified this protein as Protein S100-A10 (S100A10) by MS/MS ion search using LCMS-IT-TOF. We verified its differential expression and the correlation between S100A10 protein expression levels in drug-untreated CRC cells and their L-OHP sensitivities by Western blot analyses. In addition, S100A10 protein expression levels were not correlated with sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil, suggesting that S100A10 is more specific to L-OHP than to 5-fluorouracil in CRC cells. S100A10 was detected in cell culture supernatant, suggesting secretion out of cells. Conclusions By proteomic approaches including SELDI technology, we have demonstrated that intracellular S100A10 protein expression levels in drug-untreated CRC cells differ according to cell lines and are significantly correlated with sensitivity of CRC cells to L-OHP exposure. Our findings provide a new clue to searching predictive markers of the response to L-OHP, suggesting that S100A10 is expected to be one of the candidate protein markers. PMID:22206547

  16. Expression of L1 protein correlates with cluster of differentiation 24 and integrin ?1 expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    DU, YUE; ZHANG, HAIHONG; JIANG, ZHONGMIN; HUANG, GUOWEI; LU, WENLI; WANG, HESHENG

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined 66 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), 20 cases of smooth muscle tumors, 20 cases of schwannomas and 20 cases of normal gastric tissues in order to analyze the expression of L1, cluster of differentiation (CD)24 and integrin ?1 by immunohistochemical staining. Patients were subjected to follow-up, and survival data were evaluated. L1 expression was detected in 57.6% of GIST cases; this was a significantly higher percentage compared with that found in the smooth muscle tumor cases or the normal control group. CD24 and integrin ?1 were also expressed at significantly higher levels in the GIST cases than in the normal control group, although no significant difference was found in the expression levels of these proteins in smooth muscle tumor or schwannoma cases. These higher levels of L1 and integrin ?1 expression were associated with an increased risk of invasive GIST, and were significantly positively correlated with Ki-67 expression. CD24 expression was not associated with the risk of GIST invasion or Ki-67 expression. There were positive correlations between L1, CD24 and integrin ?1 expression; however, these had no significant association with patient survival. Therefore, L1 alone or in conjunction with CD24 (L1 + CD24), or integrin ?1 (L1 + integrin ?1) can be considered a valuable indicator for the differential diagnosis of GIST. Furthermore, L1 and integrin ?1 can be used alone or in combination to evaluate the biological behavior of GISTs. Future studies are required to evaluate the prognostic value of these markers.

  17. Characterization of the adaptor protein ARH expression in the brain and ARH molecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Mameza, Marie Germaine; Lockard, Jon M; Zamora, Eduardo; Hillefors, Mi; Lavina, Zeno Scotto; Kaplan, Barry B

    2007-11-01

    Previously, pA134 was identified as one of the mRNAs present in the squid giant axon. Comparative sequence analyses revealed that the pA134 gene product manifested significant similarity to the mammalian lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein also known as ARH (autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia). ARH mRNA and protein displayed very similar pattern of expression throughout the mouse brain. Significant levels of expression were observed in cells with a predominantly neuronal profile in the cerebellum, brainstem, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cortex. A yeast two hybrid screen for ARH protein interactions in mouse brain identified the following binders: amyloid precursor-like protein 1, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1, LRP8, and GABA receptor-associated protein-like 1. The interactions of ARH with LRP1 and GABA receptor-associated protein-like 1 were subsequently verified by co-immunoprecipitation of the protein complexes from transfected human embryonic kidney cells. The presence of ARH mRNA in axon of primary sympathetic neurons was established by RT-PCR analyses and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Taken together, our data suggest that ARH is a multifunctional protein whose spectrum of function in the brain goes beyond the traditionally known metabolism of lipoproteins, and that ARH may be locally synthesized in the axon. PMID:17727637

  18. Chemical definition, cloning, and expression of the major protein of the leprosy bacillus.

    PubMed Central

    Rivoire, B; Pessolani, M C; Bozic, C M; Hunter, S W; Hefta, S A; Mehra, V; Brennan, P J

    1994-01-01

    The decline in prevalence of leprosy is not necessarily matched by a fall in incidence, emphasizing the need for new antigens to measure disease transmission and reservoirs of infection. Mycobacterium leprae obtained from armadillo tissues was disrupted and subjected to differential centrifugation to arrive at preparations of cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytosol. By committing 0.3 g of M. leprae to the task, it was possible to isolate from the cytosol and fully define the major cytosolic protein. Amino-terminus sequencing and chemical and enzymatic cleavage, followed by more sequencing and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry of fragments, allowed description of the entire amino acid sequence of a protein of 10,675-Da molecular mass. The sequence derived by chemical means is identical to that deduced previously from DNA analysis of the gene of a 10-kDa protein, a GroES analog. The work represents the first complete chemical definition of an M. leprae protein. PCR amplification of the 10-kDa protein gene, when cloned into Escherichia coli with a pTRP expression vector, allowed production of the recombinant protein. Chemical analysis of the expressed protein demonstrated that it exactly reflected the native protein. The recombinant major cytosolic protein appears to be a promising reagent for skin testing, still probably the most appropriate and pragmatic means of measuring incidence of leprosy. Images PMID:7910593

  19. Pattern of expression of the CREG gene and CREG protein in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guitang; Han, Yaling; Tian, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Jie; Sun, Mingyu; Kang, Jian; Yan, Chenghui

    2011-03-01

    The cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) is a secreted glycoprotein that inhibits cell proliferation and/or enhances differentiation. CREG is widely expressed in adult tissues such as the brain, heart, lungs, liver, intestines and kidneys in mice. We investigated the level of CREG expression during mouse embryogenesis and its distribution at 18.5 days post coitus (dpc) using immunohistochemical staining with diaminobenzidine, western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. CREG expression was first detected in mouse embryos at 4.5 dpc. It was expressed at almost all stages up to 18.5 dpc. The level of CREG was found to increase gradually and was highest at 18.5 dpc. Western blotting showed that the CREG protein was expressed at higher levels in the brain, heart, intestines and kidneys than in the lungs and liver at 18.5 dpc. In 9.5 dpc embryos, CREG was expressed only in the endothelial cells of blood vessels, after the vascular lumen had formed. With advanced differentiation, vascular smooth muscle cells developed in the embryonic vascular structures; the expression of smooth muscle ?-actin protein and CREG were positive and increased gradually in 10.5 dpc embryonic vessels. CREG expression in the embryonic blood vessels peaked at 15.5 dpc and was reduced slightly at 18.5 dpc. These results indicate that CREG is expressed during mouse embryogenesis and might participate in the differentiation of these organs during embryogenesis. PMID:20857207

  20. Heat-shock protein expression on the membrane of T cells undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Poccia, F; Piselli, P; Vendetti, S; Bach, S; Amendola, A; Placido, R; Colizzi, V

    1996-01-01

    Heat-shock proteins (hsp) represent a highly conserved family of proteins, normally localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whose expression is induced in situations involving cell stress. This paper reports the unusual translocation of hsp to the cell membrane of T cells undergoing apoptosis. We observed that glucocorticosteroid-induced thymocyte death is associated to the surface expression of hsp 60 and hsp 70 in a discrete fraction of apoptotic cells. hsp surface expression is closely related to a thymic subset of immature CD3low/- T cells. The expression of surface hsp 60 appears early after treatment with dexamethasone (3 hr) whereas the membrane expression of hsp 70 follows different kinetics and peaks later. Morphological analysis of the hsp+ apoptotic cells suggest that this subset represents late-stage apoptotic cells at their minimal volume before fragmentation into apoptotic bodies. Membrane expression of hsp is also associated with apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AIDS patients cultured in vitro. Altogether, we show that a discrete fraction of cells undergoing apoptosis expresses membrane hsp 60 and hsp 70, supporting the hypothesis that apoptosis causes a radical alteration in the expression of cell surface molecules. Surface hsp expressed during apoptosis may constitute a novel immune-context able to generate packages of self- and exogenous antigens, originating from degradation of altered cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8707351