These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Expression of multidrug resistance proteins, P-gp, MRP1 and LRP, in soft tissue sarcomas analysed according to their histological type and grade.  

PubMed

The biological behaviour of different histological types and grades of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) varies. This might result in a differing sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs. Cross-resistance to functionally and structurally distinct natural-product drugs, known as multidrug resistance (MDR), is associated with the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and lung resistance-related protein (LRP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of P-gp, MRP1 and LRP in STS according to their histological type and grade. In 141 chemotherapy-naive STS patients, the expression of the three MDR proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry. Nine histological types were documented. These were 19% grade 1, 34% grade 2 and 47% grade 3 tumours. Expression of P-gp and LRP was observed more frequently than the expression of MRP1 (P<0.0001). P-gp expression was most pronounced in malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), but was low in leiomyosarcomas. MRP1 was expressed in most malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST). LRP was strongly expressed in MFH and unspecified sarcomas, but was low in liposarcomas. MRP1 and LRP expression was significantly more common in grades 2 and 3 compared with grade 1 tumours. P-gp expression was correlated with MRP1, especially in grade 3 STS. In conclusion, P-gp, MRP1 and LRP are expressed in the majority of STS, but this expression varies according to the histological type. MRP1 and LRP, but not P-gp expression, were found to be correlated to tumour grade. MDR might contribute to the observed differences in clinical behaviour within the heterogeneous group of STS. PMID:12706359

Komdeur, R; Plaat, B E C; van der Graaf, W T A; Hoekstra, H J; Hollema, H; van den Berg, E; Zwart, N; Scheper, R J; Molenaar, W M

2003-05-01

2

Expression of Chlamydia muridarum plasmid genes and immunogenicity of pGP3 and pGP4 in different mouse strains.  

PubMed

Chlamydia muridarum carries a cryptic plasmid (pMoPn) of 7.5kb, which encodes seven genes. Our aims were to describe the transcriptional pattern of the pMoPn genes in C. muridarum-infected mice and to evaluate the host immune responses against pGP3 and pGP4 proteins. BALB/c and C57BL/6N female mice were inoculated intranasally with C. muridarum and sacrificed at different time points, and the total RNA was extracted from the lung suspensions to determine the levels of expression of the different plasmid genes by RT qPCR. The supernatants of the lungs were subjected to the quantitation of recoverable C. muridarum. TCA04 and TCA05, which encode pGP3 and pGP4, respectively, were amplified by PCR and cloned into the pET vector. The proteins were overexpressed in E. coli HB101 and purified. Selected groups of BALB/c and C57BL/6N mice were infected with C. muridarum 1-3 times. The humoral immune responses in the sera of the mice to the proteins encoded by TCA04 and TCA05 were tested by Western blotting, and the cellular immune responses were assessed in lymphocyte proliferation assays. The proteins recognized by the mouse sera were further analysed by a LC/MSMS technique. The kinetics of C. muridarum growth were similar in the mouse strains used, but the pathogen burden was higher in the BALB/c mice in the late phase of infection. All the plasmid genes in the BALB/c mice showed an increased level of expression on day 7, whereas the expression of the same genes did not change on day 7 in the C57BL/6N mice. The levels of expression of the plasmid genes were higher in the C57BL/6N mice at later time points. In Western blot assays, the sera of the singly infected C57BL/6N mice reacted with the monomeric form of pGP3, whereas the sera of the singly infected BALB/c mice reacted with the trimeric form of pGP3. The sera of the multiply infected C57BL/6N mice also recognized pGP4. Similarly to the humoral immune response, cellular immune responses to pGP3 and pGP4 were detected in the C. muridarum-infected C57BL/6N mice, but the spleen cells of BALB/c mice responded with proliferation only to the pGP3 protein. These results suggest that the proteins encoded by pMoPn genes may modulate the host immune response during C. muridarum infection, and that the evolved immune response against plasmid proteins, similarly to that against other chlamydial proteins, depends on the genetic background of the host. PMID:24631212

Mosolygó, Tímea; Faludi, Ildikó; Balogh, Emese P; Szabó, Ágnes M; Karai, Adrienn; Kerekes, Fanni; Virók, Dezs? P; Endrész, Valéria; Burián, Katalin

2014-05-01

3

P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux in Caco-2 cell monolayers: the influence of culturing conditions and drug exposure on P-gp expression levels.  

PubMed

The influence of cell culture conditions and previous drug exposure on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression levels in Caco-2 cells was determined. In this study, the expression of P-gp is demonstrated (i) visually by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), (ii) functionally by transport studies with substrates of the efflux pump, and (iii) quantitatively by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis using specific monoclonal antibodies (anti P-gp MRK 16 as an external antibody and P-GlycoCheck C219 as an internal antibody). Trypsinization of the cells after reaching confluence led to a decrease of P-gp expression levels, while trypsinization before reaching confluence led to an increase after long-term cultivation. Culturing the cells on polycarbonate filters did not elicit a significant change of P-gp expression over time in culture, whereas in plastic flasks (polystyrene) a decrease was detected. Using CLSM a strong fluorescence on the apical side of Caco-2 cell monolayers was observed, as a result of incubation with MRK 16 as primary and IgG Cy5 as secondary antibody. Previous drug exposure of the cells showed that verapamil, celiprolol, and vinblastine induced the P-gp expression, while metkephamid (MKA) decreased the P-gp expression level as compared to the control. Permeation studies consolidated the theory that P-gp is expressed in the Caco-2 cells examined. For talinolol and MKA, a higher transport from basolateral to apical side than from apical to basolateral could be measured. Incubation of the cell monolayer with MRK 16 reduced the secretion process to the apical side, but did not influence [3H]mannitol flux. Caco-2 cells seem to be a suitable cell line model for P-gp-mediated secretion studies. However, the variability of the P-gp expression requires careful control when this model is to be used in quantitative structure/secretion studies. PMID:9607955

Anderle, P; Niederer, E; Rubas, W; Hilgendorf, C; Spahn-Langguth, H; Wunderli-Allenspach, H; Merkle, H P; Langguth, P

1998-06-01

4

Ixabepilone, a novel microtubule-targeting agent for breast cancer, is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1/ABCB1) but not breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).  

PubMed

Ixabepilone is the first epothilone to be approved for clinical use. Current data suggest the epothilones have a role in treating taxane-resistant cancers and ixabepilone is unaffected by at least some of the mechanisms underlying chemoresistance. Here, we report a series of cytotoxicity and transport studies to assess the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in ixabepilone resistance. A significant decrease in ixabepilone-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with human multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) comparative with the parental cells (IC(50) > 2000 nM versus 90 nM). Overexpression of P-gp also resulted in significantly decreased cell susceptibility to docetaxel, paclitaxel, and vinblastine. Bidirectional transport of ixabepilone across monolayers of porcine kidney-derived cells expressing human MDR1 showed a significantly increased efflux ratio relative to the parental cells. A BCRP-overexpressing cell line was developed by transfecting human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells with BCRP cDNA and confirmed by immunoblotting and bodipy prazosin and mitoxantrone uptake. Neither P-gp nor multidrug resistance protein 2 was detected in the cells by corresponding polyclonal antibodies. This HEK-BCRP cell line demonstrated resistance to docetaxel, paclitaxel, vinblastine, and mitoxantrone, in comparison with the parental cell line (7.3, 4.3, 2.9, and 11.9 resistance factor, respectively). Transport inhibition by BCRP inhibitor fumitremorgin C and broad efflux inhibitor N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918) restored drug sensitivity. In contrast, ixabepilone was far less susceptible to BCRP-mediated resistance, resulting in a resistance factor of only 1.2-fold. In summary, these results suggest that P-gp could cause resistance to ixabepilone in tumors and affect the disposition of the drug, but it is unlikely that BCRP mediates any drug resistance to ixabepilone. PMID:21262849

Shen, H; Lee, F Y; Gan, J

2011-05-01

5

Development of Classification Models for Identifying “True” P-glycoprotein (P-gp) Inhibitors Through Inhibition, ATPase Activation and Monolayer Efflux Assays  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux pump involved in the protection of tissues of several organs by influencing xenobiotic disposition. P-gp plays a key role in multidrug resistance and in the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. The development of new and more effective therapeutics targeting P-gp thus represents an intriguing challenge in drug discovery. P-gp inhibition may be considered as a valid approach to improve drug bioavailability as well as to overcome drug resistance to many kinds of tumours characterized by the over-expression of this protein. This study aims to develop classification models from a unique dataset of 59 compounds for which there were homogeneous experimental data on P-gp inhibition, ATPase activation and monolayer efflux. For each experiment, the dataset was split into a training and a test set comprising 39 and 20 molecules, respectively. Rational splitting was accomplished using a sphere-exclusion type algorithm. After a two-step (internal/external) validation, the best-performing classification models were used in a consensus predicting task for the identification of compounds named as “true” P-gp inhibitors, i.e., molecules able to inhibit P-gp without being effluxed by P-gp itself and simultaneously unable to activate the ATPase function. PMID:22837672

Rapposelli, Simona; Coi, Alessio; Imbriani, Marcello; Bianucci, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

6

Use of chemical chaperones in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enhance heterologous membrane protein expression: high-yield expression and purification of human P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Utilizing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp), we investigated methods to enhance the heterologous expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Human multidrug resistance gene MDR1 cDNA was placed in a high-copy 2 mu yeast expression plasmid under the control of the inducible GAL1 promoter or the strong constitutive PMA1 promoter from which P-gp was expressed in functional form. Yeast cells expressing P-gp were valinomycin resistant. Basal ATPase activity of P-gp in yeast membranes was 0. 4-0.7 micromol/mg/min indicating excellent functionality. P-glycoprotein expressed in the protease-deficient strain BJ5457 was found in the plasma membrane and was not N-glycosylated. By use of the PMA1 promoter, P-gp could be expressed at 3% of total membrane protein. The expression level could be further enhanced to 8% when cells were grown in the presence of 10% glycerol as a chemical chaperone. Similarly, glycerol enhanced protein levels of P-gp expressed under control of the GAL1 promoter. Glycerol was demonstrated to enhance posttranslational stability of P-gp. Polyhistidine-tagged P-gp was purified by metal affinity chromatography and reconstituted into proteoliposomes in milligram quantities and its ATPase activity was characterized. Turnover numbers as high as 12 s(-1) were observed. The kinetic parameters K(MgATP)(M), V(max), and drug activation were dependent on the lipid composition of proteoliposomes and pH of the assay and were similar to P-gp purified from mammalian sources. In conclusion, we developed a system for cost-effective, high-yield, heterologous expression of functional P-gp useful in producing large quantities of normal and mutant P-gp forms for structural and mechanistic studies. PMID:10729188

Figler, R A; Omote, H; Nakamoto, R K; Al-Shawi, M K

2000-04-01

7

Alternation of adriamycin penetration kinetics in MCF-7 cells from 2D to 3D culture based on P-gp expression through the Chk2/p53/NF-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Monolayer cells are largely different from tumor masses, and might misguide drug screenings. 3D in vitro cell culture models simulate the characteristics of tumor masses in vivo and have recently been used in many studies of anti-cancer drugs. Among various 3D cell culture models, multi-cellular layer (MCL) models allow for the direct quantitative assessment of the penetration of chemotherapeutic agents through solid tissue environments without requiring the use of fluorescently labeled drugs or imaging molecules. Therefore, in our present study, a 3D-no base and embedded MCF-7 MCL model was successfully developed for a 14-day culture. Over time, its thickness and cell layers increased and exhibited highly proliferative properties and drug resistance to adriamycin (ADR) with markedly elevated IC50 values. Meanwhile, G2/M stage cycle arrest was also observed, which likely up-regulated P-gp expression through the Chk2/p53/NF-?B pathway. The elevated P-gp expression altered the ADR penetration kinetics in MCF-7 MCLs in vitro by accelerating the apparent penetration of ADR through the intercellular spaces of the MCLs. Additionally, a decreased ADR retention within tumor cells was observed, but could be significantly reversed by a P-gp inhibitor. The attenuated ADR retention in the deeper cells of tumor masses was confirmed in xenografted mice in vivo. This phenomenon could be elucidated by the mathematical modeling of penetration kinetics parameters. Our study provided a new model that evaluated and improved the quantification of the drug penetration kinetics, revealed the relationship between P-gp and drug penetration through tumor masses, and suggested the potential molecular mechanisms. PMID:25478729

Lu, Meng; Zhou, Fang; Hao, Kun; Liu, Jiali; Chen, Qianying; Ni, Ping; Zhou, Honghao; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Jingwei

2015-01-15

8

Interaction of tomato lectin with ABC transporter in cancer cells: glycosylation confers functional conformation of P-gp.  

PubMed

Phospho-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a polytopic plasma membrane protein whose overexpression causes multidrug resistance (MDR) responsible for the failure of cancer chemotherapy. P-gp 170 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily and has two potentially interesting regions for drugs interfering with its efflux function, namely the oligosaccharides on the first extracellular loop with unknown function and the two intracellular ATP-binding regions providing the energy for drug efflux function. The polylactoseamine oligosaccharides on the first loop can specifically bind the tomato lectin (TL). The P-gp efflux activities of TL-pre-treated MDR resistant cells were measured in the presence of structurally unrelated resistance modifiers such as phenothiazines, terpenoids and carotenoids. The inhibition of efflux activity was measured via the increased rhodamine uptake by mouse lymphoma cells transfected in human MDR1 gene and in human brain capillary endothelial cells. The tested resistance modifiers inhibit the function of ABC transporter resulting in increased R123 accumulation in MDR1 expressing cells. TL prevented the inhibitory action of phenothiazine and verapamil on brain capillary endothelial and MDR1-lymphoma cells, presumably due to the stabilization of the functional active conformation of P-gp. Our results indicate that the polylactosamine chains of P-gp are part of the functionally active protein conformation. PMID:19124148

Molnár, Joseph; Kars, Meltem Demirel; Gündüz, Ufuk; Engi, Helga; Schumacher, Udo; Van Damme, Els J; Peumans, Willy J; Makovitzky, Josef; Gyémánt, Nóra; Molnár, Péter

2009-01-01

9

In silico, in vitro and in situ models to assess interplay between CYP3A and P-gp.  

PubMed

The bioavailability, fraction of dose that reaches systemic circulation, of orally administered drugs is often limited by both physical barriers of the intestine (e.g., unstirred-water and mucosal layers, epithelial tight junctions) as well as biochemical barriers such as cytochromes P450 (CYP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Highly expressed in intestine and liver, CYP and P-gp can limit the systemic-availability of parent-drug by metabolism and efflux, respectively, by means of similarly large and flexible active sites that accommodate a variety of structurally-diverse, lipophilic molecules over a wide-range of molecular weights. Consequently, many molecules that are substrates for CYP3A4 also demonstrate affinity for P-gp and numerous studies have reported that for these dual-substrates, CYP3A4 and P-gp afford an interplay that affects bioavailability and clearance in a manner that is non-linear. Several in vitro and in situ models of metabolism and permeability, including transfected cell lines, isolated tissues and perfused organs as well as computational models including physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models of such co-expressing systems have demonstrated this phenomenon of CYP3A/Pgp interplay. Furthermore, recent availability of ligand bound X-ray co-crystal structures of the CYP3A4 and P-gp binding sites coupled with computational docking techniques and other validated in silico models, provide medicinal chemists with tools to inform structural-design modifications that can modify the interaction with one or both proteins. This article provides a review of relevant in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in situ models that allow for investigation of the extent to which clearance or bioavailability can be affected by CYP/P-gp interplay. PMID:21568936

Mudra, Daniel R; Desino, Kelly E; Desai, Prashant V

2011-10-01

10

A Multi-System Approach Assessing the Interaction of Anticonvulsants with P-gp  

PubMed Central

30% of epilepsy patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are not fully controlled by therapy. The drug transporter hypothesis for refractory epilepsy proposes that P-gp is over expressed at the epileptic focus with a role of P-gp in extruding AEDs from the brain. However, there is controversy regarding whether all AEDs are substrates for this transporter. Our aim was to investigate transport of phenytoin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine by using seven in-vitro transport models. Uptake assays in CEM/VBL cell lines, oocytes expressing human P-gp and an immortalised human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) were carried out. Concentration equilibrium transport assays were performed in Caco-2, MDCKII ±P-gp and LLC-PK1±P-gp in the absence or presence of tariquidar, an inhibitor of P-gp. Finally, primary porcine brain endothelial cells were used to determine the apparent permeability (Papp) of the three AEDs in the absence or presence of P-gp inhibitors. We detected weak transport of phenytoin in two of the transport systems (MDCK and LLC-PK1 cells transfected with human P-gp) but not in the remaining five. No P-gp interaction was observed for lamotrigine or carbamazepine in any of the seven validated in-vitro transport models. Neither lamotrigine nor carbamazepine was a substrate for P-gp in any of the model systems tested. Our data suggest that P-gp is unlikely to contribute to the pathogenesis of refractory epilepsy through transport of carbamazepine or lamotrigine. PMID:23741405

Dickens, David; Yusof, Siti R.; Abbott, N. Joan; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio A.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Alfirevic, Ana; Pirmohamed, Munir; Owen, Andrew

2013-01-01

11

ABC transporters and drug resistance in leukemia: was P-gp nothing but the first head of the Hydra?  

PubMed

More than 30 years ago it was discovered that permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) can cause drug resistance. Over the following decades numerous studies showed that high expression of P-gp is associated with poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia in adults and that it causes multidrug resistance via ATP-dependent drug efflux. It was hoped that an inhibition of P-gp could sensitize resistant leukemic cells to chemotherapy and thus improve treatment results. Today we know that the family of ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) comprises 48 different proteins. Some of them seem to be able to cause drug resistance as well as P-gp. This review focuses on emerging data on the clinical relevance of other ABC transporters, such as BCRP, MRP3, and ABCA3. When Heracles fought the ancient Hydra, he had to fight all the heads at ones but only one head was vital for the beast. Can we block all the relevant ABC transporters at once? Is there one transporter that is more important than the others? PMID:17429427

Steinbach, D; Legrand, O

2007-06-01

12

Restoration of chemosensitivity by multifunctional micelles mediated by P-gp siRNA to reverse MDR.  

PubMed

One of the main obstacles in tumor therapy is multiple drug resistance (MDR) and an underlying mechanism of MDR is up-regulation of the transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In the synergistic treatment of siRNA and anti-cancer drug doxorubicin, it is crucial that both the siRNA and doxorubicin are simultaneously delivered to the tumor cells and the siRNA can fleetly down-regulate P-g before doxorubicin inactivates the P-gp and is pumped out. Herein, a type of micelles comprising a polycationic PEI-CyD shell to condense the siRNA and hydrophobic core to package doxorubicin is reported. The structure of the polymer is determined by (1)H NMR, FT-IR, DSC, and XRD and the micelles are characterized by DLS, 2D-NOESY NMR, and TEM to study the self-assembly of the micelles with siRNA and drugs. In vitro studies demonstrate controlled release and temporal enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy of P-gp siRNA and doxorubicin. Release of siRNA down-regulates the mRNA and protein levels of P-gp in the MCF-7/ADR cell lines effectively and the accumulated doxorubicin facilitates apoptosis of the cells to reverse MDR. Moreover, in vivo research reveals that the siRNA and doxorubicin loaded micelles induce tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit the growth of MDR tumor. The western blotting and RT-PCR results illustrate that the synergistic treatment of siRNA and doxorubicin leads to efficient reduction of the P-gp expression as well as cell apoptotic induction in MDR tumors at a small dosage of 0.5 mg/kg. The micelles have large clinical potential in drug/RNAi synergistic treatment via restoration of the chemosensitivity in MDR cancer therapy. PMID:25002258

Shen, Jie; Wang, Qiwen; Hu, Qida; Li, Yongbing; Tang, Guping; Chu, Paul K

2014-10-01

13

Esters of the Marine-Derived Triterpene Sipholenol A Reverse P-GP-Mediated Drug Resistance.  

PubMed

Our previous studies showed that several sipholane triterpenes, sipholenol A, sipholenone E, sipholenol L and siphonellinol D, have potent reversal effect for multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells that overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1). Through comparison of cytotoxicity towards sensitive and multi-drug resistant cell lines, we identified that the semisynthetic esters sipholenol A-4-O-acetate and sipholenol A-4-O-isonicotinate potently reversed P-gp-mediated MDR but had no effect on MRP1/ABCC1 and BCRP/ABCG2-mediated MDR. The results from [3H]-paclitaxel accumulation and efflux studies suggested that these two triterpenoids were able to increase the intracellular accumulation of paclitaxel by inhibiting its active efflux. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that these two compounds did not alter the expression levels of P-gp when treated up to 72 h. These sipholenol derivatives also stimulated the ATPase activity of P-gp membranes, which suggested that they might be substrates of P-gp. Moreover, in silico molecular docking studies revealed the virtual binding modes of these two compounds into human homology model of P-gp. In conclusion, sipholenol A-4-O-acetate and sipholenol A-4-O-isonicotinate efficiently inhibit the P-gp and may represent potential reversal agents for the treatment of multidrug resistant cancers. PMID:25874923

Zhang, Yongchao; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Vispute, Saurabh G; Jain, Sandeep; Chen, Yangmin; Li, Jessalyn; Youssef, Diaa T A; Sayed, Khalid A El; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2015-01-01

14

Expression and functional activity of the ABC-transporter proteins P-glycoprotein and multidrug-resistance protein 1 in human brain tumor cells and astrocytes.  

PubMed

The poor prognosis of glioma patients is partly based on the minor success obtained from chemotherapeutic treatments. Resistance mechanisms at the tumor cell level may be, in addition to the blood-brain barrier, involved in the intrinsic chemo-insensitivity of brain tumors. We investigated the expression of the drug-transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in cell lines (N = 24) and primary cell cultures (N = 36) from neuroectodermal tumors, as well as in brain tumor extracts (N = 18) and normal human astrocytes (N = 1). We found that a considerable expression of P-gp was relatively rare in glioma cells, in contrast to MRP1, which was constitutively overexpressed in cells derived from astrocytomas as well as glioblastomas. Also, normal astrocytes cultured in vitro expressed high amounts of MRPI but no detectable P-gp. Meningioma cells frequently co-expressed P-gp and MRP1, while, most of the neuroblastoma cell lines express higher P-gp but lower MRP1 levels as compared to the other tumor types. Both, a drug-exporting and a chemoprotective function of P-gp as well as MRP1 could be demonstrated in selected tumor cells by a significant upregulation of cellular 3H-daunomycin accumulation and daunomycin cytotoxicity via administration of transporter antagonists. Summing up, our data suggest that P-gp contributes to cellular resistance merely in a small subgroup of gliomas, but frequently in neuroblastomas and meningiomas. In contrast, MRP1 is demonstrated to play a constitutive role in the intrinsic chemoresistance of gliomas and their normal cell counterpart. PMID:12125964

Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Buchroithner, Johanna; Elbling, Leonilla; Steiner, Elisabeth; Wurm, Gabriele; Bodenteich, Angelika; Fischer, Johannes; Micksche, Michael; Berger, Walter

2002-03-01

15

P-gp efflux pump inhibition potential of common environmental contaminants determined in vitro.  

PubMed

Across different species, cellular efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also termed multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) serve as a first line of defense by transporting toxic xenobiotics out of the cell. This mechanism is also active in aquatic organisms such as mussels, fish, and their larvae. Modulation of this resistance mechanism by chemical agents occurring in the environment could result in either higher or lower internal concentrations of toxic or endogenous compounds in cells. The aim of the present study was to explore and quantify the inhibition of the P-gp efflux pumps by several ubiquitous aquatic contaminants. The calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) assay commonly used in pharmacological research was established with P-gp-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII-MDR1) in a 96-well plate, avoiding extra washing, centrifugation, and lysis steps. This calcein-AM-based P-gp cellular efflux pump inhibition assay (CEPIA) was used to study the inhibition by commonly occurring environmental contaminants. Among others, the compounds pentachlorophenol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate strongly inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-AM while the chloninated alkanes did not seem to interact with the transporter. The fact that common pollutants can be potent modulators of the efflux transporters is a motive to further study whether this increases the toxicity of other contaminants present in the same matrices. PMID:24375866

Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Skoczy?ska, Ewa; Van den Berg, Johannes H J; Brand, Walter; Legay, Sylvain; Klein, Sebastian G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

2014-04-01

16

Avermectin induces P-glycoprotein expression in S2 cells via the calcium/calmodulin/NF-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Avermectin (AVM) is a macrocyclic lactone agent widely used as a nematicide, acaricide and insecticide in veterinary medicine and plant protection. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump for xenobiotic compounds, and is involved in multidrug resistance. To understand the development of AVM resistance in invertebrates, we investigated the mechanisms by which AVM affected P-gp expression in Drosophila S2 cells. We found that AVM induced upregulation of P-gp protein expression, increased P-gp ATPase activity and enhanced cellular efflux of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 from cells. Furthermore, we observed that AVM-induced expression of P-gp was due to elevation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). This occurred both directly, by activating calcium ion channels, and indirectly, by activating chloride ion channels. These results are supported by our observations that verapamil, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, and niflumic acid, a chloride channel antagonist, significantly attenuated AVM-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation, thereby reducing P-gp expression. Inhibition of P-gp with anti-P-gp antibody or cyclosporine A (a P-gp inhibitor) reduced the AVM-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)](i), implying that P-gp and [Ca(2+)](i) regulate each other. Finally, we found that trifluoperazine, a calmodulin inhibitor, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid, an NF-?B inhibitor, attenuated the AVM-induced expression of P-gp, suggesting that AVM induces P-gp protein expression via the calmodulin/Relish (NF-?B) signaling pathway. PMID:23523950

Luo, Liang; Sun, Yin-Jian; Yang, Lin; Huang, Shile; Wu, Yi-Jun

2013-04-25

17

P-gp localization in mitochondria and its functional characterization in multiple drug-resistant cell lines.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype is characterized by the over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on cell plasma membranes that extrudes several drugs out of cells. Cells that express the MDR phenotype are resistant to the mitochondrial related apoptosis and to several anticancer drugs. This study assessed the presence of P-gp in mitochondria and its role in parental drug-sensitive (P5) and in P5-derived MDR1 cells P1(0.5) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and in drug-sensitive (PSI-2) and mdr1-transfected (PN1A) NIH/3T3 cells. By using Western blot analysis, confocal laser microscopy, measurements of Rhodamine 123 transport across mitochondrial membranes, MDR1 small interfering RNA and flow cytometry analysis, experiments indicate that P-gp is expressed in mitochondria of P1(0.5) and PN1A cells and it is functionally active. Rho 123 accumulation was largely reduced in mitochondria of P1(0.5) cells as compared to those of P5 cells; the reduced uptake of fluorescence in mitochondria of MDR cells was due to P-gp-mediated Rho 123 efflux. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that functionally active P-gp is expressed in the mitochondrial membrane of MDR-positive cells and pumps out anticancer drugs from mitochondria into cytosol. Therefore, P-gp could be involved in the protection of mitochondrial DNA from damage due to antiproliferative drugs. PMID:17027968

Solazzo, Michela; Fantappiè, Ornella; Lasagna, Nadia; Sassoli, Chiara; Nosi, Daniele; Mazzanti, Roberto

2006-12-10

18

Clin Pharmacol Ther . Author manuscript Donor P-gp polymorphisms strongly influence renal function and graft  

E-print Network

3A and the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ), bothABCB1 abundantly expressed in the kidney. We retrospectively investigated the role of polymorphisms in , andCYP3A4 CYP3A5 ABCB1 kidney graft-Meiers Estimate ; Kidney ; physiology ; Kidney Function Tests ; Kidney Transplantation ; physiology ; Male

Boyer, Edmond

19

An electrically tight in vitro blood-brain barrier model displays net brain-to-blood efflux of substrates for the ABC transporters, P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1.  

PubMed

Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily including breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp's/Abcc's) are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate if a bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte in vitro BBB co-culture model displayed polarized transport of known efflux transporter substrates. The co-culture model displayed low mannitol permeabilities of 0.95?±?0.1?·?10(-6) cm·s(-1) and high transendothelial electrical resistances of 1,177?±?101 ?·cm(2). Bidirectional transport studies with (3)H-digoxin, (3)H-estrone-3-sulphate and (3)H-etoposide revealed polarized transport favouring the brain-to-blood direction for all substrates. Steady state efflux ratios of 2.5?±?0.2 for digoxin, 4.4?±?0.5 for estrone-3-sulphate and 2.4?±?0.1 for etoposide were observed. These were reduced to 1.1?±?0.08, 1.4?±?0.2 and 1.5?±?0.1, by addition of verapamil (digoxin), Ko143 (estrone-3-sulphate) or zosuquidar?+?reversan (etoposide), respectively. Brain-to-blood permeability of all substrates was investigated in the presence of the efflux transporter inhibitors verapamil, Ko143, zosuquidar, reversan and MK 571 alone or in combinations. Digoxin was mainly transported via P-gp, estrone-3-sulphate via Bcrp and Mrp's and etoposide via P-gp and Mrp's. The expression of P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1 was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The findings indicate that P-gp, Bcrp and at least one isoform of Mrp are functionally expressed in our bovine/rat co-culture model and that the model is suitable for investigations of small molecule transport. PMID:24934296

Helms, Hans Christian; Hersom, Maria; Kuhlmann, Louise Borella; Badolo, Lasina; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

2014-09-01

20

Abamectin resistance in Drosophila is related to increased expression of P-glycoprotein via the dEGFR and dAkt pathways.  

PubMed

Many insects have evolved resistance to abamectin but the mechanisms involved in this resistance have not been well characterized. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent drug-efflux pump transmembrane protein, may be involved in abamectin resistance. We investigated the role of P-gp in abamectin (ABM) resistance in Drosophila using an ABM-resistant strain developed in the laboratory. A toxicity assay, Western blotting analysis and a vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity assay all demonstrated the existence of a direct relationship between P-gp expression and ABM resistance in these flies. Our observations indicate that P-gp levels in flies' heads were higher than in their thorax and abdomen, and that both P-gp levels and LC(50) values were higher in resistant than in susceptible and P-gp-deficient strains. In addition, P-gp levels in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of resistant flies were higher than in susceptible and P-gp-deficient flies, which is further evidence that a high level of P-gp in the BBB is related to ABM resistance. Furthermore, we found greater expression of Drosophila EGFR (dEGFR) in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain, and that the level of Drosophila Akt (dAkt) was much higher in resistant than in susceptible flies, whereas that in P-gp-deficient flies was very low. Compared to susceptible flies, P-gp levels in the resistant strain were markedly suppressed by the dEGFR and dAkt inhibitors lapatinib and wortmannin. These results suggest that the increased P-gp in resistant flies was regulated by the dEGFR and dAkt pathways and that increased expression of P-gp is an important component of ABM resistance in insects. PMID:23648830

Luo, Liang; Sun, Ying-Jian; Wu, Yi-Jun

2013-08-01

21

Differential effect of P-gp and MRP2 on cellular translocation of gemifloxacin.  

PubMed

Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antibiotics widely indicated in the treatment of both human and animal diseases. The primary objective of this study was to assess short and long term affinities of gemifloxacin towards efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2) and nuclear hormone receptor (PXR). Uptake and dose dependent inhibition studies were performed with [(14)C] erythromycin (0.25 ?Ci/ml) on MDCKII-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells. Cellular accumulation of calcein-AM was further determined to confirm the affinity of gemifloxacin towards P-gp and MRP2. Transport studies were conducted to determine bi-directional permeability and to assess efflux ratio of gemifloxacin. LS-180 cells were treated with three different concentrations of gemifloxacin for 72 h and real-time PCR analysis was performed to study the quantitative gene expression levels of PXR, MDR1 and MRP2. Further, [(14)C] erythromycin uptake was also performed on LS-180 treated cells to better delineate the functional activity of efflux transporters. Results from our study suggest that gemifloxacin may be a substrate of both the efflux transporters studied. This compound inhibited both P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of [(14)C] erythromycin in a dose dependent manner with IC(50) values of 123 ± 2 ?M and 16 ± 2 ?M, respectively. The efflux ratio of [(14)C] erythromycin lowered from 3.56 to 1.63 on MDCKII-MDR1 cells and 4.93 to 1.26 on MDCKII-MRP2 cells. This significant reduction in efflux ratio further confirmed the substrate specificity of gemifloxacin towards P-gp and MRP2. Long term exposure significantly induced the expression of PXR (18 fold), MDR1 (6 fold) and MRP2 (6 fold). A decrease (20%) in [(14)C] erythromycin uptake further confirmed the elevated functional activity of P-gp and MRP2. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that gemifloxacin is effluxed by both P-gp and MRP2. Long term exposure induced their gene expression and functional activity. This substrate specificity of gemifloxacin towards these efflux transporters may be one of the major factors accounting for low oral bioavailability (71%). Better understanding of these mechanistic interactions may aid in the development of newer strategies to achieve adequate therapeutic levels and higher bioavailability. PMID:21864659

Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Kwatra, Deep; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

2011-11-25

22

Expression and significance of glucose transporter-1, P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein and glutathione S-transferase-? in laryngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Increasing glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) activity is one of the most important ways to increase the cellular influx of glucose. We previously demonstrated that increased GLUT-1 expression was an independent predictor of survival in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Thus, GLUT-1 may present a novel therapeutic target in laryngeal carcinoma. In this study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and glutathione S-transferase-? (GST-?) in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, possible correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? and various clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. In this study, 52.9% (18/34), 58.8% (20/34), 20.6% (7/34) and 58.8% (20/34) of the laryngeal carcinomas were positive for GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-?, respectively. The expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? was higher in laryngeal carcinoma specimens when compared with laryngeal precancerous lesions (P<0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp (r=0.364; P=0.034), GLUT-1 and MRP1 (r=0.359; P=0.037) and P-gp and GST-? (r=0.426; P=0.012). GLUT-1 expression was found to significantly correlate with tumor-node-metastasis classification (P=0.02) and clinical stage (P=0.037). Furthermore, P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage (P=0.026). Univariate analysis showed that MRP1 expression was significantly associated with poor survival (c2=5.16; P=0.023). Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (P=0.009) and MRP1 overexpression (P=0.023) were significant predictors of poor survival. In the present study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated, as well as the correlations between these proteins. P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage, while MRP1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor survival. PMID:25621055

MAO, ZHONG-PING; ZHAO, LI-JUN; ZHOU, SHUI-HONG; LIU, MENG-QIN; TAN, WEI-FENG; YAO, HONG-TIAN

2015-01-01

23

Differential expression of DNA topoisomerase II alpha and -beta in P-gp and MRP-negative VM26, mAMSA and mitoxantrone-resistant sublines of the human SCLC cell line GLC4.  

PubMed Central

Sublines of the human small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line GLC4 with acquired resistance to teniposide, amsacrine and mitoxantrone (GLC4/VM20x, GLC4/AM3x and GLC4/MIT60x, respectively) were derived to study the contribution of DNA topoisomerase II alpha and -beta (TopoII alpha and -beta) to resistance for TopoII-targeting drugs. The cell lines did not overexpress P-glycoprotein or the multidrug resistance-associated protein but were cross-resistant to other TopoII drugs. GLC4/VM20x showed a major decrease in TopoII alpha protein (54%; for all assays presented in this paper the GLC4 level was defined to be 100%) without reduction in TopoII beta protein; GLC4/AM3x showed only a major decrease in TopoII beta protein (to 18%) and not in TopoII alpha. In GLC4/MIT60x, the TopoII alpha and -beta protein levels were both decreased (TopoII alpha to 31%; TopoII beta protein was undetectable). The decrease in TopoII alpha protein in GLC4/VM20x and GLC4/MIT60x, was mediated by decreased TopoII alpha mRNA levels. Loss of TopoII alpha gene copies contributed to the mRNA decrease in these cell lines. Only in the GLC4/MIT60x cell line was an accumulation defect observed for the drug against which the cell line was made resistant. In conclusion, TopoII alpha and -beta levels were decreased differentially in the resistant cell lines, suggesting that resistance to these drugs may be mediated by a decrease in a specific isozyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8980384

Withoff, S.; de Vries, E. G.; Keith, W. N.; Nienhuis, E. F.; van der Graaf, W. T.; Uges, D. R.; Mulder, N. H.

1996-01-01

24

Predicting the Outer Boundaries of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-Based Drug Interactions at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier Based on Rat Studies  

PubMed Central

Using positron emission tomography (PET), 11C-verapamil as the P-gp substrate and cyclosporine A (CsA) as the P-gp inhibitor, we showed that the magnitude of P-gp-based drug interactions at the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) is modest. However, such interactions at clinically relevant CsA blood concentrations may be greater for substrates where P-gp plays an even larger role (fractional contribution of P-gp, ft > 0.97) in preventing the CNS entry of the drug (e.g. nelfinavir). Since we have shown that the rat is an excellent predictor of the verapamil-CsA interaction at the human BBB, we determined the magnitude of drug interaction at the rat BBB between nelfinavir and CsA. Under isoflurane anesthesia, male Sprague Dawley rats were co-administered IV infusions of nelfinavir and escalating doses of CsA to achieve pseudo steady-state plasma/blood and brain concentrations of both drugs (blood CsA ranged 0–264.9 µM, n=3–6/group). The percent increase in the brain:blood nelfinavir concentration ratio (determined by LC/MS) was described by the Hill equation with Emax 6481%, EC50 12.3 µM, and ? 1.6. Then, using these data, as well as in vitro data in LLCPK1 cells expressing the human P-gp, we predicted that CsA (at clinically relevant blood concentration of 1.5 µM) will increase the distribution of nelfinavir into the human brain by 236%. Collectively, our data suggest that clinically significant P-gp based drug interactions at the human BBB are possible for P-gp substrates highly excluded from the brain (ft > 0.97) and should be investigated using non-invasive approaches (e.g. PET). PMID:24364805

Hsiao, Peng; Unadkat, Jashvant D

2014-01-01

25

Multidrug resistance in small cell lung cancer: expression of P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 1 and lung resistance protein in chemo-naive patients and in relapsed disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins in metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells correlated to cisplatin/etoposide chemotherapy response and the level of those proteins in relapsed disease. Samples were obtained by transbronchial fine needle aspiration biopsy (TBNA) of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in 17 patients. After cytological confirmation of SCLC, cells were stained by a panel of mAbs against internal epitopes of P-gp (JSB-1), MRP1 (MRPr1), LRP (LRP-56) and cytokeratin (MNF116) and analyzed by flow cytometry. We observed a significant negative correlation for better response rate to chemotherapy with individual expression of P-gp (r=-0.93, P<0.0001; Pearson correlation) and MRP1 (r=-0.78, P=0.0002; Pearson correlation) in chemo-naive SCLC cells and a non-significant correlation for LRP expression. P-gp and MRP1 expression was markedly increased in metastatic cells in four out of five patients with relapsed disease (4-12 months after starting chemotherapy), in comparison to their chemo-naive values. In conclusion, the results suggest that P-gp and MRP1 might be associated with SCLC cell survival during metastasis and chemotherapy, and that overexpression of those transporters in relapsed disease could assist short-term chemotherapy efficiency. PMID:16934363

Triller, Nadja; Korosec, Peter; Kern, Izidor; Kosnik, Mitja; Debeljak, Andrej

2006-11-01

26

A plausible explanation for enhanced bioavailability of P-gp substrates in presence of piperine: simulation for next generation of P-gp inhibitors.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has a major role to play in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, since it effluxes many cytotoxic hydrophobic anticancer drugs from gastrointestinal tract, brain, liver and kidney. Piperine is known to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin, as a substrate of P-gp by at least 2000%. Besides these at least 50 other substrates and inhibitors of P-gp have been reported so far. All P-gp inhibitors have diverse structures. Although little is known about binding of some flavonoids and steroids at the NBD (nucleotide binding domain) of P-gp in the vicinity of ATP binding site inhibiting its hydrolysis, a valid explanation of how P-gp accommodates such a diverse set of inhibitors is still awaited. In the present study, piperine up to 100 ?M has not shown observable cytotoxic effect on MDCK cell line, and it has been shown to accumulate rhodamine by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescent activated cell sorter in MDCK cells. Computational simulation for piperine and some first and second generation P-gp inhibitors has shown that these dock at the NBD site of P-gp. A comparative simulation study has been carried out regarding their docking and binding energies. Binding conformation of P-gp co-crystallized complexes with ADP, AMP-PNP (Adenylyl-imidodiphosphate), and ATP were compared with piperine. The receptor based E-pharmacophore of docked piperine has been simulated to find common features amongst P-gp inhibitors. Finally it has been concluded that piperine could be utilized as base molecule for design and development of safe non-toxic inhibitor of P-gp in order to enhance the bioavailability of most of its substrates. PMID:22864626

Singh, Durg Vijay; Godbole, Madan M; Misra, Krishna

2013-01-01

27

In Silico Quantitative StructureActivity Relationship Studies on P-gp Modulators of Tetrahydroisoquinoline-Ethyl-Phenylamine Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The drug efflux by a transport protein is the main reason for MDR. In humans, MDR mainly occurs when the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins is overexpressed simultaneously. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is most commonly associated with human MDR; it utilizes energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to transport a number

Changdev G Gadhe; Thirumurthy Madhavan; Gugan Kothandan; Seung Joo Cho

2011-01-01

28

Overexpression of lung resistance-related protein and P-glycoprotein and response to induction chemotherapy in acute myelogenous leukemia.  

PubMed

Lung resistance-related protein (LRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are associated with multidrug resistance. P-gp overexpression reduces intracellular anticancer drug concentrations and is correlated with low remission rates. However, whether the presence of LRP influences the response to induction chemotherapy remains controversial. Therefore, we investigated the relationship of LRP and P-gp overexpression with the response to induction chemotherapy. Univariate analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between complete remission rates for acute myelogenous leukemia patients depending on their blast cell expressions, between LRP positive versus negative, P-gp positive versus negative, and LRP/P-gp double positive versus other groups. Crude odds ratios (ORs) for complete remission were 0.390, 0.360, and 0.307 for LRP positive, for P-gp positive, and LRP/P-gp double positive patients, respectively. After controlling the confounding variables by stepwise multivariate logistical regression analysis, the presence of LRP/P-gp double positivity and P-gp positivity were found to be independent prognostic factors; adjusted ORs were 0.233 and 0.393, respectively. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody against LRP significantly increased daunorubicin acumulation (P=0.004) in the nuclei of leukemic blast cells with LRP positivity in more than 10% of the cells. An LRP reversing agent, PAK-104P, was found to increase the daunorubicin content with marginal significance (P=0.060). The present results suggest that not only the presence of P-gp, but also LRP in leukemic blast cells is a risk factor for resistance to induction chemotherapy. Inhibiting LRP function, similar to the inhibition of P-gp function, will be necessary to improve the effectiveness of induction chemotherapy. PMID:23087807

Tsuji, Kazue; Wang, Yan-Hua; Takanashi, Minoko; Odajima, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Gabriel A; Sugimori, Hiroki; Motoji, Toshiko

2012-07-11

29

Acetaminophen Modulates P-Glycoprotein Functional Expression at the Blood-Brain Barrier by a Constitutive Androstane Receptor–Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Effective pharmacologic treatment of pain with opioids requires that these drugs attain efficacious concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A primary determinant of CNS drug permeation is P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an endogenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporter that is involved in brain-to-blood transport of opioid analgesics (i.e., morphine). Recently, the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been identified as a regulator of P-gp functional expression at the BBB. This is critical to pharmacotherapy of pain/inflammation, as patients are often administered acetaminophen (APAP), a CAR-activating ligand, in conjunction with an opioid. Our objective was to investigate, in vivo, the role of CAR in regulation of P-gp at the BBB. Following APAP treatment, P-gp protein expression was increased up to 1.4–1.6-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, APAP increased P-gp transport of BODIPY-verapamil in freshly isolated rat brain capillaries. This APAP-induced increase in P-gp expression and activity was attenuated in the presence of CAR pathway inhibitor okadaic acid or transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, suggesting P-gp regulation is CAR-dependent. Furthermore, morphine brain accumulation was enhanced by P-gp inhibitors in APAP-treated animals, suggesting P-gp–mediated transport. A warm-water (50°C) tail-flick assay revealed a significant decrease in morphine analgesia in animals treated with morphine 3 or 6 hours after APAP treatment, as compared with animals treated concurrently. Taken together, our data imply that inclusion of APAP in a pain treatment regimen activates CAR at the BBB and increases P-gp functional expression, a clinically significant drug-drug interaction that modulates opioid analgesic efficacy. PMID:24019224

Thompson, Brandon J.; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Vanderah, Todd W.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

2013-01-01

30

Crystal Structure of an EAL Domain in Complex with Reaction Product 5?-pGpG  

PubMed Central

FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438–686): one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5?-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5?-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains. PMID:23285035

Robert-Paganin, Julien; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Réty, Stéphane

2012-01-01

31

Isoform I (mdr3) is the major form of P-glycoprotein expressed in mouse brain capillaries. Evidence for cross-reactivity of antibody C219 with an unrelated protein.  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in various non-cancerous tissues such as the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. We used several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies to establish which P-gp isoforms are expressed in isolated mouse brain capillaries. P-gp class I isoform was detected in capillaries with a Western immunoblotting procedure using a specific antiserum. No immunoreactivity was observed with either class II- or class III-specific antisera. Immunoreactivity was observed with mAb C219. However, this antibody detected two distinct immunoreactive proteins (155 and 190 kDa) in the isolated brain capillaries. These two proteins comigrated as a broad band when the samples were submitted to heat prior to gel electrophoresis. The glycoprotein nature of these two antigens was evaluated by their sensitivity to N-glycanase treatment. Following this treatment, the size of the proteins was reduced from 190 and 155 kDa to 180 and 120 kDa, respectively. Triton X-114 phase-partitioning studies showed that the 190 kDa immunoreactive protein was poorly solubilized by Triton X-114, while the 155 kDa protein was partitioned in the detergent-rich phase. In labelling experiments, only the 155 kDa protein was photolabelled with [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin. These results show that a 190 kDa protein detected by antibody C219 is an antigen unrelated to the three P-gp isoforms presently known. Cross-reactivity of C219 with an unrelated protein emphasizes the fact that more than one antibody should be used in the assessment of P-gp expression in cell lines and tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7848274

Jetté, L; Pouliot, J F; Murphy, G F; Béliveau, R

1995-01-01

32

1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-liganded vitamin D receptor increases expression and transport activity of P-glycoprotein in isolated rat brain capillaries and human and rat brain microvessel endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Induction of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was investigated in isolated rat brain capillaries and rat (RBE4) and human (hCMEC/D3) brain microvessel endothelial cell lines. Incubation of isolated rat brain capillaries with 10 nM of the VDR ligand, 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] for 4 h increased P-gp protein expression fourfold. Incubation with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for 4 or 24 h increased P-gp transport activity (specific luminal accumulation of NBD-CSA, the fluorescent P-gp substrate) by 25-30%. In RBE4 cells, Mdr1b mRNA was induced in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Concomitantly, P-gp protein expression increased 2.5-fold and was accompanied by a 20-35% reduction in cellular accumulation of the P-gp substrates, rhodamine 6G (R6G), and HiLyte Fluor 488-labeled human amyloid beta 1-42 (hA?(42)). In hCMEC/D3 cells, a 3 day exposure to 100 nM 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased MDR1 mRNA expression (40%) and P-gp protein (threefold); cellular accumulation of R6G and hA?(42) was reduced by 30%. Thus, VDR activation up-regulates Mdr1/MDR1 and P-gp protein in isolated rat brain capillaries and rodent and human brain microvascular endothelia, implicating a role for VDR in increasing the brain clearance of P-gp substrates, including hA?(42), a plaque-forming precursor in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23035695

Durk, Matthew R; Chan, Gary N Y; Campos, Christopher R; Peart, John C; Chow, Edwin C Y; Lee, Eason; Cannon, Ronald E; Bendayan, Reina; Miller, David S; Pang, K Sandy

2012-12-01

33

1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-Liganded Vitamin D Receptor Increases Expression and Transport Activity of P-glycoprotein in Isolated Rat Brain Capillaries and Human and Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

MDR1/P-gp induction by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was investigated in isolated rat brain capillaries and rat (RBE4) and human (hCMEC/D3) brain microvessel endothelial cell lines. Incubation of isolated rat brain capillaries with 10 nM of the VDR ligand, 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] for 4 h increased P-gp protein expression (4-fold). Incubation with 1,25(OH)2D3 for 4 or 24 h increased P-gp transport activity (specific luminal accumulation of NBD-CSA, the fluorescent P-gp substrate) by 25 – 30%. In RBE4 cells, Mdr1b mRNA was induced in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3. Concomitantly, P-gp protein expression increased 2.5-fold and was accompanied by a 20 – 35% reduction in cellular accumulation of the P-gp substrates, rhodamine 6G (R6G) and HiLyte Fluor 488-labeled human amyloid beta 1-42 (hA?42). In hCMEC/D3 cells, a three day exposure to 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 increased MDR1 mRNA expression (40%) and P-gp protein (3-fold); cellular accumulation of R6G and hA?42 was reduced by 30%. Thus, VDR activation up-regulates Mdr1/MDR1 and P-gp protein in isolated rat brain capillaries and rodent and human brain microvascular endothelia, implicating a role for VDR in increasing the brain clearance of P-gp substrates, including hA?42 a plaque-forming precursor in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23035695

Durk, Matthew R.; Chan, Gary N.Y.; Campos, Christopher R.; Peart, John C.; Chow, Edwin C.Y.; Lee, Eason; Cannon, Ronald E.; Bendayan, Reina; Miller, David S.; Pang, K. Sandy

2012-01-01

34

Trametenolic acid B reverses multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells through regulating the expression level of P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Trametenolic acid B (TAB) is the main active composition of Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat which possesses antitumor activities. There was no report its antitumor effect through regulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp) so far, due toP-gp over expression is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to the multiple drug resistance phenotype. The present aim was to investigate the effects of TAB on P-gp in multidrug-resistant cells;Paclitaxel-resistant cell line MDA-MB-231/Taxol was established by stepwise exposure for 10 months.MDA-MB-231 cells and MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells were treated with TAB, and their growth was evaluated using MTT assays. Paclitaxel accumulation in the cells was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatogram(HPLC). The activity of P-gp was detected by intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 (Rho123), and the protein expression of P-gp was evaluated using western blot. Results indicated that the IC50 of MDA-MB-231/Taxol to paclitaxel (Taxol) was 33 times higher than that of nature MDA-MB-231. TAB increased the intracellular concentration of Taxol and inhibited the activity of P-gp and suppressed the expression of P-gp in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells. Our present results showed that TAB could reverse Taxol resistance in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells,mainly inhibiting the activity of P-gp and down-regulating the expression level of P-gp, and then enhancing the accumulation of chemotherapy agents. PMID:25289403

Zhang, Qiaoyin; Wang, Junzhi; He, Haibo; Liu, Hongbing; Yan, Ximing; Zou, Kun

2014-07-01

35

Susceptibility of juvenile and adult blood–brain barrier to endothelin-1: regulation of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein expression and transport activity  

PubMed Central

Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) play a critical role in keeping neurotoxic substances from entering the brain. We and others have previously reported an impact of inflammation on the regulation of adult blood–brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters. However, studies in children have not been done. From the pediatric clinical perspective, it is important to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) and BBB drug efflux transporters differ in childhood from those of adults under normal and inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we examined and compared the regulation of P-gp and BCRP expression and transport activity in young and adult BBB and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses. Methods Rats at postnatal day (P) P21 and P84, corresponding to the juvenile and adult stages of human brain maturation, respectively, were treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1) given by the intracerebroventricular (icv) route. Twenty-four hours later, we measured P-gp and BCRP protein expression in isolated brain capillary by immunoblotting as well as by transport activity in vivo by measuring the unbound drug partitioning coefficient of the brain (Kp,uu,brain) of known efflux transporter substrates administered intravenously. Glial activation was measured by immunohistochemistry. The release of cytokines/chemokines (interleukins-1?, 1-? (IL-1?), -6 (IL-6), -10 (IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2), fractalkine and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1)) were simultaneously measured in brain and serum samples using the Agilent Technology cytokine microarray. Results We found that juvenile and adult BBBs exhibited similar P-gp and BCRP transport activities in the normal physiological conditions. However, long-term exposure of the juvenile brain to low-dose of ET-1 did not change BBB P-gp transport activity but tended to decrease BCRP transport activity in the juvenile brain, while a significant increase of the activity of both transporters was evidenced at the BBB in the adult brain. Moreover, juvenile and adult brain showed differences in their expression profiles of cytokines and chemokines mediated by ET-1. Conclusions BBB transporter activity during neuroinflammation differs between the juvenile and adult brains. These findings emphasize the importance of considering differential P-gp and BCRP transport regulation mechanisms between adult and juvenile BBB in the context of neuroinflammation. PMID:23253775

2012-01-01

36

Reciprocal competition between lipid nanocapsules and P-gp for paclitaxel transport across Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) have been shown to improve paclitaxel (Ptx) bioavailability and transport across an intestinal barrier model. In the present study, the interaction between P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and LNC transport across Caco-2 cells are investigated. Transport experiments have been performed on Caco-2 cells displaying different P-gp activities (early and later cell passages). The permeability of Ptx encapsulated in LNCs has been studied in the presence of P-gp inhibitors (verapamil and vinblastin) or unloaded LNCs. The uptake of dye-labelled LNCs was also observed in the presence of the same inhibitors. It was found that the permeability of Ptx varied depending on the passages with later ones showing higher absolute values (5.74+/-1.21 cms(-1) vs 133.41+/-5.74 cms(-1)). P-gp inhibition obtained with verapamil or vinblastin improved Ptx transport up to 98%. LNCs have also demonstrated their capacity to increase their own transport. Experiments performed with dye-labelled LNCs demonstrated an enhancement of the uptake of dye (Nile red), only in the presence of verapamil. These results demonstrated an effect of P-gp on the transport of Ptx when loaded in LNCs and support a direct effect of P-gp on their endocytosis in Caco-2 cells. These finding may assist in the development of new nanomedicine for oral administration. PMID:20438839

Roger, E; Lagarce, F; Garcion, E; Benoit, J-P

2010-08-11

37

Multi-drug resistance in a canine lymphoid cell line due to increased P-glycoprotein expression, a potential model for drug-resistant canine lymphoma.  

PubMed

Canine lymphoma is routinely treated with a doxorubicin-based multidrug chemotherapy protocol, and although treatment is initially successful, tumor recurrence is common and associated with therapy resistance. Active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents by transporter proteins of the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily forms an effective cellular defense mechanism and a high expression of these transporters is frequently observed in chemotherapy-resistant tumors in both humans and dogs. In this study we describe the ABC-transporter expression in a canine lymphoid cell line and a sub-cell line with acquired drug resistance following prolonged exposure to doxorubicin. This sub-cell line was more resistant to doxorubicin and vincristine, but not to prednisolone, and had a highly increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp/abcb1) expression and transport capacity for the P-gp model-substrate rhodamine123. Both resistance to doxorubicin and vincristine, and rhodamine123 transport capacity were fully reversed by the P-gp inhibitor PSC833. No changes were observed in the expression and function of the ABC-transporters MRP-1 and BCRP. It is concluded that GL-40 cells represent a useful model for studying P-gp dependent drug resistance in canine lymphoid neoplasia, and that this model can be used for screening substances as potential P-gp substrates and their capacity to modulate P-gp mediated drug resistance. PMID:24975508

Zandvliet, M; Teske, E; Schrickx, J A

2014-12-01

38

P-gp substrate-induced neurotoxicity in an Abcb1a knock-in/Abcb1b knock-out mouse model with a mutated canine ABCB1 targeted insertion.  

PubMed

Certain dog breeds, especially Collies, are observed to exhibit neurotoxicity to avermectin drugs, which are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates. This neurotoxicity is due to an ABCB1 gene mutation (ABCB1-1?) that results in non-functional P-gp expression. A developed Abcb1a knock-in/Abcb1b knock-out mouse model expressing the ABCB1-1? canine gene was previously reported and mice exhibited sensitivity upon ivermectin administration. Here, model and wild-type mice were administered P-gp substrates doramectin, moxidectin, and digoxin. While knock-in/knock-out mice exhibited ataxia, lethargy and tremor, wild-type mice remained unaffected. In addition, no neurotoxic clinical signs were observed in either mouse type administered domperidone, a P-gp substrate with no reported neurotoxicity in ABCB1-1? Collies. Overall, neurotoxic signs displayed by model mice closely paralleled those observed in ivermectin-sensitive Collies. This model can be used to identify toxic P-gp substrates with altered safety in dog populations and may reduce dog use in safety studies that are part of the drug approval process. PMID:23186803

Swain, M D; Orzechowski, K L; Swaim, H L; Jones, Y L; Robl, M G; Tinaza, C A; Myers, M J; Jhingory, M V; Buckely, L E; Lancaster, V A; Yancy, H F

2013-06-01

39

Impact of curcumin-induced changes in P-glycoprotein and CYP3A expression on the pharmacokinetics of peroral celiprolol and midazolam in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether curcumin could modulate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A expression, and in turn modify the pharmacokinetic profiles of P-gp and CYP3A substrates in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Intragastric gavage of the rats with 60 mg/kg curcumin for 4 consecutive days led to a down-regulation of the intestinal P-gp level. There was a concomitant upregulation of hepatic P-gp level, but the renal P-gp level was unaffected. Curcumin also attenuated the CYP3A level in the small intestine but induced CYP3A expression in the liver and kidney. Regular curcumin consumption also caused the C(max) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0-8) and total AUC) of peroral celiprolol (a P-gp substrate with negligible cytochrome P450 metabolism) at 30 mg/kg to increase, but the apparent oral clearance (CL(oral)) of the drug was reduced. Similarly, rats treated with curcumin for 4 consecutive days showed higher AUC (AUC(0-4) and total AUC) and lower CL(oral) for peroral midazolam (a CYP3A substrate that does not interact with the P-gp) at 20 mg/kg in comparison with vehicle-treated rats. In contrast, curcumin administered 30 min before the respective drug treatments did not significantly modify the pharmacokinetic parameters of the drugs. Analysis of the data suggests that the changes in the pharmacokinetic profiles of peroral celiprolol and midazolam in the rat model were contributed mainly by the curcumin-mediated down-regulation of intestinal P-gp and CYP3A protein levels, respectively. PMID:17050652

Zhang, Wenxia; Tan, Theresa May Chin; Lim, Lee-Yong

2007-01-01

40

Leptospira Protein Expression During Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are characterizing protein expression in vivo during experimental leptospirosis using immunofluorescence microscopy. Coding regions for several proteins were identified through analysis of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo genomes. In addition, codi...

41

Liquid Chromatographic Method for Irinotecan Estimation: Screening of P-gp Modulators.  

PubMed

The present work is aimed to develop a simple, sensitive, robust and reliable HPLC method for the estimation of irinotecan in the physiological media in order to assess the permeability profile of irinotecan, using the everted gut sac, in the presence of various P-gp modulators. Separation was achieved using, C18 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.045 µM sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate buffer containing ion pair agent heptane sulphonic acid sodium salt (0.0054 µM), pH 3. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and analysis was performed at 254.9 nm using PDA detector. Calibration data showed an excellent linear relationship between peak-area verses drug concentration (r(2), 0.9999). Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.060-10.0 µg/ml. Limits of detection and quantification were found to ~0.020 µg/ml and ~0.060 µg/ml, respectively. The developed method was found to be precise (RSD < 1.5%, for repeatability and <2.55% for intermediate precision, acceptable ranges of precision), accurate (The recovered content of irinotecan in the presence of various P-gp modulators varied from 96.11-101.51%, within acceptable range, 80-120%), specific and robust (% RSD < 2). Developed method has been applied successfully for the evaluation of eleven P-gp modulators from diverse chemical class. PMID:25767314

Tariq, M; Negi, L M; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, F J; Iqbal, Zeenat; Khan, A M

2015-01-01

42

Liquid Chromatographic Method for Irinotecan Estimation: Screening of P-gp Modulators  

PubMed Central

The present work is aimed to develop a simple, sensitive, robust and reliable HPLC method for the estimation of irinotecan in the physiological media in order to assess the permeability profile of irinotecan, using the everted gut sac, in the presence of various P-gp modulators. Separation was achieved using, C18 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.045 µM sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate buffer containing ion pair agent heptane sulphonic acid sodium salt (0.0054 µM), pH 3. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and analysis was performed at 254.9 nm using PDA detector. Calibration data showed an excellent linear relationship between peak-area verses drug concentration (r2, 0.9999). Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.060-10.0 µg/ml. Limits of detection and quantification were found to ~0.020 µg/ml and ~0.060 µg/ml, respectively. The developed method was found to be precise (RSD < 1.5%, for repeatability and <2.55% for intermediate precision, acceptable ranges of precision), accurate (The recovered content of irinotecan in the presence of various P-gp modulators varied from 96.11-101.51%, within acceptable range, 80-120%), specific and robust (% RSD < 2). Developed method has been applied successfully for the evaluation of eleven P-gp modulators from diverse chemical class. PMID:25767314

Tariq, M.; Negi, L. M.; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, F. J.; Iqbal, Zeenat; Khan, A. M.

2015-01-01

43

Upregulation of Stat1-HDAC4 confers resistance to etoposide through enhanced multidrug resistance 1 expression in human A549 lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

Despite efforts to develop efficient chemotherapeutic drug strategies to treat cancer, acquired drug resistance is a commonly encountered problem. In the present study, to investigate this phenomenon, human A549 lung cancer cells resistant to the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide (A549RT?eto) were used and compared with A549 parental cells. A549RT?eto cells demonstrated increased resistance to etoposide?induced apoptosis when compared with A549 parental cells. Notably, A549RT?eto cells were observed to exhibit greater levels of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), phospho?Stat1 and P?glycoprotein [P?gp; encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene], compared with A549 cells. To address whether HDAC4 protein is involved in etoposide resistance in A549 cells, A549RT?eto cells were treated with trichostatin A (TSA; an HDAC inhibitor) during etoposide treatment. The combined treatment was demonstrated to enhance etoposide?induced apoptosis and reduce expression levels of HDAC4, P?gp and phospho?Stat1. In addition, the suppression of Stat1 with siRNA enhanced etoposide?induced apoptosis and reduced the expression levels of HDAC4 and P?gp, suggesting that Stat1 is essential in the regulation of resistance to etoposide, and in the upregulation of P?gp. Notably, TSA treatment reduced P?gp transcript levels but Stat1 siRNA treatment did not, suggesting that P?gp is regulated by HDAC at the transcriptional level and by Stat1 at the post?transcriptional level. These results suggest that the upregulation of Stat1 and HDAC4 determines etoposide resistance through P?gp expression in human A549 lung cancer cells. PMID:25395162

Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Oh, Sangtaek; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Johnston, Randal N; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai; Chung, Young-Hwa

2015-03-01

44

Semisynthesis of proteins by expressed protein ligation.  

PubMed

Expressed protein ligation (EPL) is a protein engineering approach that allows recombinant and synthetic polypeptides to be chemoselectively and regioselectively joined together. The approach makes the primary structure of most proteins accessible to the tools of synthetic organic chemistry, enabling the covalent structure of proteins to be modified in an unprecedented fashion. The ability to incorporate noncoded amino acids, biophysical probes, and stable isotopes into specific locations within proteins provides research tools to peer into the inner workings of these molecules. In this review I discuss the development of this technology, its broad application to biological systems, and its possible role in the area of proteomics. PMID:12626339

Muir, Tom W

2003-01-01

45

Reversal effects of pantoprazole on multidrug resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells by down-regulating the V-ATPases/mTOR/HIF-1?/P-gp and MRP1 signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

To investigate reversal effects of pantoprazole (PPZ) on multidrug resistance (MDR) in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell SGC7901 was cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics in a humidified 5% CO(2) atmosphere at 37°C. Adriamycin (ADR)-resistant cells were cultured with addition of 0.8?µg/ml of ADR maintaining MDR phenotype. ADR was used to calculate ADR releasing index; CCK-8 Assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of anti-tumor drugs; BCECF-AM pH-sensitive fluorescent probe was used to measure intracellular pH (pHi) value of cells, whereas pH value of medium was considered as extracellular pH (pHe) value; Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining analyses were employed to determine protein expressions and intracellular distributions of vacuolar H(+) -ATPases (V-ATPases), mTOR, HIF-1?, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and multidrug resistant protein 1 (MRP1); SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells were inoculated in athymic nude mice. Thereafter, effects of ADR with or without PPZ pretreatment were compared by determining the tumor size and weight, apoptotic cells in tumor tissues were detected by TUNEL assay. At concentrations greater than 20 µg/ml, PPZ pretreatment reduced ADR releasing index and significantly enhanced intracellular ADR concentration of SGC7901 (P < 0.01). Similarly, PPZ pretreatment significantly decreased ADR releasing index of SGC7901/ADR dose-dependently (P < 0.01). PPZ pretreatment also decreased cell viabilities of SGG7901 and SGC7901/ADR dose-dependently. After 24-h PPZ pretreatment, administration of chemotherapeutic agents demonstrated maximal cytotoxic effects on SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells (P < 0.05). The resistance index in PPZ pretreatment group was significantly lower than that in non-PPZ pretreatment group (3.71 vs. 14.80). PPZ at concentration >10 µg/ml significantly decreased pHi in SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells and diminished or reversed transmembrane pH gradient (P < 0.05). PPZ pretreatment also significantly inhibited protein expressions of V-ATPases, mTOR, HIF-1?, P-gp, and MRP1, and alter intracellular expressions in parent and ADR-resistant cells (P < 0.05). In vivo experiments further confirmed that PPZ pretreatment could enhance anti-tumor effects of ADR on xenografted tumor of nude mice and also improve the apoptotic index in xenografted tumor tissues. PPZ pretreatment enhances the cytotoxic effects of anti-tumor drugs on SGC7901 and reverse MDR of SGC7901/ADR by downregulating the V-ATPases/mTOR/HIF-1?/P-gp and MRP1 signaling pathway. PMID:22396185

Chen, Min; Huang, Shu-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Hao; Yang, Vincent W; Zou, Xiao-Ping

2012-07-01

46

P-glycoprotein is functionally expressed in the placenta-derived bovine caruncular epithelial cell line 1 (BCEC-1).  

PubMed

Drug treatment is critical in pregnant cows due to the possibility of a maternal-to-fetal drug transfer across the placenta. Since the (syn)epitheliochorial bovine placental barrier includes an intact uterine epithelium, which in general limits drug transfer to the fetal trophoblast, the establishment of a species- and organ-specific in vitro model like the bovine caruncular epithelial cell line 1 (BCEC-1) for testing bovine placental drug transport is desirable. P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) is an important efflux carrier that limits drug permeability across blood-tissue barriers such as the placenta and transports a wide range of structurally unrelated compounds including many drugs commonly used in veterinary medicine. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the suitability of BCEC-1 as an appropriate in vitro model for P-gp mediated drug transport in the bovine placenta. P-gp mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR in BCEC-1 and placental tissue. Additionally, the carrier protein was localised in the apical membrane of BCEC-1 by immunofluorescence staining with the mouse monoclonal antibody C494. Drug transport in BCEC-1 was investigated by FACS analysis using the fluorescent P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123. Inhibition of Rhodamine 123 efflux by the P-gp inhibitors Verapamil and PSC833 confirmed functional expression of P-gp in BCEC-1. Furthermore, transport measurements in the transwell-system revealed a basal-to-apical net flux of the P-gp substrate digoxin at concentrations ranging from 10nM to 10 ?M. This transwell digoxin flux was inhibited by Verapamil. In conclusion, P-gp is functionally expressed in BCEC-1 and mediates a basal-to-apical flux of digoxin indicating dominant apical localization of P-gp in this cell culture model. Therefore, BCEC-1 may be an appropriate in vitro model to study drug transport across the maternal epithelium as part of the epitheliochorial placental barrier of the cow. PMID:21145107

Waterkotte, B; Hambruch, N; Döring, B; Geyer, J; Tinneberg, H-R; Pfarrer, C

2011-02-01

47

Active brain targeting of a fluorescent P-gp substrate using polymeric magnetic nanocarrier system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) were developed for the active brain targeting of water-soluble P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The NP matrix of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(lactic acid) (M-PEG-PLA) was prepared by single emulsion solvent evaporation of polymers with oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (OAMNP) and Rh123. All formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, magnetic content and Rh123 encapsulation efficiency. The maximum encapsulation efficiency of Rh123 was 45 ± 3% and of OAMNP was 42 ± 4%. The brain targeting and biodistribution study was performed on Sprague Dawley rats (3 groups, n = 6). Rh123 (0.4 mg kg-1) was administered in saline form, NP containing Rh123, and NP containing Rh123 in the presence of a magnetic field (0.8 T). The fluorimetric analysis of brain homogenates revealed a significant uptake (p < 0.05) of Rh123 in the magnetically targeted group relative to controls. These results were supported by fluorescence microscopy. This study reveals the ability of magnetically targeted nanoparticles to deliver substances to the brain, the permeation of which would otherwise be inhibited by the P-gp system.

Kirthivasan, B.; Singh, D.; Bommana, M. M.; Raut, S. L.; Squillante, E.; Sadoqi, M.

2012-06-01

48

Cargoing P-gp inhibitors via nanoparticle sensitizes tumor cells against doxorubicin.  

PubMed

Inhibitors against multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux transporters have failed in most clinical settings due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic interactions with co-administered anti-cancer drug and their inherent toxicities. Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to overcome drug efflux by delivering and localizing therapeutic molecules within tumor mass. In this work, we investigated effect of nanocarrier surface charge and formulation parameters for a hydrophilic and lipophilic MDR inhibitor on their ability to reverse drug resistance. Active inhibition of efflux pumps was achieved by encapsulating first and third generation P-gp inhibitors- verapamil and elacridar respectively in non-ionic, anionic and cationic surfactant-based NPs. The ability of NPs to reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR efflux was evaluated in sensitive (A2780) and resistant (A2780Adr) ovarian cancer cell lines by various in vitro accumulation and cytotoxicity assays. Uptake mechanism for NP appears to be caveolae-dependent with 20%-higher internalization in A2780Adr than A2780 cell lines which can be co-related to the biophysical membrane composition. Cationic- CTAB NPs showed highest reversal efficacy followed by PVA and SDS-NP (P+S NP) and PVA-NPs. As compared to doxorubicin treated drug resistant cells lines, blank-, verapamil- and elacridar-CTAB-NPs showed 2.6-, 20- and 193-fold lower IC50 values. This work highlights the importance of inhibitor-loaded charged particles to overcome cancer drug resistance. PMID:25437111

Singh, Manu Smriti; Lamprecht, Alf

2015-01-30

49

Influence of overexpression of efflux proteins on the function and gene expression of endogenous peptide transporters in MDR-transfected MDCKII cell lines  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to delineate whether overexpression of human efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2, and BCRP) in transfected MDCK cells affect the functional activities, and gene and protein expression of endogenous influx peptide transporter system (PepT). Real-time PCR, immunoblotting, uptake and permeability studies of [3H]Gly-Sar were conducted on transfected MDCKII and wild-type cells to investigate functional differences. Cellular [3H]Gly-Sar accumulation was significantly lower in transfected MDCKII cell lines compared to wild-type cells. Transport efficiency of apical peptide transporters was markedly reduced to around 25%, 30%, and 40% in P-gp-, MRP2-, and BCRP-overexpressed MDCK cell lines, respectively. With ascending cell-passage, transport efficiency was enhanced. A significantly higher Gly-Sar permeability was observed across parental cell-monolayers over transfected cells at all pHs. Levels of mRNA for both canine PepT1 and PepT2 were substantially reduced when efflux transporters overexpressed but enhanced when mRNA-levels of efflux genes diminished with ascending cell-passage of transfected cells. An inverse correlation was evident between endogenous PepT and exogenous efflux transporters in transfected MDCKII cells. Results of protein expression also supported these findings. Overexpression of MDR genes can affect endogenous PepT function which might be due to the phenomenon of transporter-compensation resulting in down-regulation of endogenous genes. PMID:23262422

Wang, Zhiying; Pal, Dhananjay; Patel, Ashaben; Kwatra, Deep; Mitra, Ashim K.

2013-01-01

50

Down-regulation of the HGF/MET autocrine loop induced by celecoxib and mediated by P-gp in MDR-positive human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

Many tumors are resistant to drug-induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. We have reported that apoptosis can be restored in human multidrug-resistant (MDR) hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by celecoxib. Here we show that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediates cell-cycle arrest and autophagy induced by celecoxib in human MDR overexpressing hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by down-regulation of the HGF/MET autocrine loop and Bcl-2 expression. Exposure of cells to a low concentration of celecoxib down-regulated the expression of mTOR and caused G1 arrest and autophagy, while higher concentration triggered apoptosis. Cell growth inhibition and autophagy were associated with up-regulation of the expression of TGFbeta1, p16(INK4b), p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) and down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E, pRb and E2F. The role of P-glycoprotein expression in resistance of MDR cell clone to cell-cycle arrest, autophagy and apoptosis was shown in cells transfected with MDR1 small interfering RNA. These findings demonstrate that the constitutive expression of P-gp is involved in the HGF/MET autocrine loop that leads to increased expression of Bcl-2 and mTor, inhibition of eIF2alpha expression, resistance to autophagy/apoptosis and progression in the cell-cycle. Since mTor inhibitors have been proposed in treatment of "drug resistant" cancer, these data may help explain the reversing effect of mTor inhibitors. PMID:19447220

Mazzanti, Roberto; Platini, Francesca; Bottini, Consuelo; Fantappiè, Ornella; Solazzo, Michela; Tessitore, Luciana

2009-07-01

51

A study comparing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents versus enzyme (P-gp) inducers in the treatment of 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.  

PubMed

The intestinal microflora is an important cofactor in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation; and the epithelial cell barrier function is critical in providing protection against the stimulation of mucosal immune system by the microflora. In the present study, therapeutic role of the antibacterial drugs rifampicin and ciprofloxacine were investigated in comparison to spironolactone, an enzyme inducer, in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis of the rats. Drugs were administered for 14 days following induction of colitis. All drug treatments ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, colon length, and histology. Oxidative damage and neutrophil infiltration as well as nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) expressions that were increased during colitis, were decreased significantly. Rifampicin and ciprofloxacin were probably effective due to their antibacterial and immunomodulating properties. The multidrug resistence gene (MDR1) and its product p-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, findings of the P-gp expression were inconclusive but regarding previous studies, it can be suggested that the beneficial effects of rifampicin and spironolactone may be partly due to their action as a P-gp ligand. Spironolactone has been reported to supress the transcription of proinflamatory cytokines that are considered to be of importance in immunoinflammatory diseases. It is also a powerful pregnane X receptor (PXR) inducer; thus, inhibition of the expression of NF-?B and TNF-?, and amelioration of inflammation by spironolactone suggest that this may have been through the activation of PXR. However, our findings regarding PXR expression were inconclusive. Activation of PXR by spironolactone probably also contributed to the induction of P-gp, resulting in extrusion of noxious substances from the tissue. PMID:24101390

Toklu, H Z; Kabasakal, L; Imeryuz, N; Kan, B; Celikel, C; Cetinel, S; Orun, O; Yuksel, M; Dulger, G A

2013-08-01

52

Downregulation of mdr1a expression in the brain and liver during CNS inflammation alters the in vivo disposition of digoxin  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is a pathophysiological event that has relevance for altered drug disposition in humans. Two functions of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are hepatic drug elimination and prevention of drug entry into the central nervous system (CNS). Our objective was to investigate if localized CNS inflammation induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) would modify mdr1a/P-gp expression and function in the brain and liver. Our major finding was that the CNS inflammation in male rats produced a loss in the expression of mdr1a mRNA in the brain and liver that was maximal 6 h after intracranial ventricle (i.c.v.) administration of LPS. When 3H-digoxin was used at discrete time points, as a probe for P-gp function in vivo, an increase in brain and liver 3H-radioactivity and plasma level of parent digoxin was produced 6 and 24 h following LPS treatment compared to the saline controls. Digoxin disposition was similarly altered in mdr1a+/+ mice but not in mdr1a?/? mice 24 h after administering LPS i.c.v. In male rats, the biliary elimination of parent digoxin was reduced at 24 h (60%) and 48 h (40%) after LPS treatment and was blocked by the P-gp substrate cyclosporin A. An observed loss in CYP3A1/2 protein and organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 mRNA in the liver may make a minor contribution to digoxin elimination in male rats after LPS treatment. Conditions which impose inflammation in the CNS produce dynamic changes in mdr1a/P-gp expression/function that may alter hepatic drug elimination and the movement of drugs between the brain and the periphery. The use of experimental models of brain inflammation may provide novel insight into the regulation of P-gp function in that organ. PMID:12746221

Goralski, Kerry B; Hartmann, Georgy; Piquette-Miller, Micheline; Renton, Kenneth W

2003-01-01

53

Fitting the Elementary Rate Constants of the P-gp Transporter Network in the hMDR1-MDCK Confluent Cell Monolayer Using a Particle Swarm Algorithm  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein, a human multidrug resistance transporter, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. In order to understand transport kinetics via P-gp, confluent cell monolayers overexpressing P-gp are widely used. The purpose of this study is to obtain the mass action elementary rate constants for P-gp's transport and to functionally characterize members of P-gp's network, i.e., other transporters that transport P-gp substrates in hMDR1-MDCKII confluent cell monolayers and are essential to the net substrate flux. Transport of a range of concentrations of amprenavir, loperamide, quinidine and digoxin across the confluent monolayer of cells was measured in both directions, apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical. We developed a global optimization algorithm using the Particle Swarm method that can simultaneously fit all datasets to yield accurate and exhaustive fits of these elementary rate constants. The statistical sensitivity of the fitted values was determined by using 24 identical replicate fits, yielding simple averages and standard deviations for all of the kinetic parameters, including the efflux active P-gp surface density. Digoxin required additional basolateral and apical transporters, while loperamide required just a basolateral tranporter. The data were better fit by assuming bidirectional transporters, rather than active importers, suggesting that they are not MRP or active OATP transporters. The P-gp efflux rate constants for quinidine and digoxin were about 3-fold smaller than reported ATP hydrolysis rate constants from P-gp proteoliposomes. This suggests a roughly 3?1 stoichiometry between ATP hydrolysis and P-gp transport for these two drugs. The fitted values of the elementary rate constants for these P-gp substrates support the hypotheses that the selective pressures on P-gp are to maintain a broad substrate range and to keep xenobiotics out of the cytosol, but not out of the apical membrane. PMID:22028772

Agnani, Deep; Acharya, Poulomi; Martinez, Esteban; Tran, Thuy Thanh; Abraham, Feby; Tobin, Frank; Ellens, Harma; Bentz, Joe

2011-01-01

54

P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux limits intestinal absorption of the Hsp90 inhibitor SNX-2112 in rats.  

PubMed

1.?The promising anticancer agent SNX-2112 (a novel Hsp90 inhibitor) is poorly bioavailable after oral administration. Here, we aim to determine the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the intestinal absorption of SNX-2112. 2.?We found that SNX-2112 significantly stimulated P-gp ATPase activity in in vitro ATPase assay with a small EC50 (the half-maximal effective concentration) value of 0.32?µM. 3.?In the single-pass perfused rat intestine model, absorption of SNX-2112 was not favored in the small intestine with a [Formula: see text] (the wall permeability) value of 0.38-0.64. By contrast, the compound was well absorbed in the colon with a [Formula: see text] value of 1.19. The P-gp inhibitors cyclosporine and elacridar (i.e. GF120918A) markedly enhanced SNX-2112 absorption in all four intestinal segments (i.e. duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) and the fold change ranged from 3.1 to 14.1. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that cyclosporine increased the systemic exposure of SNX-2112 by a 2.5-fold after oral administration. 4.?This is the first report that P-gp-mediated efflux is a limiting factor for intestinal absorption of SNX-2112 in rats. PMID:24555822

Liu, Hongming; Sun, Hua; Wu, Zhufeng; Zhang, Xingwang; Wu, Baojian

2014-08-01

55

Regulation of multidrug resistance proteins by genistein in a hepatocarcinoma cell line: impact on sorafenib cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide. Sorafenib is the only drug available that improves the overall survival of HCC patients. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 and 3 (MRP2 and 3) and Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are efflux pumps that play a key role in cancer chemoresistance. Their modulation by dietary compounds may affect the intracellular accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of drugs that are substrates of these transporters. Genistein (GNT) is a phytoestrogen abundant in soybean that exerts its genomic effects through Estrogen-Receptors and Pregnane-X-Receptor (PXR), which are involved in the regulation of the above-mentioned transporters. We evaluated the effect of GNT on the expression and activity of P-gp, MRP2, MRP3 and BCRP in HCC-derived HepG2 cells. GNT (at 1.0 and 10 ?M) increased P-gp and MRP2 protein expression and activity, correlating well with an increased resistance to sorafenib cytotoxicity as detected by the methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assay. GNT induced P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expression at 10 but not at 1.0 ?M concentration suggesting a different pattern of regulation depending on the concentration. Induction of both transporters by 1.0 ?M GNT was prevented by cycloheximide, suggesting translational regulation. Downregulation of expression of the miR-379 by GNT could be associated with translational regulation of MRP2. Silencing of PXR abolished P-gp induction by GNT (at 1.0 and 10 ?M) and MRP2 induction by GNT (only at 10 ?M), suggesting partial mediation of GNT effects by PXR. Taken together, the data suggest the possibility of nutrient-drug interactions leading to enhanced chemoresistance in HCC when GNT is ingested with soy rich diets or dietary supplements. PMID:25781341

Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Ciriaci, Nadia; Arias, Agostina; Ceballos, María Paula; Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris; Luquita, Marcelo Gabriel; Mottino, Aldo Domingo; Ghanem, Carolina Inés; Catania, Viviana Alicia; Ruiz, María Laura

2015-01-01

56

Regulation of Multidrug Resistance Proteins by Genistein in a Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line: Impact on Sorafenib Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide. Sorafenib is the only drug available that improves the overall survival of HCC patients. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 and 3 (MRP2 and 3) and Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are efflux pumps that play a key role in cancer chemoresistance. Their modulation by dietary compounds may affect the intracellular accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of drugs that are substrates of these transporters. Genistein (GNT) is a phytoestrogen abundant in soybean that exerts its genomic effects through Estrogen-Receptors and Pregnane-X-Receptor (PXR), which are involved in the regulation of the above-mentioned transporters. We evaluated the effect of GNT on the expression and activity of P-gp, MRP2, MRP3 and BCRP in HCC-derived HepG2 cells. GNT (at 1.0 and 10 ?M) increased P-gp and MRP2 protein expression and activity, correlating well with an increased resistance to sorafenib cytotoxicity as detected by the methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assay. GNT induced P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expression at 10 but not at 1.0 ?M concentration suggesting a different pattern of regulation depending on the concentration. Induction of both transporters by 1.0 ?M GNT was prevented by cycloheximide, suggesting translational regulation. Downregulation of expression of the miR-379 by GNT could be associated with translational regulation of MRP2. Silencing of PXR abolished P-gp induction by GNT (at 1.0 and 10 ?M) and MRP2 induction by GNT (only at 10 ?M), suggesting partial mediation of GNT effects by PXR. Taken together, the data suggest the possibility of nutrient-drug interactions leading to enhanced chemoresistance in HCC when GNT is ingested with soy rich diets or dietary supplements. PMID:25781341

Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Ciriaci, Nadia; Arias, Agostina; Ceballos, María Paula; Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris; Luquita, Marcelo Gabriel; Mottino, Aldo Domingo; Ghanem, Carolina Inés; Catania, Viviana Alicia; Ruiz, María Laura

2015-01-01

57

The Elementary Mass Action Rate Constants of P-gp Transport for a Confluent Monolayer of MDCKII-hMDR1 Cells  

PubMed Central

The human multi-drug resistance membrane transporter, P-glycoprotein, or P-gp, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. Thus far, the kinetic analysis of P-gp transport has been limited to steady-state Michaelis-Menten approaches or to compartmental models, neither of which can prove molecular mechanisms. Determination of the elementary kinetic rate constants of transport will be essential to understanding how P-gp works. The experimental system we use is a confluent monolayer of MDCKII-hMDR1 cells that overexpress P-gp. It is a physiologically relevant model system, and transport is measured without biochemical manipulations of P-gp. The Michaelis-Menten mass action reaction is used to model P-gp transport. Without imposing the steady-state assumptions, this reaction depends upon several parameters that must be simultaneously fitted. An exhaustive fitting of transport data to find all possible parameter vectors that best fit the data was accomplished with a reasonable computation time using a hierarchical algorithm. For three P-gp substrates (amprenavir, loperamide, and quinidine), we have successfully fitted the elementary rate constants, i.e., drug association to P-gp from the apical membrane inner monolayer, drug dissociation back into the apical membrane inner monolayer, and drug efflux from P-gp into the apical chamber, as well as the density of efflux active P-gp. All three drugs had overlapping ranges for the efflux active P-gp, which was a benchmark for the validity of the fitting process. One novel finding was that the association to P-gp appears to be rate-limited solely by drug lateral diffusion within the inner monolayer of the plasma membrane for all three drugs. This would be expected if P-gp structure were open to the lipids of the apical membrane inner monolayer, as has been suggested by recent structural studies. The fitted kinetic parameters show how P-gp efflux of a wide range of xenobiotics has been maximized. PMID:15501934

Tran, Thuy Thanh; Mittal, Aditya; Aldinger, Tanya; Polli, Joseph W.; Ayrton, Andrew; Ellens, Harma; Bentz, Joe

2005-01-01

58

[Effects of compound Zhe-Bei granule (CZBG) combined with doxorubicin on expression of membrane transport proteins in K562/A02 cell xenografts].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to investigate the effects of compound Zhe-Bei granule (CZBG) combined with doxorubicin on expressions of P-gp, MRP, LRP in K562/A02 cell xenografts. Tumor xenograft model were established by injecting the multidrug resistant cell line K562/A02 in the axillary flank of BALB/c-nu-nu mice. CZBG-intragastric administration and doxorubicin-intraperitoneal injection in combination were given to the BALB/c-nu nude mice. The tumor xenografts were made into slice after the dissection, and the expression of P-gp, MRP, LRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts in mice were investigated by immunohistochemical technique. The integral optical density (IOD) of P-gp, MRP, LRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts were measured by Image Pro Plus 6.0. The results showed that as compared with the doxorubicin alone, the combination of the doxorubicin and CZBG with high, middle and low dosage could decrease IOD of P-gp, MRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts with statistical significance (p < 0.05). The LRP expression in K562/A02 tumor xenografts was not observed in five groups. It is concluded that the combination of CZBG with doxorubicin decreases the expressions of P-gp, MRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts of mice. PMID:20137116

Li, Dong-Yun; Zheng, Zhi; Hou, Li; Jiang, Miao; Dong, Qing; Tian, Shao-Dan; Ma, Wei; Chen, Ju; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xin-Yi

2010-02-01

59

Reduced ABCB1 Expression and Activity in the Presence of Acrylic Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Purpose: P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), an integral membrane protein in the apical surface of human intestinal epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in the intestinal transport and efflux leading to changes in the bioavailability of oral pharmaceutical compounds. This study was set to examine the potential effects of three Eudragits RL100, S100 and L100 on the intestinal epithelial membrane transport of rhodammine-123 (Rho-123), a substrate of P-gp using a monolayer of human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2). Methods: The least non-cytotoxic concentrations of the excipients were assessed in Caco-2 cells by the MTT assay. Then the transepithelial transport of Rho-123 across Caco-2 monolayers was determined with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Besides, the expression of the P-gp in cells exposed to the polymers was demonstrated using Western-blotting analysis. Results: Treatment of cells with Eudragit RL100 and L100 led to a very slight change while Eudragit S100 showed 61% increase in Rho-123 accumulation (P<0.001) and also reduced transporter expression. Conclusion: Our studies suggest that using proper concentrations of the Eudragit S100 in drug formulation would improve intestinal permeability and absorption of p-gp substrate drugs. PMID:24754004

Mohammadzadeh, Ramin; Baradaran, Behzad; Valizadeh, Hadi; Yousefi, Bahman; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

2014-01-01

60

Comparison of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin and 99mTc-Sestamibi Uptake in Glioma Cell Lines: The Role of P-Glycoprotein Expression  

PubMed Central

99mTc-Tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) and 99mTc-Sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) are SPECT tracers that have been used for brain tumor imaging. Tumor's multidrug resistance phenotype, namely, P-glycoprotein (p-gp), and the multidrug resistance related proteins (MRPs) expression have been suggested to influence both tracers' uptake. In the present study we set out to compare 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in high-grade glioma cell lines and to investigate the influence of gliomas p-gp expression on both tracers' uptake. We used four glioma cell lines (U251MG, A172, U87MG, and T98G). The expression of p-gp protein was evaluated by flow cytometry. Twenty ?Ci (7.4·105?Bq) of 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI were used. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a dose calibrator. P-gp was significantly expressed only in the U251MG cell line (P < 0.001). In all gliomas cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, A172, and T98G) the 99mTc-TF uptake was significantly higher than 99mTc-sestamibi. The U251MG cell line, in which significant p-gp expression was documented, exhibited the strongest uptake difference. 99mTc-TF uptake was higher than 99mTc-MIBI in all studied high-grade glioma cell lines. Thus, 99mTc-TF may be superior to 99mTc-MIBI for glioma imaging in vivo. PMID:25436147

Alexiou, George A.; Xourgia, Xanthi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Fotopoulos, Andreas D.; Kyritsis, Athanasios P.

2014-01-01

61

Expression of membrane drug efflux transporters in the sigmoid colon of HIV-infected and uninfected men.  

PubMed

The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has gained global attention as a promising HIV prevention strategy in men who have sex with men. Permeability of these agents in the rectal mucosa may be partially regulated by interactions with drug efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The objective of this work was to investigate the expression of drug efflux transporters in recto-sigmoid colon tissues of HIV-infected and uninfected men, and evaluate the association of ART and/or HIV infection with drug transporter expression. MDR1/P-gp, MRPs (1-4) and BCRP mRNA and protein expression were detected in sigmoid colon biopsies of HIV-uninfected individuals. Biopsies from HIV-infected, ART-naïve participants revealed a significant downregulation of P-gp and MRP2 protein levels compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. Biopsies from HIV-infected ART-treated patients showed 1.9-fold higher P-gp protein expression and 1.5-fold higher MRP2 protein expression compared to the ones obtained from the HIV-infected ART-naïve patients. This is a first report demonstrating that HIV infection or ART could alter expression of drug efflux transporters in gut mucosa which in turn could affect the permeability of PrEP antiretroviral agents across this barrier, a highly vulnerable site of HIV transmission. PMID:23856938

De Rosa, María Fabiana; Robillard, Kevin R; Kim, Connie J; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Kandel, Gabor; Kovacs, Colin; Kaul, Rupert; Bendayan, Reina

2013-09-01

62

[11C]phenytoin revisited: synthesis by [11C]CO carbonylation and first evaluation as a P-gp tracer in rats  

PubMed Central

Background At present, several positron emission tomography (PET) tracers are in use for imaging P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function in man. At baseline, substrate tracers such as R-[11C]verapamil display low brain concentrations with a distribution volume of around 1. [11C]phenytoin is supposed to be a weaker P-gp substrate, which may lead to higher brain concentrations at baseline. This could facilitate assessment of P-gp function when P-gp is upregulated. The purpose of this study was to synthesize [11C]phenytoin and to characterize its properties as a P-gp tracer. Methods [11C]CO was used to synthesize [11C]phenytoin by rhodium-mediated carbonylation. Metabolism and, using PET, brain pharmacokinetics of [11C]phenytoin were studied in rats. Effects of P-gp function on [11C]phenytoin uptake were assessed using predosing with tariquidar. Results [11C]phenytoin was synthesized via [11C]CO in an overall decay-corrected yield of 22?±?4%. At 45 min after administration, 19% and 83% of radioactivity represented intact [11C]phenytoin in the plasma and brain, respectively. Compared with baseline, tariquidar predosing resulted in a 45% increase in the cerebral distribution volume of [11C]phenytoin. Conclusions Using [11C]CO, the radiosynthesis of [11C]phenytoin could be improved. [11C]phenytoin appeared to be a rather weak P-gp substrate. PMID:22747744

2012-01-01

63

Enhancing the uptake of dextromethorphan in the CNS of rats by concomitant administration of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil.  

PubMed

Clinical trials evaluating high doses of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) for the treatment of neurological disorders have resulted in numerous adverse events due to the presence of its active metabolite dextrorphan (DX). Since the uptake of drugs in the CNS can be modulated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we propose to determine whether the P-gp inhibitor verapamil can enhance the uptake of DM in the CNS. Rats (n=42) received an oral dose of DM (20 mg/kg) alone or 15 min after an intravenous dose of verapamil (1 mg/kg). Rats were euthanized at different time points over 12 h, and concentrations of DM and DX (conjugated and unconjugated) were assessed in plasma, brain and spinal cord using a LC-ESI/MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Verapamil treatments did not affect the biodisposition of DM in plasma. On the other hand, verapamil treatments increased the area under curve of DM in the brain (from 1221 to 2393 ng h/g) and spinal cord (from 1753 to 3221 ng h/g) by approximately 2-fold. The uptake of DX in brain and spinal cord were markedly lower than those of DM and increased by only 15% and 22% following verapamil treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the P-gp inhibitor verapamil can enhance the uptake of DM in the CNS without affecting that of DX. This change is most likely related to an inhibition of P-gp or other transporters located in the BBB since the biodisposition of DM in plasma remained unaffected by verapamil treatments. PMID:15964599

Marier, Jean-Francois; Deschênes, Jean-Luc; Hage, Amal; Seliniotakis, Eleftheria; Gritsas, Ari; Flarakos, Themis; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

2005-10-21

64

Thioridazine specifically sensitizes drug-resistant cancer cells through highly increase in apoptosis and P-gp inhibition.  

PubMed

This study was designed to identify conditions that induce an increase in the sensitivity of drug-resistant cancer cells compared to sensitive cells. Using cell proliferation assays and microscopic observation, thioridazine (THIO) was found to induce higher sensitization in drug-resistant KBV20C cancer cells compared to sensitive KB parent cells. By studying cleaved PARP, annexin V staining, and Hoechst staining, we found that THIO largely increased apoptosis specifically in KBV20C cells, suggesting that the difference in sensitization between the resistant and sensitive cells can be attributed to the ability of THIO to induce apoptosis. THIO could also inhibit p-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in the resistant KBV20C cells. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying THIO sensitization in resistant KBV20C cells involve both apoptosis and P-gp inhibition. Furthermore, co-treatment with THIO and vinblastine (VIB) induces higher sensitization in KBV20C cells than KB cells. As observed in a single treatment with THIO, the sensitization mechanism induced by the co-treatment also involves both apoptosis and P-gp inhibition. These results suggest that the THIO sensitization mechanism is generally conserved. Our findings may contribute to the development of THIO-based therapies for patients presenting resistance to antimitotic drugs. PMID:24989930

Choi, Ae-Ran; Kim, Ju-Hwa; Yoon, Sungpil

2014-10-01

65

Expression of ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters in rodent and human sertoli cells: relevance to the permeability of antiretroviral therapy at the blood-testis barrier.  

PubMed

The blood-testis barrier (BTB), composed primarily of Sertoli cells, is responsible for protecting developing germ cells from xenobiotic exposure. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), have been shown to restrict antiretroviral drug permeability at blood-tissue barriers such as the blood-brain barrier. However, it remains unclear whether these transporters are functional at the level of Sertoli cells and can regulate anti-HIV drug permeability at the BTB. This study investigated the functional expression of ABC transporters in a mouse Sertoli cell line system (TM4) and in primary cultures of human Sertoli cells (HSECs). Expression of multidrug resistance Mdr1a/1b/MDR1/P-gp, Mrp1/MRP1, and Mrp4/MRP4 is confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analysis in TM4 cells and HSECs. Immunofluorescence studies revealed plasma membrane localization of P-gp, Mrp1/MRP1, and Mrp4/MRP4 in both cell systems. However, Bcrp expression and localization was only detected in rodent cells. Accumulation of 1) rhodamine-6G (R-6G), a fluorescent P-gp substrate, 2) [³H]atazanavir, a HIV protease inhibitor and known P-gp substrate, 3) 2'7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), a fluorescent Mrp substrate, and 4) [³H]mitoxantrone, a BCRP substrate, by TM4 monolayer cells in the presence of established inhibitors demonstrates that these transporters are functional. In addition, several anti-HIV drugs significantly enhance the accumulation of R-6G, [³H]atazanavir, BCECF, and [³H]mitoxantrone by TM4 cells. This study provides the first evidence of ABC transporter expression and activity in Sertoli cells and suggests that these transporters could play an important role in restricting antiretroviral drug permeability at the BTB. PMID:21990609

Robillard, Kevin R; Hoque, Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

2012-01-01

66

Coevolution of gene expression among interacting proteins  

SciTech Connect

Physically interacting proteins or parts of proteins are expected to evolve in a coordinated manner that preserves proper interactions. Such coevolution at the amino acid-sequence level is well documented and has been used to predict interacting proteins, domains, and amino acids. Interacting proteins are also often precisely coexpressed with one another, presumably to maintain proper stoichiometry among interacting components. Here, we show that the expression levels of physically interacting proteins coevolve. We estimate average expression levels of genes from four closely related fungi of the genus Saccharomyces using the codon adaptation index and show that expression levels of interacting proteins exhibit coordinated changes in these different species. We find that this coevolution of expression is a more powerful predictor of physical interaction than is coevolution of amino acid sequence. These results demonstrate previously uncharacterized coevolution of gene expression, adding a different dimension to the study of the coevolution of interacting proteins and underscoring the importance of maintaining coexpression of interacting proteins over evolutionary time. Our results also suggest that expression coevolution can be used for computational prediction of protein protein interactions.

Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Wall, Dennis P.; Eisen,Michael B.

2004-03-01

67

Expressed protein ligation for a large dimeric protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressed protein ligation (EPL) is a protein engineering\\u000atool for post-translational ligation of protein or peptide\\u000afragments. This technique allows modification of specific\\u000aparts of proteins, opening possibilities for incorporating\\u000aprobes for biophysical applications such as nuclear magnetic\\u000aresonance (NMR) or fluorescence spectroscopy. The\\u000aapplication for oligomeric proteins, however, is restricted\\u000aby the need to obtain a large excess of

G. E. Karagöz; T. Sinnige; O. Hsieh; S. G. D. Rüdiger

2011-01-01

68

Expressed Protein Ligation: A General Method for Protein Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein semisynthesis method--expressed protein ligation--is described that involves the chemoselective addition of a peptide to a recombinant protein. This method was used to ligate a phosphotyrosine peptide to the C terminus of the protein tyrosine kinase C-terminal Src kinase (Csk). By intercepting a thioester generated in the recombinant protein with an N-terminal cysteine containing synthetic peptide, near quantitative chemical

Tom W. Muir; Dolan Sondhi; Philip A. Cole

1998-01-01

69

Gene expression. MicroRNA control of protein expression noise.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repress the expression of many genes in metazoans by accelerating messenger RNA degradation and inhibiting translation, thereby reducing the level of protein. However, miRNAs only slightly reduce the mean expression of most targeted proteins, leading to speculation about their role in the variability, or noise, of protein expression. We used mathematical modeling and single-cell reporter assays to show that miRNAs, in conjunction with increased transcription, decrease protein expression noise for lowly expressed genes but increase noise for highly expressed genes. Genes that are regulated by multiple miRNAs show more-pronounced noise reduction. We estimate that hundreds of (lowly expressed) genes in mouse embryonic stem cells have reduced noise due to substantial miRNA regulation. Our findings suggest that miRNAs confer precision to protein expression and thus offer plausible explanations for the commonly observed combinatorial targeting of endogenous genes by multiple miRNAs, as well as the preferential targeting of lowly expressed genes. PMID:25838385

Schmiedel, Jörn M; Klemm, Sandy L; Zheng, Yannan; Sahay, Apratim; Blüthgen, Nils; Marks, Debora S; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

2015-04-01

70

Temozolomide induces the production of epidermal growth factor to regulate MDR1 expression in glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) commonly resists the frontline chemotherapy treatment temozolomide. The multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and its protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), are associated with chemoresistance. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying MDR1-mediated resistance by GBM to temozolomide. P-gp trafficking was studied by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. MDR1 expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and reporter gene assays. AP-1 interaction with MDR1 was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. EGF production was analyzed by ELISA, EGFR signaling was determined by Western blot analysis, and in vivo response to erlotinib and/or temozolomide was studied in nude mice. During the early phase of temozolomide treatment, intracellular P-gp was trafficked to the cell membrane, followed by conformational change into active P-gp. At the later phase, gene transcription of MDR1 was induced by temozolomide-mediated production of EGF. EGF activated ERK1/2-JNK-AP-1 cofactors (c-jun and c-fos). An inhibitor of EGFR kinase (erlotinib) given to nude mice with GBM prevented temozolomide-induced resistance. The results identified an essential role for activated EGFR in the resistance of GBM to temozolomide. Temozolomide resistance occurred through a biphasic response; first, by a conformational change in P-gp into the active form and, second, by releasing EGF, which caused autocrine stimulation of GBM cells to induce MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR kinase blunted the ability of GBM cells to resist temozolomide. These findings may explain reports on the common occurrence of mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII) and EGFR expansion in the resistance of GBM cells. PMID:25053824

Munoz, Jessian L; Rodriguez-Cruz, Vivian; Greco, Steven J; Nagula, Vipul; Scotto, Kathleen W; Rameshwar, Pranela

2014-10-01

71

Expression of Human Milk Proteins in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human milk proteins are believed to have a multitude of biological activities benefiting the newborn infant. Such functions include antibacterial and antiviral activities, enhancement of the immune system and increased nutrient absorption. To date, only breast-fed infants have been exposed to these proteins. However, by using genetic engineering it is now possible to express these proteins in plants, such as

Bo Lonnerdal

72

Protein Expression and Purification System  

E-print Network

for Extraction and Purification of HAT-tagged Proteins 13 VI. BD HATTM System Protocol: Isolation 15 A. Isolation of Native HAT-tagged Proteins 15 B. Isolation of Denatured HAT-tagged Proteins 16 VII. BD HATTM System to the matrix. Chelating liga

Lebendiker, Mario

73

Regulatory Protein Coordinating Gene Expression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The action of the glucocorticoid receptor is illustrated. On the left is shown a series of genes, each of which has various gene activator proteins bound to its regulatory region. However, these bound proteins are not sufficient on their own to activate transcription efficiently. On the right is shown the effects of adding an additional gene regulatory protein

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Bruce Alberts N:Alberts; Bruce REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD

1998-07-01

74

P-Glycoprotein Expression and DNA Topoisomerase I and II Activity in Benign Tumors of the Ovary and in Malignant Tumors of the Ovary, before and after Platinum\\/Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and DNA topoisomerase (Topo) II are important variables in multidrug resistant tumor cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate P-gp expression and Topo I and II activity in benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors. P-gp expression was analyzed immunohistochemically in cryostat sections of fresh tumor specimens. In the same specimens Topo I and II

Steven de Jong; Henk Boonstra; Annette Gouw; Pax H. B. Willemse; Jan G. Zijlstra; Elisabeth G. E. de Vries

1991-01-01

75

Protein expression of sensory and motor nerves  

PubMed Central

The present study utilized samples from bilateral motor branches of the femoral nerve, as well as saphenous nerves, ventral roots, and dorsal roots of the spinal cord, to detect differential protein expression using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry tandem mass spectrometry techniques. A mass spectrum was identified using the Mascot search. Results revealed differential expression of 11 proteins, including transgelin, Ig kappa chain precursor, plasma glutathione peroxidase precursor, an unnamed protein product (gi|55628), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein, lactoylglutathione lyase, adenylate kinase isozyme 1, two unnamed proteins products (gi|55628 and gi|1334163), and poly(rC)-binding protein 1 in motor and sensory nerves. Results suggested that these proteins played roles in specific nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury and served as specific markers for motor and sensory nerves.

Ren, Zhiwu; Wang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Zhang, Li; Xu, Wenjing; Liang, Xiangdang; Zhao, Qing; Lu, Shibi

2012-01-01

76

Alterations in function and expression of ABC transporters at blood-brain barrier under diabetes and the clinical significances  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a systematic metabolic disease, which often develops a number of well-recognized vascular complications including brain complications which may partly result from the dysfunction of blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB is generally considered as a mechanism for protecting the brain from unwanted actions resulting from substances in the blood and maintaining brain homeostasis via monitoring the entry or efflux of compounds. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters including P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and breast cancer-related protein (BCRP), widely expressed in the luminal membrane of the microvessel endothelium and in the apical membrane of the choroids plexus epithelium, play important roles in the function of BBB. However, these transporters are easily altered by some diseases. The present article was focused on the alteration in expression and function of both P-GP and BCRP at BBB by diabetes and the clinical significances. PMID:25540622

Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-Dong

2014-01-01

77

Changes in the Expression of miR-381 and miR-495 Are Inversely Associated with the Expression of the MDR1 Gene and Development of Multi-Drug Resistance  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance (MDR) frequently develops in cancer patients exposed to chemotherapeutic agents and is usually brought about by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which acts as a drug efflux pump to reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug(s). Thus, inhibiting P-gp expression might assist in overcoming MDR in cancer chemotherapy. MiRNAome profiling using next-generation sequencing identified differentially expressed microRNAs (miRs) between parental K562 cells and MDR K562 cells (K562/ADM) induced by adriamycin treatment. Two miRs, miR-381 and miR-495, that were strongly down-regulated in K562/ADM cells, are validated to target the 3’-UTR of the MDR1 gene. These miRs are located within a miR cluster located at chromosome region 14q32.31, and all miRs in this cluster appear to be down-regulated in K562/ADM cells. Functional analysis indicated that restoring expression of miR-381 or miR-495 in K562/ADM cells was correlated with reduced expression of the MDR1 gene and its protein product, P-gp, and increased drug uptake by the cells. Thus, we have demonstrated that changing the levels of certain miR species modulates the MDR phenotype in leukemia cells, and propose further exploration of the use of miR-based therapies to overcome MDR. PMID:24303078

Xu, Yan; Ohms, Stephen J.; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qiao; Gong, Guangming; Hu, Yiqiao; Mao, Zhiyong; Shannon, M. Frances; Fan, Jun Y.

2013-01-01

78

Baculovirus expression of turkey coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.  

PubMed

The nucleocapsid (N) gene of turkey coronavirus (TCV) was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and expressed in the baculovirus expression system. A recombinant baculovirus containing the TCV N gene (rBTCV/N) was identified by polymerase chain reaction and expression of TCV N protein as determined by western immunoblot analysis. Two TCV-specific proteins, 52 and 43 kDa, were expressed by rBTCV/N; one of these proteins, p52, was comparable in size to native TCV N protein. Baculovirus-expressed N proteins were used as antigen in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of TCV-specific antibodies. The ELISA detected antibodies specific for TCV and infectious bronchitis virus, a closely related avian coronavirus, but did not detect antibodies specific for other avian viruses (avian influenza, avian reovirus, avian paramyxovirus 3, avian adenovirus 1, or Newcastle disease virus). These findings indicate that baculovirus-expressed TCV N protein is a suitable source of antigen for ELISA-based detection of TCV-specific antibodies in turkeys. PMID:11332474

Breslin, J J; Smith, L G; Guy, J S

2001-01-01

79

SUMO Technology Fusion Tag Protein Expression System  

E-print Network

/active protein #12;SUMO Vectors SUMOpro · Based on the yeast SUMO · For expression in E.Coli · Cleaved by SUMO Protease 1 SUMOpro-3 · Based on the human SUMO · For expression in E.Coli or Pichia Pastoris · Cleaved in E.Coli, S.cerevisiae, insect, or mammalian cells · Only cleaved by SUMOstar Protease #12;SUMOpro

Lebendiker, Mario

80

Interindividual Variability in Hepatic Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides and P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) Protein Expression: Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectroscopy and Influence of Genotype, Age, and Sex  

PubMed Central

Interindividual variability in protein expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and multidrug resistance-linked P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or ABCB1 was quantified in frozen human livers (n = 64) and cryopreserved human hepatocytes (n = 12) by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method. Membrane isolation, sample workup, and LC-MS/MS analyses were as described before by our laboratory. Briefly, total native membrane proteins, isolated from the liver tissue and cryopreserved hepatocytes, were trypsin digested and quantified by LC-MS/MS using signature peptide(s) unique to each transporter. The mean ± S.D. (maximum/minimum range in parentheses) protein expression (fmol/µg of membrane protein) in human liver tissue was OATP1B1- 2.0 ± 0.9 (7), OATP1B3- 1.1 ± 0.5 (8), OATP2B1- 1 1.7 ± 0.6 (5), and P-gp- 0.4 ± 0.2 (8). Transporter expression in the liver tissue was comparable to that in the cryopreserved hepatocytes. Most important is that livers with SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) haplotypes *14/*14 and *14/*1a [i.e., representing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), c.388A > G, and c.463C > A] had significantly higher (P < 0.0001) protein expression than the reference haplotype (*1a/*1a). Based on these genotype-dependent protein expression data, we predicted (using Simcyp) an up to ?40% decrease in the mean area under the curve of rosuvastatin or repaglinide in subjects harboring these variant alleles compared with those harboring the reference alleles. SLCO1B3 (encoding OATP1B3) SNPs did not significantly affect protein expression. Age and sex were not associated with transporter protein expression. These data will facilitate the prediction of population-based human transporter-mediated drug disposition, drug-drug interactions, and interindividual variability through physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. PMID:24122874

Prasad, Bhagwat; Evers, Raymond; Gupta, Anshul; Hop, Cornelis E. C. A.; Salphati, Laurent; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

2014-01-01

81

Interindividual variability in hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides and P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) protein expression: quantification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy and influence of genotype, age, and sex.  

PubMed

Interindividual variability in protein expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and multidrug resistance-linked P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or ABCB1 was quantified in frozen human livers (n = 64) and cryopreserved human hepatocytes (n = 12) by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method. Membrane isolation, sample workup, and LC-MS/MS analyses were as described before by our laboratory. Briefly, total native membrane proteins, isolated from the liver tissue and cryopreserved hepatocytes, were trypsin digested and quantified by LC-MS/MS using signature peptide(s) unique to each transporter. The mean ± S.D. (maximum/minimum range in parentheses) protein expression (fmol/µg of membrane protein) in human liver tissue was OATP1B1- 2.0 ± 0.9 (7), OATP1B3- 1.1 ± 0.5 (8), OATP2B1- 1 1.7 ± 0.6 (5), and P-gp- 0.4 ± 0.2 (8). Transporter expression in the liver tissue was comparable to that in the cryopreserved hepatocytes. Most important is that livers with SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) haplotypes *14/*14 and *14/*1a [i.e., representing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), c.388A > G, and c.463C > A] had significantly higher (P < 0.0001) protein expression than the reference haplotype (*1a/*1a). Based on these genotype-dependent protein expression data, we predicted (using Simcyp) an up to ?40% decrease in the mean area under the curve of rosuvastatin or repaglinide in subjects harboring these variant alleles compared with those harboring the reference alleles. SLCO1B3 (encoding OATP1B3) SNPs did not significantly affect protein expression. Age and sex were not associated with transporter protein expression. These data will facilitate the prediction of population-based human transporter-mediated drug disposition, drug-drug interactions, and interindividual variability through physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. PMID:24122874

Prasad, Bhagwat; Evers, Raymond; Gupta, Anshul; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Salphati, Laurent; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Unadkat, Jashvant D

2014-01-01

82

Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

2003-01-01

83

WWOX protein expression in normal human tissues  

PubMed Central

WWOX is a putative tumor suppressor gene that spans approximately a 1 Mb genomic region and is the site for the second most common chromosomal fragile site, FRA16D at 16q23. Various studies have focused on the expression of WWOX in human cancer mostly at the RNA level, but little is known about the normal pattern of WWOX protein expression in nonneoplastic tissues. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of WWOX protein expression in normal tissues was performed by means of immunohistochemistry utilizing a very specific anti-WWOX polyclonal antibody. We analyzed tissue cores of human samples representing more than 30 organs, using various tissue microarray (TMA) slides. Due to the potential role of WWOX in sex-steroid metabolism, whole sections from hormonally regulated organs like breast, ovaries, testes and prostate were also analyzed. The results from our study indicate that WWOX is preferentially highly expressed in secretory epithelial cells of reproductive, endocrine and exocrine organs, as well as in ductal epithelial cells from specific segments of the urinary system. Interestingly, we also observed significant WWOX protein expression in various cell types of neural origin including neurons, ependymal cells and astrocytes. No expression of WWOX was detected in adipose, connective, and lymphoid tissues, myelinized structures and blood vessels. By better defining the topographic distribution of WWOX in normal tissues this study provides some insight on the potential physiological role of this novel protein. PMID:16941225

Nunez, Maria I.; Ludes-Meyers, John

2014-01-01

84

Mismatch repair protein expression in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Alterations in at least six of the genes that encode proteins involved in the mismatch repair (MMR) system have been identified in either HNPCC or sporadic colon cancer. We aimed to analyse the proportion of patients with colorectal cancer with loss of immunostaining for MMR proteins in order to determine the feasibility of molecular screening for the loss of MMR proteins through the study of unselected patients with colorectal cancer. Methods A group of 33 patients with colorectal cancer was randomly selected from the department of surgery bio-bank to determine the expression of MMR proteins in their FFPE tumour tissues using immunohistochemistry techniques. Changes in protein expression following transfection of colorectal tissues were observed in stained cells using Olympus BX60 microscope and image analySIS software. Results Of the tissue specimens in which acceptable immunostaining was achieved, three samples showed loss of one or more of the MMR proteins. Both hMLH1 and hPMS2 proteins were not expressed in a 36 years old woman with cancer of the caecum. The expression of hMSH6 protein was undetermined in tumour tissues retrieved from a 61 years old man with cancer of the proximal colon. The third case was a 77 years old man with no documented family history of cancer, who had carcinoma of the rectum. He showed loss of hMLH1 expression in the tumour tissues Conclusions Our findings and the previous reports pointed out the importance of molecular screening of patients with colorectal cancer for MSI using immunohistochemistry. This strategy managed to identify mutations in patients otherwise would not have been detected. PMID:24294512

Miller, Nicola; Chang, Kah Hoong; Curran, Catherine; Hennessey, Emer; Sheehan, Margaret; Kerin, Michael J

2013-01-01

85

GST-Tagged Protein Expression and Purification 1. Protein Expression (BL21)  

E-print Network

Gozani Lab 5/2005 GST-Tagged Protein Expression and Purification 1. Protein Expression (BL21 minutes Pour off waste and either begin lysis or store pellet at ­80°C #12;2. GST-Tagged Protein Purification from Bacteria Buffers: Lysis Buffer 50 mM Tris pH 7.5 150 mM NaCl 0.05% NP-40 Elution Buffer 50 m

Gozani, Or

86

In vivo induction of P-glycoprotein expression at the mouse blood-brain barrier: an intracerebral microdialysis study.  

PubMed

Intracerebral microdialysis was utilized to investigate the effect of P-glycoprotein (a drug efflux transporter) induction at the mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB) on brain extracellular fluid concentrations of quinidine, an established substrate of P-glycoprotein. Induction was achieved by treating male CD-1 mice for 3 days with 5 mg/kg/day dexamethasone (DEX), a ligand of the nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor, and a P-glycoprotein inducer. Tandem liquid chromatography mass spectrometric method was used to quantify analytes in dialysate, blood and plasma. P-glycoprotein, pregnane X receptor and Cyp3a11 (metabolizing enzyme for quinidine) protein expression in capillaries and brain homogenates was measured by immunoblot analysis. Following quinidine i.v. administration, the average ratio of unbound quinidine concentrations in brain extracellular fluid (determined from dialysate samples) to plasma at steady state (375-495 min) or Kp, uu, ECF /Plasma in the DEX-treated animals was 2.5-fold lower compared with vehicle-treated animals. In DEX-treated animals, P-glycoprotein expression in brain capillaries was 1.5-fold higher compared with vehicle-treated animals while Cyp3a11 expression in brain capillaries was not significantly different between the two groups. These data demonstrate that P-gp induction mediated by DEX at the BBB can significantly reduce quinidine brain extracellular fluid concentrations by decreasing its brain permeability and further suggest that drug-drug interactions as a result of P-gp induction at the BBB are possible. Applying microdialysis, distribution of quinidine, a P-gp substrate, in mouse brain extracellular fluid (ECF) was investigated following ligand-mediated P-glycoprotein (P-gp) induction at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We demonstrated that a PXR agonist (dexamethasone) significantly up-regulated P-gp in brain capillaries and reduced quinidine brain ECF concentrations. Our data suggest that drug-drug interactions as a result of P-gp induction at the BBB are possible. PMID:23777437

Chan, Gary N Y; Saldivia, Victor; Yang, Yingbo; Pang, Henrianna; de Lannoy, Inés; Bendayan, Reina

2013-11-01

87

Protein structure protection commits gene expression patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gene co-expressions often determine module-defining spatial and temporal concurrences of proteins. Yet, little effort has been devoted to tracing coordinating signals for expression correlations to the three-dimensional structures of gene products. RESULTS: We performed a global structure-based analysis of the yeast and human proteomes and contrasted this information against their respective transcriptome organizations obtained from comprehensive microarray data. We

Jianping Chen; Han Liang; Ariel Fernández

2008-01-01

88

Cultured CD4T cells and primary human lymphocytes express hOATPs: intracellular accumulation of saquinavir and lopinavir  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Drug efflux tranporters (P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)) limit the cellular uptake of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors but the contribution of influx transporters in cells that (over)express P-gp or MRP is less clear. Here, we studied the expression of one influx transporter system, human organic anion-transporting polypeptide (hOATP), in some T-cell lines (CEM, CEMVBL, CEME1000) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and examined the effects of manipulation of influx/efflux transporters on the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir. Experimental approach: The expression of hOATPs was studied by PCR. We used hOATP substrate or inhibitor (estrone-3-sulphate (E-3-S) or montelukast, respectively) and inhibitors of P-gp (XR9576) and MRP (MK571 and frusemide) to study functional interactions between influx and efflux transporters in the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir. Lipophilicity of the drugs was measured by octanol/saline partition coefficient. Key results: CEM cells, their variants and PBMCs express various hOATP isoforms, with OATP3A1 detected in all of the cells. MK571, XR9576 and frusemide increased the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir. E-3-S and montelukast reduced the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir in some, but not all, of the cells. Pretreatment of the cells with MK571, XR9576 or frusemide, followed by E-3-S co-incubation reduced the cellular accumulation of saquinavir and lopinavir. Lopinavir is much more lipophilic than saquinavir. Conclusions and implications: Human OATPs, MRP, P-gp and lipophilicity determine the cellular uptake and retention of saquinavir and lopinavir. These data may have important implications for drug–drug interactions, drug safety and efficacy. PMID:19002102

Janneh, O; Hartkoorn, R C; Jones, E; Owen, A; Ward, S A; Davey, R; Back, D J; Khoo, S H

2008-01-01

89

C-di-GMP Hydrolysis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa HD-GYP Phosphodiesterases: Analysis of the Reaction Mechanism and Novel Roles for pGpG  

PubMed Central

In biofilms, the bacterial community optimizes the strategies to sense the environment and to communicate from cell to cell. A key player in the development of a bacterial biofilm is the second messenger c-di-GMP, whose intracellular levels are modulated by the opposite activity of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. Given the huge impact of bacterial biofilms on human health, understanding the molecular details of c-di-GMP metabolism represents a critical step in the development of novel therapeutic approaches against biofilms. In this study, we present a detailed biochemical characterization of two c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases of the HD-GYP subtype from the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, namely PA4781 and PA4108. Upstream of the catalytic HD-GYP domain, PA4781 contains a REC domain typical of two-component systems, while PA4108 contains an uncharacterized domain of unknown function. Our findings shed light on the activity and catalytic mechanism of these phosphodiesterases. We show that both enzymes hydrolyse c-di-GMP in a two-step reaction via the linear intermediate pGpG and that they produce GMP in vitro at a surprisingly low rate. In addition, our data indicate that the non-phosphorylated REC domain of PA4781 prevents accessibility of c-di-GMP to the active site. Both PA4108 and phosphorylated PA4781 are also capable to use pGpG as an alternative substrate and to hydrolyse it into GMP; the affinity of PA4781 for pGpG is one order of magnitude higher than that for c-di-GMP. These results suggest that these enzymes may not work (primarily) as genuine phosphodiesterases. Moreover, the unexpected affinity of PA4781 for pGpG may indicate that pGpG could also act as a signal molecule in its own right, thus further widening the c-di-GMP-related signalling scenario. PMID:24066157

Stelitano, Valentina; Giardina, Giorgio; Paiardini, Alessandro; Castiglione, Nicoletta; Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Rinaldo, Serena

2013-01-01

90

Expression of antifreeze proteins in transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of frozen fruits and vegetables can be compromised by the damaging effects of ice crystal growth within the frozen tissue. Antifreeze proteins in the blood of some polar fishes have been shown to inhibit ice recrystallization at low concentrations. In order to determine whether expression of genes of this type confers improved freezing properties to plant tissue, we

Robin Hightower; Cathy Baden; Eva Penzes; Peter Lund; Pamela Dunsmuir

1991-01-01

91

Zuo Jin Wan, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula, Reverses P-gp-Mediated MDR In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Zuo Jin Wan (ZJW), a typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been identified to have anticancer activity in recent studies. In this study, we determined the underlying mechanism of ZJW in the reversal effect of multidrug resistance on colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that ZJW significantly enhanced the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs in HCT116/L-OHP, SGC7901/DDP, and Bel/Fu MDR cells. Moreover, combination of chemotherapy with ZJW could reverse the drug resistance of HCT116/L-OHP cells, increase the sensitivity of HCT116/L-OHP cells to L-OHP, DDP, 5-Fu, and MMC in vitro, and inhibit the tumor growth in the colorectal MDR cancer xenograft model. ICP-MS results showed that ZJW could increase the concentration of chemotherapeutic drugs in HCT116/L-OHP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that ZJW could reverse drug resistance of colorectal cancer cells by decreasing P-gp level in vitro and in vivo, which has been represented as one of the major mechanisms that contribute to the MDR phenotype. Our study has provided the first direct evidence that ZJW plays an important role in reversing multidrug resistance of human colorectal cancer and may be considered as a useful target for cancer therapy. PMID:23533531

Sui, Hua; Liu, Xuan; Jin, Bao-Hui; Pan, Shu-Fang; Zhou, Li-Hong; Yu, Nikitin Alexander; Cai, Jian-Feng; Fan, Zhong-Ze; Zhu, Hui-Rong; Li, Qi

2013-01-01

92

Amphiphilic carboxymethyl chitosan-quercetin conjugate with P-gp inhibitory properties for oral delivery of paclitaxel.  

PubMed

An amphiphilic carboxymethyl chitosan-quercetin (CQ) conjugate was designed and synthesized for oral delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to improve its oral bioavailability by increasing its water solubility and bypassing the P-gp drug efflux pumps. CQ conjugate had low critical micelle concentration (55.14 ?g/mL), and could self assemble in aqueous condition to form polymeric micelles (PMs). PTX-loaded CQ PMs displayed a particle size of 185.8 ± 4.6 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.134 ± 0.056. The drug-loading content (DL) and entrapment efficiency (EE) were 33.62 ± 1.34% and 85.63 ± 1.26%, respectively. Moreover, PTX-loaded CQ PMs displayed similar sustained-release profile in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2/pH 6.8) and PBS (pH 7.4). In situ intestinal absorption experiment showed that PTX-loaded CQ PMs significantly improved the effective permeability of PTX as compared to verapamil (P < 0.01). Likewise, PTX-loaded CQ PMs significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of PTX, resulting in strong antitumor efficacy against tumor xenograft models with better safety profile as compared to Taxol(®) and Taxol(®) with verapamil. Overall, the results implicate that CQ PMs are promising vehicles for the oral delivery of water-insoluble anticancer drugs. PMID:24927684

Wang, Xiaoying; Chen, Yihang; Dahmani, Fatima Zohra; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

2014-08-01

93

Merging fluorescence resonance energy transfer and expressed protein ligation to analyze protein–protein interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of protein oligomerization state can be technically challenging. We have combined the methods of expressed protein ligation (EPL) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the analysis of protein homo-oligomerization states. We have attached fluorescein (donor) and rhodamine (acceptor) chromophores via dipeptide linkages to the C-termini of three recombinant proteins and examined the potential for FRET between mixtures of

Kara A Scheibner; Zhongsen Zhang; Philip A Cole

2003-01-01

94

Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) inhibition by tariquidar impacts on neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) is a major gate-keeper at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the central nervous system from accumulation of toxic xenobiotics and drugs. In addition, MDR1 p-gp has been found to control the intracerebral access of glucocorticoid hormones and thus to modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. In view of the implication of glucocorticoids in the control of behavior, we examined how acute pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB by tariquidar (XR9576; 12 mg/kg, PO) impacts on the neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress in C57BL/6JIcoHim inbred mice. Inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB did not alter emotional behavior at baseline. However, mice that were sensitized by water-avoidance stress, a mild psychological stressor, displayed significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze test when treated with tariquidar. Tariquidar, however, had no effect on stress-coping performance assessed in the forced swim test. Investigating the impact of acute MDR1 p-gp inhibition on the glucocorticoid system, we observed a significant attenuation of the mild stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone after tariquidar administration. In order to examine whether the anti-anxiety effect of tariquidar in sensitized animals is mediated by glucocorticoids, the animals were treated with corticosterone (1 mg/kg, SC immediately after exposure to water-avoidance stress. Corticosterone caused a significant anxiolytic-like effect in this stress-related anxiety protocol, whereas tariquidar could not further enhance corticosterone’s anti-anxiety effects. The current data show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the murine BBB by tariquidar alters emotional behavior and HPA axis activity. By facilitating the entry of corticosterone into the brain, tariquidar enhances feedback inhibition of the HPA system and in this way improves anxiety-related stress processing. These findings highlight a novel approach to the treatment of stress-related affective disorders in humans. PMID:17881135

Thoeringer, Christoph K.; Wultsch, Thomas; Shahbazian, Anaid; Painsipp, Evelin; Holzer, Peter

2015-01-01

95

Engineering Genes for Predictable Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

The DNA sequence used to encode a polypeptide can have dramatic effects on its expression. Lack of readily available tools has until recently inhibited meaningful experimental investigation of this phenomenon. Advances in synthetic biology and the application of modern engineering approaches now provide the tools for systematic analysis of the sequence variables affecting heterologous expression of recombinant proteins. We here discuss how these new tools are being applied and how they circumvent the constraints of previous approaches, highlighting some of the surprising and promising results emerging from the developing field of gene engineering. PMID:22425659

Gustafsson, Claes; Minshull, Jeremy; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Ness, Jon; Villalobos, Alan; Welch, Mark

2013-01-01

96

Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.  

PubMed

Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

2014-06-01

97

PPAR-?/? activation promotes phospholipid transfer protein expression.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?/? has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for treating dyslipidemia, including beneficial effects on HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). In the current study, we determined the effects of the PPAR-?/? agonist GW0742 on HDL composition and the expression of liver HDL-related genes in mice and cultured human cells. The experiments were carried out in C57BL/6 wild-type, LDL receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice and PPAR-?/?-deficient mice treated with GW0742 (10mg/kg/day) or a vehicle solution for 14 days. GW0742 upregulated liver phospholipid transfer protein (Pltp) gene expression and increased serum PLTP activity in mice. When given to wild-type mice, GW0742 significantly increased serum HDL-C and HDL phospholipids; GW0742 also raised serum potential to generate pre?-HDL formation. The GW0742-mediated effects on liver Pltp expression and serum enzyme activity were completely abolished in PPAR-?/?-deficient mice. GW0742 also stimulated PLTP mRNA expression in mouse J774 macrophages, differentiated human THP-1 macrophages and human hepatoma Huh7. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a common transcriptional upregulation by GW0742-activated PPAR-?/? of Pltp expression in cultured cells and in mouse liver resulting in enhanced serum PLTP activity. Our results also indicate that PPAR-?/? activation may modulate PLTP-mediated pre?-HDL formation and macrophage cholesterol efflux. PMID:25662586

Chehaibi, Khouloud; Cedó, Lídia; Metso, Jari; Palomer, Xavier; Santos, David; Quesada, Helena; Naceur Slimane, Mohamed; Wahli, Walter; Julve, Josep; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Jauhiainen, Matti; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

2015-03-15

98

Expression of heat-shock protein 47 in mouse liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of heat-shock protein 47 in intact and fibrotic liver and in hepatic constituent cells was investigated in mice. Immunohistochemical study of intact liver and Western blot analysis of the protein from isolated liver cells revealed that stellate cells and smooth muscle cells of interlobular vessels, but not hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, or endothelial cells, expressed heat-shock protein 47. The protein

Norifumi Kawada; Tetsuo Kuroki; Kenzo Kobayashi; Masayasu Inoue; Kazuki Nakatani; Kenji Kaneda; Kazuhiro Nagata

1996-01-01

99

Multiple efflux pumps are involved in the transepithelial transport of colchicine: combined effect of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 leads to decreased intestinal absorption throughout the entire small intestine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to thoroughly characterize the efflux transporters involved in the intestinal permeability of the oral microtubule polymerization inhibitor colchicine and to evaluate the role of these transporters in limiting its oral absorption. The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on colchicine bidirectional permeability were studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibiting one versus multiple transporters simultaneously. Colchicine permeability was then investigated in different regions of the rat small intestine by in situ single-pass perfusion. Correlation with the P-gp/MRP2 expression level throughout different intestinal segments was investigated by immunoblotting. P-gp inhibitors [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918), verapamil, and quinidine], and MRP2 inhibitors [3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), indomethacin, and p-aminohippuric acid (p-AH)] significantly increased apical (AP)-basolateral (BL) and decreased BL-AP Caco-2 transport in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was obtained by the BCRP inhibitors fumitremorgin C (FTC) and pantoprazole. P-gp/MRP2 inhibitors combinations greatly reduced colchicine mucosal secretion, including complete abolishment of efflux (GF120918/MK571). Colchicine displayed low (versus metoprolol) and constant permeability along the rat small-intestine. GF120918 significantly increased colchicine permeability in the ileum with no effect in the jejunum, whereas MK571 augmented jejunal permeability without changing the ileal transport. The GF120918/MK571 combination caused an effect similar to that of MK571 alone in the jejunum and to that of GF120918 alone in the ileum. P-gp expression followed a gradient increasing from proximal to distal segments, whereas MRP2 decreased from proximal to distal small intestinal regions. Overall, it was revealed that the combined effect of P-gp and MRP2, but not BCRP, dominates colchicine transepithelial transport, leading to complete coverage of the entire small intestine, and makes the efflux transport dominate the intestinal permeability process. PMID:19589874

Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

2009-10-01

100

Expression of Contractile Protein Isoforms in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of space flight parameters, including microgravity, on ontogenesis and embryogenesis of Japanese quail. Nine U.S. and two Russian investigators are cooperating in this study. Specific objectives of the participating scientists include assessing the gross and microscopic morphological and histological development of the embryo, as well as the temporal and spacial development of specific cells, tissues, and organs. Temporally regulated production of specific proteins is also being investigated. Our objective is to determine the effects of microgravity on developmentally programmed expression of Troponin T and I isoforms known to regulate cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction.

Anderson, Page A. W.

1996-01-01

101

Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on P-glycoprotein efflux pump function and protein expression in H22 hepatoma cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) are active constituents of Astragalus membranaceus. They have been widely studied, especially with respect to their immunopotentiating properties, their ability to counteract the side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs, and their anticancer properties. However, the mechanism by which APS inhibit cancer and the issue of whether that mechanism involves the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) is not completely clear. The present paper describes an investigation of the effects of APS on P-glycoprotein function and expression in H22 hepatoma cell lines resistant to Adriamycin (H22/ADM). Methods H22/ADM cell lines were treated with different concentrations of APS and/or the most common chemotherapy drugs, such as Cyclophosphamid, Adriamycin, 5-Fluorouracil, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Vincristine. Chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity, P-glycoprotein function and expression, and MDR1 mRNA expression were detected using MTT assay, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and quantitative RT-PCR. Results When used alone, APS had no anti-tumor activity in H22/ADM cells in vitro. However, it can increase the cytotoxicity of certain chemotherapy drugs, such as Cyclophosphamid, Adriamycin, 5-Fluorouracil, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Vincristine, in H22/ADM cells. It acts in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to a blank control group, APS increased intracellular Rhodamine-123 retention and decreased P-glycoprotein efflux function in a dose-dependent manner. These factors were assessed 24?h, 48?h, and 72?h after administration. APS down regulated P-glycoprotein and MDR1 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner within a final range of 0.8–500?mg/L and in a time-dependent manner from 24–72?h. Conclusion APS can enhance the chemosensitivity of H22/ADM cells. This may involve the downregulation of MDR1 mRNA expression, inhibition of P-GP efflux pump function, or both, which would decrease the expression of the MDR1 protein. PMID:22784390

2012-01-01

102

Involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 in intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin in rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the contribution of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) to the secretory transport of grepafloxacin and compared its functional role with that of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by using Sprague-Dawley rats (SDRs) and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBRs), in which MRP2 is hereditarily defective. In intestinal tissue from SDRs mounted in Ussing chambers, the level of transport in the direction from the serosal layer to the mucosal layer was twofold greater than that in the direction from the mucosal layer to the serosal layer. This secretory transport of grepafloxacin was diminished by both probenecid, an MRP2 inhibitor, and cyclosporine, a P-gp inhibitor. In intestinal tissue from EHBRs, the secretory transport of grepafloxacin was lower than that in intestinal tissue from SDRs and was inhibited by cyclosporine but not by probenecid. The absorption of grepafloxacin from intestinal loops in SDRs was in the order of duodenum > jejunum > ileum and was increased by cyclosporine but not by probenecid. The absorption in EHBRs was not higher than that in SDRs. The intestinal secretory clearance in SDRs after intravenous administration of grepafloxacin was shown to be greater for the ileum than for the duodenum, which is in good agreement with the previously reported regional expression profile of MRP2 mRNA. The intestinal secretory clearance was lower in EHBRs than in SDRs. Accordingly, in addition to P-gp, MRP2 might play a role in the secretory transport of grepafloxacin. The function of MRP2 in facilitating grepafloxacin transport in the secretory direction is more pronounced both in vitro and in vivo, while the restriction of entry from the lumen into the cell by MRP2 seems to be negligible, compared with that by P-gp, in the case of grepafloxacin. PMID:11796340

Naruhashi, Kazumasa; Tamai, Ikumi; Inoue, Natsuko; Muraoka, Hiromi; Sai, Yoshimichi; Suzuki, Nagao; Tsuji, Akira

2002-02-01

103

Gene expression pattern Isthmin is a novel secreted protein expressed as part of the Fgf-8  

E-print Network

member of a new family of secreted proteins. xIsm was strongly expressed maternally in the Xenopus egg is the founder of a new family of secreted proteins We have recently reported a method, designated secretionU N C O R R EC TED PR O O F Gene expression pattern Isthmin is a novel secreted protein expressed

De Robertis, Eddy M.

104

Expressed protein ligation-mediated template protein extension.  

PubMed

Expressed protein ligation (EPL) was performed to investigate sequence requirements for a variant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) to adopt a folded structure. A C-terminal truncated apoA-I, corresponding to residues 1-172, was expressed and isolated from Escherichia coli. Compared to full length apoA-I (243 amino acids), apoA-I(1-172) displayed less ?-helix secondary structure and lower stability in solution. To determine if extension of this polypeptide would confer secondary structure content and/or stability, 20 residues were added to the C-terminus of apoA-I(1-172) by EPL, creating apoA-I(Milano)(1-192). The EPL product displayed biophysical properties similar to full-length apoA-I(Milano). The results provide a general protein engineering strategy to modify the length of a recombinant template polypeptide using synthetic peptides as well as a convenient, cost effective way to investigate the structure/function relations in apolipoprotein fragments or domains of different size. PMID:22487214

Kamei, Ayako; Hauser, Paul S; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Weers, Paul M M; Ryan, Robert O

2012-06-01

105

Selenocysteine in Native Chemical Ligation and Expressed Protein Ligation  

E-print Network

Selenocysteine in Native Chemical Ligation and Expressed Protein Ligation Robert J. Hondal, Bradley route to proteins containing selenocysteine.3,4 In "native chemical ligation", the thiolate of an N, an amide bond between the two peptides (Scheme 1).5 "Expressed protein ligation" is an extension in which

Raines, Ronald T.

106

Green Fluorescent Protein as a Marker for Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complementary DNA for the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) produces a fluorescent product when expressed in prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) or eukaryotic (Caenorhabditis elegans) cells. Because exogenous substrates and cofactors are not required for this fluorescence, GFP expression can be used to monitor gene expression and protein localization in living organisms.

Martin Chalfie; Yuan Tu; Ghia Euskirchen; William W. Ward; Douglas C. Prasher

1994-01-01

107

Green Fluorescent Protein as a Marker for Gene Expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complementary DNA for the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) produces a fluorescent product when expressed in prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) or eukaryotic (Caenorhabditis elegans) cells. Because exogenous substrates and cofactors are not required for this fluorescence, GFP expression can be used to monitor gene expression and protein localization in living organisms.

Chalfie, Martin; Tu, Yuan; Euskirchen, Ghia; Ward, William W.; Prasher, Douglas C.

1994-02-01

108

Effect of Tacrolimus on the pharmacokinetics of bioactive lignans of Wuzhi tablet (Schisandra sphenanthera extract) and the potential roles of CYP3A and P-gp.  

PubMed

We recently reported that Wuzhi tablet (WZ), a preparation of the ethanol extract of Wuweizi (Schisandra sphenanthera), had significant effects on blood concentrations of Tacrolimus (FK506) in renal transplant recipients and rats. The active lignans in WZ are schisandrin A, schisandrin B, schisandrin C, schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, and schisantherin B. Until now, whether the pharmacokinetics of these lignans in WZ would be affected by FK506 remained unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether and how FK506 affected pharmacokinetics of lignans in WZ in rats and the potential roles of CYP3A and P-gp. After a single oral co-administration of FK506 and WZ, the blood concentration of lignans in WZ was decreased by FK506; furthermore, the AUC of schisantherin A, schisandrin A, schisandrol A and schisandrol B was only 64.5%, 47.2%, 55.1% and 57.4% of that of WZ alone group, respectively. Transport study in Caco-2 cells showed that these lignans were not substrates of P-gp, suggesting decreased blood concentration of lignans by FK506 was not via P-gp pathway. Metabolism study in the human recombinant CYP 3A showed that these lignans had higher affinity to CYP3A than that of FK506, and thus had a stronger CYP3A-mediated metabolism. It was concluded that the blood concentrations of these lignans were decreased and their CYP3A-mediated metabolisms were increased in the presence of FK506 since these lignans had higher affinity to CYP3A. PMID:24462213

Qin, Xiao-ling; Chen, Xiao; Zhong, Guo-ping; Fan, Xiao-mei; Wang, Ying; Xue, Xin-ping; Wang, Ying; Huang, Min; Bi, Hui-chang

2014-04-15

109

Desipramine treatment has minimal effects on the brain accumulation of glucocorticoids in P-gp-deficient and wild-type mice.  

PubMed

Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with depression can be reduced by antidepressants, which are thought to improve endogenous glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback. A proportion of peripherally released glucocorticoids need to enter brain tissue, protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in order to achieve this negative feedback effect at the level of the central nervous systems (CNS). The multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been shown to actively transport glucocorticoid hormones and has been implicated in the regulation of glucocorticoid access to the CNS. Using an in situ brain/choroid plexus perfusion method, we tested the hypothesis that the antidepressant desipramine increases glucocorticoid accumulation in the mouse brain by inhibiting P-gp, following either chronic treatment (8 days, 20 mg/kg/day, IP) or acute administration (20 min brain perfusion in the presence of either 0.9 ?M or 10 ?M desipramine). Contrary to our hypothesis, chronic treatment with desipramine did not affect the accumulation of [³H]dexamethasone in any sample compared to saline-treated mice. Acute desipramine had limited and variable effects on glucocorticoid accumulation in the CNS, with accumulation of [³H]dexamethasone increased in the cerebellum, accumulation of [³H]cortisol reduced in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, and accumulation of [³H]corticosterone (the endogenous glucocorticoid in rodents) not affected. Overall, under the conditions tested, these results do not support the hypothesis that treatment with desipramine can inhibit P-gp at the BBB and subsequently increase the accumulation of glucocorticoids in the brain. PMID:21481537

Mason, Brittany L; Thomas, Sarah A; Lightman, Stafford L; Pariante, Carmine M

2011-10-01

110

Desipramine treatment has minimal effects on the brain accumulation of glucocorticoids in P-gp-deficient and wild-type mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with depression can be reduced by antidepressants, which are thought to improve endogenous glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback. A proportion of peripherally released glucocorticoids need to enter brain tissue, protected by the blood–brain barrier (BBB), in order to achieve this negative feedback effect at the level of the central nervous systems (CNS). The multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been shown to actively transport glucocorticoid hormones and has been implicated in the regulation of glucocorticoid access to the CNS. Using an in situ brain/choroid plexus perfusion method, we tested the hypothesis that the antidepressant desipramine increases glucocorticoid accumulation in the mouse brain by inhibiting P-gp, following either chronic treatment (8 days, 20 mg/kg/day, IP) or acute administration (20 min brain perfusion in the presence of either 0.9 ?M or 10 ?M desipramine). Contrary to our hypothesis, chronic treatment with desipramine did not affect the accumulation of [3H]dexamethasone in any sample compared to saline-treated mice. Acute desipramine had limited and variable effects on glucocorticoid accumulation in the CNS, with accumulation of [3H]dexamethasone increased in the cerebellum, accumulation of [3H]cortisol reduced in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, and accumulation of [3H]corticosterone (the endogenous glucocorticoid in rodents) not affected. Overall, under the conditions tested, these results do not support the hypothesis that treatment with desipramine can inhibit P-gp at the BBB and subsequently increase the accumulation of glucocorticoids in the brain. PMID:21481537

Mason, Brittany L.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Pariante, Carmine M.

2011-01-01

111

Regulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1? expression by the alteration of redox status in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been considered as a critical transcriptional factor in response to hypoxia. It can increase P-glycoprotein (P-Gp) thus generating the resistant effect to chemotherapy. At present, the mechanism regulating HIF-1? is still not fully clear in hypoxic tumor cells. Intracellular redox status is closely correlated with hypoxic micro-environment, so we investigate whether alterations in the cellular redox status lead to the changes of HIF-1? expression. HepG2 cells were exposed to Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) for 12 h prior to hypoxia treatment. The level of HIF-1? expression was measured by Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays. Reduce glutathione (GSH) concentrations in hypoxic cells were determined using glutathione reductase/5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrob-enzoic acid) (DTNB) recycling assay. To further confirm the effect of intracellular redox status on HIF-1? expression, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was added to culture cells for 8 h before the hypoxia treatment. The levels of multidrug resistance gene-1 (MDR-1) and erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA targeted by HIF-1? in hypoxic cells were further determined with RT-PCR, and then the expression of P-Gp protein was observed by Western blotting. The results showed that BSO pretreatment down-regulated HIF-1? and the effect was concentration-dependent, on the other hand, the increases of intracellular GSH contents by NAC could partly elevate the levels of HIF-1? expression. The levels of P-Gp (MDR-1) and EPO were concomitant with the trend of HIF-1? expression. Therefore, our data indicate that the changes of redox status in hypoxic cells may regulate HIF-1? expression and provide valuable information on tumor chemotherapy. PMID:21595915

2011-01-01

112

Recent advances in the application of expressed protein ligation to protein engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressed protein ligation is a technique for joining recombinantly expressed proteins to polypeptides containing biophysical probes, post-translational modifications or unnatural amino acids. Recent advances have expanded the scope of expressed protein ligation and have allowed the approach to be applied to the study of basic biological questions.

Roseanne M Hofmann; Tom W Muir

2002-01-01

113

Over-expression of secreted proteins from mammalian cell lines  

PubMed Central

Secreted mammalian proteins require the development of robust protein over-expression systems for crystallographic and biophysical studies of protein function. Due to complex disulfide bonds and distinct glycosylation patterns preventing folding and expression in prokaryotic expression hosts, many secreted proteins necessitate production in more complex eukaryotic expression systems. Here, we elaborate on the methods used to obtain high yields of purified secreted proteins from transiently or stably transfected mammalian cell lines. Among the issues discussed are the selection of appropriate expression vectors, choice of signal sequences for protein secretion, availability of fusion tags for enhancing protein stability and purification, choice of cell line, and the large-scale growth of cells in a variety of formats. PMID:24510886

Dalton, Annamarie C; Barton, William A

2014-01-01

114

Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in chlamydomonas chloroplast  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery or proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

Mayfield, Stephen P. (Cardiff, CA)

2010-03-16

115

Depsipeptide-resistant KU812 cells show reversible P-glycoprotein expression, hyper-acetylated histones, and modulated gene expression profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depsipeptide (FK228), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is a promising new anticancer agent. The mechanism of resistance to this agent was studied using KU812 cells. Depsipeptide-resistant KU812 cells expressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and their resistance was abolished by co-treatment with verapamil. P-gp expression returned to the parental cell level when resistant cells were cultured in depsipeptide-free medium, while resistant cells cultured in

Hisashi Yamada; Yasuhiro Arakawa; Shinobu Saito; Miyuki Agawa; Yasuhiko Kano; Junko Horiguchi-Yamada

2006-01-01

116

Engineering G protein-coupled receptor expression in bacteria  

E-print Network

Engineering G protein-coupled receptor expression in bacteria Georgios Skretas* and George Georgiou). For the isolation of desired mutants, Sarkar et al. adapted a high- throughput protein-screening methodol- ogy receptors called G protein- coupled receptors (GPCRs) (1). These proteins are responsible for the intracel

Georgiou, George

117

Nicotine Regulates Streptococcus mutans Extracellular Polysaccharide and Related Protein Expression.  

E-print Network

Nicotine Regulates Streptococcus mutans Extracellular Polysaccharide and Related Protein Expression of Dentistry; 2 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, IU School of Medicine Streptococcus mutans

Zhou, Yaoqi

118

Calreticulin: Roles in Cell-Surface Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

In order to perform their designated functions, proteins require precise subcellular localizations. For cell-surface proteins, such as receptors and channels, they are able to transduce signals only when properly targeted to the cell membrane. Calreticulin is a multi-functional chaperone protein involved in protein folding, maturation, and trafficking. However, evidence has been accumulating that calreticulin can also negatively regulate the surface expression of certain receptors and channels. In these instances, depletion of calreticulin enhances cell-surface expression and function. In this review, we discuss the role of calreticulin with a focus on its negative effects on the expression of cell-surface proteins. PMID:25230046

Jiang, Yue; Dey, Sandeepa; Matsunami, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

119

Gene expression pattern Cloning and expression of a novel cysteine-rich secreted protein  

E-print Network

Gene expression pattern Cloning and expression of a novel cysteine-rich secreted protein family that is a member of the cysteine-rich secreted protein family (CRISP). The CRISP family is composed of over 70) family is a large group of secreted proteins that function in some verte- brates, insects and plants

Tabin, Cliff

120

Expression of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein in kidney allografts from cyclosporine A-treated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein in kidney allografts from cyclosporine A-treated patients.BackgroundThe multidrug resistance (MDR) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane efflux pump for hydrophobic, potentially toxic compounds, including the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA). We have previously shown that CsA increases P-gp expression in proximal tubule and endothelial cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to

Michael J Koziolek; Regine Riess; Helmut Geiger; Frank Thévenod; Ingeborg A Hauser

2001-01-01

121

A highly efficient pipeline for protein expression in Leishmania tarentolae using infrared fluorescence protein as marker  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania tarentolae, a unicellular eukaryotic protozoan, has been established as a novel host for recombinant protein production in recent years. Current protocols for protein expression in Leishmania are, however, time consuming and require extensive lab work in order to identify well-expressing cell lines. Here we established an alternative protein expression work-flow that employs recently engineered infrared fluorescence protein (IFP) as a suitable and easy-to-handle reporter protein for recombinant protein expression in Leishmania. As model proteins we tested three proteins from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, including a NAC and a type-B ARR transcription factor. Results IFP and IFP fusion proteins were expressed in Leishmania and rapidly detected in cells by deconvolution microscopy and in culture by infrared imaging of 96-well microtiter plates using small cell culture volumes (2 ?L - 100 ?L). Motility, shape and growth of Leishmania cells were not impaired by intracellular accumulation of IFP. In-cell detection of IFP and IFP fusion proteins was straightforward already at the beginning of the expression pipeline and thus allowed early pre-selection of well-expressing Leishmania clones. Furthermore, IFP fusion proteins retained infrared fluorescence after electrophoresis in denaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gels, allowing direct in-gel detection without the need to disassemble cast protein gels. Thus, parameters for scaling up protein production and streamlining purification routes can be easily optimized when employing IFP as reporter. Conclusions Using IFP as biosensor we devised a protocol for rapid and convenient protein expression in Leishmania tarentolae. Our expression pipeline is superior to previously established methods in that it significantly reduces the hands-on-time and work load required for identifying well-expressing clones, refining protein production parameters and establishing purification protocols. The facile in-cell and in-gel detection tools built on IFP make Leishmania amenable for high-throughput expression of proteins from plant and animal sources. PMID:20459748

2010-01-01

122

Pannexin 2 protein expression is not restricted to the CNS  

PubMed Central

Pannexins (Panx) are proteins homologous to the invertebrate gap junction proteins called innexins (Inx) and are traditionally described as transmembrane channels connecting the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Three distinct Panx paralogs (Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3) have been identified in vertebrates but previous reports on Panx expression and functionality focused primarily on Panx1 and Panx3 proteins. Several gene expression studies reported that Panx2 transcript is largely restricted to the central nervous system (CNS) hence suggesting that Panx2 might serve an important role in the CNS. However, the lack of suitable antibodies prevented the creation of a comprehensive map of Panx2 protein expression and Panx2 protein localization profile is currently mostly inferred from the distribution of its transcript. In this study, we characterized novel commercial monoclonal antibodies and surveyed Panx2 expression and distribution at the mRNA and protein level by real-time qPCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Panx2 protein levels were readily detected in every tissue examined, even when transcriptional analysis predicted very low Panx2 protein expression. Furthermore, our results indicate that Panx2 transcriptional activity is a poor predictor of Panx2 protein abundance and does not correlate with Panx2 protein levels. Despite showing disproportionately high transcript levels, the CNS expressed less Panx2 protein than any other tissues analyzed. Additionally, we showed that Panx2 protein does not localize at the plasma membrane like other gap junction proteins but remains confined within cytoplasmic compartments. Overall, our results demonstrate that the endogenous expression of Panx2 protein is not restricted to the CNS and is more ubiquitous than initially predicted. PMID:25505382

Le Vasseur, Maxence; Lelowski, Jonathan; Bechberger, John F.; Sin, Wun-Chey; Naus, Christian C.

2014-01-01

123

TFPI-2 downregulates multidrug resistance protein in 5-FU-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402/5-FU cells.  

PubMed

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is known to induce apoptosis and to suppress tumor metastasis in several types of cancer cells. However, there is little known about its reversal effect on chemoresistant tumor cells. This study investigated the effect of TFPI-2 in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant human hepatocellular cancer BEL-7402/5-FU cells in vitro. We constructed TFPI-2 overexpression BEL-7402/5-FU cell lines and explored resistance index (RI) of 5-FU, function of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump, and the mRNA and protein expression of drug resistance gene, including multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), lung-resistance protein (LRP), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), glutathione-S-transferase-? (GST-?), excision repair cross-complementing gene 1 (ERCC1), and p38 phosphorylation. We found that TFPI-2 improved the RI of 5-FU and inhibited P-gp function. Western blotting and real-time PCR revealed that TFPI-2 also decreased mRNA and protein expression of MDR1, LRP, MRP1, GST-?, and ERCC1, whereas p38 phosphorylation was increased. We considered that TFPI-2 reduces 5-FU resistance in BEL-7402/5-FU cells, and the mechanism appears to involve p38-mediated downregulation of drug resistance gene expression such as MDR1, LRP, MRP1, GST-?, and ERCC1. PMID:23125179

Lu, Fei; Hou, Yong-Qiang; Song, Ying; Yuan, Zheng-Jiang

2013-01-01

124

An expression system for screening of proteins for glycan and protein interactions  

PubMed Central

Here we describe a versatile high-throughput expression system that permits genome-wide screening of type 1 membrane and secreted proteins for interactions with glycans and proteins using both cell-expressed and soluble forms of the expressed proteins. Based on Gateway cloning methodology, we have engineered a destination vector that directs expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged proteins at the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol tail. The EGFP fusion proteins can then be cleaved with PreScission protease to release soluble forms of proteins that can be optionally biotinylated. We demonstrate the utility of this cloning and expression system for selected low-affinity membrane lectins from the siglec family of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins, for the glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins FGF-1 and BACE, and for the heterotypic adhesion molecules JAM-B and JAM-C. Cell-expressed proteins can be evaluated for glycan interactions using polyvalent soluble glycan probes and for protein interactions using either cells or soluble proteins. Following cleavage from the cell surface, proteins were complexed in solution and sufficient avidity was achieved to measure weak protein–glycan and weak protein–protein interactions using glycan arrays and surface plasmon resonance, respectively. PMID:21211507

Otto, Diana M.E.; Campanero-Rhodes, Maria A.; Karamanska, Rositsa; Powell, Andrew K.; Bovin, Nicolai; Turnbull, Jeremy E.; Field, Robert A.; Blackburn, Jonathan; Feizi, Ten; Crocker, Paul R.

2011-01-01

125

Functional expression of P-glycoprotein in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts and BeWo cells  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to investigate the functional expression of the efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts and BeWo cell monolayers. Uptake studies with primary ...

Utoguchi, Naoki; Chandorkar, Gurudatt A.; Avery, Michael; Audus, Kenneth L.

2000-01-01

126

Protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after chronic clinorotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soluble protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh.) leaf and stem tissue was examined after chronic clinorotation. Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated and plants grown to maturity on horizontal or vertical slow-rotating clinostats (1 rpm) or in stationary vertical control units. Total soluble proteins and in vivo-labeled soluble proteins isolated from these plants were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS PAGE and subsequent fluorography. Visual and computer analysis of the resulting protein patterns showed no significant differences in either total protein expression or in active protein synthesis between horizontal clinorotation and vertical controls in the Arabidopsis leaf and stem tissue. These results show chronic clinorotation does not cause gross changes in protein expression in Arabidopsis.

Piastuch, W. C.; Brown, C. S.

1995-01-01

127

Protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after chronic clinorotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soluble protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh.) leaf and stem tissue was examined after chronic clinorotation. Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated and plants grown to maturity on horizontal or vertical slow-rotating clinostats (1 rpm) or in stationary vertical control units. Total soluble proteins and in vivo-labeled soluble proteins isolated from these plants were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium doedocyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) and subsequent fluorography. Visual and computer analysis of the resulting protein patterns showed no significant differences in either total protein expression or in active protein synthesis between horizontal clinorotation and vertical controls in the Arabidopsis leaf and stem tissue. These results show chronic clinorotation does not cause gross changes in protein expression in Arabidopsis.

Piastuch, William C.; Brown, Christopher S.

1994-01-01

128

Strep-tagged Protein Purification For expressing, purifying, and detecting  

E-print Network

-NTA Magnetic Agarose Beads 39 Appendix B: Composition of Buffers 41 Appendix C: Regeneration of StrepStrep-tagged Protein Purification Handbook For expressing, purifying, and detecting proteins carrying a Strep-tag® II or a 6xHis tag and a Strep-tag II Two-step protein purification system His·Strep p

Lebendiker, Mario

129

The S100 protein family: History, function, and expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The S100 family of calcium binding proteins contains approximately 16 members each of which exhibits a unique pattern of tissue\\/cell type specific expression. Although the distribution of these proteins is not restricted to the nervous system, the implication of several members of this family in nervous system development, function, and disease has sparked new interest in these proteins. We now

Danna B. Zimmer; Emily H. Cornwall; Aimee Landar; Wei Song

1995-01-01

130

Expression of heat shock protein genes in insect stress responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The heat shock proteins (HSPs) that are abundantly expressed in insects are important modulators of insect survival. Expression of HSP genes in insects is not only developmentally regulated, but also induced by various stressors in order to confer protection against such stressors. The expression o...

131

Protein expression in Pichia pastoris: recent achievements and perspectives for heterologous protein production.  

PubMed

Pichia pastoris is an established protein expression host mainly applied for the production of biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. This methylotrophic yeast is a distinguished production system for its growth to very high cell densities, for the available strong and tightly regulated promoters, and for the options to produce gram amounts of recombinant protein per litre of culture both intracellularly and in secretory fashion. However, not every protein of interest is produced in or secreted by P. pastoris to such high titres. Frequently, protein yields are clearly lower, particularly if complex proteins are expressed that are hetero-oligomers, membrane-attached or prone to proteolytic degradation. The last few years have been particularly fruitful because of numerous activities in improving the expression of such complex proteins with a focus on either protein engineering or on engineering the protein expression host P. pastoris. This review refers to established tools in protein expression in P. pastoris and highlights novel developments in the areas of expression vector design, host strain engineering and screening for high-level expression strains. Breakthroughs in membrane protein expression are discussed alongside numerous commercial applications of P. pastoris derived proteins. PMID:24743983

Ahmad, Mudassar; Hirz, Melanie; Pichler, Harald; Schwab, Helmut

2014-06-01

132

Functional proteomics of circadian expressed proteins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

In this study, functional proteomics was successfully applied for the characterization of circadian expressed, basic proteins. For this purpose, we have chosen the green model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii since its entire nuclear genome is available and it is ideally suited for biochemical enrichment procedures. Proteins from cells harvested during subjective day and night were heparin affinity purified. They were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis suited for basic proteins and analyzed after tryptic digestion by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We can show for the first time that the expressions of a protein disulfide isomerase-like protein and a tetratricopeptide repeat protein change in a circadian manner. Interestingly, both proteins are known to be interaction partners in multiprotein complexes including RNA binding proteins. PMID:14960320

Wagner, Volker; Fiedler, Monika; Markert, Christine; Hippler, Michael; Mittag, Maria

2004-02-13

133

Widening the bottleneck: increasing success in protein expression and purification  

PubMed Central

The number of variables at play in the expression and purification of a single protein dwarf those involved in sequencing a genome. Although certain trends are apparent, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to the process of purifying proteins. Thus, whereas numerous genome sequencing projects are providing an overwhelming number of interesting open reading frames for structural biologists to study, fully realizing the potential of this resource is still only a distant hope. We will discuss several current approaches to high throughput expression and purification as well as strategies that have served us well to quickly identify lead protein expression constructs in the context of a core service protein expression and purification laboratory. The use of the baculovirus expression vector system and implementation of a purification screening method will be emphasized. PMID:20650317

Hopkins, Ralph; Esposito, Dominic; Gillette, William

2010-01-01

134

Exact protein distributions for stochastic models of gene expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochasticity in gene expression gives rise to variations in protein levels across a population of genetically identical cells. Such fluctuations can drive phenotypic variation in clonal populations, hence there is considerable interest in quantifying noise in gene expression using stochastic models. However, obtaining exact analytical results for protein distributions has been an intractable task for all but the simplest models. We develop a novel mapping that significantly simplifies the analysis of stochastic models of gene expression. Using this mapping, we derive exact analytical results for steady-state and time-dependent protein distributions for the basic 2-stage model of gene expression. Considering extensions of the basic model, we obtain exact protein steady-state distributions for models that include the effects of post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation. The approach developed in this work is widely applicable and can contribute to a quantitative understanding of stochasticity in gene expression and its regulation.

Kulkarni, Rahul; Pendar, Hodjat; Platini, Thierry

2013-03-01

135

Optimizing transient recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Transient gene expression (TGE) in mammalian cells has become a routine process for expressing recombinant proteins in cell lines such as human embryonic kidney 293 and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rapidly increasing need for recombinant proteins requires further improvements in TGE technology. While a great deal of focus has been directed toward optimizing the secretion of antibodies and other naturally secreted targets, much less work has been done on ways to improve cytoplasmic expression in mammalian cells. The benefits to protein production in mammalian cells, particularly for eukaryotic proteins, should be very significant - glycosylation and other posttranslational modifications will likely be native or near-native, solubility and protein folding would likely improve overexpression in heterologous hosts, and expression of proteins in their proper intracellular compartments is much more likely to occur. Improvements in this area have been slow, however, due to limited development of the cell culture processes needed for low-cost, higher-throughput expression in mammalian cells, and the relatively low diversity of DNA vectors for protein production in these systems. Here, we describe how the use of recombinational cloning, coupled with improvements in transfection protocols which increase speed and lower cost, can be combined to make mammalian cells much more amenable for routine recombinant protein expression. PMID:21987258

Hopkins, Ralph F; Wall, Vanessa E; Esposito, Dominic

2012-01-01

136

mir-29 regulates Mcl-1 protein expression and apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, is tightly regulated. Recently, Bcl-2 expression was shown to be regulated by microRNAs, small endogenous RNA molecules that regulate protein expression through sequence-specific interaction with messenger RNA. By analogy, we reasoned that Mcl-1 expression may also be regulated by microRNAs. We chose human immortalized, but non-malignant, H69 cholangiocyte and malignant KMCH

J L Mott; S Kobayashi; S F Bronk; G J Gores

2007-01-01

137

Co-delivery of doxorubicin and P-gp inhibitor by a reduction-sensitive liposome to overcome multidrug resistance, enhance anti-tumor efficiency and reduce toxicity.  

PubMed

Abstract To overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy with high efficiency and safety, a reduction-sensitive liposome (CL-R8-LP), which was co-modified with reduction-sensitive cleavable PEG and octaarginine (R8) to increase the tumor accumulation, cellular uptake and lysosome escape, was applied to co-encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor of verapamil (VER) in this study. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX and VER in the binary-drug loaded CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was about 95 and 70% (w/w), respectively. The uptake efficiencies, the cytotoxicity, and the apoptosis and necrosis-inducing efficiency of CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) were much higher than those of DOX and the other control liposomes in MCF-7/ADR cells or tumor spheroids. Besides, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was proven to be uptaken into MCF-7/ADR cells by clathrin-mediated and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis, followed by efficient lysosomal escape. In vivo, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7/ADR tumor and reduce the toxicity of DOX and VER, which could be ascribed to increased accumulation of drugs in drug-resistant tumor cells and reduced distribution in normal tissues. In summary, the co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and P-gp inhibitors by our reduction-sensitive liposome was a promising approach to overcome MDR, improve anti-tumor effect and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25491241

Tang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Huile; Liu, Yayuan; Zhang, Qianyu; Ran, Rui; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

2014-12-10

138

Protein Expression Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Brain Development  

PubMed Central

We explored differential protein expression profiles in the mouse forebrain at different stages of postnatal development, including 10-day (P10), 30-day (P30), and adult (Ad) mice, by large-scale screening of proteome maps using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 251 differentially expressed proteins. Most molecular changes were observed between P10 compared to both P30 and Ad. Computational ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) confirmed these proteins as crucial molecules in the biological function of nervous system development. Moreover, IPA revealed Semaphorin signaling in neurons and the protein ubiquitination pathway as essential canonical pathways in the mouse forebrain during postnatal development. For these main biological pathways, the transcriptional regulation of the age-dependent expression of selected proteins was validated by means of in situ hybridization. In conclusion, we suggest that proteolysis and neurite outgrowth guidance are key biological processes, particularly during early brain maturation. PMID:25157209

Laeremans, Annelies; Van de Plas, Babs; Clerens, Stefan; Van den Bergh, Gert; Arckens, Lutgarde; Hu, Tjing-Tjing

2013-01-01

139

Proteins and an Inflammatory Network Expressed in Colon Tumors  

PubMed Central

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is crucial to homeostasis of normal intestinal epithelia because it suppresses the ?-catenin/TCF pathway. Consequently, loss or mutation of the APC gene causes colorectal tumors in humans and mice. Here, we describe our use of Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to compare protein expression in colon tumors to that of adjacent healthy colon tissue from ApcMin/+ mice. Twenty-seven proteins were found to be up-regulated in colon tumors and twenty-five down-regulated. As an extension of the proteomic analysis, the differentially expressed proteins were used as “seeds” to search for co-expressed genes. This approach revealed a co-expression network of 45 genes that is up-regulated in colon tumors. Members of the network include the antibacterial peptide cathelicidin (CAMP), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), IL-8, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1). The co-expression network is associated with innate immunity and inflammation, and there is significant concordance between its connectivity in humans versus mice (Friedman: p value = 0.0056). This study provides new insights into the proteins and networks that are likely to drive the onset and progression of colon cancer. PMID:21366352

Zhu, Wenhong; Fang, Changming; Gramatikoff, Kosi; Niemeyer, Christina C.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

2011-01-01

140

glucosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein expressed  

E-print Network

, the paralogs of LORELEI, SETH1 and SETH2, encode GPI-anchored proteins in pollen vegetative cells., Grossniklaus, U., and Twell, D. (2004). SETH1 and SETH2, two components of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol

141

GTP cyclohydrolase I expression, protein, and activity determine intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin levels, independent of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein expression.  

PubMed

GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a required cofactor for nitricoxide synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Alterations of GTPCH activity and BH4 availability play an important role in human disease. GTPCH expression is regulated by inflammatory stimuli, in association with reduced expression of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). However, the relative importance of GTPCH expression versus GTPCH activity and the role of GFRP in relation to BH4 bioavailability remain uncertain. We investigated these relationships in a cell line with tet-regulated GTPCH expression and in the hph-1 mouse model of GTPCH deficiency. Doxycycline exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GTPCH protein and activity, with a strong correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r(2) = 0.85, p < 0.0001). These changes in GTPCH and BH4 had no effect on GFRP expression or protein levels. GFRP overexpression and knockdown in tet-GCH cells did not alter GTPCH activity or BH4 levels, and GTPCH-specific knockdown in sEnd.1 endothelial cells had no effect on GFRP protein. In mouse liver we observed a graded reduction of GTPCH expression, protein, and activity, from wild type, heterozygote, to homozygote littermates, with a striking linear correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r(2) = 0.82, p < 0.0001). Neither GFRP expression nor protein differed between wild type, heterozygote, nor homozygote mice, despite the substantial differences in BH4. We suggest that GTPCH expression is the primary regulator of BH4 levels, and changes in GTPCH or BH4 are not necessarily accompanied by changes in GFRP expression. PMID:19286659

Tatham, Amy L; Crabtree, Mark J; Warrick, Nicholas; Cai, Shijie; Alp, Nicholas J; Channon, Keith M

2009-05-15

142

GTP Cyclohydrolase I Expression, Protein, and Activity Determine Intracellular Tetrahydrobiopterin Levels, Independent of GTP Cyclohydrolase Feedback Regulatory Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a required cofactor for nitricoxide synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Alterations of GTPCH activity and BH4 availability play an important role in human disease. GTPCH expression is regulated by inflammatory stimuli, in association with reduced expression of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). However, the relative importance of GTPCH expression versus GTPCH activity and the role of GFRP in relation to BH4 bioavailability remain uncertain. We investigated these relationships in a cell line with tet-regulated GTPCH expression and in the hph-1 mouse model of GTPCH deficiency. Doxycycline exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GTPCH protein and activity, with a strong correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r2 = 0.85, p < 0.0001). These changes in GTPCH and BH4 had no effect on GFRP expression or protein levels. GFRP overexpression and knockdown in tet-GCH cells did not alter GTPCH activity or BH4 levels, and GTPCH-specific knockdown in sEnd.1 endothelial cells had no effect on GFRP protein. In mouse liver we observed a graded reduction of GTPCH expression, protein, and activity, from wild type, heterozygote, to homozygote littermates, with a striking linear correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.0001). Neither GFRP expression nor protein differed between wild type, heterozygote, nor homozygote mice, despite the substantial differences in BH4. We suggest that GTPCH expression is the primary regulator of BH4 levels, and changes in GTPCH or BH4 are not necessarily accompanied by changes in GFRP expression. PMID:19286659

Tatham, Amy L.; Crabtree, Mark J.; Warrick, Nicholas; Cai, Shijie; Alp, Nicholas J.; Channon, Keith M.

2009-01-01

143

P-170 Glycoprotein (MDR) and p53 Expression in Breast Cancer.  

PubMed

An immunohistochemical comparative analysis of P-170 glycoprotein and p53 was performed in 37 breast cancer patients who underwent curative resection without preoperative chemotherapy. The antibodies utilized were C-219 and JSB-1 for P-gp and DO-7 for p53. Positive cytoplasmic and membrance positivity for P-gp was found in 22 (59.45%) of the 37 tumor specimens. In comparing tissue immunoreactivity by the specific antibodies, 15 (40.54%) samples showed immunostaining for C-219, 12 (32.43%) for JSB-1, and 5 (23%) for both. P-gp expression was not statistically related with the clinicopathological variables analyzed, that is, age, TNM stage, histologic type, lymph node involvement, tumor diameter, and hormone receptor status. p53 overexpression was observed in 22 (59.45%) of the 37 tumor samples analyzed. There was a significant correlation between p53 overexpression and P-gp positive immunostaining (p = .007). p53 was also significantly correlated with TNM stage (p < .05) and lymph node involvement (p < .02). Our results demonstrated that the three distinct patterns of reactivity with the two antibodies result from the combined expression of each of the three P-gp isoforms. An immunohistochemical analysis with different antibodies may be used to determine and correlate the expression pattern of P-gp isoforms with response to chemotherapy. PMID:21223447

Ciaparrone, M; Terribile, D; Curigliano, G; Marra, A; Sgambato, A; Boninsegna, A; Masetti, R; Carbone, A; Flamini, G; Picciocchi, A; Cittadini, A

1998-07-01

144

A study protocol for quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) by LC-MS/MS: application for inter-strain differences in protein expression levels of transporters, receptors, claudin-5, and marker proteins at the blood–brain barrier in ddY, FVB, and C57BL/6J mice  

PubMed Central

Proteomics has opened a new horizon in biological sciences. Global proteomic analysis is a promising technology for the discovery of thousands of proteins, post-translational modifications, polymorphisms, and molecular interactions in a variety of biological systems. The activities and roles of the identified proteins must also be elucidated, but this is complicated by the inability of conventional proteomic methods to yield quantitative information for protein expression. Thus, a variety of biological systems remain “black boxes”. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) enables the determination of absolute expression levels (mol) of any target protein, including low-abundance functional proteins, such as transporters and receptors. Therefore, QTAP will be useful for understanding the activities and roles of individual proteins and their differences, including normal/disease, human/animal, or in vitro/in vivo. Here, we describe the study protocols and precautions for QTAP experiments including in silico target peptide selection, determination of peptide concentration by amino acid analysis, setup of selected/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) analysis in liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, preparation of protein samples (brain capillaries and plasma membrane fractions) followed by the preparation of peptide samples, simultaneous absolute quantification of target proteins by SRM/MRM analysis, data analysis, and troubleshooting. An application of QTAP in biological sciences was introduced that utilizes data from inter-strain differences in the protein expression levels of transporters, receptors, tight junction proteins and marker proteins at the blood–brain barrier in ddY, FVB, and C57BL/6J mice. Among 18 molecules, 13 (abcb1a/mdr1a/P-gp, abcc4/mrp4, abcg2/bcrp, slc2a1/glut1, slc7a5/lat1, slc16a1/mct1, slc22a8/oat3, insr, lrp1, tfr1, claudin-5, Na+/K+-ATPase, and ?-gtp) were detected in the isolated brain capillaries, and their protein expression levels were within a range of 0.637-101 fmol/?g protein. The largest difference in the levels between the three strains was 2.2-fold for 13 molecules, although bcrp and mct1 displayed statistically significant differences between C57BL/6J and the other strain(s). Highly sensitive simultaneous absolute quantification achieved by QTAP will increase the usefulness of proteomics in biological sciences and is expected to advance the new research field of pharmacoproteomics (PPx). PMID:23758935

2013-01-01

145

EMBRYONIC EXPRESSION OF UNCOUPLING PROTEIN 2 GENES IN RAINBOW TROUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uncoupling proteins are mitochondrial anion transporters that dissociate respiration from ATP synthesis through proton leaks. Uncoupling protein 2 reportedly plays a role in several physiological processes such as energy partitioning, nutrition and fatty acid metabolism. The mRNA expression of rainb...

146

A Novel Protein Expressed in Mammalian Cells Undergoing Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and rodent cells undergoing apoptosis were observed to express high levels of a novel 45,000 Mr protein. The protein, which we have termed apoptosis specific protein (ASP), was found in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells and in adenovirus-transformed human and rat embryo cells induced into apoptosis by a variety of stimuli, including serum deprivation, exposure to the Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin,

Roger J. A. Grand; Anne E. Milner; Tracey Mustoe; Gerald D. Johnson; Darerca Owen; Michael L. Grant; Christopher D. Gregory

1995-01-01

147

Enhanced membrane protein expression by engineering increased intracellular membrane production  

PubMed Central

Background Membrane protein research is frequently hampered by the low natural abundance of these proteins in cells and typically relies on recombinant gene expression. Different expression systems, like mammalian cells, insect cells, bacteria and yeast are being used, but very few research efforts have been directed towards specific host cell customization for enhanced expression of membrane proteins. Here we show that by increasing the intracellular membrane production by interfering with a key enzymatic step of lipid synthesis, enhanced expression of membrane proteins in yeast is achieved. Results We engineered the oleotrophic yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, by deleting the phosphatidic acid phosphatase, PAH1, which led to massive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. For all eight tested representatives of different integral membrane protein families, we obtained enhanced protein accumulation levels and in some cases enhanced proteolytic integrity in the ?pah1 strain. We analysed the adenosine A2AR G-protein coupled receptor case in more detail and found that concomitant induction of the unfolded protein response in the ?pah1 strain enhanced the specific ligand binding activity of the receptor. These data indicate an improved quality control mechanism for membrane proteins accumulating in yeast cells with proliferated ER. Conclusions We conclude that redirecting the metabolic flux of fatty acids away from triacylglycerol- and sterylester-storage towards membrane phospholipid synthesis by PAH1 gene inactivation, provides a valuable approach to enhance eukaryotic membrane protein production. Complementary to this improvement in membrane protein quantity, UPR co-induction further enhances the quality of the membrane protein in terms of its proper folding and biological activity. Importantly, since these pathways are conserved in all eukaryotes, it will be of interest to investigate similar engineering approaches in other cell types of biotechnological interest, such as insect cells and mammalian cells. PMID:24321035

2013-01-01

148

Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Differentially Expressed in Preeclamptic Trophoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To identify differential trophoblastic proteins associated with preeclampsia (PE) by proteomic analysis. Methods: We isolated and purified placental trophoblasts from normotensive pregnant women and patients with PE by a continuous Percoll gradient. The expression of proteins was determined by sliver staining after two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Proteins of interest were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of

Li-zhou Sun; Na-na Yang; Wei De; Yun-shan Xiao

2007-01-01

149

Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in yeast cells expressing neurotoxic proteins  

PubMed Central

Critically impaired protein degradation is discussed to contribute to neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and motor neuron diseases. Misfolded, aggregated, or surplus proteins are efficiently degraded via distinct protein degradation pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy, and vesicular trafficking. These pathways are regulated by covalent modification of target proteins with the small protein ubiquitin and are evolutionary highly conserved from humans to yeast. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model for deciphering mechanisms of protein degradation, and for the elucidation of pathways underlying programmed cell death. The expression of human neurotoxic proteins triggers cell death in yeast, with neurotoxic protein-specific differences. Therefore, yeast cell death models are suitable for analyzing the role of protein degradation pathways in modulating cell death upon expression of disease-causing proteins. This review summarizes which protein degradation pathways are affected in these yeast models, and how they are involved in the execution of cell death. I will discuss to which extent this mimics the situation in other neurotoxic models, and how this may contribute to a better understanding of human disorders.

Braun, Ralf J.

2015-01-01

150

Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

2014-01-01

151

Cerebral uptake of mefloquine enantiomers with and without the P-gp inhibitor elacridar (GF1210918) in mice  

PubMed Central

Mefloquine is a chiral neurotoxic antimalarial agent showing stereoselective brain uptake in humans and rats. It is a substrate and an inhibitor of the efflux protein P-glycoprotein. We investigated the stereoselective uptake and efflux of mefloquine in mice, and the consequences of the combination with an efflux protein inhibitor, elacridar (GF120918) on its brain transport. Racemic mefloquine (25 mg kg?1) was administered intraperitoneally with or without elacridar (10 mg kg?1). Six to seven mice were killed at each of 11 time-points between 30 min and 168 h after administration. Blood and brain concentrations of mefloquine enantiomers were determined using liquid chromatography. A three-compartment model with zero-order absorption from the injection site was found to best represent the pharmacokinetics of both enantiomers in blood and brain. (?)Mefloquine had a lower blood and brain apparent volume of distribution and a lower efflux clearance from the brain, resulting in a larger brain/blood ratio compared to (+)mefloquine. Elacridar did not modify blood concentrations or the elimination rate from blood for either enantiomers. However, cerebral AUCinf of both enantiomers were increased, with a stronger effect on (+)mefloquine. The efflux clearance from the brain decreased for both enantiomers, with a larger decrease for (+)mefloquine. After administration of racemic mefloquine in mice, blood and brain pharmacokinetics are stereoselective, (+)mefloquine being excreted from brain more rapidly than its antipode, showing that mefloquine is a substrate of efflux proteins and that mefloquine enantiomers undergo efflux in a stereoselective manner. Moreover, pretreatment with elacridar reduced the brain efflux clearances with a more pronounced effect on (+)mefloquine. PMID:15023856

de Lagerie, Sylvie Barraud; Comets, Emmanuelle; Gautrand, Céline; Fernandez, Christine; Auchere, Daniel; Singlas, Eric; Mentre, France; Gimenez, François

2004-01-01

152

Protein expression analysis of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) development. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in protein expression between CRC and the surrounding nontumorous colonic tissues in the mice that received azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) using a proteomic analysis. Materials and Methods: Male ICR mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight), followed by 2% (w/v) DSS in their drinking water for seven days, starting one week after the AOM injection. Colonic adenocarcinoma developed after 20 weeks and a proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ultraflex TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was conducted in the cancerous and nontumorous tissue specimens. Results: The proteomic analysis revealed 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues in comparison to the nontumorous tissues. There were five markedly increased proteins (beta-tropomyosin, tropomyosin 1 alpha isoform b, S100 calcium binding protein A9, and an unknown protein) and 16 markedly decreased proteins (Car1 proteins, selenium-binding protein 1, HMG-CoA synthase, thioredoxin 1, 1 Cys peroxiredoxin protein 2, Fcgbp protein, Cytochrome c oxidase, subunit Va, ETHE1 protein, and 7 unknown proteins). Conclusions: There were 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues of the mice that received AOM and DSS. Their functions include metabolism, the antioxidant system, oxidative stress, mucin production, and inflammation. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies to treat carcinogenesis in the inflamed colon. PMID:19491504

Yasui, Yumiko

2009-01-01

153

Recent developments in therapeutic protein expression technologies in plants.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases and cancers are some of the commonest causes of deaths throughout the world. The previous two decades have witnessed a combined endeavor across various biological sciences to address this issue in novel ways. The advent of recombinant DNA technologies has provided the tools for producing recombinant proteins that can be used as therapeutic agents. A number of expression systems have been developed for the production of pharmaceutical products. Recently, advances have been made using plants as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins directed against infectious diseases and cancers. This review highlights the recent progress in therapeutic protein expression in plants (stable and transient), the factors affecting heterologous protein expression, vector systems and recent developments in existing technologies and steps towards the industrial production of plant-made vaccines, antibodies, and biopharmaceuticals. PMID:25326175

Fahad, Shah; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Ahmed, Muhammad Mahmood; Liao, Yu Cai; Waheed, Muhammad Tahir; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Darkhshan; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Jan, Amanullah; Jan, Mohammad Tariq; Wu, Chao; Chun, Ma Xiao; Huang, Jianliang

2015-02-01

154

Gene expression pattern OTX2 homeodomain protein binds a DNA element necessary for interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription of the human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) gene is strictly tissue specific, being restricted to retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes. We have previously demonstrated that a sequence named A element, in the IRBP promoter is essential for IRBP gene transcription in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the human homeodomain protein OTX2 is present in nuclear extracts of IRBP expressing

Nicoletta Bobola; Paola Briata; Cristina Ilengo; Nadia Rosatto; Cheryl Craft; Giorgio Corte; Roberto Ravazzolo

155

Differential protein expression in Phalaenopsis under low temperature.  

PubMed

A comparative proteomic analysis was carried out to explore the molecular mechanisms of responses to cold stress in Phalaenopsis after treated by low temperature (13/8 °C day/night) for 15 days. Differentially expressed proteins were examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS). Among 85 differentially expressed proteins, 73 distinct proteins were identified. Comparative analysis revealed that the identified proteins mainly participate in photosynthesis, protein synthesis, folding and degradation, respiration, defense response, amino acid metabolism, energy pathway, cytoskeleton, transcription regulation, signal transduction, and seed storage protein, while the functional classification of the remaining four proteins was not determined. These data suggested that the proteins might work cooperatively to establish a new homeostasis under cold stress; 37 % of the identified cold-responsive proteins were associated with various aspects of chloroplast physiology, and 56 % of them were predicted to be located in the chloroplasts, implying that the cold stress tolerance of Phalaenopsis was achieved, at least partly, by regulation of chloroplast function. Moreover, the protein destination control, which was mediated by chaperones and proteases, plays an important role in tolerance to cold stress. PMID:25349090

Yuan, Xiu-Yun; Liang, Fang; Jiang, Su-Hua; Wan, Mo-Fei; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Xian-Yun; Cui, Bo

2015-01-01

156

Altered protein expression in neutrophils of calves treated with dexamethasone  

PubMed Central

The effect of glucocorticoid treatment on protein expression in bovine neutrophils was examined with a proteomic approach to address the mechanisms by which stress alters neutrophil function and predisposes to bacterial pneumonia in cattle. Calves 6 to 8 mo old were treated with dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg), neutrophils were isolated 24 h later, and whole-cell lysates were examined by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Differentially expressed protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The antimicrobial protein lactotransferrin was detected at increased amounts in the neutrophils of the dexamethasone-treated calves. Proteins detected at reduced amounts in the neutrophils of the dexamethasone-treated calves included annexin 1, phosphoglycerate mutase, Na+–K+ ATPase, and cathelicidin 1. These findings identify glucocorticoid-induced changes in the levels of neutrophil proteins involved in host defense, inflammation, and cellular metabolism and suggest additional mechanisms by which glucocorticoids affect neutrophil function. PMID:18505188

Beveridge, Jennifer D.; Mitchell, Gordon B.; Brewer, Dyanne; Clark, Mary Ellen; Caswell, Jeff L.

2008-01-01

157

Functional expression of plant membrane proteins in Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed

The study of most membrane proteins remains challenging due to their hydrophobicity and their low natural abundance in cells. Lactococcus lactis, a Gram-positive lactic bacterium, has been traditionally used in food fermentations and is nowadays widely used in biotechnology for large-scale production of heterologous proteins. This system has been successfully used for the production of prokaryotic and eukaryotic membrane proteins. The purpose of this chapter is to provide detailed protocols for (1) the expression of plant peripheral or intrinsic membrane proteins and then for (2) their solubilization, from Lactococcus membranes, for further purification steps and biochemical characterization. PMID:25447863

Boutigny, Sylvain; Sautron, Emeline; Frelet-Barrand, Annie; Moyet, Lucas; Salvi, Daniel; Rolland, Norbert; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné

2015-01-01

158

Green fluorescent protein and factorial approach: An effective partnership for screening the soluble expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report how the combined use of protein expression reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP), and of an incomplete factorial approach (“InFFact”) made of 12 combinations of different states of three expression variables (bacterial strains, culture media and expression temperatures) created a convenient tool for screening the soluble expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli).In the first part of

Bruno Coutard; Mathieu Gagnaire; Aude-Agnès Guilhon; Marine Berro; Stéphane Canaan; Christophe Bignon

2008-01-01

159

Binary and ternary combinations of anti-HIV protease inhibitors: effect on gene expression and functional activity of CYP3A4 and efflux transporters  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of binary and ternary combinations of anti-HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) on the expression of metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4) and efflux transporters [multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP)] in a model intestinal cell line (LS-180). Methods LS-180 cells were treated with various combinations of PIs (amprenavir, indinavir, saquinavir and lopinavir), and the mRNA expression levels of metabolizing enzyme and efflux transporters were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The alteration of gene expression was further correlated to the expression of nuclear hormone receptor PXR. Uptake of fluorescent and radioactive substrates was carried out to study the functional activity of these proteins. Cytotoxicity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were carried out to measure stress responses. Results Binary and ternary combinations of PIs appeared to modulate the expression of CYP3A4, MRP2, P-gp and BCRP in a considerable manner. Unlike the individual PIs, their binary combinations showed much greater induction of metabolizing enzyme and efflux proteins. However, such pronounced induction was not observed in the presence of ternary combinations. The observed trend of altered mRNA expression was found to correlate well with the change in expression levels of PXR. The gene expression was found to correlate with activity assays. Lack of cytotoxicity and ATP activity was observed in the treatment samples, suggesting that these alterations in expression levels were probably not stress responses. Conclusions In the present study, we demonstrated that combinations of drugs can have serious consequences toward the treatment of HIV infection by altering their bioavailability and disposition. PMID:24399676

Kwatra, Deep; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Khurana, Varun; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

2015-01-01

160

Expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins: a macroarray study.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in Poland, with well-established risk factors. Genetic instability and molecular alterations responsible for endometrial carcinogenesis have been systematically investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of cDNA macroarrays, the expression profiles of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in ECs. Tissue specimens were collected during surgical procedures from 40 patients with EC, and control tissue was collected from 9 patients with uterine leiomyomas. RNA was isolated and RT-PCR with radioisotope-labeled cDNA was performed. The levels of ECM protein gene expression in normal endometrial tissues were compared to the expression of these genes in EC specimens. Statistically significant differences in gene expression, stratified by clinical stage of the ECs, were detected for aggrecan, vitronectin, tenascin R, nidogen and two collagen proteins: type VIII chain ?1 and type XI chain ?2. All of these proteins were overexpressed in stage III endometrial carcinomas compared to levels in stage I and II uterine neoplasms. In conclusion, increased expression of genes encoding ECM proteins may play an important role in facilitating accelerated disease progression of human ECs. PMID:25231141

Futyma, Konrad; Miot?a, Pawe?; Ró?y?ska, Krystyna; Zdunek, Ma?gorzata; Semczuk, Andrzej; Rechberger, Tomasz; Wojcierowski, Jacek

2014-12-01

161

Expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins: A macroarray study  

PubMed Central

Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in Poland, with well-established risk factors. Genetic instability and molecular alterations responsible for endometrial carcinogenesis have been systematically investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of cDNA macroarrays, the expression profiles of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in ECs. Tissue specimens were collected during surgical procedures from 40 patients with EC, and control tissue was collected from 9 patients with uterine leiomyomas. RNA was isolated and RT-PCR with radioisotope-labeled cDNA was performed. The levels of ECM protein gene expression in normal endometrial tissues were compared to the expression of these genes in EC specimens. Statistically significant differences in gene expression, stratified by clinical stage of the ECs, were detected for aggrecan, vitronectin, tenascin R, nidogen and two collagen proteins: type VIII chain ?1 and type XI chain ?2. All of these proteins were overexpressed in stage III endometrial carcinomas compared to levels in stage I and II uterine neoplasms. In conclusion, increased expression of genes encoding ECM proteins may play an important role in facilitating accelerated disease progression of human ECs. PMID:25231141

FUTYMA, KONRAD; MIOT?A, PAWE?; RÓ?Y?SKA, KRYSTYNA; ZDUNEK, MA?GORZATA; SEMCZUK, ANDRZEJ; RECHBERGER, TOMASZ; WOJCIEROWSKI, JACEK

2014-01-01

162

Urokinase Expression by Tumor Suppressor Protein p53  

PubMed Central

Lung carcinoma (H1299) cells deficient in p53 (p53?/?) express large amounts of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) protein and uPA mRNA, and exhibit slower degradation of uPA mRNA than that of p53-expressing nonmalignant Beas2B human airway epithelial cells. Expression of p53 protein in H1299 cells, upon transfection with p53 cDNA, suppressed basal as well as uPA-induced expression of uPA protein in both conditioned media and cell lysates, and decreased the level of steady-state uPA mRNA primarily due to increased uPA mRNA turnover. Inhibition of p53 expression by RNA silencing (SiRNA) in Beas2B cells enhanced basal and uPA-mediated uPA protein and mRNA expression with stabilization of uPA mRNA. Purified p53 binds to the uPA mRNA 3? untranslated region (UTR) in a sequence-specific manner and endogenous uPA mRNA associates with p53 protein isolated from Beas2B cytosolic extracts. p53 binds to a 35-nucleotide uPA 3?UTR sequence and insertion of this sequence into ?-globin mRNA accelerates degradation of otherwise stable ?-globin mRNA. These observations confirm a new role for p53 as a uPA mRNA binding protein that down-regulates uPA mRNA stability and decreases cellular uPA expression. PMID:18390474

Shetty, Praveenkumar; Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhandary, Yashodhar P.; Shetty, Rashmi S.; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Shetty, Sreerama

2008-01-01

163

Gene expression and internalization following vector adsorption to immobilized proteins: dependence on protein identity and density  

PubMed Central

Background Gene delivery by non-specific adsorption of non-viral vectors to protein-coated surfaces can reduce the amount of DNA required, and also increase transgene expression and the number of cells expressing the transgene. The protein on the surface mediates cell adhesion and vector immobilization, and functions to colocalize the two to enhance gene delivery. This report investigates the mechanism and specificity by which the protein coating enhances gene transfer, and determines if the protein coating targets the vector for internalization by a specific pathway. Methods Proteins (FBS, BSA, fibronectin, collagen I, and laminin) were dried onto culture dishes, followed by PEI/DNA complex adsorption for surface delivery. Reporter genes were employed to characterize transfection as a function of the protein identity and density. Vector immobilization was measured using radiolabeled plasmid, and internalization was quantified in the presence and absence of the endocytosis inhibitors chlorpromazine and genistein. Results Fibronectin coating yielded the greatest expression for PEI/DNA polyplexes, with maximal expression at intermediate protein densities. Expression in control studies with bolus delivery was independent of the protein identity. Substrate binding was independent of the protein identity; however, internalization was greatest on surfaces coated with fibronectin and collagen I. Inhibition of caveolae-mediated endocytosis reduced gene expression more than clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Similarly, inhibition of caveolae-mediated endocytosis significantly reduced the intracellular levels of DNA. Conclusions Fibronectin at intermediate densities mediated the highest levels of transgene expression, potentially by targeting internalization through caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Substrate modifications, such as the identity and density of proteins, provide an opportunity for modification of biomaterials for enhancing gene expression. PMID:17533618

Bengali, Zain; Rea, Jennifer C.; Shea, Lonnie D.

2008-01-01

164

Express Your LOV: An Engineered Flavoprotein as a Reporter for Protein Expression and Purification  

PubMed Central

In this work, we describe the utility of Light, Oxygen, or Voltage-sensing (LOV) flavoprotein domains from plant phototropins as a reporter for protein expression and function. Specifically, we used iLOV, an enhanced and more photostable variant of LOV. A pET-based plasmid for protein expression was constructed, encoding a C terminal iLOV-octahistidine (His8)-tag and a HRV 3C protease cleavage recognition site. Ten different proteins, with various sub-cellular locations, were cloned into the plasmid, creating iLOV-His8 tag fusions. To test protein expression and how iLOV could be used as a reporter, the proteins were expressed in three different cell lines, in four different culture media, at two different temperatures. To establish whether the presence of the iLOV tag could have an impact on the functionality, one of the proteins, EspG, was over-expressed and purified. EspG is an “effector” protein normally produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains and “injected” into host cells via the T3SS. We tested functionality of EspG-iLOV fusion by performing functional studies of EspG in mammalian host cells. When EspG-iLOV was microinjected into the host cell, the Golgi apparatus was completely disrupted as had previously been observed for EspG. PMID:23300834

Gawthorne, Jayde A.; Reddick, L. Evan; Akpunarlieva, Snezhana N.; Beckham, Katherine S. H.; Christie, John M.; Alto, Neal M.; Gabrielsen, Mads; Roe, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

165

Protein Co-Expression Network Analysis (ProCoNA)  

SciTech Connect

Biological networks are important for elucidating disease etiology due to their ability to model complex high dimensional data and biological systems. Proteomics provides a critical data source for such models, but currently lacks robust de novo methods for network construction, which could bring important insights in systems biology. We have evaluated the construction of network models using methods derived from weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). We show that approximately scale-free peptide networks, composed of statistically significant modules, are feasible and biologically meaningful using two mouse lung experiments and one human plasma experiment. Within each network, peptides derived from the same protein are shown to have a statistically higher topological overlap and concordance in abundance, which is potentially important for inferring protein abundance. The module representatives, called eigenpeptides, correlate significantly with biological phenotypes. Furthermore, within modules, we find significant enrichment for biological function and known interactions (gene ontology and protein-protein interactions). Biological networks are important tools in the analysis of complex systems. In this paper we evaluate the application of weighted co-expression network analysis to quantitative proteomics data. Protein co-expression networks allow novel approaches for biological interpretation, quality control, inference of protein abundance, a framework for potentially resolving degenerate peptide-protein mappings, and a biomarker signature discovery.

Gibbs, David L.; Baratt, Arie; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Smith, Richard D.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Katze, Michael G.; Mcweeney, Shannon K.

2013-06-01

166

Astragaloside IV reduces the expression level of P-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant human hepatic cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Astragaloside is a saponin widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and has been reported to be a potent multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent. The present study investigated the role of astragaloside IV (ASIV) in the regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by the mdr1 gene) and its effect on the reversal of MDR. The activity of ASIV was evaluated using human hepatic cancer cells Bel-7402 and the corresponding 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant cells Bel-7402/FU. ASIV (0.08 mg/ml) potentiated the cytotoxicity of 5-FU which was demonstrated using the MTT assay on Bel-7402/FU cells. ASIV reduced the expression of P-gp as was revealed by immunocytochemistry. Accumulation and efflux studies with the P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 (Rh123), demonstrated that ASIV inhibited P-gp-mediated drug efflux. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that ASIV enhanced the drug accumulation of 5-FU using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for drug resistant cells. Furthermore, ASIV may downregulate the expression of P-gp, which was examined using western blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that ASIV reverses the drug resistance of Bel-7402/FU cells by downregulating the expression of mdr1. ASIV may represent a potent modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR in hepatic cancer therapy. PMID:24676670

WANG, PEI-PEI; XU, DU-JUAN; HUANG, CAN; WANG, WEI-PING; XU, WEN-KE

2014-01-01

167

Comparison of Heavy Labeled (SIL) Peptide versus SILAC Protein Internal Standards for LC-MS/MS Quantification of Hepatic Drug Transporters  

PubMed Central

We studied the precision of quantification of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in human livers by surrogate peptide based LC-MS/MS approach using two different internal standards: stable isotope labeled peptide (SIL) versus stable isotope labeled protein (SILAC). The SIL peptides were procured commercially and the SILAC proteins were generated in-house by labeling arginine and/or lysine residues in cells expressing these transporters. Liver tissue (n = 20) was homogenized and the membrane fraction was isolated. The membranes were trypsin digested and the peptides were analyzed using LC-MS/MS under optimized conditions. The precision in the quantification of proteins in three independently trypsin digested samples from each liver was calculated as the standard deviation of the log transformed protein concentration. The precision of the SIL internal standard method was either slightly (P < 0.05, paired t-test) better than that of the SILAC method (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and P-gp) or not different (OATP2B1). Trypsin digestion, as measured by the response of the labeled peptide derived from the SILAC protein, was consistent across liver samples. These results indicate that when maximum trypsin digestion is ensured, the SIL internal standard method can be used with confidence for quantification of drug transporters. PMID:24719762

Unadkat, Jashvant D.

2014-01-01

168

Comparison of Heavy Labeled (SIL) Peptide versus SILAC Protein Internal Standards for LC-MS/MS Quantification of Hepatic Drug Transporters.  

PubMed

We studied the precision of quantification of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in human livers by surrogate peptide based LC-MS/MS approach using two different internal standards: stable isotope labeled peptide (SIL) versus stable isotope labeled protein (SILAC). The SIL peptides were procured commercially and the SILAC proteins were generated in-house by labeling arginine and/or lysine residues in cells expressing these transporters. Liver tissue (n = 20) was homogenized and the membrane fraction was isolated. The membranes were trypsin digested and the peptides were analyzed using LC-MS/MS under optimized conditions. The precision in the quantification of proteins in three independently trypsin digested samples from each liver was calculated as the standard deviation of the log transformed protein concentration. The precision of the SIL internal standard method was either slightly (P < 0.05, paired t-test) better than that of the SILAC method (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and P-gp) or not different (OATP2B1). Trypsin digestion, as measured by the response of the labeled peptide derived from the SILAC protein, was consistent across liver samples. These results indicate that when maximum trypsin digestion is ensured, the SIL internal standard method can be used with confidence for quantification of drug transporters. PMID:24719762

Prasad, Bhagwat; Unadkat, Jashvant D

2014-01-01

169

Expression of the red fluorescent protein DsRed-Express in filamentous ascomycete fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently reported red fluorescent protein DsRed from the reef coral Discosoma sp. represents a new marker that has been codon-optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. To facilitate expression of DsRed in ascomycete fungi, we used the clone pDsRed-Express (Clontech) for constructing a plasmid vector, pPgpd-DsRed, containing the constitutive Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (gpd) promoter. This vector was used

Lisbeth Mikkelsen; Sabrina Sarrocco; Mette Lübeck; Dan Funck Jensen

2003-01-01

170

CyclinD1 protein expressed in pterygia is associated with ?-catenin protein localization  

PubMed Central

Background The Wnt (Wg/Wnt) signaling cascade plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Our previous report indicated that aberrant localization of ?-catenin proteins was a feature of pterygia. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the association of ?-catenin protein and expression of a downstream gene, cyclin D1, in pterygial tissues. Methods Using immunohistochemistry, ?-catenin and cyclin D1 protein expression was studied, in 150 pterygial specimens and 30 normal conjunctivas. Results Seventy-three (48.7%) and 60 (40.0%) pterygial specimens tested positive for ?-catenin and cyclin D1 protein expression, respectively. Cyclin D1protein expression was significantly higher in ?-catenin-nuclear/cytoplasmic positive groups than in ?-catenin membrane positive and negative groups (p<0.0001). In addition, cyclin D1 expression was significantly higher in the fleshy group than in the atrophic and intermediate groups (p=0.006). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that ?-catenin expressed in nuclei/cytoplasm increases cyclinD1 protein expression, which invokes pterygial cell proliferation. PMID:21179427

Tung, Jai-Nien; Chiang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Yu; Chou, Ying-Yi; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lee, Huei

2010-01-01

171

Pooled ORF Expression Technology (POET) USING PROTEOMICS TO SCREEN POOLS OF OPEN READING FRAMES FOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION*S  

E-print Network

§, Catherine Jozwik¶, Xiuying Zhang¶, Brighid McGowan¶, David M. Jacobowitz¶ , Harvey B. Pollard¶, Tong Hao FOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION*S William K. Gillette, Dominic Esposito, Peter H. Frank, Ming Zhou§, Li-Rong Yu**, David E. Hill**, Marc Vidal**, Thomas P. Conrads§, Timothy D. Veenstra§, and James L. Hartley We have

172

Green fluorescent protein-based expression screening of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The production of recombinant membrane proteins for structural and functional studies remains technically challenging due to low levels of expression and the inherent instability of many membrane proteins once solubilized in detergents. A protocol is described that combines ligation independent cloning of membrane proteins as GFP fusions with expression in Escherichia coli detected by GFP fluorescence. This enables the construction and expression screening of multiple membrane protein/variants to identify candidates suitable for further investment of time and effort. The GFP reporter is used in a primary screen of expression by visualizing GFP fluorescence following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Membrane proteins that show both a high expression level with minimum degradation as indicated by the absence of free GFP, are selected for a secondary screen. These constructs are scaled and a total membrane fraction prepared and solubilized in four different detergents. Following ultracentrifugation to remove detergent-insoluble material, lysates are analyzed by fluorescence detection size exclusion chromatography (FSEC). Monitoring the size exclusion profile by GFP fluorescence provides information about the mono-dispersity and integrity of the membrane proteins in different detergents. Protein: detergent combinations that elute with a symmetrical peak with little or no free GFP and minimum aggregation are candidates for subsequent purification. Using the above methodology, the heterologous expression in E. coli of SED (shape, elongation, division, and sporulation) proteins from 47 different species of bacteria was analyzed. These proteins typically have ten transmembrane domains and are essential for cell division. The results show that the production of the SEDs orthologues in E. coli was highly variable with respect to the expression levels and integrity of the GFP fusion proteins. The experiment identified a subset for further investigation. PMID:25590335

Bird, Louise E; Rada, Heather; Verma, Anil; Gasper, Raphael; Birch, James; Jennions, Matthew; L?we, Jan; Moraes, Isabel; Owens, Raymond J

2015-01-01

173

Green Fluorescent Protein-based Expression Screening of Membrane Proteins in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The production of recombinant membrane proteins for structural and functional studies remains technically challenging due to low levels of expression and the inherent instability of many membrane proteins once solubilized in detergents. A protocol is described that combines ligation independent cloning of membrane proteins as GFP fusions with expression in Escherichia coli detected by GFP fluorescence. This enables the construction and expression screening of multiple membrane protein/variants to identify candidates suitable for further investment of time and effort. The GFP reporter is used in a primary screen of expression by visualizing GFP fluorescence following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Membrane proteins that show both a high expression level with minimum degradation as indicated by the absence of free GFP, are selected for a secondary screen. These constructs are scaled and a total membrane fraction prepared and solubilized in four different detergents. Following ultracentrifugation to remove detergent-insoluble material, lysates are analyzed by fluorescence detection size exclusion chromatography (FSEC). Monitoring the size exclusion profile by GFP fluorescence provides information about the mono-dispersity and integrity of the membrane proteins in different detergents. Protein: detergent combinations that elute with a symmetrical peak with little or no free GFP and minimum aggregation are candidates for subsequent purification. Using the above methodology, the heterologous expression in E. coli of SED (shape, elongation, division, and sporulation) proteins from 47 different species of bacteria was analyzed. These proteins typically have ten transmembrane domains and are essential for cell division. The results show that the production of the SEDs orthologues in E. coli was highly variable with respect to the expression levels and integrity of the GFP fusion proteins. The experiment identified a subset for further investigation. PMID:25590335

Bird, Louise E.; Rada, Heather; Verma, Anil; Gasper, Raphael; Birch, James; Jennions, Matthew; L?we, Jan; Moraes, Isabel; Owens, Raymond J.

2015-01-01

174

Genome-wide screens for expressed hypothetical proteins.  

PubMed

A hypothetical protein (HP) is defined as a protein that is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame, but for which there is no experimental evidence of translation. HPs constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes of human as well as of other organisms. With the general belief that the majority of HPs are the product of pseudogenes, it is essential to have a tool with the ability of pinpointing the minority of HPs with a high probability of being expressed. PMID:22130981

Desler, Claus; Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

2012-01-01

175

p53 AND MDM2 PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN ACTINIC CHEILITIS  

PubMed Central

Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant lip lesion caused by excessive and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to histomorphological alterations indicative of abnormal cell differentiation. In this pathology, varying degrees of epithelial dysplasia may be found. There are few published studies regarding the p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis. Fifty-eight cases diagnosed with actinic cheilitis were histologically evaluated using Banóczy and Csiba (1976) parameters, and were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using the streptavidin-biotin method in order to assess p53 and MDM2 protein expression. All studied cases expressed p53 proteins in basal and suprabasal layers. In the basal layer, the nuclei testing positive for p53 were stained intensely, while in the suprabasal layer, cells with slightly stained nuclei were predominant. All cases also tested positive for the MDM2 protein, but with varying degrees of nuclear expression and a predominance of slightly stained cells. A statistically significant correlation between the percentage of p53 and MDM2-positive cells was established, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. The expression of p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis can be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. PMID:19082401

de Freitas, Maria da Conceição Andrade; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Moreira, André Luis Gomes; Reis, Sílvia Regina Almeida

2008-01-01

176

Beyond protein expression, MOPED goes multi-omics  

PubMed Central

MOPED (Multi-Omics Profiling Expression Database; http://moped.proteinspire.org) has transitioned from solely a protein expression database to a multi-omics resource for human and model organisms. Through a web-based interface, MOPED presents consistently processed data for gene, protein and pathway expression. To improve data quality, consistency and use, MOPED includes metadata detailing experimental design and analysis methods. The multi-omics data are integrated through direct links between genes and proteins and further connected to pathways and experiments. MOPED now contains over 5 million records, information for approximately 75 000 genes and 50 000 proteins from four organisms (human, mouse, worm, yeast). These records correspond to 670 unique combinations of experiment, condition, localization and tissue. MOPED includes the following new features: pathway expression, Pathway Details pages, experimental metadata checklists, experiment summary statistics and more advanced searching tools. Advanced searching enables querying for genes, proteins, experiments, pathways and keywords of interest. The system is enhanced with visualizations for comparing across different data types. In the future MOPED will expand the number of organisms, increase integration with pathways and provide connections to disease. PMID:25404128

Montague, Elizabeth; Janko, Imre; Stanberry, Larissa; Lee, Elaine; Choiniere, John; Anderson, Nathaniel; Stewart, Elizabeth; Broomall, William; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Kolker, Eugene

2015-01-01

177

The Expression and Significance of Neuronal Iconic Proteins in Podocytes  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that there are many common cell biological features shared by neurons and podocytes; however, the mechanism of podocyte foot process formation remains unclear. Comparing the mechanisms of process formation between two cell types should provide useful guidance from the progress of neuron research. Studies have shown that some mature proteins of podocytes, such as podocin, nephrin, and synaptopodin, were also expressed in neurons. In this study, using cell biological experiments and immunohistochemical techniques, we showed that some neuronal iconic molecules, such as Neuron-specific enolase, nestin and Neuron-specific nuclear protein, were also expressed in podocytes. We further inhibited the expression of Neuron-specific enolase, nestin, synaptopodin and Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-1 by Small interfering RNA in cultured mouse podocytes and observed the significant morphological changes in treated podocytes. When podocytes were treated with Adriamycin, the protein expression of Neuron-specific enolase, nestin, synaptopodin and Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-1 decreased over time. Meanwhile, the morphological changes in the podocytes were consistent with results of the Small interfering RNA treatment of these proteins. The data demonstrated that neuronal iconic proteins play important roles in maintaining and regulating the formation and function of podocyte processes. PMID:24699703

Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongxia; Hu, Ruimin; Sun, Jianyong; Mao, Xing; Zhao, Zhonghua; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Zhigang

2014-01-01

178

Beyond protein expression, MOPED goes multi-omics.  

PubMed

MOPED (Multi-Omics Profiling Expression Database; http://moped.proteinspire.org) has transitioned from solely a protein expression database to a multi-omics resource for human and model organisms. Through a web-based interface, MOPED presents consistently processed data for gene, protein and pathway expression. To improve data quality, consistency and use, MOPED includes metadata detailing experimental design and analysis methods. The multi-omics data are integrated through direct links between genes and proteins and further connected to pathways and experiments. MOPED now contains over 5 million records, information for approximately 75,000 genes and 50,000 proteins from four organisms (human, mouse, worm, yeast). These records correspond to 670 unique combinations of experiment, condition, localization and tissue. MOPED includes the following new features: pathway expression, Pathway Details pages, experimental metadata checklists, experiment summary statistics and more advanced searching tools. Advanced searching enables querying for genes, proteins, experiments, pathways and keywords of interest. The system is enhanced with visualizations for comparing across different data types. In the future MOPED will expand the number of organisms, increase integration with pathways and provide connections to disease. PMID:25404128

Montague, Elizabeth; Janko, Imre; Stanberry, Larissa; Lee, Elaine; Choiniere, John; Anderson, Nathaniel; Stewart, Elizabeth; Broomall, William; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Kolker, Eugene

2015-01-01

179

Decreased Expression of GPER1 Gene and Protein in Goiter  

PubMed Central

Goiter is more common in women, suggesting that estrogen could be involved in its physiopathology. The presence of classical estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?) has been described in thyroid tissue, suggesting a direct effect of estrogen on the gland. A nonclassic estrogen receptor, the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1), has been described recently in several tissues. However, in goiter, the presence of this receptor has not been studied yet. We investigated GPER1 gene and protein expressions in normal thyroid and goiter using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot, respectively. In normal thyroid (n = 16) and goiter (n = 19), GPER1 gene was expressed in all samples, while GPER1 protein was expressed in all samples of normal thyroid (n = 15) but in only 72% of goiter samples (n = 13). When comparing GPER1 gene and protein levels in both conditions, gene expression and protein levels were higher in normal thyroid than in goiter, suggesting a role of this receptor in this condition. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of GPER1 in normal thyroid and goiter.

Bertoni, Ana Paula Santin; Bessestil, Laura Walter; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

2015-01-01

180

Characterization of Toronto virus capsid protein expressed in baculovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Toronto virus (TV), previously called “minireovirus,” a human calicivirus classified as genogroup 2 and phylogenetic type P2-A, was originally described in association with diarrhea in children. The second open reading frame, encoding the capsid protein of TV24, was expressed in a baculovirus recombinant. The recombinant baculovirus produced a protein (rTV) with an apparent molecular mass of 58 kDa that

J. P. G. Leite; T. Ando; J. S. Noel; B. Jiang; C. D. Humphrey; J. F. Lew; K. Y. Green; R. I. Glass; S. S. Monroe

1996-01-01

181

Primate Cytomegaloviruses Encode and Express an IL10-like Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open reading frame (ORF) with homology to interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been identified in rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV). The IL-10-like protein is generated from a multispliced, polyadenylated early gene transcript encompassing part of the corresponding UL111A ORF of human CMV (HCMV). Immunological analyses confirm expression of the IL-10-like protein both in tissue culture and in RhCMV-infected rhesus macaques. Conserved ORFs were

Kristen M. Lockridge; Shan-Shan Zhou; Rachel H. Kravitz; Jennifer L. Johnson; Earl T. Sawai; Earl L. Blewett; Peter A. Barry

2000-01-01

182

Widespread expression of Huntington's disease gene (IT15) protein product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington's Disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat within a putative open reading frame of a recently identified gene, IT15. We have examined the expression of the gene's protein product using antibodies developed against the N-terminus and an internal epitope. Both antisera recognize a 350 kDa protein, the predicted size, indicating that the CAG repeat is translated

Alan H Sharp; Scott J Loev; Gabriele Schilling; Shi-Hua Li; Xiao-Jiang Li; Jun Bao; Molly V Wagster; Joyce A Kotzuk; Joseph P Steiner; Amy Lo; John Hedreen; Sangram Sisodia; Solomon H Snyder; Ted M Dawson; David K Ryugo; Christopher A Ross

1995-01-01

183

Human testis expresses a specific poly(A)-binding protein.  

E-print Network

Human testis expresses a specific poly(A)-binding protein. C. Féral, G. Guellaën and A. Pawlak, mRNA stability and translation initiation are greatly under the control of poly(A)-binding proteins (PABP). Here, we cloned a new human testis specific PABP (PABP3) of 631 a.a. (70.1 kDa) with 92

Boyer, Edmond

184

Methods and constructs for expression of foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms  

DOEpatents

A method for expressing and purifying foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms comprising the simultaneous expression of both the heterologous protein and a means for compartmentalizing or sequestering of the protein.

Laible, Philip D. (Villa Park, IL); Hanson, Deborah K. (Downers Grove, IL)

2002-01-01

185

Enhanced Brain Disposition and Effects of ?9Tetrahydrocannabinol in P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp, Abcg2) regulate the CNS disposition of many drugs. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has affinity for P-gp and Bcrp, however it is unknown whether these transporters modulate the brain accumulation of THC and its functional effects on the CNS. Here we aim to show that

Adena S. Spiro; Alexander Wong; Aurélie A. Boucher; Jonathon C. Arnold

2012-01-01

186

Protein Dynamics: Implications for Nuclear Architecture and Gene Expression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies of nuclear architecture reveal that the dynamic properties of proteins in the nucleus are critical for their function. The high mobility of proteins ensures their availability throughout the nucleus; their dynamic interplay generates an ever-changing, but overall stable, architectural framework, within which nuclear processes take place. As a consequence, overall nuclear morphology is determined by the functional interactions of nuclear components. The observed dynamic properties of nuclear proteins are consistent with a central role for stochastic mechanisms in gene expression and nuclear architecture.

Tom Mistelli (National Cancer Institute; )

2001-02-02

187

Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) interacting proteins exhibit different expression patterns during development.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome is caused by the lack of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and translation. FMRP is a component of mRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes and it can interact with a range of proteins either directly or indirectly, as demonstrated by two-hybrid selection and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. Most of FMRP-interacting proteins are RNA-binding proteins such as FXR1P, FXR2P and 82-FIP. Interestingly, FMRP can also interact directly with the cytoplasmic proteins CYFIP1 and CYFIP2, which do not bind RNA and link FMRP to the RhoGTPase pathway. The interaction with these different proteins may modulate the functions of FMRP by influencing its affinity to RNA and by affecting the FMRP ability of cytoskeleton remodeling through Rho/Rac GTPases. To better define the relationship of FMRP with its interacting proteins during brain development, we have analyzed the expression pattern of FMRP and its interacting proteins in the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum at different ages in wild type (WT) mice. FMRP and FXR2P were strongly expressed during the first week and gradually decreased thereafter, more rapidly in the cerebellum than in the cortex. FXR1P was also expressed early and showed a reduction at later stages of development with a similar developmental pattern in these two regions. CYFIP1 was expressed at all ages and peaked in the third post-natal week. In contrast, CYFIP2 and 82-FIP (only in forebrain regions) were moderately expressed at P3 and gradually increased after P7. In general, the expression pattern of each protein was similar in the regions examined, except for 82-FIP, which exhibited a strong expression at P3 and low levels at later developmental stages in the cerebellum. Our data indicate that FMRP and its interacting proteins have distinct developmental patterns of expression and suggest that FMRP may be preferentially associated to certain proteins in early and late developmental periods. In particular, the RNA-binding and cytoskeleton remodeling functions of FMRP may be differently modulated during development. PMID:25681562

Bonaccorso, C M; Spatuzza, M; Di Marco, B; Gloria, A; Barrancotto, G; Cupo, A; Musumeci, S A; D'Antoni, S; Bardoni, B; Catania, M V

2015-05-01

188

Expression and Function of Bcl-2 Proteins in Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Bcl-2 proteins are critical regulators of mitochondrial membrane permeability and the proapoptotic mitochondrial pathway. The family encloses pro- and antiapoptotic factors encoded by over 15 genes, which frequently give rise to alternative splice products. Antiapoptotic, proapoptotic multidomain, and proapoptotic BH3-only proteins are characterized by the presence of at least one of four Bcl-2 homology domains (BH 1-4). Their expression and activities are controlled by survival pathways as MAP kinases and protein kinase B/Akt, which are in touch with a number of transcription factors. In melanoma, the mitochondrial apoptosis pathways and Bcl-2 proteins appear of particular importance for apoptosis resistance, which has been addressed in clinical trials applying antisense-Bcl-2. Overexpression or induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins as well as the use of small molecule mimetics for the proapoptotic BH3 domain are further promising strategies. PMID:19506730

Eberle, Jürgen; Hossini, Amir M

2008-01-01

189

Function of PPR proteins in plastid gene expression  

PubMed Central

PPR proteins form a huge family in flowering plants and are involved in RNA maturation in plastids and mitochondria. These proteins are sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins that recruit the machinery of RNA processing. We summarize progress in the research on the functional mechanisms of divergent RNA maturation and on the mechanism by which RNA sequences are recognized. We further focus on two topics. RNA editing is an enigmatic process of RNA maturation in organelles, in which members of the PLS subfamily contribute to target site recognition. As the first topic, we speculate on why the PLS subfamily was selected by the RNA editing machinery. Second, we discuss how the regulation of plastid gene expression contributes to efficient photosynthesis. Although the molecular functions of PPR proteins have been studied extensively, information on the physiological significance of regulation by these proteins remains very limited. PMID:23771106

Shikanai, Toshiharu; Fujii, Sota

2013-01-01

190

Heterochromatin protein 1 expression is reduced in human thyroid malignancy.  

PubMed

Owing to the loss of heterochromatin integrity that occurs during thyroid tumorigenesis, the expression of Heterochromatin Protein 1 isoforms HP1? and HP1? was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 189 thyroid tumors and non-neoplastic tissues. Expression of HP1? was significantly decreased in all thyroid lesions, except in follicular adenomas, when compared with matched adjacent normal tissue. This loss of HP1? expression may in part be caused by microRNA dysregulation. An example is miR-205, a microRNA that is abundantly upregulated in thyroid carcinomas and shown to reduce the expression of HP1?. In contrast to HP1?, HP1? expression was only reduced in metastatic carcinomas and poorly differentiated lesions. These results suggest the reduction of HP1? followed by a decrease in HP1? contributes to the pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas, and their loss is a potential marker of thyroid malignancy and metastatic potential, respectively. PMID:24840329

Tretiakova, Maria S; Bond, Sarah D; Wheeler, David; Contreras, Alejandro; Kocherginsky, Masha; Kroll, Todd G; Hale, Tracy K

2014-07-01

191

Using Green and Red Fluorescent Proteins to Teach Protein Expression, Purification, and Crystallization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have designed a laboratory curriculum using the green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) to visualize the cloning, expression, chromatography purification, crystallization, and protease-cleavage experiments of protein science. The EGFP and DsRed monomer (mDsRed)-coding sequences were amplified by PCR and cloned into pMAL (MBP-EGFP) or…

Wu, Yifeng; Zhou, Yangbin; Song, Jiaping; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Zhihong

2008-01-01

192

Expression of targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 is associated with progression of human malignant astrocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, the targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a cell cycle-associated protein, and altered TPX2 expression has been found in various malignancies. However, the contribution of TPX2 expression to astrocytoma progression is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate TPX2 expression in human astrocytoma samples and cell lines. TPX2 protein expression was detected in

Bin Li; Xiang-Qian Qi; Xin Chen; Xin Huang; Guo-Ying Liu; Huai-Rui Chen; Cheng-Guang Huang; Chun Luo; Yi-Cheng Lu

2010-01-01

193

IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEINS EXPRESSED IN GERMINATING PHAKOPSORA PACHYRHIZI UREDINIOSPORES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phakopsora pachyrhizi is the causal agent of Asian soybean rust, a devastating disease that was recently identified in 9 U.S. states during the fall of 2004. In order to develop long-term strategies to combat this disease, we are focusing on proteins expressed in germinating spores and secreted by t...

194

Computational codon optimization of synthetic gene for protein expression  

PubMed Central

Background The construction of customized nucleic acid sequences allows us to have greater flexibility in gene design for recombinant protein expression. Among the various parameters considered for such DNA sequence design, individual codon usage (ICU) has been implicated as one of the most crucial factors affecting mRNA translational efficiency. However, previous works have also reported the significant influence of codon pair usage, also known as codon context (CC), on the level of protein expression. Results In this study, we have developed novel computational procedures for evaluating the relative importance of optimizing ICU and CC for enhancing protein expression. By formulating appropriate mathematical expressions to quantify the ICU and CC fitness of a coding sequence, optimization procedures based on genetic algorithm were employed to maximize its ICU and/or CC fitness. Surprisingly, the in silico validation of the resultant optimized DNA sequences for Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that CC is a more relevant design criterion than the commonly considered ICU. Conclusions The proposed CC optimization framework can complement and enhance the capabilities of current gene design tools, with potential applications to heterologous protein production and even vaccine development in synthetic biotechnology. PMID:23083100

2012-01-01

195

VIRAL HEPATITIS Expression of Paramyxovirus V Proteins Promotes  

E-print Network

VIRAL HEPATITIS Expression of Paramyxovirus V Proteins Promotes Replication and Spread of Hepatitis with laboratory strains of hepatitis C virus (HCV), although levels of virus replication vary significantly spreads in its natural host cell population. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;54:1901-1912) A cute hepatitis C virus (HCV

Bhatia, Sangeeta

196

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Protein expression, survival and docetaxel benefit  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Protein expression, survival and docetaxel benefit in node-based chemotherapy improves disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival of node-positive early breast cancer-based chemotherapy, the most powerful predictor of docetaxel benefit is Ki67-positivity. Keywords: adjuvant docetaxel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Chemotactic Proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Chemotactic Proteins Hung-Yueh Yeh*, Kelli L. Hiett, John E. Line, Brian B. Oakley and Bruce S. Seal, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, Uni...

198

SURFACTANT PROTEIN D EXPRESSION IN NORMAL AND PNEUMONIC OVINE LUNG  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surfactant Protein D (SP-D), a hydrophilic pulmonary surfactant collagenous calcium-dependent lectin with opsonizing activity, binds to surface glycoconjugates expressed by a wide variety of microorganisms such as Gram-negative bacteria, Influenza A virus, and various fungi as well as surface carboh...

199

Expression, delivery and function of insecticidal proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses.  

PubMed

Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

Kroemer, Jeremy A; Bonning, Bryony C; Harrison, Robert L

2015-01-01

200

Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses  

PubMed Central

Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Bonning, Bryony C.; Harrison, Robert L.

2015-01-01

201

Heterologous Expression of Membrane Proteins: Choosing the Appropriate Host  

PubMed Central

Background Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides) and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells) hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals), functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes) and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments). The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. Conclusions/Significance Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein. PMID:22216205

Pochon, Nathalie; Dementin, Sébastien; Hivin, Patrick; Boutigny, Sylvain; Rioux, Jean-Baptiste; Salvi, Daniel; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Richaud, Pierre; Joyard, Jacques; Pignol, David; Sabaty, Monique; Desnos, Thierry; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Darrouzet, Elisabeth; Vernet, Thierry; Rolland, Norbert

2011-01-01

202

Expressed protein ligation: a resourceful tool to study protein structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review outlines the use of expressed protein ligation (EPL) to study protein structure, function and stability. EPL is\\u000a a chemoselective ligation method that allows the selective ligation of unprotected polypeptides from synthetic and recombinant\\u000a origin for the production of semi-synthetic protein samples of well-defined and homogeneous chemical composition. This method\\u000a has been extensively used for the site-specific introduction of

Luis Berrade; Julio A. Camarero

2009-01-01

203

Developmental expression of Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome family proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WASP) family proteins participate in many cellular processes involving rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. To the date, four WASP subfamily members have been described in Drosophila: Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy. Wash, WASp, and SCAR are essential during early Drosophila development where they function in orchestrating cytoplasmic events including membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. A mutant for Whamy has not yet been reported. Results We generated monoclonal antibodies that are specific to Drosophila Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy, and use these to describe their spatial and temporal localization patterns. Consistent with the importance of WASP family proteins in flies, we find that Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy are dynamically expressed throughout oogenesis and embryogenesis. For example, we find that Wash accumulates at the oocyte cortex. WASp is highly expressed in the PNS, while SCAR is the most abundantly expressed in the CNS. Whamy exhibits an asymmetric subcellular localization that overlaps with mitochondria and is highly expressed in muscle. Conclusion All four WASP family members show specific expression patterns, some of which reflect their previously known roles and others revealing new potential functions. The monoclonal antibodies developed offer valuable new tools to investigate how WASP family proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. PMID:22275148

Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Rosales-Nieves, Alicia E.; Parkhurst, Susan M.

2012-01-01

204

Production of therapeutic proteins in algae, analysis of expression of seven human proteins in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

PubMed Central

Summary Recombinant proteins are widely used today in many industries, including the biopharmaceutical industry, and can be expressed in bacteria, yeasts, mammalian and insect cell cultures, or in transgenic plants and animals. In addition, transgenic algae have also been shown to support recombinant protein expression, both from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. However, to date, there are only a few reports on recombinant proteins expressed in the algal chloroplast. It is unclear if this is due to few attempts or to limitations of the system that preclude expression of many proteins. Thus, we sought to assess the versatility of transgenic algae as a recombinant protein production platform. To do this, we tested whether the algal chloroplast could support the expression of a diverse set of current or potential human therapeutic proteins. Of the seven proteins chosen, greater than 50% expressed at levels sufficient for commercial production. Three expressed at 2% to 3% of total soluble protein, while a forth protein accumulated to similar levels when translationally fused to a well-expressed serum amyloid protein. All of the algal chloroplast-expressed proteins are soluble and showed biological activity comparable to that of the same proteins expressed using traditional production platforms. Thus, the success rate, expression levels, and bioactivty achieved demonstrate the utility of C. reinhardtii as a robust platform for human therapeutic protein production. PMID:20230484

Rasala, Beth A; Muto, Machiko; Lee, Philip A; Jager, Michal; Cardoso, Rosa MF; Behnke, Craig A; Kirk, Peter; Hokanson, Craig A; Crea, Roberto; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P

2010-01-01

205

Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer  

PubMed Central

Background With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. Results In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38?), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. Conclusion The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research. PMID:19383143

Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

2009-01-01

206

Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer  

SciTech Connect

With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance; (Accel. Tech.); (deCODE)

2009-12-01

207

LC–MS Based Detection of Differential Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

While several techniques are available in proteomics, LC-MS based analysis of complex protein/peptide mixtures has turned out to be a mainstream analytical technique for quantitative proteomics. Significant technical advances at both sample preparation/separation and mass spectrometry levels have revolutionized comprehensive proteome analysis. Moreover, automation and robotics for sample handling process permit multiple sampling with high throughput. For LC-MS based quantitative proteomics, sample preparation turns out to be critical step, as it can significantly influence sensitivity of downstream analysis. Several sample preparation strategies exist, including depletion of high abundant proteins or enrichment steps that facilitate protein quantification but with a compromise of focusing on a smaller subset of a proteome. While several experimental strategies have emerged, certain limitations such as physiochemical properties of a peptide/protein, protein turnover in a sample, analytical platform used for sample analysis and data processing, still imply challenges to quantitative proteomics. Other aspects that make analysis of a proteome a challenging task include dynamic nature of a proteome, need for efficient and fast analysis of protein due to its constant modifications inside a cell, concentration range of proteins that exceed dynamic range of a single analytical method, and absence of appropriate bioinformatics tools for analysis of large volume and high dimensional data. This paper gives an overview of various LC-MS methods currently used in quantitative proteomics and their potential for detecting differential protein expression. Fundamental steps such as sample preparation, LC separation, mass spectrometry, quantitative assessment and protein identification are discussed. For quantitative assessment of protein expression, both label and label free approaches are evaluated for their set of merits and demerits. While most of these methods edge on providing “relative abundance” information, absolute quantification is achieved with limitation as it caters to fewer proteins. Isotope labeling is extensively used for quantifying differentially expressed proteins, but is severely limited by successful incorporation of its heavy label. Lengthy labeling protocols restrict the number of samples that can be labeled and processed. Alternatively, label free approach appears promising as it can process many samples with any number of comparisons possible but entails reproducible experimental data for its application. PMID:20473349

Tuli, Leepika; Ressom, Habtom W.

2010-01-01

208

Co-treatment with the anti-malarial drugs mefloquine and primaquine highly sensitizes drug-resistant cancer cells by increasing P-gp inhibition.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify conditions that will increase the sensitivity of resistant cancer cells to anti-mitotic drugs. Currently, atovaquine (ATO), chloroquine (CHL), primaquine (PRI), mefloquine (MEF), artesunate (ART), and doxycycline (DOY) are the most commonly used anti-malarial drugs. Herein, we tested whether anti-malarial drugs can sensitize drug-resistant KBV20C cancer cells. None of the six tested anti-malarial drugs was found to better sensitize the drug-resistant cells compared to the sensitive KB cells. With an exception of DOY, all other anti-malarial drugs tested could sensitize both KB and KBV20C cells to a similar extent, suggesting that anti-malarial drugs could be used for sensitive as well as resistant cancer cells. Furthermore, we examined the effects of anti-malarial drugs in combination with an antimitotic drug, vinblastine (VIN) on the sensitisation of resistant KBV20C cells. Using viability assay, microscopic observation, assessment of cleaved PARP, and Hoechst staining, we identified that two anti-malarial drugs, PRI and MEF, highly sensitized KBV20C-resistant cells to VIN treatment. Moreover, PRI- or MEF-induced sensitisation was not observed in VIN-treated sensitive KB parent cells, suggesting that the observed effect is specific to resistant cancer cells. We demonstrated that the PRI and MEF sensitisation mechanism mainly depends on the inhibition of p-glycoprotein (P-gp). Our findings may contribute to the development of anti-malarial drug-based combination therapies for patients resistant to anti-mitotic drugs. PMID:24284282

Kim, Ju-Hwa; Choi, Ae-Ran; Kim, Yong Kee; Yoon, Sungpil

2013-11-22

209

Changes in protein expression during honey bee larval development  

PubMed Central

Background The honey bee (Apis mellifera), besides its role in pollination and honey production, serves as a model for studying the biochemistry of development, metabolism, and immunity in a social organism. Here we use mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to quantify nearly 800 proteins during the 5- to 6-day larval developmental stage, tracking their expression profiles. Results We report that honey bee larval growth is marked by an age-correlated increase of protein transporters and receptors, as well as protein nutrient stores, while opposite trends in protein translation activity and turnover were observed. Levels of the immunity factors prophenoloxidase and apismin are positively correlated with development, while others surprisingly were not significantly age-regulated, suggesting a molecular explanation for why bees are susceptible to major age-associated bee bacterial infections such as American Foulbrood or fungal diseases such as chalkbrood. Previously unreported findings include the reduction of antioxidant and G proteins in aging larvae. Conclusion These data have allowed us to integrate disparate findings in previous studies to build a model of metabolism and maturity of the immune system during larval development. This publicly accessible resource for protein expression trends will help generate new hypotheses in the increasingly important field of honey bee research. PMID:18959778

Chan, Queenie WT; Foster, Leonard J

2008-01-01

210

G-protein coupled receptor expression patterns delineate medulloblastoma subgroups  

PubMed Central

Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Genetic profiling has identified four principle tumor subgroups; each subgroup is characterized by different initiating mutations, genetic and clinical profiles, and prognoses. The two most well-defined subgroups are caused by overactive signaling in the WNT and SHH mitogenic pathways; less is understood about Groups 3 and 4 medulloblastoma. Identification of tumor subgroup using molecular classification is set to become an important component of medulloblastoma diagnosis and staging, and will likely guide therapeutic options. However, thus far, few druggable targets have emerged. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess characteristics that make them ideal targets for molecular imaging and therapeutics; drugs targeting GPCRs account for 30-40% of all current pharmaceuticals. While expression patterns of many proteins in human medulloblastoma subgroups have been discerned, the expression pattern of GPCRs in medulloblastoma has not been investigated. We hypothesized that analysis of GPCR expression would identify clear subsets of medulloblastoma and suggest distinct GPCRs that might serve as molecular targets for both imaging and therapy. Results Our study found that medulloblastoma tumors fall into distinct clusters based solely on GPCR expression patterns. Normal cerebellum clustered separately from the tumor samples. Further, two of the tumor clusters correspond with high fidelity to the WNT and SHH subgroups of medulloblastoma. Distinct over-expressed GPCRs emerge; for example, LGR5 and GPR64 are significantly and uniquely over-expressed in the WNT subgroup of tumors, while PTGER4 is over-expressed in the SHH subgroup. Uniquely under-expressed GPCRs were also observed. Our key findings were independently validated using a large international dataset. Conclusions Our results identify GPCRs with potential to act as imaging and therapeutic targets. Elucidating tumorigenic pathways is a secondary benefit to identifying differential GPCR expression patterns in medulloblastoma tumors. PMID:24252460

2013-01-01

211

Effects of licochalcone A on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats: possible role of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibition by licochalcone A.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of licochalcone A (a herbal medicine) on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine and its main metabolite, dehydronifedipine, in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine and/or dehydronifedipine were determined after oral and intravenous administration of nifedipine to rats in the absence (control) and presence of licochalcone A (0.4, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg). The effect of licochalcone A on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity was also evaluated. Nifedipine was mainly metabolized by CYP3A4. Licochalcone A inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) of 5.9 ?m. In addition, licochalcone A significantly enhanced the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) of oral nifedipine were significantly greater and higher, respectively, with licochalcone A. The metabolite (dehydronifedipine)-parent AUC ratio (MR) in the presence of licochalcone A was significantly smaller compared with the control group. The above data could be due to an inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp by licochalcone A. The AUCs of intravenous nifedipine were comparable without and with licochalcone A, suggesting that inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4 and P-gp was almost negligible. PMID:24903704

Choi, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jun-Shik; Choi, Dong-Hyun

2014-10-01

212

Influence of combinations of digitonin with selected phenolics, terpenoids, and alkaloids on the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in leukaemia and colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. It is involved in the efflux of several anticancer drugs, which leads to chemotherapy failure and multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. Representative secondary metabolites (SM) including phenolics (EGCG and thymol), terpenoids (menthol, aromadendrene, ?-sitosterol-O-glucoside, and ?-carotene), and alkaloids (glaucine, harmine, and sanguinarine) were evaluated as potential P-gp inhibitors (transporter activity and expression level) in P-gp expressing Caco-2 and CEM/ADR5000 cancer cell lines. Selected SM increased the accumulation of the rhodamine 123 (Rho123) and calcein-AM (CAM) in a dose dependent manner in Caco-2 cells, indicating that they act as competitive inhibitors of P-gp. Non-toxic concentrations of ?-carotene (40?M) and sanguinarine (1?M) significantly inhibited Rho123 and CAM efflux in CEM/ADR5000 cells by 222.42% and 259.25% and by 244.02% and 290.16%, respectively relative to verapamil (100%). Combination of the saponin digitonin (5?M), which also inhibits P-gp, with SM significantly enhanced the inhibition of P-gp activity. The results were correlated with the data obtained from a quantitative analysis of MDR1 expression. Both compounds significantly decreased mRNA levels of the MDR1 gene to 48% (p<0.01) and 46% (p<0.01) in Caco-2, and to 61% (p<0.05) and 1% (p<0.001) in CEM/ADR5000 cells, respectively as compared to the untreated control (100%). Combinations of digitonin with SM resulted in a significant down-regulation of MDR1. Our findings provide evidence that the selected SM interfere directly and/or indirectly with P-gp function. Combinations of different P-gp substrates, such as digitonin alone and together with the set of SM, can mediate MDR reversal in cancer cells. PMID:23999162

Eid, Safaa Yehia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Eldin, Essam Eldin Mohamed Nour; Fatani, Sameer Hassan; Wink, Michael

2013-12-15

213

Survivin and related proteins in canine mammary tumors: immunohistochemical expression.  

PubMed

Survivin is reexpressed in most human breast cancers, where its expression has been associated with tumor aggressiveness, poor prognosis, and poor response to therapy. Survivin expression was evaluated in 41 malignant canine mammary tumors (CMTs) by immunohistochemistry, in relation to histological grade and stage, and correlated with that of some related molecules (?-catenin, caspase 3, heat shock proteins) to understand their possible role in canine mammary tumorigenesis. An increase in nuclear survivin expression, compared with healthy mammary glands, was observed in CMTs, where nuclear immunolabeling was related to the presence of necrosis. No statistically significant relation was found between the expression of the investigated molecules and the histological grade or stage. The present study may suggest an important involvement of survivin in CMT tumorigenesis. Its overexpression in most of the cases evaluated might suggest that targeting survivin in CMTs may be a valid anticancer therapy. PMID:24686389

Bongiovanni, L; Romanucci, M; Malatesta, D; D'Andrea, A; Ciccarelli, A; Della Salda, L

2015-03-01

214

Hypoxia affects mitochondrial protein expression in rat skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Hypoxia affects mammalian mitochondrial function, as well as mitochondria-based energy metabolism. The detail mechanism has not been fully understood. In this study, we detected protein expression levels in mitochondrial fractions of Wistar rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia by use of proteomic methods. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into an hypoxic (4,500?m, 30 days) group and a normoxic control group (sea level). Gastrocnemius muscles mitochondria were extracted and purified. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured with a Clark oxygen electrode; mitochondrial transmembrane potential was detected with Rhodamine 123 as a fluoresce probe. Using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS analysis, we identified eight mitochondrial protein spots that were differentially expressed in the hypoxic group compared with the normoxic control. These proteins included Chain A of F1-ATPase, voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC), hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenase ?-subunit, mitochondrial F1 complex ?-subunit, androgen-regulated protein and tripartite motif protein 50. Two of the spots, VDAC and ATP synthase ?-subunit, were confirmed by Western blotting analysis. Oxygen consumption during State 3 respiration, as well as the respiratory control ratio (RCR) was significantly higher in the control than that in the hypoxic group; mitochondrial transmembrane potential was significantly higher in hypoxic group than that in the control. With successful use of multiple proteomic analysis techniques, we demonstrates that 30 days hypoxia exposure has effects on the expression of mitochondrial proteins involved in ATP production and lipid metabolism, decrease the stability of mitochondrial membrane, and affect the mitochondrial electron transport chain. PMID:22401655

Chen, Jian; Gao, Yuqi; Liao, Weigong; Huang, Jian; Gao, Wenxiang

2012-03-01

215

Tissue-Specific Protein Expression in Plant Mitochondria.  

PubMed Central

Although the physiological role of plant mitochondria is thought to vary in different tissues at progressive stages of development, there has been little documentation that the complement of mitochondrial proteins is altered in different plant organs. Because the phenomenon of cytoplasmic male sterility suggests an unusual function for mitochondria in floral buds, we examined the tissue-specific expression of mitochondrial proteins in petunia buds at several stages of development, using both fertile and cytoplasmic male sterile plants. On tissue prints of cryostat-sectioned buds, antibodies recognizing subunit A of the mitochondrial ATPase (ATPA) localized very differently from antibodies recognizing subunit II of the cytochrome oxidase (COXII), which indicated that mitochondria in the same tissue could differentially express mitochondrially encoded proteins. The petunia cytoplasmic male sterility-associated fused (pcf) gene encodes a protein that colocalized with ATPA and the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOA) in sporogenous tissues, where little COXII protein was found. These overlapping and differential localization patterns may provide clues to the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility. PMID:12244222

Conley, C. A.; Hanson, M. R.

1994-01-01

216

Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

Deng Jianbei [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hua Kunjie [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Caveney, Erica J. [Department of Medicine, CB 7005, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, CB 7525, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Harp, Joyce B. [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)]. E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

2006-01-20

217

Hypoxia decreases podocyte expression of slit diaphragm proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic hypoxia contributes to progressive tubulointerstitial injury and, consequently, renal failure. However, the effect of hypoxia on glomerular podocytes, which are integral to the slit diaphragm complex and responsible for selectivity of the glomerular filtration barrier, has not been completely determined. Methods Conditionally immortalized mouse podocyte cells were exposed to hypoxic (1% O2) or normoxic (room air) conditions for 24, 48, or 72 hours, after which cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Cells were stained with podocin and phalloidin to determine podocin and intracellular actin distribution. Expression of synaptopodin, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), NcK, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1?) were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Podocytes exposed to hypoxia had significantly reduced viability at 48 (87%) and 72 hours (66%). There was disarrangement of intracellular filament actin by phalloidin staining, a 30% weaker fluorescence intensity by podocin staining, significantly reduced expression of synaptopodin (12%), CD2AP (42%), NcK (38%), and increased expression of TGF-?1 and P-ERK after hypoxia treatment. Conclusion Podocyte exposure to hypoxia leads to reduced viability and SD protein expression, which may explain persistent and/or increasing proteinuria in patients with progressive renal failure. Increased expression of TGF-?1 and P-ERK is associated with apoptosis and fibrosis, which could be the link between hypoxia and glomerular injury. PMID:22888268

Lu, Hong; Kapur, Gaurav; Mattoo, Tej K; Lyman, William D

2012-01-01

218

Differential protein expression in perfusates from metastasized rat livers  

PubMed Central

Background Liver perfusates exhibit theoretical advantages regarding the discovery of disease biomarkers because they contain proteins that readily enter the blood-stream, and perfusion preserves the disease state in its natural context. The purpose of the study is to explore the value of liver perfusate proteome in the biomarker discovery of liver diseases. Results In this study, 86 differentially expressed proteins were identified in perfusates from isolated rat livers metastasized by Walker-256 tumor cells. Among these proteins, 27 were predicted to be secreted, and 59 were intracellular or membrane proteins. Most of the secretory proteins (70.4%) were decreased in metastasized liver perfusates. The main canonical ingenuity pathway to which these secretory proteins belonged was acute phase response, which indicated that the liver-associated immune reaction was damaged by the metastasis. In contrast, most of the intracellular or membrane proteins (86.4%) exhibited higher relative abundances in the metastasized liver perfusates. Some of these proteins, including Rpl21, Atic, Eif3s2, Echs1, Eps15 and Ywhab, have previously been reported to be involved in cancer genesis and progression. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, Ywhab plays a key role in cellular proliferation and oncogenic transformation and has been reported to be involved in the development of breast cancer. Its abundance was elevated by 3.5-fold in the metastasized perfusates. Validation by Western blotting revealed a 3.7-fold increase in the abundance of this protein in metastasized plasma. Conclusions These results show that perfusate proteome can be used as an alternative initial resource for biomarker identification, which ultimately requires validation in serum. PMID:23895178

2013-01-01

219

Proteomic analysis of the proliferative and secretory phases of the human endometrium: protein identification and differential protein expression.  

PubMed

Proteomic analyses of the proliferative and secretory phases of the human endometrium were carried out to identify proteins and discover differentially expressed proteins using isotope-coded affinity tags, three stages of chromatographic separation and online tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). From an initial list of 346 proteins identified by ProICAT, manual inspection of MS/MS spectra and confirmatory searches pared the list down to 119 positively identified proteins. Only five of the proteins showed consistent differential expression. The utility of some of these proteins as indicators of true differential expression in the endometrium is open to discussion. The two proteins with unquestionable differential expressions in the secretory endometrium are: glutamate NMDA receptor subunit zeta 1 precursor and FRAT1. Some of the proteins that show no differential expression have previously been examined in gene-expression studies with similar conclusions. PMID:15602768

DeSouza, Leroi; Diehl, Georg; Yang, Eric C C; Guo, Jingzhong; Rodrigues, Mary Joe; Romaschin, Alexander D; Colgan, Terence J; Siu, K W Michael

2005-01-01

220

Expression of rabies virus G protein in carrots ( Daucus carota )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigens derived from various pathogens can readily be synthesized at high levels in plants in their authentic forms. Such\\u000a antigens administered orally can induce an immune response and, in some cases, result in protection against a subsequent challenge.\\u000a We here report the expression of rabies virus G protein into carrots. The G gene was subcloned into the pUCpSSrabG vector\\u000a and

Edith Rojas-Anaya; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Maria Teresa Olivera-Flores; Miguel Gomez-Lim

2009-01-01

221

Splice Isoforms of Phosducin-like Protein Control the Expression of Heterotrimeric G Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Heterotrimeric G proteins play an essential role in cellular signaling; however, the mechanism regulating their synthesis and assembly remains poorly understood. A line of evidence indicates that the posttranslational processing of G protein ? subunits begins inside the protein-folding chamber of the chaperonin containing t-complex protein 1. This process is facilitated by the ubiquitously expressed phosducin-like protein (PhLP), which is thought to act as a CCT co-factor. Here we demonstrate that alternative splicing of the PhLP gene gives rise to a transcript encoding a truncated, short protein (PhLPs) that is broadly expressed in human tissues but absent in mice. Seeking to elucidate the function of PhLPs, we expressed this protein in the rod photoreceptors of mice and found that this manipulation caused a dramatic translational and posttranslational suppression of rod heterotrimeric G proteins. The investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that PhLPs disrupts the folding of G? and the assembly of G? and G? subunits, events normally assisted by PhLP, by forming a stable and apparently inactive tertiary complex with CCT preloaded with nascent G?. As a result, the cellular levels of G? and G?, which depends on G? for stability, decline. In addition, PhLPs evokes a profound and rather specific down-regulation of the G? transcript, leading to a complete disappearance of the protein. This study provides the first evidence of a generic mechanism, whereby the splicing of the PhLP gene could potentially and efficiently regulate the cellular levels of heterotrimeric G proteins. PMID:23888055

Gao, Xueli; Sinha, Satyabrata; Belcastro, Marycharmain; Woodard, Catherine; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan; Stoilov, Peter; Sokolov, Maxim

2013-01-01

222

SNARE protein expression and localization in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The major function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is to eliminate pathogen-infected and tumorigenic cells. This is mediated mainly through the exocytosis of lytic granules (LGs) containing cytotoxic components, such as perforin and granzymes at the immunological synapse (IS). The soluble NSF attachment receptor (SNARE) protein isoforms are well known to be required for vesicle exocytosis in neuronal synapses, but their potential function in CTLs is only partly understood. Here, we examined the expression of SNARE proteins before and after the activation of primary human CD8(+) T cells and determined their co-localization with LGs and CD3 after IS formation with target cells. We found that several key SNARE proteins in neuronal cells were not expressed in CTLs, such as syntaxin1B2 and SNAP-25. Vti1b, Stx8 and Stx16 had the highest degrees of co-localization with LGs while Stx3, Stx4, Stx6, Stx7, Stx8, Stx13, Vti1b, VAMP3 and VAMP4 co-localized with CD3. Our data provide the first complete expression profile and localization of SNAREs in primary human CD8(+) T cells, laying the groundwork for further understanding their potential role in T-cell function. PMID:22120889

Pattu, Varsha; Qu, Bin; Schwarz, Eva C; Strauss, Bettina; Weins, Lisa; Bhat, Shruthi S; Halimani, Mahantappa; Marshall, Misty; Rettig, Jens; Hoth, Markus

2012-02-01

223

Prognostic significance of elongator protein 3 expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Elongator protein 3 (ELP3), the catalytic subunit of the elongator complex of RNA polymerase II, is involved in various functions, including transcriptional elongation, chromatin modification and cytoskeletal regulation. In this study, ELP3 expression was immunohistochemically examined in normal uterus tissue and uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma tissue. ELP3 was abundantly expressed in both the proliferative and secretory phases of the endometrial cycle. However, ELP3 expression levels varied among cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. In patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, a low ELP3 expression was correlated to a high T-factor (p=0.036), tumor stage (p=0.001), lymph node metastasis (p<0.001), resistance to chemotherapy (p=0.045), recurrence (p=0.004) and poor prognosis (p=0.003). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that a low ELP3 expression was an independent factor for poor prognosis. In conclusion, this is the first study to examine the clinical implications of ELP3 expression in cancer. PMID:22740850

WANG, YI; IKEDA, JUN-ICHIRO; RAHADIANI, NUR; MAMAT, SUHANA; UEDA, YUTAKA; TIAN, TIAN; ENOMOTO, TAKAYUKI; KIMURA, TADASHI; AOZASA, KATSUYUKI; MORII, EIICHI

2012-01-01

224

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? regulates glial proinflammatory gene expression.  

PubMed

The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is expressed in activated astrocytes and microglia and can regulate the expression of potentially detrimental proinflammatory genes. The objective of this study was to determine the role of C/EBP? in glial activation. To this end, glial activation was analyzed in primary glial cultures and in the central nervous system from wild type and C/EBP?(-/-) mice. In vitro studies showed that the expression of proinflammatory genes nitric oxide (NO)synthase-2, cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 in glial cultures, and the neurotoxicity elicited by microglia in neuron-microglia cocultures, were decreased in the absence of C/EBP? when cultures were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon ?, but not with LPS alone. In C/EBP?(-/-) mice, systemic LPS-induced brain expression of NO synthase-2, tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 was attenuated. Finally, increased C/EBP? nuclear expression was observed in microglial cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and G93A-SOD1 mice spinal cord. These results demonstrate that C/EBP? plays a key role in the regulation of proinflammatory gene expression in glial activation and suggest that C/EBP? inhibition has potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23523267

Valente, Tony; Straccia, Marco; Gresa-Arribas, Nuria; Dentesano, Guido; Tusell, Josep M; Serratosa, Joan; Mancera, Pilar; Solà, Carme; Saura, Josep

2013-09-01

225

Site-specific conjugation of oligonucleotides to the C-terminus of recombinant protein by expressed protein ligation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a convenient method for synthesizing homogeneous DNA–protein conjugates. The method is based on expressed protein ligation of intein-fusion proteins and oligonucleotides derivatized with a cysteine. A range of cysteinyl oligonucleotides were synthesized by using a new reagent 1 and were successfully applied to expressed protein ligation to attach the oligonucleotides specifically at the C-terminus of a recombinant protein.

Shuji Takeda; Shinya Tsukiji; Teruyuki Nagamune

2004-01-01

226

A Novel Protein Is Lower Expressed in Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Engrailed-2 (EN2) has been identified as a candidate oncogene in breast cancer and prostate cancer. It is usually recognized as a mainly nuclear staining in the cells. However, recent studies showed a cytoplasmic staining occurred in prostate cancer, bladder cancer and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The inconsistency makes us confused. To clarify the localization and expression of EN2 in renal cell carcinoma, anti-EN2 antibody (ab28731) and anti-EN2 antibody (MAB2600) were used for immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively. Interestingly, we found that EN2 detected by ab28731 was mainly presented in cytoplasm while EN2 detected by MAB2600 was mainly presented in nucleus. To further investigate the different patterns observed above, lysates from full-length EN2 over expression in HEK293T cells were used to identify which antibody the EN2 molecule bound by western blot. Results showed ab28731 did not react with the lysates. For this reason, the novel specific protein detected by ab28731 was not the EN2 molecule and was named nonEN2. Then using the renal carcinoma tissue microarray and renal tissues, we found that the protein expression levels of nonEN2 in kidney tumor tissues was significantly lower than that in kidney normal tissues (p < 0.05), so was in renal cell lines. Taken together, nonEN2 is lower expressed and may play an important role in renal cell carcinoma. PMID:24786097

Guan, Ruili; Xu, Yongde; Lei, Hongen; Gao, Zhezhu; Xin, Zhongcheng; Guo, Yinglu

2014-01-01

227

Molecular cloning and expression of starfish protein kinase C isoforms.  

PubMed

To investigate the roles of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in Echinoderms, we cloned starfish cDNAs for novel, atypical, and conventional PKCs. They showed highest homology with PKCdelta, iota, and alpha isoforms respectively. It was predicted from the whole genome sequence and by RT-PCR that sea urchin has only one isoform of each PKC subgroups. It is thus likely that these isoforms are the prototypes or ancestors of the PKC subgroups. The phylogenetic tree suggests that atypical PKC was first formed by evolution from the common prototype of AGC protein kinase family, and novel and conventional PKCs next. RT-PCR analysis indicated that novel and atypical PKC mRNAs are expressed ubiquitously in all tissues of adult starfish, whereas conventional PKC mRNA is expressed mainly in the ovary and oocytes, and only slightly in the tube foot and stomach. Upon heterologous expression, only atypical PKC was expressed in the functional form in insect cells. PMID:19584538

Miyake, Yasuo; Yasui, Masaru; Ikeda, Kaori; Kondo, Tsunenori; Tsukamoto, Shinpei; Hori, Chinami; Okemoto, Naomi; Mashou, Keiko; Bando, Reiko; Nakamura, Naoko; Toraya, Tetsuo

2009-07-01

228

Abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of Arabidopsis SR protein gene expression.  

PubMed

Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

Cruz, Tiago M D; Carvalho, Raquel F; Richardson, Dale N; Duque, Paula

2014-01-01

229

Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

Cruz, Tiago M. D.; Carvalho, Raquel F.; Richardson, Dale N.; Duque, Paula

2014-01-01

230

Expression and characterization of a lepidopteran general odorant binding protein.  

PubMed

Olfaction in months involves the transport of volatile, hydrophobic odorant molecules through the aqueous interior of the antennal sensory hairs by soluble odorant binding proteins. Two subfamilies of the 17 kDa general odorant binding proteins, GOBP1 and GOBP2, are 47-57% identical to each other and 21-57% to the pheromone binding proteins (PBPs); identity within a GOBP subfamily exceeds 78% in all lepidopteran species examined. However, the ligands for GOBPs are unknown. In order to investigate odorant specificities of GOBPs, recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli using PCR-prepared expression cassettes based on the cDNA sequences of GOBP1 and GOBP2 from Manduca sexta. Both soluble and insoluble recombinant GOBPs (rGOBPs) were obtained, and the inclusion body GOBPs were solubilized, refolded and purified. The soluble and refolded rGOBPs were purified by preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), gel filtration, and finally by ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Only rGOBP2, but not rGOBP1, was crossreactive with an anti-GOBP2 (Antheraea polyphemus) antiserum. rGOBP2, but not rGOBP1, could be photoaffinity labelled by the diazoacetate pheromone analog [3H]-6E, 11Z, 16:Dza. For rGOBP2, plant odors such as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (3Z-6:OH), geraniol, geranyl acetate, and limonene showed significant competition for binding; binding specificity was sensitive to pH and to salt concentrations. Circular dichroism (CD) confirms that, as with the pheromone binding proteins, GOBP2 is predominantly alpha-helical. Although the characterization of rGOBP1 has resisted analysis, rGOBP2 is readily prepared and studied. We suggest that GOBP2 may be broadly tuned to a class of "green" and floral odors. PMID:9219366

Feng, L; Prestwich, G D

1997-05-01

231

Expression and characterization of a soluble VEGF receptor 2 protein  

PubMed Central

Objective To clone and express a truncated, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (sVEGFR2) possessing the combined-functional domains 1–3 and 5 in eukaryotic cells and to test the inhibitory effects of full length VEGFR2 in vivo. Results pCMV6-trunctated-rVegfr2 (6100 bp) was successfully cloned. The transfection experiments showed that either pCMV6-truncated-rat-Vegfr2 (pCMV6-truncated-rVegfr2) or pCMV6-rVegfr2 inhibited the expression of intracellular green fluorescent protein, which is usually used as an exogenous transfected reporter gene to determine the transfected efficiency. An analysis of the transfected cells revealed that the amount of full-length VEGFR2 protein in the pCMV6-truncated-rVegfr2 transfected cells was 20% lower than that in the negative control (non-transfected HEK 293 cells). The differences in test results between the transfected and negative control groups were greatest from 24–30 h after transfection; this period was therefore chosen as optimal for collecting culture supernatants. This analysis was highly sensitive for detecting the amount of sVEGFR2 protein expressed and secreted by the cells, and the sVEGFR2 protein content was found to increase by approximately 26% in the transfected cells compared to that in the negative control cells (68.2% ± 1.7% vs. 41.9% ± 2.9%, P = 0.000) and by 18% compared to the negative control cells (68.2% ± 1.7% vs. 50.0% ± 0.5%, P = 0.003). Propidium iodide and Hoechst staining indicated no significant change in the number of HEK293 cells undergoing apoptosis 6 days after pCMV6-trucated-Vegfr2 transfection, compared to the negative control. Soluble VEGFR2 produced by pCMV6-truncated-rVegfr2 inhibited full-length VEGFR2 protein expression in the cell membrane. Conclusions This study employed a eukaryotic system to express sVEGFR2. The use of transient transfection technology greatly improved transfect efficiency. Recombinant sVEGFR2 inhibited the effect of endogenous full-length VEGFR2 but was not cytotoxic. PMID:24618407

2014-01-01

232

Prion protein deposition and abnormal synaptic protein expression in the cerebellum in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  

PubMed

Prion protein (PrP(C)) is a cell membrane-anchored glycoprotein, which is replaced by a pathogenic protease-resistant, beta-sheet-containing isoform (PrP(CJD) or PrP(SC)) in human and animal prion encephalopathies, including sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Cell fractionation methods show that PrP(C) localizes in presynaptic membrane-enriched fractions. Following infection, abnormal PrP accumulates in nerve cell processes and synaptic regions. The present study examines the possible correlation between abnormal PrP deposition and the expression of synaptic proteins controlling neurotransmission in the cerebellum of six 129 Met/Met sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Aggregates of protease-resistant PrP-positive granules, reminiscent of cerebellar glomeruli, were found in the granular cell layer, whereas fine punctate PrP-immunoreactive deposits occurred in the molecular layer. Small numbers of diffuse, irregular plaque-like PrP deposits in the molecular and granular cell layers were present in every case. The somas of Purkinje cells, and stellate, basket and Golgi neurons, were not immunostained. PrP-immunoreactive fibres were found in the album of the cerebellum and hilus of the dentate nucleus. Punctate PrP deposition decorated the neuropil of the dentate nucleus and the surface of dentate neurons. Synaptic protein expression was examined with synaptophysin, synapsin-1, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25,000 mol. wt, syntaxin-1 and Rab3a immunohistochemistry. Reduced synaptophysin, synapsin-1, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25,000 mol. wt, syntaxin-1 and Rab3a immunoreactivity was noted in the granular cell layer in every case, but reduced expression was inconstant in the molecular layer. Synaptophysin accumulated in axon torpedoes, thus indicating abnormal axon transport. Expression of synaptic proteins was relatively preserved in the dentate nucleus, although synaptophysin immunohistochemistry disclosed large coarse pericellular terminals in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, instead of the fine granular terminals in control cases, around the soma of dentate neurons. Finally, Rab3a accumulated in the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells, thus suggesting major anomalies in Rab3a transport. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, abnormal expression of crucial synaptic proteins in the cerebellum of cases with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, abnormal PrP deposition is not proportional to the degree of reduction of synaptic protein expression in the different layers of the cerebellar cortex and in the dentate nucleus. Therefore, it remains to be elucidated how abnormal PrP impacts on the metabolism of proteins linked to exocytosis and neurotransmission, and how abnormal PrP deposition results in eventual synaptic loss. PMID:10842016

Ferrer, I; Puig, B; Blanco, R; Martí, E

2000-01-01

233

Expression of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus structural proteins in the baculovirus  

E-print Network

2 proteins using a baculovirus expression system. The N, M1 and M2 genes, originally cloned in pExpression of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus structural proteins in the baculovirus expression and a RNA polymerase L, a matrix protein M2 and a glycoprotein G which induces neutralizing antibodies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Optimizing Escherichia coli as a protein expression platform to produce Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunogenic proteins  

PubMed Central

Background A number of valuable candidates as tuberculosis vaccine have been reported, some of which have already entered clinical trials. The new vaccines, especially subunit vaccines, need multiple administrations in order to maintain adequate life-long immune memory: this demands for high production levels and degree of purity. Results In this study, TB10.4, Ag85B and a TB10.4-Ag85B chimeric protein (here-after referred as full) - immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis - were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The rational design of expression constructs and optimization of fermentation and purification conditions allowed a marked increase in solubility and yield of the recombinant antigens. Indeed, scaling up of the process guaranteed mass production of all these three antigens (2.5-25 mg of pure protein/L cultivation broth). Quality of produced soluble proteins was evaluated both by mass spectrometry to assess the purity of final preparations, and by circular dichroism spectroscopy to ascertain the protein conformation. Immunological tests of the different protein products demonstrated that when TB10.4 was fused to Ag85B, the chimeric protein was more immunoreactive than either of the immunogenic protein alone. Conclusions We reached the goal of purifying large quantities of soluble antigens effective in generating immunological response against M. tuberculosis by a robust, controlled, scalable and economically feasible production process. PMID:24252280

2013-01-01

235

Expression of the stress proteins, ubiquitin, heat shock protein 72, and myofibrillar protein content after 12 weeks of leg cycling in persons with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willoughby DS, Priest JW, Nelson M. Expression of the stress proteins, ubiquitin, heat shock protein 72, and myofibrillar protein content after 12 weeks of leg cycling in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:649-54. Objective: To determine the effects of leg cycling exercise on ubiquitin (UBI), heat shock protein 72 (HSP-72) mRNA, protein expression, and myofibrillar protein

Darryn S. Willoughby; Joe W. Priest; Matt Nelson

2002-01-01

236

Bacterial expression and photoaffinity labeling of a pheromone binding protein.  

PubMed

The first high-level production of a binding-active odorant binding protein is described. The expression cassette polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a DNA fragment encoding the pheromone binding protein (PBP) of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus. Transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a vector containing this construct generated clones which, when induced with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, produced the 14-kDa PBP in both the soluble fraction and in inclusion bodies. Purification of the soluble recombinant PBP by preparative isoelectric focusing and gel filtration gave > 95% homogeneous protein, which was immunoreactive with an anti-PBP antiserum and exhibited specific, pheromone-displaceable covalent modification by the photoaffinity label [3H]6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl diazoacetate. Recombinant PBP was indistinguishable from the insect-derived PBP, as determined by both native and denaturing gel electrophoresis, immunoreactivity, and photoaffinity labeling properties. Moreover, the insoluble inclusion body protein could be solubilized, refolded, and purified by the same procedures to give a recombinant PBP indistinguishable from the soluble PBP. Proton NMR spectra of the soluble and refolded protein provide further evidence that they possess the same folded structure. PMID:8453379

Prestwich, G D

1993-03-01

237

Expression of P53 protein after exposure to ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important tumor suppressor genes is p53 gene, which is involved in apoptotic cell death, cell differentiation and cell cycle arrest. The expression of p53 gene can be evaluated by determining the presence of P53 protein in cells using Western Blot assay with a chemiluminescent method. This technique has shown variabilities that are due to biological factors. Film developing process can influence the quality of the p53 bands obtained. We irradiated tumor cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes with 137Cs and 60Co gamma rays to standardize irradiation conditions, to compare ionizing radiation with actinomycin D and to reduce the observed variability of P53 protein induction levels. We found that increasing radiation doses increase P53 protein induction while it decreases viability. We also conclude that ionizing radiation could serve as a positive control for Western Blot analysis of protein P53. In addition, our results show that the developing process may play an important role in the quality of P53 protein bands and data interpretation.

Salazar, A. M.; Salvador, C.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Ostrosky, P.; Brandan, M. E.

2001-10-01

238

Expression of mammalian DT-diaphorase in Escherichia coli: purification and characterization of the expressed protein.  

PubMed

A full-length cDNA clone, pKK-DTD4, complementary to rat liver cytosolic DT-diaphorase [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.2)] mRNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. The pKK-DTD4 cDNA was obtained by extending the 5'-end sequence of a rat liver DT-diaphorase cDNA clone, pDTD55, to include an ATG initiation codon and the NH2-terminal codons using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction sites for EcoRI and HindIII were incorporated at the 5'- and 3'-ends of the cDNA, respectively, by the PCR reaction. The resulting full-length cDNA was inserted into an expression vector, pKK2.7, at the EcoRI and HindIII restriction sites. E. coli strain AB1899 was transformed with the constructed expression plasmid, and DT-diaphorase was expressed under the control of the tac promotor. The expressed DT-diaphorase exhibited high activity of menadione reduction and was inhibited by dicumarol at a concentration of 10(-5)M. After purification by Cibacron Blue affinity chromatography, the expressed enzyme migrated as a single band on 12.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel with a molecular weight equivalent to that of the purified rat liver cytosolic DT-diaphorase. The purified expressed protein was recognized by polyclonal antibodies against rat liver DT-diaphorase on immunoblot analysis. It utilized either NADPH or NADH as electron donor at equal efficiency and displayed high activities in reduction of menadione, 1,4-benzoquinone, and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol which are typical substrates for DT-diaphorase. The expressed DT-diaphorase exhibited a typical flavoprotein spectrum with absorption peaks at 380 and 452 nm. Flavin content determination showed that it contained 2 mol of FAD per mole of the enzyme. Edman protein sequencing of the first 20 amino acid residues at the NH2 terminus of the expressed protein indicated that the expressed DT-diaphorase is not blocked at the NH2 terminus and has an alanine as the first amino acid. The remaining 19 amino acid residues at the NH2 terminus were identical with those of the DT-diaphorase purified from rat liver cytosol. PMID:1703398

Ma, Q; Wang, R; Yang, C S; Lu, A Y

1990-12-01

239

A Specific Heat Shock Protein Enhances the Expression of Mammalian Olfactory Receptor Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple trials failed to express significant amounts of olfactory receptors in heterologous cells as they are typically retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Evidence is accumulating that cell-type-specific accessory proteins regulate the folding of olfactory receptors, their exit from the ER, and the trafficking to the plasma membrane of the olfactory cilia where the receptors gain access to odorants. We

Eva M. Neuhaus; Anastasia Mashukova; Weiyi Zhang; Jon Barbour; Hanns Hatt

2006-01-01

240

Heat shock protein 90 regulates the expression of Wilms tumor 1 protein in myeloid leukemias.  

PubMed

The aberrant overexpression of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) in myeloid leukemia plays an important role in blast cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. High expression of WT1 is also associated with relapse and shortened disease-free survival in patients. However, the mechanisms by which WT1 expression is regulated in leukemia remain unclear. Here, we report that heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which plays a critical role in the folding and maturation of several oncogenic proteins, associates with WT1 protein and stabilizes its expression. Pharmacologic inhibition of Hsp90 resulted in ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-dependant degradation of WT1. RNAi-mediated silencing of WT1 reduced the survival of leukemia cells and increased the sensitivity of these cells to chemotherapy and Hsp90 inhibition. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG [17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin] and STA-9090 significantly reduced the growth of myeloid leukemia xenografts in vivo and effectively down-regulated the expression of WT1 and its downstream target proteins, c-Myc and Bcl-2. Collectively, our studies identify WT1 as a novel Hsp90 client and support the crucial role for the WT1-Hsp90 interaction in maintaining leukemia cell survival. These findings have significant implications for developing effective therapies for myeloid leukemias and offer a strategy to inhibit the oncogenic functions of WT1 by clinically available Hsp90 inhibitors. PMID:20651072

Bansal, Hima; Bansal, Sanjay; Rao, Manjeet; Foley, Kevin P; Sang, Jim; Proia, David A; Blackman, Ronald K; Ying, Weiwen; Barsoum, James; Baer, Maria R; Kelly, Kevin; Swords, Ronan; Tomlinson, Gail E; Battiwalla, Minoo; Giles, Francis J; Lee, Kelvin P; Padmanabhan, Swaminathan

2010-11-25

241

High-throughput Protein Expression Generator Using a Microfluidic Platform  

PubMed Central

Rapidly increasing fields, such as systems biology, require the development and implementation of new technologies, enabling high-throughput and high-fidelity measurements of large systems. Microfluidics promises to fulfill many of these requirements, such as performing high-throughput screening experiments on-chip, encompassing biochemical, biophysical, and cell-based assays1. Since the early days of microfluidics devices, this field has drastically evolved, leading to the development of microfluidic large-scale integration2,3. This technology allows for the integration of thousands of micromechanical valves on a single device with a postage-sized footprint (Figure 1). We have developed a high-throughput microfluidic platform for generating in vitro expression of protein arrays (Figure 2) named PING (Protein Interaction Network Generator). These arrays can serve as a template for many experiments such as protein-protein 4, protein-RNA5 or protein-DNA6 interactions. The device consist of thousands of reaction chambers, which are individually programmed using a microarrayer. Aligning of these printed microarrays to microfluidics devices programs each chamber with a single spot eliminating potential contamination or cross-reactivity Moreover, generating microarrays using standard microarray spotting techniques is also very modular, allowing for the arraying of proteins7, DNA8, small molecules, and even colloidal suspensions. The potential impact of microfluidics on biological sciences is significant. A number of microfluidics based assays have already provided novel insights into the structure and function of biological systems, and the field of microfluidics will continue to impact biology. PMID:22951599

Michaely, Efrat; Gerber, Doron

2012-01-01

242

High-throughput protein expression using a combination of ligation-independent cloning (LIC) and infrared fluorescent protein (IFP) detection.  

PubMed

Protein expression in heterologous hosts for functional studies is a cumbersome effort. Here, we report a superior platform for parallel protein expression in vivo and in vitro. The platform combines highly efficient ligation-independent cloning (LIC) with instantaneous detection of expressed proteins through N- or C-terminal fusions to infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). For each open reading frame, only two PCR fragments are generated (with three PCR primers) and inserted by LIC into ten expression vectors suitable for protein expression in microbial hosts, including Escherichia coli, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, the protozoon Leishmania tarentolae, and an in vitro transcription/translation system. Accumulation of IFP-fusion proteins is detected by infrared imaging of living cells or crude protein extracts directly after SDS-PAGE without additional processing. We successfully employed the LIC-IFP platform for in vivo and in vitro expression of ten plant and fungal proteins, including transcription factors and enzymes. Using the IFP reporter, we additionally established facile methods for the visualisation of protein-protein interactions and the detection of DNA-transcription factor interactions in microtiter and gel-free format. We conclude that IFP represents an excellent reporter for high-throughput protein expression and analysis, which can be easily extended to numerous other expression hosts using the setup reported here. PMID:21541323

Dortay, Hakan; Akula, Usha Madhuri; Westphal, Christin; Sittig, Marie; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

2011-01-01

243

Loss of neuronal protein expression in mouse hippocampus after irradiation.  

PubMed

The effects of radiation on neurons are incompletely characterized. We evaluated changes in the expression of neuronal nuclear and other proteins in the mouse hippocampus after 17-Gy whole-brain irradiation. Expression of neuronal nuclei (NeuN), neuron-specific enolas, prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1), calbindin D28k, and synaptophysin 1 in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was determined by immunohistochemistry; neuronal numbers were estimated by design-based stereology. At 7 days after irradiation, there was a marked reduction of NeuN neurons in CA3. Stereologic estimates confirmed a significant reduction in NeuN neurons in CA3 at 7 days, in the dentate gyrus at 7 days, 3 weeks and 2 months, and in CA1 at 2 months compared with controls; neuron-specific enolase and prospero-related homeobox 1-positive neurons in the CA3 subregion were also decreased at 7 days. The numbers of granule and pyramidal cells identified by 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole nuclear staining, however, remained unchanged, and there were no changes in calbindin D28k or synaptophysin 1 immunoreactivity after irradiation. We conclude that irradiation may result in a temporary loss of neuronal protein expression in mouse hippocampus. These changes do not necessarily indicate loss of neurons and indicate the need for caution regarding the use of phenotypic markers such as NeuN to estimate changes in neuronal numbers after irradiation. PMID:20142763

Wu, Kai-Liang; Li, Yu-Qing; Tabassum, Arshia; Lu, Wei-Yang; Aubert, Isabelle; Wong, C Shun

2010-03-01

244

Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression  

SciTech Connect

Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

Hu Hong [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Sung, Arthur [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Zhao, Guohua [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Shi, Lingfang [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Qiu Daoming [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Nishimura, Toshihiko [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Kao, Peter N. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States)]. E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

2006-01-06

245

Regulation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein (AIP) Protein Expression by MiR-34a in Sporadic Somatotropinomas  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients with germline AIP mutations or low AIP protein expression have large, invasive somatotroph adenomas and poor response to somatostatin analogues (SSA). Methods To study the mechanism of low AIP protein expression 31 sporadic somatotropinomas with low (n = 13) or high (n = 18) AIP protein expression were analyzed for expression of AIP messenger RNA (mRNA) and 11 microRNAs (miRNAs) predicted to bind the 3’UTR of AIP. Luciferase reporter assays of wild-type and deletion constructs of AIP-3’UTR were used to study the effect of the selected miRNAs in GH3 cells. Endogenous AIP protein and mRNA levels were measured after miRNA over- and underexpression in HEK293 and GH3 cells. Results No significant difference was observed in AIP mRNA expression between tumors with low or high AIP protein expression suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. miR-34a was highly expressed in low AIP protein samples compared high AIP protein adenomas and miR-34a levels were inversely correlated with response to SSA therapy. miR-34a inhibited the luciferase-AIP-3’UTR construct, suggesting that miR-34a binds to AIP-3’UTR. Deletion mutants of the 3 different predicted binding sites in AIP-3’UTR identified the c.*6–30 site to be involved in miR-34a’s activity. miR-34a overexpression in HEK293 and GH3 cells resulted in inhibition of endogenous AIP protein expression. Conclusion Low AIP protein expression is associated with high miR-34a expression. miR-34a can down-regulate AIP-protein but not RNA expression in vitro. miR-34a is a negative regulator of AIP-protein expression and could be responsible for the low AIP expression observed in somatotropinomas with an invasive phenotype and resistance to SSA. PMID:25658813

Dénes, Judit; Kasuki, Leandro; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Colli, Leandro M.; Takiya, Christina M.; Stiles, Craig E.; Barry, Sayka; de Castro, Margaret; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Korbonits, Márta

2015-01-01

246

Cellular Prion Protein Expression Is Not Regulated by the Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein Intracellular Domain  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrPC, modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP), through its inhibition of the ?-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-? bind to PrPC which may mediate amyloid-? neurotoxicity. In addition, the APP intracellular domain (AICD), which acts as a transcriptional regulator, has been reported to control the expression of PrPC. Through the use of transgenic mice, cell culture models and manipulation of APP expression and processing, this study aimed to clarify the role of AICD in regulating PrPC. Over-expression of the three major isoforms of human APP (APP695, APP751 and APP770) in cultured neuronal and non-neuronal cells had no effect on the level of endogenous PrPC. Furthermore, analysis of brain tissue from transgenic mice over-expressing either wild type or familial AD associated mutant human APP revealed unaltered PrPC levels. Knockdown of endogenous APP expression in cells by siRNA or inhibition of ?-secretase activity also had no effect on PrPC levels. Overall, we did not detect any significant difference in the expression of PrPC in any of the cell or animal-based paradigms considered, indicating that the control of cellular PrPC levels by AICD is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:22363722

Lewis, Victoria; Whitehouse, Isobel J.; Baybutt, Herbert; Manson, Jean C.; Collins, Steven J.; Hooper, Nigel M.

2012-01-01

247

Structure and expression of a novel compact myelin protein – Small VCP-interacting protein (SVIP)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin. •We determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). •The helical content of SVIP increases dramatically during its interaction with negatively charged lipid membrane. •This study provides structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes. -- Abstract: SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) was initially identified as one of many cofactors regulating the valosin containing protein (VCP), an AAA+ ATPase involved in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Our previous study showed that SVIP is expressed exclusively in the nervous system. In the present study, SVIP and VCP were seen to be co-localized in neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, we also observed that SVIP co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin, where VCP was absent. Furthermore, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements, we determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). However, upon binding to the surface of membranes containing a net negative charge, the helical content of SVIP increases dramatically. These findings provide structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes.

Wu, Jiawen [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Peng, Dungeng [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Voehler, Markus [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University (United States)] [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University (United States); Sanders, Charles R. [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States) [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University (United States); Li, Jun, E-mail: jun.li.2@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States) [Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (United States); Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (TVHS) – Nashville VA (United States)

2013-10-11

248

Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins and Phosphorylated Proteins in Rice Seedlings in Response to Strigolactone Treatment  

PubMed Central

Strigolactones (SLs) are recently identified plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching and control various aspects of plant growth, development and interaction with parasites. Previous studies have shown that plant D10 protein is a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase that functions in SL biosynthesis. In this work, we used an allelic SL-deficient d10 mutant XJC of rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) to investigate proteins that were responsive to SL treatment. When grown in darkness, d10 mutant seedlings exhibited elongated mesocotyl that could be rescued by exogenous application of SLs. Soluble protein extracts were prepared from d10 mutant seedlings grown in darkness in the presence of GR24, a synthetic SL analog. Soluble proteins were separated on two-dimensional gels and subjected to proteomic analysis. Proteins that were expressed differentially and phosphoproteins whose phosphorylation status changed in response to GR24 treatment were identified. Eight proteins were found to be induced or down-regulated by GR24, and a different set of 8 phosphoproteins were shown to change their phosphorylation intensities in the dark-grown d10 seedlings in response to GR24 treatment. Analysis of these proteins revealed that they are important enzymes of the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways and key components of the cellular energy generation machinery. These proteins may represent potential targets of the SL signaling pathway. This study provides new insight into the complex and negative regulatory mechanism by which SLs control shoot branching and plant development. PMID:24699514

Chen, Fangyu; Jiang, Liangrong; Zheng, Jingsheng; Huang, Rongyu; Wang, Houcong; Hong, Zonglie; Huang, Yumin

2014-01-01

249

Transgenic expression of therapeutic proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana seed.  

PubMed

The production of therapeutic proteins in plant seed augments alternative production platforms such as microbial fermentation, cell-based systems, transgenic animals, and other recombinant plant production systems to meet increasing demands for the existing biologics, drugs under evaluation, and undiscovered therapeutics in the future. We have developed upstream purification technologies for oilseeds which are designed to cost-effectively purify therapeutic proteins amenable to conventional downstream manufacture. A very useful tool in these endeavors is the plant model system Arabidopsis thaliana. The current chapter describes the rationale and methods used to over-express potential therapeutic products in A. thaliana seed for evaluation and definitive insight into whether our production platform, Safflower, can be utilized for large-scale manufacture. PMID:22735958

Nykiforuk, Cory L; Boothe, Joseph G

2012-01-01

250

Production of soluble mammalian proteins in Escherichia coli: identification of protein features that correlate with successful expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the search for generic expression strategies for mammalian protein families several bacterial expression vectors were examined for their ability to promote high yields of soluble protein. Proteins studied included cell surface receptors (Ephrins and Eph receptors, CD44), kinases (EGFR-cytoplasmic domain, CDK2 and 4), proteases (MMP1, CASP2), signal transduction proteins (GRB2, RAF1, HRAS) and transcription factors (GATA2, Fli1, Trp53,

Michael R Dyson; S Paul Shadbolt; Karen J Vincent; Rajika L Perera; John McCafferty

2004-01-01

251

Ligation of expressed protein ?-hydrazides via genetic incorporation of an ?-hydroxy acid.  

PubMed

Expressed protein ligation bridges the gap between synthetic peptides and recombinant proteins and thereby significantly increases the size and complexity of chemically synthesized proteins. Although the intein-based expressed protein ligation method has been extensively used in this regard, the development of new expressed protein ligation methods may improve the flexibility and power of protein semisynthesis. In this study a new alternative version of expressed protein ligation is developed by combining the recently developed technologies of hydrazide-based peptide ligation and genetic code expansion. Compared to the previous intein-based expressed protein ligation method, the new method does not require the use of protein splicing technology and generates recombinant protein ?-hydrazides as ligation intermediates that are more chemically stable than protein ?-thioesters. Furthermore, the use of an evolved mutant pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase(PylRS), ACPK-RS, from M. barkeri shows an improved performance for the expression of recombinant protein backbone oxoesters. By using HdeA as a model protein we demonstrate that the hydrazide-based method can be used to synthesize proteins with correctly folded structures and full biological activity. Because the PylRS-tRNACUAPyl system is compatible with both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,the strategy presented here may be readily expanded to manipulate proteins produced in mammalian cells. The new hydrazide-based method may also supplement the intein-based expressed protein ligation method by allowing for a more flexible selection of ligation site. PMID:22424086

Li, Yi-Ming; Yang, Mai-Yun; Huang, Yi-Chao; Li, Yi-Tong; Chen, Peng R; Liu, Lei

2012-06-15

252

Expressed Protein Ligation: A Resourceful Tool to Study Protein Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

This review outlines the use of expressed protein ligation (EPL) to study protein structure, function and stability. EPL is a chemoselective ligation method that allows the selective ligation of unprotected polypeptides from synthetic and recombinant origin for the production of semi-synthetic protein samples of well-defined and homogeneous chemical composition. This method has been extensively used for the site-specific introduction of biophysical probes, unnatural amino acids, and increasingly complex post-translational modifications. Since it was introduced 10 years ago, EPL applications have grown increasingly more sophisticated in order to address even more complex biological questions. In this review we highlight how this powerful technology combined with standard biochemical analysis techniques has been used to improve our ability to understand protein structure and function. PMID:19685006

Berrade, Luis; Camarero, Julio A.

2013-01-01

253

Improving heterologous protein expression in transfected Drosophila S2 cells as assessed by EGFP expression.  

PubMed

Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells were co-transfected with plasmid vectors containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP), under the control of metallothionein promoter (pMt), and the hygromycin selection gene, in view of establishing parameters for optimized gene expression. A protocol of transfection was worked out, leading after hygromycin selection, to approximately 90% of S2MtEGFP fluorescent cells at day 5 after copper sulfate (CuSO(4)) induction. As analyzed by confocal microscopy, S2MtEGFP cell cultures were shown to be quite heterogeneous regarding the intensity and cell localization of fluorescence among the EGFP expressing cells. Spectrofluorimetry kinetic studies of CuSO(4) induced S2MtEGFP cells showed the EGFP expression at 510 nm as soon as 5 h after induction, the fluorescence increasing progressively from this time to attain values of 4.6 x 10(5) counts/s after 72 h of induction. Induction with 700 muM of CuSO(4) performed at the exponential phase of the S2MtEGFP culture (10(6) cells/mL) led to a better performance in terms of cell growth, percent of fluorescent cells and culture intensity of fluorescence. Sodium butyrate (NaBu) treatment of CuSO(4) induced S2MtEGFP cell cultures, although leading to a loss of cell culture viability, increased the percent of EGFP expressing cells and sharply enhanced the cell culture fluorescence intensity. The present study established parameters for improving heterologous protein expression in stably transfected Drosophila S2 cells, as assessed by the EGFP expression. PMID:19003014

Santos, Mariza G; Jorge, Soraia A C; Brillet, Karl; Pereira, Carlos A

2007-05-01

254

Imaging bacterial protein expression using genetically encoded sensors composed of RNA  

PubMed Central

We show that the difficulties in imaging the dynamics of protein expression in live bacterial cells can be overcome using fluorescent sensors based on Spinach, an RNA that activates the fluorescence of a small-molecule fluorophore. These RNAs selectively bind target proteins, and exhibit fluorescence increases that enable protein expression to be imaged in living cells. These sensors provide a general strategy to image protein expression in single bacteria in real-time. PMID:23872791

Song, Wenjiao; Strack, Rita L.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

2013-01-01

255

Expression of equine morbillivirus (EMV) matrix and fusion proteins and their evaluation as diagnostic reagents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Full-length cDNA clones coding for the matrix (M) and fusion (F) proteins of equine morbillivirus (EMV) were isolated by\\u000a RT-PCR, and expressed in Escherichia coli using two different expression systems. Western blot analysis indicated that the M and F proteins, expressed either by itself\\u000a or as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST), were insoluble and degraded after expression. Analysis of

L.-F. Wang; A. R. Gould; P. W. Selleck

1997-01-01

256

Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448), using the recombinant expression system pFPYV2. Recombinant VP2 was purified to near homogeneity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroelution, and Extracti-Gel chromatography. Polyclonal serum to this protein which reacted specifically with recombinant VP2 as well as polyomavirus virion VP2 and VP3 on Western blots (immunoblots) was produced. Purified VP2 was used to establish an in vitro protein-protein interaction assay with polyomavirus structural proteins and purified recombinant VP1. Recombinant VP2 interacted with recombinant VP1, virion VP1, and the four virion histones. Recombinant VP1 coimmunoprecipitated with recombinant VP2 or truncated VP2 (delta C12VP2), which lacked the carboxy-terminal 12 amino acids. These experiments confirmed the interaction between VP1 and VP2 and revealed that the carboxyterminal 12 amino acids of VP2 and VP3 were not necessary for formation of this interaction. In vivo VP1-VP2 interaction study accomplished by cotransfection of COS-7 cells with VP2 and truncated VP1 (delta N11VP1) lacking the nuclear localization signal demonstrated that VP2 was capable of translocating delta N11VP1 into the nucleus. These studies suggest that complexes of VP1 and VP2 may be formed in the cytoplasm and cotransported to the nucleus for virion assembly to occur.

Cai, X.; Chang, D.; Rottinghaus, S.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

257

Expression of Trans-Membrane Proteins in vitro Using a Cell Free System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trans-membrane proteins represent a significant portion of the proteins expressed by cells. The expression of proteins in vitro, however, remains a challenge. Numerous expression approaches have been developed with cell free expression (CFE) being one of the most promising. CFE is based on a transcription-translation system that has been extracted from E. coli bacteria. Adding the desired DNA allows expression of a selected protein, and in the presence of phospholipids the expression of trans-membrane proteins becomes possible. In order to express trans-membrane proteins in a closed native environment, the cell free system (CFS) is encapsulated with a phospholipid bilayer, creating an artificial cell. To verify protein expression, AquaporinZ (AqpZ), a well-known trans-membrane protein tagged with a green fluorescent protein (eGFP), was used so the expressed proteins could be seen under a fluorescent microscope. These artificial cells will serve as an experimental platform for testing the viability of the expressed trans-membrane proteins. Results from the manipulation of these artificial cells by attaching them to the slide surface through streptavidin-biotin bonding will be presented.

Weisse, Natalie; Noireaux, Vincent; Chalmeau, Jerome

2010-10-01

258

Early expression of bone matrix proteins in osteogenic cell cultures.  

PubMed

Osteogenic cells express some matrix proteins at early culture intervals. The aim of this study was to determine if, and in what proportion, cells used for plating contain bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), two matrix proteins associated with initial events in bone formation. Their pattern of expression, as well as that of fibronectin (FN) and type I pro-collagen, was also examined at 6 hr and at 1 and 3 days. The cells were obtained by enzymatic digestion of newborn rat calvariae, and grown on glass coverslips. Cytocentrifuge preparations of isolated cells and coverslips were processed for single or dual immunolabeling with monoclonal and/or polyclonal primary antibodies, followed by fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies. The cell labeling was mainly associated with perinuclear elements. OPN was also distinctively found at peripheral cytoplasmic sites. About 31% of isolated cells were OPN-positive and 18% were BSP-positive. After 1 day, almost 50% of cells were immunoreactive for OPN and for type I pro-collagen, and still less than 20% reacted for BSP. Approximately 7% exhibited peripheral staining for OPN. Almost all cells were associated with extracellular FN. However, only 15% showed intracellular labeling. These results indicate that an important proportion of cells used for plating contain BSP and OPN, a situation that should be taken into consideration in experimental analyses of osteoblast activity in vitro. PMID:12704211

de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Zalzal, Sylvia Francis; Irie, Kazuharu; Nanci, Antonio

2003-05-01

259

Connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions for stochastic models of gene expression  

E-print Network

The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression can lead to large variability in protein levels for genetically identical cells. Such variability in protein levels can arise from infrequent synthesis of mRNAs which in turn give rise to bursts of protein expression. Protein expression occurring in bursts has indeed been observed experimentally and recent studies have also found evidence for transcriptional bursting, i.e. production of mRNAs in bursts. Given that there are distinct experimental techniques for quantifying the noise at different stages of gene expression, it is of interest to derive analytical results connecting experimental observations at different levels. In this work, we consider stochastic models of gene expression for which mRNA and protein production occurs in independent bursts. For such models, we derive analytical expressions connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions which show how the functional form of the mRNA burst distribution can be inferred from the protein burst distributio...

Elgart, Vlad; Fenley, Andrew T; Kulkarni, Rahul V

2011-01-01

260

Bifendate-chalcone hybrids: a new class of potential dual inhibitors of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein.  

PubMed

We previously described bifendate-chalcone hybrids as potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors. In the present work, we determine whether these compounds could reverse breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2)-mediated multidrug resistance using HEK293/BCRP cells which was BCRP-transfected stable HEK293 cells. Results indicated that compounds 8d, 8f, 8g and 8h could significantly enhance mitoxantrone accumulation in HEK293/BCRP cells via inhibiting BCRP drug efflux function. The most active compound 8g exhibited little intrinsic cytotoxicity (IC??>100 ?M), and could reverse BCRP-mediated drug resistance independent of decreasing BCRP expression level. Notably, 8g had little inhibitory effect on multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), another drug efflux transporter. The present findings, together with the previous results, suggest that 8g might be act as dual inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP. PMID:25446092

Gu, Xiaoke; Ren, Zhiguang; Peng, Hui; Peng, Sixun; Zhang, Yihua

2014-12-12

261

Expressed protein ligation for the preparation of fusion proteins with cell penetrating peptides for endotoxin removal and intracellular delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressed protein ligation (EPL) is a useful method for the native chemical ligation of proteins with other proteins or peptides. This study assessed the practicability of EPL in the preparation of fusion proteins of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) with chemically synthesized cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for intracellular delivery. Using intein-mediated purification with an affinity chitin-binding tag (IMPACT) system, the thioester

Hao-Hsin Yu; Ikuhiko Nakase; Sílvia Pujals; Hisaaki Hirose; Gen Tanaka; Sayaka Katayama; Miki Imanishi; Shiroh Futaki

2010-01-01

262

Multi-Host Expression System for Recombinant Production of Challenging Proteins  

PubMed Central

Recombinant production of complex eukaryotic proteins for structural analyses typically requires a profound screening process to identify suitable constructs for the expression of ample amounts of properly folded protein. Furthermore, the evaluation of an optimal expression host has a major impact on protein yield and quality as well as on actual cost of the production process. Here we present a novel fast expression system for multiple hosts based on a single donor vector termed pFlp-Bac-to-Mam. The range of applications of pFlp-Bac-to-Mam comprises highly efficient transient transfection of HEK293-6E in serum-free suspension culture and subsequent large-scale production of challenging proteins expressing in mg per Liter level using either the baculoviral expression vector system or stable CHO production cell lines generated by Flp-mediated cassette exchange. The success of the multi-host expression vector to identify the optimal expression strategy for efficient production of high quality protein is demonstrated in a comparative expression study of three model proteins representing different protein classes: intracellular expression using a fluorescent protein, secretion of a single-chain-Fv-hIgG1Fc fusion construct and production of a large amount of highly homogeneous protein sample of the extracellular domain of a Toll-like receptor. The evaluation of the production efficiency shows that the pFlp-Bac-to-Mam system allows a fast and individual optimization of the expression strategy for each protein class. PMID:23874717

Meyer, Steffen; Lorenz, Carmen; Baser, Bahar; Wördehoff, Mona; Jäger, Volker; van den Heuvel, Joop

2013-01-01

263

Immunogenicity of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus spike protein expressed in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plants expressing recombinant proteins from pathogenic microorganisms provide an inexpensive edible vaccine for induction of local immunity. Three transgenic plant lines were generated expressing the spike (S) protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a protein crucial for establishing mucosal immunity. All three of them were driven by a strong plant promoter. One construct contained the 3.7 kb 5? end

T Tuboly; W Yu; A Bailey; S Degrandis; S Du; L Erickson; É Nagy

2000-01-01

264

p53 protein in odontogenic cysts: increased expression in some odontogenic keratocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To assess p53 protein expression in a range of odontogenic cysts arising in the mouth, including those of developmental and inflammatory origin. METHODS: p53 protein was identified using the polyclonal antibody CM-1, together with a standard immunoperoxidase technique. A total of 36 cystic lesions were examined, all of which were histologically benign. RESULTS: Expression of p53 protein was identified

G R Ogden; D M Chisholm; R A Kiddie

1992-01-01

265

A Facile Method for High-throughput Co-expression of Protein Pairs*S  

E-print Network

in a ligation-independent manner, propagate efficiently, and produce protein pairs in high quantitiesA Facile Method for High-throughput Co-expression of Protein Pairs*S Andrei Alexandrov§, Marissa. Phizicky§, and Elizabeth J. Grayhack§ We developed a method to co-express protein pairs from collections

Dunham, Maitreya

266

Water-Soluble Phosphinothiols for Traceless Staudinger Ligation and Integration with Expressed Protein Ligation  

E-print Network

Protein Ligation Annie Tam, Matthew B. Soellner,, and Ronald T. Raines*,,§ Contribution from, the traceless Staudinger ligation can be integrated with expressed protein ligation, extending the reach of this strategy, "expressed protein ligation", employs recombinant DNA tech- nology to produce the C

Raines, Ronald T.

267

Protein Expression and PuriWcation 36 (2004) 150156 www.elsevier.com/locate/yprep  

E-print Network

Protein Expression and PuriWcation 36 (2004) 150­156 www.elsevier.com/locate/yprep 1046 expression of the obese gene encoding human leptin, the strong constitutive HCE promoter cloned from the D% of total proteins). By comparing the expression levels of leptin in several diVerent rpoS¡ and rpo

268

Cloning, expression, and antigenicity of 14 proteins from Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

Fourteen Campylobacter jejuni genes--porA, cadF, omp18, dnaK, flaC, peb1, peb2, peb3, peb4, ahpC, groEL, tuF, hipO, and Cj0069--were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The recombinant proteins were purified on histidine (His) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) trap columns using the ÄKTA Explorer 100 System. Recombinant proteins were visualized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The antigenicities of these recombinant proteins were assessed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-C. jejuni immune rabbit sera. Four recombinant proteins, including rGST-PorA, rHis-CadF, rGST-GroEL, and rGST-TuF, demonstrated reactions with both anti-serum and preimmune serum, while rHis-DnaK, rGST-FlaC, rGST-PEB2, rGST-PEB3, rGST-PEB4, and rGST-HipO showed variable antigenicity characteristics to the anti-sera derived from different C. jejuni strains. rHis-Omp18, rHis-PEB1, and rGST-AhpC demonstrated universal and specific antigenities with the entire anti-sera panel tested in this present study, while recombinant rGST-Cj0069 and rHis-DnaK did not react with any of the anti-C. jejuni sera tested. In conclusion, rGST-AhpC may be useful as a potential serodiagnostic antigen for C. jejuni infection. PMID:22779748

Zhang, Maojun; Meng, Fanliang; Cao, Fangfang; Qiao, Bo; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Hongying; Zhou, Yizhuang; Dong, Haiyan; Gu, Yixin; Xiao, Di; Zhang, Yongchan; Zhang, Jianzhong

2012-08-01

269

Bcl-XL as a fusion protein for the high-level expression of membrane-associated proteins  

PubMed Central

An Escherichia coli plasmid vector for the high-level expression of hydrophobic membrane proteins is described. The plasmid, pBCL, directs the expression of a target polypeptide fused to the C terminus of a mutant form of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, Bcl-XL, where the hydrophobic C terminus has been deleted, and Met residues have been mutated to Leu to facilitate CNBr cleavage after a single Met inserted at the beginning of the target sequence. Fusion protein expression is in inclusion bodies, simplifying the protein purification steps. Here we report the high-level production of PLM, a membrane protein that is a member of the FXYD family of tissue-specific and physiological-state–specific auxiliary subunits of the Na,K-ATPase, expressed abundantly in heart and skeletal muscle. We demonstrate that milligram quantities of pure, isotopically labeled protein can be obtained easily and in little time with this system. PMID:15741345

Thai, Khang; Choi, Jungyuen; Franzin, Carla M.; Marassi, Francesca M.

2005-01-01

270

Cloning and expression analysis of an ovine PAP-like protein cDNA, a gene differentially expressed in scrapie.  

PubMed

In a previous study, the mRNA level of a pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP)-like protein was found to be elevated in the ileal Peyer's patch of lambs during the early phase of scrapie infection. Here, we report the isolation of the ovine PAP-like protein cDNA which encodes a putative 178 amino acid protein with a signal peptide and a C-lectin binding domain. Comparisons of REG/PAP proteins between various species showed that the deduced amino acid sequences were conserved. The overall amino acid identity between the ovine PAP-like protein and bovine, human and rat REG/PAP proteins varied from 23% to 85%. In Northern blot analysis the expression of the ovine PAP-like protein mRNA was restricted to the ileal and jejunal Peyer's patches. The cellular expression of the PAP-like protein mRNA in the ovine intestine was further characterized by in situ hybridization. PAP-like protein mRNA was detected in cells of the epithelial lining in most crypts and in some intestinal villi in the ileum and jejunum while in the colon and rectum, the PAP-like protein mRNA expression was only detected in the deep portion of a few crypts. The data provided will offer the possibility to search for a link between this PAP-like protein and early events in the development of scrapie. PMID:16635555

Skretting, Grethe; Austbø, Lars; Olsaker, Ingrid; Espenes, Arild

2006-07-01

271

Immunohistochemical analysis of LRIG proteins in meningiomas: correlation between estrogen receptor status and LRIG expression.  

PubMed

The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) protein family is comprised of three integral membrane proteins: LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3. LRIG1 is a negative regulator of growth factor signaling. The expression and subcellular localization of LRIG proteins have prognostic implications in primary brain tumors, such as oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas. The expression of LRIG proteins has not previously been studied in meningiomas. In this study, the expression of LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3 was analyzed in 409 meningiomas by immunohistochemistry, and potential associations between LRIG protein expression and tumor grade, gender, progesterone receptor status, and estrogen receptor (ER) status were investigated. The LRIG proteins were most often expressed in the cytoplasm, though LRIG1 also showed prominent nuclear expression. Cytoplasmic expression of LRIG1 and LRIG2 correlated with histological subtypes of meningiomas (p = 0.038 and 0.013, respectively). Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of LRIG1 was correlated with ER status (p = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively), as was cytoplasmic expression of LRIG2 (p = 0.006). This study is the first to examine the expression of LRIG proteins in meningiomas, and it shows a correlation between ER status and the expression of LRIG1 and LRIG2, which suggests a possible role for LRIG proteins in meningioma pathogenesis. PMID:22484910

Ghasimi, Soma; Haapasalo, Hannu; Eray, Mine; Korhonen, Katariina; Brännström, Thomas; Hedman, Håkan; Andersson, Ulrika

2012-07-01

272

Expression pattern of LRR and Ig domain-containing protein (LRRIG protein) in the early mouse embryo.  

PubMed

The combination of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains is found in the domain architecture of the Trk neurotrophin receptor protein. Recently dozens of such proteins simultaneously carrying LRR and Ig domains as the Trk receptors have been identified. Given the significant biological roles of Trk and such newly identified proteins, we have searched the public database for human proteins with LRR and Ig domains (collectively termed the leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain-containing protein, LRRIG protein, in this study), and have analyzed the mRNA expression pattern of mouse orthologs of obtained human LRRIG proteins at embryonic day 10. The list of the LRRIG proteins includes 36 human proteins: four LINGO, three NGL, five SALM, three NLRR, three Pal, two ISLR, three LRIG, two GPR, two Adlican, two Peroxidasin-like proteins, three Trk neurotrophin receptors, a yet unnamed protein AAI11068, and three AMIGO. Some molecules (LINGO2, LINGO4, NGL1, SALM1, SALM5, and TrkB) were expressed exclusively in neuronal tissues, whereas others (ISLR1, GPR124, and Adlican2) exhibited non-neuronal expression profiles. However, the majority of LRRIG protein family exhibited broad mRNA tissue-expression profiles. PMID:18848646

Homma, Shunsaku; Shimada, Takako; Hikake, Tsuyoshi; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

273

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1096 protein: gene cloning, protein expression, and peptidoglycan deacetylase activity  

PubMed Central

Background Many bacteria modulate and evade the immune defenses of their hosts through peptidoglycan (PG) deacetylation. The PG deacetylases from Streptococcus pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes and Lactococcus lactis have been characterized. However, thus far, the PG deacetylase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been identified. Results In this study, we cloned the Rv1096 gene from the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and expressed Rv1096 protein in both Escherichia coli and M. smegmatis. The results showed that the purified Rv1096 protein possessed metallo-dependent PG deacetylase activity, which increased in the presence of Co2+. The kinetic parameters of the PG deacetylase towards M. smegmatis PG as a substrate were as follows: Km, 0.910?±?0.007 mM; Vmax, 0.514?±?0.038 ?Mmin-1; and Kcat =?0.099?±?0.007 (S-1). Additionally, the viability of M. smegmatis in the presence of over-expressed Rv1096 protein was 109-fold higher than that of wild-type M. smegmatis after lysozyme treatment. Additionally, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that in the presence of over-expressed Rv1096 protein, M. smegmatis kept its regular shape, with an undamaged cell wall and smooth surface. These results indicate that Rv1096 caused deacetylation of cell wall PG, leading to lysozyme resistance in M. smegmatis. Conclusion We have determined that M. tuberculosis Rv1096 is a PG deacetylase. The PG deacetylase activity of Rv1096 contributed to lysozyme resistance in M. smegmatis. Our findings suggest that deacetylation of cell wall PG may be involved in evasion of host immune defenses by M. tuberculosis. PMID:24975018

2014-01-01

274

(R)-[11C]Verapamil PET studies to assess changes in P-glycoprotein expression and functionality in rat blood-brain barrier after exposure to kainate-induced status epilepticus  

PubMed Central

Background Increased functionality of efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier may contribute to decreased drug concentrations at the target site in CNS diseases like epilepsy. In the rat, pharmacoresistant epilepsy can be mimicked by inducing status epilepticus by intraperitoneal injection of kainate, which leads to development of spontaneous seizures after 3 weeks to 3 months. The aim of this study was to investigate potential changes in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and functionality at an early stage after induction of status epilepticus by kainate. Methods (R)-[11C]verapamil, which is currently the most frequently used positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for determining P-gp functionality at the blood-brain barrier, was used in kainate and saline (control) treated rats, at 7 days after treatment. To investigate the effect of P-gp on (R)-[11C]verapamil brain distribution, both groups were studied without or with co-administration of the P-gp inhibitor tariquidar. P-gp expression was determined using immunohistochemistry in post mortem brains. (R)-[11C]verapamil kinetics were analyzed with approaches common in PET research (Logan analysis, and compartmental modelling of individual profiles) as well as by population mixed effects modelling (NONMEM). Results All data analysis approaches indicated only modest differences in brain distribution of (R)-[11C]verapamil between saline and kainate treated rats, while tariquidar treatment in both groups resulted in a more than 10-fold increase. NONMEM provided most precise parameter estimates. P-gp expression was found to be similar for kainate and saline treated rats. Conclusions P-gp expression and functionality does not seem to change at early stage after induction of anticipated pharmacoresistant epilepsy by kainate. PMID:21199574

2011-01-01

275

Human odontoblasts express transient receptor protein and acid-sensing ion channel mechanosensor proteins.  

PubMed

Diverse proteins of the denegerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENa(+) C) superfamily, in particular those belonging to the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family, as well as some members of the transient receptor protein (TRP) channel, function as mechanosensors or may be required for mechanosensation in a diverse range of species and cell types. Therefore, we investigated the putative mechanosensitive function of human odontoblasts using immunohistochemistry to detect ENa(+) C subunits (?, ?, and ?) and ASIC (1, 2, 3, and 4) proteins, as well as TRPV4, in these cells. Positive and specific immunoreactivity in the odontoblast soma and/or processes was detected for all proteins studied except ?-ENa(+) C. The intensity of immunostaining was high for ?-ENa(+) C and ASIC2, whereas it was low for ASIC1, ASIC3, ?-ENa(+) C, and TRPV4, being absent for ?-ENa(+) C and ASIC4. These results suggest that human odontoblasts in situ express proteins related to mechanosensitive channels that probably participate in the mechanisms involved in teeth sensory transmission. PMID:20836083

Solé-Magdalena, Antonio; Revuelta, Enrique G; Menénez-Díaz, Ivan; Calavia, Marta G; Cobo, Teresa; García-Suárez, Olivia; Pérez-Piñera, Pablo; De Carlos, Felix; Cobo, Juan; Vega, Jose A

2011-05-01

276

Expression of iron binding proteins and hemin binding activity in the dental pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was found to express a polypeptide immunologically related to the Neisseria gonorrhoeae FbpA iron binding protein. In addition, the expression of hitB and hitC homologs was detected by Northern blot analysis. This periodontal pathogen also expresses a polypeptide homologous to the 31-kDa Haemophilus influenzae protein, which shows amino acid sequence homology with the FimA and YfeA proteins from

Katherine R. Graber; Laura M. Smoot; Luis A. Actis

1998-01-01

277

Expression of Pokemon Protein in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To detect the expression of pokemon protein and explore its relationship with the expression levels of p53 and Bcl-6 proteins in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods: Immunohisto- chemistry (SP) was used to examine the expression of pokemon, p53 and Bcl-6 proteins in DLBCL and reac- tive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH). Results: In 50 cases of DLBCL, 35 cases (70.0%)

LIANG Lanqing

278

Coat protein expression strategy of oat blue dwarf virus.  

PubMed

Oat blue dwarf virus (OBDV) is a member of the genus Marafivirus whose genome encodes a 227 kDa polyprotein (p227) ostensibly processed post-translationally into its functional components. Encoded near the 3' terminus and coterminal with the p227 ORF are ORFs specifying major and minor capsid proteins (CP). Since the CP expression strategy of marafiviruses has not been thoroughly investigated, we produced a series of point mutants in the OBDV CP encoding gene and examined expression in protoplasts. Results support a model in which the 21 kDa major CP is the product of direct translation of a sgRNA, while the 24 kDa minor CP is a cleavage product derived from both the polyprotein and a larger ~26 kDa precursor translated directly from the sgRNA. Cleavage occurs at an LXG[G/A] motif conserved in many viruses that use papain-like proteases for polyprotein processing and protection against degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:24503092

Edwards, Michael C; Weiland, John J

2014-02-01

279

Expression of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) is a predictor of uveal melanoma metastasis.  

PubMed

Melanoma arising from melanocytes within the choroid is the most frequent primary intraocular neoplasm in adults. It is biologically distinct from cutaneous melanoma by a very strong propensity to metastasize the liver. Raf kinase inhibitor protein is a member of an evolutionarily conserved group of proteins called phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins. It is an interacting partner of Raf-1 and a negative regulator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade initiated by Raf-1. Raf kinase inhibitor protein expression is low in many human cancers and represents an indicator of poor prognosis and/or induction of metastasis. In the present study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression levels of Raf kinase inhibitor protein and phosphorylated Raf kinase inhibitor protein in primary uveal melanoma with and without metastasis, and evaluated their association with other high risk characteristics for metastasis in order to assess whether Raf kinase inhibitor protein and phosphorylated Raf kinase inhibitor protein can be used to predict metastasis. A significant low expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein was seen in patients with metastasis but not in patients without metastasis. The latter more frequently had a high expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein. No significant difference was seen in phosphorylated Raf kinase inhibitor protein expression between patients with and without metastasis. Raf kinase inhibitor protein expression is a suitable and easily determinable marker in the primary tumour that could predict the risk of uveal melanoma to metastasize, and hence guide strategies for monitoring and therapy. PMID:24763848

Caltabiano, Rosario; Puzzo, Lidia; Barresi, Valeria; Cardile, Venera; Loreto, Carla; Ragusa, Marco; Russo, Andrea; Reibaldi, Michele; Longo, Antonio

2014-10-01

280

RNA protein interactions governing expression of the most abundant protein in human body, type I collagen  

PubMed Central

Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. The protein turns over slowly and its replacement synthesis is low. However, in wound healing or in pathological fibrosis the cells can increase production of type I collagen several hundred fold. This increase is predominantly due to posttranscriptional regulation, including increased half life of collagen mRNAs and their increased translatability. Type I collagen is composed of two ?1 and one ?2 polypeptides that fold into a triple helix. This stochiometry is strictly regulated to prevent detrimental synthesis of ?1 homotrimers. Collagen polypeptides are co-translationally modified and the rate of modifications is in dynamic equilibrium with the rate of folding, suggesting coordinated translation of collagen ?1(I) and ?2(I) polypeptides. Collagen ?1(I) mRNA has in the 3’ UTR a C-rich sequence that binds protein ?CP, this binding stabilizes the mRNA in collagen producing cells. In the 5’UTR both collagen mRNAs have a conserved stem-loop structure (5’SL). The 5’SL is critical for high collagen expression, knock in mice with disruption of the 5’SL are resistant to liver fibrosis. the 5’SL binds protein LARP6 with strict sequence specificity and high affinity. LARP6 recruits RNA helicase A to facilitate translation initiation and associates collagen mRNAs with vimentin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. Binding to vimentin stabilizes collagen mRNAs, while nonmuscle myosin regulates coordinated translation of ?1(I) and ?2(I) mRNAs. When nonmuscle myosin filaments are disrupted the cells secrete only ?1 homotrimers. Thus, the mechanism governing high collagen expression involves two RNA binding proteins and development of cytoskeletal filaments. PMID:23907854

Stefanovic, Branko

2013-01-01

281

EXPRESSION OF AN INSECT (DENDROIDES CANADENSIS) ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA RESULTS IN A DECREASE IN PLANT FREEZING TEMPERATURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants which express genes encoding insect, Dendroides canadensis, antifreeze proteins (AFP) were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The antifreeze protein genes, both with and without the signal peptide sequence (for protein secretion), were expresse...

282

GFP-based expression screening of membrane proteins in insect cells using the baculovirus system.  

PubMed

A key step in the production of recombinant membrane proteins for structural studies is the optimization of protein yield and quality. One commonly used approach is to fuse the protein to green fluorescent protein (GFP), enabling expression to be tracked without the need to purify the protein. Combining fusion to green fluorescent protein with the baculovirus expression system provides a useful platform for both screening and production of eukaryotic membrane proteins. In this chapter we describe our protocol for the expression screening of membrane proteins in insect cells using fusion to GFP as a reporter. We use both SDS-PAGE with in-gel fluorescence imaging and fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) to screen for expression. PMID:25502201

Hu, Nien-Jen; Rada, Heather; Rahman, Nahid; Nettleship, Joanne E; Bird, Louise; Iwata, So; Drew, David; Cameron, Alexander D; Owens, Raymond J

2015-01-01

283

Expression of epithelial adhesion proteins and integrins in chronic inflammation.  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cell behavior in chronic inflammation is poorly characterized. During inflammation of tooth-supporting structures (periodontal disease), increased proliferation of epithelial cells into the inflamed connective tissue stroma is commonly seen. In some areas ulceration and degeneration take place. We studied alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and integrins during chronic periodontal inflammation. In inflamed tissue, laminin-1 and type IV collagen were still present in the basement membrane and surrounding blood vessels, but they were also found extravascularly in inflamed connective tissue stroma. Type VII collagen and laminin-5 (also known as kalinin, epiligrin, or nicein) were poorly preserved in the basement membrane zone, but both were found in unusual streak-like distributions in the subepithelial connective tissue stroma in inflamed tissue. Both fibronectin and tenascin were substantially decreased in chronically inflamed connective tissue, showing only punctate staining at the basement membrane zone. Integrins of the beta 1 family showed two distinct staining patterns in epithelial cells during chronic inflammation; focal losses of beta 1 integrins (alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1) were found in most areas, while in other areas the entire pocket epithelium was found to be strongly positive for beta 1 integrins. No members of the alpha v integrin family were found in any epithelia studied. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was high in basal cells of healthy tissue, but weak in epithelium associated with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation therefore involves alterations in both adhesion proteins and integrins expressed by epithelial cells. Basement membrane components found at abnormal sites in stroma in chronic inflammation might serve as new adhesive ligands for various cell types in inflamed stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7541610

Haapasalmi, K.; Mäkelä, M.; Oksala, O.; Heino, J.; Yamada, K. M.; Uitto, V. J.; Larjava, H.

1995-01-01

284

Expression of the Transcriptional Repressor Protein Kid-1 Leads to the Disintegration of the Nucleolus*  

E-print Network

Expression of the Transcriptional Repressor Protein Kid-1 Leads to the Disintegration, Massachusetts 02129 The rat Kid-1 gene codes for a 66-kDa protein with KRAB domains at the NH2 terminus and two a biochemical and functional analysis of the Kid-1 protein in transfected cells. The full-length Kid-1 protein

Witzgall, Ralph - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III

285

Molecular characterisation and expression of two venom allergen-like protein genes in Heterodera glycinesq  

E-print Network

Molecular characterisation and expression of two venom allergen-like protein genes in Heterodera venom allergen-like protein cDNAs (designated hg-vap-1 and hg-vap-2)were isolated from Heterodera Proteins similar to the allergen antigen 5 of extracellular proteins from hymenopteran insect venom (King

Hussey, Richard S.

286

Statistical lower bounds on protein copy number from fluorescence expression images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Fluorescence imaging has become commonplace for quantitatively measuring mRNA or protein expression in cells and tissues. However, such expression data is usually relative—absolute concentrations or molecular copy numbers are typically not known. While this is satisfactory for many applications, for certain kinds of quantitative network modeling and analysis of expression noise, absolute measures of expression are necessary. Results: We

Lee Zamparo; Theodore J. Perkins

2009-01-01

287

p53 protein expression in human breast carcinoma: relationship to expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, c-erbB-2 protein overexpression, and oestrogen receptor.  

PubMed Central

The expression of p53 protein, oestrogen receptor protein, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and overexpression of the c-erbB-2 oncoprotein was examined in a series of 149 primary symptomatic breast carcinomas. Expression of p53 was present in 62 of 146 cases (42.5%) of the invasive carcinoma and one of three cases (33.3%) of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) examined. Statistical associations of tumour oestrogen receptor positivity and lack of p53 protein expression, chi 2 = 19.78 (d.f. = 1), P less than 0.001, positive tumour p53 status and poor tumour grade; chi 2 = 14.1 (d.f. = 2), P less than 0.001, EGFR expression chi 2 = 7.07, (d.f. = 1), P less than 0.01 and tumour c-erbB-2 protein overexpression; chi 2 = 4.61 (d.f. = 1), P = 0.032 were identified. Expression of p53 is rare in invasive lobular carcinoma of classical type (8.3% of cases examined) in contrast to other common types of mammary carcinoma. Non-significant trends of p53 protein expression and increased regional tumour recurrence; chi 2 = 3.20 (d.f. = 1), P = 0.074 and also poorer patient survival; chi 2 = 3.76 (d.f. = 1), P = 0.053 were identified. p53 protein expression is a common event in human breast cancer and is present in both DCIS and invasive mammary carcinoma. Abnormal expression of p53 protein is a feature of both in situ and invasive breast carcinoma, implying that the abnormal p53 protein expression may be implicated in the early stages of mammary carcinoma progression. Images Figure 1 PMID:1355662

Poller, D. N.; Hutchings, C. E.; Galea, M.; Bell, J. A.; Nicholson, R. A.; Elston, C. W.; Blamey, R. W.; Ellis, I. O.

1992-01-01

288

Expression of ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters in a HIV-1 transgenic rat model.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp, product of Mdr1a and Mdr1b genes), multidrug resistance associated proteins (Mrps), and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), all members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug transporters superfamily, can significantly restrict the entry of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into organs which exhibit a barrier function such as the central nervous system (CNS) and the male genital tract (MGT). In vitro, HIV-1 viral proteins such as glycoprotein-120 (gp120) and transcriptional transactivator (tat) have been shown to alter the expression of these transporters and ARVs permeability. The objective of this study was to compare mRNA expression of these transporters, in vivo, in several tissues obtained from HIV-1 transgenic rats (Tg-rat) (8 and 24 weeks) with those of age-matched wild-type rats. At 24 weeks, significant changes in several drug transporter mRNA expressions were observed, in particular, in brain, kidney, liver and testes. These findings suggest that HIV-1 viral proteins can alter the expression of ABC drug transporters, in vivo, in the context of HIV-1 and further regulate ARVs permeability in several organs including the CNS and MGT, two sites which have been reported to display very low ARVs permeability in the clinic. PMID:24472536

Robillard, Kevin R; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

2014-02-21

289

Synthesis of Multi-Domain Proteins Using Expressed Protein Ligation: Strategies for Segmental Isotopic Labeling of Internal Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe how a sequential version of the protein semi-synthesis technique, Expressed Protein Ligation (EPL), can be used to assemble multiple (i.e. 3 or more) recombinantly-derived polypeptides segments into a target protein. Sequential EPL was successfully used to assembly the 304 amino acid eukaryotic adaptor protein, Crk-II, from three recombinant polypeptide segments in good yield. Moreover, the resulting multi-component

Ulrich K Blaschke; Graham J Cotton; Tom W Muir

2000-01-01

290

Cloning, expression, and antigenic characterization of recombinant protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum expressed in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a member of the most important avian mycoplasmas, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and leading to important economic losses in the poultry industry. Recombinant technology represents a strategic approach used to achieve highly reliable and specific diagnostic tests in veterinary diseases control: in particular this aspect is crucial for confirming mycoplasma infection and for maintaining mycoplasma-free breeder flocks. In this study, we identified a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (i.e., E2) protein by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), characterized it in immunoblotting assays, and analyzed its recombinant (r-E2) in a rec-ELISA test. For full-length protein expression in Escherichia coli (EC) a point mutation was introduced. A rabbit antiserum produced against r-E2 was tested in a Western Blot using different samples of Mycoplasma species. The results showed the applicability of site-directed mutagenesis, with a good yield of the r-E2 after purification. Also, anti-E2 serum reacted with all the tested MG strains showing no cross reaction with other mycoplasmas. The developed E2 ELISA test was capable of detecting MG antibodies in the sera examined. Those results demonstrate the antigenic stability of the E2 protein which could represent a recombinant antigen with potential diagnostic applications. PMID:25667423

Rocha, T S; Tramuta, C; Catania, S; Matucci, A; Giuffrida, M G; Baro, C; Profiti, M; Bertolotti, L; Rosati, S

2015-04-01

291

Identities of sequestered proteins in aggregates from cells with induced polyglutamine expression.  

PubMed

Proteins with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. One common characteristic of expanded-polyQ expression is the formation of intracellular aggregates (IAs). IAs purified from polyQ-expressing cells were dissociated and studied by protein blot assay and mass spectrometry to determine the identity, condition, and relative level of several proteins sequestered within aggregates. Most of the sequestered proteins comigrated with bands from control extracts, indicating that the sequestered proteins were intact and not irreversibly bound to the polyQ polymer. Among the proteins found sequestered at relatively high levels in purified IAs were ubiquitin, the cell cycle-regulating proteins p53 and mdm-2, HSP70, the global transcriptional regulator Tata-binding protein/TFIID, cytoskeleton proteins actin and 68-kD neurofilament, and proteins of the nuclear pore complex. These data reveal that IAs are highly complex structures with a multiplicity of contributing proteins. PMID:11309410

Suhr, S T; Senut, M C; Whitelegge, J P; Faull, K F; Cuizon, D B; Gage, F H

2001-04-16

292

New and highly efficient expression systems for expressing selectively foreign protein in the silk glands of transgenic silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed three different fibroin H-chain expression systems to estimate the efficacy of producing recombinant proteins\\u000a in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. The results showed that the three different EGFP\\/H-chain fusion genes were all expressed\\u000a selectively in the posterior silk gland of the transgenic silkworm. The recombinant protein content of transgenic silkworm\\u000a cocoons is up to 15% (w\\/w) when using

Aichun Zhao; Tianfu Zhao; Yuansong Zhang; Qingyou Xia; Cheng Lu; Zeyang Zhou; Zhonghuai Xiang; M. Nakagaki

2010-01-01

293

Analysis of the protein-protein interaction networks of differentially expressed genes in pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to explore the function and interaction of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pulmonary embolism (PE). The gene expression profile GSE13535, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The DEGs 2 and 18 h post?PE initiation were identified using the affy package in R software. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the DEGs were analyzed using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) online analytical tools. In addition, protein?protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. The PPI network at 18 h was modularized using Clusterone, and a functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs in the top three modules was performed with DAVID. Overall, 80 and 346 DEGs were identified 2 and 18 h after PE initiation, respectively. The KEGG pathways, including chemokine signaling and toll?like receptor signaling, were shown to be significantly enriched. The five highest degree nodes in the PPI networks at 2 or 18 h were screened. The module analysis of the PPI network at 18 h revealed 11 hub nodes. A Gene Ontology terms analysis demonstrated that the DEGs in the top three modules were associated with the inflammatory, defense and immune responses. The results of the present study suggest that the DEGs identified, including chemokine?related genes TFPI2 and TNF, may be potential target genes for the treatment of PE. The chemokine signaling pathway, inflammatory response and immune response were explored, and it may be suggested that these pathways have important roles in PE. PMID:25434468

Wang, Hao; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yinghua; Duan, Qianglin; Gong, Zhu; Liang, Aibin; Song, Haoming; Wang, Lemin

2015-04-01

294

Analysis of the protein-protein interaction networks of differentially expressed genes in pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to explore the function and interaction of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pulmonary embolism (PE). The gene expression profile GSE13535, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The DEGs 2 and 18 h post-PE initiation were identified using the affy package in R software. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the DEGs were analyzed using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) online analytical tools. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. The PPI network at 18 h was modularized using ClusterONE, and a functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs in the top three modules was performed with DAVID. Overall, 80 and 346 DEGs were identified 2 and 18 h after PE initiation, respectively. The KEGG pathways, including chemokine signaling and toll-like receptor signaling, were shown to be significantly enriched. The five highest degree nodes in the PPI networks at 2 or 18 h were screened. The module analysis of the PPI network at 18 h revealed 11 hub nodes. A Gene Ontology terms analysis demonstrated that the DEGs in the top three modules were associated with the inflammatory, defense and immune responses. The results of the present study suggest that the DEGs identified, including chemokine-related genes TFPI2 and TNF, may be potential target genes for the treatment of PE. The chemokine signaling pathway, inflammatory response and immune response were explored, and it may be suggested that these pathways have important roles in PE. PMID:25434468

WANG, HAO; WANG, CHEN; ZHANG, LEI; LU, YINGHUA; DUAN, QIANGLIN; GONG, ZHU; LIANG, AIBIN; SONG, HAOMING; WANG, LEMIN

2015-01-01

295

Connexin expression in human acute myeloid leukemia cells: Identification of patient subsets based on protein and global gene expression profiles  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow stromal cells support both normal and malignant hematopoiesis. ?his support is mediated through the local cytokine network and by direct cell-cell interactions mediated via adhesion molecules and the formation of gap junctions by connexins. Previous studies on connexins in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have mainly focused on the investigation of leukemia cell lines. In the present study, we therefore investigated the expression of various connexins at the protein (i.e., cell surface expression) and mRNA level in primary human AML cells. The cell surface expression of the connexins, Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, Cx43 and Cx45, varied considerably between patients, and detectable levels were observed only for subsets of patients. On the whole, Cx43 and Cx45 showed the highest cell surface expression. Connexin expression was dependent on AML cell differentiation, but showed no association with cytogenetic abnormalities or mutations of the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) or nucleophosmin (NPM)?1 genes. By contrast, only Cx45 showed a significant variation between patients at the mRNA level. A high Cx45 expression was associated with the altered regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon-?], whereas a low Cx45 expression was associated with the altered regulation of protein functions (i.e., ligase activity, protein folding and catabolism). There was no significant correlation observed between the connexin mRNA and protein levels. Thus, differences in connexin expression can be used to subclassify AML patients. Differences in connexin cell surface expression profiles are not reflected at the mRNA level and have to be directly examined, whereas variations in Cx45 mRNA expression are associated with differences in cell signaling and the regulation of protein functions. PMID:25529637

REIKVAM, HÅKON; RYNINGEN, ANITA; SÆTERDAL, LARS RUNE; NEPSTAD, INA; FOSS, BRYNJAR; BRUSERUD, ØYSTEIN

2015-01-01

296

Connexin expression in human acute myeloid leukemia cells: Identification of patient subsets based on protein and global gene expression profiles.  

PubMed

Bone marrow stromal cells support both normal and malignant hematopoiesis. ?his support is mediated through the local cytokine network and by direct cell?cell interactions mediated via adhesion molecules and the formation of gap junctions by connexins. Previous studies on connexins in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have mainly focused on the investigation of leukemia cell lines. In the present study, we therefore investigated the expression of various connexins at the protein (i.e., cell surface expression) and mRNA level in primary human AML cells. The cell surface expression of the connexins, Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, Cx43 and Cx45, varied considerably between patients, and detectable levels were observed only for subsets of patients. On the whole, Cx43 and Cx45 showed the highest cell surface expression. Connexin expression was dependent on AML cell differentiation, but showed no association with cytogenetic abnormalities or mutations of the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) or nucleophosmin (NPM)?1 genes. By contrast, only Cx45 showed a significant variation between patients at the mRNA level. A high Cx45 expression was associated with the altered regulation of the mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)?17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon??], whereas a low Cx45 expression was associated with the altered regulation of protein functions (i.e., ligase activity, protein folding and catabolism). There was no significant correlation observed between the connexin mRNA and protein levels. Thus, differences in connexin expression can be used to subclassify AML patients. Differences in connexin cell surface expression profiles are not reflected at the mRNA level and have to be directly examined, whereas variations in Cx45 mRNA expression are associated with differences in cell signaling and the regulation of protein functions. PMID:25529637

Reikvam, Håkon; Ryningen, Anita; Sæterdal, Lars Rune; Nepstad, Ina; Foss, Brynjar; Bruserud, Øystein

2015-03-01

297

Targeted quantitative mass spectrometric identification of differentially expressed proteins between Bax-expressing and deficient colorectal carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Bax, a Bcl-2 interacting protein, plays a central role in several stimuli-induced apoptosis pathways through its functional and physical interactions with various biologically important proteins. Identification of the Bax-modulating protein network should be useful to further our understanding of Bax-mediated apoptosis. For the first time, we performed proteome-wide quantification and identification of differentially expressed proteins between Bax+/- and Bax-/- HCT116 clones using a newly developed quantitative mass spectrometric analysis strategy. This strategy is based on forward and reverse differential isotope labeling of the proteome digests of two comparative cells, followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography separation and automated peptide deposition to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization sample plates for MS quantification and MS/MS peptide sequence identification. We quantified and identified 200 differentially expressed proteins involved in various cellular processes. Through bioinformatic analysis, four groups of differentially expressed proteins were highlighted for the association with Bax: mitochondria permeability transition channel proteins, Bax regulator proteins, heat shock protein family members, and oxidative stress-triggered proteins. These results indicate the functional diversity of Bax and provide new research directions to study the biology of Bax-regulated apoptosis. PMID:19425606

Wang, Peng; Lo, Andy; Young, J Bryce; Song, Jin H; Lai, Raymond; Kneteman, Norman M; Hao, Chunhai; Li, Liang

2009-07-01

298

Differential expression of hemolymph proteins between susceptible and insecticide-resistant Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattellidae).  

PubMed

A proteomic approach combining two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry was used to compare hemolymph expression profiles of a beta-cypermethrin-resistant Blattella germanica L. strain and a beta-cypermethrin-susceptible strain. Twenty-eight hemolymph proteins were differentially expressed in the resistant cockroach strain; 19 proteins were upregulated and 9 proteins were downregulated compared with the susceptible strain. Protein identification indicated that expression of putative cuticular protein, nitric oxide synthase, triosephosphate isomerase, alpha-amylase, ABC transporter, and Per a 3 allergen was elevated, and expression of arginine kinase and glycosidase was reduced. The differential expression of these proteins reflects the overall change in cellular structure and metabolism related to the resistance of pyrethroid insecticides. PMID:25182623

Zhang, F; Wang, X J; Huang, Y H; Zhao, Z G; Zhang, S S; Gong, X S; Xie, L; Kang, D M; Jing, X

2014-08-01

299

Glucose enhances collectrin protein expression in insulin-producing MIN6 {beta} cells  

SciTech Connect

Collectrin is a novel target gene of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} in pancreatic {beta}-cells and controls insulin exocytosis. Although glucose is known to stimulate the expression of genes of the insulin secretory pathway, there is no information on how glucose regulates collectrin expression. We investigated the effects of glucose on the expression of collectrin in MIN6 {beta}-cell line. Glucose, in a dose-dependent manner, increased collectrin protein levels without changing collectrin mRNA levels and protein stability, indicating that glucose stimulation of collectrin protein expression is primarily mediated at a translational level. Although mannose and pyruvate also increased collectrin protein expression level, neither 2-deoxyglucose, mitochondrial fuels leucine and glutamate, sulphonylurea nor Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers, mimicked the effects of glucose. These data indicate the involvement of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates, distal to pyruvate, in the regulation of collectrin protein expression in {beta}-cells.

Saisho, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yasuda, Tomoko [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)] [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sato, Yoshifumi; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Hatta, Mitsutoki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)] [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yamagata, Kazuya, E-mail: k-yamaga@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)] [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

2009-11-06

300

Mapping tissue-specific expression of extracellular proteins using systematic glycoproteomic analysis of different mouse tissues  

PubMed Central

Due to their easy accessibility, proteins outside of the plasma membrane represent an ideal but untapped resource for potential drug targets or disease biomarkers. They constitute the major biochemical class of current therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers. Recent advances in proteomic technologies have fueled interest in analysis of extracellular proteins such as membrane proteins, cell surface proteins, and secreted proteins. However, unlike the gene expression analyses from a variety of tissues and cells using genomic technologies, quantitative proteomic analysis of proteins from various biological sources is challenging due to the high complexity of different proteomes, and the lack of robust and consistent methods for analyses of different tissue sources, especially for specific enrichment of extracellular proteins. Since most extracellular proteins are modified by oligosaccharides, the population of glycoproteins therefore represents the majority of extracellular proteomes. Here, we quantitatively analyzed glycoproteins and determined the expression patterns of extracellular proteins from 12 mouse tissues using solid-phase extraction of N-linked glycopeptides and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We identified peptides enclosing 1231 possible N-linked glycosites from 826 unique proteins. We further determined the expression pattern of formerly N-linked glycopeptides and identified extracellular glycoproteins specifically expressed in each tissue. Furthermore, the tissue specificities of the overexpressed glycoproteins in a mouse skin tumor model were determined by comparing to the quantitative protein expression from the different tissues. These skin tumor-specific extracellular proteins might serve as potential candidates for cell surface drug targets or disease-specific protein markers. PMID:20828161

Tian, Yuan; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Zhang, Hui

2010-01-01

301

Altered Cellular Responses by Varying Expression of a Ribosomal Protein Gene: Sequential Coordination of Enhancement and Suppression of Ribosomal Protein S3a Gene Expression Induces Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence indicates that individual ribosomal proteins and changes in their ex- pression, participate in, and modulate, a variety of cel- lular activities. Our earlier studies have found that apop- tosis could be induced by inhibiting expression of ribosomal protein S3a (RPS3a) in many tumor cells which constitutively express RPS3a at levels much higher than in normal

Honami Naora; Izumi Takai; Masakazu Adachi; Hiroto Naora

1998-01-01

302

Cell-specific expression of the carrot EP2 lipid transfer protein gene.  

PubMed Central

A cDNA corresponding to a 10-kD protein, designated extracellular protein 2 (EP2), that is secreted by embryogenic cell cultures of carrot was obtained by expression screening. The derived protein sequence and antisera against heterologous plant lipid transfer proteins identified the EP2 protein as a lipid transfer protein. Protein gel blot analysis showed that the EP2 protein is present in cell walls and conditioned medium of cell cultures. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the EP2 gene is expressed in embryogenic cell cultures, the shoot apex of seedlings, developing flowers, and maturing seeds. In situ hybridization showed expression of the EP2 gene in protoderm cells of somatic and zygotic embryos and transient expression in epidermis cells of leaf primordia and all flower organs. In the shoot apical meristem, expression is found in the tunica and lateral zone. In maturing seeds, the EP2 gene is expressed in the outer epidermis of the integument, the seed coat, and the pericarp epidermis, as well as transiently in between both mericarps. Based on the extracellular location of the EP2 protein and the expression pattern of the encoding gene, we propose a role for plant lipid transfer proteins in the transport of cutin monomers through the extracellular matrix to sites of cutin synthesis. PMID:1822991

Sterk, P; Booij, H; Schellekens, G A; Van Kammen, A; De Vries, S C

1991-01-01

303

Proteomics Based Identification of Cell Migration Related Proteins in HBV Expressing HepG2 Cells  

PubMed Central

Proteomics study was performed to investigate the specific protein expression profiles of HepG2 cells transfected with mutant HBV compared with wildtype HBV genome, aiming to identify the specific functions of SH3 binding domain (proline rich region) located in HBx. In addition to the cell movement and kinetics changes due to the expression of HBV genome we have observed previously, here we further targeted to explore the specific changes of cellular proteins and potential intracellular protein interactions, which might provide more information of the potential cellular mechanism of the differentiated cell movements. Specific changes of a number of proteins were shown in global protein profiling in HepG2 cells expressing wildtype HBV, including cell migration related proteins, and interestingly the changes were found recovered by SH3 binding domain mutated HBV. The distinctive expressions of proteins were validated by Western blot analysis. PMID:24763314

Feng, Huixing; Li, Xi; Chan, Vincent; Chen, Wei Ning

2014-01-01

304

Connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions for stochastic models of gene expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression can lead to large variability in protein levels for genetically identical cells. Such variability in protein levels can arise from infrequent synthesis of mRNAs which in turn give rise to bursts of protein expression. Protein expression occurring in bursts has indeed been observed experimentally and recent studies have also found evidence for transcriptional bursting, i.e. production of mRNAs in bursts. Given that there are distinct experimental techniques for quantifying the noise at different stages of gene expression, it is of interest to derive analytical results connecting experimental observations at different levels. In this work, we consider stochastic models of gene expression for which mRNA and protein production occurs in independent bursts. For such models, we derive analytical expressions connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions which show how the functional form of the mRNA burst distribution can be inferred from the protein burst distribution. Additionally, if gene expression is repressed such that observed protein bursts arise only from single mRNAs, we show how observations of protein burst distributions (repressed and unrepressed) can be used to completely determine the mRNA burst distribution. Assuming independent contributions from individual bursts, we derive analytical expressions connecting means and variances for burst and steady-state protein distributions. Finally, we validate our general analytical results by considering a specific reaction scheme involving regulation of protein bursts by small RNAs. For a range of parameters, we derive analytical expressions for regulated protein distributions that are validated using stochastic simulations. The analytical results obtained in this work can thus serve as useful inputs for a broad range of studies focusing on stochasticity in gene expression.

Elgart, Vlad; Jia, Tao; Fenley, Andrew T.; Kulkarni, Rahul

2011-08-01

305

Co-expression of protein tyrosine kinases EGFR-2 and PDGFR? with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

The regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is mediated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and is essential for cellular homeostasis. Coexpression of PTKs with PTPs in Pichia pastoris was used to facilitate the expression of active PTKs by neutralizing their apparent toxicity to cells. In this study, the gene encoding phosphatase PTP1B with or without a blue fluorescent protein or peroxisomal targeting signal 1 was cloned into the expression vector pAG32 to produce four vectors. These vectors were subsequently transformed into P. pastoris GS115. The tyrosine kinases EGFR-2 and PDGFR? were expressed from vector pPIC3.5K and were fused with a His-tag and green fluorescent protein at the N-terminus. The two plasmids were transformed into P. pastoris with or without PTP1B, resulting in 10 strains. The EGFR-2 and PDGFR? fusion proteins were purified by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. In the recombinant P. pastoris, the PTKs co-expressed with PTP1B exhibited higher kinase catalytic activity than did those expressing the PTKs alone. The highest activities were achieved by targeting the PTKs and PTP1B into peroxisomes. Therefore, the EGFR-2 and PDGFR? fusion proteins expressed in P. pastoris may be attractive drug screening targets for anticancer therapeutics. PMID:24248091

Tu, Pham Ngoc; Wang, Yamin; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

2014-02-28

306

Differential effects of opioid agonists on G protein expression in CHO cells expressing cloned human opioid receptors.  

PubMed

Recent evidence indicates that agonist ligands of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) can activate different signaling systems. Such "agonist-directed" signaling also occurs with opioid receptors. Previous work from our laboratory showed that chronic morphine, but not DAMGO, up-regulates the expression of Galpha12 and that both morphine and DAMGO decreased Galphai3 expression in CHO cells expressing the cloned human mu opioid receptor. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic opioid regulation of G protein expression is agonist-directed. Following a 20h treatment of CHO cells expressing the cloned human mu (hMOR-CHO), delta (hDOR-CHO) or kappa (hKOR-CHO) opioid receptors with various opioid agonists, we determined the expression level of Galpha12 and Galphai3 by Western blots. Among five mu agonists (morphine, etorphine, DADLE, DAMGO, herkinorin) tested with hMOR-CHO cells, only chronic morphine and etorphine up-regulated Galpha12 expression. All five mu agonists decreased Galphai3 expression. Among six delta agonists (SNC80, DPDPE, deltorphin-1, morphine, DADLE, etorphine) tested with hDOR-CHO cells, all six agonists down-regulated Galphai3 expression or moderately up-regulated Galpha12 expression. Among five kappa agonists, ((-)-ethylketocyclazocine, salvinorin A, U69,593, etorphine, (-)-U50,488) tested with hKOR-CHO cells, only chronic (-)-U50,488 and (-)-EKC up-regulated Galpha12 expression. All kappa agonists decreased Galphai3 expression. These data demonstrate that chronic opioid agonist regulation of G protein expression depends not only on the agonist tested, but also on the type of opioid receptor expressed in a common cellular host, providing additional evidence for agonist-directed signaling. PMID:18639745

Xu, Heng; Wang, Xiaoying; Partilla, John S; Bishop-Mathis, Kristen; Benaderet, Tova S; Dersch, Christina M; Simpson, Denise S; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Rothman, Richard B

2008-09-01

307

Differential protein expression in chicken spermatozoa before and after freezing-thawing treatment.  

PubMed

The biological characteristics of rooster sperm that has undergone freezing treatment remain elusive. This study analyzed the change in sperm proteins after freezing-thawing treatment by using a proteomic approach. Semen from three 36-wk-old L2 strain Taiwan country chickens were used. A qualifying ejaculate containing more than 80% motility and volume 200?L was used for cryopreservation. The proteomic analysis explored 55 protein spots that differed significantly before and after freezing-thawing treatment (P<0.05). Among the 55 protein spots, expression levels of 19 proteins decreased after treatment. Forty-five differentially expressed protein spots were identified and belong to 33 proteins. Results of gene ontology analysis revealed that most differentially expressed proteins were involved in molecular function of the cellular metabolism process (28%) and cellular carbohydrate metabolism process (15%), and were associated with molecular function of oxidoreductase activity (19%) and protein binding (18%). The differentially expressed proteins before and after freezing-thawing treatment, including fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, triosephosphate isomerase, aconitate hydratase, tubulin and outer dense-fiber protein, are associated with sperm energy metabolism and flagellum structure. In conclusion, freezing-thawing treatment significantly affects the expression of proteins related to sperm metabolism and structure in chicken spermatozoa. The differing levels of these proteins could be valuable for further enhancing the fertility of frozen-thawed chicken spermatozoa. PMID:25500174

Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Pin-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Wang, Shin-Han; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

2015-01-01

308

Identifying targets of the Sox domain protein Dichaete in the Drosophila CNS via targeted expression of dominant negative proteins  

E-print Network

dominant negative proteins in combination with ChIP, immunohistochemistry and genome-wide expression profiling to further dissect the role of Dichaete in these two tissues. Results We generated two dominant negative Dichaete constructs, one lacking a DNA...

Shen, Shih Pei; Aleksic, Jelena; Russell, Steven

2013-01-05

309

The novel protein PTPIP51 exhibits tissue- and cell-specific expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression patterns of both mRNA and protein of the novel protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) were studied in various organs by in situ hybridization, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. The protein was found in all mammalian species investigated: guinea pig, rat, mouse, pig, and human. The presence of the protein was, however, restricted to specific organs. High levels of PTPIP51

Albrecht Stenzinger; Tobias Kajosch; Claudia Tag; Alexandra Porsche; Inka Welte; Hans Werner Hofer; Klaus Steger; Monika Wimmer

2005-01-01

310

cAMP, an Activator of Protein Kinase A, Suppresses the Expression of Sonic Hedgehog  

E-print Network

cAMP, an Activator of Protein Kinase A, Suppresses the Expression of Sonic Hedgehog Alexander Received December 8, 1995 In Drosophila, it has been shown that protein kinase A and hedgehog have antagonistic actions during the formation of imaginal disks. In vertebrate skin, sonic hedgehog is expressed

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

311

Teaching Molecular Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students: An Illustration of Protein Expression and Purification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical classes on protein expression and purification were given to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course "Introduction to Genetic Engineering." The heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)* of "Aequorea victoria" is an interesting system for didactic purposes because it can be viewed easily during…

Sommer, Cesar Adolfo; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Novo, Maria Teresa Marques

2004-01-01

312

Mining Cross-graph Quasi-cliques in Gene Expression and Protein Interaction Data  

E-print Network

the joint mining are interesting and meaningful for at least two reasons. First, both the gene expressionMining Cross-graph Quasi-cliques in Gene Expression and Protein Interaction Data Jian Pei Simon and Model A protein is the product of a gene. From the gene expres- sion data, we can find co

Pei, Jian

313

A streamlined implementation of the glutamine synthetase-based protein expression system  

PubMed Central

Background The glutamine synthetase-based protein expression system is widely used in industry and academia for producing recombinant proteins but relies on the cloning of transfected cells, necessitating substantial investments in time and handling. We streamlined the production of protein-producing cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells using this system by co-expressing green fluorescent protein from an internal ribosomal entry site and selecting for high green fluorescent protein-expressing cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results Whereas other expression systems utilizing green fluorescent protein and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based selection have relied on two or more sorting steps, we obtained stable expression of a test protein at levels >50% of that of an “average” clone and ~40% that of the “best” clone following a single sorting step. Versus clone-based selection, the principal savings are in the number of handling steps (reduced by a third), handling time (reduced by 70%), and the time needed to produce protein-expressing cultures (reduced by ~3 weeks). Coupling the glutamine synthetase-based expression system with product-independent selection in this way also facilitated the production of a hard-to-assay protein. Conclusion Utilizing just a single fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based selection step, the new streamlined implementation of the glutamine synthetase-based protein expression system offers protein yields sufficient for most research purposes, where <10 mg/L of protein expression is often required but relatively large numbers of constructs frequently need to be trialed. PMID:24063773

2013-01-01

314

Uncovering Suitable Reference Proteins for Expression Studies in Human Adipose Tissue with Relevance to Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Protein expression studies based on the two major intra-abdominal human fat depots, the subcutaneous and the omental fat, can shed light into the mechanisms involved in obesity and its co-morbidities. Here we address, for the first time, the identification and validation of reference proteins for data standardization, which are essential for accurate comparison of protein levels in expression studies based on fat from obese and non-obese individuals. Methodology and Findings To uncover adipose tissue proteins equally expressed either in omental and subcutaneous fat depots (study 1) or in omental fat from non-obese and obese individuals (study 2), we have reanalyzed our previously published data based on two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four proteins (12 in study 1 and 12 in study 2) with similar expression levels in all conditions tested were selected and identified by mass spectrometry. Immunoblotting analysis was used to confirm in adipose tissue the expression pattern of the potential reference proteins and three proteins were validated: PARK7, ENOA and FAA. Western Blot analysis was also used to test customary loading control proteins. ENOA, PARK7 and the customary loading control protein Beta-actin showed steady expression profiles in fat from non-obese and obese individuals, whilst FAA maintained steady expression levels across paired omental and subcutaneous fat samples. Conclusions ENOA, PARK7 and Beta-actin are proper reference standards in obesity studies based on omental fat, whilst FAA is the best loading control for the comparative analysis of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues either in obese and non-obese subjects. Neither customary loading control proteins GAPDH and TBB5 nor CALX are adequate standards in differential expression studies on adipose tissue. The use of the proposed reference proteins will facilitate the adequate analysis of proteins differentially expressed in the context of obesity, an aim difficult to achieve before this study. PMID:22272336

Pérez-Pérez, Rafael; López, Juan A.; García-Santos, Eva; Camafeita, Emilio; Gómez-Serrano, María; Ortega-Delgado, Francisco J.; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José M.; Peral, Belén

2012-01-01

315

Expression of myelin basic protein isoforms in nonglial cells  

PubMed Central

The myelin basic proteins (MBPs) mediate the cytoplasmic apposition of the oligodendrocyte plasma membrane to form the major dense line of central nervous system myelin. Four major isoforms of murine MBP, obtained by alternative splicing of seven exons from a single primary transcript, display distinct developmental profiles. We expressed these major MBPs individually in HeLa cells and mapped their distributions by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The 14- and 18.5-kD MBPs that are the predominant forms in compact myelin distributed primarily in the perinuclear regions of the cell in configurations highly suggestive of close association with membranes. We infer that these MBP isoforms possess strong, nonspecific membrane-binding properties that have been adapted by the oligodendrocyte to mediate compaction of the sheaths of plasma membrane that form myelin. In contrast, the 17- and 21.5-kD isoforms distributed diffusely in both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm and often accumulated within the nucleus. This distribution can be correlated with the presence of the peptide segment encoded by exon II, which is unique to these isoforms. The physiological significance of the nuclear targeting displayed by the 17- and 21.5-kD MBP isoforms in HeLa cells remains to be determined. PMID:1692328

1990-01-01

316

Helicobacter pylori infection and expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the expression of DNA (MMR) proteins, including hMLH1 and hMSH2, in gastric epithelial cells in the patients with or without Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-infected gastritis. METHODS: Fifty H pylori-positive patients and 50 H pylori-negative patients were enrolled in the study. During endoscopy of patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, two antral and two corpus biopsies were taken for histological examination (Giemsa stain) and for immunohistochemical staining of hMLH1 and hMSH2. RESULTS: The percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMLH1 staining was 84.14 ± 7.32% in H pylori-negative patients, while it was 73.34 ± 10.10% in H pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding the percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMSH2 staining (81.16 ± 8.32% in H pylori-negative versus 78.24 ± 8.71% in H pylori-positive patients; P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that H pylori might promote development of gastric carcinoma at least in part through its ability to affect the DNA MMR system. PMID:19034977

Mirzaee, Vahid; Molaei, Mahsa; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2008-01-01

317

Déjà vu in proteomics. A hit parade of repeatedly identified differentially expressed proteins.  

PubMed

After reading many 2-DE-based articles featuring lists of the differentially expressed proteins, one starts experiencing a disturbing déjà vu. The same proteins seem to predominate regardless of the experiment, tissue or species. To quantify the occurrence of individual differentially expressed proteins in 2-DE experiment reports, we compiled the identities of differentially expressed proteins identified in human, mouse, and rat tissues published in three recent volumes of Proteomics and calculated the appearance of the most predominant proteins in the dataset. The most frequently identified protein is a highly abundant glycolytic enzyme enolase 1, differentially expressed in nearly every third experiment on both human and rodent tissues. Heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) and heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) were differentially expressed in about 30 percent of human and rodent samples, respectively. Considering protein families as units, keratins and peroxiredoxins are the most frequently identified molecules, with at least one member of the group being differentially expressed in about 40 percent of all experiments. We suggest that the frequent identification of these proteins must be considered in the interpretation of any 2-DE studies. We consider if these commonly observed changes represent common cellular stress responses or are a reflection of the technical limitations of 2-DE. PMID:18442176

Petrak, Jiri; Ivanek, Robert; Toman, Ondrej; Cmejla, Radek; Cmejlova, Jana; Vyoral, Daniel; Zivny, Jan; Vulpe, Christopher D

2008-05-01

318

Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines  

SciTech Connect

High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

1997-07-01

319

Promoters of Cancer Genes for Recombinant Protein Expression in Human Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Production of complex human recombinant proteins is an important issue in medical biotechnology. These proteins are mostly expressed in non-human mammalian host cells. This has some problems including non-human post-translational modifications, application of high-cost agents for inducing protein expression and low yields. Thus, it is necessary to use new expression systems to overcome the indicated challenges. Methods In this paper, we hypothesize the application of promoter regions of cancer genes, which have a high rate of transcription in human cancer cell lines, for designing new expression vectors. Results After designing, these vectors could be applied to produce complex hu-man recombinant proteins in the human cancer cell lines as production hosts. Conclusion Application of these expression vectors for the production of recombinant human proteins in the human cancer cell lines have some advantages including authentic post-translational modifications, proper-cost of commercialization, and high yields. PMID:23678442

Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Farhadi, Behrouz; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Moharrami, Tamouchin

2012-01-01

320

Insect cells-baculovirus system for the production of difficult to express proteins.  

PubMed

The production of sufficient quantities of homogenous protein not only is an essential prelude for structural investigations but also represents a rate-limiting step for many human functional studies. Although technologies for expression of recombinant proteins and complexes have been improved tremendously, in many cases, protein production remains a challenge and can be associated with considerable investment. This chapter describes simple and efficient protocols for expression screening and optimization of protein production in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. We describe the procedure, starting from the cloning of a gene of interest into an expression transfer baculovirus vector, followed by generation of the recombinant virus by homologous recombination, evaluation of protein expression, and scale-up. Handling of insect cell cultures and preparation of bacmid for co-transfection are also detailed. PMID:25447865

Osz-Papai, Judit; Radu, Laura; Abdulrahman, Wassim; Kolb-Cheynel, Isabelle; Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Birck, Catherine; Poterszman, Arnaud

2015-01-01

321

Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a rich literature on transcription dynamics during the development of many organisms, protein data is limited. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to generate the largest developmental proteomic dataset for any animal. Expression dynamics of nearly 4,000 proteins of Xenopus laevis was generated from fertilized egg to neurula embryo. Expression clusters into groups. The cluster profiles accurately reflect the major events that mark changes in gene expression patterns during early Xenopus development. We observed decline in the expression of ten DNA replication factors after the midblastula transition (MBT), including a marked decline of the licensing factor XCdc6. Ectopic expression of XCdc6 leads to apoptosis; temporal changes in this protein are critical for proper development. Measurement of expression in single embryos provided no evidence for significant protein heterogeneity between embryos at the same stage of development.

Sun, Liangliang; Bertke, Michelle M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

2014-03-01

322

Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development  

PubMed Central

While there is a rich literature on transcription dynamics during the development of many organisms, protein data is limited. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to generate the largest developmental proteomic dataset for any animal. Expression dynamics of nearly 4,000 proteins of Xenopus laevis was generated from fertilized egg to neurula embryo. Expression clusters into groups. The cluster profiles accurately reflect the major events that mark changes in gene expression patterns during early Xenopus development. We observed decline in the expression of ten DNA replication factors after the midblastula transition (MBT), including a marked decline of the licensing factor XCdc6. Ectopic expression of XCdc6 leads to apoptosis; temporal changes in this protein are critical for proper development. Measurement of expression in single embryos provided no evidence for significant protein heterogeneity between embryos at the same stage of development. PMID:24626130

Sun, Liangliang; Bertke, Michelle M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

2014-01-01

323

Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

2014-01-01

324

Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

2014-01-01

325

Verapamil and Rifampin Effect on P-Glycoprotein Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: High expression of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is likely that P-gp overexpression is responsible for multidrug resistance in HCC. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of potent carcinogen nitrosamine with and without verapamil and rifampin drugs on P-gp expression at the mRNA level in HCC. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats (n = 5) were selected with different treatments and one group as control. mRNA concentration changes were monitored using quantitative PCR (QPCR). Results: A significant difference was found between verapamil treated group and the control regarding the mRNA level. The mdr1a mRNA was significantly decreased in the verapamil group (P ? 0.001). Rifampin administrated group had a decreased level of the mdr1a mRNA compared to the control group (P ? 0.006). No significant changes were observed in HCC induced rats regarding the mdr1a mRNA level when treated with verapamil and rifampin. An enhanced expression of the mdr1a gene was found In the HCC induced animals when treated with drugs. Conclusions: Verapamil and rifampin were found specific and effective against P-gp expression in HCC. In conclusion, treatment efficacy of most anticancer drugs is increased in combination with verapamil and rifampin against most advanced HCC. PMID:25625052

Jalali, Amir; Ghasemian, Sepideh; Najafzadeh, Hossein; Galehdari, Hamid; Seifi, Masoud Reza; Zangene, Fateme; Dehdardargahi, Shaiesteh

2014-01-01

326

Expression and characterization of Gag protein of HIV-1(CN) in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

To express the core protein of HIV-1 of Chinese prevalent strain (HIV-1(CN)) in Pichia pastoris, the full-length gag gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pHILS1. Linearized recombinant plasmid pHILGAG by SalI was electrotransformed into the yeast strain GS115, and the yeast transformants were identified by PCR. To induce the interest protein to be expressed, the PCR positive transformants were inoculated in the medium of BMGY and BMMY, mRNA of the strain was detected by RT-PCR, and the expressed protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and thin layer scanning. mRNA (1.3kb) was amplified by RT-PCR. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis showed that the molecular mass of the expressed protein was 55kDa, which was similar to the expected value, and the expressed protein could react with McAb to HIV-1 p24. Thin layer scanning analysis demonstrated that the whole amount of the expressed protein was approximately 13% of the soluble protein in the supernatant. The recombinant yeast had good genetic stability. The optimal expression conditions of the engineering yeast were as follows: BMMY medium, 80-90% of dissolved oxygen, 1% methanol, and 3-day-cultivation course. Gag proteins were expressed under the optimal expression condition and purified via gel filtration chromatography. The purity of the interest protein was up to 85%. After the purified proteins were inoculated into BALB/c mice, the anti-HIV-1 antibodies in the immunized mice could be detected by Western blotting. PMID:15582696

Jiang, Wen Z; Jin, Ning Y; Li, Zi J; Zhang, Li S; Wang, Hong W; Zhang, Ying J; Han, Wen Y

2005-01-01

327

The N Terminus of Andes Virus L Protein Suppresses mRNA and Protein Expression in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the structure and function of the 250-kDa L protein of hantaviruses, although it plays a central role in virus genome transcription and replication. When attempting to study Andes virus (ANDV) L protein in mammalian cells, we encountered difficulties. Even in a strong overexpression system, ANDV L protein could not be detected by immunoblotting. Deletion analysis revealed that the 534 N-terminal amino acid residues determine the low-expression phenotype. Inhibition of translation due to RNA secondary structures around the start codon, rapid proteasomal degradation, and reduced half-life time were excluded. However, ANDV L protein expression could be rescued upon mutation of the catalytic PD-E-K motif and further conserved residues of the putative endonuclease at the N terminus of the protein. In addition, wild-type ANDV L rather than expressible L mutants suppressed the level of L mRNA, as well as reporter mRNAs. Wild-type L protein also reduced the synthesis of cellular proteins in the high-molecular-weight range. Using expressible ANDV L mutants as a tool for localization studies, we show that L protein colocalizes with ANDV N and NSs but not Gc protein. A fraction of L protein also colocalized with the cellular processing (P) body component DCP1a. Overall, these data suggest that ANDV L protein possesses a highly active endonuclease at the N terminus suppressing the level of its own as well as heterologous mRNAs upon recombinant expression in mammalian cells. PMID:23576516

Heinemann, Patrick; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

2013-01-01

328

Importance of expression system in the production of unnatural recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the efficiencies by which the pET and pQE expression systems produce unnatural recombinant\\u000a proteins by residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, a method through which it was found that type of gene\\u000a expression system tremendously influences the production yield of unnatural proteins in Escherichia coli. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a single-chain Fv antibody against

Niraikulam Ayyadurai; Rameshkumar Neelamegam; Soundrarajan Nagasundarapandian; Selvakumar Edwardraja; Hyung Soon Park; Soo Jae Lee; Tae Hyeon Yoo; Hyungdon Yoon; Sun-Gu Lee

2009-01-01

329

Expression of soluble recombinant proteins in a cell-free system using a 96-well format.  

PubMed

For structural and functional genomics programs, new high-throughput methods to obtain well-expressing and highly soluble proteins are essential. Here, we describe a rapid procedure to express recombinant proteins in an Escherichia coli cell-free system using a 96-well format. The identification of soluble proteins is performed by the Dot Blot procedure using an anti-His tag antibody. The applications and the automation of this method are described. PMID:12706907

Busso, Didier; Kim, Rosalind; Kim, Sung-Hou

2003-03-28

330

E. coli expressed proteins as diagnostic reagents for typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Truncated proteins corresponding to the C-terminal half of VP1 of four vaccine strains and two field variants of foot-and-mouth\\u000a disease virus (FMDV) were expressed in E. coli. The expressed proteins were affinity purified and their type specific reactivity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with\\u000a anti-virus antibodies. Antibodies were raised against the purified proteins in guinea pigs and the type specificity of

V. V. S. Suryanarayana; S. Viswanathan; G. Ratish; P. Bist; K. Prabhudas; M. R. Gajendragad; C. Natarajan

1999-01-01

331

Bovine Doppel (Dpl) and Prion Protein (PrP) Expression on Lymphoid Tissue and Circulating Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doppel (Dpl) protein shares some structural features with prion protein (PrP), whose pathologic isoform (PrPsc) is considered to be the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Dpl is mainly expressed in testes but, when ectopically expressed in the central nervous system, is neurotoxic. We have examined the expression pattern of Dpl and PrP on bovine lymphoid tissues and circulating leukocytes.

Saverio Paltrinieri; Stefano Comazzi; Valentina Spagnolo; Marco Rondena; Wilma Ponti; Fabrizio Ceciliani

2004-01-01

332

Optimization of Recombinant Protein Expression in the Chloroplasts of Green Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through advances in molecular and genetic techniques, protein expression in the chloroplasts of green algae has been optimized\\u000a for high-level expression. Recombinant proteins expressed in algae have the potential to provide novel and safe treatment\\u000a of disease and infection where current, high-cost drugs are the only option, or worse, where therapeutic drugs are not available\\u000a due to their prohibitively high-cost

Samuel P. Fletcher; Machiko Muto; Stephen P. Mayfield

333

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 269 Development of Novel Protein Expression Technologies for Glycosylated Cancer Related Proteins  

Cancer.gov

The purpose of this initiative is to provide support for the development of novel technologies for the expression of cancer-related glycosylated proteins. Many proteins become post-translationally modified (PTM) during the “secretory process” which involves of a journey from their site of synthesis in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), through the Golgi apparatus and then to various cellular and extracellular destinations.

334

Dictyostelium discoideum--a promising expression system for the production of eukaryotic proteins.  

PubMed

In general, four different expression systems, namely, bacterial, yeast, baculovirus, and mammalian, are widely used for the overproduction of biochemical enzymes and therapeutic proteins. Clearly, bacterial expression systems offer ease of maneuverability with respect to large-scale production of recombinant proteins, while, a baculovirus expression system ensures proper protein modifications, processing, and refolding of complex proteins. Despite these advantages, mammalian cells remain the preferred host for many eukaryotic proteins of pharmaceutical importance, particularly, those requiring post-translational modifications. Recently, the single-celled slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), has emerged as a promising eukaryotic host for the expression of a variety of heterologous recombinant eukaryotic proteins. This organism possesses the complex cellular machinery required for orchestrating post-translational modifications similar to the one observed in higher eukaryotes. This review summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of Dictyostelium as an alternate system compared to other well-established expression systems. The key lessons learned from the expression of human recombinant proteins in this system are reviewed. Also, the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges associated with industrial-scale production of proteins in Dd expression system are discussed. PMID:18714070

Arya, Ranjana; Bhattacharya, Alok; Saini, Kulvinder Singh

2008-12-01

335

High-throughput Cloning and Expression of Integral Membrane Proteins in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Recently, several structural genomics centers have been established and a remarkable number of three-dimensional structures of soluble proteins have been solved. For membrane proteins, the number of structures solved has been significantly trailing those for their soluble counterparts, not least because over-expression and purification of membrane proteins is a much more arduous process. By using high throughput technologies, a large number of membrane protein targets can be screened simultaneously and a greater number of expression and purification conditions can be employed, leading to a higher probability of successfully determining the structure of membrane proteins. This unit describes the cloning, expression and screening of membrane proteins using high throughput methodologies developed in our laboratory. Basic Protocol 1 deals with the cloning of inserts into expression vectors by ligation-independent cloning. Basic Protocol 2 describes the expression and purification of the target proteins on a miniscale. Lastly, for the targets that express at the miniscale, basic protocols 3 and 4 outline the methods employed for the expression and purification of targets at the midi-scale, as well as a procedure for detergent screening and identification of detergent(s) in which the target protein is stable. PMID:24510647

Bruni, Renato

2014-01-01

336

Stable, High-Level Expression of a Type I Antifreeze Protein in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type I antifreeze proteins are simple amphipathic helical proteins found in abundance in polar fish species, where they act to prevent freezing of internal fluids by a mechanism of noncolligative freezing point depression. Large-scale production of these proteins for research and biotechnological purposes has been hampered by their apparent instability when expressed in heterologous host systems. This has necessitated

Robert G. Solomon; Rudi Appels

1999-01-01

337

Differential protein expression during aging in ventricular myocardium of Fischer 344 × Brown Norway hybrid rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging heart undergoes well characterized structural changes associated with functional decline, though the underlying mechanisms are not understood. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent ventricular myocardial protein expression was altered with age and which proteins underwent protein nitration. Fischer 344×Brown Norway F1 hybrid (FBN) rats of four age groups were used, 4, 12, 24,

M. R. Richardson; X. Lai; S. B. Mason; S. J. Miller; F. A. Witzmann

2008-01-01

338

Protective immunity of Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant envelope protein of Japanese encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) envelope (E) protein holds great promise for use in the development of a recombinant vaccine. Purified recombinant E (rE) protein may be useful for numerous clinical applications; however, there are limitations in using the Escherichia coli expression system for producing high-quality rE protein. Therefore, in this study, the yeast expression system was used to generate the rE protein. For protein production using the yeast system, the full-length JEV E gene was cloned into Pichia pastoris. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that the rE protein had a molecular mass of 58 kDa and was glycosylated. The predicted size of the mature unmodified E protein is 53 kDa, suggesting that post-translational modifications resulted in the higher molecular mass. The rE protein was purified to greater than 95% purity using combined ammonium sulfate precipitation and a SP-Sepharose Fast Flow column. This purified rE protein was evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice. The survival rates of mice immunized with the rE protein were significantly increased over that of Hyphantria cunea nuclear polyhedrosis virus E protein (HcE). Our results indicate that the rE protein expressed in the P. pastoris expression system holds great promise for use in the development of a subunit vaccine against JEV. PMID:23124351

Kwon, Woo-Taeg; Lee, Woo-Sik; Park, Pyo-Jam; Park, Tae-Kyu; Kang, Hyun

2012-11-01

339

Tyrosinase-Related Protein 2 Promoter Targets Transgene Expression to Ocular and Neural  

E-print Network

Tyrosinase-Related Protein 2 Promoter Targets Transgene Expression to Ocular and Neural Crest generated transgenic mice carrying the lacZ reporter gene linked to the tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2 mutation. INTRODUCTION Tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) is an enzyme in- volved in an intermediate step

Cummings, Molly E.

340

INCREASED LIVER PATHOLOGY IN HEPATITIS C VIRUS TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING THE HEPATITIS B VIRUS X PROTEIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic mice expressing the full-length HCV coding sequence were crossed with mice that express the HBV X gene-encoded regulatory protein HBx (ATX mice) to test the hypothesis that HBx expression accelerates HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. At 16 months (mo) of age, hepatocellular carcinoma was id...

341

Optimization of transfection conditions for expression of green fluorescent protein in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells provide attractive features for efficient expression of heterologous gene products. We report the optimization of transfection conditions for transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Drosophila S2 cells by lipofectin and electroporation. GFP expression in lipofectin transfection was optimum at a transfection time of 24 h, a 5:1 ratio of lipofectin to DNA, and a

Jong Hwa Park; Hae Yeong Kim; Kyu Hyung Han; In Sik Chung

1999-01-01

342

Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).  

PubMed

Drug interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may influence its tissue disposition including blood-brain barrier transport and result in potent drug-drug interactions. The limited data obtained using in-vitro models indicate that methadone, buprenorphine, and cannabinoids may interact with human P-gp; but almost nothing is known about drugs of abuse and BCRP. We used in vitro P-gp and BCRP inhibition flow cytometric assays with hMDR1- and hBCRP-transfected HEK293 cells to test 14 compounds or metabolites frequently involved in addiction, including buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, ibogaine, cocaine, cocaethylene, amphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, nicotine, ketamine, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), naloxone, and morphine. Drugs that in vitro inhibited P-gp or BCRP were tested in hMDR1- and hBCRP-MDCKII bidirectional transport studies. Human P-gp was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by norbuprenorphine>buprenorphine>methadone>ibogaine and THC. Similarly, BCRP was inhibited by buprenorphine>norbuprenorphine>ibogaine and THC. None of the other tested compounds inhibited either transporter, even at high concentration (100 microm). Norbuprenorphine (transport efflux ratio approoximately 11) and methadone (transport efflux ratio approoximately 1.9) transport was P-gp-mediated; however, with no significant stereo-selectivity regarding methadone enantiomers. BCRP did not transport any of the tested compounds. However, the clinical significance of the interaction of norbuprenorphine with P-gp remains to be evaluated. PMID:19887017

Tournier, Nicolas; Chevillard, Lucie; Megarbane, Bruno; Pirnay, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Declèves, Xavier

2010-08-01

343

Clinical significance of KAI1/CD82 protein expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate KAI1/CD82 protein expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and human NPC tissues. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were used to detect the localization and expression levels of the KAI1/CD82 protein in five human NPC cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was also conducted to detect the expression of the KAI1/CD82 protein in 70 NPC tissues and 30 non-neoplastic nasopharyngeal tissues. The levels of KAI1/CD82 protein expression were found to decrease as the metastatic potential of cells increased. The expression rate of KAI1/CD82 protein in the NPC tissues (44.3%) was significantly lower than that in the non-neoplastic nasopharyngeal tissues (70.0%) (P<0.05). KAI1/CD82 protein expression in the NPC tissues was not associated with clinical parameters, including gender, age, histological type and T stage, and the positive expression of KAI1/CD82 decreased with increased N staging. The level of KAI1/CD82 protein expression was increased in different human NPC cell lines. The KAI1/CD82 gene was highly expressed in cells with low metastatic potential, while low expression was observed in cells with a high metastatic potential. In addition, the KAI1/CD82 gene was expressed at low levels in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues, while high expression was identified in non-neoplastic nasopharyngeal tissues, and was associated with lymph node metastasis. These results indicated that the KAI1/CD82 gene may be involved in the occurrence, development and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

WANG, GENGMING; JIANG, HAO; XU, HONGBO; SUN, QIAN; ZHOU, YAN; XIANG, PING; CHENG, ZENONG; ZHANG, YAJUN; ZHOU, YUFU; GUO, QING; DU, XINGLONG; XU, SHUXIU; MA, SHIYIN; CHEN, ZHENDONG

2015-01-01

344

Identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression  

PubMed Central

Essential proteins are vitally important for cellular survival and development, and identifying essential proteins is very meaningful research work in the post-genome era. Rapid increase of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has made it possible to detect protein essentiality at the network level. A series of centrality measures have been proposed to discover essential proteins based on the PPI networks. However, the PPI data obtained from large scale, high-throughput experiments generally contain false positives. It is insufficient to use original PPI data to identify essential proteins. How to improve the accuracy, has become the focus of identifying essential proteins. In this paper, we proposed a framework for identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression. Firstly, we process the dynamic gene expression profiles by using time-dependent model and time-independent model. Secondly, we construct an active PPI network based on co-expressed genes. Lastly, we apply six classical centrality measures in the active PPI network. For the purpose of comparison, other prediction methods are also performed to identify essential proteins based on the active PPI network. The experimental results on yeast network show that identifying essential proteins based on the active PPI network can improve the performance of centrality measures considerably in terms of the number of identified essential proteins and identification accuracy. At the same time, the results also indicate that most of essential proteins are active. PMID:25707432

2015-01-01

345

Identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression.  

PubMed

Essential proteins are vitally important for cellular survival and development, and identifying essential proteins is very meaningful research work in the post-genome era. Rapid increase of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has made it possible to detect protein essentiality at the network level. A series of centrality measures have been proposed to discover essential proteins based on the PPI networks. However, the PPI data obtained from large scale, high-throughput experiments generally contain false positives. It is insufficient to use original PPI data to identify essential proteins. How to improve the accuracy, has become the focus of identifying essential proteins. In this paper, we proposed a framework for identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression. Firstly, we process the dynamic gene expression profiles by using time-dependent model and time-independent model. Secondly, we construct an active PPI network based on co-expressed genes. Lastly, we apply six classical centrality measures in the active PPI network. For the purpose of comparison, other prediction methods are also performed to identify essential proteins based on the active PPI network. The experimental results on yeast network show that identifying essential proteins based on the active PPI network can improve the performance of centrality measures considerably in terms of the number of identified essential proteins and identification accuracy. At the same time, the results also indicate that most of essential proteins are active. PMID:25707432

Xiao, Qianghua; Wang, Jianxin; Peng, Xiaoqing; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Pan, Yi

2015-01-01

346

Proteomics analysis of protein expression and specific protein oxidation in human papillomavirus transformed keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence supports the role of oxidative stress in cancer development. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is one of the major sources of oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides the physiological function of ROS in cellular homeostasis, accumulating reports suggest that ROS are involved in all stages of multistep cancer development. In order to investigate the involvement of oxidative damage into the mechanisms of tumour progression, we used a parallel proteomic approach to analyse the protein expression profile and to identify oxidatively modified proteins in human papillomavirus (HPV)-transformed keratinocytes (HK-168 cells) upon ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. The HK-168 cells were obtained from normal human epidermal keratinocytes transfected with the whole genome of the high-risk HPV type 16, unanimously recognized as an etiological agent of cervical carcinoma. Because of its year-long latency, this tumour offers a convenient model to study the role of environmental concurring agents in the multistep malignant progression. By the protein expression profile, we identified 21 proteins that showed different expression levels in HK-168 cells treated with UVB in comparison with untreated cells. Focusing on the oxidative modifications occurring at the protein level, we identified five proteins that showed elevated protein carbonyls levels: alpha-enolase, heat shock protein 75, annexin 2, elongation factor Tu and elongation factor gamma. Our results indicate that UVB-induced oxidative stress perturbs the normal redox balance and shifts HPV-transformed keratinocytes into a state in which the carbonylation of specific proteins is systematically induced. We suggest that UVB-induced modulation of protein expression combined with oxidative modification lead to protein dysfunction that might contribute to the malignant progression of transformed cells. PMID:19267883

Perluigi, Marzia; Giorgi, Alessandra; Blarzino, Carla; De Marco, Federico; Foppoli, Cesira; Di Domenico, Fabio; Butterfield, D Allan; Schininà, M Eugenia; Cini, Chiara; Coccia, Raffaella

2009-08-01

347

Maternal Protein Restriction Affects Postnatal Growth and the Expression of Key Proteins Involved in Lifespan Regulation in Mice  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that maternal protein restriction in rodents influenced the rate of growth in early life and ultimately affected longevity. Low birth weight caused by maternal protein restriction followed by catch-up growth (recuperated animals) was associated with shortened lifespan whereas protein restriction and slow growth during lactation (postnatal low protein: PLP animals) increased lifespan. We aim to explore the mechanistic basis by which these differences arise. Here we investigated effects of maternal diet on organ growth, metabolic parameters and the expression of insulin/IGF1 signalling proteins and Sirt1 in muscle of male mice at weaning. PLP mice which experienced protein restriction during lactation had lower fasting glucose (P?=?0.038) and insulin levels (P?=?0.046) suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. PLP mice had higher relative weights (adjusted by body weight) of brain (P?=?0.0002) and thymus (P?=?0.031) compared to controls suggesting that enhanced functional capacity of these two tissues is beneficial to longevity. They also had increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (P?=?0.021) and protein kinase C zeta (P?=?0.046). Recuperated animals expressed decreased levels of many insulin signalling proteins including PI3 kinase subunits p85? (P?=?0.018), p110? (P?=?0.048) and protein kinase C zeta (P?=?0.006) which may predispose these animals to insulin resistance. Sirt1 protein expression was reduced in recuperated offspring. These observations suggest that maternal protein restriction can affect major metabolic pathways implicated in regulation of lifespan at a young age which may explain the impact of maternal diet on longevity. PMID:19308256

Chen, Jian-Hua; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Tarry-Adkins, Jane; Ozanne, Susan E.

2009-01-01

348

Analysis of differentially expressed proteins in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed

In this study, the protein expression profiles of zebrafish embryos under chlorpyrifos (CPF) stress were investigated. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.25 mg/L CPF, and embryo samples were collected until 24 h post-fertilization (hpf). To gain a better understanding of the response of zebrafish embryos to CPF exposure, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry was employed to carry out a comparative proteomic analysis. Total proteins were extracted from the control and treated samples, separated by 2D PAGE, and visualized by silver staining. A total of 59 protein spots showed reproducible changes compared with the control. Of these 59 spots, 19 were selected and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/TOF) analysis; 9 differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 3 up-regulated proteins and 6 down-regulated proteins. The increased expression of 3 proteins associated with detoxification and stress response suggested that the activation of protective proteins was required in zebrafish embryos exposed to CPF. On the other hand, the decreased expression of 6 proteins is mainly involved in cytoskeleton structure, protein translation, signal transduction and lipoprotein metabolism. These data may help us understand the functions and the molecular mechanisms of these proteins in zebrafish embryos' response to CPF exposure. PMID:25445019

Liu, Lili; Xu, Yongxue; Xu, Lili; Wang, Jian; Wu, Wei; Xu, Lei; Yan, Yanchun

2015-01-01

349

Differentially expressed soluble proteins in aortic cells from atherosclerosis-susceptible and resistant pigeons.  

PubMed

Soluble proteins in aortic smooth muscle cells cultured from atherosclerosis-susceptible White Carneau and atherosclerosis-resistant Show Racer pigeons were extracted and separated on 2-dimensional electrophoresis gels. Spots were analyzed with Phoretix software and compared between the 2 breeds. Proteins differentially expressed were arrayed on a map, plotting molecular weight against isoelectric point. Eight discrete zones were identified, 5 that included only proteins unique to susceptible cells and 3 that included proteins unique to resistant cells. Of the 88 differentially expressed proteins from susceptible cells, 41 were located in unique zones, whereas 29 of 82 differentially expressed proteins from resistant cells were in unique zones. Selected proteins from susceptibility, and resistance zones were annotated by peptide mass fragments, molecular weights, isoelectric points, and correspondence with genes differentially expressed between cells from the 2 breeds. Some of the annotated proteins (such as smooth muscle myosin phosphatase, myosin heavy chain, fatty acid-binding protein, ribophorin, heat shock protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducing factor) corresponded to the current hypotheses to explain atherogenesis. In addition, the unique electrophoretic migration zones of proteins associated with susceptibility or resistance should prove useful as a diagnostic tool in clinical settings where species or phenotypes, or both, susceptible or resistant to atherosclerosis can be identified. PMID:18577612

Smith, S C; Smith, E C; Gilman, M L; Anderson, J L; Taylor, R L

2008-07-01

350

Robust microarray production of freshly expressed proteins in a human milieu  

PubMed Central

Purpose In vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) systems are widely used in proteomics. For clinical applications, mammalian systems are preferred for protein folding and activity; however, the level of protein obtained is low. A new system extracted from human cells (1-Step Human Coupled IVT) has the potential to overcome this problem and deliver high yields of protein expressed in a human milieu. Experimental design Western blots and self-assembled protein microarrays were used to test the efficiency of protein synthesis by 1-Step Human Coupled IVT (HCIVT) compared to rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL). The arrays were also used to measure the immune response obtained from serum of patients exposed to pathogens or vaccine. Results HCIVT performed better than RRL in all experiments. The yield of protein synthesized in HCIVT is more than 10 times higher than RRL, in both western blot and protein microarrays. Moreover, HCIVT showed a robust lot-to-lot reproducibility. In immune assays, the signals of many antigens were detected only in HCIVT-expressed arrays, mainly due to the reduction in the background signal and the increased levels of protein on the array. Conclusion and clinical relevance HCIVT is a robust IVTT system that yields high levels of protein produced in a human milieu. It can be used in applications where protein expression in a mammalian system and high yields are needed. The increased immunogenic response of HCIVT-expressed proteins will be critical for biomarker discovery in many diseases, including cancer. PMID:23027544

Festa, Fernanda; Rollins, Sean M.; Vattem, Krishna; Hathaway, Margarita; Lorenz, Phillip; Mendoza, Eliseo Alejandro; Yu, Xiaobo; Qiu, Ji; Kilmer, Greg; Jensen, Penny; Webb, Brian; Ryan, Ed T.; LaBaer, Joshua

2013-01-01

351

Changes in the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 and Tamm– Horsfall Protein in the Early Stages of Diabetic Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has been suggested to play a protective role against kidney injury in chronic kidney disease. Objectives To identify the critical molecular regulators in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy, we studied the expression of BMP7 and 2 important kidney-specific markers, podocin and Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP). Materials and Methods A diabetic nephropathy model was established by intraperitoneally injecting streptozotocin (STZ) in male Kunming mice. Kidney weight index was used as an indicator of early renal injury. Kidney tissue from the diabetic model mice was obtained at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, and total protein was extracted to assess the expression of BMP7, podocin, and THP by western blot analysis. Results Diabetic model mice were successfully established, and the kidney weight index of the model animals increased significantly. The expression of BMP7 was significantly downregulated, while the expression of THP was increased in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. However, the expression of podocin did not change. Conclusions Our observations suggested that down-regulation of BMP7 expression and up-regulation of THP expression were early events that occur prior to podocyte injury with the structure protein, podocin spoiled, which further confirmed that BMP7 is a key molecular regulator in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23573468

Qu, Yanchun; Du, E; Zhang, Yue; Li, Shengzhi; Han, Ruifa; Qiu, Mengsheng

2012-01-01

352

Altered Expression of RNA Splicing Proteins in Alzheimer's Disease Patients: Evidence from Two Microarray Studies  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Dysregulation of pre-mRNA splicing from an altered expression of RNA splice-regulatory proteins may act as the convergence point underlying aberrant gene expression changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Two microarray datasets from a control/AD postmortem brain cohort of 31 subjects ? 9 controls and 22 AD subjects (National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database) – were used. Results Between the two microarray studies, the expression of six splice-regulatory protein genes showed concordant changes in AD. These genes were then correlated with gene expression changes of transcripts reported to be altered in AD. Amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein and tropomyosin receptor kinase B transcripts were found to correlate significantly with the same splice-regulatory proteins in the two studies. Conclusion This study highlights a susceptibility network that can potentially link a number of susceptibility genes. PMID:23637700

Wong, Jenny

2013-01-01

353

A thiamine-regulatable epitope-tagged protein expression system in fission yeast.  

PubMed

Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the fission yeast, has been a popular and useful model system for investigating the mechanisms of biological processes for a long time. To facilitate purification, localization, and functional analysis of gene products, a wide range of expression vectors have been developed. Several of these vectors utilize the inducible/repressible promoter systems and enable the episomal expression of proteins as fusion proteins with epitope tags attached to their N terminus or C terminus.This chapter provides a detailed protocol for expression of the epitope-tagged proteins from thiamine-regulatable nmt promoter in fission yeast. The yeast culture conditions and procedures for yeast transformation, expression induction, preparation of whole-cell extracts, and analysis of epitope-tagged protein expression by Western blotting are described. PMID:22160912

Tamm, Tiina

2012-01-01

354

Protein expression profiles of intestinal epithelial co-cultures: effect of functionalised carbon nanotube exposure  

PubMed Central

To assess the biological effects of low level, water dispersible, functionalised carbon nanotube (f-CNT) exposure in an in vitro model simulating the digestive tract, cellular protein expression was quantified and compared using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS). Co-cultured cells were exposed to well-characterised SWCNT-COOH, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-PVP. The relative expression of 2,282 unique proteins was compared across the dose groups. 428 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. At the high dose, the extent of differential protein expression was CNT-specific and directly related to CNT colloidal stability. Cells responded to low level MWCNT-PVP exposure with three-fold greater differential expression. Bioinformatic analysis indicated significant and f-CNT-specific effects on relevant molecular and cellular functions and canonical pathways, with little overlap across f-CNT type and in the absence of overt toxicity. PMID:24228069

Lai, Xianyin; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L.; Clack, James W.; Fears, Sharry L.; Mitra, Somenath; Ntim, Susana Addo; Ringham, Heather N.

2013-01-01

355

Excystment-Dependent Alteration of Protein Expression in Terrestrial Ciliate Colpoda cucullus  

PubMed Central

Protein expression during the excystment of Colpoda cucullus was studied by SDS-PAGE. The expression levels of 60-, 50- and 49-kDa proteins were markedly changed from the early to later stage of excystment. The 60-kDa protein (p60) was temporarily expressed first, and its expression was inhibited by actinomycin D. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the amino acid sequences of p60 partially coincided with those of the Paramecium tetraurelia unnamed protein homologous to DEAD-box RNA helicase. These results suggest that p60 expression is enhanced by transcriptional regulation and may be involved in initiating the molecular events leading to cellular morphogenesis. PMID:23628864

Sogame, Yoichiro; Kojima, Katsuhiko; Takeshita, Toshikazu; Kinoshita, Eiji; Funadani, Ryoji; Matsuoka, Tatsuomi

2013-01-01

356

In-Vivo Real-Time Control of Protein Expression from Endogenous and Synthetic Gene Networks  

PubMed Central

We describe an innovative experimental and computational approach to control the expression of a protein in a population of yeast cells. We designed a simple control algorithm to automatically regulate the administration of inducer molecules to the cells by comparing the actual protein expression level in the cell population with the desired expression level. We then built an automated platform based on a microfluidic device, a time-lapse microscopy apparatus, and a set of motorized syringes, all controlled by a computer. We tested the platform to force yeast cells to express a desired fixed, or time-varying, amount of a reporter protein over thousands of minutes. The computer automatically switched the type of sugar administered to the cells, its concentration and its duration, according to the control algorithm. Our approach can be used to control expression of any protein, fused to a fluorescent reporter, provided that an external molecule known to (indirectly) affect its promoter activity is available. PMID:24831205

Orabona, Emanuele; De Stefano, Luca; Ferry, Mike; Hasty, Jeff; di Bernardo, Mario; di Bernardo, Diego

2014-01-01

357

Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

2011-01-01

358

RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release.  

PubMed

The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. PMID:24971705

López, Claudia S; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

2014-08-01

359

Stochastic protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a living cell, gene expression-the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA followed by translation to protein-occurs stochastically, as a consequence of the low copy number of DNA and mRNA molecules involved. These stochastic events of protein production are difficult to observe directly with measurements on large ensembles of cells owing to lack of synchronization among cells. Measurements so far on single cells lack the sensitivity to resolve individual events of protein production. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic-based assay that allows real-time observation of the expression of ?-galactosidase in living Escherichia coli cells with single molecule sensitivity. We observe that protein production occurs in bursts, with the number of molecules per burst following an exponential distribution. We show that the two key parameters of protein expression-the burst size and frequency-can be either determined directly from real-time monitoring of protein production or extracted from a measurement of the steady-state copy number distribution in a population of cells. Application of this assay to probe gene expression in individual budding yeast and mouse embryonic stem cells demonstrates its generality. Many important proteins are expressed at low levels, and are thus inaccessible by current genomic and proteomic techniques. This microfluidic single cell assay opens up possibilities for system-wide characterization of the expression of these low copy number proteins.

Cai, Long; Friedman, Nir; Xie, X. Sunney

2006-03-01

360

Expression of Membrane Proteins in the Eyes of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In recent years, improved protein expression and crystallization strategies, as well as advanced synchrotron radiation sources and crystallographic tools considerably increased the number of crystal structures of integral membrane proteins from higher eukaryotes. However, seen as a proportion of the total number of candidate proteins, these achievements still appear meager, reflecting the huge effort that is often required to obtain high-level and functional expression of eukaryotic membrane proteins. Besides bacteria, yeast, insect, or mammalian cells are frequently used for heterologous expression, but despite considerable investments in time, labor, and money, there are numerous drawbacks to these systems. Are there other strategies that allow for an effective, large-scale production of functional membrane proteins? This chapter describes the expression of proteins in photoreceptor cells of transgenic Drosophila as an easily accessible, versatile alternative. We present step-by-step protocols starting from the cloning of the target gene into a suitable vector for fly eye expression and ending with the harvest of transgenic Drosophila and subsequent protein purification from the eye. Our examples span a number of eukaryotic membrane proteins from different classes-including receptors, transporters, channels, and enzymes-that were successfully expressed without further optimization. The protocols provided here are robust and straightforward to follow even without prior experience in Drosophila work. PMID:25857784

Hackmann, Yvonne; Joedicke, Lisa; Panneels, Valérie; Sinning, Irmgard

2015-01-01

361

Engineered mammalian vector to express EGFP-tagged proteins as biomarkers.  

PubMed

Due to its specialized post-translational machinery, mammalian cells represent an interesting and not fully explored system to express snake toxins. Therefore, in this work, we built up a new mammalian expression vector that enhances the feasibility to use mammalian cells to express proteins as biomarkers. Among the modifications, an Ig? signal peptide and a 6xHis tag were inserted into this vector in order to drive the protein to the supernatant and simplify its purification, respectively. In addition, to facilitate selection of high producing clones and also tag proteins which may function as a biomarker, the sequence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was added. The efficiency of the resulting vector (pToxEGFP) was tested by cloning and expressing the viper venom disintegrin echistatin (Ech) that due to its affinity to integrin ?v?3 was tested as a molecular marker. Expression of EGFP-Ech was achieved in CHO-DXB11 cells resulting in a yield of 22 mg/L. The binding activity of this chimera protein was successfully achieved on human umbilical vein endothelial cells which highly express ?v?3. The results indicate that pToxEGFP may constitute an efficient and versatile expression vector to express tagged proteins with potential biomarker activity. PMID:21847674

Magalhães, Geraldo Santana; Novo, Juliana Branco; Clissa, Patricia Bianca; Della Casa, Maisa Splendore; Butera, Diego; da Silva, Ana Maria Moura

2012-06-01

362

Efficient Expression of Acetylcholine-Binding Protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac System  

PubMed Central

The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ?5?mg/L, which needs 55?h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2?×?106?cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1?:?100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies. PMID:25136612

Lin, Bo; Bing, Hui; Zhangsun, Dongting; Luo, Sulan

2014-01-01

363

Efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac system.  

PubMed

The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ?5?mg/L, which needs 55?h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2?×?10(6)?cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1?:?100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies. PMID:25136612

Lin, Bo; Meng, Hailing; Bing, Hui; Zhangsun, Dongting; Luo, Sulan

2014-01-01

364

Efficient expression screening of human membrane proteins in transiently transfected Human Embryonic Kidney 293S cells  

PubMed Central

It is often an immense challenge to overexpress human membrane proteins at levels sufficient for structural studies. The use of Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells to express full-length human membrane proteins is becoming increasingly common, since these cells provide a near-native protein folding and lipid environment. Nevertheless, the labour intensiveness and low yields of HEK 293 cells and other mammalian cell expression systems necessitate the screening for suitable expression as early as possible. Here we present our methodology used to generate constructs of human membrane proteins and to rapidly assess their suitability for overexpression using transiently transfected, glycosylation-deficient GnT I ?/? HEK 293 cells (HEK 293S). Constructs, in the presence or absence of a C-terminal Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) molecule, are made in a modular manner, allowing for the rapid generation of several combinations of fusion tags and gene paralogues/orthologues. Solubilization of HEK 293S cells, using a range of detergents, followed by Western blotting is performed to assess relative expression levels and to detect possible degradation products. Fluorescence-detection size exclusion chromatography (FSEC) is employed to assess expression levels and overall homogeneity of the membrane proteins, to rank different constructs for further downstream expression trials. Constructs identified as having high expression are instantly suitable for further downstream large scale transient expression trials and stable cell line generation. The method described is accessible to all laboratory scales and can be completed in approximately three weeks. PMID:21925269

Chaudhary, Sarika; Pak, John E.; Pedersen, Bjørn P.; Bang, Lois J.; Zhang, Liye B.; Ngaw, Samantha M.M.; Green, Raissa G.; Sharma, Vinay; Stroud, Robert M.

2012-01-01

365

Probing Gene Expression in Live Cells, One Protein Molecule at a Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We directly observed real-time production of single protein molecules in individual Escherichia coli cells. A fusion protein of a fast-maturing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and a membrane-targeting peptide was expressed under a repressed condition. The membrane-localized YFP can be detected with single-molecule sensitivity. We found that the protein molecules are produced in bursts, with each burst originating from a stochastically

Ji Yu; Jie Xiao; Xiaojia Ren; Kaiqin Lao; X. Sunney Xie

2006-01-01

366

Assessment of uncoupling activity of uncoupling protein 3 using a yeast heterologous expression system  

E-print Network

: Uncoupling protein 3; Yeast expression system; Energy expenditure 1. Introduction Uncoupling proteins (UCPs)2 proteins with 59% and 57% homology to UCP1 were identi¢ed, UCP2 [10,11] and UCP3 [12^14]. The UCP3 gene generates two mRNA transcripts, UCP3L, which encodes a protein similar in length to UCP1 and UCP2, and UCP3S

367

Streamlined protein expression and purification using cleavable self-aggregating tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recombinant protein expression and purification remains a fundamental issue for biotechnology. Recently we found that two\\u000a short self-assembling amphipathic peptides 18A (EWLKAFYEKVLEKLKELF) and ELK16 (LELELKLKLELELKLK) can induce the formation\\u000a of active protein aggregates in Escherichia coli (E. coli), in which the target proteins retain high enzymatic activities. Here we further explore this finding to develop a novel,\\u000a facile, matrix-free protein

Lei Xing; Wei Wu; Bihong Zhou; Zhanglin Lin

2011-01-01

368

Vectors for expression of proteins with single or combinatorial fluorescent protein and tandem affinity purification tags in Dictyostelium  

PubMed Central

We constructed a series of expression vectors for purification of native proteins and protein complexes in Dictyostelium. Protein purification is achieved by either a C-terminal or N-terminal fusion of the protein of choice to the tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag. The TAP tag consists of a protein A tag and a calmodulin binding peptide (CBP) and has been successfully used for purification of native protein complexes from yeast and animal cells. Protein expression is driven by the constitutive actin 15 promoter and the vectors optionally carry additional green- or yellow fluorescent protein (GFP or YFP) tags for fusion at either a C- or N-terminal location. Tandem affinity purification of native Dictyostelium protein complexes was tested by using pArc-34, one of the members of the well characterized Dictyostelium Arp2/3 complex, as bait. After denaturation and SDS–PAGE separation of the pArc-34 associated proteins all members of the Arp2/3 complex could be identified. PMID:17296313

Meima, Marcel E.; Weening, Karin E.; Schaap, Pauline

2007-01-01

369

Identification, recombinant expression, immuno localization in macrophages, and T-cell responsiveness of the major extracellular proteins of Francisella tularensis  

E-print Network

gene cloned into pET22b produces a recombinant protein withcloned into the expression vector pET15b produce recombinant proteinscloned and expressed genes coding for ?ve of the F. tularensis major ex- tracellular proteins

Lee, B Y; Horwitz, Marcus A; Clemens, D L

2006-01-01

370

Clinical significance of migration and invasion inhibitor protein expression in non-small-cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Migration and invasion inhibitor protein (MIIP) was initially identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Recently, MIIP has emerged as a key protein in regulating cell migration and invasion. However, the MIIP expression profile in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been analyzed. In the present study, MIIP mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method in 37 NSCLC specimens and matched normal tissue samples. MIIP protein expression in a further 94 NSCLC specimens was examined with immunohistochemistry. Patient survival data were collected retrospectively, and the association between MIIP protein expression and the five-year overall survival rate was evaluated. The results revealed that MIIP mRNA and protein expression were downregulated in cancer tissues, as compared with the matched normal tissues. MIIP expression levels were significantly associated with pathology and tumor stage, with reduced MIIP mRNA expression levels detected in advanced tumor stage samples. Furthermore, patients with MIIP-positive protein expression had an improved prognosis as compared with those patients with MIIP-negative protein expression, with five-year survival rates of 41.7 and 22.4%, respectively (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank, P=0.028). A significant association between MIIP protein expression and improved prognosis was also demonstrated using univariate and multivariate analyses (P=0.033 and P=0.040, respectively). These results suggest that MIIP may have a potential role in the pathogenesis of NSCLC and also confirm that MIIP is a putative tumor-suppressor gene. Therefore, MIIP may be identified as a functional genetic marker of NSCLC development and prognosis, and may be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:25360165

WANG, XINHUA; LIU, HONGLING; WANG, XIAOYU; AN, YUZHI

2014-01-01

371

Genomics Analysis of Genes Expressed in Maize Endosperm Identifies Novel Seed Proteins and Clarifies Patterns of Zein Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

We analyzed cDNA libraries from developing endosperm of the B73 maize inbred line to evaluate the expression of storage protein genes. This study showed that zeins are by far the most highly expressed genes in the endosperm, but we found an inverse relationship between the number of zein genes and the relative amount of specific mRNAs. Although ?-zeins are encoded by large multigene families, only a few of these genes are transcribed at high or detectable levels. In contrast, relatively small gene families encode the ?- and ?-zeins, and members of these gene families, especially the ?-zeins, are highly expressed. Knowledge of expressed storage protein genes allowed the development of DNA and antibody probes that distinguish between closely related gene family members. Using in situ hybridization, we found differences in the temporal and spatial expression of the ?-, ?-, and ?-zein gene families, which provides evidence that ?-zeins are synthesized throughout the endosperm before ?- and ?-zeins. This observation is consistent with earlier studies that suggested that ?-zeins play an important role in prolamin protein body assembly. Analysis of endosperm cDNAs also revealed several previously unidentified proteins, including a 50-kD ?-zein, an 18-kD ?-globulin, and a legumin-related protein. Immunolocalization of the 50-kD ?-zein showed this protein to be located at the surface of prolamin-containing protein bodies, similar to other ?-zeins. The 18-kD ?-globulin, however, is deposited in novel, vacuole-like organelles that were not described previously in maize endosperm. PMID:11595803

Woo, Young-Min; Hu, David Wang-Nan; Larkins, Brian A.; Jung, Rudolf

2001-01-01

372

High-yield membrane protein expression from E. coli using an engineered outer membrane protein F fusion  

PubMed Central

Obtaining high yields of membrane proteins necessary to perform detailed structural study is difficult due to poor solubility and variability in yields from heterologous expression systems. To address this issue, an Escherichia coli-based membrane protein overexpression system utilizing an engineered bacterial outer membrane protein F (pOmpF) fusion has been developed. Full-length human receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) was expressed using pOmpF, solubilized in FC15 and purified to homogeneity. Using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, purified full-length RAMP1 is composed of approximately 90% ?-helix, and retains its solubility and structure in FC15 over a wide range of temperatures (20–60°C). Thus, our approach provides a useful, complementary approach to achieve high-yield, full-length membrane protein overexpression for biophysical studies. PMID:23345122

Su, Pin-Chuan; Si, William; Baker, Deidre L; Berger, Bryan W

2013-01-01

373

Expression levels of protein kinase C-alpha in non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Current treatments of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are inadequate and new therapies are being developed that target specific cellular signaling proteins associated with tumor growth. One potential target is protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, a signaling molecule with an important role in cell regulation and proliferation. The present study examines the expression levels of PKC-alpha in NSCLC to better understand the distribution of PKC-alpha in NSCLC. We analyzed tumor specimens from an independent tumor tissue bank to determine PKC-alpha protein and messenger RNA gene expression in NSCLC. In addition, we used publicly available gene expression array data to further understand PKC-a-associated gene expression profiles in NSCLC. We found that PKC-alpha is highly expressed in < or = 20% of patients with NSCLC. We also found that PKC-alpha was preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:15555220

Lahn, Michael; Su, Chen; Li, Shuyu; Chedid, Marcio; Hanna, Kimberly R; Graff, Jeremy R; Sandusky, George E; Ma, Doreen; Niyikiza, Clet; Sundell, Karen L; John, William J; Giordano, Thomas J; Beer, David G; Paterson, Blake M; Su, Eric Wen; Bumol, Thomas F

2004-11-01

374

miR-24 and miR-205 expression is dependent on HPV onco-protein expression in keratinocytes?  

PubMed Central

A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miR-24 and miR-205. We investigated how expression of Human Papilloma Virus Type-16 (HPV16) onco-proteins E6 and E7 affected expression of miR-24 and miR-205 during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We show that the induction of both miR-24 and miR-205 observed during differentiation of HFKs is lost in HFKs expressing E6 and E7. We demonstrate that the effect on miR-205 is due to E7 activity, as miR-205 expression is dependent on pRb expression. Finally, we provide evidence that miR-24 effects in the cell may be due to targeting of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27. In summary, these results indicate that expression of both miR-24 and miR-205 are impacted by E6 and/or E7 expression, which may be one mechanism by which HPV onco-proteins can disrupt the balance between proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. PMID:24314651

McKenna, Declan J.; Patel, Daksha; McCance, Dennis J.

2014-01-01

375

Fluorescent probe for high-throughput screening of membrane protein expression  

PubMed Central

Screening of protein variants requires specific detection methods to assay protein levels and stability in crude mixtures. Many strategies apply fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins to qualitatively monitor expression, stability, and monodispersity. However, GFP fusion proteins have several important disadvantages; including false-positives, protein aggregation after proteolytic removal of GFP, and reductions in protein yields without the GFP fusion. Here we describe a FSEC screening strategy based on a fluorescent multivalent NTA probe that interacts with polyhistidine-tags on target proteins. This method overcomes the limitations of GFP fusion proteins, and can be used to rank protein production based on qualitative and quantitative parameters. Domain boundaries of the human G-protein coupled adenosine A2a receptor were readily identified from crude detergent-extracts of a library of construct variants transiently produced in suspension-adapted HEK293-6E cells. Well expressing clones of MraY, an important bacterial infection target, could be identified from a library of 24 orthologs. This probe provides a highly sensitive tool to detect target proteins to expression levels down to 0.02 mg/L in crude lysate, and requires minimal amounts of cell culture. PMID:23776061

Backmark, A E; Olivier, N; Snijder, A; Gordon, E; Dekker, N; Ferguson, A D

2013-01-01

376

RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

Mayfield, Stephen (Cardiff, CA)

2000-01-01

377

High-level prokaryotic expression of envelope exterior of membrane protein of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The truncated fragment M? gene, encoding the exterior of the viral envelope protein of PEDV, was subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-1. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-6p-M? was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS for expression. SDS-PAGE analysis showed recombinant truncated M? protein was highly expressed by pGEX-6p-M? and the product fusion protein GST-M? reached 45% in the total bacteria

Gao Shenyang; Zha Enhui; Li Baoxian; Qiao Xinyuan; Tang Lijie; Ge Junwei; Li Yijing

2007-01-01

378

RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

Mayfield, Stephen P.

2006-10-17