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Sample records for p-gp protein expression

  1. ATP-binding cassette proteins BCRP, MRP1 and P-gp expression and localization in the human umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Riches, Zoe; Walia, Gurinder; Berman, Jacob M; Wright, Tricia E; Collier, Abby C

    2016-06-01

    1. The umbilical cord is a direct conduit to the fetus hence transporters could have roles in partitioning substances between the maternal-placental-fetal units. Here we determined the expression and localization of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters BCRP (ABCG2), P-gp (ABCB1) and MRP1 (ABCC1) in human umbilical cords. 2. The mRNA for BCRP and MRP1 was detected in 25/25 samples, but P-gp was detected in only 5/25. ABC transporter mRNA expression relative to 18S was 25.6 ± 0.3, 26.5 ± 0.6 and 22.2 ± 0.2 cycles for BCRP, MRP1 and P-gp respectively. 3. Using a subset of 10 umbilical cords, BCRP protein was present in all samples (immunoblot) with positive correlation between mRNA and proteins (p = 0.07, r = 0.62) and between immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) (p = 0.03, r = 0.67). P-gp protein was observed in 4/10 samples by both immunoblot and IHC, with no correlation between mRNA and protein (p = 0.45, r = 0.55) or immunoblotting and IHC (p = 0.2, r = 0.72), likely due to small sample size. MRP1 protein was not observed. 4. Localization of BCRP and P-gp proteins was to Wharton's jelly with no specific staining in arterial or venous endothelia. 5. Understanding ABC transporter expression in the umbilical cord may be useful for determining fetal exposures to xenobiotics if functional properties can be defined. PMID:26407213

  2. Cannabidiol changes P-gp and BCRP expression in trophoblast cell lines.

    PubMed

    Feinshtein, Valeria; Erez, Offer; Ben-Zvi, Zvi; Erez, Noam; Eshkoli, Tamar; Sheizaf, Boaz; Sheiner, Eyal; Huleihel, Mahmud; Holcberg, Gershon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug during pregnancy. Due to high lipophilicity, cannabinoids can easily penetrate physiological barriers like the human placenta and jeopardize the developing fetus. We evaluated the impact of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive cannabinoid, on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) expression, and P-gp function in a placental model, BeWo and Jar choriocarcinoma cell lines (using P-gp induced MCF7 cells (MCF7/P-gp) for comparison). Study design. Following the establishment of the basal expression of these transporters in the membrane fraction of all three cell lines, P-gp and BCRP protein and mRNA levels were determined following chronic (24-72 h) exposure to CBD, by Western Blot and qPCR. CBD impact on P-gp efflux function was examined by uptake of specific P-gp fluorescent substrates (calcein-AM, DiOC2(3) and rhodamine123(rh123)). Cyclosporine A (CsA) served as a positive control. Results. Chronic exposure to CBD resulted in significant changes in the protein and mRNA levels of both transporters. While P-gp was down-regulated, BCRP levels were up-regulated in the choriocarcinoma cell lines. CBD had a remarkably different influence on P-gp and BCRP expression in MCF7/P-gp cells, demonstrating that these are cell type specific effects. P-gp dependent efflux (of calcein, DiOC2(3) and rh123) was inhibited upon short-term exposure to CBD. Conclusions. Our study shows that CBD might alter P-gp and BCRP expression in the human placenta, and inhibit P-gp efflux function. We conclude that marijuana use during pregnancy may reduce placental protective functions and change its morphological and physiological characteristics. PMID:24058883

  3. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Desmolles, François; Combourieu, Bruno; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. PMID:26854141

  4. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Desmolles, François; Combourieu, Bruno; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. PMID:26854141

  5. Effects of capsaicin on P-gp function and expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Tan, Theresa May Chin; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2006-06-14

    Capsaicin is the pungent component of hot chilli, a popular spice in many populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chronicity and reversibility of the modulating effect of capsaicin on both the P-gp expression and activity in the Caco-2 cell monolayers. Capsaicin at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 microM, which were found to be non-cytotoxic towards the Caco-2 cells, were observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [3H]-digoxin in the cells. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on the capsaicin concentration and duration of exposure, with abolishment of polarity of [3H]-digoxin transport attained at 50 microM of capsaicin. In contrast, longer term (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of the Caco-2 cells with capsaicin (50 and 100 microM) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by higher degree of [3H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. The induction of P-gp protein and mRNA levels was also influenced by capsaicin concentration and duration of exposure, with higher expression levels, in particular of the mRNA, seen at higher spice concentrations over prolonged period of incubation. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when capsaicin is to be consumed with drugs that are P-gp substrates. In particular, the oral bioavailability of these drugs may be influenced by the P-gp status of populations that rely heavily on hot chilli in their diets. PMID:16674925

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yi; Chin Tan, Theresa May; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2008-08-01

    Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 {mu}M of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 {mu}M) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 {mu}g/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Chin Tan, Theresa May; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2008-08-01

    Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 microM, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [(3)H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [(3)H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 microM of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 microM) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [(3)H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 microg/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper. PMID:18417181

  8. Concomitance of P-gp/LRP Expression with EGFR Mutations in Exons 19 and 21 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hong; Lu, Weipeng; Li, Mei; Zhang, Qiuping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Traditional chemotherapy is the main adjuvant therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) has greatly restricted the curative effect of chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to find a method to treat MDR NSCLC clinically. It is worth investigating whether NSCLCs that are resistant to traditional chemotherapy can be effectively treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Materials and Methods The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mutations in EGFR (exons 19 and 21) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) (exon 2) were detected by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of surgical NSCLC specimens from 127 patients who did not undergo traditional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A Pearson chi-square test was performed to analyze the correlations between the expression of P-gp and LRP and mutations in EGFR and KRAS. Results The expression frequencies of P-gp and LRP were significantly higher in adenocarcinomas from non-smoking patients; the expression frequency of LRP was significantly higher in cancer tissue from female patients. The frequency of EGFR mutations was significantly higher in well to moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas from non-smoking female patients. The frequency of EGFR mutations in the cancers that expressed P-gp, LRP, or both P-gp and LRP was significantly higher than that in cancers that did not express P-gp or LRP. Conclusion NSCLCs expressing P-gp/LRP bear the EGFR mutation in exon 19 or 21 easily. PMID:26632382

  9. Validation of a P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) Humanized Mouse Model by Integrating Selective Absolute Quantification of Human MDR1, Mouse Mdr1a and Mdr1b Protein Expressions with In Vivo Functional Analysis for Blood-Brain Barrier Transport

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Muhammad Waqas; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish a useful validation method for newly generated humanized mouse models. The novel approach of combining our established species-specific protein quantification method combined with in vivo functional studies is evaluated to validate a humanized mouse model of P-gp/MDR1 efflux transporter. The P-gp substrates digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were administered to male FVB Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (FVB WT), FVB Mdr1a/1b(-/-) (Mdr1a/1b(-/-)), C57BL/6 Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (C57BL/6 WT) and humanized C57BL (hMDR1) mice. Brain-to-plasma total concentration ratios (Kp) were measured. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomic (QTAP) analysis was used to selectively quantify the protein expression levels of hMDR1, Mdr1a and Mdr1b in the isolated brain capillaries. The protein expressions of other transporters, receptors and claudin-5 were also quantified. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil, and docetaxel were 20, 30 and 4 times higher in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice than in the FVB WT controls, as expected. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were 2, 16 and 2-times higher in the hMDR1 compared to the C57BL/6 WT mice. The hMDR1 mice had 63- and 9.1-fold lower expressions of the hMDR1 and Mdr1a proteins than the corresponding expression of Mdr1a in C57BL/6 WT mice, respectively. The protein expression levels of other molecules were almost consistent between C57BL/6 WT and hMDR1 mice. The P-gp function at the BBB in the hMDR1 mice was smaller than that in WT mice due to lower protein expression levels of hMDR1 and Mdr1a. The combination of QTAP and in vivo functional analyses was successfully applied to validate the humanized animal model and evaluates its suitability for further studies. PMID:25932627

  10. Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bentz, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter. PMID:23976943

  11. Serum serotonin reduced the expression of hepatic transporter Mrp2 and P-gp via regulating nuclear receptor CAR in PI-IBS rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yun-Yun; Huang, Jing; Ma, Yan-Rong; Han, Miao; Ma, Kang; Qin, Hong-Yan; Rao, Zhi; Wu, Xin-An

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic transporters and drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) play important roles in the pharmacological effects and (or) side-effects of many drugs, and are regulated by several mediators, including neurotransmitters. This work aimed to investigate whether serum levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) affected the expression of hepatic transporters or DMEs. The expression of hepatic transporters was assessed using the Western-blot technique in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic-acid-induced rat model of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS), in which serum levels of 5-HT were significantly elevated. To further clarify the underlying mechanism, the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and the 5-HT depleting agent parachlorophenylalanine (pCPA) were applied to adjust serum levels of 5-HT. Serum levels of 5-HT were measured using LC-MS/MS; the expression of hepatic transporters, DMEs, and nuclear receptors were examined by Western-blot technique. Our results showed that in PI-IBS rats the expression of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) was significantly decreased, while colonic enterochromaffin cell density and serum levels of 5-HT were all significantly increased. Moreover, 5-HTP treatment significantly increased serum levels of 5-HT and decreased the expression of Mrp2 and glycoprotein P (P-gp), whereas treatment with pCPA markedly decreased serum levels of 5-HT and increased the expression of Mrp2 and P-gp. Our results indicated that serum 5-HT regulates the expression of Mrp2 and P-gp, and the underlying mechanism may be related to the altered expression of the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). PMID:26053941

  12. A structural model for the mass action kinetic analysis of P-gp mediated transport through confluent cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Joe; Ellens, Harma

    2014-01-01

    The structural model for P-gp mediated transport across confluent cell monolayers uses the generally accepted mass action reactions for P-gp binding and efflux, together with the known structural parameters for P-gp (large substrate binding site accessible from the membrane) and the apical plasma membrane in which it resides (lipid bilayer partition coefficient of substrate and volume of apical plasma membrane allow estimation of substrate concentration at binding site). The model considers binding of substrate to P-gp from within the inner leaflet of the apical membrane, with an on rate constant, k 1 (M(-1)s(-1)), and off rate constant k r (s(-1)), as well as an efflux rate constant from P-gp into the apical chamber, k 2 (s(-1)). The model also explicitly estimates the active P-gp protein level, known as P-gp efflux active surface density T(0). For each new drug, fitting these parameters requires use of multiple initial drug concentrations and multiple time points at each concentration, until steady state is reached between P-gp-mediated efflux into the apical chamber and passive permeability from apical chamber back into the cytosol. Although this model optimally requires a larger than usual dataset for analysis, it does provide important mechanistic information through estimates of these on, off and efflux rate constants, as well as efflux active P-gp surface density. This more detailed description of efflux from polarized confluent cell monolayers has (1) provided insight into the unexpected relationship between P-gp IC50 and K i in this system, (2) highlighted the kinetic need for GF120918 inhibitable apical and basolateral uptake transporters for digoxin, and (3) provided possible explanations for the extreme lab-to-lab variability in P-gp IC50 values observed for inhibition of digoxin transport. This model can also be used to distinguish between efflux active P-gp and total apical plasma membrane P-gp, which may be important when P-gp is expressed in a microvillous membrane. PMID:24523118

  13. Evaluation of dual P-gp-BCRP inhibitors as nanoparticle formulation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manu Smriti; Juvale, Kapil; Wiese, Michael; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-09-18

    Overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer is a major challenge and efforts are on-going to develop inhibitors against the most characterized and ubiquitous MDR transporters: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Recently reported, two 4-anilinoquinazolines (compounds 1 and 2), demonstrate potential MDR reversal activity against BCRP and to a lesser extent, P-gp. In this work, we formulated the compounds as polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and assessed their MDR inhibitory activity in relevant BCRP and P-gp over-expressing cell line models. Particles in the size range 300-365nm with a loading efficiency of 69% (compound 1 NP) and 77% (compound 2 NP) respectively were obtained. BCRP inhibition was observed in Hoechst 33342 and pheophorbide A assays while P-gp inhibition was evaluated in calcein AM and rhodamine-123 assays. In cytotoxicity studies, while BCRP expressing cells showed complete reversal of drug resistance in nearly all treatment groups (both compounds and their respective NP); a higher reversal in NP treated group was obtained as compared with inhibitory compound treated group in P-gp expressing cells. These results demonstrate promising inhibitory activity of both formulations, especially against P-gp expressing cells; which is possibly due to a prolonged presence of encapsulated compounds in NPs and consequently a prolonged sensitization of transmembrane drug transporter. These formulations can therefore be considered as dual-transporter inhibitors and it is imperative to investigate both inhibitors in animal models of MDR owing to the presence of multiple efflux transporters in several cancer models. PMID:25976226

  14. Alternation of adriamycin penetration kinetics in MCF-7 cells from 2D to 3D culture based on P-gp expression through the Chk2/p53/NF-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng; Zhou, Fang; Hao, Kun; Liu, Jiali; Chen, Qianying; Ni, Ping; Zhou, Honghao; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Jingwei

    2015-01-15

    Monolayer cells are largely different from tumor masses, and might misguide drug screenings. 3D in vitro cell culture models simulate the characteristics of tumor masses in vivo and have recently been used in many studies of anti-cancer drugs. Among various 3D cell culture models, multi-cellular layer (MCL) models allow for the direct quantitative assessment of the penetration of chemotherapeutic agents through solid tissue environments without requiring the use of fluorescently labeled drugs or imaging molecules. Therefore, in our present study, a 3D-no base and embedded MCF-7 MCL model was successfully developed for a 14-day culture. Over time, its thickness and cell layers increased and exhibited highly proliferative properties and drug resistance to adriamycin (ADR) with markedly elevated IC50 values. Meanwhile, G2/M stage cycle arrest was also observed, which likely up-regulated P-gp expression through the Chk2/p53/NF-?B pathway. The elevated P-gp expression altered the ADR penetration kinetics in MCF-7 MCLs in vitro by accelerating the apparent penetration of ADR through the intercellular spaces of the MCLs. Additionally, a decreased ADR retention within tumor cells was observed, but could be significantly reversed by a P-gp inhibitor. The attenuated ADR retention in the deeper cells of tumor masses was confirmed in xenografted mice in vivo. This phenomenon could be elucidated by the mathematical modeling of penetration kinetics parameters. Our study provided a new model that evaluated and improved the quantification of the drug penetration kinetics, revealed the relationship between P-gp and drug penetration through tumor masses, and suggested the potential molecular mechanisms. PMID:25478729

  15. Effects of norfloxacin on hepatic genes expression of P450 isoforms (CYP1A and CYP3A), GST and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Swordtail fish (Xiphophorus Helleri).

    PubMed

    Liang, Ximei; Wang, Lan; Ou, Ruikang; Nie, Xiangping; Yang, YuFeng; Wang, Fang; Li, Kaibin

    2015-10-01

    The presence of antibiotics including norfloxacin in the aquatic environment may cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. But the toxic mechanisms of fluoroquinolone to fish species are still not completely elucidated. Thus, it is essential to investigate the response of fish to the exposure of fluoroquinolone at molecular or cellular level for better and earlier prediction of these environmental pollutants toxicity. The sub-chronic toxic effects of norfloxacin (NOR) on swordtail fish (Xiphophoru s helleri) were investigated by measuring mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and their corresponding enzyme activities (including ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase and GST. Results showed that NOR significantly affected the expression of CYP1A, CYP3A, GST and P-gp genes in swordtails. The gene expressions were more responsive to NOR exposure than their corresponding enzyme activities. Moreover, sexual differences were found in gene expression and enzyme activities of swordtails exposed to NOR. Females displayed more dramatic changes than males. The study further demonstrated that the combined biochemical and molecular parameters were considered as useful biomarkers to improve our understanding of potential ecotoxicological risks of NOR exposure to aquatic organisms. PMID:25893329

  16. Optimization of 2,4-diamino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives as protein kinase C theta inhibitors with mitigated time-dependent drug-drug interactions and P-gp liability.

    PubMed

    Kunikawa, Shigeki; Tanaka, Akira; Mukoyoshi, Koichiro; Nagashima, Shinya; Tominaga, Hiroaki; Chida, Noboru; Tasaki, Mamoru; Shirai, Fumiyuki

    2015-07-01

    Protein kinase C theta (PKC?) plays a critical role in T cell signaling and has therapeutic potential for T cell-mediated diseases such as transplant rejection and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, a series of 2,4-diamino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their inhibition of PKC?. Of these compounds, 14f was found to exhibit potent PKC? inhibitory activity and significantly weak CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) liability. PMID:25982074

  17. The putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan does not affect the transcellular permeability and cellular uptake of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil in the P-glycoprotein expressing cell line MDCK II MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Saaby, Lasse; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Brodin, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is used in high doses for the treatment of cluster headache. Verapamil has been described as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) substrate. We wished to evaluate in vitro whether co administration of a P-gp inhibitor with verapamil could be a feasible strategy for increasing CNS uptake of verapamil. Fluxes of radiolabelled verapamil across MDCK II MDR1 monolayers were measured in the absence and presence of the putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan (a clinically approved drug compound). Verapamil displayed a vectorial basolateral-to-apical transepithelial efflux across the MDCK II MDR1 monolayers with a permeability of 5.7נ10?5cmsec?1 compared to an apical to basolateral permeability of 1.3נ10?5cmsec-1. The efflux could be inhibited with the P-gp inhibitor zosuquidar. Zosuquidar (0.4?mol/L) reduced the efflux ratio (PB-A/PA-B) for verapamil 4.61.6. The presence of telmisartan, however, only caused a slight reduction in P-gp-mediated verapamil transport to an efflux ratio of 3.4. Overall, the results of the present in vitro approach indicate, that clinical use of telmisartan as a P-gp inhibitor may not be an effective strategy for increasing brain uptake of verapamil by co-administration with telmisartan. PMID:26171231

  18. Glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors sensitise CLL cells to cytotoxic agents without reversing P-gp functional activity.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Gareth; Butters, Terry D; Ganeshaguru, Kanagasabai; Mehta, Atul B

    2009-05-01

    Malignant B-cells from most chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients over-express MDR1 encoded P-glycoprotein (P-gp) multidrug efflux pump. Inhibition of glucosylceramide (GC) synthesis has been shown in cell lines to correlate with the expression and function of P-gp and sensitise cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. We investigated the hypothesis that reducing intracellular GC levels will reduce P-gp expression in malignant cells from CLL patients. We studied the ability of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitors N-butyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-1) and N-nonyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-2) to sensitise CLL cells to conventional cytotoxic drug 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (CdA) and the cytostatic drugs chlorambucil and fludarabine. The effect on P-gp activity was analysed using the calcein-AM accumulation assay where a multidrug activity factor (MAF) of >10 in the presence of a P-gp inhibitor denotes P-gp functional activity. The P-gp over-expressing cell line CEM-VLB showed a MAF value of 96.4 with the P-gp inhibitor Z.3HCL, which fell to 15.7 after co-incubation with OGB-1 and 45.9 with OGB-2. The IC(50) for vincristine fell from >10 microg/ml to 55.5 ng/ml in the presence of OGB-2. In P-gp(+ve) peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three normal volunteers, the mean MAF values for Z.3HCL, OGB-1 and OGB-2 were 23.86, 1.83 and 16.2 respectively. In 9/13 CLL samples the mean P-gp functional activity was 22.15 and P-gp was over-expressed in 12/13 samples. However, the MAF value with OGB-1 and OGB-2 was <10. Nevertheless, sensitisation in CLL cells was observed by a reduction in the IC(50) in the presence of OGB-1 and OGB-2 with the conventional drugs. We conclude that although GCS inhibitors sensitize CLL cells to cytotoxic and cytostatic drugs, they do not appear to have any effect on P-gp functional activity. PMID:19285492

  19. Esters of the Marine-Derived Triterpene Sipholenol A Reverse P-GP-Mediated Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongchao; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Vispute, Saurabh G.; Jain, Sandeep; Chen, Yangmin; Li, Jessalyn; Youssef, Diaa T. A.; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that several sipholane triterpenes, sipholenol A, sipholenone E, sipholenol L and siphonellinol D, have potent reversal effect for multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells that overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1). Through comparison of cytotoxicity towards sensitive and multi-drug resistant cell lines, we identified that the semisynthetic esters sipholenol A-4-O-acetate and sipholenol A-4-O-isonicotinate potently reversed P-gp-mediated MDR but had no effect on MRP1/ABCC1 and BCRP/ABCG2-mediated MDR. The results from [3H]-paclitaxel accumulation and efflux studies suggested that these two triterpenoids were able to increase the intracellular accumulation of paclitaxel by inhibiting its active efflux. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that these two compounds did not alter the expression levels of P-gp when treated up to 72 h. These sipholenol derivatives also stimulated the ATPase activity of P-gp membranes, which suggested that they might be substrates of P-gp. Moreover, in silico molecular docking studies revealed the virtual binding modes of these two compounds into human homology model of P-gp. In conclusion, sipholenol A-4-O-acetate and sipholenol A-4-O-isonicotinate efficiently inhibit the P-gp and may represent potential reversal agents for the treatment of multidrug resistant cancers. PMID:25874923

  20. Multifunctional PLGA Nanobubbles as Theranostic Agents: Combining Doxorubicin and P-gp siRNA Co-Delivery Into Human Breast Cancer Cells and Ultrasound Cellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Deng, Liwei; Li, Tingting; Shen, Xue; Yan, Jie; Zuo, Liangming; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Yiyao

    2015-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major impediment to the success of cancer chemotherapy. One of the effective approaches to overcome MDR is to use nanoparticle-mediated the gene silence of chemotherapeutic export proteins by RNA interference to increase drug accumulation in drug resistant cancer cells. In this work, a new co-delivery system, DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA nanobubbles (NBs) around 327 nm, to overcome doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in MCF-7 human breast cancer was designed and developed. Positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) were modified onto the surface of DOX-PLGA NBs through DCC/NHS crosslinking, and could efficiently condense P-gp shRNA into DOX-PLGA/PEI NBs at vector/shRNA weight ratios of 70:1 and above. An in vitro release profile demonstrated an efficient DOX release (more than 80%) from DOX-PLGA/PEI NBs at pH 4.4, suggesting a pH-responsive drug release for the multifunctionalized NBs. Cellular experimental results further showed that DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs could facilitate cellular uptake of DOX into cells and increase the cell proliferation suppression effect of DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells (a DOX-resistant and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression cancer cell line). The IC50 of DOX-PLGA NBs against MCF-7/ADR cells was 2-fold lower than that of free DOX. The increased cellular uptake and nuclear accumulation of DOX delivered by DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs in MCF-7/ADR cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometry, and might be owning to the down-regulation of P-gp and reduced the efflux of DOX. The cellular uptake mechanism of DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs indicated that the macropinocytosis was one of the pathways for the uptake of NBs by MCF-7/ADR cells, which was also an energy-dependent process. Furthermore, the in vitro cellular ultrasound imaging suggested that the employment of the DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs could efficiently enhance ultrasound imaging of cancer cells. These results demonstrated that the developed DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs is a potential, safe and efficient theranotic agent for cancer therapy and diagnostics. PMID:26510307

  1. BCRP and P-gp relay overexpression in triple negative basal-like breast cancer cell line: a prospective role in resistance to Olaparib

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Robin; Daumar, Pierre; Mounetou, Emmanuelle; Aubel, Corinne; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Abrial, Catherine; Vatoux, Catherine; Penault-Llorca, Frdrique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    The triple negative basal-like (TNBL) breast carcinoma is an aggressive and unfavorable prognosis disease. Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase such as Olaparib could represent a promising targeted therapy but their sensitivity against Multidrug Resistance proteins (MDR), which causes resistance, is not well defined. Thus, our work focused on the analysis of P-gp and BCRP coexpression in the SUM1315 TNBL human cell line, in correlation with Olaparib intracellular concentration. Western blot analyses showed a clear coexpression of P-gp and BCRP in SUM1315 cells. A low cytotoxic Olaparib treatment clearly led to an increased expression of both BCRP and P-gp in these cells. Indeed, after 1.5?h of treatment, BCRP expression was increased with a 1.8 fold increase rate. Then, P-gp took over from 3?h to 15?h with an average increase rate of 1.8 fold, and finally returned to control value at 24?h. HPLC-UV analyses showed that, in the same treatment conditions, the intracellular Olaparib concentration increased from 1?h to 3?h and remained relatively stable until 24?h. Results suggest that the resistance mechanism induced by Olaparib in TNBL SUM1315 cell line may be overpassed if a cytotoxic and stable intracellular level of the drug can be maintained. PMID:26234720

  2. BCRP and P-gp relay overexpression in triple negative basal-like breast cancer cell line: a prospective role in resistance to Olaparib.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Robin; Daumar, Pierre; Mounetou, Emmanuelle; Aubel, Corinne; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Abrial, Catherine; Vatoux, Catherine; Penault-Llorca, Frdrique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    The triple negative basal-like (TNBL) breast carcinoma is an aggressive and unfavorable prognosis disease. Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase such as Olaparib could represent a promising targeted therapy but their sensitivity against Multidrug Resistance proteins (MDR), which causes resistance, is not well defined. Thus, our work focused on the analysis of P-gp and BCRP coexpression in the SUM1315 TNBL human cell line, in correlation with Olaparib intracellular concentration. Western blot analyses showed a clear coexpression of P-gp and BCRP in SUM1315 cells. A low cytotoxic Olaparib treatment clearly led to an increased expression of both BCRP and P-gp in these cells. Indeed, after 1.5 h of treatment, BCRP expression was increased with a 1.8 fold increase rate. Then, P-gp took over from 3 h to 15 h with an average increase rate of 1.8 fold, and finally returned to control value at 24 h. HPLC-UV analyses showed that, in the same treatment conditions, the intracellular Olaparib concentration increased from 1 h to 3 h and remained relatively stable until 24 h. Results suggest that the resistance mechanism induced by Olaparib in TNBL SUM1315 cell line may be overpassed if a cytotoxic and stable intracellular level of the drug can be maintained. PMID:26234720

  3. Long-lived signal peptide of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein pGP-C.

    PubMed

    Froeschke, Marc; Basler, Michael; Groettrup, Marcus; Dobberstein, Bernhard

    2003-10-24

    Signal peptides (SPs) direct nascent secretory and membrane proteins to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are usually cleaved from the nascent polypeptide by signal peptidase and then further proteolytically processed. The SP of the pre-glycoprotein (pGP-C) of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus SPGP-C (signal peptide of pGP-C) shows different properties: 1) The SPGP-C is unusually long (58 amino acid residues) and contains two hydrophobic segments interrupted by a lysine residue. 2) The SPGP-C is cleaved only from a subset of pGP-C proteins. A substantial portion of pGP-C accumulates that still contains the SPGP-C.3)The cleaved SPGP-C is rather long-lived (t(1/2) of more than 6 h). 4) The cleaved SPGP-C resides in the membrane and is resistant to digestion with proteinase K even in the presence of detergents, suggesting a very compact structure. 5) SPGP-C accumulates in virus particles. These unusual features of the cleaved SPGP-C suggest that SPGP-C not only targets the nascent pGP-C to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane but also has additional functions in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus life cycle. PMID:12917426

  4. Expression of P-glycoprotein in the gills of oysters, Crassostrea virginica: seasonal and pollutant related effects.

    PubMed

    Keppler, C; Ringwood, A H

    2001-10-01

    The expression of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) in aquatic organisms has been proposed as a biomarker of pollution exposure. Previous research has provided evidence that p-gp is inducible by organic xenobiotics and that p-gp is overexpressed in mussels from degraded areas. However, seasonal changes in expression at polluted sites has not been described previously. The purposes of these studies were to evaluate the expression of p-gp in polluted and unpolluted sites in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and to determine if there were seasonal differences. P-gp expression and total protein concentrations were measured seasonally in the gills of southeastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, at degraded and undegraded sites in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, USA. At all sites, p-gp expression was generally higher during the warmer months and lower in the colder months. Polluted sites tended to show a decrease in p-gp expression in June and September, suggesting that p-gp inhibition may have occurred. P-gp expression was not significantly related to specific classes of sediment contaminants or to overall sediment contaminant loading. Total gill protein concentrations at all sites were lower during the warmer months and higher during the colder months. In general, all sites tended to show decreased total gill protein concentrations when compared to the control site. Total protein concentrations were significantly related to water temperature, specific classes of sediment contaminants and overall sediment contaminant loads, but there was no relationship with salinity. PMID:11489306

  5. Increased expression of sorcin is associated with multidrug resistance in leukemia cells via up-regulation of MDR1 expression through cAMP response element-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Nobuyuki; Nakao, Ryota; Kondo, Rumi; Nishitsuji, Mai; Saito, Youhei; Kuga, Takahisa; Hatayama, Takumi; Nakayama, Yuji

    2014-06-13

    Sorcin, a 22 kDa Ca(2+) binding protein, was first identified in a vincristine-resistant Chinese hamster lung cell line, and was later demonstrated to be involved in the development of multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotypes in a variety of human cancer cell lines. However, the exact role of sorcin in MDR cells is yet to be fully elucidated. Here we explored the role of sorcin in the development of MDR in leukemia cells, and revealed that the expression level of sorcin was directly correlated to the expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In addition, it was shown that sorcin induced the expression of MDR1/P-gp through a cAMP response element (CRE) between -716 and -709 bp of the mdr1/p-gp gene. Furthermore, overexpression of sorcin increased the phosphorylation of CREB1 and the binding of CREB1 to the CRE sequence of mdr1/p-gp promoter, and induced the expression of MDR1/P-gp. These findings suggested that sorcin induces MDR1/P-gp expression markedly through activation of the CREB pathway and is associated with the MDR phenotype. The new findings may be helpful for understanding the mechanisms of MDR in human cancer cells, prompting its further investigation as a molecular target to overcome MDR. PMID:24796664

  6. Stereoselective Regulation of P-gp Activity by Clausenamide Enantiomers in Caco-2, KB/KBv and Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuan-jiang; Hua, Fang; Zhu, Xiao-lu; Li, Meng; Wang, Hong-xu; Yu, Xiao-ming; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The (?)- and (+)-clausenamide (CLA) enantiomers have different pharmacokinetic effects in animals, but their association with putative stereoselective regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) remains unclear. Using three cells expressing P-gpCaco-2, KBv and rat brain microvessel endothelial cells(RBMEC), this study investigated the association of CLA enantiomers with P-gp. The results showed that the rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation, an indicator of P-gp activity, in Caco-2, KBv and RBMECs was increased by (?)CLA (1 or 5 ?mol/L) at 8.2%28.5%, but reduced by (+)CLA at 11.7%25.9%, showing stereoselectivity in their regulation of P-gp activity. Following co-treatment of these cells with each CLA enantiomer and verapamil as a P-gp inhibitor, the (+)-isomer clearly antagonized the inhibitory effects of verapamil on P-gp efflux, whereas the (?)-isomer had slightly synergistic or additive effects. When higher concentrations (5 or 10 ?mol/L) of CLA enantiomers were added, the stimulatory effects of the (+)-isomer were converted into inhibitory ones, leading to an enhanced intracellular uptake of Rh123 by 24.5%58.2%; but (?)-isomer kept its inhibition to P-gp activity, causing 30.0%63.0% increase in the Rh123 uptake. The biphasic effects of (+)CLA were confirmed by CLA uptake in the Caco-2 cells. (+)CLA at 1 ?mol/L had significantly lower intracellular uptake than (?)CLA with a ratio[(?)/(+)] of 2.593, which was decreased to 2.167 and 1.893 after CLA concentrations increased to 2.5 and 5 ?mol/L. Besides, in the non-induced KB cells, (+)CLA(5 ?mol/L) upregulated P-gp expression at 54.5% relative to vehicle control, and decreased Rh123 accumulation by 28.2%, while (?)CLA(5 ?mol/L) downregulated P-gp expression at 15.9% and increased Rh123 accumulation by 18.0%. These results suggested that (?)CLA could be a P-gp inhibitor and (+)CLA could be a modulator with concentration-dependent biphasic effects on P-gp activity, which may result in drugdrug interactions when combined with other P-gp substrate drugs. PMID:26295572

  7. Oligoribonuclease is the primary degradative enzyme for pGpG in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that is required for cyclic-di-GMP turnover

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Mona W.; Donaldson, Gregory P.; Severin, Geoffrey B.; Wang, Jingxin; Sintim, Herman O.; Waters, Christopher M.; Lee, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) controls biofilm formation and other phenotypes relevant to pathogenesis. Cyclic-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs). Phosphodiesterases (PDE-As) end signaling by linearizing c-di-GMP to 5ʹ-phosphoguanylyl-(3ʹ,5ʹ)-guanosine (pGpG), which is then hydrolyzed to two GMP molecules by yet unidentified enzymes termed PDE-Bs. We show that pGpG inhibits a PDE-A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a dual DGC and PDE-A reaction, excess pGpG extends the half-life of c-di-GMP, indicating that removal of pGpG is critical for c-di-GMP homeostasis. Thus, we sought to identify the PDE-B enzyme(s) responsible for pGpG degradation. A differential radial capillary action of ligand assay-based screen for pGpG binding proteins identified oligoribonuclease (Orn), an exoribonuclease that hydrolyzes two- to five-nucleotide-long RNAs. Purified Orn rapidly converts pGpG into GMP. To determine whether Orn is the primary enzyme responsible for degrading pGpG, we assayed cell lysates of WT and ∆orn strains of P. aeruginosa PA14 for pGpG stability. The lysates from ∆orn showed 25-fold decrease in pGpG hydrolysis. Complementation with WT, but not active site mutants, restored hydrolysis. Accumulation of pGpG in the ∆orn strain could inhibit PDE-As, increasing c-di-GMP concentration. In support, we observed increased transcription from the c-di-GMP–regulated pel promoter. Additionally, the c-di-GMP–governed auto-aggregation and biofilm phenotypes were elevated in the ∆orn strain in a pel-dependent manner. Finally, we directly detect elevated pGpG and c-di-GMP in the ∆orn strain. Thus, we identified that Orn serves as the primary PDE-B enzyme that removes pGpG, which is necessary to complete the final step in the c-di-GMP degradation pathway. PMID:26305945

  8. Oligoribonuclease is the primary degradative enzyme for pGpG in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that is required for cyclic-di-GMP turnover.

    PubMed

    Orr, Mona W; Donaldson, Gregory P; Severin, Geoffrey B; Wang, Jingxin; Sintim, Herman O; Waters, Christopher M; Lee, Vincent T

    2015-09-01

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) controls biofilm formation and other phenotypes relevant to pathogenesis. Cyclic-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs). Phosphodiesterases (PDE-As) end signaling by linearizing c-di-GMP to 5'-phosphoguanylyl-(3',5')-guanosine (pGpG), which is then hydrolyzed to two GMP molecules by yet unidentified enzymes termed PDE-Bs. We show that pGpG inhibits a PDE-A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a dual DGC and PDE-A reaction, excess pGpG extends the half-life of c-di-GMP, indicating that removal of pGpG is critical for c-di-GMP homeostasis. Thus, we sought to identify the PDE-B enzyme(s) responsible for pGpG degradation. A differential radial capillary action of ligand assay-based screen for pGpG binding proteins identified oligoribonuclease (Orn), an exoribonuclease that hydrolyzes two- to five-nucleotide-long RNAs. Purified Orn rapidly converts pGpG into GMP. To determine whether Orn is the primary enzyme responsible for degrading pGpG, we assayed cell lysates of WT and ?orn strains of P. aeruginosa PA14 for pGpG stability. The lysates from ?orn showed 25-fold decrease in pGpG hydrolysis. Complementation with WT, but not active site mutants, restored hydrolysis. Accumulation of pGpG in the ?orn strain could inhibit PDE-As, increasing c-di-GMP concentration. In support, we observed increased transcription from the c-di-GMP-regulated pel promoter. Additionally, the c-di-GMP-governed auto-aggregation and biofilm phenotypes were elevated in the ?orn strain in a pel-dependent manner. Finally, we directly detect elevated pGpG and c-di-GMP in the ?orn strain. Thus, we identified that Orn serves as the primary PDE-B enzyme that removes pGpG, which is necessary to complete the final step in the c-di-GMP degradation pathway. PMID:26305945

  9. Cbl-b inhibits P-gp transporter function by preventing its translocation into caveolae in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Teng, Yuee; Li, Zhi; Xu, Ling; Liu, Jing; Ma, Yanju; Fan, Yibo; Li, Ce; Liu, Shizhou; Wang, Zhenning; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Yunpeng

    2015-01-01

    The transport function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) requires its efficient localization to caveolae, a subset of lipid rafts, and disruption of caveolae suppresses P-gp transport function. However, the regulatory molecules involved in the translocation of P-gp into caveolae remain unknown. In the present study, we showed that c-Src dependent Caveolin-1 phosphorylation promoted the translocation of P-gp into caveolae, resulting in multidrug resistance in adriamycin resistant gastric cancer SGC7901/Adr and breast cancer MCF-7/Adr cells. In a negative feedback loop, the translocation of Cbl-b from the nucleus to the cytoplasm prevented the localization of P-gp to caveolae resulting in the reversal of MDR through the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Src. Clinical data showed a significant positive relationship between Cbl-b expression and survival in P-gp positive breast cancer patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Our findings identified a new regulatory mechanism of P-gp transport function in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers. PMID:25788263

  10. A plausible explanation for enhanced bioavailability of P-gp substrates in presence of piperine: simulation for next generation of P-gp inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Durg Vijay; Godbole, Madan M; Misra, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has a major role to play in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, since it effluxes many cytotoxic hydrophobic anticancer drugs from gastrointestinal tract, brain, liver and kidney. Piperine is known to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin, as a substrate of P-gp by at least 2000%. Besides these at least 50 other substrates and inhibitors of P-gp have been reported so far. All P-gp inhibitors have diverse structures. Although little is known about binding of some flavonoids and steroids at the NBD (nucleotide binding domain) of P-gp in the vicinity of ATP binding site inhibiting its hydrolysis, a valid explanation of how P-gp accommodates such a diverse set of inhibitors is still awaited. In the present study, piperine up to 100 ?M has not shown observable cytotoxic effect on MDCK cell line, and it has been shown to accumulate rhodamine by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescent activated cell sorter in MDCK cells. Computational simulation for piperine and some first and second generation P-gp inhibitors has shown that these dock at the NBD site of P-gp. A comparative simulation study has been carried out regarding their docking and binding energies. Binding conformation of P-gp co-crystallized complexes with ADP, AMP-PNP (Adenylyl-imidodiphosphate), and ATP were compared with piperine. The receptor based E-pharmacophore of docked piperine has been simulated to find common features amongst P-gp inhibitors. Finally it has been concluded that piperine could be utilized as base molecule for design and development of safe non-toxic inhibitor of P-gp in order to enhance the bioavailability of most of its substrates. PMID:22864626

  11. Brain accumulation of the EML4-ALK inhibitor ceritinib is restricted by P-glycoprotein (P-GP/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).

    PubMed

    Kort, Anita; Sparidans, Rolf W; Wagenaar, Els; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to clarify the roles of the multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in oral availability and brain accumulation of ceritinib, an oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor used to treat metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after progression on crizotinib. Importantly, NSCLC is prone to form brain metastases. Transport of ceritinib by human (h) ABCB1 or hABCG2 or mouse (m) Abcg2 was assessed in vitro. To study the single and combined roles of Abcb1a/1b and Abcg2 in ceritinib disposition in vivo, we used appropriate knockout mouse strains. Ceritinib was very efficiently transported by hABCB1, and efficiently by hABCG2 and mAbcg2 in vitro, and transport was specifically inhibited by the ABCB1 inhibitor zosuquidar and ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143, respectively. Absorption and 24-h oral availability were not significantly affected by the absence of Abcb1 and/or Abcg2, but the brain concentrations were greatly increased (>38-fold) in Abcb1a/1b(-/-) mice at 3 and 24h after oral administration of 20mg/kg ceritinib. The brain concentrations increased another ?3-fold (to >90-fold) in Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-) mice, indicating that there was a significant additional effect of Abcg2-mediated transport of ceritinib as well in vivo. Overall, brain accumulation, but not the 24-h oral availability of ceritinib were profoundly restricted by Abcb1a/1b and Abcg2, with Abcb1a/1b being the dominant efflux protein. Our data suggest that coadministration of ceritinib with a dual ABCB1 and ABCG2 inhibitor may improve treatment of brain (micro) metastases positioned behind a functionally intact blood-brain barrier, and possibly also of tumors resistant to ceritinib due to ABCB1 or ABCG2 overexpression. PMID:26361725

  12. Expression of drug resistance related proteins in sarcomas of the pulmonary artery and poorly differentiated leiomyosarcomas of other origin.

    PubMed

    Gaumann, A; Tews, D S; Mentzel, T; Petrow, P K; Mayer, E; Otto, M; Kirkpatrick, C J; Kriegsmann, J

    2003-06-01

    Sarcomas are known to develop resistance to current chemotherapeutic strategies, displaying a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Mechanisms involved in drug resistance include reduced cellular drug accumulation, drug detoxification as well as alterations in drug target specificity. In seven sarcomas of the pulmonary artery (SPA) and ten leiomyosarcomas of other origin, we studied the immunohistochemical expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug-resistance protein (MRP), lung resistance protein (LRP), metallothionein (MT) and topoisomerase IIalpha. Upregulation was found in tumour cells for P-gp but not for MRP in SPA and other leiomyosarcomas. Topoisomerase IIalpha was expressed at high levels in tissue of primary tumours as well as recurrent tumours. Both P-gp and topoisomerase IIalpha were present in numerous tumour-associated vessels. LRP was expressed at high levels in SPA but to a lesser extent in the other leiomyosarcomas. MT was expressed at low levels but was markedly present at the border of necrosis. The overall survival and the relapse-free survival did not correlate with the expression of these factors. There was no significant relationship between treated and non-treated patients with respect to the expression of the examined molecules. P-gp, but not MRP, may play a role in the development of drug resistance. P-gp, LRP and topoisomerase IIalpha contribute to drug resistance through expression in tumour-associated vessels. Unique high levels of topisomerase IIalpha reflect the high proliferation rate of these tumours. MT seems to serve as a detoxifying agent of metabolites at the border of necrosis. Our findings underline the fact that multiple factors contribute to chemoresistance and that examination of a spectrum of relevant molecules is probably necessary to plan the best therapy. PMID:12743815

  13. An electrically tight in vitro blood-brain barrier model displays net brain-to-blood efflux of substrates for the ABC transporters, P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1.

    PubMed

    Helms, Hans Christian; Hersom, Maria; Kuhlmann, Louise Borella; Badolo, Lasina; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2014-09-01

    Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily including breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp's/Abcc's) are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate if a bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte in vitro BBB co-culture model displayed polarized transport of known efflux transporter substrates. The co-culture model displayed low mannitol permeabilities of 0.95 ± 0.1 · 10(-6) cm·s(-1) and high transendothelial electrical resistances of 1,177 ± 101 Ω·cm(2). Bidirectional transport studies with (3)H-digoxin, (3)H-estrone-3-sulphate and (3)H-etoposide revealed polarized transport favouring the brain-to-blood direction for all substrates. Steady state efflux ratios of 2.5 ± 0.2 for digoxin, 4.4 ± 0.5 for estrone-3-sulphate and 2.4 ± 0.1 for etoposide were observed. These were reduced to 1.1 ± 0.08, 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.5 ± 0.1, by addition of verapamil (digoxin), Ko143 (estrone-3-sulphate) or zosuquidar + reversan (etoposide), respectively. Brain-to-blood permeability of all substrates was investigated in the presence of the efflux transporter inhibitors verapamil, Ko143, zosuquidar, reversan and MK 571 alone or in combinations. Digoxin was mainly transported via P-gp, estrone-3-sulphate via Bcrp and Mrp's and etoposide via P-gp and Mrp's. The expression of P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1 was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The findings indicate that P-gp, Bcrp and at least one isoform of Mrp are functionally expressed in our bovine/rat co-culture model and that the model is suitable for investigations of small molecule transport. PMID:24934296

  14. The influence of passage number for Caco2 cell models when evaluating P-gp mediated drug transport.

    PubMed

    Senarathna, S M D K Ganga; Crowe, A

    2015-12-01

    Caco2 cells are a human adenocarcinoma cell line that forms tight junctions and are widely used to examine bidirectional drug transport as well as P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. Unfortunately Caco2 cell lines can be very heterogeneous in nature. Our aim was to improve the Caco2 cell model for determination of P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport. Young passage Caco2 from ATCC had inadequate expression of P-glycoprotein, therefore three approaches were adopted to upregulate Caco2 P-glycoprotein expression to mimic that in vivo; a) incubation of mature Caco2 monolayer with rifampicin, b) prolonged exposure of Caco2 cells to vinblastine (generating the Caco2 VIN line), and c) splitting cells every 7 to 9 days until late passage numbers (over P80) were available. Upon development of the models, P-gp expression and activity was determined using western blotting and bidirectional transport studies of rhodamine123. All four models exhibited P-gp mediated efflux transport for rhodamine123. Incubation with rifampicin did not alter bidirectional transport compared to passage 44 cells. Increased passage number altered P-glycoprotein expression and the efflux ratio increased to 4.7 for passage 80 from 1.4 of passage 44. The highest basolateral to apical transport was observed for both passage 89 Caco2 and the Caco2 VIN model with an efflux ratio of 13 to 14. Western blot images confirmed the increased P-glycoprotein expression of late passage and Caco2 VIN. Caco2 cells are not ready for P-gp related research when first acquired from ATCC (Passage 18). Late passage Caco2 cell monolayers or Caco2 VIN models are needed to determine P-gp mediated efflux transport. PMID:26817277

  15. MDR1 Synonymous Polymorphisms Alter Transporter Specificity and Protein Stability in a Stable Epithelial Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Fung, King Leung; Pan, James; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Lund, Paul E.; Pixley, Jessica N.; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The drug efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by MDR1 can be influenced by genetic polymorphisms, including two synonymous changes in the coding region of MDR1. Here we report that the conformation of P-gp and its drug efflux activity can be altered by synonymous polymorphisms in stable epithelial monolayers expressing P-gp. Several cell lines with similar MDR1 DNA copy number were developed and termed LLC-MDR1-WT (expresses wild-type P-gp), LLC-MDR1-3H (expresses common haplotype P-gp), and LLC-MDR1-3HA (a mutant that carries a different valine codon in position 3435). These cell lines express similar levels of recombinant mRNA and protein. P-gp in each case is localized on the apical surface of polarized cells. However, the haplotype and its mutant P-gps fold differently from the wild-type, as determined by UIC2 antibody shift assays and limited proteolysis assays. Surface biotinylation experiments suggest that the non-wild-type P-gps have longer recycling times. Drug transport assays show that wild-type and haplotype P-gp respond differently to P-gp inhibitors that block efflux of rhodamine-123 or mitoxantrone. In addition, cytotoxicity assays show that the LLC-MDR1-3H cells are more resistant to mitoxantrone than the LLC-MDR1-WT cells after being treated with a P-gp inhibitor. Expression of polymorphic P-gp, however, does not affect the host cell’s morphology, growth rate, or monolayer formation. Also, ATPase activity assays indicate that neither basal nor drug-stimulated ATPase activities are affected in the variant P-gps. Taken together, our findings indicate that “silent” polymorphisms significantly change P-gp function, which would be expected to affect interindividual drug disposition and response. PMID:24305879

  16. Three decades of P-gp inhibitors: skimming through several generations and scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, A; Sousa, E; Vasconcelos, M H; Pinto, M M

    2012-01-01

    Many tumor cells become resistant to commonly used cytotoxic drugs due to the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The discovery of the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) by verapamil occured in 1981, and in 1968 MDR Chinese hamster cell lines were isolated for the first time. Since then, P-gp inhibitors have been intensively studied as potential MDR reversers. Initially, drugs to reverse MDR were not specifically developed for inhibiting P-gp; in fact, they had other pharmacological properties, as well as a relatively low affinity for MDR transporters. An example of this first generation P-gp inhibitors is verapamil. The second generation included more specific with less side-effect inhibitors, such as dexverapamil or dexniguldipine. A third generation of P-gp inhibitors comprised compounds such as tariquidar, with high affinity to P-gp at nanomolar concentrations. These generations of inhibitors of P-gp have been examined in preclinical and clinical studies; however, these trials have largely failed to demonstrate an improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, new and innovative strategies, such as the fallback to natural products, the design of peptidomimetics and dual activity ligands emerged as a fourth generation of P-gp inhibitors. The chemistry of P-gp inhibitors, as well as their in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials are discussed, and the most recent advances concerning Pgp modulators are reviewed. PMID:22257057

  17. The effects of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on a P-gp positive leukemia cell line K562/A02.

    PubMed

    Lü, S; Chen, Z; Yang, J; Chen, L; Zhou, H; Xu, X; Li, J; Han, F; Wang, J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the efficacy of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib to multidrug resistant (MDR) acute leukemia cells. We observed the effects of bortezomib on a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) positive leukemia line K562/A02. The results showed that bortezomib has significant effects on P-gp positive K562/A02 cells including cytotoxicity (48 h IC(50): 171.36 nM), induction of apoptosis (31.71 +/- 1.07% apoptotic cells after 24 h treatment at 100 nM), and inhibition of proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity (relative activity to untreated controls: 20.07 +/- 0.66% at 24 h with 10 nM bortezomib). These effects were lower than those observed in K562 cells (IC(50), percentage of apoptotic cells, relative chymotrypsin-like activity to untreated controls were 56.28 nM, 77.95 +/- 0.35%, 5.35 +/- 2.05% after the same treatments, respectively). No synergy between daunorubicin and bortezomib was shown in the killing of K562/A02 cells (synergistic ratios were <1). P-gp expression levels did not decrease in K562/A02 cells after bortezomib treatment. Pretreatment with bortezomib does not improve the intracellular anthracycline concentration in K562/A02 cells. Bortezomib shows a promising effect for the treatment of refractory/relapsed leukemia, but it does not improve the effect of anthracycline to MDR leukemia cells. PMID:19254348

  18. MDR1-P-glycoprotein behaves as an oncofetal protein that promotes cell survival in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Liguori, Eleonora; Cianflone, Alessandra; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Tirino, Virginia; Bertoni, Alessandra; Santoriello, Margherita; Garbi, Corrado; D'Armiento, Maria; Staibano, Stefania; Nardone, Gerardo

    2012-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), traditionally linked to cancer poor prognosis and multidrug resistance, is undetectable in normal gastric mucosa and overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC). We propose that P-gp may be involved in Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-related gastric carcinogenesis by inhibiting apoptosis. Aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of P-gp in fetal stomach and in Hp-related gastric carcinogenesis, the epigenetic control of the multi-drug resistance-1 (MDR1) gene, the localization and interaction between P-gp and Bcl-x(L) and the effect of the selective silencing of P-gp on cell survival. P-gp and Bcl-xl expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on 28 spontaneously abortive human fetuses, 66 Hp-negative subjects, 138 Hp-positive chronic gastritis (CG) of whom 28 with intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 45 intestinal type GCs. P-gp/Bcl-x(L) colocalization was investigated by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and protein-protein interaction by co-immunoprecipitation, in basal conditions and after stress-induced apoptosis, in GC cell lines AGS and MKN-28 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep-G2. The role of P-gp in controlling apoptosis was evaluated by knocking down its expression with a specific small interfering RNAs in stressed AGS and MKN-28 cell lines. P-gp is expressed in the gastric mucosa of all human fetuses while, it is undetectable in adult normal mucosa and re-expressed in 30/110 Hp-positive non-IM-CG, 28/28 IM-CG and 40/45 GCs. P-gp expression directly correlates with that of Bcl-x(L) and with the promoter hypomethylation of the MDR1 gene. In GC cell lines, P-gp is localized on the plasma membrane and mitochondria where it colocalizes with Bcl-x(L). Co-immunoprecipitation confirms the physical interaction between P-gp and Bcl-x(L) in AGS, MKN-28 and Hep-G2, at both basal level and after stress-induced apoptosis. The selective silencing of P-gp sensitizes GC cells to stress-induced apoptosis. P-gp behaves as an oncofetal protein that, by cross-talking with Bcl-x(L), acts as an anti-apoptotic agent in Hp-related gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:22751348

  19. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: Herb–drug interactions mediated via P-gp

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue Hu, Jinping Wang, Baolian Sheng, Li Liu, Zhihao Yang, Shuang Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb–drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18β-glycyrrhetic acid (18β-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F{sub 1} [20(S)-GF{sub 1}] exhibited significant inhibition (> 50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC{sub 50} = 9.42 μM), followed by 18β-GA (IC{sub 50} = 21.78 μM), 20(S)-GF{sub 1} (IC{sub 50} = 76.08 μM) and DAG (IC{sub 50} = 77.80 μM). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 48.61, 29.09 μM and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure–inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18β-GA, the AUC{sub 0−t} and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18β-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF{sub 1} and Rh{sub 1} at 10 μM significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb–drug interactions in humans. - Highlights: • Emodin, 18β-GA, DAG, and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} significantly inhibited P-gp in vitro. • P-gp ATPase activity was stimulated by emodin and DAG. • 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} exhibited significant inhibition on P-gp ATPase activity. • Molecular docking analysis elucidated the SAR of herbal constituents with P-gp. • Pretreatment with emodin or 18β-GA increased the AUC and Cmax of digoxin in vivo.

  20. Chronic inflammation up-regulates P-gp in peripheral mononuclear blood cells via the STAT3/Nf-?b pathway in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiali; Zhou, Fang; Chen, Qianying; Kang, An; Lu, Meng; Liu, Wenyue; Zang, Xiaojie; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Jingwei

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis, often suffer drug intolerance. This resistance can be divided into intrinsic resistance and acquired resistance. Although there is agreement on acquired resistance, studies regarding intrinsic resistance have demonstrated inconsistencies, especially for Crohns disease. For this reason, an animal model of Crohns disease was induced with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid solution (TNBS), and intrinsic resistance was analyzed by measuring the function and expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBC), followed by mechanistic studies. The results revealed reduced retention of cyclosporine A in PMBC over-expressing P-gp in a TNBS-treated group and enhanced secretion of the cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-? as well as LPS in plasma. These cytokines and LPS can induce P-gp expression through the STAT3/Nf-?b pathway, contributing to a decrease of cyclosporine A retention, which can be reversed by the application of a P-gp inhibitor. Our results demonstrated that the sustained chronic inflammation could induce the intrinsic resistance presented as P-gp over-expression in PBMC in Crohns disease through STAT3/Nf-?b pathway and this resistance might be reversed by combinational usage of P-gp inhibitors. PMID:26324318

  1. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: herb-drug interactions mediated via P-gp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Hu, Jinping; Wang, Baolian; Sheng, Li; Liu, Zhihao; Yang, Shuang; Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb-drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18?-glycyrrhetic acid (18?-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F? [20(S)-GF?] exhibited significant inhibition (>50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC??=9.42 ?M), followed by 18?-GA (IC??=21.78 ?M), 20(S)-GF? (IC??=76.08 ?M) and DAG (IC??=77.80 ?M). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with Km and Vmax values of 48.61, 29.09 ?M and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18?-GA and 20(S)-GF? exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure-inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18?-GA, the AUC(??t) and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18?-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF? and Rh? at 10 ?M significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb-drug interactions in humans. PMID:24380838

  2. Doxorubicin delivery enhanced by electroporation to gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells with P-gp overexpression.

    PubMed

    Kulbacka, Julita; Daczewska, Ma?gorzata; Dubi?ska-Magiera, Magda; Choroma?ska, Anna; Rembia?kowska, Nina; Surowiak, Pawe?; Kulbacki, Marek; Kotulska, Ma?gorzata; Saczko, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Electroporation (EP) can effectively support the penetration of macromolecules from the extracellular space into cells. Electropores induced by the influence of electromagnetic field generate additional paths of transport for macromolecules. The aim of this study was evaluation of the electroporation effect on doxorubicin transport efficiency to human colon (LoVo and LoVo/DX) and gastric (EPG85-257/P and EPG85-257/RDB) adenocarcinoma cells with overexpression of P-glycoprotein and murine macrophage cell line (P388/D1). In our EP experiments cells were placed into a cuvette with aluminum electrodes and pulsed with five square electric pulses of 1300 V/cm and duration of 50 ?s each. Cells were also treated with low doxorubicin concentration ([DOX]=1.7 ?M). The ultrastructure (TEM) and changes of P-glycoprotein expression of tumor cells subjected to electric field were monitored. The mitochondrial cell function and trypan blue staining were evaluated after 24h. Our results indicate the most pronounced effect of EP with DOX and disturbed ultrastructure in resistant gastric and colon cells with decrease of P-gp expression. Electroporation may be an attractive delivery method of cytostatic drugs in chemotherapy, enabling reduction of drug dose, exposure time and side effects. PMID:24767854

  3. P-glycoprotein and its inducible expression in three bivalve species after exposure to Prorocentrum lima.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Liu, Su-Li; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters responsible for multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in aquatic organisms. To provide more information of P-gp in shellfish, in this study, complete cDNA of P-gp in three bivalve species including Ruditapes philippinarum, Scapharca subcrenata and Tegillarca granosa were cloned and its expressions in gill, digestive gland, adductor muscle and mantle of the three bivalves were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a toxogenic dinoflagellate. The complete sequences of R. philippinarum, S. subcrenata and T. granosa P-gp showed high homology with MDR/P-gp/ABCB proteins from other species, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the amino acid sequences of P-gp from S. subcrenata and T. granosa had a closest relationship, forming an independent branch, then grouping into the other branch with Mytilus californianus, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas. However, P-gp sequences from R. philippinarum were more similar to the homologs from the more distantly related Aplysia californica than to homologs from S. subcrenata and T. granosa, suggesting that bivalves P-gp might have different paralogs. P-glycoprotein expressed in all detected tissues but there were large differences between them. After exposure to P. lima, the expression of P-gp changed in the four tissues in varying degrees within the same species and between different species, but the changes in mRNA and protein level were not always synchronous. PMID:26539802

  4. Isoform I (mdr3) is the major form of P-glycoprotein expressed in mouse brain capillaries. Evidence for cross-reactivity of antibody C219 with an unrelated protein.

    PubMed Central

    Jett, L; Pouliot, J F; Murphy, G F; Bliveau, R

    1995-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in various non-cancerous tissues such as the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. We used several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies to establish which P-gp isoforms are expressed in isolated mouse brain capillaries. P-gp class I isoform was detected in capillaries with a Western immunoblotting procedure using a specific antiserum. No immunoreactivity was observed with either class II- or class III-specific antisera. Immunoreactivity was observed with mAb C219. However, this antibody detected two distinct immunoreactive proteins (155 and 190 kDa) in the isolated brain capillaries. These two proteins comigrated as a broad band when the samples were submitted to heat prior to gel electrophoresis. The glycoprotein nature of these two antigens was evaluated by their sensitivity to N-glycanase treatment. Following this treatment, the size of the proteins was reduced from 190 and 155 kDa to 180 and 120 kDa, respectively. Triton X-114 phase-partitioning studies showed that the 190 kDa immunoreactive protein was poorly solubilized by Triton X-114, while the 155 kDa protein was partitioned in the detergent-rich phase. In labelling experiments, only the 155 kDa protein was photolabelled with [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin. These results show that a 190 kDa protein detected by antibody C219 is an antigen unrelated to the three P-gp isoforms presently known. Cross-reactivity of C219 with an unrelated protein emphasizes the fact that more than one antibody should be used in the assessment of P-gp expression in cell lines and tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7848274

  5. In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Scaling Factors for Intestinal P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: Part II. The Impact of Cross-Laboratory Variations of Intestinal Transporter Relative Expression Factors on Predicted Drug Disposition.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Matthew D; Achour, Brahim; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Russell, Matthew R; Carlson, Gordon; Warhurst, Geoffrey; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Relative expression factors (REFs) are used to scale in vitro transporter kinetic data via in vitro-in vivo extrapolation linked to physiologically based pharmacokinetic (IVIVE-PBPK) models to clinical observations. Primarily two techniques to quantify transporter protein expression are available, immunoblotting and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Literature-collated REFs ranged from 0.4 to 5.1 and 1.1 to 90 for intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), respectively. The impact of using human jejunum-Caco-2 REFs for P-gp (REFiP-gp) and BCRP (REFiBCRP), generated from the same samples and using different proteomic methodologies from independent laboratories, on PBPK outcomes was assessed. A 5-fold decrease in REFiP-gp for a single oral dose of digoxin resulted in a 1.19- and 1.31-fold higher plasma area under the curve and Cmax, respectively. All generated REFiP-gp values led to simulated digoxin Cmax values within observed ranges; however, combining kinetic data generated from a different laboratory with the 5-fold lower REFiP-gp could not recover a digoxin-rifampicin drug-drug interaction, emphasizing the necessity to obtain transporter-specific kinetic estimates and REFs from the same in vitro system. For a theoretical BCRP compound, with absorption taking place primarily in the jejunum, a decrease in the REFiBCRP from 2.22 (University of Manchester) to 1.11 (Bertin Pharma) promoted proximal intestinal absorption while delaying tmax 1.44-fold. Laboratory-specific differences in REF may lead to different IVIVE-PBPK outcomes. To understand the mechanisms underlying projected pharmacokinetic liabilities, it is important to assess the potential impact of bias on the generation of REFs on an interindividual basis within a target population. PMID:26842595

  6. The effects of protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on p-glycoprotein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Becky; Almond, Lisa; Ford, Jennifer; Owen, Andrew; Hoggard, Patrick; Khoo, Saye; Back, David

    2003-08-15

    Several antiretroviral compounds have been shown to be substrates for the efflux protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) although few studies have investigated the effects of drug on expression of this protein. Here, an in vitro system has been adopted to investigate the effects of protease inhibitors (PIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) on P-gp expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs isolated from healthy volunteers were incubated with 10 or 100 microM PI (saquinavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir) or 10 microM NNRTI (efavirenz, nevirapine) for 72 hours. Surface P-gp expression was measured by flow cytometry and compared with vehicle-incubated controls. Toxicity was assessed by MTT assay and the effects of each compound were compared between individuals with differing genotypes at position 3435 of exon 26 of MDR1, which was assigned by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Significant increases in median P-gp expression were observed following incubation with 10 microM nelfinavir (10.2 versus 6.7% P-gp-positive cells) and efavirenz (10.0 versus 6.7% P-gp-positive cells). No significant differences in induction were observed between genotypes (CC, CT, TT). Following incubation with 100 microM PI, significant upregulation of P-gp occurred except with amprenavir. However, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and lopinavir caused marked toxicity, indicating that at higher concentrations, the increase in P-gp may be at least partially related to a stress response. These results indicate the potential of some PIs and NNRTIs to induce P-gp expression in PBMCs in vitro. PMID:12902797

  7. Amyloid efflux transporter expression at the blood-brain barrier declines in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Gerald D; Messier, Arthur A; Miller, Miles C; Machan, Jason T; Majmudar, Samir S; Stopa, Edward G; Donahue, John E; Johanson, Conrad E

    2010-10-01

    Reduced clearance of amyloid ? peptides (A?) across the blood-brain barrier contributes to amyloid accumulation in Alzheimer disease. Amyloid ? efflux transport is via the endothelial low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), whereas A? influx transport is via the receptor for advanced glycation end products. Because age is the major risk factor for developing Alzheimer disease, we measured LRP-1 and P-gp expression and associated transporter expression with A? accumulation in aging rats. Quantitative LRP-1 and P-gp microvessel expression was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC); LRP-1 and P-gp expression were assessed in microvessel isolates by Western blotting. There was an age-dependent loss of capillary LRP-1 across all ages (3-36 months) by IHC (linear trend p = 0.0004) and between 3 and 20 months by Western blotting (linear trend p < 0.0001). There was a late (30-36 months) P-gp expression loss by IHC (p < 0.05) and Western blotting (p = 0.0112). Loss of LRP-1 correlated with A?42 accumulation (p = 0.0121) and very nearly with A?40 (p = 0.0599) across all ages. Expression of LRP-1 correlated negatively with the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (p < 0.0004). These data indicate that alterations in LRP-1 and P-gp expression seem to contribute progressively to A? accumulation in aging. PMID:20838242

  8. Crystal Structure of an EAL Domain in Complex with Reaction Product 5′-pGpG

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Paganin, Julien; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Réty, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438–686): one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5′-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5′-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains. PMID:23285035

  9. Trametenolic acid B reverses multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells through regulating the expression level of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyin; Wang, Junzhi; He, Haibo; Liu, Hongbing; Yan, Ximing; Zou, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Trametenolic acid B (TAB) is the main active composition of Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat which possesses antitumor activities. There was no report its antitumor effect through regulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp) so far, due toP-gp over expression is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to the multiple drug resistance phenotype. The present aim was to investigate the effects of TAB on P-gp in multidrug-resistant cells;Paclitaxel-resistant cell line MDA-MB-231/Taxol was established by stepwise exposure for 10 months.MDA-MB-231 cells and MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells were treated with TAB, and their growth was evaluated using MTT assays. Paclitaxel accumulation in the cells was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatogram(HPLC). The activity of P-gp was detected by intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 (Rho123), and the protein expression of P-gp was evaluated using western blot. Results indicated that the IC50 of MDA-MB-231/Taxol to paclitaxel (Taxol) was 33 times higher than that of nature MDA-MB-231. TAB increased the intracellular concentration of Taxol and inhibited the activity of P-gp and suppressed the expression of P-gp in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells. Our present results showed that TAB could reverse Taxol resistance in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells,mainly inhibiting the activity of P-gp and down-regulating the expression level of P-gp, and then enhancing the accumulation of chemotherapy agents. PMID:25289403

  10. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-Liganded Vitamin D Receptor Increases Expression and Transport Activity of P-glycoprotein in Isolated Rat Brain Capillaries and Human and Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Durk, Matthew R.; Chan, Gary N.Y.; Campos, Christopher R.; Peart, John C.; Chow, Edwin C.Y.; Lee, Eason; Cannon, Ronald E.; Bendayan, Reina; Miller, David S.; Pang, K. Sandy

    2012-01-01

    MDR1/P-gp induction by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was investigated in isolated rat brain capillaries and rat (RBE4) and human (hCMEC/D3) brain microvessel endothelial cell lines. Incubation of isolated rat brain capillaries with 10 nM of the VDR ligand, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] for 4 h increased P-gp protein expression (4-fold). Incubation with 1,25(OH)2D3 for 4 or 24 h increased P-gp transport activity (specific luminal accumulation of NBD-CSA, the fluorescent P-gp substrate) by 25 – 30%. In RBE4 cells, Mdr1b mRNA was induced in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3. Concomitantly, P-gp protein expression increased 2.5-fold and was accompanied by a 20 – 35% reduction in cellular accumulation of the P-gp substrates, rhodamine 6G (R6G) and HiLyte Fluor 488-labeled human amyloid beta 1-42 (hAβ42). In hCMEC/D3 cells, a three day exposure to 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 increased MDR1 mRNA expression (40%) and P-gp protein (3-fold); cellular accumulation of R6G and hAβ42 was reduced by 30%. Thus, VDR activation up-regulates Mdr1/MDR1 and P-gp protein in isolated rat brain capillaries and rodent and human brain microvascular endothelia, implicating a role for VDR in increasing the brain clearance of P-gp substrates, including hAβ42 a plaque-forming precursor in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23035695

  11. P-gp substrate-induced neurotoxicity in an Abcb1a knock-in/Abcb1b knock-out mouse model with a mutated canine ABCB1 targeted insertion.

    PubMed

    Swain, M D; Orzechowski, K L; Swaim, H L; Jones, Y L; Robl, M G; Tinaza, C A; Myers, M J; Jhingory, M V; Buckely, L E; Lancaster, V A; Yancy, H F

    2013-06-01

    Certain dog breeds, especially Collies, are observed to exhibit neurotoxicity to avermectin drugs, which are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates. This neurotoxicity is due to an ABCB1 gene mutation (ABCB1-1?) that results in non-functional P-gp expression. A developed Abcb1a knock-in/Abcb1b knock-out mouse model expressing the ABCB1-1? canine gene was previously reported and mice exhibited sensitivity upon ivermectin administration. Here, model and wild-type mice were administered P-gp substrates doramectin, moxidectin, and digoxin. While knock-in/knock-out mice exhibited ataxia, lethargy and tremor, wild-type mice remained unaffected. In addition, no neurotoxic clinical signs were observed in either mouse type administered domperidone, a P-gp substrate with no reported neurotoxicity in ABCB1-1? Collies. Overall, neurotoxic signs displayed by model mice closely paralleled those observed in ivermectin-sensitive Collies. This model can be used to identify toxic P-gp substrates with altered safety in dog populations and may reduce dog use in safety studies that are part of the drug approval process. PMID:23186803

  12. Expression and Localization of P-Glycoprotein, Multidrug Resistance Protein 4, and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein in the Female Lower Genital Tract of Human and Pigtailed Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters. PMID:24803409

  13. Interaction of BDE-47 and its Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP: Considerations for Human Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also known as MDR1, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; also known as ABCG2), are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular efflux of xenobiotics as an important defense against chemic...

  14. Effect of venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine on drug efflux protein expression and biodistribution in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bachmeier, Corbin; Levin, Gary M; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Reed, Jon; Mullan, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Venlafaxine, and to a lesser extent desvenlafaxine, has previously been shown to induce the expression of the drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in whole cells and alter the cellular permeability of a known drug efflux probe (rhodamine 123). To validate these in vitro findings, wild-type mice were treated for 4 days with 10 mg/kg venlafaxine or desvenlafaxine, and drug efflux transporter expression was examined in the brain, liver, and intestine. P-gp and BCRP expression was significantly upregulated in the intestine, following a treatment with venlafaxine (2.6- and 6.7-fold, respectively) or desvenlafaxine (2.3- and 4.8-fold, respectively). In addition, venlafaxine increased the BCRP expression in the brain (40%) and liver (60%), whereas desvenlafaxine had no effect on drug efflux transporter levels in these tissues. Using the same treatment paradigm, we observed a minimal impact of either drug on the brain disposition of the known drug efflux probe, topotecan. However, in the periphery, venlafaxine treatment significantly reduced the topotecan oral bioavailability by nearly 40%, whereas the impact of desvenlafaxine on topotecan plasma levels was more modest (23%). These studies demonstrate an effect of venlafaxine on the drug efflux transport activity and the potential for clinical drug-drug interactions. PMID:23897419

  15. Liquid Chromatographic Method for Irinotecan Estimation: Screening of P-gp Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, M.; Negi, L. M.; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, F. J.; Iqbal, Zeenat; Khan, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed to develop a simple, sensitive, robust and reliable HPLC method for the estimation of irinotecan in the physiological media in order to assess the permeability profile of irinotecan, using the everted gut sac, in the presence of various P-gp modulators. Separation was achieved using, C18 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.045 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate buffer containing ion pair agent heptane sulphonic acid sodium salt (0.0054 M), pH 3. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and analysis was performed at 254.9 nm using PDA detector. Calibration data showed an excellent linear relationship between peak-area verses drug concentration (r2, 0.9999). Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.060-10.0 g/ml. Limits of detection and quantification were found to ~0.020 g/ml and ~0.060 g/ml, respectively. The developed method was found to be precise (RSD < 1.5%, for repeatability and <2.55% for intermediate precision, acceptable ranges of precision), accurate (The recovered content of irinotecan in the presence of various P-gp modulators varied from 96.11-101.51%, within acceptable range, 80-120%), specific and robust (% RSD < 2). Developed method has been applied successfully for the evaluation of eleven P-gp modulators from diverse chemical class. PMID:25767314

  16. Anti-inflammatory properties of anthraquinones and their relationship with the regulation of P-glycoprotein function and expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ran Joo; Ngoc, Tran Minh; Bae, Kihwan; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chun, Jaemoo; Khan, Salman; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-01-23

    There is a growing interest in natural products that potentially have anti-inflammatory properties and inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. In this report, we assessed the effects of anthraquinone derivatives from rhubarb on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages to determine their anti-inflammatory potential. The derivatives were also tested in Caco-2 cell lines to evaluate the inhibition of the drug efflux function of P-gp. The transport abilities were examined and the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 (R-123) was also measured. Electorphoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to check the activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding affinity. Five anthraquinones were tested to determine their inhibitory activities on NO production and the protein and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, the level of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) was determined in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Emodin was found to be the most potent inhibitor, and it also reduced paw swelling in the mouse model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. In Caco-2 cells, emodin elevated the accumulation of R-123 and decreased the efflux ratio of R-123, which indicates the inhibition of P-gp function. The inhibition of COX-2 protein by emodin paralleled the decrease in P-gp expression. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression was decreased through the prevention of AP-1 DNA binding, which leads to downregulation in the expression of P-gp. Our data indicate that the decrease of P-gp expression is caused by the decreased expression of COX-2 through the MAPK/AP-1 pathway. Based on our results, we suggest that anti-inflammatory drugs with COX-2 inhibitory activity might be used to modulate P-gp function and expression. PMID:23174748

  17. P-glycoprotein expression induced by glucose depletion enhanced the chemosensitivity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell-lines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Samuel Chak-Sum; Zhou, Jing; Xie, Yong

    2005-04-01

    Chemoresistance in cancer cells is frequently associated with an over-expression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The expression of P-gp can be regulated as the cells encounter a number of chemical, physical or environmental stimuli. In this study, P-gp was found gradually expressed in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) QGY-7703 cells after 48 h of culturing in glucose-free medium. This phenomenon disappeared after the removal of glucose deprivation culture conditions. Mdr1-cDNA isolated from the cell line cultured in glucose-free conditions (namely QGY-7703G), was transiently transformed into the parent QGY-7703 cells, and multi-drug resistance was eventually induced. Results from XTT cytotoxicity assays indicated that the mdr1 gene was functional and the P-gp could restore the QGY-7703 cell's ability to withstand high concentrations of a number of chemotherapeutic agents. A P-gp inhibitor, verapamil, could completely reverse the cellular drug resistance when applied to the QGY-7703G cells. Our results indicated that an alteration of a specific state in cells caused by an external stimulus in vitro may lead to an expression of stress proteins (e.g. P-gp), which may enhance the cells' survival in adverse conditions. The expressed P-gp induced by glucose deprivation has a functional role in affecting the chemosensitivity in HCC QGY-7703G cells. Inhibition of P-gp activity may enhance the effect of the cancer cells towards cancer chemotherapy. PMID:15914037

  18. Casein Kinase 2 (CK2)-mediated Phosphorylation of Hsp90β as a Novel Mechanism of Rifampin-induced MDR1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Won; Hasanuzzaman, Md; Cho, Munju; Heo, Ye Rang; Ryu, Min-Jung; Ha, Na-Young; Park, Hyun June; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2015-07-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR1 gene is a drug-exporting transporter located in the cellular membrane. P-gp induction is regarded as one of the main mechanisms underlying drug-induced resistance. Although there is great interest in the regulation of P-gp expression, little is known about its underlying regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that casein kinase 2 (CK2)-mediated phosphorylation of heat shock protein 90β (Hsp90β) and subsequent stabilization of PXR is a key mechanism in the regulation of MDR1 expression. Furthermore, we show that CK2 is directly activated by rifampin. Upon exposure to rifampin, CK2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of Hsp90β at the Ser-225/254 residues. Phosphorylated Hsp90β then interacts with PXR, causing a subsequent increase in its stability, leading to the induction of P-gp expression. In addition, inhibition of CK2 and Hsp90β enhances the down-regulation of PXR and P-gp expression. The results of this study may facilitate the development of new strategies to prevent multidrug resistance and provide a plausible mechanism for acquired drug resistance by CK2-mediated regulation of P-gp expression. PMID:25995454

  19. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP. PMID:26918948

  20. Multi-drug resistance in a canine lymphoid cell line due to increased P-glycoprotein expression, a potential model for drug-resistant canine lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, M; Teske, E; Schrickx, J A

    2014-12-01

    Canine lymphoma is routinely treated with a doxorubicin-based multidrug chemotherapy protocol, and although treatment is initially successful, tumor recurrence is common and associated with therapy resistance. Active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents by transporter proteins of the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily forms an effective cellular defense mechanism and a high expression of these transporters is frequently observed in chemotherapy-resistant tumors in both humans and dogs. In this study we describe the ABC-transporter expression in a canine lymphoid cell line and a sub-cell line with acquired drug resistance following prolonged exposure to doxorubicin. This sub-cell line was more resistant to doxorubicin and vincristine, but not to prednisolone, and had a highly increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp/abcb1) expression and transport capacity for the P-gp model-substrate rhodamine123. Both resistance to doxorubicin and vincristine, and rhodamine123 transport capacity were fully reversed by the P-gp inhibitor PSC833. No changes were observed in the expression and function of the ABC-transporters MRP-1 and BCRP. It is concluded that GL-40 cells represent a useful model for studying P-gp dependent drug resistance in canine lymphoid neoplasia, and that this model can be used for screening substances as potential P-gp substrates and their capacity to modulate P-gp mediated drug resistance. PMID:24975508

  1. EGFR/HER2 inhibitors effectively reduce the malignant potential of MDR breast cancer evoked by P-gp substrates invitroandinvivo.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiting; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongying; Zhang, Zijing; Chu, Chengyu; Liu, Xiuping; Zou, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by chemotherapy in breast cancer frequently leads to tumor invasion, metastasis and poor clinical outcome. We preliminarily found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in enhancing the malignant potential of MDR breast cancer cells, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated invitroandinvivo that EGFR/HER2 promote the invasive and metastatic abilities of MDR breast cancer. More importantly, a new function of EGFR/HER2 inhibitors was revealed for the first time, which could improve the treatment efficacy of breast cancer by reversing the MDR process rather than by inhibiting tumor growth. Firstly, using quantitative real?time PCR and western blot analysis, we found that overexpression of EGFR/HER2 in MCF7/Adr cells upregulated CD147 and MMP2/9 at both the transcription and protein expression levels, which promoted tumor cell migration, as determined using an invitro invasion assay. Secondly, the upregulated levels of CD147 and MMP2/9 were decreased when EGFR/HER2 activity was inhibited, and therefore tumor invasion was also significantly inhibited. These phenomena were also demonstrated in nude mouse assays. Additionally, in MDR breast cancer patients, we found that overexpression of EGFR and P?gp levels led to shorter overall survival (OS) and disease?free survival (DFS) by IHC assays and Kaplan?Meier survival analysis. In conclusion, EGFR/HER2 play a crucial role in enhancing CD147 and MMP expression to establish favorable conditions for invasion/metastasis in MDR breast cancer. The scope of application of EGFR/HER2 inhibitors may be expanded in EGFR/HER2?positive patients. We suggest that MDR breast cancer patients may benefit from novel therapies targeting EGFR/HER2. PMID:26718028

  2. Cargoing P-gp inhibitors via nanoparticle sensitizes tumor cells against doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manu Smriti; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-01-30

    Inhibitors against multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux transporters have failed in most clinical settings due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic interactions with co-administered anti-cancer drug and their inherent toxicities. Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to overcome drug efflux by delivering and localizing therapeutic molecules within tumor mass. In this work, we investigated effect of nanocarrier surface charge and formulation parameters for a hydrophilic and lipophilic MDR inhibitor on their ability to reverse drug resistance. Active inhibition of efflux pumps was achieved by encapsulating first and third generation P-gp inhibitors- verapamil and elacridar respectively in non-ionic, anionic and cationic surfactant-based NPs. The ability of NPs to reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR efflux was evaluated in sensitive (A2780) and resistant (A2780Adr) ovarian cancer cell lines by various in vitro accumulation and cytotoxicity assays. Uptake mechanism for NP appears to be caveolae-dependent with 20%-higher internalization in A2780Adr than A2780 cell lines which can be co-related to the biophysical membrane composition. Cationic- CTAB NPs showed highest reversal efficacy followed by PVA and SDS-NP (P+S NP) and PVA-NPs. As compared to doxorubicin treated drug resistant cells lines, blank-, verapamil- and elacridar-CTAB-NPs showed 2.6-, 20- and 193-fold lower IC50 values. This work highlights the importance of inhibitor-loaded charged particles to overcome cancer drug resistance. PMID:25437111

  3. Active brain targeting of a fluorescent P-gp substrate using polymeric magnetic nanocarrier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirthivasan, B.; Singh, D.; Bommana, M. M.; Raut, S. L.; Squillante, E.; Sadoqi, M.

    2012-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) were developed for the active brain targeting of water-soluble P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The NP matrix of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(lactic acid) (M-PEG-PLA) was prepared by single emulsion solvent evaporation of polymers with oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (OAMNP) and Rh123. All formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, magnetic content and Rh123 encapsulation efficiency. The maximum encapsulation efficiency of Rh123 was 45 ± 3% and of OAMNP was 42 ± 4%. The brain targeting and biodistribution study was performed on Sprague Dawley rats (3 groups, n = 6). Rh123 (0.4 mg kg-1) was administered in saline form, NP containing Rh123, and NP containing Rh123 in the presence of a magnetic field (0.8 T). The fluorimetric analysis of brain homogenates revealed a significant uptake (p < 0.05) of Rh123 in the magnetically targeted group relative to controls. These results were supported by fluorescence microscopy. This study reveals the ability of magnetically targeted nanoparticles to deliver substances to the brain, the permeation of which would otherwise be inhibited by the P-gp system.

  4. Suppression of P-gp induced multiple drug resistance in a drug resistant gastric cancer cell line by overexpression of Fas

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fang; Shi, Yong Quan; Zhao, Wei Ping; Xiao, Bing; Miao, Ji Yan; Fan, Dai Ming

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To observe the drug sensitizing effect and related mechanisms of fas gene transduction on human drug-resistant gastric cancer cell SGC7901/VCR (resistant to Vincristine). METHODS: The cell cycle alteration was observed by FACS. The sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to apoptosis was determined by in vitro apoptosis assay. The drug sensitization of cells to several anti-tumor drugs was observed by MTT assay. Immunochemical method was used to show expression of P-gp and Topo II in gastric cancer cells. RESULTS: Comparing to SGC7901 and pBK-SGC7901/VCR, fas-SGC7901/VCR showed decreasing G2 cells and increasing S cells, the G2 phase fraction of pBK-SGC7901/VCR was about 3.0 times that of fas-SGC7901/VCR, but S phase fraction of fas-SGC7901/VCR was about 1.9 times that of pBK-SGC7901/VCR, indicating S phase arrest of fas-SGC7901/VCR. FACS also suggested apoptosis of fas-SGC7901/VCR. fas-SGC7901/VCR was more sensitive to apoptosis inducing agent VM-26 than pBK-SGC7901/VCR. MTT assay showed increased sensitization of fas-SGC7901/VCR to DDP, MMC and 5-FU, but same sensitization to VCR according to pBK-SGC7901/VCR. SGC7901, pBK-SGC7901/VCR and fas-SGC7901/VCR had positively stained Topo II equally. P-gp staining in pBK-SGC7901/VCR was stronger than in SGC7901, but there was little staining of Pgp in fas-SGC7901/VCR. CONCLUSION: fas gene transduction could reverse the MDR of human drug-resistant gastric cancer cell SGC7901/VCR to a degree, possibly because of higher sensitization to apoptosis and decreased expression of P-gp. PMID:11819671

  5. Reversing of multidrug resistance breast cancer by co-delivery of P-gp siRNA and doxorubicin via folic acid-modified core-shell nanomicelles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Chunlong; Wu, Jianzhong; Tang, Jinhai

    2016-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of major limitation for the successful treatment of many cancers including breast cancer. Co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been developed because of its ability to generate synergistic anticancer effects via different mechanisms of action, to reverse MDR and increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer therapy. Herein, we employed a kind of efficient multifunctional tumor targeted nanomicelles (PECL3) for the co-delivery of hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs and siRNA. This kind of nanomicelles were constructed by folic acid (FA)-decorated PEG-b-(PCL-g-PEI)-b-PCL triblock copolymers, which were synthesized through "click chemistry" and "ring opening" polymerization. Driven by the "core-shell" structure and the electrostatic interaction, this triblock copolymer could efficiently encapsulate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) siRNA and doxorubicin (DOX). The obtained nanomicelles can prevent renal clearance, RNase degradation and aggregation in circulation. Compared to the non-specific delivery, these FA functionalized nanomicelles could efficiently deliver P-gp siRNA to reducing both P-gp expression levels and IC50 value of the DOX in DOX-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). Additionally, in vivo results showed that DOX loaded PECL3 (D-PECL3) micelles could reduce toxicity of DOX on nontarget tissues and significantly inhibited MCF-7/ADR tumor growth through encapsulating DOX in the micelles and deliver them to target tumor region. Taken together, these results proof that PECL3 micelles could co-deliver siRNA and drug to inhibit MDR tumor growth. These results suggested that the co-delivery of DOX and siRNA in tumor-targeting nanomicelles could excite synergistic effect of gene therapy and chemotherapy, thus can efficiently reverse MDR cancer and kill the cancer cells. PMID:26655793

  6. Cyclosporin A affects the bioavailability of ginkgolic acids via inhibition of P-gp and BCRP.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yao, Qing-Qing; Xu, Si-Yun; Hu, Hai-Hong; Shen, Qi; Tian, Ye; Pan, Lan-Ying; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Lu, Chuang; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su

    2014-11-01

    Ginkgolic acids (GAs) in natural product Ginkgobiloba L. are the pharmacological active but also toxic components. Two compounds, GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) are the most abundant GAs. In this study, several in vitro and in vivo models were applied to investigate transport mechanism of GAs. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) was applied to analyze the biological specimens. The Papp(AP→BL) values of GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) were 1.66-2.13×10(-)(6)cm/s and 1.34-1.85×10(-)(6)cm/s determined using MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayers, respectively. The Papp(BL→AP) were remarkably greater in the MDCK-MDR1 cell line, which were 6.77-11.2×10(-)(6)cm/s for GA (C15:1) and 4.73-5.15×10(-)(6)cm/s for GA (C17:1). Similar results were obtained in LLC-PK1 and LLC-PK1-BCRP cell monolayers. The net efflux ratio of GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) in both cell models was greater than 2 and markedly reduced by the presence of Cyclosporin A (CsA) or GF120918, inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP, suggesting that GAs are P-gp and BCRP substrates. The results from a rat bioavailability study also showed that co-administrating CsA intravenously (20mg/kg) could significantly increase GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) AUC0-t by 1.46-fold and 1.53-fold and brain concentration levels of 1.43-fold and 1.51-fold, respectively, due to the inhibition of P-gp and BCRP efflux transporters by CsA. PMID:24980806

  7. Reversal Effects of Pantoprazole on Multidrug Resistance in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells by Down-Regulating the V-ATPases/mTOR/HIF-1?/P-gp and MRP1 Signaling Pathway In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Huang, Shu-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Hao; Yang, Vincent W.; Zou, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    To investigate reversal effects of pantoprazole (PPZ) on multidrug resistance (MDR) in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell SGC7901 was cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37C. Adriamycin (ADR)-resistant cells were cultured with addition of 0.8 ?g/ml of ADR maintaining MDR phenotype. ADR was used to calculate ADR releasing index; CCK-8 Assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of anti-tumor drugs; BCECF-AM pH-sensitive fluorescent probe was used to measure intracellular pH (pHi) value of cells, whereas pH value of medium was considered as extracellular pH (pHe) value; Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining analyses were employed to determine protein expressions and intracellular distributions of vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases), mTOR, HIF-1?, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and multidrug resistant protein 1 (MRP1); SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells were inoculated in athymic nude mice. Thereafter, effects of ADR with or without PPZ pretreatment were compared by determining the tumor size and weight, apoptotic cells in tumor tissues were detected by TUNEL assay. At concentrations greater than 20 ?g/ml, PPZ pretreatment reduced ADR releasing index and significantly enhanced intracellular ADR concentration of SGC7901 (P <0.01). Similarly, PPZ pretreatment significantly decreased ADR releasing index of SGC7901/ADR dose-dependently (P <0.01). PPZ pretreatment also decreased cell viabilities of SGG7901 and SGC7901/ADR dose-dependently. After 24-h PPZ pretreatment, administration of chemotherapeutic agents demonstrated maximal cytotoxic effects on SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells (P < 0.05). The resistance index in PPZ pretreatment group was significantly lower than that in non-PPZ pretreatment group (3.71 vs. 14.80). PPZ at concentration >10 ?g/ml significantly decreased pHi in SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells and diminished or reversed transmembrane pH gradient (P < 0.05). PPZ pretreatment also significantly inhibited protein expressions of V-ATPases, mTOR, HIF-1?, P-gp, and MRP1, and alter intracellular expressions in parent and ADR-resistant cells (P < 0.05). In vivo experiments further confirmed that PPZ pretreatment could enhance anti-tumor effects of ADR on xenografted tumor of nude mice and also improve the apoptotic index in xenografted tumor tissues. PPZ pretreatment enhances the cytotoxic effects of anti-tumor drugs on SGC7901 and reverse MDR of SGC7901/ADR by downregulating the V-ATPases/mTOR/HIF-1?/P-gp and MRP1 signaling pathway. PMID:22396185

  8. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling reduces multidrug transporter activity and anti-epileptic drug resistance in refractory epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiye; Wang, Cuicui; Hong, Zhen; Chen, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediates drug resistance in refractory epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the up-regulation of P-gp expression remains unclear. Our previous studies have demonstrated that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulates P-gp expression in cultured K562 cells. However, a lack of invivo research leaves unanswered questions regarding whether p38MAPK regulates P-gp expression or drug resistance in refractory epilepsy. This invivo study examined the effects of p38MAPK on the expression of P-gp and mdr1 in the rat brain and quantified antiepileptic drug (AED) concentrations in the hippocampal extracellular fluid. In addition, the role of p38MAPK in electrical and behavioral activity in a rat epilepsy model was studied. The results indicated that p38MAPK inhibition by SB202190 reduced P-gp expression, while increasing AED concentration in the hippocampal extracellular fluid in refractory epileptic rats. SB202190 also reduced the resistance to AEDs in drug-resistant rats and significantly reduced the severity of seizure activity. These results suggest that p38MAPK could participate in drug resistance in refractory epilepsy through the regulation of P-gp. We show that the specific inhibitor of p38MAPK could down-regulate the expression of multidrug transporter (P-glycoprotein) in blood-brain barrier, increase the concentration of antiepileptic drugs in the hippocampal extracellular fluid and reduce anti-epileptic drug resistance in refractory epileptic rats. We propose that the p38MAPK signaling pathway participates in drug resistance in refractory epilepsy through the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression. PMID:26677173

  9. In vitro interaction of the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir with herbal constituents: changes in P-gp and CYP3A4 activity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh; Buddha, Balasubrahmanyam; Dey, Surajit; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro interactions of commercially obtained pure herbal constituents with p-glycoprotein P-gp and cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activities, which can further modulate the transcellular transport and metabolism kinetics of orally administered drugs. Caco-2 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 micromol/L 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and multidrug-resistant 1 (MDR1) transfected MDCK cells were used as models to evaluate the effect of purified herbal constituents (quercetin, hypericin, hyperforin from St. John's wort, kaempferol from ginseng, silibinin from milk thistle, and allicin from garlic) on P-gp-mediated efflux of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor ritonavir. In addition, the inhibitory effect of these constituents on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism was determined by using cortisol as a model compound. Silibinin and hyperforin did not significantly alter cellular uptake of H-ritonavir in Caco-2 cells. A similar result was also observed for silibinin when tested in MDR1-MDCK cells. Quercetin, hypericin, and kaempferol exhibited a remarkable inhibition of P-gp-mediated efflux of ritonavir by increasing its cellular uptake in these models. These values were also comparable with the inhibitory effect of quinidine in Caco-2 cells, a well-known inhibitor of P-gp, on ritonavir efflux from Caco-2 cells. Allicin exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of ritonavir efflux when tested on MDR1-MDCK cells. There was a significant decrease in the Apical to Basal/Basal to Apical (AP-BL/BL-AP) transport ratio of ritonavir in presence of hypericin, kaempferol, and quercetin. These herbal constituents inhibited the CYP3A4 activity when tested with the Vivid CYP3A4 assay kit, whereas silibinin did not alter cortisol metabolism. Hypericin showed a significant inhibition in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent metabolism of cortisol with 64.6% of intact drug at the end of a 1-hour study. Similarly, kaempferol and quercetin also caused substantial inhibition of cortisol metabolism with 89.7% and 90.1% of intact cortisol, respectively, compared with 45.9% in the control. Prolonged exposure of quercetin resulted in significant increase of mRNA expression of both MDR1 and CYP3A4 levels in Caco-2 cells. However, hyperforin caused upregulation of CYP3A4 and downregulation of MDR1, whereas the effect of silibinin and kaempferol remained inconclusive on these gene expressions. Hypericin, kaempferol, quercetin, and allicin inhibit the efflux and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics in vitro. Hence, this study warns against the use of herbal constituents along with prescribed HIV protease inhibitors that are substrates for P-gp and/or CYP3A4. PMID:15266218

  10. Leptospira Protein Expression During Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are characterizing protein expression in vivo during experimental leptospirosis using immunofluorescence microscopy. Coding regions for several proteins were identified through analysis of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo genomes. In addition, codi...

  11. Enhanced autophagy reveals vulnerability of P-gp mediated epirubicin resistance in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Han; Yang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Min; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chen-Yu; Xie, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Xu; Dong, Jing-Fei; Li, Min

    2016-04-01

    Epirubicin (EPI) is widely used for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), but a substantial number of patients develop EPI resistance that is associated with poor outcome. The underlying mechanism for EPI resistance remains poorly understood. We have developed and characterized an EPI-resistant (EPI-R) cell line from parental MDA-MB-231 cells. These EPI-R cells reached stable growth in the medium containing 8 μg/ml of EPI. They overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and contained numerous autophagic vacuoles. The suppression of P-gp overexpression and/or autophagy restored the sensitivity of these EPI-R cells to EPI. We further show that autophagy conferred resistance to EPI on MDA cells by blocking the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated pro-apoptotic signals. Together, these results reveal a synergistic role of P-gp, autophagy, and NF-κB pathways in the development of EPI resistance in TNBC cells. They also suggest that blocking the P-gp overexpression and autophagy may be an effective means of reducing EPI resistance. PMID:26767845

  12. Abraxane, the Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel Can Induce Drug Resistance by Up-Regulation of P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Gong, He; Liu, Juan; Fang, Xiangdong; Hu, Zhiyuan; Fang, Qiaojun

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can actively pump paclitaxel (PTX) out of cells and induces drug resistance. Abraxane, a nanoparticle (NP) formulation of PTX, has multiple clinical advantages over the single molecule form. However, it is still unclear whether Abraxane overcomes the common small molecule drug resistance problem mediated by P-gp. Here we were able to establish an Abraxane-resistant cell line from the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We compared the transcriptome of A549/Abr resistant cell line to that of its parental cell line using RNA-Seq technology. Several pathways were found to be up or down regulated. Specifically, the most significantly up-regulated gene was ABCB1, which translates into P-glycoprotein. We verified the overexpression of P-glycoprotein and confirmed its function by reversing the drug resistance with P-gp inhibitor Verapamil. The results suggest that efflux pathway plays an important role in the Abraxane-resistant cell line we established. However, the relevance of this P-gp mediated Abraxane resistance in tumors of lung cancer patients remains unknown. PMID:26182353

  13. Forced expression of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) reverses P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-mediated drug efflux and MDR1 gene expression in Adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabai, Ragu; Krishnamurthy, Karthikeyan; Druhan, Lawrence J; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2011-09-23

    Mutant p53 accumulation has been shown to induce the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and ATP binding cassette (ABC)-based drug efflux in human breast cancer cells. In the present work, we have found that transcriptional activation of the oxidative stress-responsive heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and expression of heat shock proteins, including Hsp27, which is normally known to augment proteasomal p53 degradation, are inhibited in Adriamycin (doxorubicin)-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/adr). Such an endogenous inhibition of HSF-1 and Hsp27 in turn results in p53 mutation with gain of function in its transcriptional activity and accumulation in MCF-7/adr. Also, lack of HSF-1 enhances nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) DNA binding activity together with mutant p53 and induces MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), resulting in a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Ectopic expression of Hsp27, however, significantly depleted both mutant p53 and NF-?B (p65), reversed the drug resistance by inhibiting MDR1/P-gp expression in MCF-7/adr cells, and induced cell death by increased G(2)/M population and apoptosis. We conclude from these results that HSF-1 inhibition and depletion of Hsp27 is a trigger, at least in part, for the accumulation of transcriptionally active mutant p53, which can either directly or NF-?B-dependently induce an MDR1/P-gp phenotype in MCF-7 cells. Upon Hsp27 overexpression, this pathway is abrogated, and the acquired multidrug resistance is significantly abolished so that MCF-7/adr cells are sensitized to Dox. Thus, clinical alteration in Hsp27 or NF-?B level will be a potential approach to circumvent drug resistance in breast cancer. PMID:21784846

  14. Nanolipoparticles-mediated MDR1 siRNA delivery reduces doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells and silences MDR1 expression in xenograft model of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Mahnaz; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Lage, Hermann; Abnous, Khalil; mosaffa, Fatemeh; Badiee, Ali; Behravan, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux protein, the overexpression of which has been associated with multidrug resistance in various cancers. Although siRNA delivery to reverse P-gp expression may be promising for sensitizing of tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs, the therapeutic use of siRNA requires effective carriers that can deliver siRNA intracellularly with minimal toxicity on target cells. We investigated a special class of PEGylated lipid-based nanoparticles (NP), named nanolipoparticles (NLPs), for siRNA-mediated P-gp downregulation. Materials and Methods: NLPs were prepared based on low detergent dialysis method. After characterization, we evaluated the effect of NLPs on siRNA delivery, and P-gp downregulation compared to oligofectamine (OFA) in vitro and in vivo. Results: Our results showed a significant decrease in P-gp expression and subsequent enhancement of chemosensitivity to doxorubicin in vitro. Although the effectiveness of NLPs for in vitro siRNA delivery compared to OFA was limited, the results of in vivo studies showed noticeable effectiveness of NLPs for systemic siRNA delivery. siRNA delivery using NLPs could downregulate MDR1 in tumor cells more than 80%, while OFA had a reverse effect on MDR1 expression in vivo. Conclusion: The results indicated that the prepared NLPs could be suitable siRNA delivery systems for tumor therapy. PMID:26019802

  15. Expression of KAP1 in epithelial ovarian cancer and its correlation with drug-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mingqiu; Fu, Xin; Cui, Yanfen; Xu, Shilei; Xu, Yue; Dong, Qiuping; Sun, Lu

    2015-01-01

    KAP1 is a universal corepressor for Kruppel-associated box zinc finger proteins. In this study, expression level of KAP1 and its association with drug resistance and expression of P-gp and BCRP in epithelial ovarian cancer were investigated. Immunohistological staining of KAP1 in cancer and matched paraneoplastic tissues was evaluated in 242 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Immunohistological staining of P-gp and BCRP were also evaluated, and the associations with the expression of KAP1 in epithelial ovarian cancer were investigated. MTT assay for cell proliferation and clonogenic survival assay were applied to determine the effect of KAP1 on the sensitivity of DDP, through up-regulating the level of KAP1 expression of SKOV3 using KAP1 plasmid and down-regulating the level of KAP1 expression of SKOV3/DDP using siRNA. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of KAP1 in cancer tissues were higher than matched paraneoplastic tissues (t = 21.39, P<0.001). The patients with higher KAP1 expression often had drug resistance, and the level of KAP1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of P-gp and BCRP (P = 0.07 and P<0.001 respectively). Up-regulated the expression of KAP1 in SKOV3 cell line induced the up-regulated expression of BCRP and P-gp, increasing the resistance of chemotherapeutic drug, and down-regulated the expression of KAP1 got opposite effects. KAP1 expression correlated with aggressive clinical features in ovarian cancer, maybe through regulating the expression of P-gp and BCRP. PMID:26770323

  16. [11C]phenytoin revisited: synthesis by [11C]CO carbonylation and first evaluation as a P-gp tracer in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At present, several positron emission tomography (PET) tracers are in use for imaging P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function in man. At baseline, substrate tracers such as R-[11C]verapamil display low brain concentrations with a distribution volume of around 1. [11C]phenytoin is supposed to be a weaker P-gp substrate, which may lead to higher brain concentrations at baseline. This could facilitate assessment of P-gp function when P-gp is upregulated. The purpose of this study was to synthesize [11C]phenytoin and to characterize its properties as a P-gp tracer. Methods [11C]CO was used to synthesize [11C]phenytoin by rhodium-mediated carbonylation. Metabolism and, using PET, brain pharmacokinetics of [11C]phenytoin were studied in rats. Effects of P-gp function on [11C]phenytoin uptake were assessed using predosing with tariquidar. Results [11C]phenytoin was synthesized via [11C]CO in an overall decay-corrected yield of 22??4%. At 45 min after administration, 19% and 83% of radioactivity represented intact [11C]phenytoin in the plasma and brain, respectively. Compared with baseline, tariquidar predosing resulted in a 45% increase in the cerebral distribution volume of [11C]phenytoin. Conclusions Using [11C]CO, the radiosynthesis of [11C]phenytoin could be improved. [11C]phenytoin appeared to be a rather weak P-gp substrate. PMID:22747744

  17. Effects of brain IKK? gene silencing by small interfering RNA on P-glycoprotein expression and brain damage in the rat kainic acid-induced seizure model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nian; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Fang; Su, Ling-Ying; Liu, Xin-Hong; Li, Le-Chao; Hao, Jin-Bo; Huang, Xian-Jing; Di, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance mediated by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in brain is an important mechanism accounting for the drug-therapy failure in epilepsy. Over-expression of P-gp in epilepsy rat brain may be regulated by inflammation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation. Inhibitory ? B kinase subunit ? (IKK?) is an up-stream molecular controlling NF-?B activation. With the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique and kainic acid (KA)-induced rat epileptic seizure model, the present study was aimed to further evaluate the role of NF-?B inhibition, via blocking IKK? gene transcription, in the epileptic brain P-gp over-expression, seizure susceptibility, and post-seizure brain damage. siRNA targeting IKK? was administered to rats via intracerebroventricular injection before seizure induction by KA microinjection; scrambled siRNA was used as control. Brain mRNA and protein levels of IKK? and P-gp were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. NF-?B activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Latency to grade III or V seizure onset was recorded, brain damage was evaluated by neuronal cell counting and epileptiform activity was monitored by electroencephalography. IKK? siRNA pre-treatment inhibited NF-?B activation and abolished P-gp over-expression in KA-induced epileptic rat brain, accompanied by decreased seizure susceptibility. These findings suggested that epileptogenic-induced P-gp over-expression could be regulated by IKK? through the NF-?B pathway. PMID:24040792

  18. Downregulation of P-gp, Ras and p-ERK1/2 contributes to the arsenic trioxide-induced reduction in drug resistance towards doxorubicin in gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YUAN-YUAN; YU, LI; LIU, BAO-LING; HE, XIN-JIA; ZHANG, BI-YUAN

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to doxorubicin (DOX) limits its effectiveness against tumor cells. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been reported to reduce MDR in various types of cancer, but the mechanisms involving Ras and p-glycoprotein (P-gp) remain to be fully elucidated. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate As2O3 in reversing MDR to DOX, and to identify the association in antitumor activities between the effectiveness of DOX and Ras/phosphorylated (p-) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling in SGC7901/ADM and SGC7901/S human gastric cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity and sensitivity towards As2O3 were assessed using non-toxic and mildly-toxic concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively). The reversing effect of As2O3 on MDR was investigated prior to and following treatment with a cytokine activation of the recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor ERK pathway. The SGC7901/ADM and SGC7901/S cells had the same sensitivity to As2O3. The SGC7901/ADM cells were resistant to DOX and As2O3 treatment reduced the level of resistance to DOX (P<0.01). The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the SGC7901/ADM cells was higher than in the SGC7901/S cells (P<0.001). As2O3 treatment decreased the levels of P-gp in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). The expression of Ras was higher in the SGC7901/ADM cells than in the SGC7901/S cells, while the expression of p-ERK1/2 remained the same. As2O3 decreased the levels of Ras and p-ERK1/2 (P<0.01). Following pretreatment with rhG-CSF, the levels of Ras and p-ERK1/2 were further decreased (P<0.01). Drug-resistant gastric cancer cells had higher expression levels of P-gp and Ras, but not of p-ERK1/2. Non- and mildly-toxic doses of As2O3 reduced MDR to DOX through Ras/p-ERK1/2 signaling. PMID:26459009

  19. Regulation of Multidrug Resistance Proteins by Genistein in a Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line: Impact on Sorafenib Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Ciriaci, Nadia; Arias, Agostina; Ceballos, María Paula; Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris; Luquita, Marcelo Gabriel; Mottino, Aldo Domingo; Ghanem, Carolina Inés; Catania, Viviana Alicia; Ruiz, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide. Sorafenib is the only drug available that improves the overall survival of HCC patients. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 and 3 (MRP2 and 3) and Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are efflux pumps that play a key role in cancer chemoresistance. Their modulation by dietary compounds may affect the intracellular accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of drugs that are substrates of these transporters. Genistein (GNT) is a phytoestrogen abundant in soybean that exerts its genomic effects through Estrogen-Receptors and Pregnane-X-Receptor (PXR), which are involved in the regulation of the above-mentioned transporters. We evaluated the effect of GNT on the expression and activity of P-gp, MRP2, MRP3 and BCRP in HCC-derived HepG2 cells. GNT (at 1.0 and 10 μM) increased P-gp and MRP2 protein expression and activity, correlating well with an increased resistance to sorafenib cytotoxicity as detected by the methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assay. GNT induced P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expression at 10 but not at 1.0 μM concentration suggesting a different pattern of regulation depending on the concentration. Induction of both transporters by 1.0 μM GNT was prevented by cycloheximide, suggesting translational regulation. Downregulation of expression of the miR-379 by GNT could be associated with translational regulation of MRP2. Silencing of PXR abolished P-gp induction by GNT (at 1.0 and 10 μM) and MRP2 induction by GNT (only at 10 μM), suggesting partial mediation of GNT effects by PXR. Taken together, the data suggest the possibility of nutrient-drug interactions leading to enhanced chemoresistance in HCC when GNT is ingested with soy rich diets or dietary supplements. PMID:25781341

  20. Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel-loaded Lipid-based Nanoparticles Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance by Inhibiting P-gp and Depleting ATP

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaowei; Mattingly, Cynthia A.; Tseng, Michael T.; Cho, Moo J.; Liu, Yang; Adams, Val R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2009-01-01

    To test the ability of nanoparticle (NP) formulations to overcome P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR), several different doxorubicin (Dox) and paclitaxel (PX)-loaded solid lipid NPs were prepared. Dox NPs showed 6-8-fold lower IC50 values in Pgp overexpressing human cancer cells than those of free Dox. The IC50 value of PX NPs was over 9-fold lower than that of Taxol in P-gp-overexpressing cells. A series of in-vitro cell assays were used including quantitative studies on uptake and efflux, inhibition of calcein acetoxymethylester (Calcein AM) efflux, alteration of ATP levels, membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Enhanced uptake and prolonged retention of Dox were observed with NP-based formulations in P-gp-overexpressing cells. Calcein AM and ATP assays confirmed that blank NPs inhibited P-gp and transiently depleted ATP. Intravenous injection of pegylated PX BTM NPs showed marked anticancer efficacy in nude mice bearing resistant NCI/ADR-RES tumors versus all control groups. NPs may be used to both target drug and biological mechanisms to overcome MDR via P-gp inhibition and ATP depletion. PMID:19383919

  1. Explanatory chapter: troubleshooting recombinant protein expression: general.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    One of the most daunting problems for biochemists is the expression of recombinant proteins. Often, the host organism differs from the organism from which the gene coding for the protein of interest was derived. This article provides guidelines to determine whether or not protein expression is a problem, describes possible reasons for low protein expression, and covers several possible solutions. A protocol for measuring protein expression during E. coli cell growth and after induction is given. The reader should note that low protein expression is a complex problem that often stems from a variety of factors. Combinations of the solutions presented in this article may be required to solve a problem of protein expression. A brief overview of host cell expression systems is given, but the article primarily focuses on expression in E. coli as this is the most commonly used host organism. Some of the methods discussed here, however, may be applied to other expression systems. PMID:24674074

  2. Reduced ABCB1 Expression and Activity in the Presence of Acrylic Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Ramin; Baradaran, Behzad; Valizadeh, Hadi; Yousefi, Bahman; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), an integral membrane protein in the apical surface of human intestinal epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in the intestinal transport and efflux leading to changes in the bioavailability of oral pharmaceutical compounds. This study was set to examine the potential effects of three Eudragits RL100, S100 and L100 on the intestinal epithelial membrane transport of rhodammine-123 (Rho-123), a substrate of P-gp using a monolayer of human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2). Methods: The least non-cytotoxic concentrations of the excipients were assessed in Caco-2 cells by the MTT assay. Then the transepithelial transport of Rho-123 across Caco-2 monolayers was determined with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Besides, the expression of the P-gp in cells exposed to the polymers was demonstrated using Western-blotting analysis. Results: Treatment of cells with Eudragit RL100 and L100 led to a very slight change while Eudragit S100 showed 61% increase in Rho-123 accumulation (P<0.001) and also reduced transporter expression. Conclusion: Our studies suggest that using proper concentrations of the Eudragit S100 in drug formulation would improve intestinal permeability and absorption of p-gp substrate drugs. PMID:24754004

  3. Data Mining for Expressivity of Recombinant Protein Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Satoshi; Isoai, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masayuki

    We analyzed the expressivity of recombinant proteins by using data mining methods. The expression technique of recombinant protein is a key step towards elucidating the functions of genes discovered through genomic sequence projects. We have studied the productive efficiency of recombinant proteins in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), by mining the expression results. We gathered 57 proteins whose expression levels were known roughly in the host. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and decision tree analysis were applied to these expression data. Analysis featuring codon usage and amino acid composition clarified that the amino acid composition affected to the expression levels of a recombinant protein strongly than the effect of codon usage. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid composition showed that protein solubility and the metabolism cost of amino acids correlated with a protein expressivity. Codon usage was often interesting in the field of recombinant expressions. However, our analysis found the weak correlation codon features with expressivities. These results indicated that ready-made indices of codon bias were irrelevant ones for modeling the expressivities of recombinant proteins. Our data driven approach was an easy and powerful method to improve recombinant protein expression, and this approach should be concentrated attention with the huge amount of expression data accumulating through the post-genome era.

  4. In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Scaling Factors for Intestinal P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: Part I: A Cross-Laboratory Comparison of Transporter-Protein Abundances and Relative Expression Factors in Human Intestine and Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Matthew D; Achour, Brahim; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Russell, Matthew R; Carlson, Gordon; Warhurst, Geoffrey

    2016-03-01

    Over the last 5 years the quantification of transporter-protein absolute abundances has dramatically increased in parallel to the expanded use of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK)-linked models, for decision-making in pharmaceutical company drug development pipelines and regulatory submissions. Although several research groups have developed laboratory-specific proteomic workflows, it is unclear if the large range of reported variability is founded on true interindividual variability or experimental variability resulting from sample preparation or the proteomic methodology used. To assess the potential for methodological bias on end-point abundance quantification, two independent laboratories, the University of Manchester (UoM) and Bertin Pharma (BPh), employing different proteomic workflows, quantified the absolute abundances of Na/K-ATPase, P-gp, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the same set of biologic samples from human intestinal and Caco-2 cell membranes. Across all samples, P-gp abundances were significantly correlated (P = 0.04, Rs = 0.72) with a 2.4-fold higher abundance (P = 0.001) generated at UoM compared with BPh. There was a systematically higher BCRP abundance in Caco-2 cell samples quantified by BPh compared with UoM, but not in human intestinal samples. Consequently, a similar intestinal relative expression factor (REF), derived from distal jejunum and Caco-2 monolayer samples, between laboratories was found for P-gp. However, a 2-fold higher intestinal REF was generated by UoM (2.22) versus BPh (1.11). We demonstrate that differences in absolute protein abundance are evident between laboratories and they probably result from laboratory-specific methodologies relating to peptide choice. PMID:26631742

  5. Drug resistance induced by ouabain via the stimulation of MDR1 gene expression in human carcinomatous pulmonary cells.

    PubMed

    Brouillard, F; Tondelier, D; Edelman, A; Baudouin-Legros, M

    2001-02-15

    The inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase by cardiotonic drugs like ouabain deeply perturbs both the properties of the cell membrane and the ionic composition of the cytoplasm and hence alters fundamental cell reactions. These three types of reactions may be involved in the stimulation of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) gene expression and the synthesis of permeability glycoprotein [P-glycoprotein (P-gp)]. We have determined whether ouabain, which binds to an extracellular motif of the Na+/K+-ATPase, stimulates MDR-1 gene expression by measuring both mRNA and protein and whether the resulting P-gp extrudes hydrophobic compounds and causes resistance to antimitotic agents. The experiments were performed on Calu-3 cells, a human cell line from a pulmonary carcinoma. Northern blotting showed that treating the cells with submicromolar concentrations of ouabain stimulated MDR-1 gene expression within 24 h. The ouabain-induced stimulation of MDR-1 expression was not restricted to Calu-3 cells but also occurred in human carcinomatous colon (T-84 and HT-29) and hepatic (H7V3) cells. However, it is not ubiquitous because it was not found in HeLa cells. The stimulation was reproduced by other Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors and occurred via enhanced gene transcription, apparently due to the increased cytosolic calcium concentration. Ouabain also increased the membrane content of P-gp, as detected by immunoblotting and immunohistology. We have developed a microvideo assay based on the properties of acetoxymethyl ester calcein and calcein to show that this P-gp extruded the hydrophobic acetoxymethyl ester calcein. Ouabain also caused the Calu-3 cells to become resistant to doxorubicin and vinblastine. Thus, although ouabain acts extracellularly, it may stimulate MDR-1 gene expression and P-gp synthesis and make cells resistant to hydrophobic cytotoxic compounds. PMID:11245485

  6. Predictable tuning of protein expression in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Mads T; Pedersen, Margit; Klausen, Michael S; Jensen, Sheila I; Wulff, Tune; Harrison, Scott; Nielsen, Alex T; Herrgrd, Markus J; Sommer, Morten O A

    2016-03-01

    We comprehensively assessed the contribution of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence to protein expression and used the data to develop EMOPEC (Empirical Model and Oligos for Protein Expression Changes; http://emopec.biosustain.dtu.dk). EMOPEC is a free tool that makes it possible to modulate the expression level of any Escherichia coli gene by changing only a few bases. Measured protein levels for 91% of our designed sequences were within twofold of the desired target level. PMID:26752768

  7. Comb-like amphiphilic polypeptide-based copolymer nanomicelles for co-delivery of doxorubicin and P-gp siRNA into MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Suo, Aili; Qian, Junmin; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Rongrong; Xu, Weijun; Wang, Hejing

    2016-05-01

    A comb-like amphiphilic copolymer methoxypolyethylene glycol-graft-poly(l-lysine)-block-poly(l-phenylalanine) (mPEG-g-PLL-b-Phe) was successfully synthesized. To synthesize mPEG-g-PLL-b-Phe, diblock copolymer PLL-b-Phe was first synthesized by successive ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides followed by the removal of benzyloxycarbonyl protecting groups, and then mPEG was grafted onto PLL-b-Phe by reductive amination via Schiff's base formation. The chemical structures of the copolymers were identified by (1)H NMR. mPEG-g-PLL-b-Phe copolymer had a critical micelle concentration of 6.0mg/L and could self-assemble in an aqueous solution into multicompartment nanomicelles with a mean diameter of approximately 78nm. The nanomicelles could encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) through hydrophobic and π-π stacking interactions between DOX molecules and Phe blocks and simultaneously complex P-gp siRNA with cationic PLL blocks via electrostatic interactions. The DOX/P-gp siRNA-loaded nanomicelles showed spherical morphology, possessed narrow particle size distribution and had a mean particle size of 120nm. The DOX/P-gp siRNA-loaded nanomicelles exhibited pH-responsive release behaviors and displayed accelerated release under acidic conditions. The DOX/P-gp siRNA-loaded nanomicelles were efficiently internalized into MCF-7 cells, and DOX released could successfully reach nuclei. In vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the DOX/P-gp siRNA-loaded nanomicelles showed a much higher cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells than DOX-loaded nanomicelles due to their synergistic killing effect and that the blank nanomicelles had good biocompatibility. Thus, the novel comb-like mPEG-g-PLL-b-Phe nanomicelles could be a promising vehicle for co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drug and genetic material. PMID:26952460

  8. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  9. Expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingzuo; Anumanthan, Anukanth; Gao, Xiu-Gong; Ilangovan, Kuppusamy; Suzara, Vincent V; Dzgne?, Nejat; Renugopalakrishnan, V

    2007-08-01

    Pichia pastoris has been used extensively and successfully to express recombinant proteins. In this review, we summarize the elements required for expressing heterologous proteins, and discuss various factors in applying this system for protein expression. These elements include vectors, host strains, heterologous gene integration into the genome, secretion factors, and the glycosylation profile. In particular, we discuss and evaluate the recent progress in optimizing the fermentation process to improve the yield and stability of expressed proteins. Optimization can be achieved by controlling the medium composition, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen, as well as by methanol induction and feed mode. PMID:18025573

  10. Expression of P-glycoprotein in HeLa cells confers resistance to ceramide cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jacqueline V; Gouaz-Andersson, Valrie; Cabot, Myles C

    2010-12-01

    The role of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) in regulating ceramide-induced apoptosis has been widely studied. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in regulating ceramide cytotoxicity by using C6-ceramide. To accomplish this, we employed HeLa cells with conditional expression of the multidrug resistance gene 1/P-gp. HeLa cells expressing P-gp (P-gp/on cells) challenged with [14C]C6-ceramide (6 M), synthesized 4.5-fold the amount of C6-glucosylceramide (GC) compared to HeLa cells with suppressed expression of P-gp (P-gp/off cells), whereas the generated levels of C6-sphingomyelin were almost equal (33 and 29% of intracellular 14C, respectively). Tamoxifen, a P-gp antagonist, decreased the C6-GC levels from 3.5-1.0% in the P-gp/off and from 17-2.8% of the total lipid 14C levels in the P-gp/on cells. Tamoxifen did not inhibit cell-free C6-GC synthesis in the P-gp/off or P-gp/on homogenates. However, a specific GCS inhibitor, ethylenedioxy-1-phenyl-2-hexadecanoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol (ethylenedioxy-P4), blocked synthesis by 90%. In the cytotoxicity assays, the P-gp/off cells were sensitive to C6-ceramide and the P-gp/on cells were resistant. Resistance to C6-ceramide in the P-gp/on cells was reversed by tamoxifen but not by ethylenedioxy-P4. Experiments in another cervical cancer model showed that multidrug-resistant P-gp-rich KB-V1 cells synthesized 3-fold more C6-GC from C6-ceramide than the parental, P-gp-poor KB-3-1 cells, and whereas tamoxifen had no effect on the C6-GC synthesis in the KB-3-1 cells, it inhibited synthesis by 70% in the KB-V1 cells. This study demonstrates that P-gp potentiates C6-ceramide glycosylation and if antagonized augments C6-ceramide sensitivity, both features previously ascribed to GCS. We propose that P-gp can be an effective target for enhancing short-chain ceramide cytotoxicity in the treatment of drug-resistant cancer. PMID:21042729

  11. Using the BacMam Baculovirus System to Study Expression and Function of Recombinant Efflux Drug Transporters in Polarized Epithelial Cell Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Fung, King Leung; Kapoor, Khyati; Pixley, Jessica N; Talbert, Darrell J; Kwit, Alexandra D T; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Gottesman, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily includes several membrane-bound proteins that are critical to drug pharmacokinetics and disposition. Pharmacologic evaluation of these proteins in vitro remains a challenge. In this study, human ABC transporters were expressed in polarized epithelial cell monolayers transduced using the BacMam baculovirus gene transfer system. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of BacMam baculovirus to transduce cells grown in monolayers. In a porcine kidney cell line, LLC-PK1 cells, baculoviral transduction is successful only via the apical side of a polarized monolayer. We observed that recombinant ABC transporters were expressed on the cell surface with post-translational modification. Furthermore, sodium butyrate played a critical role in recombinant protein expression, and preincubation in the presence of tunicamycin or thapsigargin enhanced protein expression. Cells overexpressing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) showed vectorial basolateral-to-apical transport of [(3)H]-paclitaxel, which could be reversed by the inhibitor tariquidar. Similarly, coexpression of human P-gp and ABCG2 in LLC-PK1 cells resulted in higher transport of mitoxantrone, which is a substrate for both transporters, than in either P-gp- or ABCG2-expressing cells alone. Taken together, our results indicate that a high level of expression of efflux transporters in a polarized cell monolayer is technically feasible with the BacMam baculovirus system. PMID:26622052

  12. Coevolution of gene expression among interacting proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Wall, Dennis P.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-03-01

    Physically interacting proteins or parts of proteins are expected to evolve in a coordinated manner that preserves proper interactions. Such coevolution at the amino acid-sequence level is well documented and has been used to predict interacting proteins, domains, and amino acids. Interacting proteins are also often precisely coexpressed with one another, presumably to maintain proper stoichiometry among interacting components. Here, we show that the expression levels of physically interacting proteins coevolve. We estimate average expression levels of genes from four closely related fungi of the genus Saccharomyces using the codon adaptation index and show that expression levels of interacting proteins exhibit coordinated changes in these different species. We find that this coevolution of expression is a more powerful predictor of physical interaction than is coevolution of amino acid sequence. These results demonstrate previously uncharacterized coevolution of gene expression, adding a different dimension to the study of the coevolution of interacting proteins and underscoring the importance of maintaining coexpression of interacting proteins over evolutionary time. Our results also suggest that expression coevolution can be used for computational prediction of protein protein interactions.

  13. Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) inhibition by tariquidar impacts on neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress.

    PubMed

    Thoeringer, Christoph K; Wultsch, Thomas; Shahbazian, Anaid; Painsipp, Evelin; Holzer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) is a major gate-keeper at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the central nervous system from accumulation of toxic xenobiotics and drugs. In addition, MDR1 p-gp has been found to control the intracerebral access of glucocorticoid hormones and thus to modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. In view of the implication of glucocorticoids in the control of behavior, we examined how acute pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB by tariquidar (XR9576; 12 mg/kg, PO) impacts the neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress in C57BL/6JIcoHim inbred mice. Inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB did not alter emotional behavior at baseline. However, mice that were sensitized by water-avoidance stress, a mild psychological stressor, displayed significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze test when treated with tariquidar. Tariquidar, however, had no effect on stress-coping performance assessed in the forced swim test. Investigating the impact of acute MDR1 p-gp inhibition on the glucocorticoid system, we observed a significant attenuation of the mild stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone after tariquidar administration. In order to examine whether the anti-anxiety effect of tariquidar in sensitized animals is mediated by glucocorticoids, the animals were treated with corticosterone (1mg/kg, SC) immediately after exposure to water-avoidance stress. Corticosterone caused a significant anxiolytic-like effect in this stress-related anxiety protocol, whereas tariquidar could not further enhance corticosterone's anti-anxiety effects. The current data show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the murine BBB by tariquidar alters emotional behavior and HPA axis activity. By facilitating the entry of corticosterone into the brain, tariquidar enhances feedback inhibition of the HPA system and in this way improves anxiety-related stress processing. These findings highlight a novel approach to the treatment of stress-related affective disorders in humans. PMID:17881135

  14. Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) inhibition by tariquidar impacts on neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress

    PubMed Central

    Thoeringer, Christoph K.; Wultsch, Thomas; Shahbazian, Anaid; Painsipp, Evelin; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) is a major gate-keeper at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the central nervous system from accumulation of toxic xenobiotics and drugs. In addition, MDR1 p-gp has been found to control the intracerebral access of glucocorticoid hormones and thus to modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. In view of the implication of glucocorticoids in the control of behavior, we examined how acute pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB by tariquidar (XR9576; 12 mg/kg, PO) impacts on the neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress in C57BL/6JIcoHim inbred mice. Inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB did not alter emotional behavior at baseline. However, mice that were sensitized by water-avoidance stress, a mild psychological stressor, displayed significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze test when treated with tariquidar. Tariquidar, however, had no effect on stress-coping performance assessed in the forced swim test. Investigating the impact of acute MDR1 p-gp inhibition on the glucocorticoid system, we observed a significant attenuation of the mild stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone after tariquidar administration. In order to examine whether the anti-anxiety effect of tariquidar in sensitized animals is mediated by glucocorticoids, the animals were treated with corticosterone (1 mg/kg, SC immediately after exposure to water-avoidance stress. Corticosterone caused a significant anxiolytic-like effect in this stress-related anxiety protocol, whereas tariquidar could not further enhance corticosterones anti-anxiety effects. The current data show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the murine BBB by tariquidar alters emotional behavior and HPA axis activity. By facilitating the entry of corticosterone into the brain, tariquidar enhances feedback inhibition of the HPA system and in this way improves anxiety-related stress processing. These findings highlight a novel approach to the treatment of stress-related affective disorders in humans. PMID:17881135

  15. Gene expression. MicroRNA control of protein expression noise.

    PubMed

    Schmiedel, Jrn M; Klemm, Sandy L; Zheng, Yannan; Sahay, Apratim; Blthgen, Nils; Marks, Debora S; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repress the expression of many genes in metazoans by accelerating messenger RNA degradation and inhibiting translation, thereby reducing the level of protein. However, miRNAs only slightly reduce the mean expression of most targeted proteins, leading to speculation about their role in the variability, or noise, of protein expression. We used mathematical modeling and single-cell reporter assays to show that miRNAs, in conjunction with increased transcription, decrease protein expression noise for lowly expressed genes but increase noise for highly expressed genes. Genes that are regulated by multiple miRNAs show more-pronounced noise reduction. We estimate that hundreds of (lowly expressed) genes in mouse embryonic stem cells have reduced noise due to substantial miRNA regulation. Our findings suggest that miRNAs confer precision to protein expression and thus offer plausible explanations for the commonly observed combinatorial targeting of endogenous genes by multiple miRNAs, as well as the preferential targeting of lowly expressed genes. PMID:25838385

  16. Resveratrol Increases Anti-Proliferative Activity of Bestatin Through Downregulating P-Glycoprotein Expression Via Inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway in K562/ADR Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Changyuan; Jia, Yongming; Liu, Zhihao; Shu, Xiaohong; Liu, Kexin

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in the clinical therapy of hematological malignancies. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression results in reduction of intracellular drug concentration with a consequence that the cytotoxicity of anti-tumor drugs is decreased, which leads to MDR in K562/ADR cells. In this study, we found that resveratrol enhanced the anti-proliferative activity of bestatin in K562/ADR cells. Co-treatment with resveratrol, IC50 values of bestatin in K562/ADR cells significantly decreased and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 increased, which indicated that resveratrol potentiated bestatin-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol increased the intracellular concentration of bestatin through inhibiting P-gp function and downregulating P-gp expression at mRNA and protein levels, which increased anti-proliferative activity of bestatin in K562/ADR cells. Resveratrol decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR but did not affect the phosphorylations of JNK or ERK1/2. These results demonstrated that resveratrol could increase the anti-proliferative activity of bestatin through downregulating P-gp expression via suppressing the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1233-1239, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26460589

  17. Introduction to expression by fusion protein vectors.

    PubMed

    Riggs, P; La Vallie, E R; McCoy, J M

    2001-05-01

    This overview discusses issues involved with creating and manipulating vectors for expression of fusion proteins. The requirements for efficient translation include a promoter and a start codon, along with the fact that the mRNA encoding the protein to be expressed must contain a ribosome-binding site that is not blocked by mRNA secondary structure. The level of expression is also affected by codon preferences, and may be affected by the coding sequence in other ways that are not yet well understood. In virtually all cases, these problems can be solved by altering the sequence preceding the start codon, and/or by making changes in the 5' end of the coding sequence that do not change the protein sequence, taking advantage of the degeneracy of the genetic code. However, it is often quicker to solve these problems by making fusions between genes. In this approach the cloned gene is introduced into an expression vector 3' to a sequence (carrier sequence) coding for the amino terminus of a highly expressed protein (carrier protein). The carrier sequence provides the necessary signals for good expression, and the expressed fusion protein contains an N-terminal region encoded by the carrier. The carrier sequence can also code for an entire functional moiety or even for an entire protein that can be exploited in purifying the protein, either with antibodies or with an affinity purification specific for that carrier protein. Alternatively unique physical properties of the carrier protein (e.g., heat stability) can be exploited to allow selective purification of the fusion protein. Often, proteins fused to these carriers can be separated from the bulk of intracellular contaminants by taking advantage of special attributes. PMID:18265130

  18. [Effect of cryptotanshinone on imatinib sensitivity and P-glycoprotein expression of chronic myeloid leukemia cells].

    PubMed

    Ge, Yu-qing; Cheng, Ru-bin; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhen; Chen, Zhe

    2015-06-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CPT), a lipid soluble active compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza, has a significant inhibitory effect on multiple malignant tumors, e. g. chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and can effectively enhance imatinib's chemotherapeutic effect. However, its functional molecular mechanism remained unclear. In this experiment, the authors conducted a systematic study on the effect of CPT on the imatinib sensitivity and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in CML cells by using CML cells K562 and imatinib persister K562-R. The MTT assays were performed to determine CPT's impact on the inhibitory effect of imatinib. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining analysis was used to detect the changes in the cell apoptosis rate. The active changes in apoptosis regulatory proteins Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and PARP were determined by Western blot. After the cells were pretreated with the gradient concentration of CPT, the expression of P-gp was analyzed by Western blot and flow cytometry. The changes in intracellular concentrations of imatinib were determined by HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the pretreatment with CPT significantly increased the proliferation inhibiting and apoptosis inducing effects of imatinib on K562 and K562-R cells as well as the degradation product expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and PARP, with a significant difference with the control group (P < 0.01). However, CPT showed no impact on the P-gp expression in CML cells and the intracellular concentrations of imatinib. In summary, the findings suggested that CPT enhanced the sensitivity of CML cells to imatinib. Its mechanism is not dependent on the inhibition in P-gp expression and the increase in intracellular drug concentration. PMID:26591531

  19. Membrane protein expression: no cells required.

    PubMed

    Katzen, Federico; Peterson, Todd C; Kudlicki, Wieslaw

    2009-08-01

    Structural and functional studies of membrane proteins have been severely hampered by difficulties in producing sufficient quantities of properly folded protein products. It is well established that cell-based expression of membrane proteins is generally problematic and frequently results in low yield, cell toxicity, protein aggregation and misfolding. Owing to its inherent open nature, cell-free protein expression has become a highly promising tool for the fast and efficient production of these difficult-to-express proteins. Here we review the most recent advances in this field, underscoring the potentials and weaknesses of the newly developed approaches and place specific emphasis on the use of nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs or nanodiscs). PMID:19616329

  20. Protein Expression Regulation under Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christine; Silva, Gustavo Monteiro; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to affect both translation and protein turnover, but very few large scale studies describe protein expression under stress. We measure protein concentrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae over the course of 2 h in response to a mild oxidative stress induced by diamide, providing detailed time-resolved information for 815 proteins, with additional data for another ?1,100 proteins. For the majority of proteins, we discover major differences between the global transcript and protein response. Although mRNA levels often return to baseline 1 h after treatment, protein concentrations continue to change. Integrating our data with features of translation and protein degradation, we are able to predict expression patterns for 41% of the proteins in the core data set. Predictive features include, among others, targeting by RNA-binding proteins (Lhp1 and Khd1), RNA secondary structures, RNA half-life, and translation efficiency under unperturbed conditions and in response to oxidative reagents, but not chaperone binding. We are able to both describe general dynamics of protein concentration changes and suggest possible regulatory mechanisms for individual proteins. PMID:21933953

  1. Human-Mouse Chimeras with Normal Expression and Function Reveal That Major Domain Swapping Is Tolerated by P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Kristen M; Hall, Matthew D; Moen, Janna K; Chufan, Eduardo E; Fetsch, Patricia A; Shukla, Suneet; Gill, Deborah R; Hyde, Stephen C; Xia, Di; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Gottesman, Michael M

    2016-02-23

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a vital role in the transport of molecules across cell membranes and has been shown to interact with a panoply of functionally and structurally unrelated compounds. How human P-gp interacts with this large number of drugs has not been well understood, although structural flexibility has been implicated. To gain insight into this transporter's broad substrate specificity and to assess its ability to accommodate a variety of molecular and structural changes, we generated human-mouse P-gp chimeras by the exchange of homologous transmembrane and nucleotide-binding domains. High-level expression of these chimeras by BacMam- and baculovirus-mediated transduction in mammalian (HeLa) and insect cells, respectively, was achieved. There were no detectable differences between wild-type and chimeric P-gp in terms of cell surface expression, ability to efflux the P-gp substrates rhodamine 123, calcein-AM, and JC-1, or to be inhibited by the substrate cyclosporine A and the inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. Additionally, expression of chimeric P-gp was able to confer a paclitaxel-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells characteristic of P-gp-mediated drug resistance. P-gp ATPase assays and photo-cross-linking with [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin confirmed that transport and biochemical properties of P-gp chimeras were similar to those of wild-type P-gp, although differences in drug binding were detected when human and mouse transmembrane domains were combined. Overall, chimeras with one or two mouse P-gp domains were deemed functionally equivalent to human wild-type P-gp, demonstrating the ability of human P-gp to tolerate major structural changes. PMID:26820614

  2. Hyperammonemia enhances the function and expression of P-glycoprotein and Mrp2 at the blood-brain barrier through NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Mian; Sun, Binbin; Li, Ying; Xu, Ping; Liu, Can; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia is considered to be the main neurotoxin responsible for hepatic encephalopathy resulting from liver failure. Liver failure has been reported to alter expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate whether ammonia is involved in abnormalities of expression and activity of P-gp and Mrp2 at the BBB. Hyperammonemic rats were developed by an intraperitoneal injection of ammonium acetate (NH4 Ac, 4.5 mmol/kg). Results showed that Mrp2 function markedly increased in cortex and hippocampus of rats at 6 h following NH4 Ac administration. Significant increase in function of P-gp was observed in hippocampus of rats. Meanwhile, such alterations were in line with the increase in mRNA and protein levels of P-gp and Mrp2. Significant increase in levels of nuclear amount of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was also observed. Primarily cultured rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) were used for in vitro study. Data indicated that 24 h exposure to ammonia significantly increased function and expression of P-gp and Mrp2 in rBMECs, accompanied with activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, such alterations induced by ammonia were reversed by NF-κB inhibitor. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that hyperammonemia increases the function and expression of P-gp and Mrp2 at the BBB via activating NF-κB pathway. Hyperammonemia, a proverbial main factor responsible for neurocognitive disorder and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction resulting from liver failure, could increase the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) at the BBB both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the NF-κB activation stimulated by hyperammonemia may be the potential mechanism underlying such abnormalities induced by hyperammonemia. PMID:25200138

  3. Alterations in function and expression of ABC transporters at blood-brain barrier under diabetes and the clinical significances

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a systematic metabolic disease, which often develops a number of well-recognized vascular complications including brain complications which may partly result from the dysfunction of blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB is generally considered as a mechanism for protecting the brain from unwanted actions resulting from substances in the blood and maintaining brain homeostasis via monitoring the entry or efflux of compounds. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters including P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and breast cancer-related protein (BCRP), widely expressed in the luminal membrane of the microvessel endothelium and in the apical membrane of the choroids plexus epithelium, play important roles in the function of BBB. However, these transporters are easily altered by some diseases. The present article was focused on the alteration in expression and function of both P-GP and BCRP at BBB by diabetes and the clinical significances. PMID:25540622

  4. Changes in the Expression of miR-381 and miR-495 Are Inversely Associated with the Expression of the MDR1 Gene and Development of Multi-Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Ohms, Stephen J.; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qiao; Gong, Guangming; Hu, Yiqiao; Mao, Zhiyong; Shannon, M. Frances; Fan, Jun Y.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) frequently develops in cancer patients exposed to chemotherapeutic agents and is usually brought about by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which acts as a drug efflux pump to reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug(s). Thus, inhibiting P-gp expression might assist in overcoming MDR in cancer chemotherapy. MiRNAome profiling using next-generation sequencing identified differentially expressed microRNAs (miRs) between parental K562 cells and MDR K562 cells (K562/ADM) induced by adriamycin treatment. Two miRs, miR-381 and miR-495, that were strongly down-regulated in K562/ADM cells, are validated to target the 3-UTR of the MDR1 gene. These miRs are located within a miR cluster located at chromosome region 14q32.31, and all miRs in this cluster appear to be down-regulated in K562/ADM cells. Functional analysis indicated that restoring expression of miR-381 or miR-495 in K562/ADM cells was correlated with reduced expression of the MDR1 gene and its protein product, P-gp, and increased drug uptake by the cells. Thus, we have demonstrated that changing the levels of certain miR species modulates the MDR phenotype in leukemia cells, and propose further exploration of the use of miR-based therapies to overcome MDR. PMID:24303078

  5. Effect of excipients on breast cancer resistance protein substrate uptake activity.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Tetsuo; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Mariko; Takayama, Kozo; Benameur, Hassan; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2007-12-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) plays an important role in drug disposition. To examine whether some currently used excipients could inhibit its function, we measured the uptake of [(3)H]mitoxantrone in BCRP-, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)- or green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cells, in the presence or absence of 15 kinds of currently used excipients. Of 15 excipients, five (Cremophor EL, Tween 20, Span 20, Pluronic P85 and Brij 30) increased the uptake of [(3)H]mitoxantrone in BCRP-expressing cells. On the other hand, ten (Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH40, Tween 20, Tween 80, Span 20, Pluronic P85, vitamin E TPGS, Brij 30, Myrj 52 and Gelucire 44/14) significantly increased uptake in P-gp-expressing cells. No significant effects on intracellular ATP levels were observed following treatments with the excipients that inhibited BCRP function. Taken together, this study demonstrated that some excipients might be potent BCRP inhibitors, and there may be differences in the effects of excipients on the functions of BCRP and P-gp. PMID:17900739

  6. Transient Protein Expression by Agroinfiltration in Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Dent, Matthew; Hurtado, Jonathan; Stahnke, Jake; McNulty, Alyssa; Leuzinger, Kahlin; Lai, Huafang

    2016-01-01

    Current systems of recombinant protein production include bacterial, insect, and mammalian cell culture. However, these platforms are expensive to build and operate at commercial scales and/or have limited abilities to produce complex proteins. In recent years, plant-based expression systems have become top candidates for the production of recombinant proteins as they are highly scalable, robust, safe, and can produce complex proteins due to having a eukaryotic endomembrane system. Newly developed "deconstructed" viral vectors delivered via Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration) have enabled robust plant-based production of proteins with a wide range of applications. The leafy Lactuca sativa (lettuce) plant with its strong foundation in agriculture is an excellent host for pharmaceutical protein production. Here, we describe a method for agroinfiltration of lettuce that can rapidly produce high levels of recombinant proteins in a matter of days and has the potential to be scaled up to an agricultural level. PMID:26614281

  7. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  8. Proteomics for Protein Expression Profiling in Neuroscience*

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Willard M.; Hemby, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    As the technology of proteomics moves from a theoretical approach to a practical reality, neuroscientists will have to determine the most appropriate applications for this technology. Neuroscientists will have to surmount difficulties particular to their research, such as limited sample amounts, heterogeneous cellular compositions in samples, and the fact that many proteins of interest are rare, hydrophobic proteins. This review examines protein isolation and protein fractionation and separation using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry proteomic methods. Methods for quantifying relative protein expression between samples (e.g., 2-DIGE, and ICAT) are also described. The coverage of the proteome, ability to detect membrane proteins, resource requirements, and quantitative reliability of different approaches is also discussed. Although there are many challenges in proteomic neuroscience, this field promises many rewards in the future. PMID:15176464

  9. Occludin immunolocalization and protein expression in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2008-05-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an integral component of models illustrating ion transport mechanisms across fish epithelia; however, little is known about TJ proteins in fishes. Using immunohistochemical methods and Western blot analysis, we examined the localization and expression of occludin, a transmembrane TJ protein, in goldfish tissues. In goldfish gills, discontinuous occludin immunostaining was detected along the edges of secondary gill lamellae and within parts of the interlamellar region that line the lateral walls of the central venous sinus. In the goldfish intestine, occludin immunolocalized in a TJ-specific distribution pattern to apical regions of columnar epithelial cells lining the intestinal lumen. In the goldfish kidney, occludin was differentially expressed in discrete regions of the nephron. Occludin immunostaining was strongest in the distal segment of the nephron, moderate in the collecting duct and absent in the proximal segment. To investigate a potential role for occludin in the maintenance of the hydromineral balance of fishes, we subjected goldfish to 1, 2 and 4 weeks of food deprivation, and then examined the endpoints of hydromineral status, Na+,K+-ATPase activity and occludin protein expression in the gills, intestine and kidney. Occludin expression altered in response to hydromineral imbalance in a tissue-specific manner suggesting a dynamic role for this TJ protein in the regulation of epithelial permeability in fishes. PMID:18456879

  10. Cultured CD4T cells and primary human lymphocytes express hOATPs: intracellular accumulation of saquinavir and lopinavir

    PubMed Central

    Janneh, O; Hartkoorn, R C; Jones, E; Owen, A; Ward, S A; Davey, R; Back, D J; Khoo, S H

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Drug efflux tranporters (P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)) limit the cellular uptake of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors but the contribution of influx transporters in cells that (over)express P-gp or MRP is less clear. Here, we studied the expression of one influx transporter system, human organic anion-transporting polypeptide (hOATP), in some T-cell lines (CEM, CEMVBL, CEME1000) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and examined the effects of manipulation of influx/efflux transporters on the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir. Experimental approach: The expression of hOATPs was studied by PCR. We used hOATP substrate or inhibitor (estrone-3-sulphate (E-3-S) or montelukast, respectively) and inhibitors of P-gp (XR9576) and MRP (MK571 and frusemide) to study functional interactions between influx and efflux transporters in the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir. Lipophilicity of the drugs was measured by octanol/saline partition coefficient. Key results: CEM cells, their variants and PBMCs express various hOATP isoforms, with OATP3A1 detected in all of the cells. MK571, XR9576 and frusemide increased the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir. E-3-S and montelukast reduced the uptake of saquinavir and lopinavir in some, but not all, of the cells. Pretreatment of the cells with MK571, XR9576 or frusemide, followed by E-3-S co-incubation reduced the cellular accumulation of saquinavir and lopinavir. Lopinavir is much more lipophilic than saquinavir. Conclusions and implications: Human OATPs, MRP, P-gp and lipophilicity determine the cellular uptake and retention of saquinavir and lopinavir. These data may have important implications for drugdrug interactions, drug safety and efficacy. PMID:19002102

  11. Expression, purification, and crystallisationof membrane proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Bernadette

    Approximately, 29,000 protein structures are deposited in the Protein Databank (January 2005), but only about 90 of which are independent membrane protein structures. This represents a significant increase in knowledge compared with a matter of only 5 years ago when a mere handful of membrane protein structures were available. Despite the advances, our understanding of the structure-function relationships and mechanism of action of many membrane proteins is still lacking. This is particularly true of many of the more clinically relevant membrane proteins, such as the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The GPCRs regulate cellular responses to a wide range of biologically active molecules including hormones and drugs and are thus important targets for therapeutic intervention in a number of disease states. However, the increasing number of membrane protein structures has provided a critical mass of information which has yielded a more rational approach to the process of obtaining diffraction quality crystals. It is the different stages of this process; expression, solubilisation, purification, and crystallisation that will be covered in this lecture.

  12. Engineering Genes for Predictable Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Claes; Minshull, Jeremy; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Ness, Jon; Villalobos, Alan; Welch, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The DNA sequence used to encode a polypeptide can have dramatic effects on its expression. Lack of readily available tools has until recently inhibited meaningful experimental investigation of this phenomenon. Advances in synthetic biology and the application of modern engineering approaches now provide the tools for systematic analysis of the sequence variables affecting heterologous expression of recombinant proteins. We here discuss how these new tools are being applied and how they circumvent the constraints of previous approaches, highlighting some of the surprising and promising results emerging from the developing field of gene engineering. PMID:22425659

  13. Expression Differentiation Is Constrained to Low-Expression Proteins over Ecological Timescales.

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; Wray, Kenneth P; Seavy, Margaret; McGivern, James J; Herrera, Nathanael D; Rokyta, Darin R

    2016-01-01

    Protein expression level is one of the strongest predictors of protein sequence evolutionary rate, with high-expression protein sequences evolving at slower rates than low-expression protein sequences largely because of constraints on protein folding and function. Expression evolutionary rates also have been shown to be negatively correlated with expression level across human and mouse orthologs over relatively long divergence times (i.e., ?100 million years). Long-term evolutionary patterns, however, often cannot be extrapolated to microevolutionary processes (and vice versa), and whether this relationship holds for traits evolving under directional selection within a single species over ecological timescales (i.e., <5000 years) is unknown and not necessarily expected. Expression is a metabolically costly process, and the expression level of a particular protein is predicted to be a tradeoff between the benefit of its function and the costs of its expression. Selection should drive the expression level of all proteins close to values that maximize fitness, particularly for high-expression proteins because of the increased energetic cost of production. Therefore, stabilizing selection may reduce the amount of standing expression variation for high-expression proteins, and in combination with physiological constraints that may place an upper bound on the range of beneficial expression variation, these constraints could severely limit the availability of beneficial expression variants. To determine whether rapid-expression evolution was restricted to low-expression proteins owing to these constraints on highly expressed proteins over ecological timescales, we compared venom protein expression levels across mainland and island populations for three species of pit vipers. We detected significant differentiation in protein expression levels in two of the three species and found that rapid-expression differentiation was restricted to low-expression proteins. Our results suggest that various constraints on high-expression proteins reduce the availability of beneficial expression variants relative to low-expression proteins, enabling low-expression proteins to evolve and potentially lead to more rapid adaptation. PMID:26546003

  14. P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, Organic Anion Transporter 3, and Transporting Peptide 1a4 during blood-brain barrier maturation: involvement of Wnt/?-catenin and endothelin-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Harati, Rania; Benech, Henri; Villgier, Anne Sophie; Mabondzo, Alose

    2013-05-01

    Our current knowledge about drug transporters in the maturational brain is very limited. In this study, we provide a comprehensive overview of the expression and activity profile of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (bcrp), Organic Anion Transporter 3 (oat3), and Transporting Peptide 1a4 (oatp1a4) transporters during blood-brain barrier (BBB) maturation. Gene and protein expressions of the analyzed transporters increase as the brain matures, with no variation in their activity for P-gp and bcrp, while the transport activity of oat3 and oatp1a4 increases during brain maturation from preterm up to adulthood. For the first time, we illustrate a downregulation of nuclear ?-catenin expression in brain capillaries when bcrp, P-gp, oat3, and oatp1a4 transporters are at their highest expression levels. In vivo activation of ?-catenin in rat brains, by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of a GSK-3 inhibitor, enhances the activity of P-gp, bcrp, oat3, and oatp1a4. Interestingly, in an in vitro BBB model consisting of a coculture of primary endothelial brain cells with astrocytes or in vivo, activation of ?-catenin enhances the mRNA expression of ET-1. Interestingly, blocking the ETA receptor for endothelin-1 in vivo by ICV injection of a ETA antagonist decreases transporter activity mediated by the activation of ?-catenin. These findings shed light on the role of an interaction between ?-catenin and endothelin-1 signaling in the regulation of these transporters at the BBB. PMID:22998451

  15. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  16. Tumor endothelial expression of P-glycoprotein upon microvesicular transfer of TrpC5 derived from adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, YePing; Pan, QiongXi; Jiang, Li; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, FangFang; Liu, YanJun; Xing, Hui; Shi, Mei; Li, Jiao; Li, XiYuan; Zhu, YaoDan; Chen, Yun; Bruce, Iain C.; Jin, Jian Ma, Xin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TrpC5 was mainly accumulated in microvesicles of drug-resistant MCF-7/ADM cells. • Microvesicles from MCF-7/ADM transferred TrpC5 to endothelial cells. • TrpC5 inhibition reduced P-glycoprotein accumulation on tumor blood vessels in vivo. - Abstract: Treatment of carcinoma commonly fails due to chemoresistance. Studies have shown that endothelial cells acquire resistance via the tumor microenvironment. Microvesicle (MV) shedding from the cell membrane to the microenvironment plays an important role in communication between cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MCF-7 adriamycin-resistant cells (MCF-7/ADM) shed MVs that alter the characteristics of human microvessel endothelial cells (HMECs). MVs from tumor cells transferred a Ca{sup 2+}-permeable channel TrpC5 to HMECs, inducing the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by activation of the transcription factor NFATc3 (nuclear factor of activated T cells isoform c3). Expression of the mdr1 gene was blocked by the TrpC5-blocking antibody T5E3, and the production of P-gp in HMECs was reduced by blockade of TrpC5. Thus, we postulate that endothelial cells acquire the resistant protein upon exposure to TrpC5-containg MVs in the microenvironment, and express P-gp in the TrpC5–NFATc3 signal pathway.

  17. Selenate specifically sensitizes drug-resistant cancer cells by increasing apoptosis via G2 phase cell cycle arrest without P-GP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ae-Ran; Jee Jo, Min; Jung, Myung-Ji; Sik Kim, Hyung; Yoon, Sungpil

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify conditions that will increase the sensitivity of drug-resistant cancer cells. Selenium derivatives have been shown to present anti-cancer properties in the clinic. Currently, selenate, selenite, selenomethionine (SeMet), methyl-selenocysteine (MSC), and methaneselenic acid (MSA) are the most common selenium derivatives used as drugs in humans. Herein, we tested whether these selenium derivatives can sensitize KBV20C cancer cells, which are highly resistant to anti-cancer drugs such as vincristine. All five drugs could sensitize KBV20C cells to the same extent as they sensitized the sensitive parent KB cells, suggesting that selenium-derived drugs can be used for drug-resistant cancer cells. We also observed that these drugs did not inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pumping-out ability, suggesting that the sensitization by selenium-derived drugs does not depend on P-gp activity in resistant KBV20C cells. Interestingly, using a cell viability assay, microscopic observation, and Hoechst staining, we found that selenate highly sensitized drug-resistant KBV20C cells by activating the apoptotic pathway, when compared to sensitive KB cells. Furthermore, we investigated why selenate sensitizes resistant KBV20C cells. Selenate-induced toxicity was associated with an increase in G2-phase cell cycle arrest in KBV20C cells, suggesting that the selenate-induced increase in apoptosis resulted from cell cycle arrest in resistant KBV20C cells. Our findings may contribute to the development of selenate-based therapies for patients resistant to cancer drugs. PMID:26134503

  18. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation. PMID:26734569

  19. Expression of proteins with dimethylarginines in Escherichia coli for proteinprotein interaction studies

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsilin; Huang, San-Yuan; Wu, Yu-Ching; Liu, Li-Fan; Han, Chau-Chung; Liu, Yi-Chen; Tam, Ming F.

    2007-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation often modulates proteinprotein interactions. To isolate a sufficient quantity of proteins enriched in methyl arginine(s) from natural sources for biochemical studies is laborious and difficult. We describe here an expression system that produces recombinant proteins that are enriched in ?-NG,NG-asymmetry dimethylarginines. A yeast type I arginine methyltransferase gene (HMT1) is put on a plasmid under the control of the Escherichia coli methionine aminopeptidase promoter for constitutive expression. The protein targeted for post-translational modification is put on the same plasmid behind a T7 promoter for inducible expression of His6-tagged proteins. Sbp1p and Stm1p were used as model proteins to examine this expression system. The 13 arginines within the arginine-glycine-rich motif of Sbp1p and the RGG sequence near the C terminus of Stm1p were methylated. Unexpectedly, the arginine residue on the thrombin cleavage site (LVPRGS) of the fusion proteins can also be methylated by Hmt1p. Sbp1p and Sbp1p/hmt1 were covalently attached to solid supports for the isolation of interacting proteins. The results indicate that arginine methylation on Sbp1p exerts both positive and negative effects on proteinprotein interaction. PMID:17456744

  20. Expression of Contractile Protein Isoforms in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Page A. W.

    1996-01-01

    The general objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of space flight parameters, including microgravity, on ontogenesis and embryogenesis of Japanese quail. Nine U.S. and two Russian investigators are cooperating in this study. Specific objectives of the participating scientists include assessing the gross and microscopic morphological and histological development of the embryo, as well as the temporal and spacial development of specific cells, tissues, and organs. Temporally regulated production of specific proteins is also being investigated. Our objective is to determine the effects of microgravity on developmentally programmed expression of Troponin T and I isoforms known to regulate cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction.

  1. Biochemical interaction of anti-HCV telaprevir with the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/ABCB1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2 are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of various substrate drugs. Their activities affect sub-therapeutic drug concentrations and excretion of natural transporter substrates. The new oral anti-HCV drug telaprevir has dramatically improved the efficacy of hepatitis-C virus (HCV) treatment, and recent studies have suggested a possible pharmacological interaction between telaprevir and P-gp. We studied the kinetics of in vitro interactions between telaprevir and P-gp and BCRP to understand the molecular basis of that interaction. Findings The effect of telaprevir on P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport was evaluated by an in vitro vesicle transporter assay using different transport substrates, and the kinetics of transporter inhibition was determined. The results showed that telaprevir could inhibit P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport in the in vitro vesicle transport assay, with each IC50 values of ≈ 7 μmol/L and ≈ 30 μmol/L, respectively. Analyses of Lineweaver–Burk plots showed that telaprevir was likely to be a competitive inhibitor against P-gp and BCRP. Photoaffinity labeling experiments were employed to observe competitive inhibition by telaprevir using iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) as a binding substrate for P-gp and BCRP. These experiments revealed that telaprevir inhibited [125I]-IAAP-binding with P-gp and BCRP. Conclusion Telaprevir competitively inhibited P-gp and BCRP, and P-gp-mediated transport was more sensitive to telaprevir compared with BCRP-mediated transport. These data suggest that telaprevir represses the transporter functions of P-gp and BCRP via direct inhibition. PMID:24196382

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana SEPALLATA3 protein prokaryotic expression and purification.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Fu, A Y; Zhang, G C; Li, T J; Zhang, J H

    2015-01-01

    SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) can be attributed to E class gene of the ABCE model of floral organ development. In order to reveal how SEP3 proteins form polymers, and the relationship between the polymers and their biological functions, the experiments of Arabidopsis thaliana AtSEP3 protein soluble expression in vitro were performed to construct a vector of prokaryotic expression, and investigate induced expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The protein soluble expression was analyzed through the aspects of different protein domains, induction time, induction temperature, etc. Different structural domains and expression conditions were screened, and 0.1% IPTG inducing at 22 oC for 15 h was estimated as an optimal expression strategy. The nickel chelating resin was used to purify the protein in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and the results indicated that AtSEP3 protein was present in the form of tetramer. PMID:26025404

  3. Bioluminescence Assay for Detecting Cell Surface Membrane Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Mieko; Chiba, Tomoki; Li, Min

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We have developed a method to measure the amounts of cell surface-expressed membrane proteins with bioluminescence. Dinoflagellate luciferase was expressed on the surface of a mammalian cell as a chimeric fusion protein with a membrane protein of interest. Using a membrane-impermeable substrate to quantify the membrane-displayed luciferase, the expression of the membrane protein on the cell surface was determined. By inclusion of a quenching step for the luminescent activity of luciferase on the cell surface, we were able to monitor the membrane protein expression kinetics by measuring the luminescence recovery from the cell surface after quenching. The reported methods provide a convenient way to monitor the kinetics of expression and transport of membrane proteins to the cell surface. It is applicable to the high-throughput analysis of drugs or drug candidates concerning their effects on membrane protein expression. PMID:20836709

  4. Using the BacMam Baculovirus System to Study Expression and Function of Recombinant Efflux Drug Transporters in Polarized Epithelial Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Fung, King Leung; Kapoor, Khyati; Pixley, Jessica N.; Talbert, Darrell J.; Kwit, Alexandra D.T.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily includes several membrane-bound proteins that are critical to drug pharmacokinetics and disposition. Pharmacologic evaluation of these proteins in vitro remains a challenge. In this study, human ABC transporters were expressed in polarized epithelial cell monolayers transduced using the BacMam baculovirus gene transfer system. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of BacMam baculovirus to transduce cells grown in monolayers. In a porcine kidney cell line, LLC-PK1 cells, baculoviral transduction is successful only via the apical side of a polarized monolayer. We observed that recombinant ABC transporters were expressed on the cell surface with post-translational modification. Furthermore, sodium butyrate played a critical role in recombinant protein expression, and preincubation in the presence of tunicamycin or thapsigargin enhanced protein expression. Cells overexpressing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) showed vectorial basolateral-to-apical transport of [3H]-paclitaxel, which could be reversed by the inhibitor tariquidar. Similarly, coexpression of human P-gp and ABCG2 in LLC-PK1 cells resulted in higher transport of mitoxantrone, which is a substrate for both transporters, than in either P-gp– or ABCG2-expressing cells alone. Taken together, our results indicate that a high level of expression of efflux transporters in a polarized cell monolayer is technically feasible with the BacMam baculovirus system PMID:26622052

  5. Over-expression of secreted proteins from mammalian cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Annamarie C; Barton, William A

    2014-01-01

    Secreted mammalian proteins require the development of robust protein over-expression systems for crystallographic and biophysical studies of protein function. Due to complex disulfide bonds and distinct glycosylation patterns preventing folding and expression in prokaryotic expression hosts, many secreted proteins necessitate production in more complex eukaryotic expression systems. Here, we elaborate on the methods used to obtain high yields of purified secreted proteins from transiently or stably transfected mammalian cell lines. Among the issues discussed are the selection of appropriate expression vectors, choice of signal sequences for protein secretion, availability of fusion tags for enhancing protein stability and purification, choice of cell line, and the large-scale growth of cells in a variety of formats. PMID:24510886

  6. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P. (Cardiff, CA)

    2010-03-16

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery or proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  7. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in Chlamydomonas chloroplast

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-01-13

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery of proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  8. HeLa Based Cell Free Expression Systems for Expression of Plasmodium Rhoptry Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yadavalli, Raghavendra; Sam-Yellowe, Tobili

    2015-01-01

    Malaria causes significant global morbidity and mortality. No routine vaccine is currently available. One of the major reasons for lack of a vaccine is the challenge of identifying suitable vaccine candidates. Malarial proteins expressed using prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell based expression systems are poorly glycosylated, generally insoluble and undergo improper folding leading to reduced immunogenicity. The wheat germ, rabbit reticulocyte lysate and Escherichia coli lysate cell free expression systems are currently used for expression of malarial proteins. However, the length of expression time and improper glycosylation of proteins still remains a challenge. We demonstrate expression of Plasmodium proteins in vitro using HeLa based cell free expression systems, termed "in vitro human cell free expression systems". The 2 HeLa based cell free expression systems transcribe mRNA in 75 min and 3 l of transcribed mRNA is sufficient to translate proteins in 90 min. The 1-step expression system is a transcription and translation coupled expression system; the transcription and co-translation occurs in 3 hr. The process can also be extended for 6 hr by providing additional energy. In the 2-step expression system, mRNA is first transcribed and then added to the translation mix for protein expression. We describe how to express malaria proteins; a hydrophobic PF3D7_0114100 Maurer's Cleft - 2 transmembrane (PfMC-2TM) protein, a hydrophilic PF3D7_0925900 protein and an armadillo repeats containing protein PF3D7_1361800, using the HeLa based cell free expression system. The proteins are expressed in micro volumes employing 2-step and 1-step expression strategies. An affinity purification method to purify 25 l of proteins expressed using the in vitro human cell free expression system is also described. Protein yield is determined by Bradford's assay and the expressed and purified proteins can be confirmed by western blotting analysis. Expressed recombinant proteins can be used for immunizations, immunoassays and protein sequencing. PMID:26131624

  9. Efficient protein production method for NMR using soluble protein tags with cold shock expression vector.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kokoro; Kojima, Chojiro

    2010-11-01

    The E. coli protein expression system is one of the most useful methods employed for NMR sample preparation. However, the production of some recombinant proteins in E. coli is often hampered by difficulties such as low expression level and low solubility. To address these problems, a modified cold-shock expression system containing a glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag, the pCold-GST system, was investigated. The pCold-GST system successfully expressed 9 out of 10 proteins that otherwise could not be expressed using a conventional E. coli expression system. Here, we applied the pCold-GST system to 84 proteins and 78 proteins were successfully expressed in the soluble fraction. Three other cold-shock expression systems containing a maltose binding protein tag (pCold-MBP), protein G B1 domain tag (pCold-GB1) or thioredoxin tag (pCold-Trx) were also developed to improve the yield. Additionally, we show that a C-terminal proline tag, which is invisible in H-?N HSQC spectra, inhibits protein degradation and increases the final yield of unstable proteins. The purified proteins were amenable to NMR analyses. These data suggest that pCold expression systems combined with soluble protein tags can be utilized to improve the expression and purification of various proteins for NMR analysis. PMID:20844927

  10. Regulation of hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Simon; Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides constitute a major class of persistent and toxic organic pollutants, known to modulate drug-detoxifying enzymes. In the present study, OCs were demonstrated to also alter the activity and expression of human hepatic drug transporters. Activity of the sinusoidal influx transporter OCT1 (organic cation transporter 1) was thus inhibited by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, lindane, and dieldrine, but not by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers, whereas those of the canalicular efflux pumps MRP2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein) were blocked by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, and chlordecone; this latter OC additionally inhibited the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. OCs, except endosulfan, were next found to induce MDR1/P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expressions in hepatoma HepaRG cells; some of them also upregulated BCRP. By contrast, expression of sinusoidal transporters was not impaired (organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP2B1) or was downregulated (sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and OCT1). Such regulations of drug transporter activity and expression, depending on the respective nature of OCs and transporters, may contribute to the toxicity of OC pesticides. PMID:24464585

  11. Expression, Solubilization, and Purification of Bacterial Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Constance J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial integral membrane proteins play many important roles, including sensing changes in the environment, transporting molecules into and out of the cell, and in the case of commensal or pathogenic bacteria, interacting with the host organism. Working with membrane proteins in the lab can be more challenging than working with soluble proteins because of difficulties in their recombinant expression and purification. This protocol describes a standard method to express, solubilize, and purify bacterial integral membrane proteins. The recombinant protein of interest with a 6His affinity tag is expressed in E. coli. After harvesting the cultures and isolating cellular membranes, mild detergents are used to solubilize the membrane proteins. Protein-detergent complexes are then purified using IMAC column chromatography. Support protocols are included to help select a detergent for protein solubilization and for use of gel filtration chromatography for further purification. 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26836409

  12. Effects of protein maturation on the noise in gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guang Qiang; McMillen, David R.

    2008-02-01

    Fluorescent proteins are frequently used as reporters for gene expression in living cells, either by being expressed in tandem with a protein of interest or through the creation of fusion proteins. The data yielded by the fluorescence output are of considerable interest in efforts to formulate quantitative models of cellular behavior underway in fields such as systems biology and synthetic biology. An often neglected aspect of these proteins, however, is their maturation: Before a fluorescent protein can generate a fluorescent signal, it must mature through a series of steps (folding, cyclization, and oxidation) that may take from many minutes to over a day. The presence of these maturation steps creates a distinction between the observed gene expression profile and the actual profile. We examine this effect through a simplified gene expression model and conclude that fluorescent protein maturation can have significant effects on estimates of both the mean protein levels and the variability in gene expression. The model shows that in many regimes, the observed variability will be increased by the maturation process, but indicates the existence of regimes in which the observed variability will actually be less than the true variability of the target protein. The latter effect arises from a low-pass filtering effect introduced by the chain of maturation reactions. The results suggest that the maturation of fluorescent proteins should be taken into account when using such proteins as quantitative indicators of gene expression levels.

  13. Pannexin 2 protein expression is not restricted to the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Le Vasseur, Maxence; Lelowski, Jonathan; Bechberger, John F.; Sin, Wun-Chey; Naus, Christian C.

    2014-01-01

    Pannexins (Panx) are proteins homologous to the invertebrate gap junction proteins called innexins (Inx) and are traditionally described as transmembrane channels connecting the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Three distinct Panx paralogs (Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3) have been identified in vertebrates but previous reports on Panx expression and functionality focused primarily on Panx1 and Panx3 proteins. Several gene expression studies reported that Panx2 transcript is largely restricted to the central nervous system (CNS) hence suggesting that Panx2 might serve an important role in the CNS. However, the lack of suitable antibodies prevented the creation of a comprehensive map of Panx2 protein expression and Panx2 protein localization profile is currently mostly inferred from the distribution of its transcript. In this study, we characterized novel commercial monoclonal antibodies and surveyed Panx2 expression and distribution at the mRNA and protein level by real-time qPCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Panx2 protein levels were readily detected in every tissue examined, even when transcriptional analysis predicted very low Panx2 protein expression. Furthermore, our results indicate that Panx2 transcriptional activity is a poor predictor of Panx2 protein abundance and does not correlate with Panx2 protein levels. Despite showing disproportionately high transcript levels, the CNS expressed less Panx2 protein than any other tissues analyzed. Additionally, we showed that Panx2 protein does not localize at the plasma membrane like other gap junction proteins but remains confined within cytoplasmic compartments. Overall, our results demonstrate that the endogenous expression of Panx2 protein is not restricted to the CNS and is more ubiquitous than initially predicted. PMID:25505382

  14. A highly efficient pipeline for protein expression in Leishmania tarentolae using infrared fluorescence protein as marker

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leishmania tarentolae, a unicellular eukaryotic protozoan, has been established as a novel host for recombinant protein production in recent years. Current protocols for protein expression in Leishmania are, however, time consuming and require extensive lab work in order to identify well-expressing cell lines. Here we established an alternative protein expression work-flow that employs recently engineered infrared fluorescence protein (IFP) as a suitable and easy-to-handle reporter protein for recombinant protein expression in Leishmania. As model proteins we tested three proteins from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, including a NAC and a type-B ARR transcription factor. Results IFP and IFP fusion proteins were expressed in Leishmania and rapidly detected in cells by deconvolution microscopy and in culture by infrared imaging of 96-well microtiter plates using small cell culture volumes (2 ?L - 100 ?L). Motility, shape and growth of Leishmania cells were not impaired by intracellular accumulation of IFP. In-cell detection of IFP and IFP fusion proteins was straightforward already at the beginning of the expression pipeline and thus allowed early pre-selection of well-expressing Leishmania clones. Furthermore, IFP fusion proteins retained infrared fluorescence after electrophoresis in denaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gels, allowing direct in-gel detection without the need to disassemble cast protein gels. Thus, parameters for scaling up protein production and streamlining purification routes can be easily optimized when employing IFP as reporter. Conclusions Using IFP as biosensor we devised a protocol for rapid and convenient protein expression in Leishmania tarentolae. Our expression pipeline is superior to previously established methods in that it significantly reduces the hands-on-time and work load required for identifying well-expressing clones, refining protein production parameters and establishing purification protocols. The facile in-cell and in-gel detection tools built on IFP make Leishmania amenable for high-throughput expression of proteins from plant and animal sources. PMID:20459748

  15. Cell-free expression of G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Orbn, Erika; Proverbio, Davide; Haberstock, Stefan; Dtsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free expression has emerged as a new standard for the production of membrane proteins. The reduction of expression complexity in cell-free systems eliminates central bottlenecks and allows the reliable and efficient synthesis of many different types of membrane proteins. Furthermore, the open accessibility of cell-free reactions enables the co-translational solubilization of cell-free expressed membrane proteins in a large variety of supplied additives. Hydrophobic environments can therefore be adjusted according to the requirements of individual membrane protein targets. We present different approaches for the preparative scale cell-free production of G-protein-coupled receptors using the extracts of Escherichia coli cells. We exemplify expression conditions implementing detergents, nanodiscs, or liposomes. The generated protein samples could be directly used for further functional characterization. PMID:25502200

  16. Transforming Lepidopteran Insect Cells for Improved Protein Processing and Expression.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert L; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-01-01

    The lepidopteran insect cells used with the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) are capable of synthesizing and accurately processing foreign proteins. However, proteins expressed in baculovirus-infected cells often fail to be completely processed, or are not processed in a manner that meets a researcher's needs. This chapter discusses a metabolic engineering approach that addresses this problem. Basically, this approach involves the addition of new or enhancement of existing protein processing functions in established lepidopteran insect cell lines. In addition to improvements in protein processing, this approach has also been used to improve protein expression levels obtained with the BEVS. Methods for engineering cell lines and assessing their properties as improved hosts for the BEVS are detailed. Examples of lepidopteran insect cell lines engineered for improved protein N-glycosylation, folding/trafficking, and expression are described in detail. PMID:26820868

  17. Protein microarrays for gene expression and antibody screening.

    PubMed

    Lueking, A; Horn, M; Eickhoff, H; Bssow, K; Lehrach, H; Walter, G

    1999-05-15

    Proteins translate genomic sequence information into function, enabling biological processes. As a complementary approach to gene expression profiling on cDNA microarrays, we have developed a technique for high-throughput gene expression and antibody screening on chip-size protein microarrays. Using a picking/spotting robot equipped with a new transfer stamp, protein solutions were gridded onto polyvinylidene difluoride filters at high density. Specific purified protein was detected on the filters with high sensitivity (250 amol or 10 pg of a test protein). On a microarray made from bacterial lysates of 92 human cDNA clones expressed in a microtiter plate, putative protein expressors could be reliably identified. The rate of false-positive clones, expressing proteins in incorrect reading frames, was low. Product specificity of selected clones was confirmed on identical microarrays using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivities of some antibodies with unrelated proteins imply the use of protein microarrays for antibody specificity screening against whole libraries of proteins. Because this application would not be restricted to antigen-antibody systems, protein microarrays should provide a general resource for high-throughput screens of gene expression and receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:10328771

  18. Heterologous protein production using the Pichia pastoris expression system.

    PubMed

    Macauley-Patrick, Sue; Fazenda, Mariana L; McNeil, Brian; Harvey, Linda M

    2005-03-01

    The Pichia pastoris expression system is being used successfully for the production of various recombinant heterologous proteins. Recent developments with respect to the Pichia expression system have had an impact on not only the expression levels that can be achieved, but also the bioactivity of various heterologous proteins. We review here some of these recent developments, as well as strategies for reducing proteolytic degradation of the expressed recombinant protein at cultivation, cellular and protein levels. The problems associated with post-translational modifications performed on recombinant proteins by P. pastoris are discussed, including the effects on bioactivity and function of these proteins, and some engineering strategies for minimizing unwanted glycosylations. We pay particular attention to the importance of optimizing the physicochemical environment for efficient and maximal recombinant protein production in bioreactors and the role of process control in optimizing protein production is reviewed. Finally, future aspects of the use of the P. pastoris expression system are discussed with regard to the production of complex membrane proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors, and the industrial and clinical importance of these proteins. PMID:15704221

  19. Mechanism of the cis-[Pt(1R,2R-DACH)(H2O)2]2+ intrastrand binding to the double-stranded (pGpG)(CpC) dinucleotide in aqueous solution: a computational DFT study.

    PubMed

    Chval, Zden?k; Kabel?, Martin; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2013-05-20

    A mechanism of the intrastrand 1,2-cross-link formation between the double-stranded pGpGCpC dinucleotide (ds(pGpG)) and fully aquated oxaliplatin cis-[Pt(DACH)(H2O)2](2+) (DACH = cyclohexane-1R,2R-diamine) is presented. All structures of the reaction pathways including the transition states (TSs) were fully optimized in water solvent using DFT methodology with dispersion corrections. Both 5' ? 3' and 3' ? 5' binding directions were considered. In the first step there is a slight kinetic preference for 5'-guanine (5'G) monoadduct formation with an activation Gibbs free energy of 18.7 kcal/mol since the N7 center of the 5'G base is fully exposed to the solvent. On the other hand, the N7 atom of 3'-guanine (3'G) is sterically shielded by 5'G. The lowest energy path for formation of the 3'G monoadduct with an activation barrier of 19.3 kcal/mol is connected with a disruption of the 'DNA-like' structure of ds(pGpG). Monoadduct formation is the rate-determining process. The second step, chelate formation, is kinetically preferred in the 3' ? 5' direction. The whole process of the platination is exergonic by up to -18.8 kcal/mol. Structural changes of ds(pGpG), charge transfer effects, and the influence of platination on the GC base pair interaction strengths are also discussed in detail. PMID:23656523

  20. Protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after chronic clinorotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piastuch, W. C.; Brown, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Soluble protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh.) leaf and stem tissue was examined after chronic clinorotation. Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated and plants grown to maturity on horizontal or vertical slow-rotating clinostats (1 rpm) or in stationary vertical control units. Total soluble proteins and in vivo-labeled soluble proteins isolated from these plants were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS PAGE and subsequent fluorography. Visual and computer analysis of the resulting protein patterns showed no significant differences in either total protein expression or in active protein synthesis between horizontal clinorotation and vertical controls in the Arabidopsis leaf and stem tissue. These results show chronic clinorotation does not cause gross changes in protein expression in Arabidopsis.

  1. Protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after chronic clinorotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piastuch, William C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh.) leaf and stem tissue was examined after chronic clinorotation. Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated and plants grown to maturity on horizontal or vertical slow-rotating clinostats (1 rpm) or in stationary vertical control units. Total soluble proteins and in vivo-labeled soluble proteins isolated from these plants were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium doedocyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) and subsequent fluorography. Visual and computer analysis of the resulting protein patterns showed no significant differences in either total protein expression or in active protein synthesis between horizontal clinorotation and vertical controls in the Arabidopsis leaf and stem tissue. These results show chronic clinorotation does not cause gross changes in protein expression in Arabidopsis.

  2. Expression of heat shock protein genes in insect stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heat shock proteins (HSPs) that are abundantly expressed in insects are important modulators of insect survival. Expression of HSP genes in insects is not only developmentally regulated, but also induced by various stressors in order to confer protection against such stressors. The expression o...

  3. Evolution, diversification, and expression of KNOX proteins in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Yang, Xue; Zhao, Wei; Lang, Tiange; Samuelsson, Tore

    2015-01-01

    The KNOX (KNOTTED1-like homeobox) transcription factors play a pivotal role in leaf and meristem development. The majority of these proteins are characterized by the KNOX1, KNOX2, ELK, and homeobox domains whereas the proteins of the KNATM family contain only the KNOX domains. We carried out an extensive inventory of these proteins and here report on a total of 394 KNOX proteins from 48 species. The land plant proteins fall into two classes (I and II) as previously shown where the class I family seems to be most closely related to the green algae homologs. The KNATM proteins are restricted to Eudicots and some species have multiple paralogs of this protein. Certain plants are characterized by a significant increase in the number of KNOX paralogs; one example is Glycine max. Through the analysis of public gene expression data we show that the class II proteins of this plant have a relatively broad expression specificity as compared to class I proteins, consistent with previous studies of other plants. In G. max, class I protein are mainly distributed in axis tissues and KNATM paralogs are overall poorly expressed; highest expression is in the early plumular axis. Overall, analysis of gene expression in G. max demonstrates clearly that the expansion in gene number is associated with functional diversification. PMID:26557129

  4. Functional proteomics of circadian expressed proteins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Volker; Fiedler, Monika; Markert, Christine; Hippler, Michael; Mittag, Maria

    2004-02-13

    In this study, functional proteomics was successfully applied for the characterization of circadian expressed, basic proteins. For this purpose, we have chosen the green model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii since its entire nuclear genome is available and it is ideally suited for biochemical enrichment procedures. Proteins from cells harvested during subjective day and night were heparin affinity purified. They were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis suited for basic proteins and analyzed after tryptic digestion by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We can show for the first time that the expressions of a protein disulfide isomerase-like protein and a tetratricopeptide repeat protein change in a circadian manner. Interestingly, both proteins are known to be interaction partners in multiprotein complexes including RNA binding proteins. PMID:14960320

  5. Major cancer protein amplifies global gene expression

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists may have discovered why a protein called MYC can provoke a variety of cancers. Like many proteins associated with cancer, MYC helps regulate cell growth. A new study carried out by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and colleagues

  6. An efficient system for small protein expression and refolding

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    The low expression yield and poor refolding efficiency of small recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli have continued to hinder the large-scale purification of such proteins for structural and biological investigations. A system based on a small fusion partner, the B1 domain of Streptococcal protein G (GB1), was utilized to overcome this problem. We have tested this system on a small cysteine-rich toxin, mutant myotoxin ? (MyoP20G). The highly expressed fusion protein was refolded using an unfolding/refolding protocol. Due to the small size of GB1, we were able to monitor the unfolding/refolding status by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR spectroscopy. The final product yielded well-resolved NMR spectra, with a topology corresponding to the natural product. We conclude that GB1 not only increases the expression level but also enhances the refolding of small proteins. PMID:15063772

  7. Differential protein expression analysis following olfactory learning in Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Zhen; Yan, Wei-Yu; Wang, Zi-Long; Guo, Ya-Hui; Yi, Yao; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Studies of olfactory learning in honeybees have helped to elucidate the neurobiological basis of learning and memory. In this study, protein expression changes following olfactory learning in Apis cerana were investigated using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology. A total of 2406 proteins were identified from the trained and untrained groups. Among these proteins, 147 were differentially expressed, with 87 up-regulated and 60 down-regulated in the trained group compared with the untrained group. These results suggest that the differentially expressed proteins may be involved in the regulation of olfactory learning and memory in A. cerana. The iTRAQ data can provide information on the global protein expression patterns associated with olfactory learning, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory of honeybees. PMID:26427996

  8. Widening the bottleneck: increasing success in protein expression and purification

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Ralph; Esposito, Dominic; Gillette, William

    2010-01-01

    The number of variables at play in the expression and purification of a single protein dwarf those involved in sequencing a genome. Although certain trends are apparent, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to the process of purifying proteins. Thus, whereas numerous genome sequencing projects are providing an overwhelming number of interesting open reading frames for structural biologists to study, fully realizing the potential of this resource is still only a distant hope. We will discuss several current approaches to high throughput expression and purification as well as strategies that have served us well to quickly identify lead protein expression constructs in the context of a core service protein expression and purification laboratory. The use of the baculovirus expression vector system and implementation of a purification screening method will be emphasized. PMID:20650317

  9. Expression screening of membrane proteins with cell-free protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Linna; Enberg, Johan; Neutze, Richard; Gran Karlsson, B; Pedersen, Anders

    2012-03-01

    Detailed biophysical studies of integral membrane proteins are often hampered by sample preparation difficulties. Membrane proteins are typically difficult to express in sufficient amounts to enable the use of demanding techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography for structural biology. Here, we show that an inexpensive batch-based cell-free expression system can be a viable alternative for production of a wide range of different membrane proteins, both of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin. Out of 38 tested protein constructs, 37 express at levels suitable for structural biology, i.e. enough to produce several milligrams of protein routinely and without excessive costs. This success rate was not anticipated and is even more impressive considering that more than half of the expressed proteins where of mammalian origin. A detergent screen identified Brij-58 as the, in general, most successful choice for co-translational solubilization of the expressed proteins. PMID:22270086

  10. Rapid expression screening of eukaryotic membrane proteins in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Cory L; Morrison, Melissa; Joanne Lemieux, M

    2013-04-01

    The overexpression of milligram quantities of protein remains a key bottleneck in membrane protein structural biology. A challenge of particular difficulty has been the overproduction of eukaryotic membrane proteins. In order to cope with the frequently poor expression levels associated with these challenging proteins, it is often necessary to screen a large number of homologues to find a well expressing clone. To facilitate this process using the heterologous, eukaryotic expression host Pichia pastoris, we have developed a simple fluorescent induction plate-screening assay that allows for the rapid detection of well expressing clones of eukaryotic membrane proteins that have been fused to GFP. Using a eukaryotic membrane protein known to express well in P. pastoris (human aquaporin 4) and homologues of the ER associated membrane protein phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), we demonstrate that when a large number of clones are screened, a small number of highly expressing "jackpot" clones can be isolated. A jackpot PEMT clone resulted in 5 mg/L yield after purification. The method allows for the facile simultaneous screening of hundreds of clones providing an alternate to in-culture screening and will greatly accelerate the search for overexpressing eukaryotic membrane proteins. PMID:23339074

  11. Expression of foreign proteins in Escherichia coli by fusing with an archaeal FK506 binding protein.

    PubMed

    Ideno, A; Furutani, M; Iwabuchi, T; Iida, T; Iba, Y; Kurosawa, Y; Sakuraba, H; Ohshima, T; Kawarabayashi, Y; Maruyama, T

    2004-03-01

    Improper protein-folding often results in inclusion-body formation in a protein expression system using Escherichia coli. To express such proteins in the soluble fraction of E. coli cytoplasm, we developed an expression system by fusing the target protein with an archaeal FK506 binding protein (FKBP). It has been reported that an archaeal FKBP from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus sp. KS-1 (TcFKBP18), possesses not only peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, but also chaperone-like activity to enhance the refolding yield of an unfolded protein by suppressing irreversible protein aggregation. To study the effect of this fusion strategy with FKBP on the expression of foreign protein in E. coli, a putative rhodanese (thiosulfate sulfurtransferase) from a hyperthermophilic archaeon and two mouse antibody fragments were used as model target proteins. When they were expressed alone in E. coli, they formed insoluble aggregates. Their genes were designed to be expressed as a fusion protein by connecting them to the C-terminal end of TcFKBP18 with an oligopeptide containing a thrombin cleavage site. By fusing TcFKBP18, the expression of the target protein in the soluble fraction was significantly increased. The percentage of the soluble form in the expressed protein reached 10-28% of the host soluble proteins. After purification and protease digestion of the expressed antibody fragment-TcFKBP18 fusion protein, the cleaved antibody fragment (single-chain Fv) showed specific binding to the antigen in ELISA. This indicated that the expressed antibody fragment properly folded to the active form. PMID:14564491

  12. Comparative Protein Profiling of Intraphagosomal Expressed Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Sharma, Divakar; Bisht, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    BCG, the only available vaccine against tuberculosis affords a variable protection which wanes with time. In this study we have analyzed and compared the proteins which are expressed differentially during broth-culture and intraphagosomal growth of M.bovis BCG. Eight proteins which showed increased expression during the intraphagosomal growth were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS. These were - a precursor of alanine and proline-rich secreted protein apa, isoforms of malate dehydrogenase, large subunit alpha (Alpha-ETF) of electron transfer flavoprotein, immunogenic protein MPB64 precursor, UPF0036 protein, and two proteins with unknown function. Based on these findings we speculate that higher expression of these proteins has a probable role in intracellular survival, adaptation and/or immunoprotective effect of BCG. Further, these proteins might also be used as gene expression markers for endosome trafficking events of BCG. PMID:26548863

  13. Cellular and regional specific changes in multidrug efflux transporter expression during recovery of vasogenic edema in the rat hippocampus and piriform cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Jo; Kim, Ji-Eun; Choi, Hui-Chul; Song, Hong-Ki; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of drug efflux transporter expressions following status epilepticus (SE). In the hippocampus and piriform cortex (PC), vasogenic edema peaked 3-4 days after SE. The expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4), and p-glycoprotein (p-GP) were decreased 4 days after SE when vasogenic edema was peaked, but subsequently increased 4 weeks after SE. Multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1) expression gradually decreased in endothelial cells until 4 weeks after SE. These findings indicate that SE-induced vasogenic edema formation transiently reduced drug efflux pump expressions in endothelial cells. Subsequently, during recovery of vasogenic edema drug efflux pump expressions were differentially upregulated in astrocytes, neuropils, and endothelial cells. Therefore, we suggest that vasogenic edema formation may be a risk factor in pharmacoresistent epilepsy. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(6): 348-353] PMID:25388209

  14. Protein Production for Structural Genomics Using E. coli Expression

    PubMed Central

    Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Maltseva, Natalia; Li, Hui; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The goal of structural biology is to reveal details of the molecular structure of proteins in order to understand their function and mechanism. X-ray crystallography and NMR are the two best methods for atomic level structure determination. However, these methods require milligram quantities of proteins. In this chapter a reproducible methodology for large-scale protein production applicable to a diverse set of proteins is described. The approach is based on protein expression in E. coli as a fusion with a cleavable affinity tag that was tested on over 20,000 proteins. Specifically, a protocol for fermentation of large quantities of native proteins in disposable culture vessels is presented. A modified protocol that allows for the production of selenium-labeled proteins in defined media is also offered. Finally, a method for the purification of His6-tagged proteins on immobilized metal affinity chromatography columns that generates high-purity material is described in detail. PMID:24590711

  15. Transforming Lepidopteran Insect Cells for Continuous Recombinant Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert L; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-01-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely used to produce large quantities of recombinant proteins. However, the yields of extracellular and membrane-bound proteins obtained with this system are often very low, possibly due to the adverse effects of baculovirus infection on the host insect cell secretory pathway. An alternative approach to producing poorly expressed proteins is to transform lepidopteran insect cells with the gene of interest under the control of promoters that are constitutively active in uninfected cells, thereby making cell lines that continuously express recombinant protein. This chapter provides an overview of the methods and considerations for making stably transformed lepidopteran insect cells. Techniques for the insertion of genes into continuous expression vectors, transfection of cells, and the selection and isolation of stably transformed Sf-9 clones by either colony formation or end-point dilution are described in detail. PMID:26820866

  16. Membrane protein expression triggers chromosomal locus repositioning in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Libby, Elizabeth A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark

    2012-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that subcellular positioning of chromosomal loci in bacteria may be influenced by gene function and expression state. Here we provide direct evidence that membrane protein expression affects the position of chromosomal loci in Escherichia coli. For two different membrane proteins, we observed a dramatic shift of their genetic loci toward the membrane upon induction. In related systems in which a cytoplasmic protein was produced, or translation was eliminated by mutating the start codon, a shift was not observed. Antibiotics that block transcription and translation similarly prevented locus repositioning toward the membrane. We also found that repositioning is relatively rapid and can be detected at positions that are a considerable distance on the chromosome from the gene encoding the membrane protein (>90 kb). Given that membrane protein-encoding genes are distributed throughout the chromosome, their expression may be an important mechanism for maintaining the bacterial chromosome in an expanded and dynamic state. PMID:22529375

  17. Bacteriophage P22 tail protein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, M B; Brown, H R; Casjens, S

    1985-01-01

    We have found that mutations which block bacteriophage P22 head assembly at or before the DNA packaging stage (1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 8-) cause up to a 20-fold increase in the amount of tail (gene 9) protein made during infection. This correlation seems strong enough to warrant consideration of a control mechanism in which the failure to package DNA per se causes a large increase in the synthesis of tail protein. Our results indicate that one of the repressors required for maintenance of lysogeny, the mnt gene product, may be partially responsible for this phenomenon. Images PMID:3155554

  18. Proteins and an Inflammatory Network Expressed in Colon Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenhong; Fang, Changming; Gramatikoff, Kosi; Niemeyer, Christina C.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is crucial to homeostasis of normal intestinal epithelia because it suppresses the ?-catenin/TCF pathway. Consequently, loss or mutation of the APC gene causes colorectal tumors in humans and mice. Here, we describe our use of Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to compare protein expression in colon tumors to that of adjacent healthy colon tissue from ApcMin/+ mice. Twenty-seven proteins were found to be up-regulated in colon tumors and twenty-five down-regulated. As an extension of the proteomic analysis, the differentially expressed proteins were used as seeds to search for co-expressed genes. This approach revealed a co-expression network of 45 genes that is up-regulated in colon tumors. Members of the network include the antibacterial peptide cathelicidin (CAMP), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), IL-8, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1). The co-expression network is associated with innate immunity and inflammation, and there is significant concordance between its connectivity in humans versus mice (Friedman: p value = 0.0056). This study provides new insights into the proteins and networks that are likely to drive the onset and progression of colon cancer. PMID:21366352

  19. Performance benchmarking of four cell-free protein expression systems.

    PubMed

    Gagoski, Dejan; Polinkovsky, Mark E; Mureev, Sergey; Kunert, Anne; Johnston, Wayne; Gambin, Yann; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2016-02-01

    Over the last half century, a range of cell-free protein expression systems based on pro- and eukaryotic organisms have been developed and have found a range of applications, from structural biology to directed protein evolution. While it is generally accepted that significant differences in performance among systems exist, there is a paucity of systematic experimental studies supporting this notion. Here, we took advantage of the species-independent translation initiation sequence to express and characterize 87 N-terminally GFP-tagged human cytosolic proteins of different sizes in E. coli, wheat germ (WGE), HeLa, and Leishmania-based (LTE) cell-free systems. Using a combination of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis, we assessed the expression yields, the fraction of full-length translation product, and aggregation propensity for each of these systems. Our results demonstrate that the E. coli system has the highest expression yields. However, we observe that high expression levels are accompanied by production of truncated species-particularly pronounced in the case of proteins larger than 70?kDa. Furthermore, proteins produced in the E. coli system display high aggregation propensity, with only 10% of tested proteins being produced in predominantly monodispersed form. The WGE system was the most productive among eukaryotic systems tested. Finally, HeLa and LTE show comparable protein yields that are considerably lower than the ones achieved in the E. coli and WGE systems. The protein products produced in the HeLa system display slightly higher integrity, whereas the LTE-produced proteins have the lowest aggregation propensity among the systems analyzed. The high quality of HeLa- and LTE-produced proteins enable their analysis without purification and make them suitable for analysis of multi-domain eukaryotic proteins. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 292-300. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26301602

  20. Green algae as a platform to express therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Oyler, George A

    2009-06-01

    Proteins produced by DNA recombinant technology have been playing important roles in modern medicine ever since the first such protein drug was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration about three decades ago. However the inherent high cost of producing recombinant proteins, particularly those produced from mammalian cells, has hampered their broad application. Other protein expression systems that can reduce the cost yet still maintain the high-level therapeutic activities of the recombinant proteins are a top R&D priority. Eukaryotic unicellular green algae cells may provide a good solution to this long-standing challenge. PMID:19772839

  1. GTP Cyclohydrolase I Expression, Protein, and Activity Determine Intracellular Tetrahydrobiopterin Levels, Independent of GTP Cyclohydrolase Feedback Regulatory Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Amy L.; Crabtree, Mark J.; Warrick, Nicholas; Cai, Shijie; Alp, Nicholas J.; Channon, Keith M.

    2009-01-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a required cofactor for nitricoxide synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Alterations of GTPCH activity and BH4 availability play an important role in human disease. GTPCH expression is regulated by inflammatory stimuli, in association with reduced expression of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). However, the relative importance of GTPCH expression versus GTPCH activity and the role of GFRP in relation to BH4 bioavailability remain uncertain. We investigated these relationships in a cell line with tet-regulated GTPCH expression and in the hph-1 mouse model of GTPCH deficiency. Doxycycline exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GTPCH protein and activity, with a strong correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r2 = 0.85, p < 0.0001). These changes in GTPCH and BH4 had no effect on GFRP expression or protein levels. GFRP overexpression and knockdown in tet-GCH cells did not alter GTPCH activity or BH4 levels, and GTPCH-specific knockdown in sEnd.1 endothelial cells had no effect on GFRP protein. In mouse liver we observed a graded reduction of GTPCH expression, protein, and activity, from wild type, heterozygote, to homozygote littermates, with a striking linear correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.0001). Neither GFRP expression nor protein differed between wild type, heterozygote, nor homozygote mice, despite the substantial differences in BH4. We suggest that GTPCH expression is the primary regulator of BH4 levels, and changes in GTPCH or BH4 are not necessarily accompanied by changes in GFRP expression. PMID:19286659

  2. Small-scale expression of proteins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zerbs, Sarah; Giuliani, Sarah; Collart, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Proteins participate in virtually every cellular activity, and a knowledge of protein function is essential for an understanding of biological systems. However, protein diversity necessitates the application of an array of in vivo and in vitro approaches for characterization of the functional and biochemical properties of proteins. Methods that enable production of proteins for in vitro studies are critical for determination of the molecular, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties of these molecules. Ideally, proteins could be purified from the original source; however, the native host is often unsuitable for a number of reasons. Consequently, systems for heterologous protein production are commonly used to produce large amounts of protein. Heterologous expression hosts are chosen using a number of criteria, including genetic tractability, advantageous production or processing characteristics (secretion or posttranslational modifications), or economy of time and growth requirements. The subcloning process also provides an opportunity to introduce purification tags, epitope tags, fusions, truncations, and mutations into the coding sequence that may be useful in downstream purification or characterization applications. Bacterial systems for heterologous protein expression have advantages in ease of use, cost, short generation times, and scalability. These expression systems have been widely used by high-throughput protein production projects and often represent an initial experiment for any expression target. Escherichia coli has been studied for many years as a model bacterial organism and is one of the most popular hosts for heterologous protein expression (Terpe, 2006). Its protein production capabilities have been intensively studied, and the ease of genetic manipulation in this organism has led to the development of strains engineered exclusively for use in protein expression. These resources are widely available from commercial sources and public repositories. Despite these advantages, many targets are unsuitable for expression in E. coli, and attempts will not yield protein that can be utilized in downstream applications. A thorough understanding of the protein target, the requirements of the final application, and available tools are all essential for planning a successful expression experiment. This protocol is designed to optimize expression and solubility using an E. coli host and expression vector with an IPTG-inducible T7 promoter. The general features of the method are easily extended to other organisms and expression systems. Small-scale expression cultures are used to identify the optimum expression parameters for a given target. Thorough analysis of the total cell content and soluble fraction is used to screen out failed targets and those unlikely to succeed in large-scale purification cultures. The protocol listed here can be used in individual tubes for a small number of targets or adapted for use in 48-well plates for high throughput applications (Abdullah et al., 2009). Using the same culture for initial expression analysis and solubility analysis reduces variability between expression trials and saves the time required to produce separate cultures. PMID:24423272

  3. EMBRYONIC EXPRESSION OF UNCOUPLING PROTEIN 2 GENES IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncoupling proteins are mitochondrial anion transporters that dissociate respiration from ATP synthesis through proton leaks. Uncoupling protein 2 reportedly plays a role in several physiological processes such as energy partitioning, nutrition and fatty acid metabolism. The mRNA expression of rainb...

  4. Clinical implications of ?-catenin protein expression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ziyi; Zhang, Hao; Hou, Jianxin; Niu, Jianing; Ma, Zhenhai; Zhao, Haidong; Liu, Caigang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the expression and significance of ?-catenin in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. Overall, 241 patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer who had undergone radical surgery were enrolled in this study. ?-catenin protein expression in breast cancer samples was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. ?-catenin was expressed in Nuclei/Plasma of the samples from 41 patients. ?-catenin protein expression correlated with the histological grade of the tumor (P<0.05) and Ki-67 labeling (P<0.01). Survival analysis showed that ?-catenin expression negatively correlated with breast cancer-specific survival. Our results showed prominent expression of ?-catenin in breast cancer and strongly implicate the ?-catenin in tumor promotion. PMID:26823833

  5. Ethnic variability in the expression of hepatic drug transporters: absolute quantification by an optimized targeted quantitative proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kuan-wei; Bacon, James; Zheng, Ming; Guo, Yingying; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2015-07-01

    Hepatic OATPs 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1, as well as P-gp, play important roles in regulating liver uptake and biliary excretion of drugs. The intrinsic ethnic variability in OATP1B1-mediated hepatic uptake of statins has been proposed to underlie the ethnic variability in plasma exposures of statins between Caucasians and Asians. Using a targeted quantitative proteomic approach, we determined hepatic protein concentrations of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, P-gp, and PMCA4 (a housekeeping protein) in a panel of human livers (n = 141) and compared protein expression across Caucasian, Asian, African-American, and unidentified donors. Using an optimized protocol that included sodium deoxycholate as a membrane protein solubilizer, the hepatic protein expression levels (mean S.D.) of these transporters across all livers were determined to be 15.0 6.0, 16.1 8.1, 4.1 1.3, 0.6 0.2, and 2.4 1.0 fmol/?g of total membrane protein, respectively. The scaling factor was 3.5 mg of total membrane protein in 100 mg of wet liver tissue. OATP1B1 protein expression was significantly associated with the c.388A>G (rs2306283, N130D) single nucleotide polymorphism. When compared across ethnicity, the hepatic expression levels of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were unexpectedly higher in Asians relative to Caucasians, suggesting that hepatic OATP expression alone does not explain the increased systemic statin levels in Asians compared with Caucasians. These findings may help improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to predict statin pharmacokinetic profiles and enable extrapolation of pharmacokinetic data of OATP substrates across ethnic groups. PMID:25926430

  6. A Statistical Study on Oscillatory Protein Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shiwei

    Motivated by the experiments on the dynamics of a common network motif, p53 and Mdm2 feedback loop, by Lahav et al. [Nat. Genet 36, 147(2004)] in individual cells and Lev Bar-or et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 11250(2000)] at the population of cells, we propose a statistical signal-response model with aiming to describe the different oscillatory behaviors for the activities of p53 and Mdm2 proteins both in individual and in population of cells in a unified way. At the cellular level, the activities of p53 and Mdm2 proteins are described by a group of nonlinear dynamical equations where the damage-derived signal is assumed to have the form with abrupt transition (on leftrightarrow off) as soon as signal strength passes forth and back across a threshold. Each cell responses to the damage with different time duration within which the oscillations persist. For the case of population of cells, the activities of p53 and Mdm2 proteins will be the population average of the individual cells, which results damped oscillations, due to the averaging over the cell population with the different response time.

  7. Proteomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum core metabolism: relative protein expression profiles and growth phase-dependent changes in protein expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium thermocellum produces H2 and ethanol, as well as CO2, acetate, formate, and lactate, directly from cellulosic biomass. It is therefore an attractive model for biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. Optimization of end-product yields and titres is crucial for making biofuel production economically feasible. Relative protein expression profiles may provide targets for metabolic engineering, while understanding changes in protein expression and metabolism in response to carbon limitation, pH, and growth phase may aid in reactor optimization. We performed shotgun 2D-HPLC-MS/MS on closed-batch cellobiose-grown exponential phase C. thermocellum cell-free extracts to determine relative protein expression profiles of core metabolic proteins involved carbohydrate utilization, energy conservation, and end-product synthesis. iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) based protein quantitation was used to determine changes in core metabolic proteins in response to growth phase. Results Relative abundance profiles revealed differential levels of putative enzymes capable of catalyzing parallel pathways. The majority of proteins involved in pyruvate catabolism and end-product synthesis were detected with high abundance, with the exception of aldehyde dehydrogenase, ferredoxin-dependent Ech-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase, and RNF-type NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Using 4-plex 2D-HPLC-MS/MS, 24% of the 144 core metabolism proteins detected demonstrated moderate changes in expression during transition from exponential to stationary phase. Notably, proteins involved in pyruvate synthesis decreased in stationary phase, whereas proteins involved in glycogen metabolism, pyruvate catabolism, and end-product synthesis increased in stationary phase. Several proteins that may directly dictate end-product synthesis patterns, including pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and a putative bifurcating hydrogenase, demonstrated differential expression during transition from exponential to stationary phase. Conclusions Relative expression profiles demonstrate which proteins are likely utilized in carbohydrate utilization and end-product synthesis and suggest that H2 synthesis occurs via bifurcating hydrogenases while ethanol synthesis is predominantly catalyzed by a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Differences in expression profiles of core metabolic proteins in response to growth phase may dictate carbon and electron flux towards energy storage compounds and end-products. Combined knowledge of relative protein expression levels and their changes in response to physiological conditions may aid in targeted metabolic engineering strategies and optimization of fermentation conditions for improvement of biofuels production. PMID:22994686

  8. Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in yeast cells expressing neurotoxic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Ralf J.

    2015-01-01

    Critically impaired protein degradation is discussed to contribute to neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and motor neuron diseases. Misfolded, aggregated, or surplus proteins are efficiently degraded via distinct protein degradation pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy, and vesicular trafficking. These pathways are regulated by covalent modification of target proteins with the small protein ubiquitin and are evolutionary highly conserved from humans to yeast. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model for deciphering mechanisms of protein degradation, and for the elucidation of pathways underlying programmed cell death. The expression of human neurotoxic proteins triggers cell death in yeast, with neurotoxic protein-specific differences. Therefore, yeast cell death models are suitable for analyzing the role of protein degradation pathways in modulating cell death upon expression of disease-causing proteins. This review summarizes which protein degradation pathways are affected in these yeast models, and how they are involved in the execution of cell death. I will discuss to which extent this mimics the situation in other neurotoxic models, and how this may contribute to a better understanding of human disorders. PMID:25814926

  9. An E. coli expression system optimized for DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolin; Frearson, Nicky; Kirk, Christopher; Jones, William T; Harvey, Dawn; Rakonjac, Jasna; Foster, Toshi; Al-Samarrai, Taha

    2008-03-01

    The DELLA proteins are involved in regulation of plant growth in response to phytohormonal signals such as GA, ethylene, and auxin. They have become one of most challenging and active area of research due to their fundamental roles in plant biology. Here, we describe the first successful expression of the N-terminal domains of DELLA proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Malus domestica in Escherichia coli system which will be used to produce monoclonal antibodies for profiling protein micro-arrays. Optimizations of the cloning, expression, and purification using specific tags have been discussed. PMID:17949995

  10. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  11. Expression and purification of splicing proteins from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Eric; Hastings, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is a complex process that is carried out by a large ribonucleoprotein enzyme, termed the spliceosome, which comprises up to 200 proteins. Despite this complexity, the role of individual spliceosomal proteins in the splicing reaction has been successfully investigated using cell-free assays. In many cases, the splicing factor of interest must be expressed and purified in order to study its function in vitro. Posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination of splicing factors are important for activity. Thus, their purification from mammalian cells presents numerous advantages. Here, we describe a method for expression and purification of splicing proteins from mammalian cells. PMID:24549667

  12. Effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway on multidrug resistance induced by vincristine in gastric cancer cell line MGC803

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Jin, Feng; Lu, Ping; Lu, Xiang-Lan; Wang, Ping-Ping; Liu, Yun-Peng; Yao, Fan; Wang, Shu-Bao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway and multidrug resistance (MDR) in MGC803 cells. METHODS: Western blot was used to analyze the expression of MDR associated gene in transient vincristine (VCR) induced MGC803 cells, which were treated with or without the specific inhibitor of MAPK, PD098059. Morphologic analysis of the cells treated by VCR with or without PD098059 was determined by Wright-Giemsa staining. The cell cycle analysis was performed by using flow cytometric assay and the drug sensitivity of MGC803 cells which were exposed to VCR with or without PD098059 was tested by using MTT assay. RESULTS: Transient exposure to VCR induced P-gp but not MRP1 or GST-? expression in MGC803 cells and the expression of P-gp was inhibited by PD098059. Apoptotic bodies were found in the cells treated with VCR or VCR+PD098059. FCM results indicated that more MGC803 cells showed apoptotic phenotype when treated by VCR and PD098059 (rate: 31.23%) than treated by VCR only (rate: 18.42%) (P < 0.05). The IC50 (284 13.2 ?g/L) of MGC803 cells pretreated with VCR was 2.24-fold as that of negative control group (127 17.6 ?g/L) and 1.48-fold as that of the group treated with PD098059 (191 27.9 ?g/L). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the expression of P-gp can be induced by transient exposure to VCR and this induction can be prevented by PD098059, which can block the activity of MAPK. MAPK signal transduction pathway may play some roles in modulating MDR1 expression in gastric cancer. PMID:15040019

  13. Cell-Free Expression of G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Segers, Kenneth; Masure, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale production of recombinant G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one of the major bottlenecks that hamper functional and structural studies of this important class of integral membrane proteins. Heterologous overexpression of GPCRs often results in low yields of active protein, usually due to a combination of several factors, such as low expression levels, protein insolubility, host cell toxicity, and the need to use harsh and often denaturing detergents (e.g., SDS, LDAO, OG, and DDM, among others) to extract the recombinant receptor from the host cell membrane. Many of these problematic issues are inherently linked to cell-based expression systems and can therefore be circumvented by the use of cell-free systems. In this unit, we provide a range of protocols for the production of GPCRs in a cell-free expression system. Using this system, we typically obtain GPCR expression levels of ?1mg per ml of reaction mixture in the continuous-exchange configuration. Although the protocols in this unit have been optimized for the cell-free expression of GPCRs, they should provide a good starting point for the production of other classes of membrane proteins, such as ion channels, aquaporins, carrier proteins, membrane-bound enzymes, and even large molecular complexes. 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26237676

  14. Mapping the expression of soluble olfactory proteins in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Dani, Francesca Romana; Iovinella, Immacolata; Felicioli, Antonio; Niccolini, Alberto; Calvello, Maria Antonietta; Carucci, Maria Giovanna; Qiao, Huili; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Stefano; Moneti, Gloriano; Pelosi, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Chemical communication in insects is mediated by soluble binding proteins, belonging to two large families, Odorant-binding Proteins (OBPs) and Chemosensory Proteins (CSPs). Recently, evidence has been provided that OBPs are involved in recognition of chemical stimuli. We therefore decided to investigate the expression of OBPs and CSPs in the honeybee at the protein level, using a proteomic approach. Our results are in agreement with previous reports of expression at the RNA level and show that 12 of the 21 OBPs predicted in the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera and 2 of the 6 CSPs are present in the foragers' antennae, while the larvae express only three OBPs and a single CSP. MALDI mass spectrometry on crude antennal extracts and MALDI profiling on sections of antennae demonstrated that these techniques can be applied to investigate individual differences in the expression of abundant proteins, such as OBPs and CSPs, as well as to detect the presence of proteins in different regions of the antenna. Finally, as part of a project aimed at the characterization of all OBPs and CSPs of the honeybee, we expressed 5 OBPs and 4 CSPs in a bacterial system and measured their affinity to a number of ligands. Clear differences in their binding spectra have been observed between OBPs, as well as CSPs. PMID:20155982

  15. Expression of a proline-enriched protein in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, T.T.; Cooney, C.L.; Gomez, R.F.

    1982-03-01

    The feasibility of expressing repeated synthetic codons in bacterial cells was demonstrated by showing that repeated codons for proline were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant DNA technology was used to clone synthetic polydeoxyguanylate: polydeoxycytidylate into the PstI site of plasmid pBR322. Recombinant plasmid pGC139 was shown by means of HaeIII restriction digestion to contain approximately 41 cloned base pairs; the cloned sequence was expressed as a fusion to an ampicillinase protein. The resulting protein, enriched in proline, was expressed from plasmid in pGC139 in E. coli maxicells. Extension of this technology could lead to improvement in the production of amino acids and to nutritional enrichment of single-cell protein. (Refs. 12).

  16. Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

  17. A study protocol for quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) by LC-MS/MS: application for inter-strain differences in protein expression levels of transporters, receptors, claudin-5, and marker proteins at the bloodbrain barrier in ddY, FVB, and C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteomics has opened a new horizon in biological sciences. Global proteomic analysis is a promising technology for the discovery of thousands of proteins, post-translational modifications, polymorphisms, and molecular interactions in a variety of biological systems. The activities and roles of the identified proteins must also be elucidated, but this is complicated by the inability of conventional proteomic methods to yield quantitative information for protein expression. Thus, a variety of biological systems remain black boxes. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) enables the determination of absolute expression levels (mol) of any target protein, including low-abundance functional proteins, such as transporters and receptors. Therefore, QTAP will be useful for understanding the activities and roles of individual proteins and their differences, including normal/disease, human/animal, or in vitro/in vivo. Here, we describe the study protocols and precautions for QTAP experiments including in silico target peptide selection, determination of peptide concentration by amino acid analysis, setup of selected/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) analysis in liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry, preparation of protein samples (brain capillaries and plasma membrane fractions) followed by the preparation of peptide samples, simultaneous absolute quantification of target proteins by SRM/MRM analysis, data analysis, and troubleshooting. An application of QTAP in biological sciences was introduced that utilizes data from inter-strain differences in the protein expression levels of transporters, receptors, tight junction proteins and marker proteins at the bloodbrain barrier in ddY, FVB, and C57BL/6J mice. Among 18 molecules, 13 (abcb1a/mdr1a/P-gp, abcc4/mrp4, abcg2/bcrp, slc2a1/glut1, slc7a5/lat1, slc16a1/mct1, slc22a8/oat3, insr, lrp1, tfr1, claudin-5, Na+/K+-ATPase, and ?-gtp) were detected in the isolated brain capillaries, and their protein expression levels were within a range of 0.637-101 fmol/?g protein. The largest difference in the levels between the three strains was 2.2-fold for 13 molecules, although bcrp and mct1 displayed statistically significant differences between C57BL/6J and the other strain(s). Highly sensitive simultaneous absolute quantification achieved by QTAP will increase the usefulness of proteomics in biological sciences and is expected to advance the new research field of pharmacoproteomics (PPx). PMID:23758935

  18. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in Chlamydomonas chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Manuell, Andrea L; Beligni, Maria Verónica; Elder, John H; Siefker, David T; Tran, Miller; Weber, Annika; McDonald, Thomas L; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2007-05-01

    We have engineered the chloroplast of eukaryotic algae to produce a number of recombinant proteins, including human monoclonal antibodies, but, to date, have achieved expression to only 0.5% of total protein. Here, we show that, by engineering the mammalian coding region of bovine mammary-associated serum amyloid (M-SAA) as a direct replacement for the chloroplast psbA coding region, we can achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. Chloroplast-expressed M-SAA accumulates predominantly as a soluble protein, contains the correct amino terminal sequence and has little or no post-translational modification. M-SAA is found in mammalian colostrum and stimulates the production of mucin in the gut, acting in the prophylaxis of bacterial and viral infections. Chloroplast-expressed and purified M-SAA is able to stimulate mucin production in human gut epithelial cell lines. As Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an edible alga, production of therapeutic proteins in this organism offers the potential for oral delivery of gut-active proteins, such as M-SAA. PMID:17359495

  19. Differential Protein Expression in Congenital and Acquired Cholesteatomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Choi, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    Congenital cholesteatomas are epithelial lesions that present as an epithelial pearl behind an intact eardrum. Congenital and acquired cholesteatomas progress quite differently from each other and progress patterns can provide clues about the unique origin and pathogenesis of the abnormality. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms by which cholesteatomas develop remain unknown. In this study, key proteins that directly affect cholesteatoma pathogenesis are investigated with proteomics and immunohistochemistry. Congenital cholesteatoma matrices and retroauricular skin were harvested during surgery in 4 patients diagnosed with a congenital cholesteatoma. Tissue was also harvested from the retraction pocket in an additional 2 patients during middle ear surgery. We performed 2-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis to detect and analyze spots that are expressed only in congenital cholesteatoma and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) to separate proteins by molecular weight. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. The image analysis of 2D electrophoresis showed that 4 congenital cholesteatoma samples had very similar protein expression patterns and that 127 spots were exclusively expressed in congenital cholesteatomas. Of these 127 spots, 10 major spots revealed the presence of titin, forkhead transcription activator homolog (FKH 53), plectin 1, keratin 10, and leucine zipper protein 5 by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining showed that FKH 53 and titin were expressed in congenital cholesteatoma matrices, but not in acquired cholesteatomas. Our study shows that protein expression patterns are completely different in congenital cholesteatomas, acquired cholesteatomas, and skin. Moreover, non-epithelial proteins, including FKH 53 and titin, were unexpectedly expressed in congenital cholesteatoma tissue. Our data indicates that congenital cholesteatoma origins may differ from those of acquired cholesteatomas, which originate from retraction pocket epithelia. PMID:26335306

  20. Proteomics analysis of human astrocytes expressing the HIV protein Tat.

    PubMed

    Pocernich, Chava B; Boyd-Kimball, Debra; Poon, H Fai; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Lynn, Bert C; Klein, Jon B; Calebrese, Vittorio; Nath, Avindra; Butterfield, D Allan

    2005-02-18

    Astrocyte infection in HIV has been associated with rapid progression of dementia in a subset of HIV/AIDS patients. Astrogliosis and microglial activation are observed in areas of axonal and dendritic damage in HIVD. In HIV-infected astrocytes, the regulatory gene tat is over expressed and mRNA levels for Tat are elevated in brain extracts from individuals with HIV-1 dementia. Tat can be detected in HIV-infected astrocytes in vivo. The HIV-1 protein Tat transactivates viral and cellular gene expression, is actively secreted mainly from astrocytes, microglia and macrophages, into the extracellular environment, and is taken up by neighboring uninfected cells such as neurons. The HIV-1 protein Tat released from astrocytes reportedly produces trimming of neurites, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in neurons, while protecting its host, the astrocyte. We utilized proteomics to investigate protein expression changes in human astrocytes intracellularly expressing Tat (SVGA-Tat). By coupling 2D fingerprinting and identification of proteins by mass spectrometry, we identified phosphatase 2A, isocitrate dehydrogenase, nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha, beta-tubulin, crocalbin like protein/calumenin, and vimentin/alpha-tubulin to have decreased protein expression levels in SVGA-Tat cells compared to the SVGA-pcDNA cells. Heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were found to have increased protein expression in SVGA-Tat cells compared to controls by slotblot technique. These findings are discussed with reference to astrocytes serving as a reservoir for the HIV virus and how Tat promotes survival of the astrocytic host. PMID:15710248

  1. Differential protein expression in Phalaenopsis under low temperature.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiu-Yun; Liang, Fang; Jiang, Su-Hua; Wan, Mo-Fei; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Xian-Yun; Cui, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A comparative proteomic analysis was carried out to explore the molecular mechanisms of responses to cold stress in Phalaenopsis after treated by low temperature (13/8 C day/night) for 15 days. Differentially expressed proteins were examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS). Among 85 differentially expressed proteins, 73 distinct proteins were identified. Comparative analysis revealed that the identified proteins mainly participate in photosynthesis, protein synthesis, folding and degradation, respiration, defense response, amino acid metabolism, energy pathway, cytoskeleton, transcription regulation, signal transduction, and seed storage protein, while the functional classification of the remaining four proteins was not determined. These data suggested that the proteins might work cooperatively to establish a new homeostasis under cold stress; 37 % of the identified cold-responsive proteins were associated with various aspects of chloroplast physiology, and 56 % of them were predicted to be located in the chloroplasts, implying that the cold stress tolerance of Phalaenopsis was achieved, at least partly, by regulation of chloroplast function. Moreover, the protein destination control, which was mediated by chaperones and proteases, plays an important role in tolerance to cold stress. PMID:25349090

  2. Quorum-sensing Salmonella selectively trigger protein expression within tumors

    PubMed Central

    Swofford, Charles A.; Van Dessel, Nele; Forbes, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella that secrete anticancer proteins have the potential to eliminate tumors, but nonspecific expression causes damage to healthy tissue. We hypothesize that Salmonella, integrated with a density-dependent switch, would only express proteins in tightly packed colonies within tumors. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the lux quorum-sensing (QS) system and a GFP reporter into nonpathogenic Salmonella. Fluorescence and bacterial density were measured in culture and in a tumor-on-a-chip device to determine the critical density necessary to initiate expression. QS Salmonella were injected into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice to quantify GFP expression in vivo using immunofluorescence. At densities below 0.6 1010 cfu/g in tumors, less than 3% of QS Salmonella expressed GFP. Above densities of 4.2 1010 cfu/g, QS Salmonella had similar expression levels to constitutive controls. GFP expression by QS colonies was dependent upon the distance to neighboring bacteria. No colonies expressed GFP when the average distance to neighbors was greater than 155 m. Calculations of autoinducer concentrations showed that expression was sigmoidally dependent on density and inversely dependent on average radial distance. Based on bacterial counts from excised tissue, the liver density (0.0079 1010 cfu/g) was less than the critical density (0.11 1010 cfu/g) necessary to initiate expression. QS Salmonella are a promising tool for cancer treatment that will target drugs to tumors while preventing damage to healthy tissue. PMID:25737556

  3. Lentiviral Fluorescent Protein Expression Vectors for Biotinylation Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Riz, Irene; Hawley, Teresa S.; Hawley, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    In vivo biotinylation tagging, based on a method in which a protein of interest is tagged with a peptide that is biotinylated in vivo by coexpression of E.coli BirA biotin ligase, has been successfully used for isolation of protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes in mammalian cells. We describe a modification of this methodology in which cells stably expressing the tagged gene of interest and the BirA gene can be selected by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). We recently implemented this approach to isolate and characterize proteins associated with TLX1, a homeodomain transcription factor with leukemogenic function. The modified technique utilizes two components: a lentiviral vector coexpressing the gene of interest containing a biotinylation tag on a bicistronic transcript together with a downstream yellow fluorescent protein gene; and a second lentiviral vector encoding a fusion protein composed of bacterial BirA linked to the green fluorescent protein. This FACS-based binary in vivo biotinylation tagging system allows precise control over the levels of BirA-mediated biotinylation as well as the expression of the gene of interest, which is especially important if high-level expression negatively impacts cell growth or viability. PMID:21116996

  4. Multifactorial determinants of protein expression in prokaryotic open reading frames

    PubMed Central

    Allert, Malin; Cox, J. Colin; Hellinga, Homme W.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative description of the relationship between protein expression levels and open reading frame nucleotide sequences (ORFs) is important for understanding natural systems, designing synthetic systems, and optimizing heterologous expression. Codon identity, mRNA secondary structure, and nucleotide composition within ORFs markedly influence expression levels. Bioinformatic analysis of ORF sequences in 816 bacterial genomes revealed that these features show distinct regional trends. To investigate their effects on protein expression, we designed 285 synthetic genes and determined corresponding expression levels in vitro using E. coli extracts. We developed a mathematical function, parameterized using this synthetic gene dataset, which enables computation of protein expression levels from ORF nucleotide sequences. In addition to its practical application in the design of heterologous expression systems, this equation provides mechanistic insight into the factors that control translation efficiency. We found that expression is strongly dependent on the presence of high AU content and low secondary structure in the ORF 5? region. Choice of high-frequency codons contributes to a lesser extent. The 3? terminal AU content makes modest, but detectable contributions. We present a model for the effect of these factors on the three phases of ribosomal function: initiation, elongation, and termination. PMID:20727358

  5. Fe-S proteins that regulate gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mettert, Erin L; Kiley, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster containing proteins that regulate gene expression are present in most organisms. The innate chemistry of their Fe-S cofactors makes these regulatory proteins ideal for sensing environmental signals, such as gases (e.g. O2 and NO), levels of Fe and Fe-S clusters, reactive oxygen species, and redox cycling compounds, to subsequently mediate an adaptive response. Here we review the recent findings that have provided invaluable insight into the mechanism and function of these highly significant Fe-S regulatory proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases. PMID:25450978

  6. Expression patterns of protein C inhibitor in mouse development.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Gerry T M; Uhrin, Pavel; Weipoltshammer, Klara; Almeder, Marlene; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Geiger, Margarethe; Meijers, Joost C M; Schöfer, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Proteolysis of extracellular matrix is an important requirement for embryonic development and is instrumental in processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Efficient remodeling requires controlled spatio-temporal expression of both the proteases and their inhibitors. Protein C inhibitor (PCI) effectively blocks a range of serine proteases, and recently has been suggested to play a role in cell differentiation and angiogenesis. In this study, we mapped the expression pattern of PCI throughout mouse development using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We detected a wide-spread, yet distinct expression pattern with prominent PCI levels in skin including vibrissae, and in fore- and hindgut. Further sites of PCI expression were choroid plexus of brain ventricles, heart, skeletal muscles, urogenital tract, and cartilages. A strong and stage-dependent PCI expression was observed in the developing lung. In the pseudoglandular stage, PCI expression was present in distal branching tubules whereas proximal tubules did not express PCI. Later in development, in the saccular stage, PCI expression was restricted to distal bronchioli whereas sacculi did not express PCI. PCI expression declined in postnatal stages and was not detected in adult lungs. In general, embryonic PCI expression indicates multifunctional roles of PCI during mouse development. The expression pattern of PCI during lung development suggests its possible involvement in lung morphogenesis and angiogenesis. PMID:20229239

  7. In vivo protein expression and immune responses generated by DNA vaccines expressing mycobacterial antigens fused with a reporter protein.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Anita; Jiang, Weiwen; Velaz-Faircloth, Maria; Cobb, Alison J; Henry, Stanley C; Frothingham, Richard

    2002-08-19

    We cloned six mycobacterial antigens into a mammalian expression vector as fusion proteins with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Plasmid DNA was injected intramuscularly, and the injection sites were examined 1 week later. Expression of each antigen-EGFP fusion protein was visualized as green fluorescence in muscle tissue sections. A plasmid expressing EGFP alone and a plasmid with a frameshift mutation served as positive and negative controls. Visualization of fluorescent protein in vivo was 100% specific when compared to in vitro results. In vivo sensitivity was only 37% based on individual injection sites, but increased to 100% when results from multiple injection sites were combined for each plasmid. EGFP alone was expressed in a higher proportion of myocytes than the antigen-EGFP fusion proteins (P < 0.001). There was a trend toward an inverse correlation between protein size and the proportion of myocytes with visible fluorescence (r = -0.68; P = 0.09). We compared antibody subtypes generated to Mycobacterium bovis antigen 85A, when it was expressed alone or as a fusion protein. Inclusion of EGFP modified the immune response toward a Th1 response, as indicated by the ratio of antigen 85A-specific IgG2a to IgG1 generated by each plasmid (antigen 85A alone 0.73 +/- 0.18 versus antigen 85A-EGFP 1.82 +/- 0.57, mean +/- S.D.; P < 0.01), though the magnitude of the antibody isotype shift was modest. Direct visualization of antigen-EGFP fusion proteins provided a simple and rapid method to confirm in vivo antigen expression. PMID:12163270

  8. Subcellular localization of transiently expressed fluorescent fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Collings, David A

    2013-01-01

    The recent and massive expansion in plant genomics data has generated a large number of gene sequences for which two seemingly simple questions need to be answered: where do the proteins encoded by these genes localize in cells, and what do they do? One widespread approach to answering the localization question has been to use particle bombardment to transiently express unknown proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or its numerous derivatives. Confocal fluorescence microscopy is then used to monitor the localization of the fluorescent protein as it hitches a ride through the cell. The subcellular localization of the fusion protein, if not immediately apparent, can then be determined by comparison to localizations generated by fluorescent protein fusions to known signalling sequences and proteins, or by direct comparison with fluorescent dyes. This review aims to be a tour guide for researchers wanting to travel this hitch-hiker's path, and for reviewers and readers who wish to understand their travel reports. It will describe some of the technology available for visualizing protein localizations, and some of the experimental approaches for optimizing and confirming localizations generated by particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, the most commonly used experimental system. As the non-conservation of signal sequences in heterologous expression systems such as onion, and consequent mis-targeting of fusion proteins, is always a potential problem, the epidermal cells of the Argenteum mutant of pea are proposed as a model system. PMID:23996319

  9. Protein Co-Expression Network Analysis (ProCoNA)

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, David L.; Baratt, Arie; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Smith, Richard D.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Katze, Michael G.; Mcweeney, Shannon K.

    2013-06-01

    Biological networks are important for elucidating disease etiology due to their ability to model complex high dimensional data and biological systems. Proteomics provides a critical data source for such models, but currently lacks robust de novo methods for network construction, which could bring important insights in systems biology. We have evaluated the construction of network models using methods derived from weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). We show that approximately scale-free peptide networks, composed of statistically significant modules, are feasible and biologically meaningful using two mouse lung experiments and one human plasma experiment. Within each network, peptides derived from the same protein are shown to have a statistically higher topological overlap and concordance in abundance, which is potentially important for inferring protein abundance. The module representatives, called eigenpeptides, correlate significantly with biological phenotypes. Furthermore, within modules, we find significant enrichment for biological function and known interactions (gene ontology and protein-protein interactions). Biological networks are important tools in the analysis of complex systems. In this paper we evaluate the application of weighted co-expression network analysis to quantitative proteomics data. Protein co-expression networks allow novel approaches for biological interpretation, quality control, inference of protein abundance, a framework for potentially resolving degenerate peptide-protein mappings, and a biomarker signature discovery.

  10. Protein co-expression network analysis (ProCoNA)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological networks are important for elucidating disease etiology due to their ability to model complex high dimensional data and biological systems. Proteomics provides a critical data source for such models, but currently lacks robust de novo methods for network construction, which could bring important insights in systems biology. Results We have evaluated the construction of network models using methods derived from weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). We show that approximately scale-free peptide networks, composed of statistically significant modules, are feasible and biologically meaningful using two mouse lung experiments and one human plasma experiment. Within each network, peptides derived from the same protein are shown to have a statistically higher topological overlap and concordance in abundance, which is potentially important for inferring protein abundance. The module representatives, called eigenpeptides, correlate significantly with biological phenotypes. Furthermore, within modules, we find significant enrichment for biological function and known interactions (gene ontology and protein-protein interactions). Conclusions Biological networks are important tools in the analysis of complex systems. In this paper we evaluate the application of weighted co-expression network analysis to quantitative proteomics data. Protein co-expression networks allow novel approaches for biological interpretation, quality control, inference of protein abundance, a framework for potentially resolving degenerate peptide-protein mappings, and a biomarker signature discovery. PMID:23724967

  11. Increased functional protein expression using nucleotide sequence features enriched in highly expressed genes in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Horstick, Eric J.; Jordan, Diana C.; Bergeron, Sadie A.; Tabor, Kathryn M.; Serpe, Mihaela; Feldman, Benjamin; Burgess, Harold A.

    2015-01-01

    Many genetic manipulations are limited by difficulty in obtaining adequate levels of protein expression. Bioinformatic and experimental studies have identified nucleotide sequence features that may increase expression, however it is difficult to assess the relative influence of these features. Zebrafish embryos are rapidly injected with calibrated doses of mRNA, enabling the effects of multiple sequence changes to be compared in vivo. Using RNAseq and microarray data, we identified a set of genes that are highly expressed in zebrafish embryos and systematically analyzed for enrichment of sequence features correlated with levels of protein expression. We then tested enriched features by embryo microinjection and functional tests of multiple protein reporters. Codon selection, releasing factor recognition sequence and specific introns and 3′ untranslated regions each increased protein expression between 1.5- and 3-fold. These results suggested principles for increasing protein yield in zebrafish through biomolecular engineering. We implemented these principles for rational gene design in software for codon selection (CodonZ) and plasmid vectors incorporating the most active non-coding elements. Rational gene design thus significantly boosts expression in zebrafish, and a similar approach will likely elevate expression in other animal models. PMID:25628360

  12. Hedyotis diffusa Willd overcomes 5-fluorouracil resistance in human colorectal cancer HCT-8/5-FU cells by downregulating the expression of P-glycoprotein and ATP-binding casette subfamily G member 2

    PubMed Central

    LI, QIONGYU; WANG, XIANGFENG; SHEN, ALING; ZHANG, YUCHEN; CHEN, YOUQIN; SFERRA, THOMAS J.; LIN, JIUMAO; PENG, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, exhibits potent anticancer activity in models of colorectal cancer (CRC). Aggressive forms of CRC exhibit resistance to widely used chemotherapeutic drugs, including the antimetabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); however, less is known with regard to the activity of HDW against 5-FU-resistant cancer. In the present study, the mechanism of action and the potency of ethanol extracts of HDW (EEHDW) were investigated on a multidrug-resistant CRC HCT-8/5-FU cell line. Using an MTT cell proliferation assay, EEHDW treatment was shown to significantly reduce the cell viability of HCT-8/5-FU cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EEHDW significantly increased the retention of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrate, rhodamine-123, as compared with the untreated controls. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms targeted by EEHDW in the resistant cells, the expression levels of the ABC drug transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), were analyzed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The mRNA and protein expression levels of P-gp and ABCG2 were reduced in the HCT-8/5-FU cells following EEHDW treatment, indicating that EEHDW inhibits ABCG2-mediated drug resistance by downregulating the expression of ABCG2 and P-gp. Therefore, the potential application of EEHDW as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant represents a promising alternative approach to the treatment of drug-resistant CRC. PMID:26640560

  13. Effects of Chemically Modified Messenger RNA on Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Luo, Xiao; Dong, Yizhou

    2016-03-16

    Chemically modified nucleotides play significant roles in the effectiveness of mRNA translation. Here, we describe the synthesis of two sets of chemically modified mRNAs [encoding firefly Luciferase (FLuc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), respectively], evaluation of protein expression, and correlation analysis of expression level under various conditions. The results indicate that chemical modifications of mRNAs are able to significantly improve protein expression, which is dependent on cell types and coding sequences. Moreover, eGFP mRNAs with N1-methylpseudouridine (me(1)ψ), 5-methoxyuridine (5moU), and pseudouridine (ψ) modifications ranked top three in cell lines tested. Interestingly, 5moU-modified eGFP mRNA was more stable than other eGFP mRNAs. Consequently, me(1)ψ, 5moU, and ψ are promising nucleotides for chemical modification of mRNAs. PMID:26906521

  14. Expression, delivery and function of insecticidal proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal po...

  15. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in ovarian serous tumors.

    PubMed

    Salani, Ritu; Neuberger, Ilana; Kurman, Robert J; Bristow, Robert E; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Wang, Tian-Li; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2007-04-01

    The aims of this study were to perform a comprehensive expression analysis of the genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins and to investigate the expression pattern in one of these proteins, syndecan 1, in normal ovarian epithelium as well as benign and malignant ovarian serous tumors. Gene expression of 16 different extracellular matrix proteins was analyzed in ovarian serous tumors based on serial analysis of gene expression database. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the serial analysis of gene expression result from each gene. As compared with normal ovarian surface epithelium, we found overexpression of syndecan 1, collagen type IV alpha 2, elastin microfibril interfase located protein 1, and laminin 5 in ovarian serous carcinomas. Syndecan 1 was selected for further study as it has not been well characterized in ovarian cancer and the syndecan 1 antibody was available for immunohistochemistry. Using a syndecan 1-specific monoclonal antibody, we demonstrated that syndecan 1 was expressed in 30.4% of high-grade serous carcinomas, 29.7% of low-grade carcinomas and serous borderline tumors, but none of benign serous cystadenomas and ovarian surface epithelium. Although both high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas had a similar percentage of syndecan 1-positive cases, the immunointensity in high-grade carcinoma was significantly higher than that in low-grade carcinomas and serous borderline tumors (P = 0.007). In summary, ovarian carcinomas exhibit up-regulated expression of several extracellular matrix proteins, and syndecan 1 represents a novel tumor-associated marker in ovarian serous carcinomas. PMID:17413980

  16. Relationship between P-glycoprotein expression and cyclosporin A in kidney. An immunohistological and cell culture study.

    PubMed Central

    Garca del Moral, R.; O'Valle, F.; Andjar, M.; Aguilar, M.; Lucena, M. A.; Lpez-Hidalgo, J.; Ramrez, C.; Medina-Cano, M. T.; Aguilar, D.; Gmez-Morales, M.

    1995-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded in humans by the mdr-1 gene, acts physiologically as an efflux pump to expel hydrophobic substances from cells. This glycoprotein is closely related to multidrug resistance in tumor cells and can be modulated by cyclosporin A (CsA). We investigated the relationship between CsA and P-gp in 52 renal allograft biopsies and in cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubule cells to determine whether the intrarenal accumulation of CsA or chronic stimulation with the drug modified the expression of P-gp. Expression of P-gp and CsA was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was evaluated semiquantitatively. Modulation of P-gp in MDCK cells after chronic stimulation with CsA for 7, 30, and 60 days was analyzed by flow cytometry. P-gp and CsA immunostaining in renal post-transplant biopsies showed considerable overlap in all cases (Spearman's test, r = 0.577, P < 0.001). After 7 days in vitro, the number of cells expressing P-gp increased progressively; a further increase in mean fluorescence was found after 60 days (P < 0.001, Student's t-test). Our findings suggest that in non-neoplastic cells, CsA may stimulate P-gp as a mechanism of detoxification. Individual differences in the adaptive responses to glycoprotein may be responsible for the appearance of nephrotoxicity or a CsA-resistant rejection reaction in cases of overexpression on lymphocytes and macrophages. Images Figure 1 PMID:7856751

  17. Enhancement of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Surface Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Jill H.; Hall, Randy A.

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate physiological responses to a diverse array of stimuli and are the molecular targets for numerous therapeutic drugs. GPCRs primarily signal from the plasma membrane, but when expressed in heterologous cells many GPCRs exhibit poor trafficking to the cell surface. Multiple approaches have been taken to enhance GPCR surface expression in heterologous cells, including addition/deletion of receptor sequences, co-expression with interacting proteins, and treatment with pharmacological chaperones. In addition to allowing for enhanced surface expression of certain GPCRs in heterologous cells, these approaches have also shed light on the control of GPCR trafficking in vivo and in some cases have led to new therapeutic approaches for treating human diseases that result from defects in GPCR trafficking. PMID:19679364

  18. Green fluorescent protein-based expression screening of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bird, Louise E; Rada, Heather; Verma, Anil; Gasper, Raphael; Birch, James; Jennions, Matthew; L?we, Jan; Moraes, Isabel; Owens, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    The production of recombinant membrane proteins for structural and functional studies remains technically challenging due to low levels of expression and the inherent instability of many membrane proteins once solubilized in detergents. A protocol is described that combines ligation independent cloning of membrane proteins as GFP fusions with expression in Escherichia coli detected by GFP fluorescence. This enables the construction and expression screening of multiple membrane protein/variants to identify candidates suitable for further investment of time and effort. The GFP reporter is used in a primary screen of expression by visualizing GFP fluorescence following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Membrane proteins that show both a high expression level with minimum degradation as indicated by the absence of free GFP, are selected for a secondary screen. These constructs are scaled and a total membrane fraction prepared and solubilized in four different detergents. Following ultracentrifugation to remove detergent-insoluble material, lysates are analyzed by fluorescence detection size exclusion chromatography (FSEC). Monitoring the size exclusion profile by GFP fluorescence provides information about the mono-dispersity and integrity of the membrane proteins in different detergents. Protein: detergent combinations that elute with a symmetrical peak with little or no free GFP and minimum aggregation are candidates for subsequent purification. Using the above methodology, the heterologous expression in E. coli of SED (shape, elongation, division, and sporulation) proteins from 47 different species of bacteria was analyzed. These proteins typically have ten transmembrane domains and are essential for cell division. The results show that the production of the SEDs orthologues in E. coli was highly variable with respect to the expression levels and integrity of the GFP fusion proteins. The experiment identified a subset for further investigation. PMID:25590335

  19. The Expression and Significance of Neuronal Iconic Proteins in Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongxia; Hu, Ruimin; Sun, Jianyong; Mao, Xing; Zhao, Zhonghua; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that there are many common cell biological features shared by neurons and podocytes; however, the mechanism of podocyte foot process formation remains unclear. Comparing the mechanisms of process formation between two cell types should provide useful guidance from the progress of neuron research. Studies have shown that some mature proteins of podocytes, such as podocin, nephrin, and synaptopodin, were also expressed in neurons. In this study, using cell biological experiments and immunohistochemical techniques, we showed that some neuronal iconic molecules, such as Neuron-specific enolase, nestin and Neuron-specific nuclear protein, were also expressed in podocytes. We further inhibited the expression of Neuron-specific enolase, nestin, synaptopodin and Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-1 by Small interfering RNA in cultured mouse podocytes and observed the significant morphological changes in treated podocytes. When podocytes were treated with Adriamycin, the protein expression of Neuron-specific enolase, nestin, synaptopodin and Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-1 decreased over time. Meanwhile, the morphological changes in the podocytes were consistent with results of the Small interfering RNA treatment of these proteins. The data demonstrated that neuronal iconic proteins play important roles in maintaining and regulating the formation and function of podocyte processes. PMID:24699703

  20. Beyond protein expression, MOPED goes multi-omics

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Elizabeth; Janko, Imre; Stanberry, Larissa; Lee, Elaine; Choiniere, John; Anderson, Nathaniel; Stewart, Elizabeth; Broomall, William; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Kolker, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    MOPED (Multi-Omics Profiling Expression Database; http://moped.proteinspire.org) has transitioned from solely a protein expression database to a multi-omics resource for human and model organisms. Through a web-based interface, MOPED presents consistently processed data for gene, protein and pathway expression. To improve data quality, consistency and use, MOPED includes metadata detailing experimental design and analysis methods. The multi-omics data are integrated through direct links between genes and proteins and further connected to pathways and experiments. MOPED now contains over 5 million records, information for approximately 75 000 genes and 50 000 proteins from four organisms (human, mouse, worm, yeast). These records correspond to 670 unique combinations of experiment, condition, localization and tissue. MOPED includes the following new features: pathway expression, Pathway Details pages, experimental metadata checklists, experiment summary statistics and more advanced searching tools. Advanced searching enables querying for genes, proteins, experiments, pathways and keywords of interest. The system is enhanced with visualizations for comparing across different data types. In the future MOPED will expand the number of organisms, increase integration with pathways and provide connections to disease. PMID:25404128

  1. Beyond protein expression, MOPED goes multi-omics.

    PubMed

    Montague, Elizabeth; Janko, Imre; Stanberry, Larissa; Lee, Elaine; Choiniere, John; Anderson, Nathaniel; Stewart, Elizabeth; Broomall, William; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Kolker, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    MOPED (Multi-Omics Profiling Expression Database; http://moped.proteinspire.org) has transitioned from solely a protein expression database to a multi-omics resource for human and model organisms. Through a web-based interface, MOPED presents consistently processed data for gene, protein and pathway expression. To improve data quality, consistency and use, MOPED includes metadata detailing experimental design and analysis methods. The multi-omics data are integrated through direct links between genes and proteins and further connected to pathways and experiments. MOPED now contains over 5 million records, information for approximately 75,000 genes and 50,000 proteins from four organisms (human, mouse, worm, yeast). These records correspond to 670 unique combinations of experiment, condition, localization and tissue. MOPED includes the following new features: pathway expression, Pathway Details pages, experimental metadata checklists, experiment summary statistics and more advanced searching tools. Advanced searching enables querying for genes, proteins, experiments, pathways and keywords of interest. The system is enhanced with visualizations for comparing across different data types. In the future MOPED will expand the number of organisms, increase integration with pathways and provide connections to disease. PMID:25404128

  2. Automated and quantitative immunocytochemical assays of Bcl-2 protein in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Charpin, C.; Garcia, S.; Bouvier, C.; Devictor, B.; Andrac, L.; Lavaut, M. N.; Allasia, C.

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the bcl-2 gene was investigated in 218 human breast carcinomas by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunodetections were assessed using (1) frozen sections, (2) documented commercially available monoclonal antibody (bcl-2/124, Dako), (3) automation of immunoperoxidase technique (Ventana) and (4) quantitative evaluation of results by image analysis (SAMBA) and statistical analysis of quantitative data (BMDP software). Bcl-2 protein expression was correlated with current prognostic indicators and with molecular markers detected by the same procedure as for Bcl-2. It was shown that Bcl-2 expression is not related to patients' age, tumour size and type or lymph node status, but an inverse relationship was observed between Bcl-2 and tumour grade (P < 0.0001). An inverse relationship was also observed between Bcl-2 expression and p53 (P < 0.0001), Ki67/MIB1 antigen- (P = 0.0012), and P-gp- (P = 0.002) positive immunoreactions. In contrast, anti-Bcl-2 positive reaction was significantly associated with ER-positive (P < 0.001) and with ER/PR-positive or ER/PR/pS2-positive immunoreactions (P < or = 0.005). Bcl-2 expression was independent of CD31 and cathepsin D expression. Thus, Bcl-2 protein, thought to be antiapoptotic, exhibits parodoxical expression in human breast carcinomas. It is strongly detected in low-grade tumours (well-differentiated) with low (MIB1) growth fraction, but is independent of the tumour progression (size, node status, CD31, and cathepsin D). Bcl-2 acting on apoptosis is related to p53 gene abnormalities in breast carcinomas. Bcl-2 protein expression may also be involved in response to endocrine therapy (associated to ER/PR/pS2 positive immunoreactions) and probably with chemoresistance mechanisms (inverse relationship with P-gp). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9252201

  3. Glutamate up-regulates P-glycoprotein expression in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells by an NMDA receptor-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao-Jie; Liu, Guo-Qing

    2004-07-30

    The accumulation of glutamate in the extracellular space in the central nervous system (CNS) plays a major part in ischemic and anoxic damage. In this study, we examined the effect of glutamate on the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs) making up the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The level of P-gp expression significantly increased in RBMECs after the treatment of 100 microM glutamate. At this concentration, glutamate also enhanced rat mdr1a and mdr1b mRNA levels determined by RT-PCR analysis. Flow cytometry was used to study P-gp activity by analysis of intracellular rhodamine123 (Rh123) accumulation. Overexpression of P-gp resulted in a decreased intracellular accumulation of Rh123 in RBMECs. Glutamate-induced increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed by using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (2',7'-DCF) assay. MK-801, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine obviously blocked ROS generation and attenuated the changes of both expression and activity of P-gp induced by glutamate in RBMECs. These data suggested that glutamate up-regulated P-gp expression in RBMECs by an NMDA receptor-mediated mechanism and that glutamate-induced generation of ROS was linked to the regulation of P-gp expression. Therefore, transport of P-gp substrates in BBB appears to be affected during ischemic and anoxic injury. PMID:15234189

  4. A versatile lentiviral expression system to identify mammalian protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Mak, Anthony B; Moffat, Jason

    2012-08-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are central to our understanding of protein function, biological processes and signaling pathways. Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a powerful approach for detecting PPIs and protein complexes and relies on the purification of bait proteins using bait-specific binding reagents. These binding reagents may recognize bait proteins directly or affinity tags that are fused to bait proteins. A limitation of the latter approach is that expression of affinity tagged baits is largely constrained to engineered or unnatural cell lines, which results in the AP-MS identification of PPIs that may not accurately reflect those seen in nature. Therefore, generating cell lines stably expressing affinity tagged bait proteins in a broad range of cell types and cell lines is important for identifying PPIs that are dependent on different contexts. To facilitate the identification of PPIs across many mammalian cell types, we developed the mammalian affinity purification and lentiviral expression (MAPLE) system. MAPLE uses recombinant lentiviral technology to stably and efficiently express affinity tagged complementary DNA (cDNA) in mammalian cells, including cells that are difficult to transfect and non-dividing cells. The MAPLE vectors contain a versatile affinity (VA) tag for multi-step protein purification schemes and subcellular localization studies. In this methods article, we present a step-by-step overview of the MAPLE system workflow. PMID:22713554

  5. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio . E-mail: harzate@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-07-06

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation.

  6. P-glycoprotein expression in normal and reactive bone marrows.

    PubMed Central

    Hegewisch-Becker, S.; Fliegner, M.; Tsuruo, T.; Zander, A.; Zeller, W.; Hossfeld, D. K.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of mdr1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was investigated in 53 normal and reactive bone marrows by means of immunocytochemistry, using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) C219 and the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method. In a limited number of patients, data were confirmed by using the mAb MRK16 or a polymerase chain reaction assay for mdr1 gene expression. There was no history of prior chemotherapy or any malignancy in this group. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained as part of a routine diagnostic programme in bone marrow donors or in patients presenting with a variety of diagnoses such as unexplained gammopathy, fever, anaemia, other changes in peripheral blood smear, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, or urticaria pigmentosa. Morphologically the bone marrow was normal in 23 patients, a megaloblastic erythropoiesis was seen in two patients and unspecific changes were seen in 28 patients. Twenty-seven of 53 samples were found to be positive for P-gp expression with the percentage of positive cells ranging from 2%-80% (mean = 24%). With a cutoff point of 10%, five of 23 normal (22%) and 13 of 28 reactive bone marrows (46%) were considered positive for P-gp expression. There was no obvious correlation between diagnosis or age and P-gp expression. Additional staining for the early surface marker CD-34 was performed in 12 samples, with none of them revealing more than 1% positivity. Since P-gp expression has so far been described only in CD-34 positive bone marrow cells, data suggest that P-gp expression may be reinduced in CD-34 negative cells under conditions which remain to be determined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8094974

  7. GENE AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION ASSOCIATED WITH PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND BREAKDOWN IN PARAPLEGIC SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    DRUMMOND, MICAH J.; GLYNN, ERIN L.; LUJAN, HEIDI L.; DICARLO, STEPHEN E.; RASMUSSEN, BLAKE B.

    2009-01-01

    Spinal cord injury reduces the rate of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and increases protein breakdown, resulting in rapid muscle loss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term paraplegia would eventually result in a downregulation of muscle mRNA and protein expression associated with both protein synthesis and breakdown. After 10 weeks of spinal cord transection, soleus muscle from 12 rats (6 sham-control, 6 paraplegic) was studied for mRNAs and proteins associated with protein synthesis and breakdown using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting techniques. Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and myogenin mRNA were downregulated, whereas muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) and phospho-forkhead transcription factor 4 (FoxO4) protein were increased in paraplegic rats. We conclude that gene and protein expression of pathways associated with protein synthesis are reduced, whereas some markers of protein breakdown remain elevated following chronic paraplegia. Clinical interventions designed to increase muscle protein synthesis may be helpful in preventing excessive muscle loss during long-term paraplegia. PMID:18236467

  8. Expression and Function of Bcl-2 Proteins in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Jrgen; Hossini, Amir M

    2008-01-01

    Bcl-2 proteins are critical regulators of mitochondrial membrane permeability and the proapoptotic mitochondrial pathway. The family encloses pro- and antiapoptotic factors encoded by over 15 genes, which frequently give rise to alternative splice products. Antiapoptotic, proapoptotic multidomain, and proapoptotic BH3-only proteins are characterized by the presence of at least one of four Bcl-2 homology domains (BH 1-4). Their expression and activities are controlled by survival pathways as MAP kinases and protein kinase B/Akt, which are in touch with a number of transcription factors. In melanoma, the mitochondrial apoptosis pathways and Bcl-2 proteins appear of particular importance for apoptosis resistance, which has been addressed in clinical trials applying antisense-Bcl-2. Overexpression or induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins as well as the use of small molecule mimetics for the proapoptotic BH3 domain are further promising strategies. PMID:19506730

  9. Using Green and Red Fluorescent Proteins to Teach Protein Expression, Purification, and Crystallization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhou, Yangbin; Song, Jiaping; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory curriculum using the green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) to visualize the cloning, expression, chromatography purification, crystallization, and protease-cleavage experiments of protein science. The EGFP and DsRed monomer (mDsRed)-coding sequences were amplified by PCR and cloned into pMAL (MBP-EGFP) or…

  10. PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND SECRETION BY TRICHODERMA REESEI UNDER LOW ENDOGENOUS PROTEIN BACKGROUND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is one of the most commonly used fungi for the manufacturing of industrial enzyme products. The fungus is capable of secreting proteins in levels up to 100 grams per liter. A number of homologous and heterologous proteins have been successfully over-expressed...

  11. Using Green and Red Fluorescent Proteins to Teach Protein Expression, Purification, and Crystallization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhou, Yangbin; Song, Jiaping; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory curriculum using the green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) to visualize the cloning, expression, chromatography purification, crystallization, and protease-cleavage experiments of protein science. The EGFP and DsRed monomer (mDsRed)-coding sequences were amplified by PCR and cloned into pMAL (MBP-EGFP) or

  12. Expression Trend of Selected Ribosomal Protein Genes in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiang-Ru; Sim, Edmund Ui-Hang; Ling, Teck-Yee; Tiong, Thung-Sing; Subramaniam, Selva Kumar; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ribosomal proteins are traditionally associated with protein biosynthesis until recent studies that implicated their extraribosomal functions in human diseases and cancers. Our previous studies using GeneFishing DEG method and microarray revealed underexpression of three ribosomal protein genes, RPS26, RPS27, and RPL32 in cancer of the nasopharynx. Herein, we investigated the expression pattern and nucleotide sequence integrity of these genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma to further delineate their involvement in tumourigenesis. The relationship of expression level with clinicopathologic factors was also statistically studied. Methods: Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed on nasopharyngeal carcinoma and their paired normal tissues. Expression and sequence of these three genes were analysed. Results: All three ribosomal protein genes showed no significant difference in transcript expressions and no association could be established with clinicopathologic factors studied. No nucleotide aberrancy was detected in the coding regions of these genes. Conclusion: There is no early evidence to substantiate possible involvement of RPS26, RPS27, and RPL32 genes in NPC tumourigenesis. PMID:23613646

  13. SURFACTANT PROTEIN D EXPRESSION IN NORMAL AND PNEUMONIC OVINE LUNG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surfactant Protein D (SP-D), a hydrophilic pulmonary surfactant collagenous calcium-dependent lectin with opsonizing activity, binds to surface glycoconjugates expressed by a wide variety of microorganisms such as Gram-negative bacteria, Influenza A virus, and various fungi as well as surface carboh...

  14. Heterologous Expression of Membrane Proteins: Choosing the Appropriate Host

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Nathalie; Dementin, Sébastien; Hivin, Patrick; Boutigny, Sylvain; Rioux, Jean-Baptiste; Salvi, Daniel; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Richaud, Pierre; Joyard, Jacques; Pignol, David; Sabaty, Monique; Desnos, Thierry; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Darrouzet, Elisabeth; Vernet, Thierry; Rolland, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Background Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides) and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells) hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals), functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes) and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments). The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. Conclusions/Significance Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein. PMID:22216205

  15. Methods and constructs for expression of foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms

    DOEpatents

    Laible, Philip D. (Villa Park, IL); Hanson, Deborah K. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method for expressing and purifying foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms comprising the simultaneous expression of both the heterologous protein and a means for compartmentalizing or sequestering of the protein.

  16. Image analysis and empirical modeling of gene and protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Trisnadi, Nathanie; Altinok, Alphan; Stathopoulos, Angelike; Reeves, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Protein gradients and gene expression patterns are major determinants in the differentiation and fate map of the developing embryo. Here we discuss computational methods to quantitatively measure the positions of gene expression domains and the gradients of protein expression along the dorsal-ventral axis in the Drosophila embryo. Our methodology involves three layers of data. The first layer, or the primary data, consists of z-stack confocal images of embryos processed by in situ hybridization and/or antibody stainings. The secondary data are relationships between location, usually an x-axis coordinate, and fluorescent intensity of gene or protein detection. Tertiary data comprise the optimal parameters that arise from fits of the secondary data to empirical models. The tertiary data are useful to distill large datasets of imaged embryos down to a tractable number of conceptually useful parameters. This analysis allows us to detect subtle phenotypes and is adaptable to any set of genes or proteins with a canonical pattern. For example, we show how insights into the Dorsal transcription factor protein gradient and its target gene ventral-neuroblasts defective (vnd) were obtained using such quantitative approaches. PMID:23104159

  17. Correlation of protein and gene expression profiles of inflammatory proteins after endotoxin challenge in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Uma; Conway, Theresa M; Murdock, Paul; Mooney, Jeff L; Clark, Steve; Hedge, Priti; Bond, Brian C; Jazwinska, Elizabeth C; Barnes, Michael R; Tobin, Frank; Damian-Iordachi, Valeriu; Greller, Larry; Hurle, Mark; Stubbs, Andrew P; Li, Zhong; Valoret, Elizabeth I; Erickson-Miller, Connie; Cass, Lisa; Levitt, Blanche; Davis, Hugh M; Jorkasky, Diane K; Williams, William V

    2005-07-01

    Administration of endotoxin (LPS) in humans results in profound physiological responses, including activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the release of inflammatory factors. The time course of the response of selected inflammatory proteins was examined in healthy subjects (n = 6) administered a single intravenous dose of the purified derivative of endotoxin (3.0 ng/kg). Microarray analysis demonstrated changes in the expression of a number of genes, which were confirmed in separate in vitro endotoxin stimulation experiments. Subsequent TaqMan analysis of genes of interest indicated time-dependent changes in the expression of many of these genes. This included pre-B cell enhancing factor, which was identified on microarray analysis as being markedly upregulated following endotoxin stimulation. Protein expression of the genes examined by TaqMan analysis was measured and demonstrated the appearance of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and sTNF-R proteins in the plasma beginning within 1 h after dosing, followed by other cytokines/ inflammatory markers (e.g., IL-1ra, G-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1 and SOCS-3). In general, cytokine protein expression correlated well with gene expression; however, the temporal profile of expression of some genes did not correlate well with the protein data. For many of these proteins, the lack of correlation was attributable to alternate tissue sources, which were demonstrated on TaqMan analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that cytokines could be grouped according to their temporal pattern of response, with most transcript levels returning to baseline 24 h following endotoxin administration. The combination of cDNA microarray and TaqMan analysis to identify and quantify changes in gene expression, along with the analysis of protein expression, can be useful in investigating inflammatory and other diseases. PMID:16008510

  18. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression

    SciTech Connect

    Doorbar, John

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E4 open reading frame (ORF) is contained within the E2 ORF, with the primary E4 gene-product (E1{sup ∧}E4) being translated from a spliced mRNA that includes the E1 initiation codon and adjacent sequences. E4 is located centrally within the E2 gene, in a region that encodes the E2 protein′s flexible hinge domain. Although a number of minor E4 transcripts have been reported, it is the product of the abundant E1{sup ∧}E4 mRNA that has been most extensively analysed. During the papillomavirus life cycle, the E1{sup ∧}E4 gene products generally become detectable at the onset of vegetative viral genome amplification as the late stages of infection begin. E4 contributes to genome amplification success and virus synthesis, with its high level of expression suggesting additional roles in virus release and/or transmission. In general, E4 is easily visualised in biopsy material by immunostaining, and can be detected in lesions caused by diverse papillomavirus types, including those of dogs, rabbits and cattle as well as humans. The E4 protein can serve as a biomarker of active virus infection, and in the case of high-risk human types also disease severity. In some cutaneous lesions, E4 can be expressed at higher levels than the virion coat proteins, and can account for as much as 30% of total lesional protein content. The E4 proteins of the Beta, Gamma and Mu HPV types assemble into distinctive cytoplasmic, and sometimes nuclear, inclusion granules. In general, the E4 proteins are expressed before L2 and L1, with their structure and function being modified, first by kinases as the infected cell progresses through the S and G2 cell cycle phases, but also by proteases as the cell exits the cell cycle and undergoes true terminal differentiation. The kinases that regulate E4 also affect other viral proteins simultaneously, and include protein kinase A, Cyclin-dependent kinase, members of the MAP Kinase family and protein kinase C. For HPV16 E1{sup ∧}E4, these kinases regulate one of the E1{sup ∧}E4 proteins main functions, the association with the cellular keratin network, and eventually also its cleavage by the protease calpain which allows assembly into amyloid-like fibres and reorganisation of the keratin network. Although the E4 proteins of different HPV types appear divergent at the level of their primary amino acid sequence, they share a recognisable modular organisation and pattern of expression, which may underlie conserved functions and regulation. Assembly into higher-order multimers and suppression of cell proliferation are common to all E4 proteins examined. Although not yet formally demonstrated, a role in virus release and transmission remains a likely function for E4. - Highlights: • E4 gene products have a modular structure, and are expressed from the E1{sup ∧}E4 spliced mRNA. • E4 proteins are modified during epithelial differentiation by phosphorylation and proteolysis. • The E4 proteins contribute to genome amplification-efficiency and virus synthesis. • E4 proteins are abundantly expressed and may facilitate efficient virus release and transmission. • High-risk E4 proteins are deposited as amyloid fibres and can be used as infection biomarkers.

  19. Expression, delivery and function of insecticidal proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, Jeremy A; Bonning, Bryony C; Harrison, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  20. Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Bonning, Bryony C.; Harrison, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  1. Functional expression and characterisation of membrane transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Haferkamp, I; Linka, N

    2012-09-01

    Membrane transporters set the framework organising the complexity of plant metabolism in cells, tissues and organisms. Their substrate specificity and controlled activity in different cells is a crucial part for plant metabolism to run pathways in concert. Transport proteins catalyse the uptake and exchange of ions, substrates, intermediates, products and cofactors across membranes. Given the large number of metabolites, a wide spectrum of transporters is required. The vast majority of in silico annotated membrane transporters in plant genomes, however, has not yet been functionally characterised. Hence, to understand the metabolic network as a whole, it is important to understand how transporters connect and control the metabolic pathways of plant cells. Heterologous expression and in vitro activity studies of recombinant transport proteins have highly improved their functional analysis in the last two decades. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in membrane protein expression and functional characterisation using various host systems and transport assays. PMID:22639981

  2. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-12-01

    With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  3. LCMS Based Detection of Differential Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Leepika; Ressom, Habtom W.

    2010-01-01

    While several techniques are available in proteomics, LC-MS based analysis of complex protein/peptide mixtures has turned out to be a mainstream analytical technique for quantitative proteomics. Significant technical advances at both sample preparation/separation and mass spectrometry levels have revolutionized comprehensive proteome analysis. Moreover, automation and robotics for sample handling process permit multiple sampling with high throughput. For LC-MS based quantitative proteomics, sample preparation turns out to be critical step, as it can significantly influence sensitivity of downstream analysis. Several sample preparation strategies exist, including depletion of high abundant proteins or enrichment steps that facilitate protein quantification but with a compromise of focusing on a smaller subset of a proteome. While several experimental strategies have emerged, certain limitations such as physiochemical properties of a peptide/protein, protein turnover in a sample, analytical platform used for sample analysis and data processing, still imply challenges to quantitative proteomics. Other aspects that make analysis of a proteome a challenging task include dynamic nature of a proteome, need for efficient and fast analysis of protein due to its constant modifications inside a cell, concentration range of proteins that exceed dynamic range of a single analytical method, and absence of appropriate bioinformatics tools for analysis of large volume and high dimensional data. This paper gives an overview of various LC-MS methods currently used in quantitative proteomics and their potential for detecting differential protein expression. Fundamental steps such as sample preparation, LC separation, mass spectrometry, quantitative assessment and protein identification are discussed. For quantitative assessment of protein expression, both label and label free approaches are evaluated for their set of merits and demerits. While most of these methods edge on providing relative abundance information, absolute quantification is achieved with limitation as it caters to fewer proteins. Isotope labeling is extensively used for quantifying differentially expressed proteins, but is severely limited by successful incorporation of its heavy label. Lengthy labeling protocols restrict the number of samples that can be labeled and processed. Alternatively, label free approach appears promising as it can process many samples with any number of comparisons possible but entails reproducible experimental data for its application. PMID:20473349

  4. Easy mammalian expression and crystallography of maltose-binding protein-fused human proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bokhove, Marcel; Sadat Al Hosseini, Hamed; Saito, Takako; Dioguardi, Elisa; Gegenschatz-Schmid, Katharina; Nishimura, Kaoru; Raj, Isha; de Sanctis, Daniele; Han, Ling; Jovine, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We present a strategy to obtain milligrams of highly post-translationally modified eukaryotic proteins, transiently expressed in mammalian cells as rigid or cleavable fusions with a mammalianized version of bacterial maltose-binding protein (mMBP). This variant was engineered to combine mutations that enhance MBP solubility and affinity purification, as well as provide crystal-packing interactions for increased crystallizability. Using this cell type-independent approach, we could increase the expression of secreted and intracellular human proteins up to 200-fold. By molecular replacement with MBP, we readily determined five novel high-resolution structures of rigid fusions of targets that otherwise defied crystallization. PMID:26850170

  5. Easy mammalian expression and crystallography of maltose-binding protein-fused human proteins.

    PubMed

    Bokhove, Marcel; Sadat Al Hosseini, Hamed; Saito, Takako; Dioguardi, Elisa; Gegenschatz-Schmid, Katharina; Nishimura, Kaoru; Raj, Isha; de Sanctis, Daniele; Han, Ling; Jovine, Luca

    2016-04-01

    We present a strategy to obtain milligrams of highly post-translationally modified eukaryotic proteins, transiently expressed in mammalian cells as rigid or cleavable fusions with a mammalianized version of bacterial maltose-binding protein (mMBP). This variant was engineered to combine mutations that enhance MBP solubility and affinity purification, as well as provide crystal-packing interactions for increased crystallizability. Using this cell type-independent approach, we could increase the expression of secreted and intracellular human proteins up to 200-fold. By molecular replacement with MBP, we readily determined five novel high-resolution structures of rigid fusions of targets that otherwise defied crystallization. PMID:26850170

  6. Expression of MDR1/P glycoprotein in human sarcomas.

    PubMed Central

    Vergier, B.; Cany, L.; Bonnet, F.; Robert, J.; de Mascarel, A.; Coindre, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicting reports of MDR1 gene expression in human tumours are observed according to whether studies are performed at the mRNA or P-glycoprotein level. We have investigated this expression in 22 clinically drug-resistant sarcomas at the mRNA level by Northern blot (NB), Dot blot (DB), in situ hybridisation (ISH), and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using three monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs): C219, JSB1, MRK16. Increased MDR1 mRNA expression was detected by NB, DB, and ISH in 1/22 sarcoma (an Ewing's sarcoma). ISH was perfectly correlated with DB hybridisation and confirmed the expression of tumoral cells alone. Specific staining of 100% of tumoral cells was obtained with the three MoAbs in the same sarcoma. Expression in tumoral cells of 12 other sarcomas was detected with MRK16, and positive staining of stromal cells with both C219 (1/22) and MRK16 (8/22) was observed. This study confirms that MDR1 overexpression occurs in human sarcomas but is not the principal mechanism of drug-resistance. Furthermore, positivity with one antibody does not necessarily imply the presence of P glycoprotein (P-gp) and a disparity may exist between the levels of P-gp and its mRNA in the same sample. So care must be taken in interpreting results and more sensitive techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could prove useful. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7903154

  7. Universal genetic assay for engineering extracellular protein expression.

    PubMed

    Haitjema, Charles H; Boock, Jason T; Natarajan, Aravind; Dominguez, Miguel A; Gardner, Jeffrey G; Keating, David H; Withers, Sydnor T; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2014-02-21

    A variety of strategies now exist for the extracellular expression of recombinant proteins using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli . However, secreted proteins often accumulate in the culture medium at levels that are too low to be practically useful for most synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. The situation is compounded by the lack of generalized screening tools for optimizing the secretion process. To address this challenge, we developed a genetic approach for studying and engineering protein-secretion pathways in E. coli . Using the YebF pathway as a model, we demonstrate that direct fluorescent labeling of tetracysteine-motif-tagged secretory proteins with the biarsenical compound FlAsH is possible in situ without the need to recover the cell-free supernatant. High-throughput screening of a bacterial strain library yielded superior YebF expression hosts capable of secreting higher titers of YebF and YebF-fusion proteins into the culture medium. We also show that the method can be easily extended to other secretory pathways, including type II and type III secretion, directly in E. coli . Thus, our FlAsH-tetracysteine-based genetic assay provides a convenient, high-throughput tool that can be applied generally to diverse secretory pathways. This platform should help to shed light on poorly understood aspects of these processes as well as to further assist in the construction of engineered E. coli strains for efficient secretory-protein production. PMID:24200127

  8. Changes in protein expression during honey bee larval development

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Queenie WT; Foster, Leonard J

    2008-01-01

    Background The honey bee (Apis mellifera), besides its role in pollination and honey production, serves as a model for studying the biochemistry of development, metabolism, and immunity in a social organism. Here we use mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to quantify nearly 800 proteins during the 5- to 6-day larval developmental stage, tracking their expression profiles. Results We report that honey bee larval growth is marked by an age-correlated increase of protein transporters and receptors, as well as protein nutrient stores, while opposite trends in protein translation activity and turnover were observed. Levels of the immunity factors prophenoloxidase and apismin are positively correlated with development, while others surprisingly were not significantly age-regulated, suggesting a molecular explanation for why bees are susceptible to major age-associated bee bacterial infections such as American Foulbrood or fungal diseases such as chalkbrood. Previously unreported findings include the reduction of antioxidant and G proteins in aging larvae. Conclusion These data have allowed us to integrate disparate findings in previous studies to build a model of metabolism and maturity of the immune system during larval development. This publicly accessible resource for protein expression trends will help generate new hypotheses in the increasingly important field of honey bee research. PMID:18959778

  9. Expression and Targeting of Secreted Proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Bauler, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates in a vacuole termed the inclusion. Many of the interactions of chlamydiae with the host cell are dependent upon bacterial protein synthesis and presumably exposure of these proteins to the cytosol. Because of the dearth of genetic tools for chlamydiae, previous studies examining secreted proteins required the use of heterologous bacterial systems. Recent advances in genetic manipulation of chlamydia now allow for transformation of the bacteria with plasmids. We describe here a shuttle vector system, pBOMB4, that permits expression of recombinant proteins under constitutive or conditional promoter control. We show that the inclusion membrane protein IncD is secreted in a type III-dependent manner from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and also secreted from C. trachomatis in infected cells where it localizes appropriately to the inclusion membrane. IncD truncated of the first 30 amino acids containing the secretion signal is no longer secreted and is retained by the bacteria. Cytosolic exposure of secreted proteins can be confirmed by using CyaA, GSK, or microinjection assays. A protein predicted to be retained within the bacteria, NrdB is indeed localized to the chlamydia. In addition, we have shown that the chlamydial effector protein, CPAF, which is secreted into the host cell cytosol by a Sec-dependent pathway, also accesses the cytosol when expressed from this system. These assays should prove useful to assess the secretion of other chlamydial proteins that are potentially exposed to the cytosol of the host cell. PMID:24443531

  10. Pannexin Protein Expression in the Rat Middle Cerebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Alan R.; Phillips, Sharon C.; Sokoya, Elke M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Connexin proteins are well known to participate in cell-to-cell communication within the cerebral vasculature. Pannexins are a recently discovered family of proteins that could potentially be involved in cell-to-cell communication. Herein, we sought to determine whether pannexins are expressed in rat middle cerebral artery (MCA). Methods A combination of RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry techniques was used to characterize the expression pattern of pannexins in rat MCA. A fluorescent dye uptake approach in cultured smooth muscle cells was used to determine whether these cells have functional hemichannels. Results We report for the first time that pannexins are expressed in the cerebral vasculature. We reveal that pannexin 1 is expressed in smooth muscle but not in endothelium and pannexin 2 is expressed in both endothelium and smooth muscle. Fluorescent dye entered cultured smooth muscle cells in the absence of extracellular calcium or when the cells were depolarized, which was prevented by the putative hemichannel blocker carbenoxolone. Conclusions The identification of pannexins in rat MCA indicates that pannexin expression is not restricted to neuronal cells. Dye uptake in cultured smooth muscle cells exhibited properties similar to those of connexin and pannexin hemichannels, which may represent another form of cell-to-cell communication within the vasculature. PMID:22301733

  11. Altered Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Accessory Proteins in Murine and Human Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Noelle; Gaynor, Katherine U; Rowan, Simon C; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurelie; Boylan, John; Keane, Michael P; McLoughlin, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive fibrotic disease with a poor prognosis. The balance between transforming growth factor ?1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays an important role in tissue homeostasis, and alterations can result in pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that multiple BMP accessory proteins may be responsible for maintaining this balance in the lung. Using the bleomycin mouse model for fibrosis, we examined an array of BMP accessory proteins for changes in mRNA expression. We report significant increases in mRNA expression of gremlin 1, noggin, follistatin, and follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), and significant decreases in mRNA expression of chordin, kielin/chordin-like protein, nephroblastoma overexpressed gene, and BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI). Protein expression studies demonstrated increased levels of noggin, BAMBI, and FSTL1 in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice and in the lungs of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that transforming growth factor ? stimulation resulted in increased expression of noggin, BAMBI, and FSTL1 in human small airway epithelial cells. These results provide the first evidence that multiple BMP accessory proteins are altered in fibrosis and may play a role in promoting fibrotic injury. PMID:26765958

  12. G-protein coupled receptor expression patterns delineate medulloblastoma subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Genetic profiling has identified four principle tumor subgroups; each subgroup is characterized by different initiating mutations, genetic and clinical profiles, and prognoses. The two most well-defined subgroups are caused by overactive signaling in the WNT and SHH mitogenic pathways; less is understood about Groups 3 and 4 medulloblastoma. Identification of tumor subgroup using molecular classification is set to become an important component of medulloblastoma diagnosis and staging, and will likely guide therapeutic options. However, thus far, few druggable targets have emerged. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess characteristics that make them ideal targets for molecular imaging and therapeutics; drugs targeting GPCRs account for 30-40% of all current pharmaceuticals. While expression patterns of many proteins in human medulloblastoma subgroups have been discerned, the expression pattern of GPCRs in medulloblastoma has not been investigated. We hypothesized that analysis of GPCR expression would identify clear subsets of medulloblastoma and suggest distinct GPCRs that might serve as molecular targets for both imaging and therapy. Results Our study found that medulloblastoma tumors fall into distinct clusters based solely on GPCR expression patterns. Normal cerebellum clustered separately from the tumor samples. Further, two of the tumor clusters correspond with high fidelity to the WNT and SHH subgroups of medulloblastoma. Distinct over-expressed GPCRs emerge; for example, LGR5 and GPR64 are significantly and uniquely over-expressed in the WNT subgroup of tumors, while PTGER4 is over-expressed in the SHH subgroup. Uniquely under-expressed GPCRs were also observed. Our key findings were independently validated using a large international dataset. Conclusions Our results identify GPCRs with potential to act as imaging and therapeutic targets. Elucidating tumorigenic pathways is a secondary benefit to identifying differential GPCR expression patterns in medulloblastoma tumors. PMID:24252460

  13. Differentially Expressed Proteins in Malignant and Benign Adrenocortical Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kjellin, Hanna; Johansson, Henrik; Hg, Anders; Lehti, Janne

    2014-01-01

    We have compared the microsomal protein composition of eight malignant and six benign adrenocortical tumors with proteomic methods. IGF2 had increased level in the malignant tumors, confirming previous microarray studies on the same material. Aldolase A, a glycolytic enzyme, also showed increased levels in the malignant tissue compared to the benign. Additionally, several proteins belonging to complex I in the mitochondrial respiration chain showed decreased levels in the malignant tissue. Taken together, this may indicate a shift in energy metabolism where glycolysis may be favored over tight coupling of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One of the complex I proteins that showed decreased levels in the malignant tissue was GRIM-19. This protein has been suggested as a tumor suppressive protein by being a negative regulator of STAT3. In summary, an analysis of the microsomal proteome in adrenocortical tumors identifies groups of proteins as well as specific proteins differentially expressed in the benign and malignant forms. These proteins shed light on the biology behind malignancy and could delineate future drug targets. PMID:24498411

  14. Expression of hepatitis B virus X protein in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jun; Yao, Yu-Cheng; Zi, Xiao-Yuan; Li, Jian-Xiu; Wang, Xin-Min; Ye, Xu-Ting; Zhao, Shu-Min; Yan, Yong-Bi; Yu, Hong-Yu; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To establish a mice model harboring hepatitis B virus x gene (adr subtype) for studying the function of hepatitis B virus X protein, a transactivator of viral and cellular promoter/enhancer elements. METHODS: Expression vector pcDNA3-HBx, containing CMV promoter and hepatitis B virus x gene open reading fragment, was constructed by recombination DNA technique. Hela cells were cultured in DMEM and transfected with pcDNA3-HBx or control pcDNA3 plasmids using FuGENE6 Transfection Reagent. Expression of pcDNA3-HBx vectors in the transfected Hela cells was confirmed by Western blotting. After restriction endonuclease digestion, the coding elements were microinjected into male pronuclei of mice zygotes. The pups were evaluated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at genomic DNA level. The x gene transgenic mice founders were confirmed at protein level by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunogold transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Expression vector pcDNA3-HBx was constructed by recombination DNA technique and identified right by restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA direct sequencing. With Western blotting, hepatitis X protein was detected in Hela cells transfected with pcDNA3-HBx plasmids, suggesting pcDNA3-HBx plasmids could express in eukaryotic cells. Following microinjection of coding sequence of pcDNA3-HBx, the embryos were transferred to oviducts of psedopregnant females. Four pups were born and survived. Two of them were verified to have the HBx gene integrated in their genomic DNA by multiplex PCR assay, and named C57-TgN (HBx)S MMU1 and C57-TgN (HB x) SMMU3 respectively. They expressed 17KD X protein in liver tissue by Western blotting assay. With the immunohistochemistry, X protein was detected mainly in hepatocytes cytoplasm of transgenic mice, which was furthermore confirmed by immunogold transmission electon microscopy. CONCLUSION: We have constructed the expression vector pcDNA3-HBx that can be used to study the function of HBx gene in eukaryotic cells in vitro. We also established HBx gene (adr subtype) transgenic mice named C57-TgN (HBx) SMMU harboring HBx gene in their genome and express X protein in hepatocytes, Which might be a valuable animal system for studying the roles of HBx gene in hepatitis B virus life cycle and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo. PMID:12508363

  15. Expression of interleukin-17RC protein in normal human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongxia; You, Zongbing

    2008-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17) cytokines and receptors play an important role in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-17 receptors IL-17RA and IL-17RC have been found to form a heterodimer for mediating the signals of IL-17A and IL-17F cytokines. While the function and signaling pathway of IL-17RA has been revealed, IL-17RC has not been well characterized. The function and signaling pathway of IL-17RC remain largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to systematically examine IL-17RC protein expression in 53 human tissues. Results IL-17RC expression in 51 normal human tissues and two benign tumors (i.e., lymphangioma and parathyroid adenoma) on the tissue microarrays was determined by immunohistochemical staining, using two polyclonal antibodies against IL-17RC. IL-17RC protein was expressed in many cell types including the myocardial cells, vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells, glandular cells (of the adrenal, parathyroid, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, parotid salivary, and subepidermal glands), epithelial cells (of the esophagus, stomach, intestine, anus, renal tubule, breast, cervix, Fallopian tube, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate, gallbladder, bronchus, lung, and skin), oocytes in the ovary, Sertoli cells in the testis, motor neurons in the spinal cord, autonomic ganglia and nerves in the intestine, skeletal muscle cells, adipocytes, articular chondrocytes, and synovial cells. High levels of IL-17RC protein expression were observed in most vascular and lymphatic endothelium and squamous epithelium. The epithelium of the breast, cervix, Fallopian tube, kidney, bladder and bronchus also expressed high levels of IL-17RC, so did the glandular cells in the adrenal cortex, parotid salivary and subepidermal glands. In contrast, IL-17RC protein was not detectable in the smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, antral mucosa of the stomach, mucosa of the colon, endometrium of the uterus, neurons of the brain, hepatocytes, or lymphocytes. Nevertheless, IL-17RC protein was expressed in the vascular endothelium within the tissues where the IL-17RC-negative cells resided. Conclusion IL-17RC protein is expressed in most human tissues, the function of which warrants further investigation. PMID:18928529

  16. Expression screening of fusion partners from an E. coli genome for soluble expression of recombinant proteins in a cell-free protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin-Ho; Keum, Jung-Won; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2011-01-01

    While access to soluble recombinant proteins is essential for a number of proteome studies, preparation of purified functional proteins is often limited by the protein solubility. In this study, potent solubility-enhancing fusion partners were screened from the repertoire of endogenous E. coli proteins. Based on the presumed correlation between the intracellular abundance and folding efficiency of proteins, PCR-amplified ORFs of a series of highly abundant E. coli proteins were fused with aggregation-prone heterologous proteins and then directly expressed for quantitative estimation of the expression efficiency of soluble translation products. Through two-step screening procedures involving the expression of 552 fusion constructs targeted against a series of cytokine proteins, we were able to discover a number of endogenous E. coli proteins that dramatically enhanced the soluble expression of the target proteins. This strategy of cell-free expression screening can be extended to quantitative, global analysis of genomic resources for various purposes. PMID:22073212

  17. Expression Screening of Fusion Partners from an E. coli Genome for Soluble Expression of Recombinant Proteins in a Cell-Free Protein Synthesis System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Myung

    2011-01-01

    While access to soluble recombinant proteins is essential for a number of proteome studies, preparation of purified functional proteins is often limited by the protein solubility. In this study, potent solubility-enhancing fusion partners were screened from the repertoire of endogenous E. coli proteins. Based on the presumed correlation between the intracellular abundance and folding efficiency of proteins, PCR-amplified ORFs of a series of highly abundant E. coli proteins were fused with aggregation-prone heterologous proteins and then directly expressed for quantitative estimation of the expression efficiency of soluble translation products. Through two-step screening procedures involving the expression of 552 fusion constructs targeted against a series of cytokine proteins, we were able to discover a number of endogenous E. coli proteins that dramatically enhanced the soluble expression of the target proteins. This strategy of cell-free expression screening can be extended to quantitative, global analysis of genomic resources for various purposes. PMID:22073212

  18. Production of therapeutic proteins in algae, analysis of expression of seven human proteins in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Rasala, Beth A; Muto, Machiko; Lee, Philip A; Jager, Michal; Cardoso, Rosa M F; Behnke, Craig A; Kirk, Peter; Hokanson, Craig A; Crea, Roberto; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2010-08-01

    Recombinant proteins are widely used today in many industries, including the biopharmaceutical industry, and can be expressed in bacteria, yeasts, mammalian and insect cell cultures, or in transgenic plants and animals. In addition, transgenic algae have also been shown to support recombinant protein expression, both from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. However, to date, there are only a few reports on recombinant proteins expressed in the algal chloroplast. It is unclear whether this is because of few attempts or of limitations of the system that preclude expression of many proteins. Thus, we sought to assess the versatility of transgenic algae as a recombinant protein production platform. To do this, we tested whether the algal chloroplast could support the expression of a diverse set of current or potential human therapeutic proteins. Of the seven proteins chosen, >50% expressed at levels sufficient for commercial production. Three expressed at 2%-3% of total soluble protein, while a forth protein accumulated to similar levels when translationally fused to a well-expressed serum amyloid protein. All of the algal chloroplast-expressed proteins are soluble and showed biological activity comparable to that of the same proteins expressed using traditional production platforms. Thus, the success rate, expression levels, and bioactivity achieved demonstrate the utility of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a robust platform for human therapeutic protein production. PMID:20230484

  19. Stepwise optimization of a low-temperature Bacillus subtilis expression system for "difficult to express" proteins.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Norma; Homuth, Georg; Schweder, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the overproduction of "difficult to express" proteins, a low-temperature expression system for Bacillus subtilis based on the cold-inducible promoter of the desaturase-encoding des gene was constructed. Selected regulatory DNA sequence elements from B. subtilis genes known to be cold-inducible were fused to different model genes. It could be demonstrated that these regulatory elements are able to mediate increased heterologous gene expression, either by improved translation efficiency or by higher messenger RNA (mRNA) stability. In case of a cold-adapted β-galactosidase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE79A serving as the model, significantly higher expression was achieved by fusing its coding sequence to the so-called "downstream box" sequence of cspB encoding the major B. subtilis cold-shock protein. The combination of this fusion with a cspB 5'-UTR stem-loop structure resulted in further enhancement of the β-galactosidase expression. In addition, integration of the transcription terminator of the B. subtilis cold-inducible bkd operon downstream of the target genes caused a higher mRNA stability and enabled thus a further significant increase in expression. Finally, the fully optimized expression system was validated by overproducing a B. subtilis xylanase as well as an α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the latter known for tending to form inclusion bodies. These analyses verified the applicability of the engineered expression system for extracellular and intracellular protein synthesis in B. subtilis, thereby confirming the suitability of this host organism for the overproduction of critical, poorly soluble proteins. PMID:25851716

  20. Expression analysis of Tudor-SN protein in mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Fashe, Tekele; Saarikettu, Juha; Isomki, Pia; Yang, Jie; Silvennoinen, Olli

    2013-02-01

    Tudor-SN (SND1, p100) has been shown to function as a transcriptional coactivator as well as a modulator of RNA metabolism and biogenesis and a component in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Tudor-SN consists of five repeats of staphylococcus nuclease-like domains (SN1-SN5) and, a Tudor domain implicated in binding to methylated ligands. The protein is highly conserved through evolution from fission yeast to mammals and it exists as a single gene without any close homologs. Tudor-SN is found to be overexpressed in several cancers such as colon adenocarcinomas and prostate cancer. The conservation of Tudor-SN along evolution suggests it may have important functions; however, the physiological function of Tudor-SN has not yet been characterized. In this study we analyzed the expression and localization of Tudor-SN in mouse tissues and organs by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-qPCR. Expression analysis indicated that Tudor-SN is widely expressed in most organs with the exception of muscle cells. Up-regulated expression was observed in rapidly dividing cells and progenitor cells such as in spermatogonial cells in testis, in the follicular cells of ovary, in the cells of crypts of Lieberkhn of ileum and basal keratinocytes of skin and hair follicle when compared to more differentiated or terminally differentiated cells in the respective organs. Moreover, Tudor-SN was robustly expressed in T-cells and Tudor-SN was co-expressed with CD3 in T-cells in the Peyer's patch, spleen and lymph node. The wide expression pattern of Tudor-SN and high expression in proliferating and self-differentiating cells suggests that the protein serves functions related to activated state of cells. PMID:23068188

  1. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-04-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress.

  2. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  3. Epithelial membrane protein 1 expression in ovarian serous tumors

    PubMed Central

    DEMIRAG, GUZIN GONULLU; KEFELI, MEHMET; KEMAL, YASEMIN; YUCEL, IDRIS

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the clinical significance of epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) expression in ovarian serous tumors. A total of 84 cases of ovarian serous tumor (50 patients with malignant ovarian serous tumors and 34 patients with borderline and benign serous tumors) were retrospectively analyzed. Differences in the expression levels of EMP1 between the malignant and non-malignant tumor groups were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, the association between EMP1 expression and prognostic factors in malignant ovarian serous tumors was investigated. The expression levels of EMP1 were significantly reduced in all the 50 malignant ovarian serous tumors, compared with the 34 non-malignant ovarian serous tumors (P<0.000). Reduced expression of EMP1 was correlated with high grade (P=0.009) and stage (P<0.000) of malignant tumors. EMP1 expression was not observed to be correlated with any other investigated parameters, including surgery, type of operation and chemotherapy response (P>0.005). These results indicated that EMP1 may have a significant role as a negative regulator in ovarian serous tumors, and reduced EMP1 expression in serous tumors may be associated with increased disease severity.

  4. Transcriptional Modulation of Heat-Shock Protein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Stephanou, Anastasis; Latchman, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that are ubiquitously expressed but are also induced in cells exposed to stressful stimuli. Hsps have been implicated in the induction and propagation of several diseases. This paper focuses on regulatory factors that control the transcription of the genes encoding Hsps. We also highlight how distinct transcription factors are able to interact and modulate Hsps in different pathological states. Thus, a better understanding of the complex signaling pathways regulating Hsp expression may lead to novel therapeutic targets. PMID:21152185

  5. Evaluation of TPGS-modified thermo-sensitive Pluronic PF127 hydrogel as a potential carrier to reverse the resistance of P-gp-overexpressing SMMC-7721 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Jianli; Hao, Daifeng; Wei, Pei; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Guiyang

    2016-04-01

    In the present studies locally injectable docetaxel nanocrystals loaded d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-modified Pluronic F127 (DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127) thermo-sensitive hydrogels were prepared to reverse drug resistance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing human liver cancer SMMC-7721 tumors. Firstly, DOC nanosuspensions with mean particle size of 196nm were prepared and dispersed into series of mixed solutions containing PF127 and TPGS of different ratios to obtain DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127 hydrogels. DOC NCs, exhibiting a uniform distribution and very good physical stability during three sol-gel cycles in the hydrogel network, did not influence the gelation temperature. Swelling-dependent release pattern was found for DOC NCs from hydrogels and release profiles could be well fitted by the Peppas equation. MTT test showed that hydrogels containing 0% or 0.1% TPGS had no cytotoxicity against L929 fibroblasts. Both DOC solution and DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127 hydrogels exhibited obvious cytotoxicity against sensitive SMMC-7721 cells. When resistant SMMC7721 cells were treated, DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127 hydrogels showed significantly higher cytotoxicity compared with DOC solution and hydrogels containing no TPGS (DOC-NCs-PF127), with markedly lower IC50 and resistant index (RI). After intratumoral injection in SMMC-7721/RT tumor xenograft Balb/c mice model, DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127 hydrogels exhibited about 5-fold increase and 1.8-fold increase in the inhibition rate of tumor growth compared with intravenous and intratumoral injection of DOC solution, respectively. It could be concluded that TPGS-modified PF127 thermo-sensitive hydrogel was an excellent locally injectable carrier to reverse P-gp overexpression associated multi-drug resistance. PMID:26764117

  6. Autophagy and lysosomal related protein expression patterns in human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Mitrakas, Achileas; Kalamida, Dimitra; Zois, Christos E; Haider, Syed; Piperidou, Charitomeni; Pappa, Aglaia; Gatter, Kevin C; Harris, Adrian L; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma cells are resistant to apoptotic stimuli with autophagic death prevailing under cytotoxic stress. Autophagy interfering agents may represent a new strategy to test in combination with chemo-radiation. We investigated the patterns of expression of autophagy related proteins (LC3A, LC3B, p62, Beclin 1, ULK1 and ULK2) in a series of patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy. Experiments with glioblastoma cell lines (T98 and U87) were also performed to assess autophagic response under conditions simulating the adverse intratumoral environment. Glioblastomas showed cytoplasmic overexpression of autophagic proteins in a varying extent, so that cases could be grouped into low and high expression groups. 10/23, 5/23, 13/23, 5/23, 8/23 and 9/23 cases examined showed extensive expression of LC3A, LC3B, Beclin 1, Ulk 1, Ulk 2 and p62, respectively. Lysosomal markers Cathepsin D and LAMP2a, as well as the lyososomal biogenesis transcription factor TFEB were frequently overexpressed in glioblastomas (10/23, 11/23, and 10/23 cases, respectively). TFEB was directly linked with PTEN, Cathepsin D, HIF1?, LC3B, Beclin 1 and p62 expression. PTEN was also significantly related with LC3B but not LC3A expression, in both immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis. Confocal microscopy in T98 and U87 cell lines showed distinct identity of LC3A and LC3B autophagosomes. The previously reported stone-like structure (SLS) pattern of LC3 expression was related with prognosis. SLS were inducible in glioblastoma cell lines under exposure to acidic conditions and 2DG mediated glucose antagonism. The present study provides the basis for autophagic characterization of human glioblastoma for further translational studies and targeted therapy trials. PMID:25482944

  7. Expression of COX-2 proteins in gastric mucosal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lian-Zhen; Gao, Heng-Jun; Bai, Jian-Feng; Sun, Gu; Zhao, Han-Lin; Sun, Liang; Miu, Kun; Zhao, Zhi-Quan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of COX-2 proteins in gastric mucosal lesions and to assess the relationship between COX-2 expression and type, pathologic stage, differentiation, or lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer and the relationship between COX-2 expression and H pylori infection in gastric mucosal lesions. METHODS: Thirty patients with gastric carcinoma underwent surgical resection. Samples were taken from tumor site and paracancerous tissues, and ABC immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of COX-2 proteins. H pylori was determined by rapid urea test combined with pathological stating/14C urea breath test. RESULTS: The positive rate and staining intensity of mutant COX-2 gene expression in gastric cancer were significantly higher than those in paracancerous tissues (66.7% vs 26.7%) (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between COX-2 and pathologic stage or lymph node metastasis type of gastric carcinoma (76.0% vs 20.0%, 79.2% vs 16.7%) (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between COX-2 expression and type or grade of differentiation (P > 0.05). COX-2 expression of intestinal metaplasia (IM) or dysplasia (DYS) with positive H pylori was significantly higher than that with negative H pylori (50.6% vs 18.1%, 60.0% vs 33.3%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: COX-2 overexpression was found in a large proportion of gastric cancer tissues compared with matched non-cancerous tissues and was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of COX-2 plays an important role in tumor progression of gastric cancer. COX-2 may also play a role in the early development/promotion of gastric carcinoma and is associated with H pylori infection. PMID:14716842

  8. Ribozymes, riboswitches and beyond: regulation of gene expression without proteins

    PubMed Central

    Serganov, Alexander; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Although various functions of RNA are carried out in conjunction with proteins, some catalytic RNAs, or ribozymes, which contribute to a range of cellular processes, require little or no assistance from proteins. Furthermore, the discovery of metabolite-sensing riboswitches and other types of RNA sensors has revealed RNA-based mechanisms that cells use to regulate gene expression in response to internal and external changes. Structural studies have shown how these RNAs can carry out a range of functions. In addition, the contribution of ribozymes and riboswitches to gene expression is being revealed as far more widespread than was previously appreciated. These findings have implications for understanding how cellular functions might have evolved from RNA-based origins. PMID:17846637

  9. Expression data on liver metabolic pathway genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Raja Gopal Reddy, Mooli; Pavan Kumar, Chodisetti; Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Sravan Kumar, Manchiryala; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-03-01

    Here, we present the expression data on various metabolic pathways of liver with special emphasize on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis, both at gene and protein levels. The data were obtained to understand the effect of vitamin A deficiency on the expression status (both gene and protein levels) of some of the key factors involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, triglyceride secretion, long chain PUFA, resolvin D1 synthesis, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis of liver, using modern biology tools, such as quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting techniques. This data article provides the supporting evidence to the article "Vitamin A deficiency suppresses high fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis and elevates resolvin D1 levels" [1] and therefore, these data may be referred back, for comprehensive understanding and interpretations and for future studies. PMID:26909377

  10. Expression data on liver metabolic pathway genes and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Raja Gopal Reddy, Mooli; Pavan Kumar, Chodisetti; Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Sravan Kumar, Manchiryala; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the expression data on various metabolic pathways of liver with special emphasize on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis, both at gene and protein levels. The data were obtained to understand the effect of vitamin A deficiency on the expression status (both gene and protein levels) of some of the key factors involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, triglyceride secretion, long chain PUFA, resolvin D1 synthesis, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis of liver, using modern biology tools, such as quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting techniques. This data article provides the supporting evidence to the article Vitamin A deficiency suppresses high fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis and elevates resolvin D1 levels [1] and therefore, these data may be referred back, for comprehensive understanding and interpretations and for future studies. PMID:26909377

  11. Improving Protein Expression Prediction Using Extra Features and Ensemble Averaging

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Armando; Vinga, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The article focus is the improvement of machine learning models capable of predicting protein expression levels based on their codon encoding. Support vector regression (SVR) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to create the models. SVR yields predictions that surpass those of PLS. It is shown that it is possible to improve the models predictive ability by using two more input features, codon identification number and codon count, besides the already used codon bias and minimum free energy. In addition, applying ensemble averaging to the SVR or PLS models also improves the results even further. The present work motivates the test of different ensembles and features with the aim of improving the prediction models whose correlation coefficients are still far from perfect. These results are relevant for the optimization of codon usage and enhancement of protein expression levels in synthetic biology problems. PMID:26934190

  12. HIV-1 Tat Protein Enhances Expression and Function of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yancong; Zhang, Kun; Yin, Xiaojie; Nie, Qichang; Ma, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters can transfer a variety of antiviral agents from the cytoplasm to body fluid, which results in a reduced intracellular concentration of the drugs. Proteins of HIV-1, e.g., Tat and gp120, altered some types of ABC transporter expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. However, the effect of Tat on ABC transporters in T lymphocytes is unclear. In this study the status of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in Tat expressing cell lines was examined with real-time PCR and flow cytometry. It was found that HIV-1 Tat protein upregulated BCRP expression and enhanced efflux mediated by BCRP significantly, which could inhibit antiviral drugs from entering infected cells and interfere with the therapeutic effect of HAART. PMID:26367065

  13. Cooperative working of bacterial chromosome replication proteins generated by a reconstituted protein expression system

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kei; Katayama, Tsutomu; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.

    2013-01-01

    Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription–translation–replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a reconstituted transcription–translation system (PURE system). We found that low temperature is essential to express a complex protein, DNA polymerase III, in a single tube using the PURE system. Addition of the 13 genes, encoding initiator, DNA helicase, helicase loader, RNA primase and DNA polymerase III to the PURE system gave rise to a DNA replication system by a coupling manner. An artificial genetic circuit demonstrated that the DNA produced as a result of the replication is able to provide genetic information for proteins, indicating the in vitro central dogma can sequentially undergo two rounds. PMID:23737447

  14. Bacteriophage membrane protein P9 as a fusion partner for the efficient expression of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yuna; Jung, Hyeim; Lim, Dongbin

    2015-12-01

    Despite their important roles and economic values, studies of membrane proteins have been hampered by the difficulties associated with obtaining sufficient amounts of protein. Here, we report a novel membrane protein expression system that uses the major envelope protein (P9) of phage ?6 as an N-terminal fusion partner. Phage membrane protein P9 facilitated the synthesis of target proteins and their integration into the Escherichia coli cell membrane. This system was used to produce various multi-pass transmembrane proteins, including G-protein-coupled receptors, transporters, and ion channels of human origin. Green fluorescent protein fusion was used to confirm the correct folding of the expressed proteins. Of the 14 membrane proteins tested, eight were highly expressed, three were moderately expressed, and three were barely expressed in E. coli. Seven of the eight highly expressed proteins could be purified after extraction with the mild detergent lauryldimethylamine-oxide. Although a few proteins have previously been developed as fusion partners to augment membrane protein production, we believe that the major envelope protein P9 described here is better suited to the efficient expression of eukaryotic transmembrane proteins in E. coli. PMID:26213264

  15. Human ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas express extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lhr, M.; Trautmann, B.; Gttler, M.; Peters, S.; Zauner, I.; Maillet, B.; Klppel, G.

    1994-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are characterised by a dense connective tissue reaction. To test the hypothesis that stroma components are synthesised and produced by the tumour cells themselves, eight cell lines as well as six xenografted tumours from human ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas were examined for the expression of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), using cDNA probes and antibodies to collagen types I, III and IV, vitronectin, fibronectin, undulin and laminin. All tumour cell lines (CAPAN-1, CAPAN-2, AsPC-1, BxPC-3, PANC-1, PaCa-2, PaCa-3, PaCa-44) and xenografted human pancreatic tumours expressed at least one of the examined ECM at the RNA (collagen type IV > laminin = fibronectin = vitronectin > collagen type III > undulin > collagen type I) or protein level (collagen type IV = collagen type III > vitronectin > laminin > collagen type I = fibronectin > undulin). In nude mouse tumours expression of laminin and collagen I was most pronounced in well-differentiated carcinomas. In a few tumours, collagen type III, vitronectin and undulin were expressed on the luminal side of the neoplastic glands, suggesting loss of normal polar differentiation. Incubation with fetal calf serum modulated ECM RNA levels to a varying extent in all but one cell line (AsPC-1). The results suggest that human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas cells are capable of synthesising and producing extracellular matrix proteins in vitro and in vivo, but that the extent and pattern of ECM expression differs between the various tumours and conditions tested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8286197

  16. Differential expression of ribosomal proteins in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Elizabeth B; Dueber, Julie C; Qualtieri, Julianne; Tedesco, Jason; Erdogan, Begum; Bosompem, Amma; Kim, Annette S

    2016-02-01

    Aberrations of ribosomal biogenesis have been implicated in several congenital bone marrow failure syndromes, such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and Dyskeratosis Congenita. Recent studies have identified haploinsufficiency of RPS14 in the acquired bone marrow disease isolated 5q minus syndrome, a subtype of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, the expression of various proteins comprising the ribosomal subunits and other proteins enzymatically involved in the synthesis of the ribosome has not been explored in non-5q minus MDS. Furthermore, differences in the effects of these expression alterations among myeloid, erythroid and megakaryocyte lineages have not been well elucidated. We examined the expression of several proteins related to ribosomal biogenesis in bone marrow biopsy specimens from patients with MDS (5q minus patients excluded) and controls with no known myeloid disease. Specifically, we found that there is overexpression of RPS24, DKC1 and SBDS in MDS. This overexpression is in contrast to the haploinsufficiency identified in the congenital bone marrow failure syndromes and in acquired 5q minus MDS. Potential mechanisms for these differences and aetiology for these findings in MDS are discussed. PMID:26408650

  17. Splice Isoforms of Phosducin-like Protein Control the Expression of Heterotrimeric G Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueli; Sinha, Satyabrata; Belcastro, Marycharmain; Woodard, Catherine; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan; Stoilov, Peter; Sokolov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins play an essential role in cellular signaling; however, the mechanism regulating their synthesis and assembly remains poorly understood. A line of evidence indicates that the posttranslational processing of G protein ? subunits begins inside the protein-folding chamber of the chaperonin containing t-complex protein 1. This process is facilitated by the ubiquitously expressed phosducin-like protein (PhLP), which is thought to act as a CCT co-factor. Here we demonstrate that alternative splicing of the PhLP gene gives rise to a transcript encoding a truncated, short protein (PhLPs) that is broadly expressed in human tissues but absent in mice. Seeking to elucidate the function of PhLPs, we expressed this protein in the rod photoreceptors of mice and found that this manipulation caused a dramatic translational and posttranslational suppression of rod heterotrimeric G proteins. The investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that PhLPs disrupts the folding of G? and the assembly of G? and G? subunits, events normally assisted by PhLP, by forming a stable and apparently inactive tertiary complex with CCT preloaded with nascent G?. As a result, the cellular levels of G? and G?, which depends on G? for stability, decline. In addition, PhLPs evokes a profound and rather specific down-regulation of the G? transcript, leading to a complete disappearance of the protein. This study provides the first evidence of a generic mechanism, whereby the splicing of the PhLP gene could potentially and efficiently regulate the cellular levels of heterotrimeric G proteins. PMID:23888055

  18. Expression of mutant p53 protein and CD44 variant proteins in colorectal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, J W; Wielenga, V J; Polak, M M; van den Berg, F M; Adolf, G R; Herrlich, P; Pals, S T; Offerhaus, G J

    1995-01-01

    Colorectal tumorigenesis evolves through a series of molecular genetic changes, providing putative markers for tumour progression. This study investigated the relation between expression of the tumour suppressor gene p53 and splice variants v5 and v6 of the cell adhesion molecule CD44 by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples of early adenomas (n = 12), late adneomas (n = 12), Dukes's A and B carcinomas (n = 21), and Dukes's C and D carcinomas (n = 22) and compared these results with expression of these proteins in normal colonic mucosa (n = 17). A statistically significant trend of increasing expression was seen for both p53 (p < 0.005) and CD44 variant exon v6 (p < 0.0005) in subsequent stages of this tumour progression model. High expression of CD44 v5 was seen in most colorectal neoplasms (83%-96%), independent of stage. A statistically significant correlation was present between p53 expression and expression of variant v6 of CD44 (p < 0.01). Both p53 expression and CD44 v6 expression in adenomas increased with the degree of dysplasia (p < 0.05). The results of this study show that mutant p53 protein and variant v6 of the CD44 glycoprotein are markers of tumour progression in colorectal cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:7534253

  19. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease. PMID:26481272

  20. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression.

    PubMed

    Doorbar, John

    2013-10-01

    The papillomavirus E4 open reading frame (ORF) is contained within the E2 ORF, with the primary E4 gene-product (E1^E4) being translated from a spliced mRNA that includes the E1 initiation codon and adjacent sequences. E4 is located centrally within the E2 gene, in a region that encodes the E2 protein's flexible hinge domain. Although a number of minor E4 transcripts have been reported, it is the product of the abundant E1^E4 mRNA that has been most extensively analysed. During the papillomavirus life cycle, the E1^E4 gene products generally become detectable at the onset of vegetative viral genome amplification as the late stages of infection begin. E4 contributes to genome amplification success and virus synthesis, with its high level of expression suggesting additional roles in virus release and/or transmission. In general, E4 is easily visualised in biopsy material by immunostaining, and can be detected in lesions caused by diverse papillomavirus types, including those of dogs, rabbits and cattle as well as humans. The E4 protein can serve as a biomarker of active virus infection, and in the case of high-risk human types also disease severity. In some cutaneous lesions, E4 can be expressed at higher levels than the virion coat proteins, and can account for as much as 30% of total lesional protein content. The E4 proteins of the Beta, Gamma and Mu HPV types assemble into distinctive cytoplasmic, and sometimes nuclear, inclusion granules. In general, the E4 proteins are expressed before L2 and L1, with their structure and function being modified, first by kinases as the infected cell progresses through the S and G2 cell cycle phases, but also by proteases as the cell exits the cell cycle and undergoes true terminal differentiation. The kinases that regulate E4 also affect other viral proteins simultaneously, and include protein kinase A, Cyclin-dependent kinase, members of the MAP Kinase family and protein kinase C. For HPV16 E1^E4, these kinases regulate one of the E1^E4 proteins main functions, the association with the cellular keratin network, and eventually also its cleavage by the protease calpain which allows assembly into amyloid-like fibres and reorganisation of the keratin network. Although the E4 proteins of different HPV types appear divergent at the level of their primary amino acid sequence, they share a recognisable modular organisation and pattern of expression, which may underlie conserved functions and regulation. Assembly into higher-order multimers and suppression of cell proliferation are common to all E4 proteins examined. Although not yet formally demonstrated, a role in virus release and transmission remains a likely function for E4. PMID:24016539

  1. Expression cloning of genes encoding human peroxisomal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Spathaky, J.M.; Tate, A.W.; Cox, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous metabolic disorders associated with diverse peroxisomal defects have been identified but their molecular characterization has been hampered by difficulties associated with the purification of proteins from this fragile organelle. We have utilized antibodies directed against the C-terminal tripeptide peroxisomal targeting signal to detect hitherto unknown peroxisomal proteins in tissue fractions and to isolate genes encoding peroxisonal proteins from human expression libraries. We immunized rabbits with a peptide conjugate encompassing the C-terminal nine amino acids of rat peroxisomal acyl CoA oxidase. Immunoprecipitation assays using radio-labelled peptide showed that the antibody specifically recognizes the terminal SKL motif as well as C-terminal SHL and SRL but not SHL at an internal position. Affinity-purified antibody was used to probe Western blots of crude and peroxisome-enriched monkey liver preparations and detected 8-10 proteins specifically in the peroxisome fractions. 100 positive clones were identified on screening a human liver cDNA expression library in {lambda}-gt11. Sequence analysis has confirmed the identity of cDNA clones for human acyl CoA oxidase and epoxide hydrolase. Four clones show no sequence identity and their putative role in the human peroxisome is being explored.

  2. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. PMID:20347821

  3. PPARs in the Control of Uncoupling Proteins Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Francesc; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial membrane transporters involved in the control of energy conversion in mitochondria. Experimental and genetic evidence relate dysfunctions of UCPs with metabolic syndrome and obesity. The PPAR subtypes mediate to a large extent the transcriptional regulation of the UCP genes, with a distinct relevance depending on the UCP gene and the tissue in which it is expressed. UCP1 gene is under the dual control of PPAR? and PPAR? in relation to brown adipocyte differentiation and lipid oxidation, respectively. UCP3 gene is regulated by PPAR? and PPAR? in the muscle, heart, and adipose tissues. UCP2 gene is also under the control of PPARs even in tissues in which it is the predominantly expressed UCP (eg, the pancreas and liver). This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of PPARs in UCPs gene expression in normal conditions and also in the context of type-2 diabetes or obesity. PMID:17389766

  4. Regulation of RAG-2 protein expression in avian thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, S E; Accavitti, M A; Wang, D D; Chen, C L; Thompson, C B

    1994-01-01

    The recombinase-activating genes, RAG-1 and RAG-2, have been shown to be necessary to initiate the process of V(D)J recombination during the ontogeny of lymphocytes. While much is known about the end products of this rearrangement process, little is known about the function or regulation of the components of the recombinase system. To this end, we have generated a monoclonal antibody to the chicken RAG-2 protein. Chicken thymocytes were found to express high levels of RAG-2, part of which is phosphorylated. Within thymocytes, RAG-2 is expressed primarily within the nucleus. RAG-2 protein levels are high in the CD4- CD8- and CD4+ CD8+ immature thymocytes but absent at the single-positive CD4+ CD8- or CD4- CD8+ stage of thymocyte development. Mitogenic stimulation of thymocytes with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin results in down-regulation of RAG-2 expression. Consistent with these data, in vivo levels of RAG-2 are markedly lower in proliferating thymocytes than in smaller, G0/G1 cells. Down-regulation of RAG-2 expression appears to occur before cells enter S phase, suggesting that RAG-2 function may be limited to noncycling cells. Images PMID:7935443

  5. Cullin-3 protein expression levels correlate with breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Haagenson, Kelly K; Tait, Larry; Wang, Juan; Shekhar, Malathy P; Polin, Lisa; Chen, Wei; Wu, Gen Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Cullin-3 is a component of the Cullin-Ring ubiquitin ligase (CRL) family that plays an important role in mediating protein degradation. Deregulation of Cullin-3 expression has been observed in human cancers; however, a role for Cullin-3 in tumor progression has not been previously recognized. Using the MCF10DCIS.com human breast cancer xenograft model, we show that Cullin-3 is increasingly expressed during progression from comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinomas. Cullin-3 protein is not detected in early lesions but is noticeably increased in DCIS tumors and significantly overexpressed in invasive cancers. In experimental metastasis assays, high expression of Cullin-3 was observed in the lung site. Importantly, Cullin-3 staining is detected in human breast cancer tissues, not in normal breast tissues and its expression level positively correlates with tumor stage. These data suggest that Cullin-3 may play an important role in tumor progression from DCIS to invasive cancer and may serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of aggressive breast cancer. PMID:22825334

  6. Cullin-3 protein expression levels correlate with breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Haagenson, Kelly K.; Tait, Larry; Wang, Juan; Shekhar, Malathy P.; Polin, Lisa; Chen, Wei; Wu, Gen Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Cullin-3 is a component of the Cullin-Ring ubiquitin ligase (CRL) family that plays an important role in mediating protein degradation. Deregulation of Cullin-3 expression has been observed in human cancers; however, a role for Cullin-3 in tumor progression has not been previously recognized. Using the MCF10DCIS.com human breast cancer xenograft model, we show that Cullin-3 is increasingly expressed during progression from comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinomas. Cullin-3 protein is not detected in early lesions but is noticeably increased in DCIS tumors and significantly overexpressed in invasive cancers. In experimental metastasis assays, high expression of Cullin-3 was observed in the lung site. Importantly, Cullin-3 staining is detected in human breast cancer tissues, not in normal breast tissues and its expression level positively correlates with tumor stage. These data suggest that Cullin-3 may play an important role in tumor progression from DCIS to invasive cancer and may serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of aggressive breast cancer. PMID:22825334

  7. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

    PubMed

    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjrn; Levring Jghagen, Eva; Stl, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for ?-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, ?-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. PMID:26597319

  8. Expression and Localization of Lung Surfactant Proteins in Human Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Walter; Matthies, Cord; Ruf, Christian; Hartmann, Arndt; Garreis, Fabian; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Surfactant proteins (SPs) have been described in various tissues and fluids including tissues of the nasolacrimal apparatus, airways and digestive tract. Human testis have a glandular function as a part of the reproductive and the endocrine system, but no data are available on SPs in human testis and prostate under healthy and pathologic conditions. Objective The aim of the study was the detection and characterization of the surfactant proteins A, B, C and D (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D) in human testis. Additionally tissue samples affected by testicular cancer were investigated. Results Surfactant proteins A, B, C and D were detected using RT-PCR in healthy testis. By means of Western blot analysis, these SPs were detected at the protein level in normal testis, seminoma and seminal fluid, but not in spermatozoa. Expression of SPs was weaker in seminoma compared to normal testicular tissue. SPs were localized in combination with vimentin immunohistochemically in cells of Sertoli and Leydig. Conclusion Surfactant proteins seem to be inherent part of the human testis. By means of physicochemical properties the proteins appear to play a role during immunological and rheological process of the testicular tissue. The presence of SP-B and SP-C in cells of Sertoli correlates with their function of fluid secretion and may support transportation of spermatozoa. In seminoma the expression of all SP's was generally weaker compared to normal germ cells. This could lead to a reduction of immunomodulatory and rheology processes in the germ cell tumor. PMID:26599233

  9. Accessory proteins are vital for the functional expression of certain G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Sadani N; Chan, Li; Webb, Tom R; Metherell, Louise; Clark, Adrian J L

    2009-03-01

    Certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) fail to be expressed in a functional form at the cell surface. This may be due to the improper folding and maturation of GPCRs which are highly intricate events that need to take place before these integral membrane proteins can be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they are synthesised, to the plasma membrane which is their site of action. Once at the plasma membrane they act as the recognition elements for a vast range of endogenous ligands including biogenic amines, peptides, glycoproteins, lipids, nucleotides, ions and proteases. The assistance of molecular chaperones has been widely implicated in the trafficking and function of these proteins. Characterisation of certain GPCRs has identified a novel group of membrane proteins collectively named 'accessory proteins' as being important for the expression and function of GPCRs. In this review we will summarise the importance of these accessory proteins for the function of their respective GPCRs. Understanding their roles in GPCR expression would not only give us an insight into these receptors from a cell biological point of view but may also potentially lead to the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:19000738

  10. Identification of differentially expressed serum proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Mir, Sartaj Ahmad; Renuse, Santosh; Manda, Srikanth S.; Pinto, Sneha M.; Puttamallesh, Vinuth N.; Solanki, Hitendra Singh; Manju, H.C.; Syed, Nazia; Sharma, Rakesh; Christopher, Rita; Vijayakumar, M.; Kumar, K.V. Veerendra; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Ramaswamy, Girija; Kumar, Rekha V.; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. Blood based biomarkers of gastric cancer have the potential to improve diagnosis and monitoring of these tumors. Proteins that show altered levels in the circulation of gastric cancer patients could prove useful as putative biomarkers. We used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that show altered levels in the sera of patients with gastric cancer. Our study resulted in identification of 643 proteins, of which 48 proteins showed increased levels and 11 proteins showed decreased levels in serum from gastric cancer patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Proteins that showed increased expression in gastric cancer included inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), Mannose-binding protein C (MBL2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), serum amyloid A protein (SAA1), Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) and extracellular superoxide dismutase [CuZn] (SOD3). We used multiple reaction monitoring assays and validated elevated levels of ITIH4 and SAA1 proteins in serum from gastric cancer patients. Biological significance Gastric cancer is a highly aggressive cancer associated with high mortality. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable interest in diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases including cancers. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages resulting in poor prognosis and high mortality. Pathological diagnosis using biopsy specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable importance as they are minimally invasive. In this study, we carried out quantitative proteomic profiling of serum from gastric cancer patients to identify proteins that show altered levels in gastric cancer patients. We identified more than 50 proteins that showed altered levels in gastric cancer patient sera. Validation in a large cohort of well classified patient samples would prove useful in identifying novel blood based biomarkers for gastric cancers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. PMID:25952687

  11. Constraints imposed by nonfunctional protein-protein interactions on gene expression and proteome size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingshan; Maslov, Sergei; Shakhnovich, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    Crowded intracellular environments present a challenge for proteins to form functional specific complexes while reducing nonfunctional interactions with promiscuous nonfunctional partners. Here we show how nonfunctional interactions limit the proteome diversity and the average concentration of co-expressed and co-localized proteins. We use yeast compartments to verify our hypothesis that the yeast proteome has evolved to operate closely to the upper limit of its size, while keeping individual protein concentrations sufficiently low to reduce nonfunctional interactions. These findings have implication for conceptual understanding of intracellular compartmentalization, multicellularity, and differentiation.

  12. Characterization of mammalian Gs-alpha proteins expressed in yeast.

    PubMed

    Stadel, J M; Ecker, D J; Powers, D A; Marsh, J; Hoyle, K; Gross, M; Minnich, M D; Butt, T R; Crooke, S T

    1994-12-01

    The guanine nucleotide regulatory protein, GS, mediates transmembrane signaling by coupling membrane receptors to the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. The full length coding sequences for the M(r) = 42-45,000, short form (S), and M(r) = 46-52,000, long form (L), of the alpha-subunits of rat GS were placed in yeast expression vectors under the regulatory control of the copper-inducible CUP1 promoter and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the presence of 100 microM CuSO4, the transformed yeast expressed GS-alpha mRNAs and proteins. In reconstitution experiments, rat GS-alpha(S and L), solubilized from yeast membranes with 1% cholate, conferred NaF-, (-)isoproterenol-, and guanine nucleotide-dependent sensitivity to adenylyl cyclase catalytic units in S49 lymphoma cyc- cell membranes, which are devoid of endogenous GS-alpha. GS-alpha (S) demonstrated twice the activity of GS-alpha(L) in reconstitution assays of fluoride-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Comparison of GS-alpha (S) expressed in yeast with GS purified from rabbit liver or human erythrocytes showed that the crude recombinant protein was fully competent in reconstituting NaF-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, but was only 2-5% as potent as purified GS. Addition of bovine brain beta gamma subunits during reconstitution enhanced all parameters of adenylyl cyclase activity for GS-alpha(S and L) obtained from yeast. In contrast, transducin beta gamma only enhanced agonist-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity for GS-alpha (S and L) following reconstitution. These results demonstrate that the expression of functional mammalian GS-alpha subunits in yeast may be useful for their biochemical characterization. PMID:7877135

  13. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kevin P.; Kiernan, Elizabeth A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS. PMID:26883795

  14. Optimizing Escherichia coli as a protein expression platform to produce Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunogenic proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of valuable candidates as tuberculosis vaccine have been reported, some of which have already entered clinical trials. The new vaccines, especially subunit vaccines, need multiple administrations in order to maintain adequate life-long immune memory: this demands for high production levels and degree of purity. Results In this study, TB10.4, Ag85B and a TB10.4-Ag85B chimeric protein (here-after referred as full) - immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis - were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The rational design of expression constructs and optimization of fermentation and purification conditions allowed a marked increase in solubility and yield of the recombinant antigens. Indeed, scaling up of the process guaranteed mass production of all these three antigens (2.5-25mg of pure protein/L cultivation broth). Quality of produced soluble proteins was evaluated both by mass spectrometry to assess the purity of final preparations, and by circular dichroism spectroscopy to ascertain the protein conformation. Immunological tests of the different protein products demonstrated that when TB10.4 was fused to Ag85B, the chimeric protein was more immunoreactive than either of the immunogenic protein alone. Conclusions We reached the goal of purifying large quantities of soluble antigens effective in generating immunological response against M. tuberculosis by a robust, controlled, scalable and economically feasible production process. PMID:24252280

  15. Preliminary identification of differentially expressed tear proteins in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wasinger, Valerie C.; Pye, David C.; Willcox, Mark D. P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the proteins differentially expressed in the tear film of people with keratoconus and normal subjects. Methods Unstimulated tears from people with keratoconus (KC) and controls (C) were collected using a capillary tube. Tear proteins from people with KC and controls were partitioned using a novel in-solution electrophoresis, Microflow 10 (ProteomeSep), and analyzed using linear ion trap quadrupole fourier transform mass spectrometry. Spectral counting was used to quantify the individual tear proteins. Results Elevated levels of cathepsin B (threefold) were evident in the tears of people with KC. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (ninefold), fibrinogen alpha chain (eightfold), cystatin S (twofold), and cystatin SN (twofold) were reduced in tears from people with KC. Keratin type-1 cytoskeletal-14 and keratin type-2 cytoskeletal-5 were present only in the tears of people with KC. Conclusions The protein changes in tears, that is, the decrease in protease inhibitors and increase in proteases, found in the present and other previously published studies reflect the pathological events involved in KC corneas. Further investigations into tear proteins may help elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of KC, which could result in better treatment options. PMID:24194634

  16. Protein expression strategies in Tobacco necrosis virus-D.

    PubMed

    Chkuaseli, Tamari; Newburn, Laura R; Bakhshinyan, David; White, K Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV-D) has a plus-strand RNA genome that is neither 5' capped nor 3' poly-adenylated. Instead, it utilizes a 3' cap-independent translational enhancer (3'CITE) located in its 3' untranslated region (UTR) for translation of its proteins. We have examined the protein expression strategies used by TNV-D and our results indicate that: (i) a base pairing interaction between conserved ACCA and UGGU motifs in the genomic 5'UTR and 3'CITE, respectively, is not required for efficient plant cell infection, (ii) similar potential 5'UTR-3'CITE interactions in the two viral subgenomic mRNAs are not needed for efficient translation of viral proteins in vitro, (iii) a small amount of capsid protein is translated from the viral genome by a largely 3'CITE-independent mechanism, (iv) the larger of two possible forms of capsid protein is efficiently translated, and (v) p7b is translated from subgenomic mRNA1 by a leaky scanning mechanism. PMID:26402375

  17. Bacterial expression and photoaffinity labeling of a pheromone binding protein.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D

    1993-03-01

    The first high-level production of a binding-active odorant binding protein is described. The expression cassette polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a DNA fragment encoding the pheromone binding protein (PBP) of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus. Transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a vector containing this construct generated clones which, when induced with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, produced the 14-kDa PBP in both the soluble fraction and in inclusion bodies. Purification of the soluble recombinant PBP by preparative isoelectric focusing and gel filtration gave > 95% homogeneous protein, which was immunoreactive with an anti-PBP antiserum and exhibited specific, pheromone-displaceable covalent modification by the photoaffinity label [3H]6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl diazoacetate. Recombinant PBP was indistinguishable from the insect-derived PBP, as determined by both native and denaturing gel electrophoresis, immunoreactivity, and photoaffinity labeling properties. Moreover, the insoluble inclusion body protein could be solubilized, refolded, and purified by the same procedures to give a recombinant PBP indistinguishable from the soluble PBP. Proton NMR spectra of the soluble and refolded protein provide further evidence that they possess the same folded structure. PMID:8453379

  18. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins during mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Paolo; Hamdy, Reggie C; Lauzier, Dominique; Amako, Masatoshi; Rauch, Frank; Lessard, Marie-Lucie

    2003-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a form of in vivo tissue engineering in which the gradual separation of cut bone edges results in the generation of new bone. In this study, the temporal and spatial expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2, 4, and 7 was examined in a rabbit model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Fourteen skeletally mature male rabbits were studied. After osteotomy, a distractor was applied to one side of the mandible. After 1 week of latency, distraction was initiated at 0.25 mm every 12 hours for 3 weeks (distraction period), followed by a 3-week consolidation period. Two animals were killed each week after surgery. The generate bone was analyzed for the expression of BMP-2, -4, and -7 by using standard bone histological and immunohistochemical techniques. BMP-2 and -4 were highly expressed in osteoblastic cells during the distraction period and in chondrocytes during the consolidation period. BMP-7 demonstrated relatively minor expression in osteoblastic cells during the distraction period. All BMPs were strongly expressed in vascularized connective tissue during the distraction period. These data indicate that BMPs participate in the translation of mechanical stimuli into a biological response during mandibular distraction osteogenesis. PMID:12496581

  19. Structure and Expression of a Novel Compact Myelin Protein - Small VCP-Interacting Protein (SVIP)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiawen; Peng, Dungeng; Voehler, Markus; Sanders, Charles R.; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) was initially identified as one of many cofactors regulating the valosin containing protein (VCP), an AAA+ ATPase involved in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Our previous study showed that SVIP is expressed exclusively in the nervous system. In the present study, SVIP and VCP were seen to be co-localized in neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, we also observed that SVIP co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin, where VCP was absent. Furthermore, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements, we determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). However, upon binding to the surface of membranes containing a net negative charge, the helical content of SVIP increases dramatically. These findings provide structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes. PMID:24055875

  20. A proposal for the physiological significance of mdr1 and Bcrp1/Abcg2 gene expression in normal tissue regeneration and after cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Israeli, David; Ziaei, Simin; Gonin, Patrick; Garcia, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Cellular multi-drug resistance (MDR), which often develops in cancer cells of patients subjected to anti-cancer treatment, remains a significant barrier to successful cancer therapy. One of the principal causes of cellular MDR development is an increased expression of ABC-transporter genes such as mdr1 and Bcrp1/Abcg2. Despite many years of intensive research, the natural biological role of mdr1 in the context of cancer has remained elusive. Some hints about this role came, however, from an observation that P-gp, the mdr1 encoded protein, is expressed widely in stem cells and from the discovery that P-gp possesses an anti-apoptotic activity independently of exogenous drug application. Here, we discuss our own and other groups' recently published works and propose an integrated view of mdr1 and Bcrp1/Abcg2 activity during tissue regeneration in normal tissues as part of a stress-induced regeneration genetic program and in cancerous tissues in response to cancer therapy. PMID:15498591

  1. Expression of mammalian DT-diaphorase in Escherichia coli: purification and characterization of the expressed protein.

    PubMed

    Ma, Q; Wang, R; Yang, C S; Lu, A Y

    1990-12-01

    A full-length cDNA clone, pKK-DTD4, complementary to rat liver cytosolic DT-diaphorase [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.2)] mRNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. The pKK-DTD4 cDNA was obtained by extending the 5'-end sequence of a rat liver DT-diaphorase cDNA clone, pDTD55, to include an ATG initiation codon and the NH2-terminal codons using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction sites for EcoRI and HindIII were incorporated at the 5'- and 3'-ends of the cDNA, respectively, by the PCR reaction. The resulting full-length cDNA was inserted into an expression vector, pKK2.7, at the EcoRI and HindIII restriction sites. E. coli strain AB1899 was transformed with the constructed expression plasmid, and DT-diaphorase was expressed under the control of the tac promotor. The expressed DT-diaphorase exhibited high activity of menadione reduction and was inhibited by dicumarol at a concentration of 10(-5)M. After purification by Cibacron Blue affinity chromatography, the expressed enzyme migrated as a single band on 12.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel with a molecular weight equivalent to that of the purified rat liver cytosolic DT-diaphorase. The purified expressed protein was recognized by polyclonal antibodies against rat liver DT-diaphorase on immunoblot analysis. It utilized either NADPH or NADH as electron donor at equal efficiency and displayed high activities in reduction of menadione, 1,4-benzoquinone, and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol which are typical substrates for DT-diaphorase. The expressed DT-diaphorase exhibited a typical flavoprotein spectrum with absorption peaks at 380 and 452 nm. Flavin content determination showed that it contained 2 mol of FAD per mole of the enzyme. Edman protein sequencing of the first 20 amino acid residues at the NH2 terminus of the expressed protein indicated that the expressed DT-diaphorase is not blocked at the NH2 terminus and has an alanine as the first amino acid. The remaining 19 amino acid residues at the NH2 terminus were identical with those of the DT-diaphorase purified from rat liver cytosol. PMID:1703398

  2. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  3. Mitochondria of a human multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line constitutively express inducible nitric oxide synthase in the inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Fantappi, Ornella; Sassoli, Chiara; Tani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Marchetti, Serena; Formigli, Lucia; Mazzanti, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in pathways of stress conditions. They can be transported from one cell to another, bringing their features to the cell where they are transported. It has been shown in cancer cells overexpressing multidrug resistance (MDR) that mitochondria express proteins involved in drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistant protein and multiple resistance protein-1. The MDR phenotype is associated with the constitutive expression of COX-2 and iNOS, whereas celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2 activity, reverses drug resistance of MDR cells by releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria. It is possible that COX-2 and iNOS are also expressed in mitochondria of cancer cells overexpressing the MDR phenotype. This study involved experiments using the human HCC PLC/PRF/5 cell line with and without MDR phenotype and melanoma A375 cells that do not express the MDR1 phenotype but they do iNOS. Western blot analysis, confocal immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy showed that iNOS is localized in mitochondria of MDR1-positive cells, whereas COX-2 is not. Low and moderate concentrations of celecoxib modulate the expression of iNOS and P-gp in mitochondria of MDR cancer cells independently from inhibition of COX-2 activity. However, A375 cells that express iNOS also in mitochondria, were not MDR1 positive. In conclusion, iNOS can be localized in mitochondria of HCC cells overexpressing MDR1 phenotype, however this phenomenon appears independent from the MDR1 phenotype occurrence. The presence of iNOS in mitochondria of human HCC cells phenotype probably concurs to a more aggressive behaviour of cancer cells. PMID:25691007

  4. Detection of Differentially Expressed Basal Cell Proteins by Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Todorović, Viktor; Desai, Bhushan V.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Yin, Taofei; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Mrksich, Milan; Green, Kathleen J.; Patterson, Melanie J. Schroeder

    2010-01-01

    The ability of cells to modulate interactions with each other and the substrate is essential for epithelial tissue remodeling during processes such as wound healing and tumor progression. However, despite strides made in the field of proteomics, proteins involved in adhesion have been difficult to study. Here, we report a method for the enrichment and analysis of proteins associated with the basal surface of the cell and its underlying matrix. The enrichment involves deroofing the cells with 20 mm ammonium hydroxide and the removal of cytosolic and organellar proteins by stringent water wash. Proteomic profiling was achieved by LC-FTMS, which allowed comparison of differentially expressed or shared proteins under different cell states. First, we analyzed and compared the basal cell components of mouse keratinocytes lacking the cell-cell junction molecule plakoglobin with their control counterparts. Changes in the molecules involved in motility and invasion were detected in plakoglobin-deficient cells, including decreased detection of fibronectin, integrin β4, and FAT tumor suppressor. Second, we assessed the differences in basal cell components between two human oral squamous cell carcinoma lines originating from different sites in the oral cavity (CAL33 and UM-SCC-1). The data show differences between the two lines in the type and abundance of proteins specific to cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis. Therefore, the method described here has the potential to serve as a platform to assess proteomic changes in basal cell components including extracellular and adhesion-specific proteins involved in wound healing, cancer, and chronic and acquired adhesion-related disorders. PMID:19955077

  5. The effect of protein expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae by blood.

    PubMed

    Bae, Song-Mee; Yeon, Sun-Mi; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Jun

    2006-11-30

    During infection, the common respiratory tract pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae encounters several environmental conditions, such as upper respiratory tract, lung tissue, and blood stream, etc. In this study, we examined the effects of blood on S. pneumoniae protein expression using a combination of highly sensitive 2-dimensional electrophoresis (DE) and MALDI-TOF MS and/or LC/ESI-MS/MS. A comparison of expression profiles between the growth in THY medium and THY supplemented with blood allowed us to identify 7 spots, which increased or decreased two times or more compared with the control group: tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, lactate oxidase, glutamyl-aminopeptidase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase, ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. This global approach can provide a better understanding of S. pneumoniae adaptation to its human host and a clue for its pathogenicity. PMID:17129405

  6. Structure and expression of a novel compact myelin protein – Small VCP-interacting protein (SVIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jiawen; Peng, Dungeng; Voehler, Markus; Sanders, Charles R.; Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University ; Li, Jun; Tennessee Valley Healthcare System – Nashville VA

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin. •We determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). •The helical content of SVIP increases dramatically during its interaction with negatively charged lipid membrane. •This study provides structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes. -- Abstract: SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) was initially identified as one of many cofactors regulating the valosin containing protein (VCP), an AAA+ ATPase involved in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Our previous study showed that SVIP is expressed exclusively in the nervous system. In the present study, SVIP and VCP were seen to be co-localized in neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, we also observed that SVIP co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin, where VCP was absent. Furthermore, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements, we determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). However, upon binding to the surface of membranes containing a net negative charge, the helical content of SVIP increases dramatically. These findings provide structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes.

  7. Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins and Phosphorylated Proteins in Rice Seedlings in Response to Strigolactone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangyu; Jiang, Liangrong; Zheng, Jingsheng; Huang, Rongyu; Wang, Houcong; Hong, Zonglie; Huang, Yumin

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are recently identified plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching and control various aspects of plant growth, development and interaction with parasites. Previous studies have shown that plant D10 protein is a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase that functions in SL biosynthesis. In this work, we used an allelic SL-deficient d10 mutant XJC of rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) to investigate proteins that were responsive to SL treatment. When grown in darkness, d10 mutant seedlings exhibited elongated mesocotyl that could be rescued by exogenous application of SLs. Soluble protein extracts were prepared from d10 mutant seedlings grown in darkness in the presence of GR24, a synthetic SL analog. Soluble proteins were separated on two-dimensional gels and subjected to proteomic analysis. Proteins that were expressed differentially and phosphoproteins whose phosphorylation status changed in response to GR24 treatment were identified. Eight proteins were found to be induced or down-regulated by GR24, and a different set of 8 phosphoproteins were shown to change their phosphorylation intensities in the dark-grown d10 seedlings in response to GR24 treatment. Analysis of these proteins revealed that they are important enzymes of the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways and key components of the cellular energy generation machinery. These proteins may represent potential targets of the SL signaling pathway. This study provides new insight into the complex and negative regulatory mechanism by which SLs control shoot branching and plant development. PMID:24699514

  8. Detecting Protein Complexes in Protein Interaction Networks Modeled as Gene Expression Biclusters

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Eileen Marie; Zaki, Nazar; Amin, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Developing suitable methods for the detection of protein complexes in protein interaction networks continues to be an intriguing area of research. The importance of this objective originates from the fact that protein complexes are key players in most cellular processes. The more complexes we identify, the better we can understand normal as well as abnormal molecular events. Up till now, various computational methods were designed for this purpose. However, despite their notable performance, questions arise regarding potential ways to improve them, in addition to ameliorative guidelines to introduce novel approaches. A close interpretation leads to the assent that the way in which protein interaction networks are initially viewed should be adjusted. These networks are dynamic in reality and it is necessary to consider this fact to enhance the detection of protein complexes. In this paper, we present “DyCluster”, a framework to model the dynamic aspect of protein interaction networks by incorporating gene expression data, through biclustering techniques, prior to applying complex-detection algorithms. The experimental results show that DyCluster leads to higher numbers of correctly-detected complexes with better evaluation scores. The high accuracy achieved by DyCluster in detecting protein complexes is a valid argument in favor of the proposed method. DyCluster is also able to detect biologically meaningful protein groups. The code and datasets used in the study are downloadable from https://github.com/emhanna/DyCluster. PMID:26641660

  9. Expression of protein phosphatases during postnatal development of rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Joyner, Ronald W

    2003-03-01

    Protein phosphatases play a major role in the regulation of L-type calcium current (I(Ca)) in heart cells. We previously showed developmental differences in the effects of inhibitors of protein phosphatases (PP's) on the modulation of I(Ca), with greater stimulatory effects on I(Ca) observed in newborn than in adult ventricular cells. We hypothesized that this developmental difference might be due to greater expression and levels of PP 1 and PP 2A in newborn than in adult ventricular cells. We thus determined the mRNA expression of alpha and beta subunits of PP 1 and the a subunit of PP 2A in adult and newborn rabbit ventricles and levels of PP 1 and PP 2A in total homogenates, particulate membranes, and in soluble fraction prepared from isolated ventricular myocytes from adult and newborn rabbits. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of mRNA of these subunits of PP's in both newborn and adult ventricles. Northern blot analysis using 32P labeled cDNA probes specific for PP 1alpha, PP 1beta and PP 2Aalpha showed that the expression of steady state mRNA levels for PP 1alpha, PP 1beta and PP 2Aalpha were much higher in newborn compared to adult rabbit ventricles. mRNA for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and for sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) in rabbit ventricles were measured as controls. GAPDH did not show significant developmental changes while mRNA for SERCA was higher in adult compared to newborns. Western blot analysis showed that PP 1 and PP 2A protein levels were also much higher in newborn compared to adult rabbit ventricular cells. Immunoblot analysis in particulate membranes and soluble fraction showed that PP1 was mainly membrane bound while PP 2 was present only in soluble fraction. These findings suggest that the two major protein phosphatases (PP 1 and PP 2A) in heart are expressed at much higher levels in newborn and decline to lower levels in adult ventricular myocytes. The presence of high levels of PP's and particularly PP 1 in newborn cells may be responsible for the greater dependence of newborn cells on the inhibition of PP as a mechanism of action of beta-agonist isoproterenol on I(Ca). PMID:12708748

  10. Regulation of chondrocyte gene expression by osteogenic protein-1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate which genes are regulated by osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) in human articular chondrocytes using Affimetrix gene array, in order to understand the role of OP-1 in cartilage homeostasis. Methods Chondrocytes enzymatically isolated from 12 normal ankle cartilage samples were cultured in high-density monolayers and either transfected with OP-1 antisense oligonucleotide in the presence of lipofectin or treated with recombinant OP-1 (100 ng/ml) for 48 hours followed by RNA isolation. Gene expression profiles were analyzed by HG-U133A gene chips from Affimetrix. A cut-off was chosen at 1.5-fold difference from controls. Selected gene array results were verified by real-time PCR and by in vitro measures of proteoglycan synthesis and signal transduction. Results OP-1 controls cartilage homeostasis on multiple levels including regulation of genes responsible for chondrocyte cytoskeleton (cyclin D, Talin1, and Cyclin M1), matrix production, and other anabolic pathways (transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?)/ bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), genes responsible for bone formation, and so on) as well as regulation of cytokines, neuromediators, and various catabolic pathways responsible for matrix degradation and cell death. In many of these cases, OP-1 modulated the expression of not only the ligands, but also their receptors, mediators of downstream signaling, kinases responsible for an activation of the pathways, binding proteins responsible for the inhibition of the pathways, and transcription factors that induce transcriptional responses. Conclusions Gene array data strongly suggest a critical role of OP-1 in human cartilage homeostasis. OP-1 regulates numerous metabolic pathways that are not only limited to its well-documented anabolic function, but also to its anti-catabolic activity. An understanding of OP-1 function in cartilage will provide strong justification for the application of OP-1 protein as a therapeutic treatment for cartilage regeneration and repair. PMID:21447156

  11. Extracellular matrix protein expression is brain region dependent.

    PubMed

    Dauth, Stephanie; Grevesse, Thomas; Pantazopoulos, Harry; Campbell, Patrick H; Maoz, Ben M; Berretta, Sabina; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, extracellular matrix (ECM) components form networks that contribute to structural and functional diversity. Maladaptive remodeling of ECM networks has been reported in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, suggesting that the brain microenvironment is a dynamic structure. A lack of quantitative information about ECM distribution in the brain hinders an understanding of region-specific ECM functions and the role of ECM in health and disease. We hypothesized that each ECM protein as well as specific ECM structures, such as perineuronal nets (PNNs) and interstitial matrix, are differentially distributed throughout the brain, contributing to the unique structure and function in the various regions of the brain. To test our hypothesis, we quantitatively analyzed the distribution, colocalization, and protein expression of aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R throughout the rat brain utilizing immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis and assessed the effect of aggrecan, brevican, and/or tenascin-R on neurite outgrowth in vitro. We focused on aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R as they are especially expressed in the mature brain, and have established roles in brain development, plasticity, and neurite outgrowth. The results revealed a differentiated distribution of all three proteins throughout the brain and indicated that their presence significantly reduces neurite outgrowth in a 3D in vitro environment. These results underline the importance of a unique and complex ECM distribution for brain physiology and suggest that encoding the distribution of distinct ECM proteins throughout the brain will aid in understanding their function in physiology and in turn assist in identifying their role in disease. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1309-1336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780384

  12. Expression of cell cycle proteins in male breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare, yet potentially aggressive disease. Although literature regarding female breast cancer (FBC) is extensive, little is known about the etiopathogenesis of male breast cancer. Studies from our laboratory show that MBCs have a distinct immunophenotypic profile, suggesting that the etiopathogenesis of MBC is different from FBCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate the immunohistochemical expression of cell cycle proteins in male breast carcinoma to significant clinico-biological endpoints. Methods 75 cases of MBC were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over 26 years (1970-1996). Cases were reviewed and analyzed for the immunohistochemical expression of PCNA, Ki67, p27, p16, p57, p21, cyclin-D1 and c-myc and correlated to clinico-biological endpoints of tumor size, node status, stage of the disease, and disease free survival (DFS). Results Decreased DFS was observed in the majority of tumors that overexpressed PCNA (98%, p = 0.004). The overexpression of PCNA was inversely correlated to the expression of Ki67 which was predominantly negative (78.3%). Cyclin D1 was overexpressed in 83.7% of cases. Cyclin D1 positive tumors were smaller than 2 cm (55.6%, p = 0.005), had a low incidence of lymph node metastasis (38.2%, p = 0.04) and were associated with increased DFS of >150 months (p = 0.04). Overexpression of c-myc (90%) was linked with a higher incidence of node negativity (58.3%, p = 0.006) and increased DFS (p = 0.04). p27 over expression was associated with decreased lymph node metastasis (p = 0.04). P21 and p57 positive tumors were related to decreased DFS (p = 0.04). Though p16 was overexpressed in 76.6%, this did not reach statistical significance with DFS (p = 0.06) or nodal status (p = 0.07). Conclusion Aberrant cell cycle protein expression supports our view that these are important pathways involved in the etiopathogenesis of MBC. Tumors with overexpression of Cyclin D1 and c-myc had better outcomes, in contrast to tumors with overexpression of p21, p57, and PCNA with significantly worse outcomes. P27 appears to be a predictive marker for lymph nodal status. Such observation strongly suggests that dysregulation of cell cycle proteins may play a unique role in the initiation and progression of disease in male breast cancer. Such findings open up new avenues for the treatment of MBC as a suitable candidate for novel CDK-based anticancer therapies in the future. PMID:20152033

  13. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment. PMID:26297626

  14. AR-v7 protein expression is regulated by protein kinase and phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinan; Xie, Ning; Gleave, Martin E.; Rennie, Paul S.; Dong, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Failure of androgen-targeted therapy and progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are often attributed to sustained expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and its major splice variant, AR-v7. Although the new generation of anti-androgens such as enzalutamide effectively inhibits AR activity, accumulating pre-clinical and clinical evidence indicates that AR-v7 remains constitutively active in driving CRPC progression. However, molecular mechanisms which control AR-v7 protein expression remain unclear. We apply multiple prostate cancer cell models to demonstrate that enzalutamide induces differential activation of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) and Akt kinase depending on the gene context of cancer cells. The balance between PP-1 and Akt activation governs AR phosphorylation status and activation of the Mdm2 ubiquitin ligase. Mdm2 recognizes phosphorylated serine 213 of AR-v7, and induces AR-v7 ubiquitination and protein degradation. These findings highlight the decisive roles of PP-1 and Akt for AR-v7 protein expression and activities when AR is functionally blocked. PMID:26378044

  15. Identifying network biomarkers based on protein-protein interactions and expression data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Identifying effective biomarkers to battle complex diseases is an important but challenging task in biomedical research today. Molecular data of complex diseases is increasingly abundant due to the rapid advance of high throughput technologies. However, a great gap remains in identifying the massive molecular data to phenotypic changes, in particular, at a network level, i.e., a novel method for identifying network biomarkers is in pressing need to accurately classify and diagnose diseases from molecular data and shed light on the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Rather than seeking differential genes at an individual-molecule level, here we propose a novel method for identifying network biomarkers based on protein-protein interaction affinity (PPIA), which identify the differential interactions at a network level. Specifically, we firstly define PPIAs by estimating the concentrations of protein complexes based on the law of mass action upon gene expression data. Then we select a small and non-redundant group of protein-protein interactions and single proteins according to the PPIAs, that maximizes the discerning ability of cases from controls. This method is mathematically formulated as a linear programming, which can be efficiently solved and guarantees a globally optimal solution. Extensive results on experimental data in breast cancer demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method for identifying network biomarkers, which not only can accurately distinguish the phenotypes but also provides significant biological insights at a network or pathway level. In addition, our method provides a new way to integrate static protein-protein interaction information with dynamical gene expression data. PMID:26044366

  16. Trichohyalin-like 1 protein, a member of fused S100 proteins, is expressed in normal and pathologic human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakoshi, Takako; Makino, Teruhiko; Ur Rehman, Mati; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Sugimori, Michiya; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Trichohyalin-like 1 protein is a member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. ► Specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein were generated. ► TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. ► TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in tumor nests of BCC and SCC. ► The expression of TCHHL1 proteins increased in epidermis of psoriasis vulgaris. - Abstract: Trichohyalin-like 1 (TCHHL1) protein is a novel member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of TCHHL1 contains an EF-hand domain in the N-terminus, one trans-membrane domain and a nuclear localization signal. We generated specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein and examined the expression of TCHHL1 proteins in normal and pathological human skin. An immunohistochemical study showed that TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. In addition, signals of TCHHL1 proteins were observed around the nuclei of cultured growing keratinocytes. Accordingly, TCHHL1 mRNA has been detected in normal skin and cultured growing keratinocytes. Furthermore, TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests in basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. A dramatic increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells was observed in TCHHL1-expressing areas. The expression of TCHHL1 proteins also increased in non-cancerous hyperproliferative epidermal tissues such as those of psoriasis vulgaris and lichen planus. These findings highlight the possibility that TCHHL1 proteins are expressed in growing keratinocytes of the epidermis and might be associated with the proliferation of keratinocytes.

  17. An efficient protocol to enhance recombinant protein expression using ethanol in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Gaurav; Kalita, Parismita; Tripathi, Timir

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cells can be engineered to express non-native genes, resulting in the production of, recombinant proteins, which have various biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. In eukaryotes, such as yeast or mammalian cells, which have large genomes, a higher recombinant protein expression can be troublesome. Comparatively, in the Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system, although the expression is induced with isopropyl ?-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), studies have shown low expression levels of proteins. Irrespective of the purpose of protein production, the production process requires the accomplishment of three individual factors: expression, solubilization and purification. Although several efforts, including changing the host, vector, culture parameters of the recombinant host strain, co-expression of other genes and changing of the gene sequences, have been directed towards enhancing recombinant protein expression, the protein expression is still considered as a significant limiting step. Our protocol explains a simple method to enhance the recombinant protein expression that we have optimized using several unrelated proteins. It works with both T5 and T7 promoters. This protocol can be used to enhance the expressions of most of the proteins. The advantages of this technique are presented below:It produces several fold increase in the expression of poorly expressed, less expressed or non-expressed recombinant proteins.It does not employ any additional component such as chaperones, heat shock proteins or co-expression of other genes.In addition to being inexpensive, easy to manage, universal, and quick to perform, the proposed method does not require any commercial kits and, can be used for various recombinant proteins expressed in the E. coli expression system. PMID:26629417

  18. Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, X.; Chang, D.; Rottinghaus, S.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448), using the recombinant expression system pFPYV2. Recombinant VP2 was purified to near homogeneity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroelution, and Extracti-Gel chromatography. Polyclonal serum to this protein which reacted specifically with recombinant VP2 as well as polyomavirus virion VP2 and VP3 on Western blots (immunoblots) was produced. Purified VP2 was used to establish an in vitro protein-protein interaction assay with polyomavirus structural proteins and purified recombinant VP1. Recombinant VP2 interacted with recombinant VP1, virion VP1, and the four virion histones. Recombinant VP1 coimmunoprecipitated with recombinant VP2 or truncated VP2 (delta C12VP2), which lacked the carboxy-terminal 12 amino acids. These experiments confirmed the interaction between VP1 and VP2 and revealed that the carboxyterminal 12 amino acids of VP2 and VP3 were not necessary for formation of this interaction. In vivo VP1-VP2 interaction study accomplished by cotransfection of COS-7 cells with VP2 and truncated VP1 (delta N11VP1) lacking the nuclear localization signal demonstrated that VP2 was capable of translocating delta N11VP1 into the nucleus. These studies suggest that complexes of VP1 and VP2 may be formed in the cytoplasm and cotransported to the nucleus for virion assembly to occur.

  19. Labeling of Membrane Proteins by Cell-Free Expression.

    PubMed

    LaGuerre, Aisha; Lhr, Frank; Bernhard, Frank; Dtsch, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The particular advantage of the cell-free reaction is that it allows a plethora of supplementation during protein expression and offers complete control over the available amino acid pool in view of concentration and composition. In combination with the fast and reliable production efficiencies of cell-free systems, the labeling and subsequent structural evaluation of very challenging targets, such as membrane proteins, comes into focus. We describe current methods for the isotopic labeling of cell-free synthesized membrane proteins and we review techniques available to the practitioner pursuing structural studies by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Though isotopic labeling of individual amino acid types appears to be relatively straightforward, an ongoing critical issue in most labeling schemes for structural approaches is the selective substitution of deuterons for protons. While few options are available, the continuous refinement of labeling schemes in combination with improved pulse sequences and optimized instrumentation gives promising perspectives for extended applications in the structural evaluation of cell-free synthesized membrane. PMID:26577739

  20. Association between Decreased WWOX Protein Expression and Thyroid Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Eduardo P.; Pimenta, Flavio J.; Sarquis, Marta S.; Dias Filho, Marco A.; Aldaz, C. M.; Fujii, Julienne B.; Gomez, Ricardo S.; De Marco, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Context Chromosomal fragile sites are often related to cancer development. The WW domaincontaining oxidoreductase gene (WWOX) spans the second most common chromosomal fragile site (FRA16D) and encodes an important proapoptotic protein. Objective To verify our hypothesis that underexpression of WWOX could contribute to malignant transformation of the thyroid cells. Method We compared WWOX expression among follicular adenomas (FAs) and differentiated thyroid carcinomas [follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs)] in 53 thyroid tumors resected from patients submitted to total thyroidectomy. Design Multiple fields of tumor areas of FAs, FTCs, and PTCs as well as normal thyroid tissue were stained with WWOX antiserum, and classified by the extent of staining (percentage of cells staining) and staining intensity. Main outcome PTCs showed a significantly decreased expression of WWOX when compared to FAs and FTCs. Further, using a unique model of comparison in patients in whom FAs and PTCs were concomitantly present, we detected the same result (i.e., no expression in PTCs). Conclusion We conclude that WWOX underexpression is an important step that might increase the vulnerability to the carcinogenesis process in PTCs. PMID:18047428

  1. Nuclear genes encoding plastid proteins expressed early in chloroplast development

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this grant was to characterize events which occur early in chloroplast biogenesis and to isolate nuclear genes encoding plastid proteins which are expressed during this developmental phase. In addition, the possible requirement of plastid transcription for the expression of the nuclear genes such as rbcS and cab was to be tested. The impetus for this research came from studies of chloroplast biogenesis in barley. We found that plastid DNA copy number was relatively high (120 copies/plastid vs 200 at maximal accumulation) in the meristematic region of the leaf base whereas plastid transcription activity was low in this plastid population. Later in chloroplast development transcription activity increased at least 5 fold per plastid or per template indicating that activation of plastid transcription occurred after most of the build up in plastid DNA per plastid. This suggested that activation of plastid DNA synthesis occurred early in chloroplast development and that nuclear genes involved in this activity must be regulated differently from genes such rbcS or cab which are expressed later in development. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  2. SSAO/VAP-1 protein expression during mouse embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Valente, Tony; Sol, Montse; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2008-09-01

    SSAO/VAP-1 is a multifunctional enzyme depending on in which tissue it is expressed. SSAO/VAP-1 is present in almost all adult mammalian tissues, especially in highly vascularised ones and in adipocytes. SSAO/VAP-1 is an amine oxidase able to metabolise various endogenous or exogenous primary amines. Its catalytic activity can lead to cellular oxidative stress, which has been implicated in several pathologies (atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease). The aim of this work is to achieve a study of SSAO/VAP-1 protein expression during mouse embryogenesis. Our results show that SSAO/VAP-1 appears early in the development of the vascular system, adipose tissue, and smooth muscle cells. Moreover, its expression is strong in several epithelia of the sensory organs, as well as in the development of cartilage sites. Altogether, this suggests that SSAO/VAP-1 enzyme could be involved in the differentiation processes that take place during embryonic development, concretely in tissue vascularisation. PMID:18729210

  3. HLA Class I protein expression in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Blaschitz, A; Hutter, H; Dohr, G

    2001-01-01

    The maternal tolerance to the semiallogeneic fetus is still a central theme in reproductive immunology. During placentation, fetally-derived, genetically dissimilar tissue and cells come into close contact with maternal tissue and cells, thus forming the so-called feto-maternal interface. The most extensive contact between fetally-derived and maternal blood cells is formed by the villous trophoblastic barrier, where the syncytiotrophoblast surface permanently floats in maternal blood. Further contact is made by some extravillous cytotrophoblast cells, either located at villous tips, in so-called cell islands, or the endovascular trophoblast population within the uteroplacental spiral arteries. The third contact zone is the so-called junctional zone within the decidua where the invading extravillous trophoblast cells encounter all maternal tissue leukocytes, which are mainly NK cells, macrophages and T cells; this junctional zone extends at the edge of the placenta to the amnio-chorionic membranes where the chorionic laeve trophoblast has intimate contact with decidua tissue. It is worth mentioning that evidence has shown that even in healthy pregnancies fetal and maternal lymphoid cells are able to transgress the trophoblastic barrier, which, anatomically, seems completely impermeable. Because of this intimate contact of foreign cells to the foreign immune system it is important to define the antigenic status of the placental cells, in particular with respect to antigens of the Major Histocompatibility complex. The role of the highly polymorphic classical class I molecules HLA -A, -B, -C, which are expressed on almost all somatic cells, is the induction of a specific immune response by presenting peptide antigens to T cells. In contrast, the non-classical HLA class I molecules HLA-G and HLA-E are thought to be involved in the induction of immune tolerance by acting as ligands for inhibitory receptors present on NK cells and macrophages. The non-classical HLA-E is also expressed ubiquitously, but HLA-G expression is characterized by a unique tissue expression mainly in the human placenta. A further feature of HLA-G is that its mRNA has undergone alternative splicing, resulting in at least 6 different isoforms, encoding different proteins: 4 membrane-bound and 2 soluble forms, which could simultaneously maintain different functions depending on their molecular structure. In our immunohistochemical study we investigated the expression of classical and non-classical HLA class I proteins in human placenta using various mAbs, which were kindly provided by the groups of A. Ziegler, D. Geraghty, O. Genbacev, MT. McMaster, A. King, YW. Loke and Ph. Le Bouteiller. For HLA-A,-B detection we used the antibody LA45; for detection of HLA-C,-B mAbs T149 and HC10. HLA-C expression alone was detected with mAb L31. HLA-G expression was studied using antibodies 4H84, G233, 87G, 16G1 and BFL.1. For HLA-E staining we used antibodies DT9 and V16. The classical HLA class I proteins are expressed in all non-trophoblastic cells including the fetal and maternal cells. Comparison of HLA-A and HLA-B staining intensities within the villous stroma indicates that during first trimester of pregnancy the fetal HLA-B proteins are expressed before HLA-A appears. Among the trophoblast populations, the syncytiotrophoblast does not show any HLA class I staining, but the extravillous cells express high amounts of HLA-G together with HLA-C. King and co-workers have shown recently, using methods other than immunohistochemistry, that first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells are also likely to express HLA-E. By contrast we did not detect HLA-E in any trophoblasts with antibodies DT9 and V16. There is still an ongoing and also controversial discussion about which kinds of cells in the placenta, other than extravillous trophoblast, express which kind of the HLA-G isoforms. Depending on the antibodies and the different immunohistochemical techniques used, different results have been described: Antibody 16G1 specific for soluble HLA-G labels syncytiotrophobla

  4. Protein Expression Analysis of Melanocyte Differentiation Antigen TRP-2.

    PubMed

    Avogadri, Francesca; Gnjatic, Sacha; Tassello, Jodie; Frosina, Denise; Hanson, Nicole; Laudenbach, Megan; Ritter, Erika; Merghoub, Taha; Busam, Klaus J; Jungbluth, Achim A

    2016-03-01

    Melanocyte differentiation antigens, such as gp100, tyrosinase, and Melan-A and their corresponding antibodies HMB45, T311, and A103, are major diagnostic tools in surgical pathology. Little is known about tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2, or dopachrome tautomerase/DCT) another melanocyte differentiation antigen, which is an enzymatic component of melanogenesis. We identified a commercial reagent to TRP-2, monoclonal antibody (mAb) C-9 and undertook a comprehensive analysis to assess its specificity and usefulness for surgical pathology. Subsequently, we analyzed panels of normal tissues and tumors. We show that TRP-2 is regularly expressed in melanocytes of the normal skin. In cutaneous nevi, TRP-2 is present in junctional as well as in dermal nevocytes. In malignant tumors, C-9 reactivity is restricted to melanocytic and related lesions and present in 84% and 58% of primary and metastatic melanomas, respectively. Ten primary melanomas of the anorectal mucosa were all positive. Like the other melanocyte differentiation antigens, TRP-2 was absent in 6 desmoplastic melanomas. Also, only 2 of 9 angiomyolipomas were TRP-2 positive. We conclude that mAb C-9 is a valuable reagent for the analysis of TRP-2 expression in archival surgical pathology material. The expression pattern of TRP-2 in melanocytic and related lesions appears to parallel other melanocyte differentiation antigens, although the overall incidence is lower than other antigens, such as Melan-A or gp100. PMID:26894771

  5. Transgenic peas expressing an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene from beans show altered expression and modification of endogenous proteins.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nazrul; Campbell, Peter M; Higgins, Thomas J V; Hirano, Hisashi; Akhurst, Raymond J

    2009-06-01

    Differential in-gel electrophoresis showed contrasting effects of the transgenic expression of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from beans on the proteomes of two pea cultivars. One cultivar showed minor changes relative to its non-transgenic parent with only one protein changing by more than about twofold. Changes in the abundance of certain endogenous proteins in the other cultivar were of greater number and magnitude with some endogenous proteins undetected while some new protein spots appeared in the transgenic proteome. The sets of proteins with altered expression were generally different between the two cultivars. Some of the proteins that were differentially expressed were identified by MS. Most were seed storage globulins, which are sited together with the transgenic product. Some of the changes may be due to alterations in expression levels but there were also changes due to post-translational processing. PMID:19517428

  6. GPR37 Surface Expression Enhancement via N-Terminal Truncation or Protein-Protein Interactions1

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Jill H.; Meyer, Rebecca C.; Garcia, Erin L.; Hall, Randy A.

    2009-01-01

    GPR37, also known as the parkin-associated endothelin-like receptor (Pael-R), is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that exhibits poor plasma membrane expression when expressed in most cell types. We sought to find ways to enhance GPR37 trafficking to the cell surface in order to facilitate studies of GPR37 functional activity in heterologous cells. In truncation studies, we found that removing the GPR37 N-terminus (NT) dramatically enhanced the receptor’s plasma membrane insertion. Further studies on sequential NT truncations revealed that removal of the first 210 amino acids increased surface expression nearly as much as removal of the entire NT. In studies examining the effects of co-expression of GPR37 with a variety of other GPCRs, we observed significant increases in GPR37 surface expression when the receptor was co-expressed with the adenosine receptor A2AR or the dopamine receptor D2R. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that full-length GPR37 and, to a greater extent, the truncated GPR37 were capable of robustly associating with D2R, resulting in modestly-altered D2R affinity for both agonists and antagonists. In studies examining potential interactions of GPR37 with PDZ scaffolds, we observed a specific interaction between GPR37 and syntenin-1, which resulted in a dramatic increase in GPR37 surface expression in HEK-293 cells. These findings reveal three independent approaches – N-terminal truncation, co-expression with other receptors and co-expression with syntenin-1 – by which GPR37 surface trafficking in heterologous cells can be greatly enhanced to facilitate functional studies on this orphan receptor. PMID:19799451

  7. Protein expression profiling of nuclear membrane protein reveals potential biomarker of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex molecular events lead to development and progression of liver cirrhosis to HCC. Differentially expressed nuclear membrane associated proteins are responsible for the functional and structural alteration during the progression from cirrhosis to carcinoma. Although alterations/ post translational modifications in protein expression have been extensively quantified, complementary analysis of nuclear membrane proteome changes have been limited. Deciphering the molecular mechanism that differentiate between normal and disease state may lead to identification of biomarkers for carcinoma. Results Many proteins displayed differential expression when nuclear membrane proteome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), fibrotic liver, and HepG2 cell line were assessed using 2-DE and ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS. From the down regulated set in HCC, we have identified for the first time a 15 KDa cytochrome b5A (CYB5A), ATP synthase subunit delta (ATPD) and Hemoglobin subunit beta (HBB) with 11, 5 and 22 peptide matches respectively. Furthermore, nitrosylation studies with S-nitrosocysteine followed by immunoblotting with anti SNO-cysteine demonstrated a novel and biologically relevant post translational modification of thiols of CYB5A in HCC specimens only. Immunofluorescence images demonstrated increased protein S-nitrosylation signals in the tumor cells and fibrotic region of HCC tissues. The two other nuclear membrane proteins which were only found to be nitrosylated in case of HCC were up regulated ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPB) and down regulated HBB. The decrease in expression of CYB5A in HCC suggests their possible role in disease progression. Further insight of the functional association of the identified proteins was obtained through KEGG/ REACTOME pathway analysis databases. String 8.3 interaction network shows strong interactions with proteins at high confidence score, which is helpful in characterization of functional abnormalities that may be a causative factor of liver pathology. Conclusion These findings may have broader implications for understanding the mechanism of development of carcinoma. However, large scale studies will be required for further verification of their critical role in development and progression of HCC. PMID:23724895

  8. Improved protein quality in transgenic soybean expressing a de novo synthetic protein, MB-16.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfang; Schernthaner, Johann; Labb, Natalie; Hefford, Mary A; Zhao, Jiping; Simmonds, Daina H

    2014-06-01

    To improve soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed nutritional quality, a synthetic gene, MB-16 was introduced into the soybean genome to boost seed methionine content. MB-16, an 11kDa de novo protein enriched in the essential amino acids (EAAs) methionine, threonine, lysine and leucine, was originally developed for expression in rumen bacteria. For efficient seed expression, constructs were designed using the soybean codon bias, with and without the KDEL ER retention sequence, and ?-conglycinin or cruciferin seed specific protein storage promoters. Homozygous lines, with single locus integrations, were identified for several transgenic events. Transgene transmission and MB-16 protein expression were confirmed to the T5 and T7 generations, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of developing seed showed that the transcript peaked in growing seed, 5-6mm long, remained at this peak level to the full-sized green seed and then was significantly reduced in maturing yellow seed. Transformed events carrying constructs with the rumen bacteria codon preference showed the same transcription pattern as those with the soybean codon preference, but the transcript levels were lower at each developmental stage. MB-16 protein levels, as determined by immunoblots, were highest in full-sized green seed but the protein virtually disappeared in mature seed. However, amino acid analysis of mature seed, in the best transgenic line, showed a significant increase of 16.2 and 65.9% in methionine and cysteine, respectively, as compared to the parent. This indicates that MB-16 elevated the sulfur amino acids, improved the EAA seed profile and confirms that a de novo synthetic gene can enhance the nutritional quality of soybean. PMID:24435987

  9. Expression-Enhanced Fluorescent Proteins Based on Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein for Super-resolution Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duwé, Sam; De Zitter, Elke; Gielen, Vincent; Moeyaert, Benjamien; Vandenberg, Wim; Grotjohann, Tim; Clays, Koen; Jakobs, Stefan; Van Meervelt, Luc; Dedecker, Peter

    2015-10-27

    "Smart fluorophores", such as reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins, are crucial for advanced fluorescence imaging. However, only a limited number of such labels is available, and many display reduced biological performance compared to more classical variants. We present the development of robustly photoswitchable variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), named rsGreens, that display up to 30-fold higher fluorescence in E. coli colonies grown at 37 °C and more than 4-fold higher fluorescence when expressed in HEK293T cells compared to their ancestor protein rsEGFP. This enhancement is not due to an intrinsic increase in the fluorescence brightness of the probes, but rather due to enhanced expression levels that allow many more probe molecules to be functional at any given time. We developed rsGreens displaying a range of photoswitching kinetics and show how these can be used for multimodal diffraction-unlimited fluorescence imaging such as pcSOFI and RESOLFT, achieving a spatial resolution of ∼70 nm. By determining the first ever crystal structures of a negative reversibly switchable FP derived from Aequorea victoria in both the "on"- and "off"-conformation we were able to confirm the presence of a cis-trans isomerization and provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the photochromism. Our work demonstrates that genetically encoded "smart fluorophores" can be readily optimized for biological performance and provides a practical strategy for developing maturation- and stability-enhanced photochromic fluorescent proteins. PMID:26308583

  10. Recombinant protein production data after expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cantu-Bustos, J. Enrique; Cano del Villar, Kevin D.; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-01-01

    Fusion proteins have become essential for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The metal-binding protein CusF has shown several features that make it an attractive fusion protein and affinity tag: "Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF" (Cantu-Bustos et al., 2016 [1]). Here we present accompanying data from protein expression experiments; we tested different protein tags, temperatures, expression times, cellular compartments, and concentrations of inducer in order to obtain soluble protein and low formation of inclusion bodies. Additionally, we present data from the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged with CusF, using Ag(I) metal affinity chromatography. PMID:27014739

  11. Recombinant protein production data after expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Cano Del Villar, Kevin D; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-06-01

    Fusion proteins have become essential for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The metal-binding protein CusF has shown several features that make it an attractive fusion protein and affinity tag: "Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF" (Cantu-Bustos et al., 2016 [1]). Here we present accompanying data from protein expression experiments; we tested different protein tags, temperatures, expression times, cellular compartments, and concentrations of inducer in order to obtain soluble protein and low formation of inclusion bodies. Additionally, we present data from the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged with CusF, using Ag(I) metal affinity chromatography. PMID:27014739

  12. RANKL directly induces bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in RANK-expressing POS-1 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wittrant, Yohann; Lamoureux, François; Mori, Kanji; Riet, Anne; Kamijo, Akira; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The POS-1 murine model of osteolytic osteosarcoma was used to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the development of primary bone tumors and associated lung metastasis. The POS-1 cell line is derived from an osteosarcoma tumor which develops spontaneously in C3H mice. The POS-1 cell line was characterized in vitro by mineralization capacity and expression of bone markers by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, compared to primary osteoblasts and bone marrow cells. POS-1 cells showed no mineralization capacity and exhibited an undifferentiated phenotype, expressing both osteoblastic and unexpected osteoclastic markers (TRAP, cathepsin K and RANK). Thereby, experiments were performed to determine whether RANK was functional, by studying the biological activity of murine RANKL through the receptor RANK expressed on POS-1 cells. Results revealed a RANKL-induced increase in ERK phosphorylation, as well as BMP-2 induction at the mRNA and protein levels, and a decrease of POS-1 cell proliferation in the presence of 10 ng/ml RANKL. BMP-2 induction is dependent on the ERK 1/2 signal transduction pathway, as its expression is abolished in the presence of UO126, a specific synthetic inhibitor of the ERK 1/2 pathway. Moreover, a 2-fold molar excess of soluble RANK blocks the RANKL-induced BMP-2 expression, demonstrating that the biological effects of RANKL observed in POS-1 cells are mediated by RANK. This is the first report describing a functional RANK expressed on osteosarcoma cells, as shown by its ability to induce signal transduction pathways and biological activity when stimulated by RANKL. PMID:16328004

  13. Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Regard, Jean B.; Sato, Isaac T.; Coughlin, Shaun R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest family of transmembrane signaling molecules and regulate a host of physiological and disease processes. To better understand the functions of GPCRs in vivo, we quantified transcript levels of 353 non-odorant GPCRs in 41 adult mouse tissues. Cluster analysis placed many GPCRs into anticipated anatomical and functional groups and predicted novel roles for less studied receptors. From one such prediction, we showed that the Gpr91 ligand succinate can regulate lipolysis in white adipose tissue suggesting that signaling by this citric acid cycle intermediate may regulate energy homeostasis. We also showed that pairwise analysis of GPCR expression across tissues may help predict drug side effects. This resource will aid studies to understand GPCR function in vivo and may assist in the identification of therapeutic targets. PMID:18984166

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1096 protein: gene cloning, protein expression, and peptidoglycan deacetylase activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many bacteria modulate and evade the immune defenses of their hosts through peptidoglycan (PG) deacetylation. The PG deacetylases from Streptococcus pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes and Lactococcus lactis have been characterized. However, thus far, the PG deacetylase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been identified. Results In this study, we cloned the Rv1096 gene from the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and expressed Rv1096 protein in both Escherichia coli and M. smegmatis. The results showed that the purified Rv1096 protein possessed metallo-dependent PG deacetylase activity, which increased in the presence of Co2+. The kinetic parameters of the PG deacetylase towards M. smegmatis PG as a substrate were as follows: Km, 0.910 ± 0.007 mM; Vmax, 0.514 ± 0.038 μMmin-1; and Kcat = 0.099 ± 0.007 (S-1). Additionally, the viability of M. smegmatis in the presence of over-expressed Rv1096 protein was 109-fold higher than that of wild-type M. smegmatis after lysozyme treatment. Additionally, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that in the presence of over-expressed Rv1096 protein, M. smegmatis kept its regular shape, with an undamaged cell wall and smooth surface. These results indicate that Rv1096 caused deacetylation of cell wall PG, leading to lysozyme resistance in M. smegmatis. Conclusion We have determined that M. tuberculosis Rv1096 is a PG deacetylase. The PG deacetylase activity of Rv1096 contributed to lysozyme resistance in M. smegmatis. Our findings suggest that deacetylation of cell wall PG may be involved in evasion of host immune defenses by M. tuberculosis. PMID:24975018

  15. C-reactive protein inhibits survivin expression via Akt/mTOR pathway downregulation by PTEN expression in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Seob; Kim, Soo Hyuk; Oh, Jaewon; Jin, Taewon; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Sungha; Lee, Sang-Hak; Chung, Ji Hyung; Kang, Seok-Min

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We demonstrated that treatment of CRP resulted in a significant decrease of survivin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes. The upstream signaling proteins of survivin, such as Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, were also downregulated by CRP treatment. In addition, CRP increased the protein and mRNA levels of PTEN. The siRNA transfection or specific inhibitor treatment for PTEN restored the CRP-induced downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and survivin protein expression. Moreover, pretreatment with a specific p53 inhibitor decreased the CRP-induced PTEN expression. ERK-specific inhibitor also blocked the p53 phosphorylation and PTEN expression induced by CRP. Our study provides a novel insight into CRP-induced downregulation of survivin protein expression in cardiac myocytes through mechanisms that involved in downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway by expression of PTEN. PMID:24866016

  16. Transfected MDCK cell line with enhanced expression of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as a model to study their role in drug transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Budda, Balasubramanyam; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and utilize MDCK cell line expressing CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as an in vitro model for evaluating drug-herb and drug-drug of abuse interactions. MDCK cell line simultaneously expressing P-gp and CYP3A4 (MMC) was developed and characterized by using expression and activity studies. Cellular transport study of 200 ?M cortisol was performed to determine their combined activity. The study was carried across MDCK-WT, MDCK-MDR1 and MMC cell lines. Similar studies were also carried out in the presence of 50 ?M naringin and 3 ?M morphine. Samples were analyzed by HPLC for drug and its CYP3A4 metabolite. PCR, qPCR and Western blot studies confirmed the enhanced expression of the proteins in the transfected cells. The Vivid CYP3A4 assay and ketoconazole inhibition studies further confirmed the presence of active protein. Apical to basal transport of cortisol was found to be 10- and 3-fold lower in MMC as compared to MDCK-WT and MDCK-MDR1 respectively. Higher amount of metabolite was formed in MMC than in MDCK-WT, indicating enhanced expression of CYP3A4. Highest cortisol metabolite formation was observed in MMC cell line due to the combined activities of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Transport of cortisol increased 5-fold in the presence of naringin in MMC and doubled in MDCK-MDR1. Cortisol transport in MMC was significantly lower than that in MDCK-WT in the presence of naringin. The permeability increased 3-fold in the presence of morphine, which is a weaker inhibitor of CYP3A4. Formation of 6?-hydroxy cortisol was found to decrease in the presence of morphine and naringin. This new model cell line with its enhanced CYP3A4 and P-gp levels in addition to short culture time can serve as an invaluable model to study drug-drug interactions. This cell line can also be used to study the combined contribution of efflux transporter and metabolizing enzymes toward drug-drug interactions. PMID:22676443

  17. P-glycoprotein involvement in cuticular penetration of [14C]thiodicarb in resistant tobacco budworms.

    PubMed

    Lanning, C L; Ayad, H M; Abou-Donia, M B

    1996-06-01

    Pesticides have been shown to interact with the multidrug resistance protein associated with cancer chemotherapy, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp, therefore, has also been implicated in the development of pesticide resistance. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect P-gp has on the accumulation of the carbamate pesticide, thiodicarb. For these studies, resistant tobacco budworm larvae, expressing four times the P-gp as susceptible larvae, were pretreated with the P-gp inhibitor, quinidine, and challenged topically with thiodicarb. Quinidine enhanced thiodicarb toxicity in a dose-dependent manner, with mortality in the presence of P-gp inhibition increased up to 33%. Quinidine treatment increased [14C]thiodicarb accumulation 2- to 3-fold as compared to thiodicarb treatment alone. This study suggests that P-gp contributes to quinidine synergism of thiodicarb toxicity and suggests that P-gp may be involved in cuticular resistance to pesticides. PMID:8644124

  18. Redox Regulation of Thylakoid Protein Kinases and Photosynthetic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Photosynthetic organisms are subjected to frequent changes in their environment that include fluctuations in light quality and quantity, temperature, CO2 concentration, and nutrient availability. They have evolved complex responses to these changes that allow them to protect themselves against photo-oxidative damage and to optimize their growth under these adverse conditions. In the case of light changes, these acclimatory processes can occur in either the short or the long term and are mainly mediated through the redox state of the plastoquinone pool and the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. Recent Advances: Short-term responses involve a dynamic reorganization of photosynthetic complexes, and long-term responses (LTRs) modulate the chloroplast and nuclear gene expression in such a way that the levels of the photosystems and their antennae are rebalanced for an optimal photosynthetic performance. These changes are mediated through a complex signaling network with several protein kinases and phosphatases that are conserved in land plants and algae. The phosphorylation status of the light-harvesting proteins of photosystem II and its core proteins is mainly determined by two complementary kinasephosphatase pairs corresponding to STN7/PPH1 and STN8/PBCP, respectively. Critical Issues: The activity of the Stt7 kinase is principally regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool, which in turn depends on the light irradiance, ambient CO2 concentration, and cellular energy status. In addition, this kinase is also involved in the LTR. Future Directions: Other chloroplast kinases modulate the activity of the plastid transcriptional machinery, but the global signaling network that connects all of the identified kinases and phosphatases is still largely unknown. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 21842201. PMID:23339452

  19. Modeling Signal Transduction from Protein Phosphorylation to Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chunhui; Chen, Lujia; Jiang, Xia; Lu, Xinghua

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Signaling networks are of great importance for us to understand the cells regulatory mechanism. The rise of large-scale genomic and proteomic data, and prior biological knowledge has paved the way for the reconstruction and discovery of novel signaling pathways in a data-driven manner. In this study, we investigate computational methods that integrate proteomics and transcriptomic data to identify signaling pathways transmitting signals in response to specific stimuli. Such methods can be applied to cancer genomic data to infer perturbed signaling pathways. METHOD We proposed a novel Bayesian Network (BN) framework to integrate transcriptomic data with proteomic data reflecting protein phosphorylation states for the purpose of identifying the pathways transmitting the signal of diverse stimuli in rat and human cells. We represented the proteins and genes as nodes in a BN in which edges reflect the regulatory relationship between signaling proteins. We designed an efficient inference algorithm that incorporated the prior knowledge of pathways and searched for a network structure in a data-driven manner. RESULTS We applied our method to infer rat and human specific networks given gene expression and proteomic datasets. We were able to effectively identify sparse signaling networks that modeled the observed transcriptomic and proteomic data. Our methods were able to identify distinct signaling pathways for rat and human cells in a data-driven manner, based on the facts that rat and human cells exhibited distinct transcriptomic and proteomics responses to a common set of stimuli. Our model performed well in the SBV IMPROVER challenge in comparison to other models addressing the same task. The capability of inferring signaling pathways in a data-driven fashion may contribute to cancer research by identifying distinct aberrations in signaling pathways underlying heterogeneous cancers subtypes. PMID:25392684

  20. Expression of epithelial adhesion proteins and integrins in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Haapasalmi, K.; Mkel, M.; Oksala, O.; Heino, J.; Yamada, K. M.; Uitto, V. J.; Larjava, H.

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cell behavior in chronic inflammation is poorly characterized. During inflammation of tooth-supporting structures (periodontal disease), increased proliferation of epithelial cells into the inflamed connective tissue stroma is commonly seen. In some areas ulceration and degeneration take place. We studied alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and integrins during chronic periodontal inflammation. In inflamed tissue, laminin-1 and type IV collagen were still present in the basement membrane and surrounding blood vessels, but they were also found extravascularly in inflamed connective tissue stroma. Type VII collagen and laminin-5 (also known as kalinin, epiligrin, or nicein) were poorly preserved in the basement membrane zone, but both were found in unusual streak-like distributions in the subepithelial connective tissue stroma in inflamed tissue. Both fibronectin and tenascin were substantially decreased in chronically inflamed connective tissue, showing only punctate staining at the basement membrane zone. Integrins of the beta 1 family showed two distinct staining patterns in epithelial cells during chronic inflammation; focal losses of beta 1 integrins (alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1) were found in most areas, while in other areas the entire pocket epithelium was found to be strongly positive for beta 1 integrins. No members of the alpha v integrin family were found in any epithelia studied. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was high in basal cells of healthy tissue, but weak in epithelium associated with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation therefore involves alterations in both adhesion proteins and integrins expressed by epithelial cells. Basement membrane components found at abnormal sites in stroma in chronic inflammation might serve as new adhesive ligands for various cell types in inflamed stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7541610

  1. RNA protein interactions governing expression of the most abundant protein in human body, type I collagen

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. The protein turns over slowly and its replacement synthesis is low. However, in wound healing or in pathological fibrosis the cells can increase production of type I collagen several hundred fold. This increase is predominantly due to posttranscriptional regulation, including increased half life of collagen mRNAs and their increased translatability. Type I collagen is composed of two α1 and one α2 polypeptides that fold into a triple helix. This stochiometry is strictly regulated to prevent detrimental synthesis of α1 homotrimers. Collagen polypeptides are co-translationally modified and the rate of modifications is in dynamic equilibrium with the rate of folding, suggesting coordinated translation of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) polypeptides. Collagen α1(I) mRNA has in the 3’ UTR a C-rich sequence that binds protein αCP, this binding stabilizes the mRNA in collagen producing cells. In the 5’UTR both collagen mRNAs have a conserved stem-loop structure (5’SL). The 5’SL is critical for high collagen expression, knock in mice with disruption of the 5’SL are resistant to liver fibrosis. the 5’SL binds protein LARP6 with strict sequence specificity and high affinity. LARP6 recruits RNA helicase A to facilitate translation initiation and associates collagen mRNAs with vimentin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. Binding to vimentin stabilizes collagen mRNAs, while nonmuscle myosin regulates coordinated translation of α1(I) and α2(I) mRNAs. When nonmuscle myosin filaments are disrupted the cells secrete only α1 homotrimers. Thus, the mechanism governing high collagen expression involves two RNA binding proteins and development of cytoskeletal filaments. PMID:23907854

  2. Ozone inhalation stimulates expression of a neutrophil chemotactic protein, macrophage inflammatory protein 2

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, K.E.; Simpson, L.; Carter, J.; Hassenbein, D.; Leikauf, G.D. )

    1993-04-01

    Short-term exposure of humans and animals to ozone results in increased lung neutrophils; however, the mechanisms underlying this response are not completely understood. We examined the potential involvement of the neutrophil chemotactic factor, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), in ozone-induced inflammation. Exposure-response relationships for ozone and MIP-2 expression were characterized by exposing C57B1/6 mice to 0.1-2 ppm ozone for 3 hr and determining lung levels of MIP-2 mRNA 6 hr after exposure. Temporal relationships between ozone and MIP-2 were determined by exposing mice (2 ppm ozone x 3 hr) and characterizing MIP-2 mRNA expression 0, 2, 6, and 24 hr after exposure. Neutrophils in lung lavage fluid were determined in both exposure-response and time course studies. Ozone concentrations > or = 1.0 ppm increased MIP-2 mRNA and this increase corresponded with recruitment of neutrophils. MIP-2 mRNA was increased immediately after ozone exposure and decreased to control levels by 24 hr. To examine the role of direct oxidant effects in ozone-induced MIP-2 expression, alveolar macrophages were exposed in vitro for 4 hr to 10(-10)-10(-5) M hydrogen peroxide and MIP-2 expression was characterized. MIP-2 mRNA levels in lung macrophages were increased by > or = 10(-9) M hydrogen peroxide. In summary, our findings suggest the chemotactic protein MIP-2 may be responsible, at least in part, for ozone-induced increases in lung neutrophils and indicate that direct exposure of alveolar macrophages to an oxidant is sufficient to induce MIP-2 expression.

  3. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Galbraith, David W; McEvoy, Megan M; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-05-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli has been improved considerably through the use of fusion proteins, because they increase protein solubility and facilitate purification via affinity chromatography. In this article, we propose the use of CusF as a new fusion partner for expression and purification of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using a cell-free protein expression system, based on the E. coli S30 extract, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was expressed with a series of different N-terminal tags, immobilized on self-assembled protein microarrays, and its fluorescence quantified. GFP tagged with CusF showed the highest fluorescence intensity, and this was greater than the intensities from corresponding GFP constructs that contained MBP or GST tags. Analysis of protein production in vivo showed that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein with low levels of inclusion bodies. Furthermore, fusion proteins can be exported to the cellular periplasm, if CusF contains the signal sequence. Taking advantage of its ability to bind copper ions, recombinant proteins can be purified with readily available IMAC resins charged with this metal ion, producing pure proteins after purification and tag removal. We therefore recommend the use of CusF as a viable alternative to MBP or GST as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:26805756

  4. Rift Valley fever virus structural and non-structural proteins: Recombinant protein expression and immunoreactivity against antisera from sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) encodes structural proteins, nucleoprotein (N), N-terminus glycoprotein (Gn), C-terminus glycoprotein (Gc) and L protein, 78-kDa and non-structural proteins NSm and NSs. Using the baculovirus system we expressed the full-length coding sequence of N, NSs, NSm, Gc an...

  5. Differential dissolved protein expression throughout the life cycle of Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Lingdan, Li; Pengtao, Gong; Wenchao, Li; Jianhua, Li; Ju, Yang; Chengwu, Liu; He, Li; Guocai, Zhang; Wenzhi, Ren; Yujiang, Chen; Xichen, Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) has a simple life cycle that alternates between a cyst and a trophozoite, and this parasite is an important human and animal pathogen. To increase our understanding of the molecular basis of the G. lamblia encystment, we have analyzed the soluble proteins expressed by trophozoites and cysts extracted from feces by quantitative proteomic analysis. A total of 63 proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, and were categorized as cytoskeletal proteins, a cell-cycle-specific kinase, metabolic enzymes and stress resistance proteins. Importantly, we demonstrated that the expression of seven proteins differed significantly between trophozoites and cysts. In cysts, the expression of three proteins (one variable surface protein (VSP), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), β-tubulin) increased, whereas the expression of four proteins (14-3-3 protein, α-tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), protein disulfide isomerase 2 (PDI-2)) decreased significantly when compared with the levels of these proteins in trophozoites. The mRNA expression patterns of four of these proteins (OTC, α-tubulin, GAPDH, VSP) were similar to the expression levels of the proteins. These seven proteins appear to play an important role in the completion of the life cycle of G. lamblia. PMID:23058231

  6. The Up-Regulation of Ribosomal Proteins Further Regulates Protein Expression Profile in Female Schistosoma japonicum after Pairing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun; Li, Chen; Wang, Suwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Pairing of Schistosoma males and females leads to and maintains female sexual maturation. However, the mechanism by which pairing facilitates sexual maturation of females is not clear. An increasing body of evidence suggests that ribosomal proteins have regulatory rather than constitutive roles in protein translation. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the effect of ribosome regulation on female sex maturation, Solexa and iTRAQ techniques were used to analyze the relationship between ribosomal gene or protein expression and sexual development of Schistosoma females. In the present study, considerably higher number of ribosomal genes or proteins were found to be differentially expressed in paired 23-day-old females. Moreover, mature female-specific proteins associated with egg production, such as ferritin-1 heavy chain and superoxide dismutase, were selectively highly expressed in paired females, rather than higher level of protein synthesis of all transcripts compared with those in unpaired 23-day-old females. Furthermore, other developmental stages were utilized to investigate different expression pattern of ribosomal proteins in females by analysing 18-day-old female schistosomula from single- or double-sex infections to determine the relationship between ribosomal protein expression pattern and development. Results showed that undeveloped 18-day-old females from single- and double-sex infections, as well as 23-day-old unpaired females, possessed similar ribosomal protein expression patterns, which were distinct from those in 23-day-old paired females. Conclusions/Significance Our findings reveal that the pairing of females and males triggers a specialized ribosomal protein expression profile which further regulates the protein profile for sexual maturation in Schistosoma japonicum, based on its gene expression profile. PMID:26070205

  7. Induction of Ski protein expression upon luteinization in rat granulosa cells without a change in its mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2012-01-01

    The Ski protein is implicated in the proliferation/differentiation of a variety of cells. We previously reported that the Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. However, granulosa cells cannot only undergo apoptosis but can alternatively differentiate into luteal cells. It is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the localization of the Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinization to examine if Ski might play a role in this process. In order to examine the Ski protein expression during the progression of luteinization, follicular growth was induced in immature female rats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadotropin treatment to mimic the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in the preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to the LH surge and was maintained after formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Although the Ski protein is absent from the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-ski) was expressed, and the level of c-ski mRNA was unchanged even after the LH surge. The combined results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggested that its expression is regulated posttranscriptionally. PMID:22277932

  8. Cloning, expression, and antigenic characterization of recombinant protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rocha, T S; Tramuta, C; Catania, S; Matucci, A; Giuffrida, M G; Baro, C; Profiti, M; Bertolotti, L; Rosati, S

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a member of the most important avian mycoplasmas, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and leading to important economic losses in the poultry industry. Recombinant technology represents a strategic approach used to achieve highly reliable and specific diagnostic tests in veterinary diseases control: in particular this aspect is crucial for confirming mycoplasma infection and for maintaining mycoplasma-free breeder flocks. In this study, we identified a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (i.e., E2) protein by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), characterized it in immunoblotting assays, and analyzed its recombinant (r-E2) in a rec-ELISA test. For full-length protein expression in Escherichia coli (EC) a point mutation was introduced. A rabbit antiserum produced against r-E2 was tested in a Western Blot using different samples of Mycoplasma species. The results showed the applicability of site-directed mutagenesis, with a good yield of the r-E2 after purification. Also, anti-E2 serum reacted with all the tested MG strains showing no cross reaction with other mycoplasmas. The developed E2 ELISA test was capable of detecting MG antibodies in the sera examined. Those results demonstrate the antigenic stability of the E2 protein which could represent a recombinant antigen with potential diagnostic applications. PMID:25667423

  9. Analysis of the protein-protein interaction networks of differentially expressed genes in pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yinghua; Duan, Qianglin; Gong, Zhu; Liang, Aibin; Song, Haoming; Wang, Lemin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the function and interaction of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pulmonary embolism (PE). The gene expression profile GSE13535, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The DEGs 2 and 18 h post?PE initiation were identified using the affy package in R software. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the DEGs were analyzed using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) online analytical tools. In addition, protein?protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. The PPI network at 18 h was modularized using Clusterone, and a functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs in the top three modules was performed with DAVID. Overall, 80 and 346 DEGs were identified 2 and 18 h after PE initiation, respectively. The KEGG pathways, including chemokine signaling and toll?like receptor signaling, were shown to be significantly enriched. The five highest degree nodes in the PPI networks at 2 or 18 h were screened. The module analysis of the PPI network at 18 h revealed 11 hub nodes. A Gene Ontology terms analysis demonstrated that the DEGs in the top three modules were associated with the inflammatory, defense and immune responses. The results of the present study suggest that the DEGs identified, including chemokine?related genes TFPI2 and TNF, may be potential target genes for the treatment of PE. The chemokine signaling pathway, inflammatory response and immune response were explored, and it may be suggested that these pathways have important roles in PE. PMID:25434468

  10. An Approach to Heterologous Expression of Membrane Proteins. The Case of Bacteriorhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Round, Ekaterina; Shevchenko, Vitaly; Gushchin, Ivan; Polovinkin, Vitaly; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Gordeliy, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous overexpression of functional membrane proteins is a major bottleneck of structural biology. Bacteriorhodopsin from Halobium salinarum (bR) is a striking example of the difficulties in membrane protein overexpression. We suggest a general approach with a finite number of steps which allows one to localize the underlying problem of poor expression of a membrane protein using bR as an example. Our approach is based on constructing chimeric proteins comprising parts of a protein of interest and complementary parts of a homologous protein demonstrating advantageous expression. This complementary protein approach allowed us to increase bR expression by two orders of magnitude through the introduction of two silent mutations into bR coding DNA. For the first time the high quality crystals of bR expressed in E. Coli were obtained using the produced protein. The crystals obtained with in meso nanovolume crystallization diffracted to 1.67 Å. PMID:26046789

  11. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    SciTech Connect

    López, Claudia S.; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L.; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-08-15

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. - Highlights: • At the protein level, full-length HIV-1 Env alters Gag protein expression. • HIV-1 Env RNA expression reduces Gag levels and virus release. • Env RNA effects on Gag are dependent on the RRE. • RRE-containing Env RNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export.

  12. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the marine fish parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Mai, Yong-Zhan; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, Rui-Jun; Li, Wei; Huang, Xia-Zi; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, An-Xing

    2015-06-30

    Cryptocaryoniasis is a severe disease of farmed marine fish caused by the parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans. This disease can lead to considerable economic loss, but studies on proteins linked to disease development and antigenic proteins for vaccine development have been relatively scarce to date. In this study, 53 protein spots with differential abundance, representing 12 proteins, were identified based on a pair-wise comparison among theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Meanwhile, 33 protein spots that elicited serological responses in rabbits were identified, representing 9 proteins. In addition, 27 common antigenic protein spots reacted with grouper anti-sera, representing 10 proteins. Most of the identified proteins were involved in cytoskeletal and metabolic pathways. Among these proteins, actin and ?-tubulin appeared in all three developmental stages with differences in molecular weights and isoelectric points; 4 proteins (vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, mcm2-3-5 family protein, 26S proteasome subunit P45 family protein and dnaK protein) were highly expressed only in theronts; while protein kinase domain containing protein and heat shock protein 70 showed high levels of expression only in trophonts and tomonts, respectively. Moreover, actin was co-detected with 3 rabbit anti-sera while ?-tubulin, V-type ATPase ? subunit family protein, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial-type hsp70, and dnaK proteins showed immunoreactivity with corresponding rabbit anti-sera in theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Furthermore, ?-tubulin, the metabolic-related protein enolase, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, malate dehydrogenase, as well as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, glutamine synthetase, protein kinase domain containing protein, TNFR/NGFR cysteine-rich region family protein, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, were commonly detected by grouper anti-sera. Therefore, these findings could contribute to an understanding of the differences in gene expression and phenotypes among the different stages of parasitic infection, and might be considered as a source of candidate proteins for disease diagnosis and vaccine development. PMID:25997646

  13. High-throughput instant quantification of protein expression and purity based on photoactive yellow protein turn off/on label

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmin; Ganesan, Prabhakar; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the concentration and purity of a target protein is essential for high-throughput protein expression test and rapid screening of highly soluble proteins. However, conventional methods such as PAGE and dot blot assay generally involve multiple time-consuming tasks requiring hours or do not allow instant quantification. Here, we demonstrate a new method based on the Photoactive yellow protein turn Off/On Label (POOL) system that can instantly quantify the concentration and purity of a target protein. The main idea of POOL is to use Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP), or its miniaturized version, as a fusion partner of the target protein. The characteristic blue light absorption and the consequent yellow color of PYP is absent when initially expressed without its chromophore, but can be turned on by binding its chromophore, p-coumaric acid. The appearance of yellow color upon adding a precursor of chromophore to the co-expressed PYP can be used to check the expression amount of the target protein via visual inspection within a few seconds as well as to quantify its concentration and purity with the aid of a spectrometer within a few minutes. The concentrations measured by the POOL method, which usually takes a few minutes, show excellent agreement with those by the BCA Kit, which usually takes ?1 h. We demonstrate the applicability of POOL in E. coli, insect, and mammalian cells, and for high-throughput protein expression screening. PMID:23740751

  14. [The heterologous expression and purification of membrane protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Liao, Dan; Xie, Jian-Ping; Wang, Hong-Hai

    2007-10-01

    Membrane proteins fulfill a wide range of central functions in the cell, but their structure determination remains one of the great challenges in structural biology. The heterologous overexpression is a demanding task. Here, we provide an overview of recent advance to heterologous expression and purification of membrane protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whose membrane proteins represent the majority of the new potential drug targets in this bacillus, which is ranked as the number1 cause of infectious disease mortality in the world. A detailed structural and functional understanding of the membranes protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis will be critical both for an understanding of the biology of infection and for the rational development of novel therapeutics. The procedures for functional expression followed by purification of membranes protein are reviewed here together with nonfunctional expression in inclusion bodies and subsequent refolding to produce functional proteins. The new expression systems, new approaches to soluble expression of recombinant proteins, new methods for membrane protein folding in vitro and new purification technology will provide a basis for choosing the best expression and purification protocol for a given membrane protein. The goal of this review is to aid researchers in the choice of a suitable expression system for their favourite proteins and make overproduction of functional membrane proteins becomes easier. PMID:18062277

  15. Induction of cells differentiation and ABC transporters expression by a myco-estrogen, zearalenone, in human choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo).

    PubMed

    Prouillac, Caroline; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

    2009-09-19

    The mycotoxin zearalenone, produced by Fusarium species, is a worldwide contaminant of concern in cereals and other plant products. Due to its estrogenic activity, zearalenone (ZEA) is known to have toxicological effect in animals on reproductive system and the placental transfer of ZEA was suggested by in vivo studies. Although passive diffusion is the principal transport mechanism across the placenta, several carrier-mediated transport protein such as ABC transporter (P-gp, MRP1, MRP2, BCRP) have been identified in the placenta. In this work, we have investigated the effect of ZEA on trophoblast differentiation and ABC transporter expression by using an in vitro model of transplacental barrier, the BeWo cell line. In the presence of 10 microM ZEA morphological (syncytium formation) and biochemical (hCG secretion) differentiation of BeWo cells were observed after a 48h exposure. Results were compared to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and an inducer of syncytialisation (forskolin). The influence of cell differentiation and ZEA exposure on expression profiles of major ABC transporters was investigated in BeWo cells: expression of mRNA MRP1, MRP2 and BCRP was induced after 24h of ZEA exposure. Induction of P-gp, MRP1, and MRP2 protein was observed after 48h of ZEA exposure. Similar results were obtained after forskolin exposure. Our study reported for the first time the implication of a food contaminant in biological effect and ABC transporter expression modulation in human choriocarcinoma cells. PMID:19580841

  16. EXPRESSION OF AN INSECT (DENDROIDES CANADENSIS) ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA RESULTS IN A DECREASE IN PLANT FREEZING TEMPERATURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants which express genes encoding insect, Dendroides canadensis, antifreeze proteins (AFP) were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The antifreeze protein genes, both with and without the signal peptide sequence (for protein secretion), were expresse...

  17. Rhythmic expression of mitogen activated protein kinase activity in rice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kudupudi Prabhakara; Vani, Gubbala; Kumar, Kundan; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2009-11-30

    Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are known to get activated during various stress signals and transduce the message from the cell membrane to the nucleus for appropriate cellular reorganization. Though, a certain basal activity of MAPK is often observed in the control plants. Prolonged exposure of rice plants to lowered or elevated temperature exhibited a rhythm in the activation of MAPKs. We analyzed existence of a possible endogenous rhythm in the activity of MAPKs in rice plants. The plants growing at constant temperature entrained in 16/8 h day-night cycle showed diurnal rhythm in activity. When the activation of MAPK was tested under continuous conditions by shifting plants to continuous darkness for a period of 72 h, the periodic rhythm persisted and followed a circadian pattern. Analysis of the transcripts of group A, B and C members of MAPKs under above conditions by quantitative real time PCR revealed that the members of group C exhibit periodic rhythm. Our data indicates that the MAP kinase activity in rice follows rhythmic expression in a circadian manner. PMID:19855939

  18. Green fluorescent protein as a new expression marker in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kremer, L; Baulard, A; Estaquier, J; Poulain-Godefroy, O; Locht, C

    1995-09-01

    This study describes the use and the advantages of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter molecule for mycobacteria. The gfp gene from Aequorea victoria was placed under the control of the hsp60 promoter in the shuttle vector pGFM-11. The gfp expression in the recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis and BCG was readily detected on agar plates by the development of an intense green fluorescence upon irradiation with long-wave u.v. light. In mycobacteria containing a pGFM-11 derivative that lacks the hsp60 promoter, no fluorescence was observed. However, this plasmid was successfully used as a promoter-probe vector to identify BCG promoters. The fluorescence emission of GFP in mycobacteria harbouring pGFM-11 and grown in liquid media could be quantified by spectrofluorimetry. This allowed for easy assessment of drug susceptibility. As GFP does not require the addition of substrates or co-factors, the green fluorescent bacilli could be directly observed within infected macrophages using fluorescence and laser confocal microscopy, or in tissue sections of infected mice. Finally, infected cells or free-living recombinant mycobacteria could also be analysed by flow cytometry. The GFP thus appears to be a convenient reporter for mycobacteria, allowing tracing of recombinant mycobacteria, isolation of promoters with interesting properties, in vivo drug testing and the development of new diagnostic tools. PMID:8596440

  19. Heat shock protein expression enhances heat tolerance of reptile embryos

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Dang, Wei; Mou, Yi; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Bao-Jun; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-01-01

    The role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in heat tolerance has been demonstrated in cultured cells and animal tissues, but rarely in whole organisms because of methodological difficulties associated with gene manipulation. By comparing HSP70 expression patterns among representative species of reptiles and birds, and by determining the effect of HSP70 overexpression on embryonic development and hatchling traits, we have identified the role of HSP70 in the heat tolerance of amniote embryos. Consistent with their thermal environment, and high incubation temperatures and heat tolerance, the embryos of birds have higher onset and maximum temperatures for induced HSP70 than do reptiles, and turtles have higher onset and maximum temperatures than do lizards. Interestingly, the trade-off between benefits and costs of HSP70 overexpression occurred between life-history stages: when turtle embryos developed at extreme high temperatures, HSP70 overexpression generated benefits by enhancing embryo heat tolerance and hatching success, but subsequently imposed costs by decreasing heat tolerance of surviving hatchlings. Taken together, the correlative and causal links between HSP70 and heat tolerance provide, to our knowledge, the first unequivocal evidence that HSP70 promotes thermal tolerance of embryos in oviparous amniotes. PMID:25080340

  20. Expression of bcl-2 protein in gastric carcinoma and its significance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai-Feng; Liu, Wei-Wen; Fang, Dian-Chun; Men, Rong-Pu

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To further study the role of bcl-2 protein expression in gastric carcinogenesis and tumor progression. METHODS: Using immunohistochemical staining, the bcl-2 protein expression in 50 cases of gastric carcinoma and its relation to clinical status and pathomorphological parameters were observed. RESULTS: Forty-one (82%) cases were positive for bcl-2 protein staining which was located in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane of tumor cells. The rate of bcl-2 protein expression was not correlated with the patient, sex, tumor size, lymph node status or clinical stages (P > 0.05). It was strongly associated with intestinal-type tumors and poorly differentiated tumors (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Aberrant bcl-2 protein expression appears to be specifically associated with development of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma, bcl-2 protein expression might play an important role in the early development/promotion and phenotypic differentiation of gastric carcinomas, but not in tumor progression. PMID:11819282

  1. Prokaryotic gene fusion expression systems and their use in structural and functional studies of proteins.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, N

    1999-02-01

    The ability to express and purify large quantity of proteins in bacteria has greatly impacted many aspects of biological research. These include their use as a source of reagent for biochemical and biophysical studies as well as a source of antigen for antibody production. Currently many different expression systems are available and new ones are being developed. These systems allow inducible expression of a desired protein as a fusion with an affinity tag for simple purification. The affinity tags can generally be removed by specific proteases which recognize cleavage sites engineered between the affinity tag and the desired protein. Presence of tags that encode epitopes of specific antibodies provide additional means for identification of recombinant proteins. This review provides an overview of some of the most commonly utilized expression systems and examples of the use of these proteins in biochemical and biophysical studies. I will also describe other available systems which may provide suitable alternative for expression of recombinant proteins. PMID:10069435

  2. Glucose enhances collectrin protein expression in insulin-producing MIN6 {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saisho, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Yasuda, Tomoko; Sato, Yoshifumi; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Shimomura, Iichiro; Yamagata, Kazuya

    2009-11-06

    Collectrin is a novel target gene of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} in pancreatic {beta}-cells and controls insulin exocytosis. Although glucose is known to stimulate the expression of genes of the insulin secretory pathway, there is no information on how glucose regulates collectrin expression. We investigated the effects of glucose on the expression of collectrin in MIN6 {beta}-cell line. Glucose, in a dose-dependent manner, increased collectrin protein levels without changing collectrin mRNA levels and protein stability, indicating that glucose stimulation of collectrin protein expression is primarily mediated at a translational level. Although mannose and pyruvate also increased collectrin protein expression level, neither 2-deoxyglucose, mitochondrial fuels leucine and glutamate, sulphonylurea nor Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers, mimicked the effects of glucose. These data indicate the involvement of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates, distal to pyruvate, in the regulation of collectrin protein expression in {beta}-cells.

  3. Protein Expression Profiles Characterize Distinct Features of Mouse Cerebral Cortices at Different Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijun; Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Sun, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The proper development of the mammalian cerebral cortex requires precise protein synthesis and accurate regulation of protein expression levels. To reveal signatures of protein expression in developing mouse cortices, we here generate proteomic profiles of cortices at embryonic and postnatal stages using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We found that protein expression profiles are mostly consistent with biological features of the developing cortex. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses demonstrate conserved molecules that maintain cortical development such as proteins involved in metabolism. GO and KEGG pathway analyses further identify differentially expressed proteins that function at specific stages, for example proteins regulating the cell cycle in the embryonic cortex, and proteins controlling axon guidance in the postnatal cortex, suggesting that distinct protein expression profiles determine biological events in the developing cortex. Furthermore, the STRING network analysis has revealed that many proteins control a single biological event, such as the cell cycle regulation, through cohesive interactions, indicating a complex network regulation in the cortex. Our study has identified protein networks that control the cortical development and has provided a protein reference for further investigation of protein interactions in the cortex. PMID:25915664

  4. Co-expression of protein tyrosine kinases EGFR-2 and PDGFR? with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Tu, Pham Ngoc; Wang, Yamin; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2014-02-28

    The regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is mediated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and is essential for cellular homeostasis. Coexpression of PTKs with PTPs in Pichia pastoris was used to facilitate the expression of active PTKs by neutralizing their apparent toxicity to cells. In this study, the gene encoding phosphatase PTP1B with or without a blue fluorescent protein or peroxisomal targeting signal 1 was cloned into the expression vector pAG32 to produce four vectors. These vectors were subsequently transformed into P. pastoris GS115. The tyrosine kinases EGFR-2 and PDGFR? were expressed from vector pPIC3.5K and were fused with a His-tag and green fluorescent protein at the N-terminus. The two plasmids were transformed into P. pastoris with or without PTP1B, resulting in 10 strains. The EGFR-2 and PDGFR? fusion proteins were purified by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. In the recombinant P. pastoris, the PTKs co-expressed with PTP1B exhibited higher kinase catalytic activity than did those expressing the PTKs alone. The highest activities were achieved by targeting the PTKs and PTP1B into peroxisomes. Therefore, the EGFR-2 and PDGFR? fusion proteins expressed in P. pastoris may be attractive drug screening targets for anticancer therapeutics. PMID:24248091

  5. Altered brain protein expression profiles are associated with molecular neurological dysfunction in the PKU mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Imperlini, Esther; Orrù, Stefania; Corbo, Claudia; Daniele, Aurora; Salvatore, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), if not detected and treated in newborns, causes severe neurological dysfunction and cognitive and behavioral deficiencies. Despite the biochemical characterization of PKU, the molecular mechanisms underlying PKU-associated brain dysfunction remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the pathogenesis of this neurological damage by analyzing protein expression profiles in brain tissue of Black and Tan BRachyury-PahEnu2 mice (a mouse model of PKU). We compared the cerebral protein expression of homozygous PKU mice with that of their heterozygous counterparts using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis, and identified 21 differentially expressed proteins, four of which were over-expressed and 17 under-expressed. An in silico bioinformatic approach indicated that protein under-expression was related to neuronal differentiation and dendritic growth, and to such neurological disorders as progressive motor neuropathy and movement disorders. Moreover, functional annotation analyses showed that some identified proteins were involved in oxidative metabolism. To further investigate the proteins involved in the neurological damage, we validated two of the proteins that were most strikingly under-expressed, namely, Syn2 and Dpysl2, which are involved in synaptic function and neurotransmission. We found that Glu2/3 and NR1 receptor subunits were over-expressed in PKU mouse brain. Our results indicate that differential expression of these proteins may be associated with the processes underlying PKU brain dysfunction, namely, decreased synaptic plasticity and impaired neurotransmission. PMID:24548049

  6. Expression of ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters in a HIV-1 transgenic rat model.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Kevin R; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

    2014-02-21

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, product of Mdr1a and Mdr1b genes), multidrug resistance associated proteins (Mrps), and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), all members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug transporters superfamily, can significantly restrict the entry of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into organs which exhibit a barrier function such as the central nervous system (CNS) and the male genital tract (MGT). In vitro, HIV-1 viral proteins such as glycoprotein-120 (gp120) and transcriptional transactivator (tat) have been shown to alter the expression of these transporters and ARVs permeability. The objective of this study was to compare mRNA expression of these transporters, in vivo, in several tissues obtained from HIV-1 transgenic rats (Tg-rat) (8 and 24 weeks) with those of age-matched wild-type rats. At 24 weeks, significant changes in several drug transporter mRNA expressions were observed, in particular, in brain, kidney, liver and testes. These findings suggest that HIV-1 viral proteins can alter the expression of ABC drug transporters, in vivo, in the context of HIV-1 and further regulate ARVs permeability in several organs including the CNS and MGT, two sites which have been reported to display very low ARVs permeability in the clinic. PMID:24472536

  7. Proteomics Based Identification of Cell Migration Related Proteins in HBV Expressing HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huixing; Li, Xi; Chan, Vincent; Chen, Wei Ning

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics study was performed to investigate the specific protein expression profiles of HepG2 cells transfected with mutant HBV compared with wildtype HBV genome, aiming to identify the specific functions of SH3 binding domain (proline rich region) located in HBx. In addition to the cell movement and kinetics changes due to the expression of HBV genome we have observed previously, here we further targeted to explore the specific changes of cellular proteins and potential intracellular protein interactions, which might provide more information of the potential cellular mechanism of the differentiated cell movements. Specific changes of a number of proteins were shown in global protein profiling in HepG2 cells expressing wildtype HBV, including cell migration related proteins, and interestingly the changes were found recovered by SH3 binding domain mutated HBV. The distinctive expressions of proteins were validated by Western blot analysis. PMID:24763314

  8. The Junctional Proteins Cingulin and Paracingulin Modulate the Expression of Tight Junction Protein Genes through GATA-4

    PubMed Central

    Guillemot, Laurent; Spadaro, Domenica; Citi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The cytoplamic junctional proteins cingulin and paracingulin have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression in different cultured cell models. In renal epithelial MDCK cells, depletion of either protein results in a Rho-dependent increase in the expression of claudin-2. Here we examined MDCK cell clones depleted of both cingulin and paracingulin (double-KD cells), and we found that unexpectedly the expression of claudin-2, and also the expression of ZO-3 and claudin-3, were decreased, while RhoA activity was still higher than in control cells. The decreased expression of claudin-2 and other TJ proteins in doubleKD cells correlated with reduced levels of the transcription factor GATA-4, and was rescued by overexpression of GATA-4, but not by inhibiting RhoA activity. These results indicate that in MDCK cells GATA-4 is required for the expression of claudin-2 and other TJ proteins, and that maintenance of GATA-4 expression requires either cingulin or paracingulin. These results and previous studies suggest a model whereby cingulin and paracingulin redundantly control the expression of specific TJ proteins through distinct GATA-4- and RhoA-dependent mechanisms, and that in the absence of sufficient levels of GATA-4 the RhoA-mediated upregulation of claudin-2 is inhibited. PMID:23409073

  9. Variation in Cell Signaling Protein Expression May Introduce Sampling Bias in Primary Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beese, Christian; Hfler, Heinz; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Avril, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Although the expression of cell signaling proteins is used as prognostic and predictive biomarker, variability of protein levels within tumors is not well studied. We assessed intratumoral heterogeneity of protein expression within primary ovarian cancer. Full-length proteins were extracted from 88 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 13 primary high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas with 59 samples each. In addition, 14 samples of normal fallopian tube epithelium served as reference. Quantitative reverse phase protein arrays were used to analyze the expression of 36 cell signaling proteins including HER2, EGFR, PI3K/Akt, and angiogenic pathways as well as 15 activated (phosphorylated) proteins. We found considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in the expression of proteins with a mean coefficient of variation of 25% (range 1753%). The extent of intratumoral heterogeneity differed between proteins (p<0.005). Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the extent of heterogeneity between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated proteins. In comparison, we assessed the variation of protein levels amongst tumors from different patients, which revealed a similar mean coefficient of variation of 21% (range 1248%). Based on hierarchical clustering, samples from the same patient clustered more closely together compared to samples from different patients. However, a clear separation of tumor versus normal tissue by clustering was only achieved when mean expression values of all individual samples per tumor were analyzed. While differential expression of some proteins was detected independently of the sampling method used, the majority of proteins only demonstrated differential expression when mean expression values of multiple samples per tumor were analyzed. Our data indicate that assessment of established and novel cell signaling proteins as diagnostic or prognostic markers may require sampling of serous ovarian cancers at several distinct locations to avoid sampling bias. PMID:24204986

  10. Teaching Molecular Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students: An Illustration of Protein Expression and Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Cesar Adolfo; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Novo, Maria Teresa Marques

    2004-01-01

    Practical classes on protein expression and purification were given to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course "Introduction to Genetic Engineering." The heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)* of "Aequorea victoria" is an interesting system for didactic purposes because it can be viewed easily during

  11. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  12. Teaching Molecular Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students: An Illustration of Protein Expression and Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Cesar Adolfo; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Novo, Maria Teresa Marques

    2004-01-01

    Practical classes on protein expression and purification were given to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course "Introduction to Genetic Engineering." The heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)* of "Aequorea victoria" is an interesting system for didactic purposes because it can be viewed easily during…

  13. Teaching molecular biology to undergraduate biology students: An illustration of protein expression and purification*.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Csar Adolfo; Silva, Flvio Henrique; Novo, Maria Teresa Marques

    2004-01-01

    Practical classes on protein expression and purification were given to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course "Introduction to Genetic Engineering." The heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)* of Aequorea victoria is an interesting system for didactic purposes because it can be viewed easily during experiments. The students were provided with basic information about the molecular features and applications of the GFP in molecular biology, the available heterologous expression systems, and the theoretical and experimental details of GFP expression in Escherichia coli and its purification. E. coli BL21-competent cells were transformed with the pET28a expression vector containing the GFP gene fused to a histidine (His) tag. During the induction of a transformed clone by isopropylthiogalactoside, a time course for GFP expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and the expression was also visualized by the increasing green fluorescence of the bacterial culture. After cellular disruption, protein purification was illustrated by affinity chromatography of the His-tagged protein in a nickel column. Eluted fractions containing imidazole in increasing concentrations were analyzed visually and also by SDS-PAGE, demonstrating the role of imidazole in protein recovery by competition with nonspecific proteins and the His-tagged protein. The results obtained and the experimental factors involved in protein expression, solubilization, and folding were discussed following the laboratory experiments. These practical classes allowed several current approaches to molecular biology to be demonstrated rapidly and helped underscore some of the topics taught during the course. PMID:21706680

  14. Expression of Proteins Linked to Poor Ovarian Cancer Outcome

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have established the presence of certain proteins in ovarian cancer tissues and have linked these proteins to poor survival rates in women with advanced stages of the disease. The study, led by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI),

  15. Borrelia burgdorferi Proteins Whose Expression Is Similarly Affected by Culture Temperature and pH

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Ramesh; Scholl-Meeker, Dorothy

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we had demonstrated the upregulation in the expression of several proteins, including the lipoproteins OspC and P35, of Borrelia burgdorferi in the stationary growth phase. Since the expression of OspC is also known to be affected by culture temperature and pH, we examined the effects of both variables on the expression of the remaining stationary-phase-upregulated proteins. Our study revealed that the expression of each of the remaining stationary-phase-upregulated proteins, P35 included, was also influenced by culture temperature; these proteins were selectively expressed at 34C but not at 24C. Significantly, the expression of a majority of these proteins was also affected by culture pH, since they were abundantly expressed at pH 7.0 (resembling the tick midgut pH of 6.8 during feeding) but only sparsely at pH 8.0 (a condition closer to that of the unfed tick midgut pH of 7.4). We propose that this group of B. burgdorferi proteins, which in culture is selectively expressed under conditions of 34C and pH 7.0, may be induced in the tick midgut during the feeding event. Furthermore, the differential and coordinate expression of these proteins under different environmental conditions suggests that the encoding genes may be coregulated. PMID:11254645

  16. Expression of mammalian membrane proteins in mammalian cells using Semliki Forest virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks in drug screening and structural biology on membrane proteins has for a long time been the expression of recombinant protein in sufficient quality and quantity. The expression has been evaluated in all existing expression systems, from cell-free translation and bacterial systems to expression in animal cells. In contrast to soluble proteins, the expression levels have been relatively low due to the following reasons: The topology of membrane proteins requires special, posttranslational processing, folding, and insertion into membranes, which often are mammalian cell specific. Despite these strict demands, functional membrane proteins (G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, and transporters) have been successfully expressed in bacterial, yeast, and insect cells. A general drawback observed in prokaryotic cells is that accumulation of foreign protein in membranes is toxic and results in growth arrest and therefore low yields of recombinant protein.In this chapter, the focus is on expression of recombinant mammalian membrane proteins in mammalian host cells, particularly applying Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors. Replication-deficient SFV vectors are rapidly generated at high titers in BHK-21 (Baby Hamster Kidney) cells, which then are applied for a broad range of mammalian and nonmammalian cells. The SFV system has provided high expression levels of topologically different proteins, especially for membrane proteins. Robust ligand-binding assays and functional coupling to G proteins and electrophysiological recordings have made the SFV system an attractive tool in drug discovery. Furthermore, the high susceptibility of SFV vectors to primary neurons has allowed various applications in neuroscience. Establishment of large-scale production in mammalian adherent and suspension cultures has allowed production of hundreds of milligrams of membrane proteins that has allowed their submission to serious structural biology approaches. In this context, a structural genomics program for SFV-based overexpression of 100 GPCRs was established. PMID:20099145

  17. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  18. Stress protein expression in early phase spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanyong; Wu, Dankai; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Yongming; Wang, Guoxiang; Yang, Maoguang; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2013-08-25

    Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury is a stress injury to the spinal cord. Our previous studies using differential proteomics identified 21 differentially expressed proteins (n > 2) in rabbits with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Of these proteins, stress-related proteins included protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70. In this study, we established New Zealand rabbit models of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by abdominal aorta occlusion. Results demonstrated that hind limb function initially improved after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, but then deteriorated. The pathological morphology of the spinal cord became aggravated, but lessened 24 hours after reperfusion. However, the numbers of motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord gradually decreased. The expression of protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. The expression of these proteins increased within 12 hours after reperfusion, and then decreased, reached a minimum at 24 hours, but subsequently increased again to similar levels seen at 6-12 hours, showing a characterization of induction-inhibition-induction. These three proteins were expressed only in cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. Moreover, the expression was higher in interneurons than in motor neurons, and the survival rate of interneurons was greater than that of motor neurons. It is assumed that the expression of stress-related proteins exhibited a protective effect on neurons. PMID:25206532

  19. Impact of Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Oligomerization and Protein Localization on Cellular Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vink, Elizabeth I.; Zheng, Yueting; Yeasmin, Rukhsana; Stamminger, Thomas; Krug, Laurie T.; Hearing, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein facilitates virus replication through the relocalization of cellular proteins into nuclear inclusions termed tracks. This sequestration event disrupts antiviral properties associated with target proteins. Relocalization of Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 proteins prevents the DNA damage response from inhibiting Ad replication. Relocalization of PML and Daxx impedes the interferon-mediated antiviral response. Several E4-ORF3 targets regulate gene expression, linking E4-ORF3 to transcriptional control. Furthermore, E4-ORF3 was shown to promote the formation of heterochromatin, down-regulating p53-dependent gene expression. Here, we characterize how E4-ORF3 alters cellular gene expression. Using an inducible, E4-ORF3-expressing cell line, we performed microarray experiments to highlight cellular gene expression changes influenced by E4-ORF3 expression, identifying over four hundred target genes. Enrichment analysis of these genes suggests that E4-ORF3 influences factors involved in signal transduction and cellular defense, among others. The expression of mutant E4-ORF3 proteins revealed that nuclear track formation is necessary to induce these expression changes. Through the generation of knockdown cells, we demonstrate that the observed expression changes may be independent of Daxx and TRIM33 suggesting that an additional factor(s) may be responsible. The ability of E4-ORF3 to manipulate cellular gene expression through the sequestration of cellular proteins implicates a novel role for E4-ORF3 in transcriptional regulation. PMID:25984715

  20. Impact of Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Oligomerization and Protein Localization on Cellular Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Vink, Elizabeth I; Zheng, Yueting; Yeasmin, Rukhsana; Stamminger, Thomas; Krug, Laurie T; Hearing, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The Adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein facilitates virus replication through the relocalization of cellular proteins into nuclear inclusions termed tracks. This sequestration event disrupts antiviral properties associated with target proteins. Relocalization of Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 proteins prevents the DNA damage response from inhibiting Ad replication. Relocalization of PML and Daxx impedes the interferon-mediated antiviral response. Several E4-ORF3 targets regulate gene expression, linking E4-ORF3 to transcriptional control. Furthermore, E4-ORF3 was shown to promote the formation of heterochromatin, down-regulating p53-dependent gene expression. Here, we characterize how E4-ORF3 alters cellular gene expression. Using an inducible, E4-ORF3-expressing cell line, we performed microarray experiments to highlight cellular gene expression changes influenced by E4-ORF3 expression, identifying over four hundred target genes. Enrichment analysis of these genes suggests that E4-ORF3 influences factors involved in signal transduction and cellular defense, among others. The expression of mutant E4-ORF3 proteins revealed that nuclear track formation is necessary to induce these expression changes. Through the generation of knockdown cells, we demonstrate that the observed expression changes may be independent of Daxx and TRIM33 suggesting that an additional factor(s) may be responsible. The ability of E4-ORF3 to manipulate cellular gene expression through the sequestration of cellular proteins implicates a novel role for E4-ORF3 in transcriptional regulation. PMID:25984715

  1. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  2. Expression, purification and characterization of rat zinc finger protein Mipu1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Guiliang; Wang, Kangkai; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2009-08-01

    The novel gene Mipu1 was recently identified in rat due to its up-regulation in response to myocardial ischemia preconditioning. We previously demonstrated that Mipu1 was a nuclear protein and a transcriptional repressor. In this study, Mipu1 was expressed in E. coli and purified using a recombinant expression system and a purification protocol. Milligram quantities of highly purified Mipu1 were obtained. The purified protein was characterized using western blotting, size exclusion chromatography and EMSA. The Mipu1 protein was also used to generate antiserum in rabbits, which was used to detect the expression of Mipu1 protein under normal and stress conditions, by western blotting. PMID:19337696

  3. Evaluation of Salmonella live vaccines with chromosomal expression cassettes for translocated fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Husseiny, Mohamed I; Hensel, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Salmonella enterica is a versatile live carrier for the presentation of recombinant vaccine antigens. Fusion proteins of a type III secretion system effector and heterologous vaccine antigens can be translocated by live attenuated Salmonella strains and mediate protective immunity against infections. Here we investigated the use expression cassettes for translocated fusion protein consisting of effector SseF and antigens of Listeria monocytogenes after stable integration into the Salmonella chromosome. The efficacy of chromosomal expression cassettes was compared to plasmid-based expression cassettes. Our data indicate that live Salmonella vaccines with chromosomal expression cassettes for translocated fusion proteins, although only present in single copy, efficiently stimulate immune responses. PMID:19464562

  4. Distinct protein expression and activity of transglutaminases found in different epidermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Karashima, Tadashi; Furumura, Minao; Ishii, Norito; Ohyama, Bungo; Saruta, Hiroshi; Natsuaki, Yohei; Nakama, Takekuni; Ohata, Chika; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    We investigated protein expression and in situ activity of transglutaminases (TGs) in normal skin and various epidermal neoplasms. In normal skin, TG1 protein expression and TG activity were found at keratinocyte cell membranes in upper epidermis and granular layer, respectively. In seborrhoeic keratosis, TG1 protein was expressed evenly throughout tumors, while TG activity increased in gradient fashion from lower tumor area to cornified layer. In squamous cell carcinoma, TG1 protein was expressed at inner side of cell membranes, whereas TG activity was found in cytoplasm predominantly at horn pearls. In basal cell carcinoma, weak TG activity was found in cytoplasm of all tumor cells without the presence of TG1 protein. Immunoblotting and in situ activity assays using specific substrate peptides confirmed that TG2, but not TG1, contributed to the TG activity. These results suggested that different expression and activation of TGs may contribute to characteristics of the skin tumors. PMID:24750515

  5. Differential Analysis of Protein Expression in RNA-Binding-Protein Transgenic and Parental Rice Seeds Cultivated under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic plants tolerant to various environmental stresses are being developed to ensure a consistent food supply. We used a transgenic rice cultivar with high saline tolerance by introducing an RNA-binding protein (RBP) from the ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum); differences in salt-soluble protein expression between nontransgenic (NT) and RBP rice seeds were analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), a gel-based proteomic method. To identify RBP-related changes in protein expression under salt stress, NT and RBP rice were cultured with or without 200 mM sodium chloride. Only two protein spots differed between NT and RBP rice seeds cultured under normal conditions, one of which was identified as a putative abscisic acid-induced protein. In NT rice seeds, 91 spots significantly differed between normal and salt-stress conditions. Two allergenic proteins of NT rice seeds, RAG1 and RAG2, were induced by high salt. In contrast, RBP rice seeds yielded seven spots and no allergen spots with significant differences in protein expression between normal and salt-stress conditions. Therefore, expression of fewer proteins was altered in RBP rice seeds by high salt than those in NT rice seeds. PMID:24410502

  6. NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 269 Development of Novel Protein Expression Technologies for Glycosylated Cancer Related Proteins

    Cancer.gov

    The purpose of this initiative is to provide support for the development of novel technologies for the expression of cancer-related glycosylated proteins. Many proteins become post-translationally modified (PTM) during the secretory process which involves of a journey from their site of synthesis in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), through the Golgi apparatus and then to various cellular and extracellular destinations.

  7. Virus-Derived Vectors for the Expression of Multiple Proteins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pooja; Thuenemann, Eva C; Sainsbury, Frank; Lomonossoff, George P

    2016-01-01

    This chapter constitutes a practical guide to using the "pEAQ" vector series for transient or stable expression of one or more protein(s) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The pEAQ vectors are a series of small binary vectors designed for controlled expression of multiple proteins in plants. To achieve high levels of expression, an expression system based on translational enhancement by the untranslated regions of RNA-2 from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), named CPMV-HT, is used. The expression vector pEAQ-HT combines the user-friendly pEAQ plasmid with CPMV-HT to provide a system for high-level expression of proteins in plants. PMID:26614280

  8. Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liangliang; Bertke, Michelle M; Champion, Matthew M; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J

    2014-01-01

    While there is a rich literature on transcription dynamics during the development of many organisms, protein data is limited. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to generate the largest developmental proteomic dataset for any animal. Expression dynamics of nearly 4,000 proteins of Xenopus laevis was generated from fertilized egg to neurula embryo. Expression clusters into groups. The cluster profiles accurately reflect the major events that mark changes in gene expression patterns during early Xenopus development. We observed decline in the expression of ten DNA replication factors after the midblastula transition (MBT), including a marked decline of the licensing factor XCdc6. Ectopic expression of XCdc6 leads to apoptosis; temporal changes in this protein are critical for proper development. Measurement of expression in single embryos provided no evidence for significant protein heterogeneity between embryos at the same stage of development. PMID:24626130

  9. Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liangliang; Bertke, Michelle M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-03-01

    While there is a rich literature on transcription dynamics during the development of many organisms, protein data is limited. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to generate the largest developmental proteomic dataset for any animal. Expression dynamics of nearly 4,000 proteins of Xenopus laevis was generated from fertilized egg to neurula embryo. Expression clusters into groups. The cluster profiles accurately reflect the major events that mark changes in gene expression patterns during early Xenopus development. We observed decline in the expression of ten DNA replication factors after the midblastula transition (MBT), including a marked decline of the licensing factor XCdc6. Ectopic expression of XCdc6 leads to apoptosis; temporal changes in this protein are critical for proper development. Measurement of expression in single embryos provided no evidence for significant protein heterogeneity between embryos at the same stage of development.

  10. Development of Novel Rifampicin-Derived P-Glycoprotein Activators/Inducers. Synthesis, In Silico Analysis and Application in the RBE4 Cell Model, Using Paraquat as Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Vnia; Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Sousa, Emlia; Ferreira, Lusa Maria; Branco, Paula Srio; Carvalho, Flix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remio, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa transmembrane protein involved in the outward transport of many structurally unrelated substrates. P-gp activation/induction may function as an antidotal pathway to prevent the cytotoxicity of these substrates. In the present study we aimed at testing rifampicin (Rif) and three newly synthesized Rif derivatives (a mono-methoxylated derivative, MeORif, a peracetylated derivative, PerAcRif, and a reduced derivative, RedRif) to establish their ability to modulate P-gp expression and activity in a cellular model of the rats bloodbrain barrier, the RBE4 cell line P-gp expression was assessed by western blot using C219 anti-P-gp antibody. P-gp function was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the accumulation of rhodamine123. Whenever P-gp activation/induction ability was detected in a tested compound, its antidotal effect was further tested using paraquat as cytotoxicity model. Interactions between Rif or its derivatives and P-gp were also investigated by computational analysis. Rif led to a significant increase in P-gp expression at 72 h and RedRif significantly increased both P-gp expression and activity. No significant differences were observed for the other derivatives. Pre- or simultaneous treatment with RedRif protected cells against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity, an effect reverted by GF120918, a P-gp inhibitor, corroborating the observed P-gp activation ability. Interaction of RedRif with P-gp drug-binding pocket was consistent with an activation mechanism of action, which was confirmed with docking studies. Therefore, RedRif protection against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in RBE4 cells, through P-gp activation/induction, suggests that it may be useful as an antidote for cytotoxic substrates of P-gp. PMID:23991219

  11. Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; Chevillard, Lucie; Megarbane, Bruno; Pirnay, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Declèves, Xavier

    2010-08-01

    Drug interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may influence its tissue disposition including blood-brain barrier transport and result in potent drug-drug interactions. The limited data obtained using in-vitro models indicate that methadone, buprenorphine, and cannabinoids may interact with human P-gp; but almost nothing is known about drugs of abuse and BCRP. We used in vitro P-gp and BCRP inhibition flow cytometric assays with hMDR1- and hBCRP-transfected HEK293 cells to test 14 compounds or metabolites frequently involved in addiction, including buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, ibogaine, cocaine, cocaethylene, amphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, nicotine, ketamine, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), naloxone, and morphine. Drugs that in vitro inhibited P-gp or BCRP were tested in hMDR1- and hBCRP-MDCKII bidirectional transport studies. Human P-gp was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by norbuprenorphine>buprenorphine>methadone>ibogaine and THC. Similarly, BCRP was inhibited by buprenorphine>norbuprenorphine>ibogaine and THC. None of the other tested compounds inhibited either transporter, even at high concentration (100 microm). Norbuprenorphine (transport efflux ratio approoximately 11) and methadone (transport efflux ratio approoximately 1.9) transport was P-gp-mediated; however, with no significant stereo-selectivity regarding methadone enantiomers. BCRP did not transport any of the tested compounds. However, the clinical significance of the interaction of norbuprenorphine with P-gp remains to be evaluated. PMID:19887017

  12. Computational classification models for predicting the interaction of drugs with P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein.

    PubMed

    Eri?, S; Kalini?, M; Ili?, K; Zloh, M

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) are two members of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters which function as membrane efflux transporters and display considerable substrate promiscuity. Both are known to significantly influence the absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs, mediate drug-drug interactions and contribute to multiple drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells. Correspondingly, timely characterization of the interaction of novel leads and drug candidates with these two transporters is of great importance. In this study, several computational classification models for prediction of transport and inhibition of P-gp and BCRP, respectively, were developed based on newly compiled and critically evaluated experimental data. Artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) ensemble based models were explored, as well as knowledge-based approaches to descriptor selection. The average overall classification accuracy of best performing models was 82% for P-gp transport, 88% for BCRP transport, 89% for P-gp inhibition and 87% for BCRP inhibition, determined across an array of different test sets. An analysis of substrate overlap between P-gp and BCRP was also performed. The accuracy, simplicity and interpretability of the proposed models suggest that they could be of significant utility in the drug discovery and development settings. PMID:25435255

  13. Development of an expression system for eukarytoic proteins in methylotropic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstrom, M.E.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an expression vector for methylotrophic bacteria for use in the production of C{sup 13} and H{sup 2} labelled eukaryotic proteins by growing methylotrophic bacteria on labelled methanol or methylamine. The eukaryotic proteins calmodulin and troponin C were chosen as test cases. Genes encoding both proteins were cloned into different constructions and tested for expression. Moderate amounts of troponin C were found with one of the constructions.

  14. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with a small metal-binding protein from Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli is still the preferred organism for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. The use of fusion proteins has helped considerably in enhancing the solubility of heterologous proteins and their purification with affinity chromatography. Here, the use of a small metal-binding protein (SmbP) from Nitrosomonas europaea is described as a new fusion protein for protein expression and purification in E.coli. Fluorescent proteins tagged at the N-terminal with SmbP showed high levels of solubility, compared with those of maltose-binding protein and glutathione S-transferase, and low formation of inclusion bodies. Using commercially available IMAC resins charged with Ni(II), highly pure recombinant proteins were obtained after just one chromatography step. Proteins may be purified from the periplasm of E.coli if SmbP contains the signal sequence at the N-terminal. After removal of the SmbP tag from the protein of interest, high-yields are obtained since SmbP is a protein of just 9.9kDa. The results here obtained suggest that SmbP is a good alternative as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E.coli. PMID:26494603

  15. Reciprocal influence of connexins and apical junction proteins on their expressions and functions

    PubMed Central

    Derangeon, Mickaël; Spray, David C.; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Sarrouilhe, Denis; Hervé, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Membranes of adjacent cells form intercellular junctional complexes to mechanically anchor neighbour cells (anchoring junctions), to seal the paracellular space and to prevent diffusion of integral proteins within the plasma membrane (tight junctions) and to allow cell-to-cell diffusion of small ions and molecules (gap junctions). These different types of specialised plasma membrane microdomains, sharing common adaptor molecules, particularly zonula occludens proteins, frequently present intermingled relationships where the different proteins co-assemble into macromolecular complexes and their expressions are co-ordinately regulated. Proteins forming gap junction channels (connexins, particularly) and proteins fulfilling cell attachment or forming tight junction strands mutually influence expression and functions of one another. PMID:19046940

  16. [Expression of mannose-binding lectin associated protein 19 (MAp19) in HeLa cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Li, Ping; Jia, Tianjun; Jia, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xia; Cheng, Yongting

    2016-01-01

    Objective To construct an eukaryotic expression vector of mannose-binding lectin associated protein 19 (MAp19) and further express MAp19 fusion proteins. Methods MAp19 gene fragment was amplified by PCR. The eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1/Myc-His A-MAp19 was constructed by gene cloning technology, identified by restriction enzyme digestion and further confirmed by sequencing. The recombined plasmid was then transfected into HeLa cells by liposome-mediated method, and the positive clones with vector pcDNA3.1/Myc-His A-MAp19 were selected by G418. Location of MAp19 fusion proteins in the transfected HeLa cells was observed under the fluorescence microscope, and the expression levels of MAp19 fusion proteins were detected by Western blotting. Results The recombined vector pcDNA3.1/Myc-His A-MAp19 was successfully constructed. The result of DNA sequencing was in accordance with NCBI data bank. By G418 selecting, we obtained the HeLa cells which could stably express exogenous MAp19 fusion proteins. The protein was located in the cytoplasm. Western blotting also suggested that the MAp19 was secretory protein. Conclusion The vector expressing MAp19 has been prepared successfully, and can express the target protein (MAp19) in the eukaryotic cells (HeLa cells). PMID:26728378

  17. High-throughput Cloning and Expression of Integral Membrane Proteins in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several structural genomics centers have been established and a remarkable number of three-dimensional structures of soluble proteins have been solved. For membrane proteins, the number of structures solved has been significantly trailing those for their soluble counterparts, not least because over-expression and purification of membrane proteins is a much more arduous process. By using high throughput technologies, a large number of membrane protein targets can be screened simultaneously and a greater number of expression and purification conditions can be employed, leading to a higher probability of successfully determining the structure of membrane proteins. This unit describes the cloning, expression and screening of membrane proteins using high throughput methodologies developed in our laboratory. Basic Protocol 1 deals with the cloning of inserts into expression vectors by ligation-independent cloning. Basic Protocol 2 describes the expression and purification of the target proteins on a miniscale. Lastly, for the targets that express at the miniscale, basic protocols 3 and 4 outline the methods employed for the expression and purification of targets at the midi-scale, as well as a procedure for detergent screening and identification of detergent(s) in which the target protein is stable. PMID:24510647

  18. Cloning and expression of Toxoplasma gondii dense granular protein 4 (GRA4) in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Lau, Y L; Hasan, M T; Thiruvengadam, G; Idris, M M; Init, I

    2010-12-01

    GRA4 of Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to prompt IgG, IgM and IgA responses in previous studies and is thus considered one of the major immunogenic proteins from T. gondii that can be used for both diagnostics purposes and vaccine development. This study seeks to clone and express the GRA4 in Pichia pastoris, which has numerous advantages over other systems for expression of eukaryotic proteins. In order to achieve this, the gene was cloned into the pPICZ? A expression vector, which was then incorporated into the P. pastoris genome via insertional integration for expression of the recombinant protein, under the AOX1 promoter. The antigen was expressed along with the prepro sequence of the ?-factor of yeast so that it could be excreted out of the P. pastoris cells and obtained from the medium. Upon SDS-PAGE analysis it was found that the recombinant protein was expressed optimally as a 40 kDa protein after 96 hours of induction with 0.75% of methanol. The expressed GRA4 protein showed discrepancy in size with the calculated molecular mass. This may be attributed to the various posttranslational modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation. Despite the difference in molecular weight, the recombinant protein was able to detect toxoplasmosis in Western blot format. The recombinant GRA4 was expressed with an intact polyhistidine-tag, which could be used for future purification of the antigen. PMID:21399595

  19. The multifaceted benefits of protein co-expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Alessandra; Ceccarelli, Alessandro; Conte, Emanuele; Montn Silva, Alejandro; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We report here that the expression of protein complexes in vivo in Escherichia coli can be more convenient than traditional reconstitution experiments in vitro. In particular, we show that the poor solubility of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III ? subunit (featuring 3'-5' exonuclease activity) is highly improved when the same protein is co-expressed with the ? and ? subunits (featuring DNA polymerase activity and stabilizing ?, respectively). We also show that protein co-expression in E. coli can be used to efficiently test the competence of subunits from different bacterial species to associate in a functional protein complex. We indeed show that the ? subunit of Deinococcus radiodurans DNA polymerase III can be co-expressed in vivo with the ? subunit of E. coli. In addition, we report on the use of protein co-expression to modulate mutation frequency in E. coli. By expressing the wild-type ? subunit under the control of the araBAD promoter (arabinose-inducible), and co-expressing the mutagenic D12A variant of the same protein, under the control of the lac promoter (inducible by isopropyl-thio-?-D-galactopyranoside, IPTG), we were able to alter the E. coli mutation frequency using appropriate concentrations of the inducers arabinose and IPTG. Finally, we discuss recent advances and future challenges of protein co-expression in E. coli. PMID:25742393

  20. Human chorionic gonadotropin promotes expression of protein absorption factors in the intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Hao, G; Zhong, H; Wu, Q; Lu, S Q; Zhao, Q; Liu, Z

    2015-01-01

    Protein use is crucial for the ovulation and spawning of fish. Currently, limited information is available regarding the expression of protein absorption factors during the breeding seasons of teleosts and thus how various proteins involved in this process is not well-understood. The expression of CDX2, CREB, gluatamate dehydrogenase, LAT2, aminopeptidase N, PepT1, and SP1 were significantly elevated from the non-breeding season to the breeding season in female goldfish, and all proteins except PepT1 and SP1 were elevated in male goldfish. Injection of human chorionic gonadotropin upregulated the expression of all proteins except for aminopeptidase N in female goldfish and SP1 in male goldfish, suggesting a luteinizing hormone-inductive effect on protein absorption factors. Protein use in the intestine is increased during the breeding seasons as a result of increased luteinizing hormone. PMID:26345757

  1. A mammalian germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein interacts with ubiquitously expressed proteins involved in splice site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David J.; Bourgeois, Cyril F.; Klink, Albrecht; Stévenin, James; Cooke, Howard J.

    2000-05-01

    RNA-binding motif (RBM) genes are found on all mammalian Y chromosomes and are implicated in spermatogenesis. Within human germ cells, RBM protein shows a similar nuclear distribution to components of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. To address the function of RBM, we have used protein-protein interaction assays to test for possible physical interactions between these proteins. We find that RBM protein directly interacts with members of the SR family of splicing factors and, in addition, strongly interacts with itself. We have mapped the protein domains responsible for mediating these interactions and expressed the mouse RBM interaction region as a bacterial fusion protein. This fusion protein can pull-down several functionally active SR protein species from cell extracts. Depletion and add-back experiments indicate that these SR proteins are the only splicing factors bound by RBM which are required for the splicing of a panel of pre-mRNAs. Our results suggest that RBM protein is an evolutionarily conserved mammalian splicing regulator which operates as a germ cell-specific cofactor for more ubiquitously expressed pre-mRNA splicing activators.

  2. Construction of a dual-tag system for gene expression, protein affinity purification and fusion protein processing.

    PubMed

    Motejadded, Hassan; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2009-04-01

    An E. coli vector system was constructed which allows the expression of fusion genes via a L: -rhamnose-inducible promotor. The corresponding fusion proteins consist of the maltose-binding protein and a His-tag sequence for affinity purification, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Smt3 protein for protein processing by proteolytic cleavage and the protein of interest. The Smt3 gene was codon-optimized for expression in E. coli. In a second rhamnose-inducible vector, the S. cerevisiae Ulp1 protease gene for processing Smt3 fusion proteins was fused in the same way to maltose-binding protein and His-tag sequence but without the Smt3 gene. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was used as reporter and protein of interest. Both fusion proteins (MalE-6xHis-Smt3-eGFP and MalE-6xHis-Ulp1) were efficiently produced in E. coli and separately purified by amylose resin. After proteolytic cleavage the products were applied to a Ni-NTA column to remove protease and tags. Pure eGFP protein was obtained in the flow-through of the column in a yield of around 35% of the crude cell extract. PMID:19127343

  3. INCREASED LIVER PATHOLOGY IN HEPATITIS C VIRUS TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING THE HEPATITIS B VIRUS X PROTEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic mice expressing the full-length HCV coding sequence were crossed with mice that express the HBV X gene-encoded regulatory protein HBx (ATX mice) to test the hypothesis that HBx expression accelerates HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. At 16 months (mo) of age, hepatocellular carcinoma was id...

  4. Heat Shock Protein27 Expression and Cell Differentiation in Ameloblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Muneteru; Nakano, Keisuke; Funato, Akiyoshi; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Okafuji, Norimasa; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    The expression of HSP27 and some CKs were examined the 40 cases of typical solid/multicystic ameloblastoma using immunohistochemical techniques. In order to examine the relevance of HSP in cell differentiation, we focused on the cytoskeletal expression of CK. CK19 is a marker of typical odontogenic epithelium widely observed in follicular and plexiform types of ameloblastomas. Since staining with CK14 is one of the measures of the differentiation potential of squamous cells and is extensively expressed in both follicular and plexiform types, it implies that squamous differentiation of each type can occur. CK8 was strongly detected in tumor nests in plexiform type but weakly detected in follicular type. It was considered that the expression of HSP27 in plexiform type correlated with the expression of CK8 suggesting that HSP27 might have regulated the expression of CK8. PMID:23983585

  5. Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels in Mesangial Cells Inhibit Matrix Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peiwen; Wang, Yanxia; Davis, Mark E; Zuckerman, Jonathan E; Chaudhari, Sarika; Begg, Malcolm; Ma, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix derived from glomerular mesangial cells is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy. Ca(2+) signals mediated by store-operated Ca(2+) channels regulate protein production in a variety of cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells on extracellular matrix protein expression. In cultured human mesangial cells, activation of store-operated Ca(2+) channels by thapsigargin significantly decreased fibronectin protein expression and collagen IV mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibition of the channels by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and collagen IV. Similarly, overexpression of stromal interacting molecule 1 reduced, but knockdown of calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai1) increased fibronectin protein expression. Furthermore, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly augmented angiotensin II-induced fibronectin protein expression, whereas thapsigargin abrogated high glucose- and TGF-?1-stimulated matrix protein expression. In vivo knockdown of Orai1 in mesangial cells of mice using a targeted nanoparticle siRNA delivery system resulted in increased expression of glomerular fibronectin and collagen IV, and mice showed significant mesangial expansion compared with controls. Similarly, in vivo knockdown of stromal interacting molecule 1 in mesangial cells by recombinant adeno-associated virus-encoded shRNA markedly increased collagen IV protein expression in renal cortex and caused mesangial expansion in rats. These results suggest that store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells negatively regulate extracellular matrix protein expression in the kidney, which may serve as an endogenous renoprotective mechanism in diabetes. PMID:25788524

  6. Protein expression profile of the mouse metaphase-II oocyte.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minyue; Guo, Xuejiang; Wang, Fuqiang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zichuan; Shi, Zhonghua; Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Kemei; Wang, Ningling; Lin, Min; Zhou, Zuomin; Liu, Jiayin; Li, Qingzhang; Wang, Liu; Huo, Ran; Sha, Jiahao; Zhou, Qi

    2008-11-01

    The mature oocyte contains the full complement of maternal proteins required for fertilization, the transition to zygotic transcription, and the beginning stages of embryogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized. In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of mouse metaphase-II (MII) oocyte proteins, stained with silver staining or Pro-Q Diamond dye, was performed to describe the proteome and phosphoproteome of the mouse oocyte derived from ICR mice. A total of 869 selected protein spots, corresponding to 380 unique proteins, were identified successfully by mass spectrometry, in which 90 protein spots representing 53 unique proteins have been stained with Pro-Q Diamond, indicating that they are in phosphorylated forms. All identified proteins were bioinformatically annotated in detail and compared with the embryonic stem cell (ESC) proteome. A proteome reference database for the mouse oocyte was established from the protein data generated in this study, which can be accessed over the Internet ( http://reprod.njmu.edu.cn/2d). This database is the most detailed mouse oocyte proteomic database to date. It should be valuable in expanding our knowledge of the regulation of signaling in oogenesis, fertilization, and embryo development, while revealing potential mechanisms for epigenetic reprogramming. PMID:18803416

  7. Protein A-Mouse Acidic Mammalian Chitinase-V5-His Expressed in Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli Possesses Chitinase Functions Comparable to CHO-Expressed Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Yuta; Iwabuchi, Kokoro; Matsushima, Yudai; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2013-01-01

    Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) has been shown to be associated with asthma in mouse models, allergic inflammation and food processing. Here, we describe an E. coli-expression system that allows for the periplasmic production of active AMCase fused to Protein A at the N-terminus and V5 epitope and (His)6 tag (V5-His) at the C-terminus (Protein A-AMCase-V5-His) in E. coli. The mouse AMCase cDNA was cloned into the vector pEZZ18, which is an expression vector containing the Staphylococcus Protein A promoter, with the signal sequence and truncated form of Protein A for extracellular expression in E. coli. Most of the Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was present in the periplasmic space with chitinolytic activity, which was measured using a chromogenic substrate, 4-nitrophenyl N,N?-diacetyl-?-D-chitobioside. The Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was purified from periplasmic fractions using an IgG Sepharose column followed by a Ni Sepharose chromatography. The recombinant protein showed a robust peak of activity with a maximum observed activity at pH 2.0, where an optimal temperature was 54C. When this protein was preincubated between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0 on ice for 1 h, full chitinolytic activity was retained. This protein was also heat-stable till 54C, both at pH 2.0 and 7.0. The chitinolytic activity of the recombinant AMCase against 4-nitrophenyl N,N?-diacetyl-?-D-chitobioside was comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. Furthermore, the recombinant AMCase bound to chitin beads, cleaved colloidal chitin and released mainly N,N?-diacetylchitobiose fragments. Thus, the E. coli-expressed Protein A-mouse AMCase-V5-His fusion protein possesses chitinase functions comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. This recombinant protein can be used to elucidate detailed biomedical functions of the mouse AMCase. PMID:24244337

  8. Expression of synthetic human tropoelastin (hTE) protein in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Abdelghani, Mona; El-Heba, Ghada A Abu; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2015-01-01

    Plant molecular farming (PMF) is an important growing prospective approach in plant biotechnology; it includes production of recombinant pharmaceutical and industrial proteins in large quantities from engineered plants. Elastin is a major protein component of tissues that require elasticity, it helps keep skin smooth as it stretches to allow normal. Elastin is used as a raw material for the cosmetic industry. In this work, we aimed to use plant as a bioreactor for the expression and production of the full human tropoelastin protein. Agrobacterium- mediated transient expression system into Nicotiana tabacum using syringe agroinfiltration was used to provide fast and convenient way to produce recombinant proteins with greater expression overall the plant leaf. This study aimed to establish an efficient and rapid system for transiently expression and production of human recombinant tropoelastin protein in transgenic N. tabacum plants. Modified elastin (ELN) gene was biosynthesized and cloned into pCambia1390 vector to be used into N. tabacum agroinfilteration. Optimization of codon usage for the human tropoelastin gene, without changing the primary structure of the protein was carried out to ensure high expression in tobacco plants. The obtained data proved that the 5(th) day post-infiltration is the optimum interval to obtain the maximum production of our recombinant protein. Southern blot analysis was able to detect 2175 bp fragment length representing the ELN orf (open reding frame). On the other hand, ELN -expression within plant's tissue was visualized by RT-PCR during the period 3-10 days post agroinfiltration. At the protein level, western and ELISA confirmed the expression of recombinant tropoelastin protein. Western blot analysis detected the tropoelastin protein as parent band at ?70 kDa from freshly extracted protein, while two degraded bands of ?55 and ?45 kDa, representing a pattern of tropoelastin were appeared with frozen samples. This study showed that biosynthetic ELN gene was successfully expressed into N. tabacum leaves using agroinfiltration technique. PMID:25984768

  9. Detecting Differential and Correlated Protein Expression in Label-Free Shotgun Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Langston, Michael A; Uberbacher, Edward C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a relationship between protein abundance and sampling statistics, such as sequence coverage, peptide count, and spectral count, in label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) shotgun proteomics. The use of sampling statistics offers a promising method of measuring relative protein abundance and detecting differentially expressed or coexpressed proteins. We performed a systematic analysis of various approaches to quantifying differential protein expression in eukaryotic Saccharomycescerevisiaeand prokaryotic Rhodopseudomonaspalustrislabel free LC-MS/MS data. First, we showed that, among three sampling statistics, the spectral count has the highest technical reproducibility, followed by the less-reproducible peptide count and relatively nonreproducible sequence coverage. Second, we used spectral count statistics to measure differential protein expression in pairwise experiments using five statistical tests: Fisher's exact test, G-test, AC test, t-test, and LPE test. Given the S.cerevisiaedata set with spiked proteins as a benchmark and the false positive rate as a metric, our evaluation suggested that the Fisher's exact test, G-test, and AC test can be used when the number of replications is limited (one or two), whereas the t-test is useful with three or more replicates available. Third, we generalized the G-test to increase the sensitivity of detecting differential protein expression under multiple experimental conditions. Out of 1622 identified R.palustris proteins in the LC-MS/MS experiment, the generalized G-test detected 1119 differentially expressed proteins under six growth conditions. Finally, we studied correlated expression of these 1119 proteins by analyzing pairwise expression correlations and by delineating protein clusters according to expression patterns. Through pairwise expression correlation analysis, we demonstrated that proteins co-located in the same operon were much more strongly coexpressed than those from different operons. Combining cluster analysis with existing protein functional annotations, we identified six protein clusters with known biological significance. In summary, the proposed generalized G-test using spectral count sampling statistics is a viable methodology for robust quantification of relative protein abundance and for sensitive detection of biologically significant differential protein expression under multiple experimental conditions in label-free shotgun proteomics.

  10. Robust microarray production of freshly expressed proteins in a human milieu

    PubMed Central

    Festa, Fernanda; Rollins, Sean M.; Vattem, Krishna; Hathaway, Margarita; Lorenz, Phillip; Mendoza, Eliseo Alejandro; Yu, Xiaobo; Qiu, Ji; Kilmer, Greg; Jensen, Penny; Webb, Brian; Ryan, Ed T.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) systems are widely used in proteomics. For clinical applications, mammalian systems are preferred for protein folding and activity; however, the level of protein obtained is low. A new system extracted from human cells (1-Step Human Coupled IVT) has the potential to overcome this problem and deliver high yields of protein expressed in a human milieu. Experimental design Western blots and self-assembled protein microarrays were used to test the efficiency of protein synthesis by 1-Step Human Coupled IVT (HCIVT) compared to rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL). The arrays were also used to measure the immune response obtained from serum of patients exposed to pathogens or vaccine. Results HCIVT performed better than RRL in all experiments. The yield of protein synthesized in HCIVT is more than 10 times higher than RRL, in both western blot and protein microarrays. Moreover, HCIVT showed a robust lot-to-lot reproducibility. In immune assays, the signals of many antigens were detected only in HCIVT-expressed arrays, mainly due to the reduction in the background signal and the increased levels of protein on the array. Conclusion and clinical relevance HCIVT is a robust IVTT system that yields high levels of protein produced in a human milieu. It can be used in applications where protein expression in a mammalian system and high yields are needed. The increased immunogenic response of HCIVT-expressed proteins will be critical for biomarker discovery in many diseases, including cancer. PMID:23027544

  11. Utility of proteomics techniques for assessing protein expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic technologies are currently used as an effective analytical tool for examining modifications in protein profiles for assessing the bio-safety of genetically modified (GM) crop organisms. Understanding the natural variation of soybean seed proteins is necessary to evaluate potential uninten...

  12. Proteins expressed in blue-green sharpshooter leafhoppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a metagenomics approach to identify proteins from the blue-green sharpshooter, Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) which is an important vector of Pierce’s disease of grapes. The 44 proteins are being used as markers to monitor and identify current and exotic introductions o...

  13. Utility of proteomics techniques for assessing protein expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, proteomic technologies have been frequently used as an effective analytical tool for examining modifications of protein profiles for accessing the bio-safety of genetically modified crops (GMO). Understanding of natural variation of soybean seed proteins is critical for determining...

  14. In-Vivo Real-Time Control of Protein Expression from Endogenous and Synthetic Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Orabona, Emanuele; De Stefano, Luca; Ferry, Mike; Hasty, Jeff; di Bernardo, Mario; di Bernardo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We describe an innovative experimental and computational approach to control the expression of a protein in a population of yeast cells. We designed a simple control algorithm to automatically regulate the administration of inducer molecules to the cells by comparing the actual protein expression level in the cell population with the desired expression level. We then built an automated platform based on a microfluidic device, a time-lapse microscopy apparatus, and a set of motorized syringes, all controlled by a computer. We tested the platform to force yeast cells to express a desired fixed, or time-varying, amount of a reporter protein over thousands of minutes. The computer automatically switched the type of sugar administered to the cells, its concentration and its duration, according to the control algorithm. Our approach can be used to control expression of any protein, fused to a fluorescent reporter, provided that an external molecule known to (indirectly) affect its promoter activity is available. PMID:24831205

  15. Protein expression profiles of intestinal epithelial co-cultures: effect of functionalised carbon nanotube exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xianyin; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L.; Clack, James W.; Fears, Sharry L.; Mitra, Somenath; Ntim, Susana Addo; Ringham, Heather N.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the biological effects of low level, water dispersible, functionalised carbon nanotube (f-CNT) exposure in an in vitro model simulating the digestive tract, cellular protein expression was quantified and compared using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS). Co-cultured cells were exposed to well-characterised SWCNT-COOH, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-PVP. The relative expression of 2,282 unique proteins was compared across the dose groups. 428 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. At the high dose, the extent of differential protein expression was CNT-specific and directly related to CNT colloidal stability. Cells responded to low level MWCNT-PVP exposure with three-fold greater differential expression. Bioinformatic analysis indicated significant and f-CNT-specific effects on relevant molecular and cellular functions and canonical pathways, with little overlap across f-CNT type and in the absence of overt toxicity. PMID:24228069

  16. miR-24 and miR-205 expression is dependent on HPV onco-protein expression in keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, Declan J.; Patel, Daksha; McCance, Dennis J.

    2014-01-05

    A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miR-24 and miR-205. We investigated how expression of Human Papilloma Virus Type-16 (HPV16) onco-proteins E6 and E7 affected expression of miR-24 and miR-205 during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We show that the induction of both miR-24 and miR-205 observed during differentiation of HFKs is lost in HFKs expressing E6 and E7. We demonstrate that the effect on miR-205 is due to E7 activity, as miR-205 expression is dependent on pRb expression. Finally, we provide evidence that miR-24 effects in the cell may be due to targeting of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27. In summary, these results indicate that expression of both miR-24 and miR-205 are impacted by E6 and/or E7 expression, which may be one mechanism by which HPV onco-proteins can disrupt the balance between proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. - Highlights: • miR-24 and miR-205 are induced during keratinocyte differentiation. • This induction is lost in keratinocytes expressing HPV onco-proteins E6 and E7. • miR-205 is dependent upon pRb expression. • miR-24 targets p27 in cycling keratinocytes.

  17. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  18. The Complex Regulation of HIC (Human I-mfa Domain Containing Protein) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Reiss-Sklan, Ella; Levitzki, Alexander; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2009-01-01

    Human I-mfa domain containing protein (HIC) differentially regulates transcription from viral promoters. HIC affects the Wnt pathway, the JNK/SAPK pathway and the activity of positive transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb). Studies exploring HIC function in mammalian cells used ectopically expressed HIC due to undetected endogenous HIC protein. HIC mRNA contains exceptionally long 5? and 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) compared to the average length of mRNA UTRs. Here we show that HIC protein is subject to strict repression at multiple levels. The HIC mRNA UTRs reduce the expression of HIC or of a reporter protein: The HIC 3?-UTR decreases both HIC and reporter mRNA levels, whereas upstream open reading frames located in the 5?-UTR repress the translation of HIC or of the reporter protein. In addition, ectopically expressed HIC protein is degraded by the proteasome, with a half-life of approximately 1 h, suggesting that upon activation, HIC expression in cells may be transient. The strict regulation of HIC expression at the levels of mRNA stability, translation efficiency and protein stability suggests that expression of the HIC protein and its involvement in the various pathways is required only under specific cellular conditions. PMID:19582149

  19. Different culture medium formulations induce variant protein expression patterns of outer membrane porins in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Han; Lin, Jung-Chung; Chang, Junn-Liang; Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Siu, L K

    2011-02-01

    Outer membrane porin (OMP) expression has been shown to play an important role in antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we observed that OmpK35 of Klebsiella pneumoniae had varied expression profiles in different nutrient broths. the potential factors that could influence protein expression were assessed. K. pneumoniae (ATCC 13883) was cultured into two commercial available nutrient broths and also into solutions of the individual ingredients. To ensure that OmpK35 was detected, an OmpK35 deficient mutant was generated as control. When OmpK protein expression profiles were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, OmpK35 exhibited two different isoforms. Expression of an additional isoform-like OmpK35 protein was identified in one of the broths. No OmpK35 isoforms were observed when the individual ingredients of beef extract, casein or gelatin were used as culture medium. OmpK35 isoform expression could be repressed by adding more beef extract. In summary, OmpK can exhibit varied protein expression profiles when growing in different nutrient broths. The isoform-like protein expression of OmpK35 may lead to confusion in OmpK protein analysis. PMID:21482487

  20. Optimized expression, solubilization and purification of nuclear inclusion protein b of cardamom mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jebasingh, T; Jacob, T; Shah, M; Das, D; Krishnaswamy, S; Usha, R

    2008-04-01

    All RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that is required for replication of the viral genome. Nuclear inclusion b (NIb) gene codes for the RdRp in Potyviridae viruses. In this study, expression, solubilization and purification of NIb protein of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is reported. The objective of the present study was to express and purify the NIb protein of CdMV on a large scale for structural characterization, as the structure of the RdRp from a plant virus is yet to be determined. However, the expression of NIb protein with hexa-histidine tag in Escherichia coli led to insoluble aggregates. Out of all the approaches [making truncated versions to reduce the size of protein; replacing an amino acid residue likely to be involved in hydrophobic intermolecular interactions with a hydrophilic one; expressing the protein along with chaperones; expression in Origami cells for proper disulphide bond formation, in E. coli as a fusion with maltose-binding protein (MBP) and in Nicotiana tabacum] to obtain the RdRp in a soluble form, only expression in E. coli as a fusion with MBP and its expression in N. tabacum were successful. The NIb expressed in plant or as a fusion with MBP in E. coli can be scaled up for further work. PMID:21086722

  1. Overview of approaches to preventing and avoiding proteolysis during expression and purification of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Barry J; Henehan, Gary T

    2013-02-01

    Proteases are enzymes that cleave proteins. They occur widely in nature and play a fundamental role in cellular homeostasis; however, their presence can result in unwanted protein degradation during recombinant protein expression and purification. This unit introduces proteases, specifically focusing on the types commonly encountered during production of recombinant proteins. The strategies used to avoid and to prevent proteolysis are also described, with extensive consideration of the molecular, technical, and logistic methodologies involved. PMID:23377852

  2. Expression Atlas update-an integrated database of gene and protein expression in humans, animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Petryszak, Robert; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y Amy; Fonseca, Nuno A; Barrera, Elisabet; Burdett, Tony; Füllgrabe, Anja; Fuentes, Alfonso Muñoz-Pomer; Jupp, Simon; Koskinen, Satu; Mannion, Oliver; Huerta, Laura; Megy, Karine; Snow, Catherine; Williams, Eleanor; Barzine, Mitra; Hastings, Emma; Weisser, Hendrik; Wright, James; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Huber, Wolfgang; Choudhary, Jyoti; Parkinson, Helen E; Brazma, Alvis

    2016-01-01

    Expression Atlas (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) provides information about gene and protein expression in animal and plant samples of different cell types, organism parts, developmental stages, diseases and other conditions. It consists of selected microarray and RNA-sequencing studies from ArrayExpress, which have been manually curated, annotated with ontology terms, checked for high quality and processed using standardised analysis methods. Since the last update, Atlas has grown seven-fold (1572 studies as of August 2015), and incorporates baseline expression profiles of tissues from Human Protein Atlas, GTEx and FANTOM5, and of cancer cell lines from ENCODE, CCLE and Genentech projects. Plant studies constitute a quarter of Atlas data. For genes of interest, the user can view baseline expression in tissues, and differential expression for biologically meaningful pairwise comparisons-estimated using consistent methodology across all of Atlas. Our first proteomics study in human tissues is now displayed alongside transcriptomics data in the same tissues. Novel analyses and visualisations include: 'enrichment' in each differential comparison of GO terms, Reactome, Plant Reactome pathways and InterPro domains; hierarchical clustering (by baseline expression) of most variable genes and experimental conditions; and, for a given gene-condition, distribution of baseline expression across biological replicates. PMID:26481351

  3. Expression Atlas updatean integrated database of gene and protein expression in humans, animals and plants

    PubMed Central

    Petryszak, Robert; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y. Amy; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Barrera, Elisabet; Burdett, Tony; Fllgrabe, Anja; Fuentes, Alfonso Muoz-Pomer; Jupp, Simon; Koskinen, Satu; Mannion, Oliver; Huerta, Laura; Megy, Karine; Snow, Catherine; Williams, Eleanor; Barzine, Mitra; Hastings, Emma; Weisser, Hendrik; Wright, James; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Huber, Wolfgang; Choudhary, Jyoti; Parkinson, Helen E.; Brazma, Alvis

    2016-01-01

    Expression Atlas (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) provides information about gene and protein expression in animal and plant samples of different cell types, organism parts, developmental stages, diseases and other conditions. It consists of selected microarray and RNA-sequencing studies from ArrayExpress, which have been manually curated, annotated with ontology terms, checked for high quality and processed using standardised analysis methods. Since the last update, Atlas has grown seven-fold (1572 studies as of August 2015), and incorporates baseline expression profiles of tissues from Human Protein Atlas, GTEx and FANTOM5, and of cancer cell lines from ENCODE, CCLE and Genentech projects. Plant studies constitute a quarter of Atlas data. For genes of interest, the user can view baseline expression in tissues, and differential expression for biologically meaningful pairwise comparisonsestimated using consistent methodology across all of Atlas. Our first proteomics study in human tissues is now displayed alongside transcriptomics data in the same tissues. Novel analyses and visualisations include: enrichment in each differential comparison of GO terms, Reactome, Plant Reactome pathways and InterPro domains; hierarchical clustering (by baseline expression) of most variable genes and experimental conditions; and, for a given gene-condition, distribution of baseline expression across biological replicates. PMID:26481351

  4. Evolutionary Divergence of Gene and Protein Expression in the Brains of Humans and Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Bauernfeind, Amy L.; Soderblom, Erik J.; Turner, Meredith E.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Ely, John J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Wray, Gregory A.; Babbitt, Courtney C.

    2015-01-01

    Although transcriptomic profiling has become the standard approach for exploring molecular differences in the primate brain, very little is known about how the expression levels of gene transcripts relate to downstream protein abundance. Moreover, it is unknown whether the relationship changes depending on the brain region or species under investigation. We performed high-throughput transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and proteomic (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) analyses on two regions of the human and chimpanzee brain: The anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In both brain regions, we found a lower correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels in humans and chimpanzees than has been reported for other tissues and cell types, suggesting that the brain may engage extensive tissue-specific regulation affecting protein abundance. In both species, only a few categories of biological function exhibited strong correlations between mRNA and protein expression levels. These categories included oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis and modification, indicating that the expression levels of mRNA transcripts supporting these biological functions are more predictive of protein expression compared with other functional categories. More generally, however, the two measures of molecular expression provided strikingly divergent perspectives into differential expression between human and chimpanzee brains: mRNA comparisons revealed significant differences in neuronal communication, ion transport, and regulatory processes, whereas protein comparisons indicated differences in perception and cognition, metabolic processes, and organization of the cytoskeleton. Our results highlight the importance of examining protein expression in evolutionary analyses and call for a more thorough understanding of tissue-specific protein expression levels. PMID:26163674

  5. Evolutionary Divergence of Gene and Protein Expression in the Brains of Humans and Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Soderblom, Erik J; Turner, Meredith E; Moseley, M Arthur; Ely, John J; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2015-08-01

    Although transcriptomic profiling has become the standard approach for exploring molecular differences in the primate brain, very little is known about how the expression levels of gene transcripts relate to downstream protein abundance. Moreover, it is unknown whether the relationship changes depending on the brain region or species under investigation. We performed high-throughput transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and proteomic (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) analyses on two regions of the human and chimpanzee brain: The anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In both brain regions, we found a lower correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels in humans and chimpanzees than has been reported for other tissues and cell types, suggesting that the brain may engage extensive tissue-specific regulation affecting protein abundance. In both species, only a few categories of biological function exhibited strong correlations between mRNA and protein expression levels. These categories included oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis and modification, indicating that the expression levels of mRNA transcripts supporting these biological functions are more predictive of protein expression compared with other functional categories. More generally, however, the two measures of molecular expression provided strikingly divergent perspectives into differential expression between human and chimpanzee brains: mRNA comparisons revealed significant differences in neuronal communication, ion transport, and regulatory processes, whereas protein comparisons indicated differences in perception and cognition, metabolic processes, and organization of the cytoskeleton. Our results highlight the importance of examining protein expression in evolutionary analyses and call for a more thorough understanding of tissue-specific protein expression levels. PMID:26163674

  6. Expression of the SET protein in testes of mice at different developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Nan; Liu, Shan; Shao, Li; Gao, Chao; Gao, Li; Liu, Jia-Yin; Cui, Yu-Gui

    2014-01-01

    SET is a multifunctional protein involved in regulating many biological processes of the cell cycle. It is also a regulator of steroidogenesis in the ovary. However, the expression of SET protein in testis, and its function, still remains ambiguous. In this study, we observed the expression of SET in the testes of mice at different developmental stages, and have discussed its potential function in regulating spermatogenesis and androgen production. Forty-eight male mice at different developmental stages (1 week old as the infancy group; 4 weeks old as the prepubertal group; 12 weeks old as the adult group; over 12 months old as the ageing group) were used. Cellular location of SET protein in the testes was observed by immuno-histochemistry. Expression levels of Set mRNA and SET protein were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. SET protein was expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes; the highest level was mainly in haploid and tetraploid cells of the prepubertal and adult groups, and Leydig cells of the adult and ageing groups. There was a low expression in Sertoli cells. Expression of Set mRNA in the prepubertal group was significantly higher than that in the adult group (P < 0.05), while expression of SET protein was at the highest level in the adult group (P < 0.05). SET protein is mainly expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes, and poorly expressed in Sertoli cells, suggesting that it is involved in spermatogenesis. Expression of SET protein in Leydig cells suggests a possible role in steroidogenesis. PMID:24923460

  7. Expression of the SET protein in testes of mice at different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Nan; Liu, Shan; Shao, Li; Gao, Chao; Gao, Li; Liu, Jia-Yin; Cui, Yu-Gui

    2014-01-01

    SET is a multifunctional protein involved in regulating many biological processes of the cell cycle. It is also a regulator of steroidogenesis in the ovary. However, the expression of SET protein in testis, and its function, still remains ambiguous. In this study, we observed the expression of SET in the testes of mice at different developmental stages, and have discussed its potential function in regulating spermatogenesis and androgen production. Forty-eight male mice at different developmental stages (1 week old as the infancy group; 4 weeks old as the prepubertal group; 12 weeks old as the adult group; over 12 months old as the ageing group) were used. Cellular location of SET protein in the testes was observed by immuno-histochemistry. Expression levels of Set mRNA and SET protein were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. SET protein was expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes; the highest level was mainly in haploid and tetraploid cells of the prepubertal and adult groups, and Leydig cells of the adult and ageing groups. There was a low expression in Sertoli cells. Expression of Set mRNA in the prepubertal group was significantly higher than that in the adult group (P < 0.05), while expression of SET protein was at the highest level in the adult group (P < 0.05). SET protein is mainly expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes, and poorly expressed in Sertoli cells, suggesting that it is involved in spermatogenesis. Expression of SET protein in Leydig cells suggests a possible role in steroidogenesis. PMID:24923460

  8. [Prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of HPV6b E7 protein].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Qi; Cheng, Hao

    2011-09-01

    To express and prepare polyclonal antibody of Human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV6b) E7 protein. a prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-2/HPV6b E7 was constructed and GST-HPV6b E7 fusion protein was expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The expressed fusion protein was purified via Glutathione-Sepharose 4B column and thrombin cleavage in order to obtain HPV6b E7 protein. Polyclonal IgG antibody was prepared by immunizing New-Zealand rabbits with HPV6b E7 protein. Western-Blot and immunofluorescence analysis showed that the polyclonal IgG antibody could specifically recognize HPV6b E7 protein and its titer was identified. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that large amounts of soluble GST-HPV6b E7 fusion protein was expressed in E. coli after 3.0-6.0 hours of IPTG induction. Polyclonal IgG antibody successfully prepared from immunized rabbits showed high titer and high specificity as confirmed by Western-Blot and immunofluorescence. The preparation of anti-HPV6b E7 polyclonal antibody will facilitate further research on the biological and immunological functions of HPV6b E7 protein. PMID:21998951

  9. Evolved Escherichia coli strains for amplified, functional expression of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gul, Nadia; Linares, Daniel M; Ho, Franz Y; Poolman, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The major barrier to the physical characterization and structure determination of membrane proteins is low protein yield and/or low functionality in recombinant expression. The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely employed organism for producing recombinant proteins. Beside several advantages of this expression host, one major drawback is that the protein of interest does not always adopt its native conformation and may end up in large insoluble aggregates. We describe a robust strategy to increase the likelihood of overexpressing membrane proteins in a functional state. The method involves fusion in tandem of green fluorescent protein and the erythromycin resistance protein (23S ribosomal RNA adenine N-6 methyltransferase, ErmC) to the C-terminus of a target membrane protein. The fluorescence of green fluorescent protein is used to report the folding state of the target protein, whereas ErmC is used to select for increased expression. By gradually increasing the erythromycin concentration of the medium and testing different membrane protein targets, we obtained a number of evolved strains of which four (NG2, NG3, NG5 and NG6) were characterized and their genome was fully sequenced. Strikingly, each of the strains carried a mutation in the hns gene, whose product is involved in genome organization and transcriptional silencing. The degree of expression of (membrane) proteins correlates with the severity of the hns mutation, but cells in which hns was deleted showed an intermediate expression performance. We propose that (partial) removal of the transcriptional silencing mechanism changes the levels of proteins essential for the functional overexpression of membrane proteins. PMID:24041572

  10. Normal expression of myelin protein zero with frame-shift mutation correlates with mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Steck, Andreas J; Erne, Beat; Pareyson, Davide; Sghirlanzoni, Angelo; Taroni, Franco; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole

    2006-03-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding for myelin protein zero (MPZ) cause inherited demyelinating peripheral neuropathies of different severity. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the MPZ mutations cause neuropathy are incompletely understood. We investigated MPZ, myelin basic protein, and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) protein expression levels in a nerve biopsy of a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B patient heterozygous for the Val 102 frame-shift mutation. We demonstrate by quantitative immunohistochemical as well as by Western blot analyses that MPZ expression levels were not reduced in myelin membranes, a finding that is in accordance with the mild phenotype of this patient. Our data show that heterozygous 'loss-of-function' of MPZ may not necessarily lead to reduced protein levels. In conclusion, we demonstrate that careful analysis of protein expression levels in peripheral nerve tissues provides important information with respect to the understanding of the molecular basis of these neuropathies. PMID:16519783

  11. Differential Expression of Intracellular and Extracellular CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Protein by Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Julie T.; Harui, Airi; Kiertscher, Sylvia M.; Roth, Jeffrey D.; Roth, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    mRNA encoding for the CB2 cannabinoid receptor is expressed by many subsets of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), but little is known about the resulting protein expression and function. Employing clones from the A549 and 293T cell lines that were constructed to express both full-length human CB2 and GFP, we developed a flow cytometry assay for characterizing CB2 protein expression. A monoclonal antibody directed against human CB2 selectively stained the surface of transduced but not parental cell lines. When cells were fixed and permeabilized, imaging flow cytometry identified large stores of intracellular protein. Total cellular staining for CB2 corresponded closely with the level of GFP expression. When exposed to Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CB2-expressing cells internalized cell surface CB2 receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Applying these approaches to human PBL, CB2 protein was identified on the surface of human B cells but not on T cells or monocytes. In contrast, when PBL were fixed and permeabilized, intracellular CB2 expression was readily detected in all three subsets by both conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Similar to the protein expression pattern observed in fixed and permeabilized PBL, purified B cells, T cells, and monocytes expressed relatively equal levels of CB2 mRNA by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our findings confirm that human PBL express CB2 protein but that its distribution is predominantly intracellular with only B cells expressing CB2 protein at the extracellular membrane. The differential role of intracellular and extracellular CB2 receptors in mediating ligand signaling and immune function remains to be determined. PMID:23299999

  12. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein and doxorubicin chemoresistance of metastatic breast cancer is regulated by miR-298.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lili; Hazari, Sidhartha; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak; Moroz, Krzysztof; Dash, Srikanta

    2012-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in cancer; therefore, they offer great diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We have developed doxorubicin-resistant and -sensitive metastatic human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) to study the chemoresistant mechanisms regulated by miRNAs. We found that doxorubicin localized exclusively to the cytoplasm and was unable to reach the nuclei of resistant tumor cells because of the increased nuclear expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp). An miRNA array between doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells showed that reduced expression of miR-298 in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells was associated with increased expression of P-gp. In a transient transfection experiment, miR-298 directly bound to the MDR1 3' untranslated region and regulated the expression of firefly luciferase reporter in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of miR-298 down-regulated P-gp expression, increasing nuclear accumulation of doxorubicin and cytotoxicity in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-298 increased P-gp expression and induced doxorubicin resistance in sensitive breast cancer cells. In summary, these results suggest that miR-298 directly modulates P-gp expression and is associated with the chemoresistant mechanisms of metastatic human breast cancer. Therefore, miR-298 has diagnostic and therapeutic potential for predicting doxorubicin chemoresistance in human breast cancer. PMID:22521303

  13. Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein and Doxorubicin Chemoresistance of Metastatic Breast Cancer Is Regulated by miR-298

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lili; Hazari, Sidhartha; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak; Moroz, Krzysztof; Dash, Srikanta

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in cancer; therefore, they offer great diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We have developed doxorubicin-resistant and -sensitive metastatic human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) to study the chemoresistant mechanisms regulated by miRNAs. We found that doxorubicin localized exclusively to the cytoplasm and was unable to reach the nuclei of resistant tumor cells because of the increased nuclear expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp). An miRNA array between doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells showed that reduced expression of miR-298 in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells was associated with increased expression of P-gp. In a transient transfection experiment, miR-298 directly bound to the MDR1 3? untranslated region and regulated the expression of firefly luciferase reporter in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of miR-298 down-regulated P-gp expression, increasing nuclear accumulation of doxorubicin and cytotoxicity in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-298 increased P-gp expression and induced doxorubicin resistance in sensitive breast cancer cells. In summary, these results suggest that miR-298 directly modulates P-gp expression and is associated with the chemoresistant mechanisms of metastatic human breast cancer. Therefore, miR-298 has diagnostic and therapeutic potential for predicting doxorubicin chemoresistance in human breast cancer. PMID:22521303

  14. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  15. Fluorescent probe for high-throughput screening of membrane protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Backmark, A E; Olivier, N; Snijder, A; Gordon, E; Dekker, N; Ferguson, A D

    2013-01-01

    Screening of protein variants requires specific detection methods to assay protein levels and stability in crude mixtures. Many strategies apply fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins to qualitatively monitor expression, stability, and monodispersity. However, GFP fusion proteins have several important disadvantages; including false-positives, protein aggregation after proteolytic removal of GFP, and reductions in protein yields without the GFP fusion. Here we describe a FSEC screening strategy based on a fluorescent multivalent NTA probe that interacts with polyhistidine-tags on target proteins. This method overcomes the limitations of GFP fusion proteins, and can be used to rank protein production based on qualitative and quantitative parameters. Domain boundaries of the human G-protein coupled adenosine A2a receptor were readily identified from crude detergent-extracts of a library of construct variants transiently produced in suspension-adapted HEK293-6E cells. Well expressing clones of MraY, an important bacterial infection target, could be identified from a library of 24 orthologs. This probe provides a highly sensitive tool to detect target proteins to expression levels down to 0.02 mg/L in crude lysate, and requires minimal amounts of cell culture. PMID:23776061

  16. Statistical approaches to maximize recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: a general review.

    PubMed

    Papaneophytou, Christos P; Kontopidis, George

    2014-02-01

    The supply of many valuable proteins that have potential clinical or industrial use is often limited by their low natural availability. With the modern advances in genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, the number of proteins being produced using recombinant techniques is exponentially increasing and seems to guarantee an unlimited supply of recombinant proteins. The demand of recombinant proteins has increased as more applications in several fields become a commercial reality. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, producing soluble proteins in E. coli is still a major bottleneck for structural biology projects. One of the most challenging steps in any structural biology project is predicting which protein or protein fragment will express solubly and purify for crystallographic studies. The production of soluble and active proteins is influenced by several factors including expression host, fusion tag, induction temperature and time. Statistical designed experiments are gaining success in the production of recombinant protein because they provide information on variable interactions that escape the "one-factor-at-a-time" method. Here, we review the most important factors affecting the production of recombinant proteins in a soluble form. Moreover, we provide information about how the statistical design experiments can increase protein yield and purity as well as find conditions for crystal growth. PMID:24211770

  17. Expression of Glutamate and Glutamine Transporter Proteins in Neurovascular Unit Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Morgun, A V; Kuvacheva, N V; Khilazheva, E D; Taranushenko, T E; Salmina, A B

    2015-09-01

    Glutamine transporter protein SLC1A5 and glutamate transporter protein EAAT2 responsible for cell-cell communication and energetic coupling were studied using in vitro model of multicellular neurovascular unit consisting of astrocytes, neurons, and endotheliocytes under standard conditions and during chemical hypoxia in vitro. Hypoxic damage to the neurovascular unit cells increased the number of SLC1A5-expressing cells and reduced the number of EAAT2-expressing astrocytes. Metabolic uncoupling in the neurovascular unit cells under hypoxic conditions resulted from abnormal expression of glutamine and glutamate transporter proteins, which is indicative of impaired glutamine and glutamate transport. PMID:26459476

  18. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  19. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  20. Small-Scale Production of Recombinant Proteins Using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Numerous technological improvements, including progress in vector design, simplification of virus isolation techniques, and advancements in molecular biology and cell culture technologies, have greatly facilitated the use of the baculovirus-insect cell system for routine production of recombinant proteins. This chapter outlines the basic techniques for small-scale protein production using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS), including protocols for titer estimation in 96-well plates, expression optimization in 24-well plates, and recombinant protein expression from adherent and suspension cultures in six-well plates and in 50 mL insect cell cultures. PMID:26820860

  1. Apoptosis-related protein expression in rabbits with blast brain injury following early hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaonian; Liu, Jiachuan; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Chunlin; Wang, Jinbiao; Yang, Yanyan; Huo, Jian; Sun, Wenjiang

    2012-06-15

    We treated detonator-explosion-induced craniocerebral injury in rabbits with hyperbaric oxygen 1-24 hours post-injury. Expression of the apoptosis-regulating protein cytochrome c, the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the apoptosis marker caspase-3 in the tissues surrounding the area of injury was significantly reduced, while that of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly increased. Our findings indicate that the curative effects of early hyperbaric oxygen on cortical cell apoptosis is associated with suppression of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. This mechanism underlies the observed reduction in Bax expression and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression. PMID:25657662

  2. Apoptosis-related protein expression in rabbits with blast brain injury following early hyperbaric oxygen therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shaonian; Liu, Jiachuan; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Chunlin; Wang, Jinbiao; Yang, Yanyan; Huo, Jian; Sun, Wenjiang

    2012-01-01

    We treated detonator-explosion-induced craniocerebral injury in rabbits with hyperbaric oxygen 1-24 hours post-injury. Expression of the apoptosis-regulating protein cytochrome c, the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the apoptosis marker caspase-3 in the tissues surrounding the area of injury was significantly reduced, while that of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly increased. Our findings indicate that the curative effects of early hyperbaric oxygen on cortical cell apoptosis is associated with suppression of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. This mechanism underlies the observed reduction in Bax expression and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression. PMID:25657662

  3. Receptor-associated protein promotes t-PA expression, reduces PAI-1 expression and improves neurorecovery after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan-Dong; Pang, Hong-Gang; Song, Jin-Ning; Zhao, Yong-Lin; Zhang, Bin-Fei; Ma, Xu-Dong; Sun, Peng

    2015-03-15

    Receptor-associated protein (RAP) is a receptor antagonist that inhibits ligand interactions with the receptors that belong to the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) has a crucial role in regulating tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) expression. Furthermore, the functional balance of these two proteins is directly associated with the initiation and development of cerebral ischemic stroke. In the present study, the effect of RAP post-treatment was investigated in a rat autologous thromboembolic model. The expression and activity of t-PA and PAI-1 were detected and the neurological function was tested. The results suggest that post-treatment with RAP is able to improve neurorecovery after ischemic stroke by decreasing vascular damage and regulating t-PA and PAI-1 expressions. Post-treatment with RAP promotes t-PA expression, suppresses PAI-1 expression, significantly improves functional outcomes and decreases the amount of TUNEL-positive cells. RAP-treated rats show lower intracranial hemoglobin levels and a smaller ischemic zone. In conclusion, post-treatment with RAP regulates t-PA and PAI-1 expressions and thereby contributes to the improvement of functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia. Our findings strongly suggest that RAP may be of value in neurorecovery after stroke. PMID:25702149

  4. Rift Valley Fever Virus Structural and Nonstructural Proteins: Recombinant Protein Expression and Immunoreactivity Against Antisera from Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Faburay, Bonto; Wilson, William; McVey, D. Scott; Drolet, Barbara S.; Weingartl, Hana; Madden, Daniel; Young, Alan; Ma, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) encodes the structural proteins nucleoprotein (N), aminoterminal glycoprotein (Gn), carboxyterminal glycoprotein (Gc), and L protein, 78-kD, and the nonstructural proteins NSm and NSs. Using the baculovirus system, we expressed the full-length coding sequence of N, NSs, NSm, Gc, and the ectodomain of the coding sequence of the Gn glycoprotein derived from the virulent strain of RVFV ZH548. Western blot analysis using anti-His antibodies and monoclonal antibodies against Gn and N confirmed expression of the recombinant proteins, and in vitro biochemical analysis showed that the two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, were expressed in glycosylated form. Immunoreactivity profiles of the recombinant proteins in western blot and in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against a panel of antisera obtained from vaccinated or wild type (RVFV)-challenged sheep confirmed the results obtained with anti-His antibodies and demonstrated the suitability of the baculo-expressed antigens for diagnostic assays. In addition, these recombinant proteins could be valuable for the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). PMID:23962238

  5. Gene selection and cloning approaches for co-expression and production of recombinant protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Babnigg, Gyrgy; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Nocek, Boguslaw; Stein, Adam; Eschenfeldt, William; Stols, Lucy; Marshall, Norman; Weger, Alicia; Wu, Ruiying; Donnelly, Mark; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Multiprotein complexes play essential roles in all cells and X-ray crystallography can provide unparalleled insight into their structure and function. Many of these complexes are believed to be sufficiently stable for structural biology studies, but the production of protein-protein complexes using recombinant technologies is still labor-intensive. We have explored several strategies for the identification and cloning of heterodimers and heterotrimers that are compatible with the high-throughput (HTP) structural biology pipeline developed for single proteins. Two approaches are presented and compared which resulted in co-expression of paired genes from a single expression vector. Native operons encoding predicted interacting proteins were selected from a repertoire of genomes, and cloned directly to expression vector. In an alternative approach, Helicobacter pylori proteins predicted to interact strongly were cloned, each associated with translational control elements, then linked into an artificial operon. Proteins were then expressed and purified by standard HTP protocols, resulting to date in the structure determination of two H. pylori complexes. PMID:26671275

  6. Comparative analysis of the tear protein expression in blepharitis patients using two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon-Suk; Lee, Do-Yeon; Ha, Hyo-Shin; Kim, Jae-Chan; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2005-01-01

    Change in the expression of body fluid proteins is caused by many diseases or environmental disturbances. The changes in tear proteins are also associated with various pathological eye conditions. Especially, chronic blepharitis is one of the most common conditions seen in the ophthalmologist's office. However, there are no specific clinical diagnostic tests for blepharitis, and it is difficult to treat effectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen prognostic or diagnostic marker tear proteins for blepharitis and investigate pathogenesis of this disease using proteomics techniques. The tear proteins expressed in patients suffering from blepharitis (patient, n=19) and healthy volunteers (control, n=27) were analyzed using the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. The differentially expressed proteins in patients were identified with ESI-Q-TOF (electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight) mass spectrometry and confirmed with western blotting. Nine proteins in patient were down regulated about 50% compared to those of the control: serum albumin precursor, alpha-1 antitrypsin, lacritin precursor, lysozyme, Ig-kappa chain VIII, prolactin inducible protein (PIP/GCDFP-15), cystatin-SA III, pyruvate kinase, and an unnamed protein. The use of the two-dimensional eletrophoretic technique could give more insight into the disease-related protein expression changes in tear fluids. Our findings reveal that the composition of tear proteins in blepharitis patients is different from that of healthy subjects and may provide further insights into the pathogenesis of blepharitis. PMID:15952718

  7. Expression, characterization, and immunoreactivities of a soluble hepatitis E virus putative capsid protein species expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; McAtee, P; Yarbough, P O; Tam, A W; Fuerst, T

    1997-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) open reading frame-2 (ORF-2) is predicted to encode a 71-kDa putative capsid protein involved in virus particle formation. When insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus containing the entire ORF-2 sequence, two types of recombinant proteins were produced; an insoluble protein of 73 kDa and a soluble protein of 62 kDa. The 62-kDa species was shown to be a proteolytic cleavage product of the 73-kDa protein. N-terminal sequence analysis of the 62-kDa protein indicated that it lacked the first 111 amino acids that are present in the full-length 73-kDa protein. A soluble 62-kDa protein was produced without the proteolytic processing by inserting the coding sequence of amino acids 112 to 660 of ORF-2 in a baculovirus expression vector and using the corresponding virus to infect Sf9 cells. The two recombinant 62-kDa proteins made by different mechanisms displayed immunoreactivities very compatible to each other. The 62-kDa proteins obtained by both proteolytic processing and reengineering demonstrated much higher sensitivities in detecting anti-HEV antibodies in human sera than the antigens made from bacteria, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data suggest that the soluble 62-kDa protein made from insect cells contains additional epitopes not present in recombinant proteins made from bacteria. Therefore, the 62-kDa protein may be useful for HEV diagnostic improvement and vaccine development. The reengineered construct allows for the consistent large-scale production of the soluble 62-kDa protein without proteolytic processing. PMID:9220158

  8. Protein Expressions and Their Immunogenicity from Riemerella anatipestifer Cultured in Iron Restriction Medium

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yonghong; Luo, Qingping; Hu, Xueying; Zhang, Wanpo; Shao, Huabin; Cheng, Guofu

    2013-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer was cultured in both iron restriction media and normal media. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 23 proteins that significantly increased in the iron restriction media. Of them 12 proteins were analyzed with mass spectrography. Nine of 12 proteins belong to 6 different protein families: fibronectin type iii domain protein, secreted subtilase family protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, translation elongation factor, leucine-rich repeat-containing protein, and Galactose-binding domain-like protein. Other 3 proteins were novel with unknown function. Two novel proteins (Riean_1750 and Riean_1752) were expressed in prokaryotic expression systems. The specificities of these 2 novel proteins to R. anatipestifer were confirmed by western-blotting analysis. The ducks immunized with either protein had low mortality challenged by R. anatipestifer, 33.3% and 16.7%, respectively. The ducks developed 100% immunity when immunized with combined Riean_1750 and Riean_1752 proteins. The data suggested 2 novel proteins play important roles in the bacterial survival in the iron restricted environment. They could be used as subunit vaccines of R. anatipestifer. PMID:23755292

  9. The redistribution of protein sulfur in transgenic rice expressing a gene for a foreign, sulfur-rich protein.

    PubMed

    Hagan, N D; Upadhyaya, N; Tabe, L M; Higgins, T J V

    2003-04-01

    Sulfur amino acid composition is an important determinant of seed protein quality. A chimeric gene encoding sunflower seed albumin (SSA), one of the most sulfur-rich seed storage proteins identified so far, was introduced into rice (Oryza sativa) in order to modify cysteine and methionine content of the seed. Analysis of a transgenic line expressing SSA at approximately 7% of total seed protein revealed that the mature grain showed little change in the total sulfur amino acid content compared to the parental genotype. This result indicated that the transgenic rice grain was unable to respond to the added demand for cysteine and methionine imposed by the production of SSA. Analysis of the protein composition of the transgenic grain showed changes in the relative levels of the major seed storage proteins, as well as some non-storage proteins, compared to non-transgenic controls. Changes observed at the protein level were concomitant with differences in mRNA accumulation but not always with the level of transcription. The limited sulfur reserves appeared to be re-allocated from endogenous proteins to the new sulfur sink in the transgenic grain. We hypothesize that this response is mediated by a signal transduction pathway that normally modulates seed storage protein composition in response to environmental fluctuations in sulfur availability, via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of gene expression. PMID:12662304

  10. Expression and immunological characterization of cardamom mosaic virus coat protein displaying HIV gp41 epitopes.

    PubMed

    Damodharan, Subha; Gujar, Ravindra; Pattabiraman, Sathyamurthy; Nesakumar, Manohar; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Vadakkuppattu, Ramanathan D; Usha, Ramakrishnan

    2013-05-01

    The coat protein of cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV), a member of the genus Macluravirus, assembles into virus-like particles when expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. The N and C-termini of the coat protein were engineered with the Kennedy peptide and the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes of gp41 of HIV. The chimeric proteins reacted with sera from HIV positive persons and also stimulated secretion of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these persons. Thus, a system based on the coat protein of CdMV can be used to display HIV-1 antigens. PMID:23668610

  11. Elimination of truncated recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli by removing cryptic translation initiation site.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Matthew J; Barrios, Adam F; Tan, Song

    2016-05-01

    Undesirable truncated recombinant protein products pose a special expression and purification challenge because such products often share similar chromatographic properties as the desired full length protein. We describe here our observation of both full length and a truncated form of a yeast protein (Gcn5) expressed in Escherichia coli, and the reduction or elimination of the truncated form by mutating a cryptic Shine-Dalgarno or START codon within the Gcn5 coding region. Unsuccessful attempts to engineer in a cryptic translation initiation site into other recombinant proteins suggest that cryptic Shine-Dalgarno or START codon sequences are necessary but not sufficient for cryptic translation in E. coli. PMID:26739786

  12. A Western Blot Protocol for Detection of Proteins Heterologously Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Jrgensen, Morten Egevang; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    Oocytes of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, are often used for expression and biochemical characterization of transporter proteins as the oocytes are particularly suitable for uptake assays and electrophysiological recordings. Assessment of the expression level of expressed transporters at the individual oocyte level is often desirable when comparing properties of wild type and mutant transporters. However, a large content of yolk platelets in the oocyte cytoplasm makes this a challenging task. Here we report a method for fast and easy, semiquantitative Western blot analysis of proteins heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:26843169

  13. Expression of intermediate filament-associated proteins paranemin and synemin in chicken development.

    PubMed

    Price, M G; Lazarides, E

    1983-12-01

    The expression of two intermediate filament-associated proteins, paranemin (280,000 mol wt) and synemin (230,000 mol wt), was investigated with respect to the expression of two core intermediate filament proteins, desmin and vimentin, in various embryonic and adult chicken muscle and nonmuscle cells. All developing muscle cells, regardless of their type, simultaneously express desmin, vimentin, paranemin, and synemin. However, a difference is observed in the expression of paranemin in adult muscle. This protein is removed during differentiation of both fast and slow skeletal muscle, visceral smooth muscle, and the smooth muscle of muscular arteries, but remains in mature myocardial cells, cardiac conducting fibers, and the smooth muscle cells of elastic arteries. Some of these cells express vimentin, others desmin, and still others a mixture of the two. On the other hand, synemin is expressed in all the above types of adult muscle cells except myocardial cells. Adult myocardial cells also lack vimentin, and its presence is gradually reduced after hatching. Since in adult striated muscle all expressed intermediate filament proteins are found predominantly in association with the peripheries of myofibrillar Z discs, these results suggest that a change in the composition of skeletal and cardiac muscle Z discs occurs during chicken development and maturation. Erythrocytes that express synemin and vimentin do not express paranemin, while both embryonic and adult Schwann cells co-express paranemin and vimentin, but not synemin. Endothelial cells of muscular vessels express paranemin, while those of elastic vessels do not, and neither contains synemin. Paranemin and synemin are not expressed in neurons, epithelial, and most glial cells, suggesting that these two polypeptides are expressed only in conjunction with desmin or vimentin. These results suggest that the composition of intermediate filaments changes during chicken development, not only with respect to their core subunit proteins but also with respect to two associated polypeptides, particularly in muscle cells. PMID:6358235

  14. Using Peptide-Level Proteomics Data for Detecting Differentially Expressed Proteins.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Tomi; Corthals, Garry L; Nevalainen, Olli S; Elo, Laura L

    2015-11-01

    The expression of proteins can be quantified in high-throughput means using different types of mass spectrometers. In recent years, there have emerged label-free methods for determining protein abundance. Although the expression is initially measured at the peptide level, a common approach is to combine the peptide-level measurements into protein-level values before differential expression analysis. However, this simple combination is prone to inconsistencies between peptides and may lose valuable information. To this end, we introduce here a method for detecting differentially expressed proteins by combining peptide-level expression-change statistics. Using controlled spike-in experiments, we show that the approach of averaging peptide-level expression changes yields more accurate lists of differentially expressed proteins than does the conventional protein-level approach. This is particularly true when there are only few replicate samples or the differences between the sample groups are small. The proposed technique is implemented in the Bioconductor package PECA, and it can be downloaded from http://www.bioconductor.org . PMID:26380941

  15. Clinical significance and prognostic value of Nek2 protein expression in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the expression of NIMA-related kinase NEK2 and evaluate its clinical value in colon cancer. Method: Sixty specimens of colon cancer, 30 specimens of paracancerous colon tissues and 10 specimens of normal colon tissues conventionally resected in surgery at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from February 2006 to February 2014 were collected. These tissues were detected for the expression of Nek2 using Western Blot and immunohistochemical staining. The relationship between Nek2 protein expression and the clinicopathology and prognosis of colon tissues was discussed. Results: The expression level and positive expression rate of Nek2 protein in the colon cancer were obviously higher than that in the paracancerous tissues and normal colon tissues. They were also significantly higher in the paracancerous tissues than in the normal tissues (P<0.05). Statistical analysis revealed that Nek2 protein expression was not obviously correlated with gender, age and tumor size, but obviously correlated with degree of differentiation (P=0.008), TNM staging (P=0.000), lymph node metastasis (P=0.022) and tumor invasion (P=0.011). With the plotting of Kaplan-Meier survival curve, it could be seen that Nek2 protein expression was not significantly correlated with survival (P=0.0048). High Nek2 protein expression may be an independent risk factor for colon cancer (HR=0.227, 95% CI 0.101-0.510). Conclusion: High Nek2 protein expression reflects the malignant behavior of colon cancer. Playing important roles in the occurrence of colon cancer, Nek2 protein expression has diagnostic and prognostic value in colon cancer. PMID:26823916

  16. Polyplex Exposure Inhibits Cell Cycle, Increases Inflammatory Response, and Can Cause Protein Expression Without Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Rebecca L.; Erickson, Blake; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F.; Baker, James R.; Orr, Bradford G.; Banaszak Holl, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between cell division and protein expression when using commercial poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-based polyplexes. The membrane dye PKH26 was used to assess cell division, and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was used to monitor protein expression. When analyzed at the whole population level, a greater number of cells divided than expressed protein, regardless of the level of protein expression observed, giving apparent consistency with the hypothesis that protein expression requires cells to pass through mitosis in order for the transgene to overcome the nuclear membrane. However, when the polyplex-exposed population was evaluated for the amount of division in the protein-expressing subpopulation, it was observed that substantial amounts of expression had occurred in the absence of division. Indeed, in HeLa S3 cells, this represented the majority of expressing cells. Of interest, the doubling time for both cell lines was slowed by ~2-fold upon exposure to polyplexes. This change was not altered by the origin of the plasmid DNA (pDNA) transgene promoter (cytomegalovirus (CMV) or elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?)). Gene expression arrays in polyplex-exposed HeLa S3 cells showed upregulation of cell cycle arrest genes and downregulation of genes related to mitosis. Chemokine, interleukin, and toll-like receptor genes were also upregulated, suggesting activation of proinflammatory pathways. In summary, we find evidence that a cell division-independent expression pathway exists, and that polyplex exposure slows cell division and increases inflammatory response. PMID:23458572

  17. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  18. Direct control of Na+-K+-2Cl−-cotransport protein (NKCC1) expression with aldosterone

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Sokolowski, Bernd; Walton, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/potassium/chloride cotransporter (NKCC1) proteins play important roles in Na+ and K+ concentrations in key physiological systems, including cardiac, vascular, renal, nervous, and sensory systems. NKCC1 levels and functionality are altered in certain disease states, and tend to decline with age. A sensitive, effective way of regulating NKCC1 protein expression has significant biotherapeutic possibilities. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if the naturally occurring hormone aldosterone (ALD) could regulate NKCC1 protein expression. Application of ALD to a human cell line (HT-29) revealed that ALD can regulate NKCC1 protein expression, quite sensitively and rapidly, independent of mRNA expression changes. Utilization of a specific inhibitor of mineralocorticoid receptors, eplerenone, implicated these receptors as part of the ALD mechanism of action. Further experiments with cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor) and MG132 (proteasome inhibitor) revealed that ALD can upregulate NKCC1 by increasing protein stability, i.e., reducing ubiquitination of NKCC1. Having a procedure for controlling NKCC1 protein expression opens the doors for therapeutic interventions for diseases involving the mis-regulation or depletion of NKCC1 proteins, for example during aging. PMID:24173102

  19. Rapid analysis of protein expression and solubility with the SpyTag-SpyCatcher system.

    PubMed

    Dovala, Dustin; Sawyer, William S; Rath, Christopher M; Metzger, Louis E

    2016-01-01

    Successful isolation of well-folded and active protein often first requires the creation of many constructs. These are needed to assess the effects of truncations, insertions, mutations, and the presence and position of different affinity tags. Determining which constructs yield the highest expression and solubility requires the investigator to express and partially purify each construct, and, in the case of low-expressing proteins, to follow the protein using time-consuming Western blots. Even then, many proteins form soluble aggregates, which may only be apparent after more extensive purification via size exclusion chromatography. In this work, we have utilized a covalent bond-forming tag/domain pair, known as SpyTag/SpyCatcher, to rapidly and specifically attach a fluorescent label to proteins of interest in cellular lysates. Once labeled, tagged proteins can easily be followed via SDS-PAGE and fluorescence size exclusion chromatography (F-SEC) to assess expression levels, solubility, and monodispersity without the need for purification. These techniques enable rapid and facile analysis of proteins, which may greatly facilitate optimization of