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1

Quantitative Proteomics of Transporter Expression in Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells Isolated from P-Glycoprotein (P-gp), Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (Bcrp), and P-gp/Bcrp Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to quantitatively examine the protein expression of relevant transporters and other proteins in the brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from wild-type mice and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), and P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice. After the isolation of brain capillary endothelial cells, a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with multiple reaction monitoring was used to determine the quantitative expression of membrane transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of the various mouse genotypes. Quantitative expression of 29 protein molecules, including 12 ATP-binding cassette transporters, 10 solute carrier transporters, five receptors, and two housekeeping proteins, was examined by quantitative proteomics in the four mouse genotypes. There was no significant difference in the expression of P-gp between the wild-type and Bcrp1(?/?) mice. Likewise, Bcrp expression was not significantly different between the wild-type and Mdr1a/b(?/?) mice. There was no significant difference in the expression of any of the measured proteins in the brain capillary endothelial cells across the genotypes, except for the lack of expression of the corresponding protein in the mice that had a genetic deletion of P-gp or Bcrp. In conclusion, using a quantitative proteomic approach, we have shown that there are no changes in the expression of several relevant transporters in brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from single and combination knockout mice. These data suggest that the mechanism behind the functional compensation between P-gp and Bcrp at the BBB is not related to compensatory changes in transporter expression. PMID:22401960

Agarwal, Sagar; Uchida, Yasuo; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Sane, Ramola; Terasaki, Tetsuya

2012-01-01

2

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression  

SciTech Connect

Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 {mu}M of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 {mu}M) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 {mu}g/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper.

Han Yi [Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Chin Tan, Theresa May [Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Lim, Lee-Yong [Pharmacy, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)], E-mail: limly@cyllene.uwa.edu.au

2008-08-01

3

ABC Transporter (P-gp/ABCB1, MRP1/ABCC1, BCRP/ABCG2) Expression in the Developing Human CNS  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) are plasma membrane efflux pumps that limit the intracellular uptake and retention of numerous lipophilic, amphipathic xeno- and endobiotics. Little is known about the neonatal and developmental expression of P-gp/ABCB1, MRP1/ABCC1, and BCRP/ABCG2 in the human central nervous system (CNS), therefore postmortem CNS tissue from infants born 220/7- 420/7 week gestation and adults was immunostained to determine their ontogeny and cellular localization. P-gp/ABCB1 imunostaining was observed in microvessel endothelial cells as early as 220/7 weeks, increasing in prevalence and intensity with maturation, and later in gestation in large pyramidal neurons. MRP1/ABCC1 immunostaining was prominent early in the choroid plexus and ventricular ependyma, and noted later in large pyramidal neurons. BCRP/ABCG2 expression was limited to microvessel endothelial cells. P-gp/ABCB1, MRP1/ABCC1 and BCRP/ABCG2 in adult brain matched term newborn CNS but with more intense immunostaining. We conclude that P-gp/ABCB1, MRP1/ABCC1, and BCRP/ABCG2 are expressed in a developmental, cell specific, fashion in the human CNS. The complementary pattern of P-gp/ABCB1 and BCRP/ABCG2 at the blood-brain with MRP1/ABCC1 at the blood-CSF barriers may limit CNS uptake and retention of drugs and toxins in neonates. PMID:19165709

Daood, Monica J.; Tsai, Cathy; Ahdab-Barmada, Mamdouha; Watchko, Jon F.

2010-01-01

4

Transport inhibition of digoxin using several common P-gp expressing cell lines is not necessarily reporting only on inhibitor binding to P-gp.  

PubMed

We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter. PMID:23976943

Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J; Bentz, Joe

2013-01-01

5

Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp  

PubMed Central

We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter. PMID:23976943

Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bentz, Joe

2013-01-01

6

The process behind the expression of mdr-1/P-gp and mrp/MRP in human leukemia/lymphoma.  

PubMed

There is a controversy over the link between phenotypes of multidrug resistance (MDR) and clinical outcome in leukemia/lymphoma patients. This may be because the process behind the induction and loss of expression of genotypes and phenotypes by which MDR develops and the role of MDR in fresh cells of human leukemia/lymphoma are not clearly defined. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) increased and decreased along with mdr-1 expression in three cell lines out of five vincristine (VCR)-resistant cell lines. MRP appeared with increased mrp expression in the other two cell lines. After the drug was removed from the culture system, mdr-1/P-gp changed in parallel with the level of VCR resistance, although mrp and MRP did not. It was concluded that P-gp is directly derived from mdr-1 and that mdr-1/P-gp supports the VCR-resistance but mrp/MRP is not directly linked to the VCR-resistance. These results should contribute to a better understanding of MDR phenomenon in cancer. PMID:19414348

Hirose, Masao

2009-04-01

7

MYCN Enhances P-gp/MDR1 Gene Expression in the Human Metastatic Neuroblastoma IGR-N-91 Model  

PubMed Central

Despite intensive high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, disseminated neuroblastoma (NB) frequently proves to be chemosensitive but not chemocurable, and more often so in NB-presenting MYCN amplification. To assess the direct relationship between the MYCN oncogene and chemoresistance acquisition during NB metastatic dissemination, we have studied MYCN and MDR1 genes using the human IGR-N-91 ectopic xenograft metastatic model. This characterized experimental in vitro model includes human neuroblasts derived from a subcutaneous primary tumor xenograft, disseminated blood cells, myocardium, and bone marrow (BM) metastatic cells. All IGR-N-91-derived neuroblasts harbor a consistent MYCN genomic content but, unlike primary tumor xenograft, BM, and myocardium, human neuroblasts elicit a concomitant increase in MYCN and MDR1 transcripts levels, consistent with chemoresistance phenotype and active P-gp. In contrast, no variation of MRP1 transcript level was associated with the metastatic process in this model. Using an MDR1 promoter-CAT construct, we have shown that the MycN protein activates MDR1 transcription both in exogenous transient MYCN-transfected SK-N-SH cells and in endogenous BM metastatic neuroblasts with an increase in the MYCN transcript level. Band-shift experiments indicate that IGR-N-91 cells enriched with the MycN transcription factor do bind to two E-box motifs localized within the MDR1 promoter. Overall, our data indicate that MYCN overexpression increment contributes to the acquired drug resistance that occurs throughout the NB metastatic process. PMID:12819037

Blanc, Etienne; Goldschneider, David; Ferrandis, Eric; Barrois, Michel; Le Roux, Gwenaelle; Leonce, Stephane; Douc-Rasy, Setha; Benard, Jean; Raguenez, Gilda

2003-01-01

8

Multidrug resistance protein P-gp interaction with nanoparticles (fullerenes and carbon nanotube) to assess their drug delivery potential: a theoretical molecular docking study.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux system plays an important role to maintain chemical balance in mammalian cells for endogenous and exogenous chemical compounds. However, despite the extensive characterisation of P-gp potential interaction with drug-like molecules, the interaction of carbon nanoparticles with this type of protein molecule is poorly understood. Thus, carbon nanoparticles were analysed, such as buckminsterfullerenes (C20, C60, C70), capped armchair single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT or C168), and P-gp interactions using different molecular docking techniques, such as gradient optimisation algorithm (ADVina), Lamarckian genetic algorithm (FastDock), and shape-based approach (PatchDock) to estimate the binding affinities between these structures. The theoretical results represented in this work show that fullerenes might be P-gp binders because of low levels of Gibbs free energy of binding (?G) and potential of mean force (PMF) values. Furthermore, the SWCNT binding is energetically unfavourable, leading to a total decrease in binding affinity by elevation of the residual area (Ares), which also affects the ?-? stacking mechanisms. Further, the obtained data could potentially call experimental studies using carbon nanostructures, such as SWCNT for development of drug delivery vehicles, to administer and assess drug-like chemical compounds to the target cells since organisms probably did not develop molecular sensing elements to detect these types of carbon molecules. PMID:24088267

Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

2013-01-01

9

Expression of P-gp in acute myeloid leukemia and the reversal function of As2O3 on drug resistance  

PubMed Central

To study the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the reversal function of As2O3, the active ingredient of arsenic, on drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, P-gp and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) were examined in primary mononuclear and resistant cells, with or without As2O3. In addition, multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) mRNA expression was investigated in K562/D cells and AML patients. In total, 28.6% of newly-treated (NT) patients and 59.1% of relapsed/refractory (RR) patients were P-gpfunction+, and 31.7% of NT patients and 59.1% of RR patients were CD34+. The positivity rate of P-gpfunction and CD34+ expression in the RR group were significantly higher compared with that in the NT group (P<0.05). In addition, higher CD34+, P-gpexpression+ and P-gpfunction+ values were observed in older patients compared with younger patients. MDR1 expression was downregulated in certain patients following treatment with AS2O3. In the present study, the overexpression of P-gp was the primary cause of drug resistance in the AML patients, and MDR1 expression was downregulated by As2O3 in primary leukemia and drug-resistant cells.

GAO, FENG; DONG, WANWEI; YANG, WEI; LIU, JIA; ZHENG, ZHIHONG; SUN, KAILAI

2015-01-01

10

Reversal Effect of ST6GAL 1 on Multidrug Resistance in Human Leukemia by Regulating the PI3K/Akt Pathway and the Expression of P-gp and MRP1  

PubMed Central

?-galactoside ?2, 6-sialyltransferse gene (ST6GAL) family has two members, which encode corresponding enzymes ST6Gal I and ST6Gal II. The present atudy was to investigate whether and how ST6GAL family involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) in human leukemia cell lines and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) of leukemia patients. Real-time PCR showed a high expression level of ST6GAL1 gene in both MDR cells and BMMCs (*P<0.05). Alternation of ST6GAL1 levels had a significant impact on drug-resistant phenotype changing of K562 and K562/ADR cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, no significant changes were observed of ST6GAL2 gene. Further data revealed that manipulation of ST6GAL1 modulated the activity of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and consequently regulated the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, *P<0.05) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1, *P<0.05), which are both known to be associated with MDR. Therefore we postulate that ST6GAL1 is responsible for the development of MDR in human leukemia cells probably through medicating the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling and the expression of P-gp and MRP1. PMID:24454800

Hao, Keji; Li, Yanping; Song, Xiaobo; Zhou, Huimin; Jia, Li

2014-01-01

11

A structural model for the mass action kinetic analysis of P-gp mediated transport through confluent cell monolayers.  

PubMed

The structural model for P-gp mediated transport across confluent cell monolayers uses the generally accepted mass action reactions for P-gp binding and efflux, together with the known structural parameters for P-gp (large substrate binding site accessible from the membrane) and the apical plasma membrane in which it resides (lipid bilayer partition coefficient of substrate and volume of apical plasma membrane allow estimation of substrate concentration at binding site). The model considers binding of substrate to P-gp from within the inner leaflet of the apical membrane, with an on rate constant, k 1 (M(-1)s(-1)), and off rate constant k r (s(-1)), as well as an efflux rate constant from P-gp into the apical chamber, k 2 (s(-1)). The model also explicitly estimates the active P-gp protein level, known as P-gp efflux active surface density T(0). For each new drug, fitting these parameters requires use of multiple initial drug concentrations and multiple time points at each concentration, until steady state is reached between P-gp-mediated efflux into the apical chamber and passive permeability from apical chamber back into the cytosol. Although this model optimally requires a larger than usual dataset for analysis, it does provide important mechanistic information through estimates of these on, off and efflux rate constants, as well as efflux active P-gp surface density. This more detailed description of efflux from polarized confluent cell monolayers has (1) provided insight into the unexpected relationship between P-gp IC50 and K i in this system, (2) highlighted the kinetic need for GF120918 inhibitable apical and basolateral uptake transporters for digoxin, and (3) provided possible explanations for the extreme lab-to-lab variability in P-gp IC50 values observed for inhibition of digoxin transport. This model can also be used to distinguish between efflux active P-gp and total apical plasma membrane P-gp, which may be important when P-gp is expressed in a microvillous membrane. PMID:24523118

Bentz, Joe; Ellens, Harma

2014-01-01

12

Chalcogenopyrylium compounds as modulators of the ATP-binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1).  

PubMed

Twenty-seven chalcogenopyrylium derivatives varying in the heteroatom of the pyrylium core and substituents at the 2-, 4-, and 6-positions were examined for their effect on human MRP1-mediated uptake of tritiated estradiol glucuronide into inside-out membrane vesicles, their affinity for and ability to stimulate the ATPase activity of purified human P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-His(10), and their ability to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine in multidrug-resistant cells. Differences in their effects on MRP1 and P-gp activity were noted, and a second set of thiopyrylium compounds with systematic substituent changes was examined to refine these differences further. Derivatives with tert-butyl substituents in the 2- and 6-positions had the lowest inhibitory activity toward both transporters. Derivatives with thioamide functionality in the 4-position were more active against MRP1 than derivatives with amide functionality. Conversely, derivatives with amide functionality in the 4-position were more active in P-gp than derivatives with thioamide functionality. PMID:22533905

Ebert, Sean P; Wetzel, Bryan; Myette, Robert L; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Cole, Susan P C; Sawada, Geri A; Loo, Tip W; Bartlett, M Claire; Clarke, David M; Detty, Michael R

2012-05-24

13

Protoberberine alkaloids and their reversal activity of P-gp expressed multidrug resistance (MDR) from the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino.  

PubMed

Six protoberberine alkaloids were isolated from the chloroform layer of the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino (Ranunculaceae). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be 6-([1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinoline-5-carbonyl)-2,3-dimethoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (1), oxyberberine (2), 8-oxo-epiberberine (3), 8-oxocoptisine (4), berberine (5) and palmatine (6) by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The compound 3 (8-oxo-epiberberine) was first isolated from natural sources. The compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines in vitro by SRB method, and also tested for the MDR reversal activities. Compound 4 was of significant P-gp MDR inhibition activity with ED50 value 0.018 microg/mL in MES-SA/DX5 cell and 0.0005 microg/mL in HCT15 cell, respectively. PMID:17024849

Min, Yong Deuk; Yang, Min Cheol; Lee, Kyu Ha; Kim, Kyung Ran; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

2006-09-01

14

Equivalent death of P-glycoprotein expressing and nonexpressing cells induced by the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent drug pump that confers multidrug resistance. In addition to its ability to efflux toxins P-gp can also inhibit apoptosis induced by a wide array of cell death stimuli that rely on activation of intracellular caspases for full function. We have previously demonstrated that stimuli including drugs such as hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), the cytotoxic lymphocyte granule protein granzyme B, and pore-forming proteins such as perforin, kill P-gp positive cells in a caspase-independent manner. We therefore hypothesised that drugs that are not effluxed by P-gp and which induce cell death in the absence of caspase activation could induce death of P-gp expressing cells. Staurosporine has been previously shown to kill cells in the absence of caspase activation. Consistent with our hypothesis, we demonstrate here that staurosporine can equivalently kill P-gp(+ve) and P-gp(-ve) tumor cell lines in a caspase-independent manner. PMID:11006111

Tainton, K M; Ruefli, A A; Smyth, M J; Johnstone, R W

2000-09-16

15

Multidrug-resistant cancer cells contain two populations of P-glycoprotein with differently stimulated P-gp ATPase activities: evidence from atomic force microscopy and biochemical analysis.  

PubMed

Considerable interest exists about the localization of P-gp (P-glycoprotein) in DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) of multidrug resistant cancer cells, in particular concerning the potential modulating role of the closely related lipids and proteins on P-gp activity. Our observation of the opposite effect of verapamil on P-gp ATPase activity from DRM and solubilized-membrane fractions of CEM-resistant leukaemia cells, and results from Langmuir experiments on membrane monolayers from resistant CEM cells, strongly suggest that two functional populations of P-gp exist. The first is located in DRM regions: it displays its optimal P-gp ATPase activity, which is almost completely inhibited by orthovanadate and activated by verapamil. The second is located elsewhere in the membrane; it displays a lower P-gp ATPase activity that is less sensitive to orthovanadate and is inhibited by verapamil. A 40% cholesterol depletion of DRM caused the loss of 52% of the P-gp ATPase activity. Cholesterol repletion allowed recovery of the initial P-gp ATPase activity. In contrast, in the solubilized-membrane-containing fractions, cholesterol depletion and repletion had no effect on the P-gp ATPase activity whereas up to 100% saturation with cholesterol induced a 58% increased P-gp ATPase activity, while no significant modification was observed for the DRM-enriched fraction. DRMs were analysed by atomic force microscopy: 40-60% cholesterol depletion was necessary to remove P-gp from DRMs. In conclusion, P-gp in DRMs appears to contain closely surrounding cholesterol that can stimulate P-gp ATPase activity to its optimal value, whereas cholesterol in the second population seems deprived of this function. PMID:15693753

Barakat, Stéphane; Gayet, Landry; Dayan, Guila; Labialle, Stéphane; Lazar, Adina; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Coleman, Anthony W; Baggetto, Loris G

2005-06-01

16

Clin Pharmacol Ther . Author manuscript Donor P-gp polymorphisms strongly influence renal function and graft  

E-print Network

3A and the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ), bothABCB1 abundantly expressed in the kidney. We retrospectively investigated the role of polymorphisms in , andCYP3A4 CYP3A5 ABCB1 kidney graft-Meiers Estimate ; Kidney ; physiology ; Kidney Function Tests ; Kidney Transplantation ; physiology ; Male

Boyer, Edmond

17

Tamoxifen reduces P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance via inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in ER-negative human gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR), mediated by overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is a major problem limiting successful chemotherapy of gastric cancer. Tamoxifen (TAM), a triphenylethylene nonsteroidal antiestrogen agent, shows broad-spectrum antitumor properties. Emerging studies demonstrated that TAM could significantly reduce the MDR in a variety of human cancers. Here we investigated the effects and possible underlying mechanisms of action of TAM on the reversion of MDR in ER-negative human gastric cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that in MDR phenotype SGC7901/CDDP gastric cancer cells TAM dramatically lowered the IC50 of CDDP, 5-FU and ADM, increased the intracellular Rhodamine123 accumulation and induced G0/G1 phase arrest, while G2/M phase decreased accordingly. Furthermore, at the molecular level, TAM substantially decreased the expression of P-gp, p-Akt and the Akt-regulated downstream effectors such as p-GSK-3?, p-BAD, Bcl-XL and cyclinD1 proteins without affecting the expression of t-Akt, t-GSK-3?, t-BAD proteins in SGC7901/CDDP cells. Thus, our findings demonstrate that TAM reverses P-gp-mediated gastric cancer cell MDR via inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:24184201

Mao, Zonglei; Zhou, Jin; Luan, Junwei; Sheng, Weihua; Shen, Xiaochun; Dong, Xiaoqiang

2014-03-01

18

An electrically tight in vitro blood-brain barrier model displays net brain-to-blood efflux of substrates for the ABC transporters, P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1.  

PubMed

Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily including breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp's/Abcc's) are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate if a bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte in vitro BBB co-culture model displayed polarized transport of known efflux transporter substrates. The co-culture model displayed low mannitol permeabilities of 0.95?±?0.1?·?10(-6) cm·s(-1) and high transendothelial electrical resistances of 1,177?±?101 ?·cm(2). Bidirectional transport studies with (3)H-digoxin, (3)H-estrone-3-sulphate and (3)H-etoposide revealed polarized transport favouring the brain-to-blood direction for all substrates. Steady state efflux ratios of 2.5?±?0.2 for digoxin, 4.4?±?0.5 for estrone-3-sulphate and 2.4?±?0.1 for etoposide were observed. These were reduced to 1.1?±?0.08, 1.4?±?0.2 and 1.5?±?0.1, by addition of verapamil (digoxin), Ko143 (estrone-3-sulphate) or zosuquidar?+?reversan (etoposide), respectively. Brain-to-blood permeability of all substrates was investigated in the presence of the efflux transporter inhibitors verapamil, Ko143, zosuquidar, reversan and MK 571 alone or in combinations. Digoxin was mainly transported via P-gp, estrone-3-sulphate via Bcrp and Mrp's and etoposide via P-gp and Mrp's. The expression of P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1 was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The findings indicate that P-gp, Bcrp and at least one isoform of Mrp are functionally expressed in our bovine/rat co-culture model and that the model is suitable for investigations of small molecule transport. PMID:24934296

Helms, Hans Christian; Hersom, Maria; Kuhlmann, Louise Borella; Badolo, Lasina; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

2014-09-01

19

Differential effect of P-gp and MRP2 on cellular translocation of gemifloxacin.  

PubMed

Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antibiotics widely indicated in the treatment of both human and animal diseases. The primary objective of this study was to assess short and long term affinities of gemifloxacin towards efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2) and nuclear hormone receptor (PXR). Uptake and dose dependent inhibition studies were performed with [(14)C] erythromycin (0.25 ?Ci/ml) on MDCKII-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells. Cellular accumulation of calcein-AM was further determined to confirm the affinity of gemifloxacin towards P-gp and MRP2. Transport studies were conducted to determine bi-directional permeability and to assess efflux ratio of gemifloxacin. LS-180 cells were treated with three different concentrations of gemifloxacin for 72 h and real-time PCR analysis was performed to study the quantitative gene expression levels of PXR, MDR1 and MRP2. Further, [(14)C] erythromycin uptake was also performed on LS-180 treated cells to better delineate the functional activity of efflux transporters. Results from our study suggest that gemifloxacin may be a substrate of both the efflux transporters studied. This compound inhibited both P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of [(14)C] erythromycin in a dose dependent manner with IC(50) values of 123 ± 2 ?M and 16 ± 2 ?M, respectively. The efflux ratio of [(14)C] erythromycin lowered from 3.56 to 1.63 on MDCKII-MDR1 cells and 4.93 to 1.26 on MDCKII-MRP2 cells. This significant reduction in efflux ratio further confirmed the substrate specificity of gemifloxacin towards P-gp and MRP2. Long term exposure significantly induced the expression of PXR (18 fold), MDR1 (6 fold) and MRP2 (6 fold). A decrease (20%) in [(14)C] erythromycin uptake further confirmed the elevated functional activity of P-gp and MRP2. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that gemifloxacin is effluxed by both P-gp and MRP2. Long term exposure induced their gene expression and functional activity. This substrate specificity of gemifloxacin towards these efflux transporters may be one of the major factors accounting for low oral bioavailability (71%). Better understanding of these mechanistic interactions may aid in the development of newer strategies to achieve adequate therapeutic levels and higher bioavailability. PMID:21864659

Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Kwatra, Deep; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

2011-11-25

20

Protein kinase C epsilon mediates the induction of P-glycoprotein in LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediates drug resistance. Protein kinase C (PKC) expression correlates with drug resistance in several types of cancer. We determined whether PKC signals the induction of P-gp in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, and identified a specific isozyme involved, in a model of aspirin-induced P-glycoprotein expression. An inhibitor of PKC activity, and a specific peptide inhibitor of PKC epsilon translocation, suppressed the induction of P-gp. The PKC activator ingenol, but not OAG, induced P-gp expression in a dose-dependent manner. Based on our results, we conclude that PKC epsilon mediates the induction of P-gp. Accordingly, PKC epsilon is activated and translocates from the membrane fraction to the cytoskeleton fraction in aspirin-treated cells. The findings of this study point to PKC epsilon as a signalling molecule for the induction of P-gp in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. PMID:11747987

Flescher, Eliezer; Rotem, Ronit

2002-01-01

21

Differential expression of DNA topoisomerase II alpha and -beta in P-gp and MRP-negative VM26, mAMSA and mitoxantrone-resistant sublines of the human SCLC cell line GLC4.  

PubMed Central

Sublines of the human small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line GLC4 with acquired resistance to teniposide, amsacrine and mitoxantrone (GLC4/VM20x, GLC4/AM3x and GLC4/MIT60x, respectively) were derived to study the contribution of DNA topoisomerase II alpha and -beta (TopoII alpha and -beta) to resistance for TopoII-targeting drugs. The cell lines did not overexpress P-glycoprotein or the multidrug resistance-associated protein but were cross-resistant to other TopoII drugs. GLC4/VM20x showed a major decrease in TopoII alpha protein (54%; for all assays presented in this paper the GLC4 level was defined to be 100%) without reduction in TopoII beta protein; GLC4/AM3x showed only a major decrease in TopoII beta protein (to 18%) and not in TopoII alpha. In GLC4/MIT60x, the TopoII alpha and -beta protein levels were both decreased (TopoII alpha to 31%; TopoII beta protein was undetectable). The decrease in TopoII alpha protein in GLC4/VM20x and GLC4/MIT60x, was mediated by decreased TopoII alpha mRNA levels. Loss of TopoII alpha gene copies contributed to the mRNA decrease in these cell lines. Only in the GLC4/MIT60x cell line was an accumulation defect observed for the drug against which the cell line was made resistant. In conclusion, TopoII alpha and -beta levels were decreased differentially in the resistant cell lines, suggesting that resistance to these drugs may be mediated by a decrease in a specific isozyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8980384

Withoff, S.; de Vries, E. G.; Keith, W. N.; Nienhuis, E. F.; van der Graaf, W. T.; Uges, D. R.; Mulder, N. H.

1996-01-01

22

Expression of Multidrug Resistance Proteins P-Glycoprotein, Multidrug Resistance Protein 1, Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and Lung Resistance Related Protein in Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Biological and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeResistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle to overcome in the conservative treatment of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer (LABC). We investigated the predictive value of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and prognosis of the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) related proteins, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and lung resistance related

JULIO E. DIESTRA; ENRIC CONDOM; XAVIER GARCÍA DEL MURO; GEORGE L. SCHEFFER; JAVIER PÉREZ; AMADO J. ZURITA; JOSÉ MUÑOZ-SEGUÍ; FRANCISCO VIGUÉS; RIK J. SCHEPER; GABRIEL CAPELLÁ; JOSÉ R. GERMÀ-LLUCH; MIGUEL A. IZQUIERDO

2003-01-01

23

MDR1 synonymous polymorphisms alter transporter specificity and protein stability in a stable epithelial monolayer.  

PubMed

The drug efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by MDR1 can be influenced by genetic polymorphisms, including two synonymous changes in the coding region of MDR1. Here we report that the conformation of P-gp and its drug efflux activity can be altered by synonymous polymorphisms in stable epithelial monolayers expressing P-gp. Several cell lines with similar MDR1 DNA copy number were developed and termed LLC-MDR1-WT (expresses wild-type P-gp), LLC-MDR1-3H (expresses common haplotype P-gp), and LLC-MDR1-3HA (a mutant that carries a different valine codon in position 3435). These cell lines express similar levels of recombinant mRNA and protein. P-gp in each case is localized on the apical surface of polarized cells. However, the haplotype and its mutant P-gps fold differently from the wild-type, as determined by UIC2 antibody shift assays and limited proteolysis assays. Surface biotinylation experiments suggest that the non-wild-type P-gps have longer recycling times. Drug transport assays show that wild-type and haplotype P-gp respond differently to P-gp inhibitors that block efflux of rhodamine 123 or mitoxantrone. In addition, cytotoxicity assays show that the LLC-MDR1-3H cells are more resistant to mitoxantrone than the LLC-MDR1-WT cells after being treated with a P-gp inhibitor. Expression of polymorphic P-gp, however, does not affect the host cell's morphology, growth rate, or monolayer formation. Also, ATPase activity assays indicate that neither basal nor drug-stimulated ATPase activities are affected in the variant P-gps. Taken together, our findings indicate that "silent" polymorphisms significantly change P-gp function, which would be expected to affect interindividual drug disposition and response. PMID:24305879

Fung, King Leung; Pan, James; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Lund, Paul E; Pixley, Jessica N; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Gottesman, Michael M

2014-01-15

24

Predicting the outer boundaries of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-based drug interactions at the human blood-brain barrier based on rat studies.  

PubMed

Using positron emission tomography (PET), (11)C-verapamil as the P-gp substrate, and cyclosporine A (CsA) as the P-gp inhibitor, we showed that the magnitude of P-gp-based drug interactions at the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) is modest. However, such interactions at clinically relevant CsA blood concentrations may be greater for substrates where P-gp plays an even larger role (fractional contribution of P-gp, ft > 0.97) in preventing the CNS entry of the drug (e.g., nelfinavir). Since we have shown that the rat is an excellent predictor of the verapamil-CsA interaction at the human BBB, we determined the magnitude of drug interaction at the rat BBB between nelfinavir and CsA. Under isoflurane anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats were coadministered IV infusions of nelfinavir and escalating doses of CsA to achieve pseudo steady-state plasma/blood and brain concentrations of both drugs (blood CsA ranged 0-264.9 ?M, n = 3-6/group). The percent increase in the brain:blood nelfinavir concentration ratio (determined by LC/MS) was described by the Hill equation with Emax = 6481%, EC50 = 12.3 ?M, and ? = 1.6. Then, using these data, as well as in vitro data in LLCPK1 cells expressing the human P-gp, we predicted that CsA (at clinically relevant blood concentration of 1.5 ?M) will increase the distribution of nelfinavir into the human brain by 236%. Collectively, our data suggest that clinically significant P-gp based drug interactions at the human BBB are possible for P-gp substrates highly excluded from the brain (ft > 0.97) and should be investigated using noninvasive approaches (e.g., PET). PMID:24364805

Hsiao, Peng; Unadkat, Jashvant D

2014-02-01

25

Effects of rhinacanthin-C on function and expression of drug efflux transporters in Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

Rhinacanthin-C is a bioactive naphthoquinone ester found in Rhinacanthus nasutus Kurz (Acanthaceae). This compound has potential therapeutic value as an anticancer and antiviral agent. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of this compound on the function and the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), using the in vitro model of Caco-2 cells. The activities of P-gp and MRP2 were determined by following the intracellular accumulation of calcein and 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein in the uptake assays with fluorescence spectroscopy. The expression of P-gp after prolonged exposure was evaluated by flow cytometry with the use of a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-human P-gp antibody. Our results showed that the inhibitory effect of rhinacanthin-C was more potent toward P-gp than MRP2, and was reversible. Short-term exposure of Caco-2 cells with rhinacanthin-C (100 ?M) resulted in increase in P-gp expression without any significant change in its function. Extended exposure of Caco-2 cells to the naphthoquinone at the highest non-cytotoxic concentration (0.625 ?M) for 7 days had no effect on the expression and the function of P-gp. These findings suggested that rhinacanthin-C might raise the problem of herb-drug interaction when co-administered with other P-gp substrates. PMID:23742857

Wongwanakul, Ratjika; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Siripong, Pongpun; Jianmongkol, Suree

2013-09-01

26

Histopathological assessment of multidrug resistance in gastric cancer: Expression of P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein, and lung-resistance protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because local recurrence is common after a curative resection for advanced gastric cancer, there has been significant interest\\u000a in adjuvant chemotherapy. However, the overall effect of chemotherapy remains debatable regarding patients with advanced gastric\\u000a adenocarcinoma. Multidrug resistance is thought to be a major cause of failure in cancer chemotherapy, and thus the expression\\u000a of P-glycoprotein (P-Gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP),

Delamou Alexander; Tetsu Yamamoto; Shizuo Kato; Shinichi Kasai

1999-01-01

27

Acetaminophen Modulates P-Glycoprotein Functional Expression at the Blood-Brain Barrier by a Constitutive Androstane Receptor-Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Effective pharmacologic treatment of pain with opioids requires that these drugs attain efficacious concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A primary determinant of CNS drug permeation is P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an endogenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporter that is involved in brain-to-blood transport of opioid analgesics (i.e., morphine). Recently, the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been identified as a regulator of P-gp functional expression at the BBB. This is critical to pharmacotherapy of pain/inflammation, as patients are often administered acetaminophen (APAP), a CAR-activating ligand, in conjunction with an opioid. Our objective was to investigate, in vivo, the role of CAR in regulation of P-gp at the BBB. Following APAP treatment, P-gp protein expression was increased up to 1.4–1.6-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, APAP increased P-gp transport of BODIPY-verapamil in freshly isolated rat brain capillaries. This APAP-induced increase in P-gp expression and activity was attenuated in the presence of CAR pathway inhibitor okadaic acid or transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, suggesting P-gp regulation is CAR-dependent. Furthermore, morphine brain accumulation was enhanced by P-gp inhibitors in APAP-treated animals, suggesting P-gp–mediated transport. A warm-water (50°C) tail-flick assay revealed a significant decrease in morphine analgesia in animals treated with morphine 3 or 6 hours after APAP treatment, as compared with animals treated concurrently. Taken together, our data imply that inclusion of APAP in a pain treatment regimen activates CAR at the BBB and increases P-gp functional expression, a clinically significant drug-drug interaction that modulates opioid analgesic efficacy. PMID:24019224

Thompson, Brandon J.; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Vanderah, Todd W.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

2013-01-01

28

Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of breast cancer. However, the resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, often mediated by multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms, is a common occurrence. The present study examined the expression of several MDR-related proteins (MRPs) in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast, and assessed their association with clinicopathological variables and their prognostic significance. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of MRP, p-glycoprotein (P-gp), topoisomerase 2? (Topo2?), thymidylate synthase (TS) and glutathione-S-transferase ? (GST-?) in 156 resected IDCs of the breast. Pearson’s ?2 test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze the association between MDR protein expression and several clinicopathological variables. The association between each of the five MDR proteins was also examined. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression modeling were used to assess overall survival. The expression of MRP, P-gp, Topo2?, TS and GST-? was detected in 20.5% (32/156), 25.0% (39/156), 84.0% (131/156), 41.7% (65/156) and 41.0% (64/156) of cases examined, respectively. No correlation was identified between MRP and Topo-2? and the clinicopathological variables examined. By contrast, P-gp (?2=20.226; P<0.0001) and GST-? (?2=35.032; P<0.0001) were found to positively correlate with tumor grade. In addition, staining for TS was associated with axillary lymph node metastasis (?2=42.281; P<0.0001). The expression levels of P-gp and GST-? were found to be significantly correlated (r= 0.319; P<0.0001). Furthermore, GST-? expression was elevated in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (?2=17.407; P<0.0001). Tumor histological grade, in addition to TS and GST-? expression, were significant predictors of a poor survival outcome. TS and GST-? are consequently useful prognostic biomarkers in IDC, therefore, when establishing a personalized chemotherapeutic plan, the expression of MDR proteins must be considered.

LI, WEIQUAN; SONG, MAOMIN

2014-01-01

29

P-glycoprotein expression in Perna viridis after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins.  

PubMed

Bivalves naturally exposed to toxic algae have mechanisms to prevent from harmful effects of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. However, quite few studies have examined the mechanisms associated, and the information currently available is still insufficient. Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is ubiquitous in aquatic invertebrates and plays an important role in defense against xenobiotics. Here, to explore the roles of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the DSP toxins resistance in shellfish, complete cDNA of P-gp gene in the mussel Perna viridis was cloned and analyzed. The accumulation of okadaic acid (OA), a main component of DSP toxins, MXR activity and expression of P-gp in gills of P. viridis were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors PGP-4008, verapamil (VER) and cyclosporin A (CsA). The mussel P. viridis P-gp closely matches MDR/P-gp/ABCB protein from various organisms, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. After exposure to P. lima, OA accumulation, MXR activity and P-gp expression significantly increased in gills of P. viridis. The addition of P-gp-specific inhibitors PGP-4008 and VER decreased MXR activity induced by P. lima, but had no effect on the OA accumulation in gills of P. viridis. However, CsA, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of ABC transporter not only decreased MXR activity, but also increased OA accumulation in gills of P. viridis. Together with the ubiquitous presence of other ABC transporters such as MRP/ABCC in bivalves and potential compensatory mechanism in P-gp and MRP-mediated resistance, we speculated that besides P-gp, other ABC transporters, especially MRP might be involved in the resistance mechanisms to DSP toxins. PMID:24811006

Huang, Lu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Wen-Chang; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Tao Jiang; Yang, Wei-Dong

2014-08-01

30

Protein expression-yeast.  

PubMed

Yeast is an excellent system for the expression of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. Both endogenous and heterologous proteins can be overexpressed in yeast (Phan et al., 2001; Ton and Rao, 2004). Because yeast is easy to manipulate genetically, a strain can be optimized for the expression of a specific protein. Many eukaryotic proteins contain posttranslational modifications that can be performed in yeast but not in bacterial expression systems. In comparison with mammalian cell culture expression systems, growing yeast is both faster and less expensive, and large-scale cultures can be performed using fermentation. While several different yeast expression systems exist, this chapter focuses on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and will briefly describe some options to consider when selecting vectors and tags to be used for protein expression. Throughout this chapter, the expression and purification of yeast eIF3 is shown as an example alongside a general scheme outline. PMID:24423273

Nielsen, Klaus H

2014-01-01

31

The Inhibitory Effect of Pseudolaric Acid B on Gastric Cancer and Multidrug Resistance via Cox-2/PKC-?/P-gp Pathway  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the inhibitory effect of pseudolaric acid B on subcutaneous xenografts of human gastric adenocarcinoma and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in its multidrug resistance. Methods Human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC7901 cells and drug-resistant SGC7901/ADR cells were injected into nude mice to establish a subcutaneous xenograft model. The effects of pseudolaric acid B with or without adriamycin treatment were compared by determining the tumor size and weight. Cyclo-oxygenase-2, protein kinaseC-? and P-glycoprotein expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results Pseudolaric acid B significantly suppressed the tumor growth induced by SGC7901 cells and SGC7901/ADR cells. The combination of pseudolaric acid B and the traditional chemotherapy drug adriamycin exhibited more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of gastric cancer in vivo than treatment with either pseudolaric acid B or adriamycin alone. Protein expression levels of cyclo-oxygenase-2, protein kinaseC-? and P-glycoprotein were inhibited by pseudolaric acid B alone or in combination with adriamycin in SGC7901/ADR cell xenografts. Conclusion Pseudolaric acid B has a significant inhibitory effect and an additive inhibitory effect in combination with adriamycin on the growth of gastric cancer in vivo, which reverses the multidrug resistance of gastric neoplasm to chemotherapy drugs by downregulating the Cox-2/PKC-?/P-gp/mdr1 signaling pathway. PMID:25250794

Sun, Qian; Li, Yan

2014-01-01

32

Doxorubicin delivery enhanced by electroporation to gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells with P-gp overexpression.  

PubMed

Electroporation (EP) can effectively support the penetration of macromolecules from the extracellular space into cells. Electropores induced by the influence of electromagnetic field generate additional paths of transport for macromolecules. The aim of this study was evaluation of the electroporation effect on doxorubicin transport efficiency to human colon (LoVo and LoVo/DX) and gastric (EPG85-257/P and EPG85-257/RDB) adenocarcinoma cells with overexpression of P-glycoprotein and murine macrophage cell line (P388/D1). In our EP experiments cells were placed into a cuvette with aluminum electrodes and pulsed with five square electric pulses of 1300V/cm and duration of 50?s each. Cells were also treated with low doxorubicin concentration ([DOX]=1.7?M). The ultrastructure (TEM) and changes of P-glycoprotein expression of tumor cells subjected to electric field were monitored. The mitochondrial cell function and trypan blue staining were evaluated after 24h. Our results indicate the most pronounced effect of EP with DOX and disturbed ultrastructure in resistant gastric and colon cells with decrease of P-gp expression. Electroporation may be an attractive delivery method of cytostatic drugs in chemotherapy, enabling reduction of drug dose, exposure time and side effects. PMID:24767854

Kulbacka, Julita; Daczewska, Ma?gorzata; Dubi?ska-Magiera, Magda; Choroma?ska, Anna; Rembia?kowska, Nina; Surowiak, Pawe?; Kulbacki, Marek; Kotulska, Ma?gorzata; Saczko, Jolanta

2014-12-01

33

Trametenolic acid B reverses multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells through regulating the expression level of P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Trametenolic acid B (TAB) is the main active composition of Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat which possesses antitumor activities. There was no report its antitumor effect through regulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp) so far, due toP-gp over expression is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to the multiple drug resistance phenotype. The present aim was to investigate the effects of TAB on P-gp in multidrug-resistant cells;Paclitaxel-resistant cell line MDA-MB-231/Taxol was established by stepwise exposure for 10 months.MDA-MB-231 cells and MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells were treated with TAB, and their growth was evaluated using MTT assays. Paclitaxel accumulation in the cells was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatogram(HPLC). The activity of P-gp was detected by intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 (Rho123), and the protein expression of P-gp was evaluated using western blot. Results indicated that the IC50 of MDA-MB-231/Taxol to paclitaxel (Taxol) was 33 times higher than that of nature MDA-MB-231. TAB increased the intracellular concentration of Taxol and inhibited the activity of P-gp and suppressed the expression of P-gp in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells. Our present results showed that TAB could reverse Taxol resistance in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells,mainly inhibiting the activity of P-gp and down-regulating the expression level of P-gp, and then enhancing the accumulation of chemotherapy agents. PMID:25289403

Zhang, Qiaoyin; Wang, Junzhi; He, Haibo; Liu, Hongbing; Yan, Ximing; Zou, Kun

2014-07-01

34

1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-Liganded Vitamin D Receptor Increases Expression and Transport Activity of P-glycoprotein in Isolated Rat Brain Capillaries and Human and Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

MDR1/P-gp induction by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was investigated in isolated rat brain capillaries and rat (RBE4) and human (hCMEC/D3) brain microvessel endothelial cell lines. Incubation of isolated rat brain capillaries with 10 nM of the VDR ligand, 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] for 4 h increased P-gp protein expression (4-fold). Incubation with 1,25(OH)2D3 for 4 or 24 h increased P-gp transport activity (specific luminal accumulation of NBD-CSA, the fluorescent P-gp substrate) by 25 – 30%. In RBE4 cells, Mdr1b mRNA was induced in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3. Concomitantly, P-gp protein expression increased 2.5-fold and was accompanied by a 20 – 35% reduction in cellular accumulation of the P-gp substrates, rhodamine 6G (R6G) and HiLyte Fluor 488-labeled human amyloid beta 1-42 (hA?42). In hCMEC/D3 cells, a three day exposure to 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 increased MDR1 mRNA expression (40%) and P-gp protein (3-fold); cellular accumulation of R6G and hA?42 was reduced by 30%. Thus, VDR activation up-regulates Mdr1/MDR1 and P-gp protein in isolated rat brain capillaries and rodent and human brain microvascular endothelia, implicating a role for VDR in increasing the brain clearance of P-gp substrates, including hA?42 a plaque-forming precursor in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23035695

Durk, Matthew R.; Chan, Gary N.Y.; Campos, Christopher R.; Peart, John C.; Chow, Edwin C.Y.; Lee, Eason; Cannon, Ronald E.; Bendayan, Reina; Miller, David S.; Pang, K. Sandy

2012-01-01

35

Expression and cellular distribution of multidrug transporter proteins in two major causes of medically intractable epilepsy: focal cortical dysplasia and glioneuronal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell-specific distribution of multidrug resistance extrusion pumps was studied in developmental glioneuronal lesions, including focal cortical dysplasia (15 cases) and ganglioglioma (15 cases) from patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Lesional, perilesional, as well as normal brain regions were examined for the expression of the multidrug resistance gene 1 encoded P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) by

E. M. A. Aronica; J. A. Gorter; G. H. Jansen; C. W. M van Veelen; P. C van Rijen; S. Leenstra; M. Ramkema; G. L. Scheffer; R. J. Scheper; D. Troost

2003-01-01

36

Expression and localization of p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 4, and breast cancer resistance protein in the female lower genital tract of human and pigtailed macaque.  

PubMed

Abstract Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters. PMID:24803409

Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy; Rohan, Lisa

2014-11-01

37

Transport of dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate is mediated by multidrug resistance protein 2 but not P-glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrated recently that phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a potent anticarcinogen present in cruciferous vegetables, inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and that MRP1 can transport PEITC and\\/or its metabolites. In this study, we have examined whether PEITC is transported by P-gp and MRP2, two transporters with high expression in human intestine, liver and kidney. Using 14C-PEITC, no

Yan Ji; Marilyn E. Morris

2005-01-01

38

Susceptibility of juvenile and adult blood-brain barrier to endothelin-1: regulation of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein expression and transport activity  

PubMed Central

Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) play a critical role in keeping neurotoxic substances from entering the brain. We and others have previously reported an impact of inflammation on the regulation of adult blood–brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters. However, studies in children have not been done. From the pediatric clinical perspective, it is important to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) and BBB drug efflux transporters differ in childhood from those of adults under normal and inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we examined and compared the regulation of P-gp and BCRP expression and transport activity in young and adult BBB and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses. Methods Rats at postnatal day (P) P21 and P84, corresponding to the juvenile and adult stages of human brain maturation, respectively, were treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1) given by the intracerebroventricular (icv) route. Twenty-four hours later, we measured P-gp and BCRP protein expression in isolated brain capillary by immunoblotting as well as by transport activity in vivo by measuring the unbound drug partitioning coefficient of the brain (Kp,uu,brain) of known efflux transporter substrates administered intravenously. Glial activation was measured by immunohistochemistry. The release of cytokines/chemokines (interleukins-1?, 1-? (IL-1?), -6 (IL-6), -10 (IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2), fractalkine and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1)) were simultaneously measured in brain and serum samples using the Agilent Technology cytokine microarray. Results We found that juvenile and adult BBBs exhibited similar P-gp and BCRP transport activities in the normal physiological conditions. However, long-term exposure of the juvenile brain to low-dose of ET-1 did not change BBB P-gp transport activity but tended to decrease BCRP transport activity in the juvenile brain, while a significant increase of the activity of both transporters was evidenced at the BBB in the adult brain. Moreover, juvenile and adult brain showed differences in their expression profiles of cytokines and chemokines mediated by ET-1. Conclusions BBB transporter activity during neuroinflammation differs between the juvenile and adult brains. These findings emphasize the importance of considering differential P-gp and BCRP transport regulation mechanisms between adult and juvenile BBB in the context of neuroinflammation. PMID:23253775

2012-01-01

39

P-gp substrate-induced neurotoxicity in an Abcb1a knock-in/Abcb1b knock-out mouse model with a mutated canine ABCB1 targeted insertion.  

PubMed

Certain dog breeds, especially Collies, are observed to exhibit neurotoxicity to avermectin drugs, which are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates. This neurotoxicity is due to an ABCB1 gene mutation (ABCB1-1?) that results in non-functional P-gp expression. A developed Abcb1a knock-in/Abcb1b knock-out mouse model expressing the ABCB1-1? canine gene was previously reported and mice exhibited sensitivity upon ivermectin administration. Here, model and wild-type mice were administered P-gp substrates doramectin, moxidectin, and digoxin. While knock-in/knock-out mice exhibited ataxia, lethargy and tremor, wild-type mice remained unaffected. In addition, no neurotoxic clinical signs were observed in either mouse type administered domperidone, a P-gp substrate with no reported neurotoxicity in ABCB1-1? Collies. Overall, neurotoxic signs displayed by model mice closely paralleled those observed in ivermectin-sensitive Collies. This model can be used to identify toxic P-gp substrates with altered safety in dog populations and may reduce dog use in safety studies that are part of the drug approval process. PMID:23186803

Swain, M D; Orzechowski, K L; Swaim, H L; Jones, Y L; Robl, M G; Tinaza, C A; Myers, M J; Jhingory, M V; Buckely, L E; Lancaster, V A; Yancy, H F

2013-06-01

40

Multi-drug resistance in a canine lymphoid cell line due to increased P-glycoprotein expression, a potential model for drug-resistant canine lymphoma.  

PubMed

Canine lymphoma is routinely treated with a doxorubicin-based multidrug chemotherapy protocol, and although treatment is initially successful, tumor recurrence is common and associated with therapy resistance. Active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents by transporter proteins of the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily forms an effective cellular defense mechanism and a high expression of these transporters is frequently observed in chemotherapy-resistant tumors in both humans and dogs. In this study we describe the ABC-transporter expression in a canine lymphoid cell line and a sub-cell line with acquired drug resistance following prolonged exposure to doxorubicin. This sub-cell line was more resistant to doxorubicin and vincristine, but not to prednisolone, and had a highly increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp/abcb1) expression and transport capacity for the P-gp model-substrate rhodamine123. Both resistance to doxorubicin and vincristine, and rhodamine123 transport capacity were fully reversed by the P-gp inhibitor PSC833. No changes were observed in the expression and function of the ABC-transporters MRP-1 and BCRP. It is concluded that GL-40 cells represent a useful model for studying P-gp dependent drug resistance in canine lymphoid neoplasia, and that this model can be used for screening substances as potential P-gp substrates and their capacity to modulate P-gp mediated drug resistance. PMID:24975508

Zandvliet, M; Teske, E; Schrickx, J A

2014-12-01

41

Nucleotide sequence analysis of small cryptic plasmid pGP2 from Acetobacter estunensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pGP2 from Acetobacter estunensis GP2 was identified after initial cloning of EcoRI fragment followed by preparation of deletion derivatives. Its size was\\u000a defined to 2,797 bp and several sites for several restriction enzymes were revealed by DNA sequencing. Sequence analysis predicts\\u000a three putative open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 shows significant identity with the bacterial excinuclease

Peter Grones; Jozef Grones

2011-01-01

42

Active brain targeting of a fluorescent P-gp substrate using polymeric magnetic nanocarrier system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) were developed for the active brain targeting of water-soluble P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The NP matrix of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(lactic acid) (M-PEG-PLA) was prepared by single emulsion solvent evaporation of polymers with oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (OAMNP) and Rh123. All formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, magnetic content and Rh123 encapsulation efficiency. The maximum encapsulation efficiency of Rh123 was 45 ± 3% and of OAMNP was 42 ± 4%. The brain targeting and biodistribution study was performed on Sprague Dawley rats (3 groups, n = 6). Rh123 (0.4 mg kg-1) was administered in saline form, NP containing Rh123, and NP containing Rh123 in the presence of a magnetic field (0.8 T). The fluorimetric analysis of brain homogenates revealed a significant uptake (p < 0.05) of Rh123 in the magnetically targeted group relative to controls. These results were supported by fluorescence microscopy. This study reveals the ability of magnetically targeted nanoparticles to deliver substances to the brain, the permeation of which would otherwise be inhibited by the P-gp system.

Kirthivasan, B.; Singh, D.; Bommana, M. M.; Raut, S. L.; Squillante, E.; Sadoqi, M.

2012-06-01

43

Protein Expression and Purification System  

E-print Network

that confers to the protein an affinity for immobilized di- metal ions such as cobalt, nickel, and zinc in the binding of proteins to immobilized transition metal ions and zinc (Porath, 1985; Sulkowski, 1985; Hemdan HATTM System Protocol: General 11 A. General Information 11 B. Protein Expression 12 C. Buffers

Lebendiker, Mario

44

Protein Expression Xpress System  

E-print Network

.................................................................1 3. Transfection of a Cell Line and Production of Recombinant Protein .....2 3.1 Calcium Phosphate Transfection.........................................................................2 3.1.1 General.1.2 Standard Transfection Procedure........................................................................2 3

Lebendiker, Mario

45

Native PAGE Protein Expression  

E-print Network

, mg/ml BA Bovine serum albumin Bovine g-globulin Standard curve generation using known standards. A, use Bio-Rad's bovine serum albumin or bovine g-globulin to make your standard curve. For best results and bovine serum albumin standard Catalog # Description 500-0121 RC DC Protein Assay Kit I, includes RC

Lebendiker, Mario

46

Fitting the Elementary Rate Constants of the P-gp Transporter Network in the hMDR1-MDCK Confluent Cell Monolayer Using a Particle Swarm Algorithm  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein, a human multidrug resistance transporter, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. In order to understand transport kinetics via P-gp, confluent cell monolayers overexpressing P-gp are widely used. The purpose of this study is to obtain the mass action elementary rate constants for P-gp's transport and to functionally characterize members of P-gp's network, i.e., other transporters that transport P-gp substrates in hMDR1-MDCKII confluent cell monolayers and are essential to the net substrate flux. Transport of a range of concentrations of amprenavir, loperamide, quinidine and digoxin across the confluent monolayer of cells was measured in both directions, apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical. We developed a global optimization algorithm using the Particle Swarm method that can simultaneously fit all datasets to yield accurate and exhaustive fits of these elementary rate constants. The statistical sensitivity of the fitted values was determined by using 24 identical replicate fits, yielding simple averages and standard deviations for all of the kinetic parameters, including the efflux active P-gp surface density. Digoxin required additional basolateral and apical transporters, while loperamide required just a basolateral tranporter. The data were better fit by assuming bidirectional transporters, rather than active importers, suggesting that they are not MRP or active OATP transporters. The P-gp efflux rate constants for quinidine and digoxin were about 3-fold smaller than reported ATP hydrolysis rate constants from P-gp proteoliposomes. This suggests a roughly 3?1 stoichiometry between ATP hydrolysis and P-gp transport for these two drugs. The fitted values of the elementary rate constants for these P-gp substrates support the hypotheses that the selective pressures on P-gp are to maintain a broad substrate range and to keep xenobiotics out of the cytosol, but not out of the apical membrane. PMID:22028772

Agnani, Deep; Acharya, Poulomi; Martinez, Esteban; Tran, Thuy Thanh; Abraham, Feby; Tobin, Frank; Ellens, Harma; Bentz, Joe

2011-01-01

47

Expression of the novel all-trans retinoic acid-related resistance gene HA117 in pediatric solid tumors.  

PubMed

This study aimed to detect the protein expression of HA117 in pediatric solid tumors. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of HA117 and P-gp in pediatric solid tumors. In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), nephroblastoma (WT), and neuroblastoma (NB), the positive expression rate of HA117 was 65.4%, 58.3%, 81.3%, and 74.1%, and that of P-gp was 57.7%, 70.8%, 65.6%, and 66.7%, respectively. HA117 expression was closely related to the clinical stage of HL (P=0.004) and to the International Prognostic Index score, mediastinal lesions, and clinical stages of NHL (P=0.01, 0.03, and 0.01). The expression of HA117 in WT was higher than in adjacent normal tissues, but there was no statistical significance (P=0.21). The positive expression of HA117 in NB was markedly higher than that in normal tissues (P=0.002), which closely associated with histologic type and lymph node metastasis (P=0.03 and 0.001). Spearman correlation analysis revealed that HA117 expression was not correlated with P-gp in these 4 tumors. This suggests that HA117 might be an important resistance gene in pediatric solid tumors. The mechanism underlying the resistance to all-trans retinoic acid conferred by HA117 is different from that of P-gp. PMID:23619123

Duan, Wenjuan; Jin, Xianqing; Xiu, Youhua; Wang, Shiqi; Zhu, Jin; Liu, Hang; Ding, Xionghui; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Zhanbo; Wang, Xiuliang

2014-01-01

48

4,5-Di-substituted benzyl-imidazol-2-substituted amines as the structure template for the design and synthesis of reversal agents against P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a primary multidrug transporter which is located in plasma membranes, plays a major role in the multidrug resistance (MDR) of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Naamidines are a class of marine imidazole alkaloids isolated from Leucetta and Clathrina sponges, possessing a Y-shaped scaffold. Based on the results previously obtained from the third-generation MDR modulator ONT-093 and other modulators developed in our group, we designed and synthesized a series of novel 4,5-di-substituted benzyl-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-substituted amines using the Naamidine scaffold as the structure template. Subsequently, their reversing activity for Taxol resistance has been evaluated in P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance breast cancer cell line MDA435/LCC6MDR. Compounds 12c with a Y-shaped scaffold, and compound 17c which is 'X-shaped' scaffold and possesses a 4-diethylamino group at aryl ring B, turned out to be the most potent P-gp modulators. It appears that compounds 12c and 17c at 1 ?M concentration can sensitize LCC6MDR cells toward Taxol by 26.4 and 24.5 folds, with an EC50 212.5 and 210.5 nM, respectively. These two compounds are about 5-6 folds more potent than verapamil (RF = 4.5). Moreover, compounds 12c and 17c did not exhibit obvious cytotoxicity in either cancer cell lines or normal mouse fibroblast cell lines. This study has demonstrated that the synthetic Naamidine analogues can be potentially employed as effective, safe modulators for the P-gp-mediated drug resistance cancer cells. PMID:24952376

Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wong, Iris L K; Wan, Shengbiao; Chow, Larry M C; Jiang, Tao

2014-08-18

49

In Silico Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on P-gp Modulators of Tetrahydroisoquinoline-Ethyl-Phenylamine Series  

PubMed Central

Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The drug efflux by a transport protein is the main reason for MDR. In humans, MDR mainly occurs when the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins is overexpressed simultaneously. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is most commonly associated with human MDR; it utilizes energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to transport a number of substrates out of cells against concentration gradients. By the active transport of substrates against concentration gradients, intracellular concentrations of substrates are decreased. This leads to the cause of failure in cancer chemotherapy. Results Herein, we report Topomer CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis) and HQSAR (Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models for third generation MDR modulators. The Topomer CoMFA model showed good correlation between the actual and predicted values for training set molecules. The developed model showed cross validated correlation coefficient (q2) = 0.536 and non-cross validated correlation coefficient (r2) = 0.975 with eight components. The best HQSAR model (q2 = 0.777, r2 = 0.956) with 5-8 atom counts was used to predict the activity of test set compounds. Both models were validated using test set compounds, and gave a good predictive values of 0.604 and 0.730. Conclusions The contour map near R1 indicates that substitution of a bulkier and polar group to the ortho position of the benzene ring enhances the inhibitory effect. This explains why compounds with a nitro group have good inhibitory potency. Molecular fragment analyses shed light on some essential structural and topological features of third generation MDR modulators. Fragments analysis showed that the presence of tertiary nitrogen, a central phenyl ring and an aromatic dimethoxy group contributed to the inhibitory effect. Based on contour map information and fragment information, five new molecules with variable R1 substituents were designed. The activity of these designed molecules was predicted by the Topomer CoMFA and HQSAR models. The novel compounds showed higher potency than existing compounds. PMID:21269449

2011-01-01

50

Effects of the selective bisindolylmaleimide protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X on P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance.  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) is discussed as a new approach for overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy. For evaluation of this concept we applied the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X, which shows a highly selective inhibition of PKC isozymes alpha, beta 1, beta 2, gamma, delta and epsilon in vitro. The efficacy of this compound in modulation of MDR was examined using several P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing cell lines including a MDR1-transfected HeLa clone, and was compared with the activities of dexniguldipine-HCI (DNIG) and dexverapamil-HC1 (DVER), both of which essentially act via binding to P-gp. As PKC alpha has been suggested to play a major role in P-gp-mediated MDR, cell lines exhibiting different expression levels of this PKC isozyme were chosen. On crude PKC preparations or in a cellular assay using a cfos(-711)CAT-transfected NIH 3T3 clone, the inhibitory qualities of the bisindolylmaleimide at submicromolar concentrations were demonstrated. At up 1 microM final concentrations of the PKC inhibitor GF 109203X, a concentration at which many PKC isozymes should be blocked substantially, no cytotoxic or MDR-reversing effects whatsoever were seen, as monitored by 72 h tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT assays or a 90 min rhodamine 123 accumulation assay. Moreover, depletion of PKC alpha by phorbol ester in HeLa-MDR1 transfectants had no influence on rhodamine 123 accumulation after 24 or 48 h. MDR reversal activity of GF 109203X was seen at higher final drug concentrations, however. Remarkably, [3H]vinblastine-sulphate binding competition experiments using P-gp-containing crude membrane preparations demonstrated similar dose dependencies as found for MDR reversion by the three modulators, i.e. decreasing efficacy in the series dexniguldipine-HCl > dexverapamil-HCl > GF 109203X. Similar interaction with the P-gp in the micromolar concentration range was revealed by competition of GF 109203X with photoincorporation of [3H]azidopine into P-gp-containing crude membrane preparations. No significant effect of the PKC inhibitor on MDR1 expression was seen, which was examined by cDNA-PCR. Thus, the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X probably influences MDR mostly via direct binding to P-gp. Our work identifies the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X as a new type of drug interacting with P-gp directly, but does not support the concept of a major contribution of PKC to a P-gp-associated MDR, at least using the particular cellular model systems and the selective, albeit general, PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 10 PMID:8826855

Gekeler, V.; Boer, R.; Uberall, F.; Ise, W.; Schubert, C.; Utz, I.; Hofmann, J.; Sanders, K. H.; Schachtele, C.; Klemm, K.; Grunicke, H.

1996-01-01

51

Enhancing the uptake of dextromethorphan in the CNS of rats by concomitant administration of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil.  

PubMed

Clinical trials evaluating high doses of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) for the treatment of neurological disorders have resulted in numerous adverse events due to the presence of its active metabolite dextrorphan (DX). Since the uptake of drugs in the CNS can be modulated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we propose to determine whether the P-gp inhibitor verapamil can enhance the uptake of DM in the CNS. Rats (n=42) received an oral dose of DM (20 mg/kg) alone or 15 min after an intravenous dose of verapamil (1 mg/kg). Rats were euthanized at different time points over 12 h, and concentrations of DM and DX (conjugated and unconjugated) were assessed in plasma, brain and spinal cord using a LC-ESI/MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Verapamil treatments did not affect the biodisposition of DM in plasma. On the other hand, verapamil treatments increased the area under curve of DM in the brain (from 1221 to 2393 ng h/g) and spinal cord (from 1753 to 3221 ng h/g) by approximately 2-fold. The uptake of DX in brain and spinal cord were markedly lower than those of DM and increased by only 15% and 22% following verapamil treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the P-gp inhibitor verapamil can enhance the uptake of DM in the CNS without affecting that of DX. This change is most likely related to an inhibition of P-gp or other transporters located in the BBB since the biodisposition of DM in plasma remained unaffected by verapamil treatments. PMID:15964599

Marier, Jean-Francois; Deschênes, Jean-Luc; Hage, Amal; Seliniotakis, Eleftheria; Gritsas, Ari; Flarakos, Themis; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

2005-10-21

52

[11C]phenytoin revisited: synthesis by [11C]CO carbonylation and first evaluation as a P-gp tracer in rats  

PubMed Central

Background At present, several positron emission tomography (PET) tracers are in use for imaging P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function in man. At baseline, substrate tracers such as R-[11C]verapamil display low brain concentrations with a distribution volume of around 1. [11C]phenytoin is supposed to be a weaker P-gp substrate, which may lead to higher brain concentrations at baseline. This could facilitate assessment of P-gp function when P-gp is upregulated. The purpose of this study was to synthesize [11C]phenytoin and to characterize its properties as a P-gp tracer. Methods [11C]CO was used to synthesize [11C]phenytoin by rhodium-mediated carbonylation. Metabolism and, using PET, brain pharmacokinetics of [11C]phenytoin were studied in rats. Effects of P-gp function on [11C]phenytoin uptake were assessed using predosing with tariquidar. Results [11C]phenytoin was synthesized via [11C]CO in an overall decay-corrected yield of 22?±?4%. At 45 min after administration, 19% and 83% of radioactivity represented intact [11C]phenytoin in the plasma and brain, respectively. Compared with baseline, tariquidar predosing resulted in a 45% increase in the cerebral distribution volume of [11C]phenytoin. Conclusions Using [11C]CO, the radiosynthesis of [11C]phenytoin could be improved. [11C]phenytoin appeared to be a rather weak P-gp substrate. PMID:22747744

2012-01-01

53

A pilot study to assess simultaneous administration of oral midazolam (MDZ) and fexofenadine (FEX) for the evaluation of cytochrome (CYP) 3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-GP) activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many drug interactions may involve both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Such interactions reflect overlapping substrate specificities and modulators between CYP3A4 and P-gp. MDZ and FEX are ideal in vivo probe substrates for the assessment of CYP3A4 and P-gp mediated interactions, respectively. It is desirable to evaluate the effect of an investigational drug on CYP3A4 and P-gp activities by administering these

M. Garrett; J. Smeraglia; X. Lin; L. Tan; J. Tran

2005-01-01

54

Reduced ABCB1 Expression and Activity in the Presence of Acrylic Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Purpose: P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), an integral membrane protein in the apical surface of human intestinal epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in the intestinal transport and efflux leading to changes in the bioavailability of oral pharmaceutical compounds. This study was set to examine the potential effects of three Eudragits RL100, S100 and L100 on the intestinal epithelial membrane transport of rhodammine-123 (Rho-123), a substrate of P-gp using a monolayer of human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2). Methods: The least non-cytotoxic concentrations of the excipients were assessed in Caco-2 cells by the MTT assay. Then the transepithelial transport of Rho-123 across Caco-2 monolayers was determined with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Besides, the expression of the P-gp in cells exposed to the polymers was demonstrated using Western-blotting analysis. Results: Treatment of cells with Eudragit RL100 and L100 led to a very slight change while Eudragit S100 showed 61% increase in Rho-123 accumulation (P<0.001) and also reduced transporter expression. Conclusion: Our studies suggest that using proper concentrations of the Eudragit S100 in drug formulation would improve intestinal permeability and absorption of p-gp substrate drugs. PMID:24754004

Mohammadzadeh, Ramin; Baradaran, Behzad; Valizadeh, Hadi; Yousefi, Bahman; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

2014-01-01

55

Comparison of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin and 99mTc-Sestamibi Uptake in Glioma Cell Lines: The Role of P-Glycoprotein Expression  

PubMed Central

99mTc-Tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) and 99mTc-Sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) are SPECT tracers that have been used for brain tumor imaging. Tumor's multidrug resistance phenotype, namely, P-glycoprotein (p-gp), and the multidrug resistance related proteins (MRPs) expression have been suggested to influence both tracers' uptake. In the present study we set out to compare 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in high-grade glioma cell lines and to investigate the influence of gliomas p-gp expression on both tracers' uptake. We used four glioma cell lines (U251MG, A172, U87MG, and T98G). The expression of p-gp protein was evaluated by flow cytometry. Twenty ?Ci (7.4·105?Bq) of 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI were used. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a dose calibrator. P-gp was significantly expressed only in the U251MG cell line (P < 0.001). In all gliomas cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, A172, and T98G) the 99mTc-TF uptake was significantly higher than 99mTc-sestamibi. The U251MG cell line, in which significant p-gp expression was documented, exhibited the strongest uptake difference. 99mTc-TF uptake was higher than 99mTc-MIBI in all studied high-grade glioma cell lines. Thus, 99mTc-TF may be superior to 99mTc-MIBI for glioma imaging in vivo.

Alexiou, George A.; Xourgia, Xanthi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Fotopoulos, Andreas D.; Kyritsis, Athanasios P.

2014-01-01

56

Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

Vierstra, Richard D. (Madison, WI); Walker, Joseph M. (Madison, WI)

2002-01-01

57

Synthesis and Evaluation of [N-methyl-11C]N-Desmethyl-loperamide as a New and Improved PET Radiotracer for Imaging P-gp Function  

PubMed Central

[11C]Loperamide has been proposed for imaging P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function with positron emission tomography (PET), but its metabolism to [N-methyl-11C]N-desmethyl-loperamide ([11C]dLop; [11C]3) precludes quantification. We considered that [11C]3 might itself be a superior radiotracer for imaging brain P-gp function and therefore aimed to prepare [11C]3 and characterize its efficacy. An amide precursor (2) was synthesized and methylated with [11C]iodomethane to give [11C]3. After administration of [11C]3 to wild type mice, brain radioactivity uptake was very low. In P-gp (mdr-1a (?/?)) knockout mice, brain uptake of radioactivity at 30 min increased about 3.5 fold by PET measures, and over seven-fold by ex vivo measures. In knockout mice, brain radioactivity was predominantly (90%) unchanged radiotracer. In monkey PET experiments, brain radioactivity uptake was also very low, but after P-gp blockade increased more than seven-fold. [11C]3 is an effective new radiotracer for imaging brain P-gp function and, in favor of future successful quantification, appears free of extensive brain-penetrant radiometabolites. PMID:18783208

Lazarova, Neva; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Hong, Jinsoo; Seneca, Nicholas; Tuan, Ed; Gladding, Robert L.; Liow, Jeih-San; Taku, Andrew; Innis, Robert B.; Pike, Victor W.

2009-01-01

58

Carbamazepine regulates intestinal P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein MRP2 and influences disposition of talinolol in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and methods: The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine is known to be an inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 after binding to the nuclear pregnane X receptor. To evaluate whether it also regulates the multidrug transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein MRP2 in humans, duodenal expression of multidrug resistance gene MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and MRP2 mRNA, content

Thomas Giessmann; Karen May; Christiane Modess; Danilo Wegner; Ute Hecker; Michael Zschiesche; Peter Dazert; Markus Grube; Eike Schroeder; Rolf Warzok; Ingolf Cascorbi; Heyo K. Kroemer; Werner Siegmund

2004-01-01

59

Regulatory Protein Coordinating Gene Expression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The action of the glucocorticoid receptor is illustrated. On the left is shown a series of genes, each of which has various gene activator proteins bound to its regulatory region. However, these bound proteins are not sufficient on their own to activate transcription efficiently. On the right is shown the effects of adding an additional gene regulatory protein

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Bruce Alberts N:Alberts;Bruce REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Dennis Bray N:Bray;Dennis REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Alexander Johnson N:Johnson;Alexander REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Julian Lewis N:Lewis;Julian REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Martin Raff N:Raff;Martin REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Keith Roberts N:Roberts;Keith REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD

1998-07-01

60

Expression of Human Milk Proteins in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human milk proteins are believed to have a multitude of biological activities benefiting the newborn infant. Such functions include antibacterial and antiviral activities, enhancement of the immune system and increased nutrient absorption. To date, only breast-fed infants have been exposed to these proteins. However, by using genetic engineering it is now possible to express these proteins in plants, such as

Bo Lonnerdal

61

Temozolomide induces the production of epidermal growth factor to regulate MDR1 expression in glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) commonly resists the frontline chemotherapy treatment temozolomide. The multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and its protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), are associated with chemoresistance. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying MDR1-mediated resistance by GBM to temozolomide. P-gp trafficking was studied by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. MDR1 expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and reporter gene assays. AP-1 interaction with MDR1 was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. EGF production was analyzed by ELISA, EGFR signaling was determined by Western blot analysis, and in vivo response to erlotinib and/or temozolomide was studied in nude mice. During the early phase of temozolomide treatment, intracellular P-gp was trafficked to the cell membrane, followed by conformational change into active P-gp. At the later phase, gene transcription of MDR1 was induced by temozolomide-mediated production of EGF. EGF activated ERK1/2-JNK-AP-1 cofactors (c-jun and c-fos). An inhibitor of EGFR kinase (erlotinib) given to nude mice with GBM prevented temozolomide-induced resistance. The results identified an essential role for activated EGFR in the resistance of GBM to temozolomide. Temozolomide resistance occurred through a biphasic response; first, by a conformational change in P-gp into the active form and, second, by releasing EGF, which caused autocrine stimulation of GBM cells to induce MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR kinase blunted the ability of GBM cells to resist temozolomide. These findings may explain reports on the common occurrence of mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII) and EGFR expansion in the resistance of GBM cells. PMID:25053824

Munoz, Jessian L; Rodriguez-Cruz, Vivian; Greco, Steven J; Nagula, Vipul; Scotto, Kathleen W; Rameshwar, Pranela

2014-10-01

62

Drug-efflux and target-site gene expression patterns in Haemonchus contortus larvae able to survive increasing concentrations of levamisole in vitro  

PubMed Central

While there is some evidence that changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits confer resistance to levamisole in gastrointestinal helminth parasites, the exact nature of the resistance mechanism(s) is unclear. We utilised the presence of a resistant fraction within the Wallangra 2003 isolate of Haemonchus contortus larvae in order to subdivide the population into three subpopulations of larvae able to survive increasing concentrations of the drug. We then measured gene expression levels in the subpopulations and the larval population as a whole, focusing on genes encoding the subunit components of levamisole-sensitive receptors, genes encoding ancillary proteins involved in receptor assembly, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) genes. The subpopulation surviving the lowest levamisole concentration showed increases of 1.5- to 3-fold in a number of P-gp genes (Hco-pgp-3, -4, -10, and -14) alongside unchanged receptor genes, compared to the whole Wallangra larval population. On the other hand, the subpopulation surviving the intermediate levamisole concentration showed an increase in only a single P-gp (Hco-pgp-14), alongside decreases in some receptor subunit (Hco-unc-63a) and ancillary protein genes (Hco-unc-50, Hco-ric-3.1 and 3.1). The subpopulation surviving the highest levamisole concentration showed further decreases in receptor subunit genes (Hco-unc-63a and Hco-unc-29 paralogs) as well as genes involved in receptor assembly (Hco-unc-74, Hco-unc-50, Hco-ric-3.1 and 3.1), alongside no increased P-gp gene levels. This suggests a biphasic pattern of drug resistance in the larvae of this worm isolate, in which a non-specific P-gp-mediated mechanism confers low levels of resistance, while higher level resistance is due to altered receptor subunit composition as a result of changes in both subunit composition and in the levels of proteins involved in receptor assembly. PMID:25057457

Sarai, Ranbir S.; Kopp, Steven R.; Coleman, Glen T.; Kotze, Andrew C.

2014-01-01

63

Drug-efflux and target-site gene expression patterns in Haemonchus contortus larvae able to survive increasing concentrations of levamisole in vitro.  

PubMed

While there is some evidence that changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits confer resistance to levamisole in gastrointestinal helminth parasites, the exact nature of the resistance mechanism(s) is unclear. We utilised the presence of a resistant fraction within the Wallangra 2003 isolate of Haemonchus contortus larvae in order to subdivide the population into three subpopulations of larvae able to survive increasing concentrations of the drug. We then measured gene expression levels in the subpopulations and the larval population as a whole, focusing on genes encoding the subunit components of levamisole-sensitive receptors, genes encoding ancillary proteins involved in receptor assembly, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) genes. The subpopulation surviving the lowest levamisole concentration showed increases of 1.5- to 3-fold in a number of P-gp genes (Hco-pgp-3, -4, -10, and -14) alongside unchanged receptor genes, compared to the whole Wallangra larval population. On the other hand, the subpopulation surviving the intermediate levamisole concentration showed an increase in only a single P-gp (Hco-pgp-14), alongside decreases in some receptor subunit (Hco-unc-63a) and ancillary protein genes (Hco-unc-50, Hco-ric-3.1 and 3.1). The subpopulation surviving the highest levamisole concentration showed further decreases in receptor subunit genes (Hco-unc-63a and Hco-unc-29 paralogs) as well as genes involved in receptor assembly (Hco-unc-74, Hco-unc-50, Hco-ric-3.1 and 3.1), alongside no increased P-gp gene levels. This suggests a biphasic pattern of drug resistance in the larvae of this worm isolate, in which a non-specific P-gp-mediated mechanism confers low levels of resistance, while higher level resistance is due to altered receptor subunit composition as a result of changes in both subunit composition and in the levels of proteins involved in receptor assembly. PMID:25057457

Sarai, Ranbir S; Kopp, Steven R; Coleman, Glen T; Kotze, Andrew C

2014-08-01

64

Protein Expression Regulation under Oxidative Stress*  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is known to affect both translation and protein turnover, but very few large scale studies describe protein expression under stress. We measure protein concentrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae over the course of 2 h in response to a mild oxidative stress induced by diamide, providing detailed time-resolved information for 815 proteins, with additional data for another ?1,100 proteins. For the majority of proteins, we discover major differences between the global transcript and protein response. Although mRNA levels often return to baseline 1 h after treatment, protein concentrations continue to change. Integrating our data with features of translation and protein degradation, we are able to predict expression patterns for 41% of the proteins in the core data set. Predictive features include, among others, targeting by RNA-binding proteins (Lhp1 and Khd1), RNA secondary structures, RNA half-life, and translation efficiency under unperturbed conditions and in response to oxidative reagents, but not chaperone binding. We are able to both describe general dynamics of protein concentration changes and suggest possible regulatory mechanisms for individual proteins. PMID:21933953

Vogel, Christine; Silva, Gustavo Monteiro; Marcotte, Edward M.

2011-01-01

65

C-di-GMP Hydrolysis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa HD-GYP Phosphodiesterases: Analysis of the Reaction Mechanism and Novel Roles for pGpG  

PubMed Central

In biofilms, the bacterial community optimizes the strategies to sense the environment and to communicate from cell to cell. A key player in the development of a bacterial biofilm is the second messenger c-di-GMP, whose intracellular levels are modulated by the opposite activity of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. Given the huge impact of bacterial biofilms on human health, understanding the molecular details of c-di-GMP metabolism represents a critical step in the development of novel therapeutic approaches against biofilms. In this study, we present a detailed biochemical characterization of two c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases of the HD-GYP subtype from the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, namely PA4781 and PA4108. Upstream of the catalytic HD-GYP domain, PA4781 contains a REC domain typical of two-component systems, while PA4108 contains an uncharacterized domain of unknown function. Our findings shed light on the activity and catalytic mechanism of these phosphodiesterases. We show that both enzymes hydrolyse c-di-GMP in a two-step reaction via the linear intermediate pGpG and that they produce GMP in vitro at a surprisingly low rate. In addition, our data indicate that the non-phosphorylated REC domain of PA4781 prevents accessibility of c-di-GMP to the active site. Both PA4108 and phosphorylated PA4781 are also capable to use pGpG as an alternative substrate and to hydrolyse it into GMP; the affinity of PA4781 for pGpG is one order of magnitude higher than that for c-di-GMP. These results suggest that these enzymes may not work (primarily) as genuine phosphodiesterases. Moreover, the unexpected affinity of PA4781 for pGpG may indicate that pGpG could also act as a signal molecule in its own right, thus further widening the c-di-GMP-related signalling scenario. PMID:24066157

Stelitano, Valentina; Giardina, Giorgio; Paiardini, Alessandro; Castiglione, Nicoletta; Cutruzzola, Francesca; Rinaldo, Serena

2013-01-01

66

A simplified protocol employing elacridar in rodents: a screening model in drug discovery to assess P-gp mediated efflux at the blood brain barrier.  

PubMed

In the present study we have developed a simple, time, and cost effective in vivo rodent protocol to screen the susceptibility of a test compound for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux at the blood brain barrier (BBB) during early drug discovery. We used known P-gp substrates as test compounds (quinidine, digoxin, and talinolol) and elacridar (GF120918) as a chemical inhibitor to establish the model. The studies were carried out in both mice and rats. Elacridar was dosed intravenously at 5 mg/kg, 0.5 h prior to probe substrate administration. Plasma and brain samples were collected and analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. In the presence of elacridar, the ratio of brain to plasma area under the curve (B/P) in mouse increased 2, 4, and 38-fold, respectively, for talinolol, digoxin, and quinidine; whereas in rat, a 70-fold increase was observed for quinidine. Atenolol, a non P-gp substrate, exhibited poor brain penetration in the presence or absence of elacridar in both species (B/P ratio ~ 0.1). Elacridar had no significant effect on the systemic clearance of digoxin or quinidine; however, a trend towards increasing volume of distribution and half life was observed. Our results support the utility of elacridar in evaluation of the influence of P-gp mediated efflux on drug distribution to the brain. Our protocol employing a single intravenous dose of elacridar and test compound provides a cost effective alternative to expensive P-gp knockout mice models during early drug discovery. PMID:23061481

Kallem, Rajareddy; Kulkarni, Chetan P; Patel, Dakshay; Thakur, Megha; Sinz, Michael; Singh, Sheelendra P; Mahammad, S Shahe; Mandlekar, Sandhya

2012-06-01

67

Zuo Jin Wan, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula, Reverses P-gp-Mediated MDR In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Zuo Jin Wan (ZJW), a typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been identified to have anticancer activity in recent studies. In this study, we determined the underlying mechanism of ZJW in the reversal effect of multidrug resistance on colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that ZJW significantly enhanced the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs in HCT116/L-OHP, SGC7901/DDP, and Bel/Fu MDR cells. Moreover, combination of chemotherapy with ZJW could reverse the drug resistance of HCT116/L-OHP cells, increase the sensitivity of HCT116/L-OHP cells to L-OHP, DDP, 5-Fu, and MMC in vitro, and inhibit the tumor growth in the colorectal MDR cancer xenograft model. ICP-MS results showed that ZJW could increase the concentration of chemotherapeutic drugs in HCT116/L-OHP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that ZJW could reverse drug resistance of colorectal cancer cells by decreasing P-gp level in vitro and in vivo, which has been represented as one of the major mechanisms that contribute to the MDR phenotype. Our study has provided the first direct evidence that ZJW plays an important role in reversing multidrug resistance of human colorectal cancer and may be considered as a useful target for cancer therapy. PMID:23533531

Sui, Hua; Liu, Xuan; Jin, Bao-Hui; Pan, Shu-Fang; Zhou, Li-Hong; Yu, Nikitin Alexander; Cai, Jian-Feng; Fan, Zhong-Ze; Zhu, Hui-Rong; Li, Qi

2013-01-01

68

Interindividual Variability in Hepatic Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides and P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) Protein Expression: Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectroscopy and Influence of Genotype, Age, and Sex  

PubMed Central

Interindividual variability in protein expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and multidrug resistance-linked P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or ABCB1 was quantified in frozen human livers (n = 64) and cryopreserved human hepatocytes (n = 12) by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method. Membrane isolation, sample workup, and LC-MS/MS analyses were as described before by our laboratory. Briefly, total native membrane proteins, isolated from the liver tissue and cryopreserved hepatocytes, were trypsin digested and quantified by LC-MS/MS using signature peptide(s) unique to each transporter. The mean ± S.D. (maximum/minimum range in parentheses) protein expression (fmol/µg of membrane protein) in human liver tissue was OATP1B1- 2.0 ± 0.9 (7), OATP1B3- 1.1 ± 0.5 (8), OATP2B1- 1 1.7 ± 0.6 (5), and P-gp- 0.4 ± 0.2 (8). Transporter expression in the liver tissue was comparable to that in the cryopreserved hepatocytes. Most important is that livers with SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) haplotypes *14/*14 and *14/*1a [i.e., representing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), c.388A > G, and c.463C > A] had significantly higher (P < 0.0001) protein expression than the reference haplotype (*1a/*1a). Based on these genotype-dependent protein expression data, we predicted (using Simcyp) an up to ?40% decrease in the mean area under the curve of rosuvastatin or repaglinide in subjects harboring these variant alleles compared with those harboring the reference alleles. SLCO1B3 (encoding OATP1B3) SNPs did not significantly affect protein expression. Age and sex were not associated with transporter protein expression. These data will facilitate the prediction of population-based human transporter-mediated drug disposition, drug-drug interactions, and interindividual variability through physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. PMID:24122874

Prasad, Bhagwat; Evers, Raymond; Gupta, Anshul; Hop, Cornelis E. C. A.; Salphati, Laurent; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

2014-01-01

69

Mismatch repair protein expression in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Alterations in at least six of the genes that encode proteins involved in the mismatch repair (MMR) system have been identified in either HNPCC or sporadic colon cancer. We aimed to analyse the proportion of patients with colorectal cancer with loss of immunostaining for MMR proteins in order to determine the feasibility of molecular screening for the loss of MMR proteins through the study of unselected patients with colorectal cancer. Methods A group of 33 patients with colorectal cancer was randomly selected from the department of surgery bio-bank to determine the expression of MMR proteins in their FFPE tumour tissues using immunohistochemistry techniques. Changes in protein expression following transfection of colorectal tissues were observed in stained cells using Olympus BX60 microscope and image analySIS software. Results Of the tissue specimens in which acceptable immunostaining was achieved, three samples showed loss of one or more of the MMR proteins. Both hMLH1 and hPMS2 proteins were not expressed in a 36 years old woman with cancer of the caecum. The expression of hMSH6 protein was undetermined in tumour tissues retrieved from a 61 years old man with cancer of the proximal colon. The third case was a 77 years old man with no documented family history of cancer, who had carcinoma of the rectum. He showed loss of hMLH1 expression in the tumour tissues Conclusions Our findings and the previous reports pointed out the importance of molecular screening of patients with colorectal cancer for MSI using immunohistochemistry. This strategy managed to identify mutations in patients otherwise would not have been detected. PMID:24294512

Miller, Nicola; Chang, Kah Hoong; Curran, Catherine; Hennessey, Emer; Sheehan, Margaret; Kerin, Michael J

2013-01-01

70

Enhanced expression of adenovirus transforming proteins.  

PubMed Central

Proteins encoded in regions EIA and EIB of human adenoviruses cause transformation of rodent cells. One protein from EIA also stimulates transcription of other early regions at early times in a productive infection. In the past, direct analysis of these proteins synthesized in vivo has been difficult because of the low levels produced in both transformed cells and productively infected cells. We present a simple method which leads to expression of EIA and EIB mRNAs and proteins at 30-fold greater levels than those observed during the early phase of a standard productive infection. Under these conditions, these proteins are among the most prominent translation products of infected cells. This allowed direct visualization of EIA and EIB proteins on two-dimensional gels of pulse-labeled total cell protein. Experiments with EIA and EIB mutants confirm that the identified proteins are indeed encoded in these regions. Two EIA proteins are observed, one translated from each of the major early EIA mRNAs. Both of these EIA proteins are phosphorylated. Images PMID:7143568

Gaynor, R B; Tsukamoto, A; Montell, C; Berk, A J

1982-01-01

71

Molecular Structure of the Complex Formed Between the Anticancer Drug Cisplatin and d(pGpG): C2221 Crystal Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three dimensional molecular structure of the adduct formed between the anticancer drug cisplatin and a DNA dinucleotide d(pGpG) has been determined by x-ray diffraction analysis at 1.37 Å resolution and refined to a final R-factor of 0.11. This structure, solved by using data from a previously reported crystal form in the space group C2221, resembles that found in the

Miquel Coll; Suzanne E. Sherman; Dan Gibson; Stephen J. Lippard; Andrew H.-J. Wang

1990-01-01

72

Expression and purification of ataxin-1 protein.  

PubMed

Ataxin-1 is part of a larger family of polyglutamine-containing proteins that is linked to nine distinct neurodegenerative disorders. There are no known effective therapies for any of these expanded polyglutamine tract disorders. One possible reason for this is the lack of sufficient amounts of pure polyglutamine-containing proteins suitable for biochemical and conformational studies. Here, we show that we were able to successfully purify a non-pathological, wild-type human ataxin-1 protein containing a 30-glutamine repeat sequence. This ataxin-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a GST tag at the N-terminus and a double (His)(6) tag at the C-terminus. The devised dual affinity tag strategy allowed successful purification of the full-length ataxin-1 fusion protein to 90% homogeneity as confirmed by Western blot analysis using the two monoclonal ataxin-1 antibodies developed in our laboratory. In addition, the GST tag was successfully removed from the purified ataxin-1 fusion protein by treatment with Tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease. Since polyglutamine-containing proteins tend to aggregate, solvents/buffers that minimize aggregation have been used in the purification process. This dual affinity purification protocol could serve as a useful basis for purifying aggregation-prone proteins that are involved in other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20304006

Husain-Ponnampalam, Rhonda; Turnbull, Victor; Tarlac, Volga; Storey, Elsdon

2010-05-30

73

Expression pattern of id proteins in medulloblastoma.  

PubMed

Inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins are up regulated in a variety of neoplasms, particularly in association with high-grade, poorly differentiated tumors, while differentiated tissues show little or no Id expression. The four Id genes are members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription factors and act as negative regulators of transcription by binding to and sequestering HLH complexes. We tested the hypothesis that Id proteins are overexpressed in medulloblastoma by performing immunohistochemistry using a medulloblastoma tissue microarray with 45 unique medulloblastoma and 11 normal control cerebella, and antibodies specific for Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4. A semi-quantitative staining score that took staining intensity and the proportion of immunoreactive cells into account was used. Id1 was not detected in normal cerebella or in medulloblastoma cells, but 78 % of tumors showed strong Id1 expression in endothelial nuclei of tumor vessels. Id2 expression was scant in normal cerebella and increased in medulloblastoma (median staining score: 4). Id3 expression was noted in some neurons of the developing cerebellar cortex, but it was markedly up regulated in medulloblastoma (median staining score: 12) and in tumor endothelial cells. Id4 was not expressed in normal cerebella or in tumor cells. Id2 or Id3 overexpression drove proliferation in medulloblastoma cell lines by altering the expression of critical cell cycle regulatory proteins in favor of cell proliferation. This study shows that Id1 expression in endothelial cells may contribute to angiogenic processes and that increased expression of Id2 and Id3 in medulloblastoma is potentially involved in tumor cell proliferation and survival. PMID:23397264

Snyder, Andrew D; Dulin-Smith, Ashley N; Houston, Ronald H; Durban, Ashley N; Brisbin, Bethany J; Oostra, Tyler D; Marshall, Jordan T; Kahwash, Basil M; Pierson, Christopher R

2013-07-01

74

Expression Pattern of Id Proteins in Medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins are up regulated in a variety of neoplasms, particularly in association with high-grade, poorly differentiated tumors, while differentiated tissues show little or no Id expression. The four Id genes are members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription factors and act as negative regulators of transcription by binding to and sequestering HLH complexes. We tested the hypothesis that Id proteins are overexpressed in medulloblastoma by performing immunohistochemistry using a medulloblastoma tissue microarray with 45 unique medulloblastoma and 11 normal control cerebella, and antibodies specific for Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4. A semi-quantitative staining score that took staining intensity and the proportion of immunoreactive cells into account was used. Id1 was not detected in normal cerebella or in medulloblastoma cells, but 78 % of tumors showed strong Id1 expression in endothelial nuclei of tumor vessels. Id2 expression was scant in normal cerebella and increased in medulloblastoma (median staining score: 4). Id3 expression was noted in some neurons of the developing cerebellar cortex, but it was markedly up regulated in medulloblastoma (median staining score: 12) and in tumor endothelial cells. Id4 was not expressed in normal cerebella or in tumor cells. Id2 or Id3 overexpression drove proliferation in medulloblastoma cell lines by altering the expression of critical cell cycle regulatory proteins in favor of cell proliferation. This study shows that Id1 expression in endothelial cells may contribute to angiogenic processes and that increased expression of Id2 and Id3 in medulloblastoma is potentially involved in tumor cell proliferation and survival. PMID:23397264

Snyder, Andrew D.; Dulin-Smith, Ashley N.; Houston, Ronald H.; Durban, Ashley N.; Brisbin, Bethany J.; Oostra, Tyler D.; Marshall, Jordan T.; Kahwash, Basil M.

2013-01-01

75

Streamlined Expressed Protein Ligation Using Split Inteins  

PubMed Central

Chemically modified proteins are invaluable tools for studying the molecular details of biological processes, and they also hold great potential as new therapeutic agents. Several methods have been developed for the site-specific modification of proteins, one of the most widely used being expressed protein ligation (EPL) in which a recombinant ?-thioester is ligated to an N-terminal Cys-containing peptide. Despite the widespread use of EPL, the generation and isolation of the required recombinant protein ?-thioesters remain challenging. We describe here a new method for the preparation and purification of recombinant protein ?-thioesters using engineered versions of naturally split DnaE inteins. This family of autoprocessing enzymes is closely related to the inteins currently used for protein ?-thioester generation, but they feature faster kinetics and are split into two inactive polypeptides that need to associate to become active. Taking advantage of the strong affinity between the two split intein fragments, we devised a streamlined procedure for the purification and generation of protein ?-thioesters from cell lysates and applied this strategy for the semisynthesis of a variety of proteins including an acetylated histone and a site-specifically modified monoclonal antibody. PMID:23265282

2012-01-01

76

BACTERIAL PROTEIN EXPRESSION SYSTEM CASCADE (*) is a bacterial protein expression system that provides  

E-print Network

. ­ Programming therapeutic bacteria expression: antigen expression and display in attenuated pathogenic bacteria-Tn5 mediated integration. ­ Active at low temperature (16ºC) and low sensitivity to media formulation effective and scalable bioprocess engineering. ­ Higher rate of success in obtaining soluble proteins

Lebendiker, Mario

77

Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.  

PubMed

Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

2014-06-01

78

Wheat germ systems for cell-free protein expression.  

PubMed

Cell-free protein expression plays an important role in biochemical research. However, only recent developments led to new methods to rapidly synthesize preparative amounts of protein that make cell-free protein expression an attractive alternative to cell-based methods. In particular the wheat germ system provides the highest translation efficiency among eukaryotic cell-free protein expression approaches and has a very high success rate for the expression of soluble proteins of good quality. As an open in vitro method, the wheat germ system is a preferable choice for many applications in protein research including options for protein labeling and the expression of difficult-to-express proteins like membrane proteins and multiple protein complexes. Here I describe wheat germ cell-free protein expression systems and give examples how they have been used in genome-wide expression studies, preparation of labeled proteins for structural genomics and protein mass spectroscopy, automated protein synthesis, and screening of enzymatic activities. Future directions for the use of cell-free expression methods are discussed. PMID:24931374

Harbers, Matthias

2014-08-25

79

Discordant Protein and mRNA Expression in Lung Adenocarcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gene expression measured at the mRNA level and the corresponding protein level is not well characterized in human cancer. In this study, we compared mRNA and protein expression for a cohort of genes in the same lung adenocarcinomas. The abun- dance of 165 protein spots representing 98 individual genes was analyzed in 76 lung adenocarcinomas and nine

Guoan Chen; Tarek G. Gharib; Chiang-Ching Huang; Jeremy M. G. Taylor; David E. Misek; Sharon L. R. Kardia; Thomas J. Giordano; Mark D. Iannettoni; Mark B. Orringer; Samir M. Hanash; David G. Beer

2002-01-01

80

Purify First: Rapid expression and purification of proteins from XMRV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purifying proteins from recombinant sources is often difficult, time-consuming, and costly. We have recently instituted a series of improvements in our protein purification pipeline that allows much more accurate choice of expression host and conditions and purification protocols. The key elements are parallel cloning, small scale parallel expression and lysate preparation, and small scale parallel protein purification. Compared to analyzing

William K. Gillette; Dominic Esposito; Troy E. Taylor; Ralph F. Hopkins; Rachel K. Bagni; James L. Hartley

2011-01-01

81

Original Research Communication Prion Protein Expression and Functional Importance in  

E-print Network

1 1 Original Research Communication Prion Protein Expression and Functional Importance illustrations: 7 Color illustrations: 2 (online 2) Page 1 of 48 Antioxidants&RedoxSignaling PrionProtein prion protein (PrPC ), a GPI-anchored glycoprotein, which we reported to be highly expressed in human

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Effects of immunosuppressive treatment on protein expression in rat kidney  

PubMed Central

The structural proteins of renal tubular epithelial cells may become a target for the toxic metabolites of immunosuppressants. These metabolites can modify the properties of the proteins, thereby affecting cell function, which is a possible explanation for the mechanism of immunosuppressive agents’ toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the effect of two immunosuppressive strategies on protein expression in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Fragments of the rat kidneys were homogenized after cooling in liquid nitrogen and then dissolved in lysis buffer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined using a protein assay kit, and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The obtained gels were then stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, and their images were analyzed to evaluate differences in protein expression. Identification of selected proteins was then performed using mass spectrometry. We found that the immunosuppressive drugs used in popular regimens induce a series of changes in protein expression in target organs. The expression of proteins involved in drug, glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was pronounced. However, to a lesser extent, we also observed changes in nuclear, structural, and transport proteins’ synthesis. Very slight differences were observed between the group receiving cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (CMG) and the control group. In contrast, compared to the control group, animals receiving tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (TMG) exhibited higher expression of proteins responsible for renal drug metabolism and lower expression levels of cytoplasmic actin and the major urinary protein. In the TMG group, we observed higher expression of proteins responsible for drug metabolism and a decrease in the expression of respiratory chain enzymes (thioredoxin-2) and markers of distal renal tubular damage (heart fatty acid-binding protein) compared to expression in the CMG group. The consequences of the reported changes in protein expression require further study. PMID:25328384

Kedzierska, Karolina; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Sindrewicz, Krzysztof; Bober, Joanna; Domanski, Leszek; Parafiniuk, Miroslaw; Urasinska, Elzbieta; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej; Domanski, Maciej; Smektala, Tomasz; Masiuk, Marek; Skrzypczak, Wieslaw; Ozgo, Malgorzata; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

2014-01-01

83

Expression of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal epithelium of dogs with lymphoplasmacytic enteritis.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory disease of the stomach, the small intestine and/or the large intestine. Loss of integrity of the intestinal barrier may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of IBD. In dogs, lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (LPE) is one of the recognized forms of IBD. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound efflux pump constituting an important component of the intestinal barrier. Changes in P-gp expression at the level of the intestinal barrier may be important in the pathogenesis of canine LPE, as this may lead to variable protection against xenobiotics and bacterial products in the intestine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of epithelial P-gp in the intestine in dogs with LPE compared with disease-free animals. Formalin-fixed intestinal biopsy samples from 57 dogs with histopathological evidence of LPE were immunolabelled with anti-P-gp antibodies (C494 and C219). Endoscopic biopsy samples of the duodenum and colon from 16 healthy beagles were used as controls. None of the control dogs had P-gp expression in the apical membrane of duodenal enterocytes, but all had P-gp labelling at the colonic epithelial surface. Twenty out of 57 dogs with LPE had P-gp expression at the apical surface membrane of villus epithelial cells in the duodenum, jejunum and/or ileum. Six out of 16 colonic samples from dogs with LPE had decreased P-gp expression at the epithelial surface compared with controls. It is unclear whether these changes in P-gp expression in dogs with LPE are a cause or a consequence of the inflammation. The observed changes could affect bioavailability of therapeutic drugs used in LPE. PMID:21334003

Van der Heyden, S; Vercauteren, G; Daminet, S; Paepe, D; Chiers, K; Polis, I; Waelbers, T; Hesta, M; Schauvliege, S; Wegge, B; Ducatelle, R

2011-01-01

84

Engineering chloroplasts for high-level foreign protein expression.  

PubMed

Expression of transgenes from the plastid genome offers a number of attractions to biotechnologists, with the potential to attain very high protein accumulation levels arguably being the most attractive one. High-level transgene expression is of particular importance in resistance engineering (e.g., via expression of insecticidal proteins) and molecular farming. Over the past years, the production of many commercially valuable proteins in chloroplast-transgenic (transplastomic) plants has been attempted, including pharmaceutical proteins (such as subunit vaccines and protein antibiotics) and industrial enzymes. Although, in some cases, spectacularly high foreign protein accumulation levels have been obtained, expression levels were disappointingly poor in other cases. In this review, I summarize our current knowledge about the factors influencing the efficiency of plastid transgene expression and highlight possible optimization strategies to alleviate problems with poor expression levels. PMID:24599848

Bock, Ralph

2014-01-01

85

Biochemical interaction of anti-HCV telaprevir with the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein  

PubMed Central

Background The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/ABCB1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2 are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of various substrate drugs. Their activities affect sub-therapeutic drug concentrations and excretion of natural transporter substrates. The new oral anti-HCV drug telaprevir has dramatically improved the efficacy of hepatitis-C virus (HCV) treatment, and recent studies have suggested a possible pharmacological interaction between telaprevir and P-gp. We studied the kinetics of in vitro interactions between telaprevir and P-gp and BCRP to understand the molecular basis of that interaction. Findings The effect of telaprevir on P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport was evaluated by an in vitro vesicle transporter assay using different transport substrates, and the kinetics of transporter inhibition was determined. The results showed that telaprevir could inhibit P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport in the in vitro vesicle transport assay, with each IC50 values of???7 ?mol/L and???30 ?mol/L, respectively. Analyses of Lineweaver–Burk plots showed that telaprevir was likely to be a competitive inhibitor against P-gp and BCRP. Photoaffinity labeling experiments were employed to observe competitive inhibition by telaprevir using iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) as a binding substrate for P-gp and BCRP. These experiments revealed that telaprevir inhibited [125I]-IAAP-binding with P-gp and BCRP. Conclusion Telaprevir competitively inhibited P-gp and BCRP, and P-gp-mediated transport was more sensitive to telaprevir compared with BCRP-mediated transport. These data suggest that telaprevir represses the transporter functions of P-gp and BCRP via direct inhibition. PMID:24196382

2013-01-01

86

Expression and Clinical Significance of Livin Protein in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In this study, the two-step PV method of immunohistochemistry was used to determine livin protein expression in HCC tissues, pericarcinoma tissues, hepatitis/hepatic cirrhosis tissues, and normal hepatic tissues, and livin protein expression was detected in the blood plasma of patients with HCC before and after surgery, subjects with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis, and healthy blood donors using ELISA. Livin protein expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues than that in normal hepatic tissues and hepatitis/hepatic cirrhosis tissues, with no significant difference between HCC tissues and pericarcinoma tissues. The HCC patients with positive livin protein expression had a significantly higher survival rate than those with negative livin protein expression. Livin protein expression was significantly higher in the blood plasma of patients with HCC before and after surgery and in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis than that in healthy blood donors, whereas livin protein expression in the blood plasma of patients with HCC was not significantly different from that of patients with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis. Livin protein expression in HCC tissues did not correlate with that in the blood plasma of the same HCC patients. Livin protein expression may be a potential, effective indicator for assessing prognosis in patients with HCC. PMID:24223461

Gao, Ying-tang; Zhang, Qin; Jing, Li; Liu, Tong; Shi, Wen-xia; Zhai, Dao-kuan; Jing, Xiang; Du, Zhi

2013-01-01

87

Calreticulin: Roles in Cell-Surface Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

In order to perform their designated functions, proteins require precise subcellular localizations. For cell-surface proteins, such as receptors and channels, they are able to transduce signals only when properly targeted to the cell membrane. Calreticulin is a multi-functional chaperone protein involved in protein folding, maturation, and trafficking. However, evidence has been accumulating that calreticulin can also negatively regulate the surface expression of certain receptors and channels. In these instances, depletion of calreticulin enhances cell-surface expression and function. In this review, we discuss the role of calreticulin with a focus on its negative effects on the expression of cell-surface proteins. PMID:25230046

Jiang, Yue; Dey, Sandeepa; Matsunami, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

88

Cerebral uptake of mefloquine enantiomers with and without the P-gp inhibitor elacridar (GF1210918) in mice  

PubMed Central

Mefloquine is a chiral neurotoxic antimalarial agent showing stereoselective brain uptake in humans and rats. It is a substrate and an inhibitor of the efflux protein P-glycoprotein. We investigated the stereoselective uptake and efflux of mefloquine in mice, and the consequences of the combination with an efflux protein inhibitor, elacridar (GF120918) on its brain transport. Racemic mefloquine (25 mg kg?1) was administered intraperitoneally with or without elacridar (10 mg kg?1). Six to seven mice were killed at each of 11 time-points between 30 min and 168 h after administration. Blood and brain concentrations of mefloquine enantiomers were determined using liquid chromatography. A three-compartment model with zero-order absorption from the injection site was found to best represent the pharmacokinetics of both enantiomers in blood and brain. (?)Mefloquine had a lower blood and brain apparent volume of distribution and a lower efflux clearance from the brain, resulting in a larger brain/blood ratio compared to (+)mefloquine. Elacridar did not modify blood concentrations or the elimination rate from blood for either enantiomers. However, cerebral AUCinf of both enantiomers were increased, with a stronger effect on (+)mefloquine. The efflux clearance from the brain decreased for both enantiomers, with a larger decrease for (+)mefloquine. After administration of racemic mefloquine in mice, blood and brain pharmacokinetics are stereoselective, (+)mefloquine being excreted from brain more rapidly than its antipode, showing that mefloquine is a substrate of efflux proteins and that mefloquine enantiomers undergo efflux in a stereoselective manner. Moreover, pretreatment with elacridar reduced the brain efflux clearances with a more pronounced effect on (+)mefloquine. PMID:15023856

de Lagerie, Sylvie Barraud; Comets, Emmanuelle; Gautrand, Celine; Fernandez, Christine; Auchere, Daniel; Singlas, Eric; Mentre, France; Gimenez, Francois

2004-01-01

89

ATP-binding cassette superfamily transporter gene expression in human soft tissue sarcomas.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) in various malignant neoplasms has been reported as being caused by one or multiple expressions of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily protein, including P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 and the MDR protein (MRP) family. However, their expression levels and distribution within soft tissue sarcomas remain controversial. In 86 cases of surgically resected soft tissue sarcoma, intrinsic mRNA levels of MDR1, MRP1, MRP2 and MRP3 were assessed using a quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) method. Moreover, immunohistochemical protein expressions of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), MRP1, MRP2, MRP3 and p53 protein were evaluated in concordant paraffin-embedded material. The mRNA expression and immunohistochemical expression of ABC superfamily transporters were compared to clinicopathologic parameters and proliferative activities as evaluated by the MIB-1-labeling index (LI). Among the various histologic types, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) showed significantly high levels of MDR1 (p=0.017) and MRP3 (p=0.0384) mRNA expression, compared to the other tumor types. When the immunohistochemical method was compared to the RT-PCR technique to assess ABC transported expression at the protein and mRNA levels, a significantly close relationship was found between the 2 methods (p<0.05). P-gp expression was significantly correlated with large tumor size (> or =5 cm, p=0.041) and high AJCC stage (stages III and IV) (p=0.0365). Furthermore, cases with nuclear expression of p53 revealed significantly higher levels of MDR1 mRNA expression, compared to those with negative immunoreaction for p53 (p=0.0328). Our results suggest that MDR1/P-gp expression may have an important role to play in tumor progression in the cases of soft tissue sarcoma, and p53 may be one of the active regulators of the MDR1 transcript. In addition, the high levels of both MDR1 and MRP3 mRNA expression in MPNST may help to explain the poor response of this tumor to anticancer-drugs. PMID:15609299

Oda, Yoshinao; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Tateishi, Naomi; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Kuwano, Michihiko; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi

2005-05-10

90

Protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after chronic clinorotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soluble protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh.) leaf and stem tissue was examined after chronic clinorotation. Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated and plants grown to maturity on horizontal or vertical slow-rotating clinostats (1 rpm) or in stationary vertical control units. Total soluble proteins and in vivo-labeled soluble proteins isolated from these plants were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS PAGE and subsequent fluorography. Visual and computer analysis of the resulting protein patterns showed no significant differences in either total protein expression or in active protein synthesis between horizontal clinorotation and vertical controls in the Arabidopsis leaf and stem tissue. These results show chronic clinorotation does not cause gross changes in protein expression in Arabidopsis.

Piastuch, W. C.; Brown, C. S.

1995-01-01

91

Elevated Fis Expression Enhances Recombinant Protein Production in  

E-print Network

Elevated Fis Expression Enhances Recombinant Protein Production in Escherichia coli Richard Richins 1996; accepted 14 February 1997 Abstract: A genetic strategy to enhance recombinant protein production is discussed. A small DNA bending protein, Fis, which has been shown to activate rRNA syn- thesis upon

Chen, Wilfred

92

Influence of the pro-inflammatory cytokines on P-glycoprotein expression and functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is involved in the transport of many drugs at different barriers with consequence in terms of drug distribution and elimina- tion. The expression and activity of P-gp can be modu- lated by different factors and pathologies. The present article reviews the knowledge regarding the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-2, IFN? ) on the expression

Christine Fernandez; Marion Buyse; Michèle German-Fattal; François Gimenez

93

Pien Tze Huang induces apoptosis in multidrug?resistant U2OS/ADM cells via downregulation of Bcl?2, survivin and P-gp and upregulation of Bax.  

PubMed

Pien Tze Huang (PZH) is a well-known traditional Chinese formula that was first prescribed by a royal physician in the Ming Dynasty. PZH has been used to treat various types of cancers including osteosarcoma. Previous studies have shown that PZH may effectively inhibit osteosarcoma cell growth in vivo and in vitro via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of migratory and invasive abilities. However, little is known regarding the effects of PZH on osteosarcomas that are resistant to chemotherapy, which has emerged as a major clinical problem. In the present study, the cellular effects of PZH on multidrug-resistant U2OS/ADM human osteosarcoma cells were investigated. Our results showed that PZH reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner and arrested cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that PZH inhibits the proliferation of U2OS/ADM cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining revealed typical nuclear features of apoptosis, and treatment with PZH increased the proportion of apoptotic Annexin V-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further experiments demonstrated that apoptosis induction by PZH was accompanied by downregulation of Bcl-2 and survivin and upregulation of Bax. In addition, following treatment with PZH, intracellular Rhodamine 123 accumulation was increased and the expression of P-gp was significantly suppressed. Taken together, these results provide a possible molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of PZH on U2OS/ADM cells and suggest that PZH may be a potent therapeutic agent for drug-resistant osteosarcoma. PMID:24337940

Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qihong; Niu, Susheng; Liu, Junning; Zhang, Li

2014-02-01

94

Site-specific protein double labeling by expressed protein ligation: applications to repeat proteins  

PubMed Central

In the last few years, the use of labeled proteins has significantly expanded in the life sciences. Now, labeled proteins are indispensable tools for a wide spectrum of biophysical and chemical biology applications. In particular, the quest for more sophisticated experimental setups requires the development of new synthetic methodology, especially for multiple site-specific labeling. In this paper, we describe a synthetic strategy based on expressed protein ligation to prepare proteins in high purity and homogeneity, in which two different molecular probes are incorporated specifically at any desired position. Proteins are sequentially labeled in solution, with the advantage that a large excess of probes is not required and the labeled fragments are not restricted to peptide synthesis length limitations. This strategy was applied to selectively label a repeat protein with a fluorophores pair in different positions along the protein sequence. The doubly labeled proteins were prepared at high purity and homogeneity, as required for single molecule FRET studies. Remarkably, this approach can be adapted to the introduction of more than two molecular probes. PMID:22072074

De Rosa, Lucia; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.; Romanelli, Alessandra; Regan, Lynne

2012-01-01

95

Rapid expression screening of eukaryotic membrane proteins in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

The overexpression of milligram quantities of protein remains a key bottleneck in membrane protein structural biology. A challenge of particular difficulty has been the overproduction of eukaryotic membrane proteins. In order to cope with the frequently poor expression levels associated with these challenging proteins, it is often necessary to screen a large number of homologues to find a well expressing clone. To facilitate this process using the heterologous, eukaryotic expression host Pichia pastoris, we have developed a simple fluorescent induction plate-screening assay that allows for the rapid detection of well expressing clones of eukaryotic membrane proteins that have been fused to GFP. Using a eukaryotic membrane protein known to express well in P. pastoris (human aquaporin 4) and homologues of the ER associated membrane protein phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), we demonstrate that when a large number of clones are screened, a small number of highly expressing “jackpot” clones can be isolated. A jackpot PEMT clone resulted in 5 mg/L yield after purification. The method allows for the facile simultaneous screening of hundreds of clones providing an alternate to in-culture screening and will greatly accelerate the search for overexpressing eukaryotic membrane proteins. PMID:23339074

Brooks, Cory L; Morrison, Melissa; Joanne Lemieux, M

2013-01-01

96

Engineering cells to improve protein expression.  

PubMed

Cellular engineering of bacteria, fungi, insect cells and mammalian cells is a promising methodology to improve recombinant protein production for structural, biochemical, and commercial applications. Increased understanding of the host organism biology has suggested engineering strategies targeting bottlenecks in transcription, translation, protein processing and secretory pathways, as well as cell growth and survival. A combination of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology has been used to improve the properties of cells for protein production, which has resulted in enhanced yields of multiple protein classes. PMID:24704806

Xiao, Su; Shiloach, Joseph; Betenbaugh, Michael J

2014-06-01

97

SMAD4 protein expression and cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinomas.  

PubMed

The TGF? signalling pathway is a growth inhibitor system that operates in both normal and tumour cells. Alterations to components of this pathway, including SMAD4, result in resistance to growth inhibition and uncontrolled proliferation. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between SMAD4, a key protein in the growth-inhibiting TGF? pathway; cell proliferation proteins Ki67, p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2); and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins as well as prognostic indicators in colorectal adenocarcinomas. A series of 230 sporadic colorectal adenocarcinomas were studied using tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry for SMAD4, Ki67, p27, SKP2 and MMR protein (hMLH1, hMSH2 and hMSH6) expression. Protein expression was analysed with respect to pathological prognostic criteria. Loss of SMAD4 nuclear expression (27/230, 12%) correlated with the presence of lymph node metastases, MMR protein expression and the absence of p27 in tumour cells (p?=?0.04, p?=?0.08 and p?=?0.03, respectively). A high Ki67 index did not correlate with SMAD4 expression; however, it did correlate with moderate or poor histological differentiation, SKP2 expression and aberrant or absent MMR protein expression (p?=?0.02, p?expression but not with high cellular proliferation. However, high proliferation correlated with SKP2 and aberrant MMR protein expression. Although the advantage of immunohistochemistry is high throughput, our results allow only an initial evaluation, and subsequent studies, including genetic analyses, are required. PMID:22002709

Handra-Luca, Adriana; Olschwang, Sylviane; Fléjou, Jean-François

2011-11-01

98

Site-Specific Conjugation of RAFT Polymers to Proteins via Expressed Protein Ligation  

PubMed Central

Site-specific protein conjugates with RAFT polymers were synthesized using expressed protein ligation. Stable micelles were formed from both linear block copolymer and Y-shaped conjugates. PMID:23423478

Xia, Yan; Tang, Shengchang

2014-01-01

99

Chemometrics of differentially expressed proteins from colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of differentially expressed proteins from colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues for differentiating cancer and normal tissues. METHODS: A Proteomic approach was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins between CRC and normal tissues. The proteins were extracted using Tris buffer and thiourea lysis buffer (TLB) for extraction of aqueous soluble and membrane-associated proteins, respectively. Chemometrics, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were used to assess the usefulness of these proteins for identifying the cancerous state of tissues. RESULTS: Differentially expressed proteins identified were 37 aqueous soluble proteins in Tris extracts and 24 membrane-associated proteins in TLB extracts. Based on the protein spots intensity on 2D-gel images, PCA by applying an eigenvalue > 1 was successfully used to reduce the number of principal components (PCs) into 12 and seven PCs for Tris and TLB extracts, respectively, and subsequently six PCs, respectively from both the extracts were used for LDA. The LDA classification for Tris extract showed 82.7% of original samples were correctly classified, whereas 82.7% were correctly classified for the cross-validated samples. The LDA for TLB extract showed that 78.8% of original samples and 71.2% of the cross-validated samples were correctly classified. CONCLUSION: The classification of CRC tissues by PCA and LDA provided a promising distinction between normal and cancer types. These methods can possibly be used for identification of potential biomarkers among the differentially expressed proteins identified. PMID:21547128

Yeoh, Lay-Chin; Dharmaraj, Saravanan; Gooi, Boon-Hui; Singh, Manjit; Gam, Lay-Harn

2011-01-01

100

Inhibitory activity of a green tea extract and some of its constituents on multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 functionality.  

PubMed

Green tea extracts (GTE) might modulate ABC transporter gene expression or function. This may be relevant in the treatment of cancer or in influencing intestinal drug permeability. To gain more insight on the influence of a GTE on secretory transport proteins we investigated the influence of GTE and several green tea components on the mRNA expression level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in human gastrointestinal epithelial LS-180 cells. Furthermore, the functional activity of MRP2, using glutathione methylfluorescein (GS-MF) or [3H]methotrexate (MTX) as substrate, was investigated in canine kidney cells stably overexpressing human MRP2 (MDCK-MRP2). GTE, at a concentration of 0.01 mg/mL, did not increase mRNA expression of P-gp or MRP2 in LS-180 cells. Functional assays in MDCK-MRP2 cells using GS-MF did not show any effect of 0.01 mg/mL GTE on MRP2 activity. In the same cell line the cellular accumulation of MTX (a specific substrate of MRP2) was significantly increased with the MRP-specific inhibitor MK-571 or with 1 mg/mL GTE, but not with 0.1 mg/mL. The green tea components (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, theanine, or caffeine, each in corresponding concentrations to the respective concentration of GTE, did not show any effect on MRP2 function. These data demonstrate that the mRNA expression patterns of P-gp and MRP2 in LS-180 cells are not altered by 0.01 mg/mL of GTE. However, MRP2 function was inhibited by 1 mg/mL GTE, whereas none of the green tea components tested were responsible for this effect. PMID:15729621

Netsch, M I; Gutmann, H; Luescher, S; Brill, S; Schmidlin, C B; Kreuter, M H; Drewe, J

2005-02-01

101

Functional expression of P-glycoprotein in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts and BeWo cells  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to investigate the functional expression of the efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts and BeWo cell monolayers. Uptake studies with primary ...

Utoguchi, Naoki; Chandorkar, Gurudatt A.; Avery, Michael; Audus, Kenneth L.

2000-01-01

102

Protein Production for Structural Genomics Using E. coli Expression  

PubMed Central

The goal of structural biology is to reveal details of the molecular structure of proteins in order to understand their function and mechanism. X-ray crystallography and NMR are the two best methods for atomic level structure determination. However, these methods require milligram quantities of proteins. In this chapter a reproducible methodology for large-scale protein production applicable to a diverse set of proteins is described. The approach is based on protein expression in E. coli as a fusion with a cleavable affinity tag that was tested on over 20,000 proteins. Specifically, a protocol for fermentation of large quantities of native proteins in disposable culture vessels is presented. A modified protocol that allows for the production of selenium-labeled proteins in defined media is also offered. Finally, a method for the purification of His6-tagged proteins on immobilized metal affinity chromatography columns that generates high-purity material is described in detail. PMID:24590711

Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Maltseva, Natalia; Li, Hui; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2014-01-01

103

Stress responses to heterologous membrane protein expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The stress response of E. coli to the expression of two recombinant membrane proteins, the E. coli AAA+ protease FtsH and the human G-protein coupled receptor CB1, was examined using several members of a promoter-GFP library. Several genes from the heat-shock and envelope stress regulons (rpoH, clpP, lon, and ftsH) were strongly induced by expression of either membrane protein. Flow cytometry was used to monitor the real-time dynamics of the transcription of these reporter genes in response to membrane protein expression. Co-expression of CB1 and FtsH led to an additive response in these four reporter genes suggesting that the stresses may be occurring via different physiological mechanisms. PMID:19588252

Xu, Lucy Y; Link, A James

2009-11-01

104

Membrane protein expression triggers chromosomal locus repositioning in bacteria  

PubMed Central

It has long been hypothesized that subcellular positioning of chromosomal loci in bacteria may be influenced by gene function and expression state. Here we provide direct evidence that membrane protein expression affects the position of chromosomal loci in Escherichia coli. For two different membrane proteins, we observed a dramatic shift of their genetic loci toward the membrane upon induction. In related systems in which a cytoplasmic protein was produced, or translation was eliminated by mutating the start codon, a shift was not observed. Antibiotics that block transcription and translation similarly prevented locus repositioning toward the membrane. We also found that repositioning is relatively rapid and can be detected at positions that are a considerable distance on the chromosome from the gene encoding the membrane protein (>90 kb). Given that membrane protein-encoding genes are distributed throughout the chromosome, their expression may be an important mechanism for maintaining the bacterial chromosome in an expanded and dynamic state. PMID:22529375

Libby, Elizabeth A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark

2012-01-01

105

Protein Expression Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Brain Development  

PubMed Central

We explored differential protein expression profiles in the mouse forebrain at different stages of postnatal development, including 10-day (P10), 30-day (P30), and adult (Ad) mice, by large-scale screening of proteome maps using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 251 differentially expressed proteins. Most molecular changes were observed between P10 compared to both P30 and Ad. Computational ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) confirmed these proteins as crucial molecules in the biological function of nervous system development. Moreover, IPA revealed Semaphorin signaling in neurons and the protein ubiquitination pathway as essential canonical pathways in the mouse forebrain during postnatal development. For these main biological pathways, the transcriptional regulation of the age-dependent expression of selected proteins was validated by means of in situ hybridization. In conclusion, we suggest that proteolysis and neurite outgrowth guidance are key biological processes, particularly during early brain maturation. PMID:25157209

Laeremans, Annelies; Van de Plas, Babs; Clerens, Stefan; Van den Bergh, Gert; Arckens, Lutgarde; Hu, Tjing-Tjing

2013-01-01

106

Saturable active efflux by p-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein at the blood-brain barrier leads to nonlinear distribution of elacridar to the central nervous system.  

PubMed

The study objective was to investigate factors that affect the central nervous system (CNS) distribution of elacridar. Elacridar inhibits transport mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and has been used to study the influence of transporters on brain distribution of chemotherapeutics. Adequate distribution of elacridar across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and into the brain parenchyma is necessary to target tumor cells in the brain that overexpress transporters and reside behind an intact BBB. We examined the role of P-gp and Bcrp on brain penetration of elacridar using Friend leukemia virus strain B wild-type, Mdr1a/b(-/-), Bcrp1(-/-), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice. Initially, the mice were administered 2.5 mg/kg of elacridar intravenously, and the plasma and brain concentrations were determined. The brain-to-plasma partition coefficient of elacridar in the wild-type mice was 0.82, as compared with 3.5 in Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice, 6.6 in Bcrp1(-/-) mice, and 15 in Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice, indicating that both P-gp and Bcrp limit the brain distribution of elacridar. The four genotypes were then administered increasing doses of elacridar, and the CNS distribution of elacridar was determined. The observed and model predicted maximum brain-to-plasma ratios (Emax) at the highest dose were not significantly different in all genotypes. However, the ED50 was lower for Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice compared with Bcrp1(-/-) mice. These findings correlate with the relative expression of P-gp and Bcrp at the BBB in these mice and demonstrate the quantitative enhancement in elacridar CNS distribution as a function of its dose. Overall, this study provides useful concepts for future applications of elacridar as an adjuvant therapy to improve targeting of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor cells in the brain parenchyma. PMID:23397054

Sane, Ramola; Agarwal, Sagar; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Elmquist, William F

2013-04-01

107

Pooled ORF Expression Technology (POET) USING PROTEOMICS TO SCREEN POOLS OF OPEN READING FRAMES FOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION*S  

E-print Network

clones yielded 47­374 mg of purified protein/liter. Using POET, pools of ORFs can be con- structed developed a pooled ORF expression technology, POET, that uses recombinational cloning and proteomic methods, the proce- dures needed to subclone, express, purify, and assay pro- tein expression for hundreds of clones

108

Expression of the sucrose binding protein from soybean: Renaturation and stability of the recombinant protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sucrose binding protein (SBP) belongs to the cupin family of proteins and is structurally related to vicilin-like storage proteins. In this investigation, a SBP isoform (GmSBP2\\/S64) was expressed in E. coli and large amounts of the protein accumulated in the insoluble fraction as inclusion bodies. The renatured protein was studied by circular dichroism (CD), intrinsic fluorescence, and binding of

Carolina S. Rocha; Dirce F. Luz; Marli L. Oliveira; Maria C. Baracat-Pereira; Francisco Javier Medrano; Elizabeth P. B. Fontes

2007-01-01

109

Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer\\/testis (CT) antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS) malignancies, in order

Fabio Grizzi; Paolo Gaetani; Barbara Franceschini; Antonio Di Ieva; Piergiuseppe Colombo; Giorgia Ceva-Grimaldi; Angelo Bollati; Eldo E Frezza; E Cobos; Riccardo Rodriguez y Baena; Nicola Dioguardi; Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

2006-01-01

110

Multiple folding pathways for heterologously expressed human prion protein  

E-print Network

Multiple folding pathways for heterologously expressed human prion protein Graham S. Jackson , Anthony R. Clarke a , John Collinge aY * a Prion Disease Group, Department of Neurogenetics, Imperial-conformation in free solution. The data we present here shows that the human prion protein can exist in multiple

Hosszu, Laszlo

111

Enhanced membrane protein expression by engineering increased intracellular membrane production  

PubMed Central

Background Membrane protein research is frequently hampered by the low natural abundance of these proteins in cells and typically relies on recombinant gene expression. Different expression systems, like mammalian cells, insect cells, bacteria and yeast are being used, but very few research efforts have been directed towards specific host cell customization for enhanced expression of membrane proteins. Here we show that by increasing the intracellular membrane production by interfering with a key enzymatic step of lipid synthesis, enhanced expression of membrane proteins in yeast is achieved. Results We engineered the oleotrophic yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, by deleting the phosphatidic acid phosphatase, PAH1, which led to massive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. For all eight tested representatives of different integral membrane protein families, we obtained enhanced protein accumulation levels and in some cases enhanced proteolytic integrity in the ?pah1 strain. We analysed the adenosine A2AR G-protein coupled receptor case in more detail and found that concomitant induction of the unfolded protein response in the ?pah1 strain enhanced the specific ligand binding activity of the receptor. These data indicate an improved quality control mechanism for membrane proteins accumulating in yeast cells with proliferated ER. Conclusions We conclude that redirecting the metabolic flux of fatty acids away from triacylglycerol- and sterylester-storage towards membrane phospholipid synthesis by PAH1 gene inactivation, provides a valuable approach to enhance eukaryotic membrane protein production. Complementary to this improvement in membrane protein quantity, UPR co-induction further enhances the quality of the membrane protein in terms of its proper folding and biological activity. Importantly, since these pathways are conserved in all eukaryotes, it will be of interest to investigate similar engineering approaches in other cell types of biotechnological interest, such as insect cells and mammalian cells. PMID:24321035

2013-01-01

112

Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Differentially Expressed in Preeclamptic Trophoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To identify differential trophoblastic proteins associated with preeclampsia (PE) by proteomic analysis. Methods: We isolated and purified placental trophoblasts from normotensive pregnant women and patients with PE by a continuous Percoll gradient. The expression of proteins was determined by sliver staining after two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Proteins of interest were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of

Li-zhou Sun; Na-na Yang; Wei De; Yun-shan Xiao

2007-01-01

113

Proteomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum core metabolism: relative protein expression profiles and growth phase-dependent changes in protein expression  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium thermocellum produces H2 and ethanol, as well as CO2, acetate, formate, and lactate, directly from cellulosic biomass. It is therefore an attractive model for biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. Optimization of end-product yields and titres is crucial for making biofuel production economically feasible. Relative protein expression profiles may provide targets for metabolic engineering, while understanding changes in protein expression and metabolism in response to carbon limitation, pH, and growth phase may aid in reactor optimization. We performed shotgun 2D-HPLC-MS/MS on closed-batch cellobiose-grown exponential phase C. thermocellum cell-free extracts to determine relative protein expression profiles of core metabolic proteins involved carbohydrate utilization, energy conservation, and end-product synthesis. iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) based protein quantitation was used to determine changes in core metabolic proteins in response to growth phase. Results Relative abundance profiles revealed differential levels of putative enzymes capable of catalyzing parallel pathways. The majority of proteins involved in pyruvate catabolism and end-product synthesis were detected with high abundance, with the exception of aldehyde dehydrogenase, ferredoxin-dependent Ech-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase, and RNF-type NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Using 4-plex 2D-HPLC-MS/MS, 24% of the 144 core metabolism proteins detected demonstrated moderate changes in expression during transition from exponential to stationary phase. Notably, proteins involved in pyruvate synthesis decreased in stationary phase, whereas proteins involved in glycogen metabolism, pyruvate catabolism, and end-product synthesis increased in stationary phase. Several proteins that may directly dictate end-product synthesis patterns, including pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and a putative bifurcating hydrogenase, demonstrated differential expression during transition from exponential to stationary phase. Conclusions Relative expression profiles demonstrate which proteins are likely utilized in carbohydrate utilization and end-product synthesis and suggest that H2 synthesis occurs via bifurcating hydrogenases while ethanol synthesis is predominantly catalyzed by a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Differences in expression profiles of core metabolic proteins in response to growth phase may dictate carbon and electron flux towards energy storage compounds and end-products. Combined knowledge of relative protein expression levels and their changes in response to physiological conditions may aid in targeted metabolic engineering strategies and optimization of fermentation conditions for improvement of biofuels production. PMID:22994686

2012-01-01

114

Colorectal cancers differ in respect of PARP-1 protein expression  

E-print Network

Recent findings raise the possibility of PARP inhibitor therapy in colorectal cancers(CRCs). However, the extent of PARP-1 protein expression in clinical specimens of CRC is not known. Using immunohistochemistry we assessed PARP-1 protein expression in tissue microarrays of 151 CRCs and its association with the patient's age, sex, Astler-Coller stage, grade and site of the tumor. High PARP nuclear immunoreactivity was found in 68.2% (103/151) of all cases. In turn, 31.8% (48/151)of tumors showed low PARP expression, including 9 (6%) PARP-1 negative CRCs. There was a significant association of PARP-1 expression with the site of CRC and Astler-Coller stage. A high PARP expression was noted in 79.1% of colon vs. 53.9% of rectal tumors (p = 0.001). The mean PARP-1 score was 1.27 times higher in colon vs. rectal cancers (p = 0.009) and it was higher in stage B2 vs. stage C of CRCs (p = 0.018). In conclusion, the level of PARP-1 protein nuclear expression is associated with the tumor site and heterogeneous across clinical specimens of CRC, with the majority of CRCs expressing a high level but minority - low or no PARP-1 expression. These findings may have a clinical significance because the assessment of PARP-1 expression in tumor samples may improve selection of patients with CRC for PARP inhibitor therapy.

Violetta Sulzyc-Bielicka; Pawel Domagala; Jolanta Hybiak; Anna Majewicz-Broda; Krzysztof Safranow; Wenancjusz Domagala

2012-07-25

115

Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

Rosano, German L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

2014-01-01

116

Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression  

PubMed Central

Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

2012-01-01

117

Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins in epithelial intestinal cells in vivo Short title: HCV protein expression in intestine  

E-print Network

E, apolipoprotein E; ER, endoplasmic reticulum. Correspondence: Patrice ANDRE, INSERM U503, 21 avenue Tony GarnierExpression of hepatitis C virus proteins in epithelial intestinal cells in vivo Short title: HCV epithelial cells in 4 out of 10 chronically infected patients and not in controls. Cells expressing HCV

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

118

Identification of Differentially Expressed Serum Proteins in Infectious Purpura Fulminans  

PubMed Central

Purpura fulminans (PF) is a life-threatening hemorrhagic condition. Because of the rarity and randomness of the disease, no improvement in treatment has been made for a long time. In this study, we assessed the serum proteome response to PF by comparing serum proteins between healthy controls and PF patient. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach was used after depleting 6 abundant proteins of serum. In total, 262 proteins were confidently identified with 2 unique peptides, and 38 proteins were identified significantly up- (?2) or downregulated (?0.5) based on spectral counting ratios (SpCPF/N). In the 38 proteins with significant abundance changes, 11 proteins were previously known to be associated with burn or sepsis response, but 27 potentially novel proteins may be specifically associated with PF process. Two differentially expressed proteins, alpha-1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and alpha-2 antiplasmin (SERPINF2), were validated by Western blot. This is the first study where PF patient and healthy controls are compared in a proteomic study to elucidate proteins involved in the response to PF. This study provides an initial basis for future studies of PF, and the differentially expressed proteins might provide new therapeutic targets to decrease the mortality of PF. PMID:24659849

Hu, Jiong-yu; Han, Jian; Zhang, Dong-xia; Jiang, Xu-pin; Chen, Bing; Huang, Yue-sheng

2014-01-01

119

Expressing and purifying membrane transport proteins in high yield.  

PubMed

Structural analysis of native or recombinant membrane transport proteins has been hampered by the lack of effective methodologies to purify sufficient quantities of active protein. We addressed this problem by expressing a polyhistidine tagged construct of the cardiac sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX1) in Trichoplusia ni larvae (caterpillars) from which membrane vesicles were prepared. Larvae vesicles containing recombinant NCX1-his protein supported NCX1 transport activity that was mechanistically not different from activity in native cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles although the specific activity was reduced. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of both the 120 and 70 kDa forms of the NCX1 protein. Larvae vesicle proteins were solubilized in sodium cholate detergent and fractionated on a chelated Ni(2+) affinity chromatography column. After extensive washing, eluted fractions were mixed with soybean phospholipids and reconstituted. The resulting proteoliposomes contained NCX1 activity suggesting the protein retained native conformation. SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at 120 and 70 kDa. Purification of large amounts of active NCX1 via this methodology should facilitate biophysical analysis of the protein. The larva expression system has broad-based application for membrane proteins where expression and purification of quantities required for physical analyses is problematic. PMID:11741710

Hale, Calvin C; Hill, Chananada K; Price, Elmer M; Bossuyt, Julie

2002-01-01

120

Lentiviral Fluorescent Protein Expression Vectors for Biotinylation Proteomics  

PubMed Central

In vivo biotinylation tagging, based on a method in which a protein of interest is tagged with a peptide that is biotinylated in vivo by coexpression of E.coli BirA biotin ligase, has been successfully used for isolation of protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes in mammalian cells. We describe a modification of this methodology in which cells stably expressing the tagged gene of interest and the BirA gene can be selected by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). We recently implemented this approach to isolate and characterize proteins associated with TLX1, a homeodomain transcription factor with leukemogenic function. The modified technique utilizes two components: a lentiviral vector coexpressing the gene of interest containing a biotinylation tag on a bicistronic transcript together with a downstream yellow fluorescent protein gene; and a second lentiviral vector encoding a fusion protein composed of bacterial BirA linked to the green fluorescent protein. This FACS-based binary in vivo biotinylation tagging system allows precise control over the levels of BirA-mediated biotinylation as well as the expression of the gene of interest, which is especially important if high-level expression negatively impacts cell growth or viability. PMID:21116996

Riz, Irene; Hawley, Teresa S.; Hawley, Robert G.

2012-01-01

121

Multifactorial determinants of protein expression in prokaryotic open reading frames  

PubMed Central

A quantitative description of the relationship between protein expression levels and open reading frame nucleotide sequences (ORFs) is important for understanding natural systems, designing synthetic systems, and optimizing heterologous expression. Codon identity, mRNA secondary structure, and nucleotide composition within ORFs markedly influence expression levels. Bioinformatic analysis of ORF sequences in 816 bacterial genomes revealed that these features show distinct regional trends. To investigate their effects on protein expression, we designed 285 synthetic genes and determined corresponding expression levels in vitro using E. coli extracts. We developed a mathematical function, parameterized using this synthetic gene dataset, which enables computation of protein expression levels from ORF nucleotide sequences. In addition to its practical application in the design of heterologous expression systems, this equation provides mechanistic insight into the factors that control translation efficiency. We found that expression is strongly dependent on the presence of high AU content and low secondary structure in the ORF 5? region. Choice of high-frequency codons contributes to a lesser extent. The 3? terminal AU content makes modest, but detectable contributions. We present a model for the effect of these factors on the three phases of ribosomal function: initiation, elongation, and termination. PMID:20727358

Allert, Malin; Cox, J. Colin; Hellinga, Homme W.

2010-01-01

122

KAI-1 protein expression in odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

The KAI-1 tumor suppressor gene is widely distributed in normal tissues and its down-regulation may be correlated with the invasive phenotype and metastases in several different epithelial tumors. The aim of the present study was an evaluation of KAI-1 expression in radicular cysts (RC), follicular cysts (FC), orthokeratinized keratocysts (OOKC), and parakeratinized keratocysts (POKC). Eighty-five odontogenic cysts, 28 RC, 22 FC, and 35 OKC (16 OOKC, 19 POKC) were selected. All the POKC were negative and only four of 16 of the OOKC were positive for KAI-1. On the contrary, all RC and FC cases were positive and immunoreactivity for KAI-1 was detected throughout all the layers of the cyst epithelium. The lack of KAI-1 expression in POKC could help to explain the differences in the clinical and pathologic behavior of OKC and, according to what has been reported for epithelial tumors, could be related to the increased aggressive behavior and invasiveness of OKC. PMID:17320703

Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Artese, Luciano; Goteri, Gaia; Fioroni, Massimiliano; Rubini, Corrado

2007-03-01

123

Expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins: A macroarray study.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in Poland, with well-established risk factors. Genetic instability and molecular alterations responsible for endometrial carcinogenesis have been systematically investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of cDNA macroarrays, the expression profiles of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in ECs. Tissue specimens were collected during surgical procedures from 40 patients with EC, and control tissue was collected from 9 patients with uterine leiomyomas. RNA was isolated and RT-PCR with radioisotope-labeled cDNA was performed. The levels of ECM protein gene expression in normal endometrial tissues were compared to the expression of these genes in EC specimens. Statistically significant differences in gene expression, stratified by clinical stage of the ECs, were detected for aggrecan, vitronectin, tenascin R, nidogen and two collagen proteins: type VIII chain ?1 and type XI chain ?2. All of these proteins were overexpressed in stage III endometrial carcinomas compared to levels in stage I and II uterine neoplasms. In conclusion, increased expression of genes encoding ECM proteins may play an important role in facilitating accelerated disease progression of human ECs. PMID:25231141

Futyma, Konrad; Miot?a, Pawe?; Ró?y?ska, Krystyna; Zdunek, Ma?gorzata; Semczuk, Andrzej; Rechberger, Tomasz; Wojcierowski, Jacek

2014-12-01

124

Expression of non-glial intermediate filament proteins in gliomas.  

PubMed

Non-glial intermediate filament (IMF) proteins, as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, were studied by immunohistochemistry in 24 gliomas including low grade astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma and ependymoblastoma, which were fixed in ethanol and embedded in paraffin. Cytoskeletal elements isolated from two glioblastomas were examined with immunoblot analysis. All tumors had GFAP-positive neoplastic cells and vimentin was also found in all the tumors except one oligodendroglioma. Twenty-three gliomas were immunostained with anti-desmin polyclonal antibody (DM-P), but anti-desmin monoclonal antibody reacted to only one glioblastoma. DM-P might crossreact with GFAP and vimentin. Cytokeratin expression was investigated with six antibodies. Twenty gliomas (83%) were positive for the antibody against epidermal keratin (CK-SE), however positive immunoreactivity varied from 58 to 8% with other cytokeratin antibodies. With the Western blot method, CK-SE had protein bands at 53 and 60-66 kDa. Neurofilament was expressed in one pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, one anaplastic astrocytoma, one glioblastoma and one ependymoblastoma. Expression of nonglial IMF proteins were observed in 21 tumors (88%), and coexpression of 4 or 5 classes of IMF proteins in 3 tumors (13%). We conclude that, in addition to GFAP and vimentin, gliomas express several types of non-glial IMF proteins. PMID:7518371

Hirato, J; Nakazato, Y; Ogawa, A

1994-01-01

125

Effects of licochalcone A on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats: possible role of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibition by licochalcone A.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of licochalcone A (a herbal medicine) on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine and its main metabolite, dehydronifedipine, in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine and/or dehydronifedipine were determined after oral and intravenous administration of nifedipine to rats in the absence (control) and presence of licochalcone A (0.4, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg). The effect of licochalcone A on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity was also evaluated. Nifedipine was mainly metabolized by CYP3A4. Licochalcone A inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) of 5.9 ?m. In addition, licochalcone A significantly enhanced the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) of oral nifedipine were significantly greater and higher, respectively, with licochalcone A. The metabolite (dehydronifedipine)-parent AUC ratio (MR) in the presence of licochalcone A was significantly smaller compared with the control group. The above data could be due to an inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp by licochalcone A. The AUCs of intravenous nifedipine were comparable without and with licochalcone A, suggesting that inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4 and P-gp was almost negligible. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24903704

Choi, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jun-Shik; Choi, Dong-Hyun

2014-10-01

126

Protein co-expression network analysis (ProCoNA)  

PubMed Central

Background Biological networks are important for elucidating disease etiology due to their ability to model complex high dimensional data and biological systems. Proteomics provides a critical data source for such models, but currently lacks robust de novo methods for network construction, which could bring important insights in systems biology. Results We have evaluated the construction of network models using methods derived from weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). We show that approximately scale-free peptide networks, composed of statistically significant modules, are feasible and biologically meaningful using two mouse lung experiments and one human plasma experiment. Within each network, peptides derived from the same protein are shown to have a statistically higher topological overlap and concordance in abundance, which is potentially important for inferring protein abundance. The module representatives, called eigenpeptides, correlate significantly with biological phenotypes. Furthermore, within modules, we find significant enrichment for biological function and known interactions (gene ontology and protein-protein interactions). Conclusions Biological networks are important tools in the analysis of complex systems. In this paper we evaluate the application of weighted co-expression network analysis to quantitative proteomics data. Protein co-expression networks allow novel approaches for biological interpretation, quality control, inference of protein abundance, a framework for potentially resolving degenerate peptide-protein mappings, and a biomarker signature discovery. PMID:23724967

2013-01-01

127

CyclinD1 protein expressed in pterygia is associated with ?-catenin protein localization  

PubMed Central

Background The Wnt (Wg/Wnt) signaling cascade plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Our previous report indicated that aberrant localization of ?-catenin proteins was a feature of pterygia. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the association of ?-catenin protein and expression of a downstream gene, cyclin D1, in pterygial tissues. Methods Using immunohistochemistry, ?-catenin and cyclin D1 protein expression was studied, in 150 pterygial specimens and 30 normal conjunctivas. Results Seventy-three (48.7%) and 60 (40.0%) pterygial specimens tested positive for ?-catenin and cyclin D1 protein expression, respectively. Cyclin D1protein expression was significantly higher in ?-catenin-nuclear/cytoplasmic positive groups than in ?-catenin membrane positive and negative groups (p<0.0001). In addition, cyclin D1 expression was significantly higher in the fleshy group than in the atrophic and intermediate groups (p=0.006). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that ?-catenin expressed in nuclei/cytoplasm increases cyclinD1 protein expression, which invokes pterygial cell proliferation. PMID:21179427

Tung, Jai-Nien; Chiang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Yu; Chou, Ying-Yi; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lee, Huei

2010-01-01

128

Expression of the red fluorescent protein DsRed-Express in filamentous ascomycete fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently reported red fluorescent protein DsRed from the reef coral Discosoma sp. represents a new marker that has been codon-optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. To facilitate expression of DsRed in ascomycete fungi, we used the clone pDsRed-Express (Clontech) for constructing a plasmid vector, pPgpd-DsRed, containing the constitutive Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (gpd) promoter. This vector was used

Lisbeth Mikkelsen; Sabrina Sarrocco; Mette Lübeck; Dan Funck Jensen

2003-01-01

129

MRF4 protein expression in regenerating rat muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myogenic transcription factors of the MyoD family are not expressed in normal adult skeletal muscle. They are upregulated at the transcript and protein levels in a precisely coordinated manner during regeneration. While the cellular distribution of MyoD, myf-5, and myogenin expression in regenerating muscle is well documented, little is known about the exact localization of MRF4. It was the

Zhe Zhou; Antje Bornemann

2001-01-01

130

mdm2 gene mediates the expression of mdr1 gene and P-glycoprotein in a human glioblastoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overexpression of the multidrug resistance (mdr1) gene and its product, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is thought to limit the successful chemotherapy of human tumours. The mechanism by which mdr1 gene and P-gp are overexpressed in human tumours, however, is not yet clear. In this report, we show that the mdm2 (murine double minute 2) gene induced the expression of the mdr1

S Kondo; Y Kondo; H Hara; R Kaakaji; JW Peterson; T Morimura; J Takeuchi; GH Barnett

1996-01-01

131

Spatiotemporal expression profiling of proteins in rat sciatic nerve regeneration using reverse phase protein arrays  

PubMed Central

Background Protein expression profiles throughout 28 days of peripheral nerve regeneration were characterized using an established rat sciatic nerve transection injury model. Reverse phase protein microarrays were used to identify the spatial and temporal expression profile of multiple proteins implicated in peripheral nerve regeneration including growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and proteins involved in adhesion and migration. This high-throughput approach enabled the simultaneous analysis of 3,360 samples on a nitrocellulose-coated slide. Results The extracellular matrix proteins collagen I and III, laminin gamma-1, fibronectin, nidogen and versican displayed an early increase in protein levels in the guide and proximal sections of the regenerating nerve with levels at or above the baseline expression of intact nerve by the end of the 28 day experimental course. The 28 day protein levels were also at or above baseline in the distal segment however an early increase was only noted for laminin, nidogen, and fibronectin. While the level of epidermal growth factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor-1 and -2 increased throughout the experimental course in the proximal and distal segments, nerve growth factor only increased in the distal segment and fibroblast growth factor-1 and -2 and nerve growth factor were the only proteins in that group to show an early increase in the guide contents. As expected, several proteins involved in cell adhesion and motility; namely focal adhesion kinase, N-cadherin and ?-catenin increased earlier in the proximal and distal segments than in the guide contents reflecting the relatively acellular matrix of the early regenerate. Conclusions In this study we identified changes in expression of multiple proteins over time linked to regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve both demonstrating the utility of reverse phase protein arrays in nerve regeneration research and revealing a detailed, composite spatiotemporal expression profile of peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:22325251

2012-01-01

132

Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation.

Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Narayanan, A. Sampath [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, UW, Seattle (United States); Zeichner-David, Margarita [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, USC, Los Angeles (United States); Reyes-Gasga, Jose [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM (Mexico); Molina-Guarneros, Juan [Facultad de Medicina, UNAM (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Chavarria, Ivet Gil [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Arzate, Higinio [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: harzate@servidor.unam.mx

2007-07-06

133

Identification of novel protein-protein interactions using a versatile mammalian tandem affinity purification expression system.  

PubMed

Identification of protein-protein interactions is essential for elucidating the biochemical mechanism of signal transduction. Purification and identification of individual proteins in mammalian cells have been difficult, however, due to the sheer complexity of protein mixtures obtained from cellular extracts. Recently, a tandem affinity purification (TAP) method has been developed as a tool that allows rapid purification of native protein complexes expressed at their natural level in engineered yeast cells. To adapt this method to mammalian cells, we have created a TAP tag retroviral expression vector to allow stable expression of the TAP-tagged protein at close to physiological levels. To demonstrate the utility of this vector, we have fused a TAP tag, consisting of a protein A tag, a cleavage site for the tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease, and the FLAG epitope, to the N terminus of human SMAD3 and SMAD4. We have stably expressed these proteins in mammalian cells at desirable levels by retroviral gene transfer and purified native SMAD3 protein complexes from cell lysates. The combination of two different affinity tags greatly reduced the number of nonspecific proteins in the mixture. We have identified HSP70 as a specific interacting protein of SMAD3. We demonstrated that SMAD3, but not SMAD1, binds HSP70 in vivo, validating the TAP purification approach. This method is applicable to virtually any protein and provides an efficient way to purify unknown proteins to homogeneity from the complex mixtures found in mammalian cell lysates in preparation for identification by mass spectrometry. PMID:12963786

Knuesel, Matthew; Wan, Yong; Xiao, Zhan; Holinger, Eric; Lowe, Nick; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xuedong

2003-11-01

134

Expression and diagnostic value of proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We constructed a prokaryotic expression vector expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein TB16.3, as well as 3 other proteins, including TB15.3, CFP-10, and Rv2626C, which were purified and analyzed for their effectiveness as detection antibodies. The TB16.3 genes of M. tuberculosis H37Rv genomic DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, inserted into the expression vector pET-30a, and expressed in Escherichia coli. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the 4 M. tuberculosis antibodies. Engineered E. coli bacteria expressing TB16.3 and the 3 other proteins were constructed and found mainly to be soluble. For recombinant TB16.3 proteins, serum samples of 118 tuberculosis (TB) patients and 96 healthy controls were analyzed. Sensitivity, specificity, and adjusted concordance rate for the TB16.3 antibody were 72.9, 86.5, and 79.6%, respectively. The positive rate of Rv2626C antibody in TB patients (44.1%) was significantly lower than that in normal controls (75.0%, ?(2) = 20.8, P < 0.01). TB15.3 and TB16.3 were used for simultaneous detection and showed sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability rates of 69.4, 96.9, and 83.7%. The antibody positive rate and specificity for patients with lung disease was 9.6 and 90.4%, respectively. TB15.3 and TB16.3 were mixed and detected simultaneously. Combined with the results for TB15.3, the sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates were 82.2, 95.9, and 88.9%, respectively. The concordance rate was the highest value observed. Target genes were cloned into a host strain and expressed successfully. The TB16.3 recombinant protein may be used as a new serological antigen for tuberculosis diagnosis. PMID:25299092

Zhu, Z Y; Liu, Y; Wang, H B; Xiao, J Z; Qiu, Y F; Yan, L; Chen, D; Liu, A G; Yang, X

2014-01-01

135

Methods and constructs for expression of foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms  

DOEpatents

A method for expressing and purifying foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms comprising the simultaneous expression of both the heterologous protein and a means for compartmentalizing or sequestering of the protein.

Laible, Philip D. (Villa Park, IL); Hanson, Deborah K. (Downers Grove, IL)

2002-01-01

136

Reprint of: Expression and purification of ataxin-1 protein.  

PubMed

Ataxin-1 is part of a larger family of polyglutamine-containing proteins that is linked to nine distinct neurodegenerative disorders. There are no known effective therapies for any of these expanded polyglutamine tract disorders. One possible reason for this is the lack of sufficient amounts of pure polyglutamine-containing proteins suitable for biochemical and conformational studies. Here, we show that we were able to successfully purify a non-pathological, wild-type human ataxin-1 protein containing a 30-glutamine repeat sequence. This ataxin-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a GST tag at the N-terminus and a double (His)(6) tag at the C-terminus. The devised dual affinity tag strategy allowed successful purification of the full-length ataxin-1 fusion protein to 90% homogeneity as confirmed by Western blot analysis using the two monoclonal ataxin-1 antibodies developed in our laboratory. In addition, the GST tag was successfully removed from the purified ataxin-1 fusion protein by treatment with Tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease. Since polyglutamine-containing proteins tend to aggregate, solvents/buffers that minimize aggregation have been used in the purification process. This dual affinity purification protocol could serve as a useful basis for purifying aggregation-prone proteins that are involved in other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21893199

Husain-Ponnampalam, Rhonda; Turnbull, Victor; Tarlac, Volga; Storey, Elsdon

2011-09-01

137

Lipid Transfer Proteins from Fruit: Cloning, Expression and Quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are stable, potentially life-threatening allergens in fruits and many other vegetable foods. The aim of this study was to clone and express recombinant apple LTP (Mal d 3), as has previously been done for peach LTP (Pru p 3) and set up quantitative tests for measuring fruit LTPs. Methods: cDNA for Mal d 3 and

Laurian Zuidmeer; W. Astrid van Leeuwen; Ilona Kleine Budde; Jessica Cornelissen; Ingrid Bulder; Ilona Rafalska; Noèlia Telléz Besolí; Jaap H. Akkerdaas; Riccardo Asero; Montserrat Fernandez Rivas; Eloina Gonzalez Mancebo; Ronald van Ree

2005-01-01

138

Mobile phone radiation might alter protein expression in human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Earlier we have shown that the mobile phone radiation (radiofrequency modulated electromagnetic fields; RF-EMF) alters protein expression in human endothelial cell line. This does not mean that similar response will take place in human body exposed to this radiation. Therefore, in this pilot human volunteer study, using proteomics approach, we have examined whether a local exposure of human skin

Anu Karinen; Sirpa Heinävaara; Reetta Nylund; Dariusz Leszczynski

2008-01-01

139

Research Report Maternal isolation alters the expression of neural proteins  

E-print Network

., 2001; Schmidt et al., 2002), and in patterns of neural development of the autonomic emotional motorResearch Report Maternal isolation alters the expression of neural proteins during development of the Institutional Inattention/ Overactivity Syndrome that characterizes children whose first few months are spent

Sokolowski, Marla

140

RESEARCH ARTICLE Differential protein expression in the metal-reducing  

E-print Network

sulfurreducens strain PCA grown with fumarate or ferric citrate Tripti Khare1 , Abraham Esteve-Núñez2 , Kelly P, is a predominant microbe in subsurface environments, where it utilizes available metals as electron acceptors, the proteins expressed by cells grown anaerobically with either fumarate or ferric citrate as elec- tron

Lovley, Derek

141

INVITED REVIEW: TARGETING AND EXPRESSION OF ANTIGENIC PROTEINS IN TRANSGENIC  

E-print Network

; hepatitis B surface antigen. Introduction Exploiting plants to produce medicinal products has become a wellINVITED REVIEW: TARGETING AND EXPRESSION OF ANTIGENIC PROTEINS IN TRANSGENIC PLANTS FOR PRODUCTION; editor M. E. Horn) Summary Exploiting plants as biological bioreactors for production and delivery

Korban, Schuyler S.

142

Engineering G protein-coupled receptor expression in bacteria  

E-print Network

of GPCRs poses formidable challenges. Most of these proteins are found in very low abundance. Further, recombinant GPCRs often accumulate in an aggregated state within inclusion bodies, which are challenging to dena- ture, solubilize, and refold (8). Even when a reasonable expression level of active

Georgiou, George

143

Directed evolution of proteins for heterologous expression and stability  

E-print Network

and directed evolution of tailor-made proteins, and the metabolic engineering of bacteria [1]. In fact, data include low-temperature expression, promoters with dif- ferent strengths, modified growth media by the introduction of mutations with small yet cumulative stabilizing effects [8­11]. It is largely unknown, however

Tawfik, Dan S.

144

Heterologous Expression of Membrane Proteins: Choosing the Appropriate Host  

PubMed Central

Background Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides) and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells) hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals), functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes) and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments). The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. Conclusions/Significance Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein. PMID:22216205

Pochon, Nathalie; Dementin, Sebastien; Hivin, Patrick; Boutigny, Sylvain; Rioux, Jean-Baptiste; Salvi, Daniel; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphne; Richaud, Pierre; Joyard, Jacques; Pignol, David; Sabaty, Monique; Desnos, Thierry; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Darrouzet, Elisabeth; Vernet, Thierry; Rolland, Norbert

2011-01-01

145

Cementum attachment protein/protein-tyrosine phosphotase-like member A is not expressed in teeth.  

PubMed

Cementum is a highly specialized connective tissue that covers tooth roots. The only cementum-specific protein described to date is the cementum attachment protein (CAP). A putative sequence for CAP was established from a cDNA clone isolated from a human cementifying fibroma cDNA library. This sequence overlaps with a phosphatase-like protein in muscle termed the protein-tyrosine phosphatase-like member A (PTPLA). To clarify the nature of CAP/PTPLA, we cloned the homologous rat protein and determined its sequence. The rat protein shared 94% sequence identity with the human protein. On Northern blots containing RNA from various rat tissues of different developmental stages, the cDNA hybridized to an mRNA expressed in heart and skeletal muscle but not in teeth. These results were confirmed by real-time PCR. Thus, the sequence deposited in public databanks under the name 'cementum attachment protein' does not represent genuine CAP. PMID:19148556

Schild, Christof; Beyeler, Michael; Lang, Niklaus P; Trueb, Beat

2009-02-01

146

Protein A as a fusion partner for the expression of heterologous proteins in Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expression system based on the Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene (spa) was developed to allow the production and export of proteins in Lactobacillus. Plasmid shuttle vectors were constructed that carried the eZZ gene, a synthetic gene based on the Protein A gene (spa) but lacking the carboxy-terminal membrane-anchoring region. A gene fusion was created between the eZZ gene and

C. Rush; L. Hafner; P. Timms

1997-01-01

147

Relationship between P-glycoprotein expression and cyclosporin A in kidney. An immunohistological and cell culture study.  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded in humans by the mdr-1 gene, acts physiologically as an efflux pump to expel hydrophobic substances from cells. This glycoprotein is closely related to multidrug resistance in tumor cells and can be modulated by cyclosporin A (CsA). We investigated the relationship between CsA and P-gp in 52 renal allograft biopsies and in cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubule cells to determine whether the intrarenal accumulation of CsA or chronic stimulation with the drug modified the expression of P-gp. Expression of P-gp and CsA was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was evaluated semiquantitatively. Modulation of P-gp in MDCK cells after chronic stimulation with CsA for 7, 30, and 60 days was analyzed by flow cytometry. P-gp and CsA immunostaining in renal post-transplant biopsies showed considerable overlap in all cases (Spearman's test, r = 0.577, P < 0.001). After 7 days in vitro, the number of cells expressing P-gp increased progressively; a further increase in mean fluorescence was found after 60 days (P < 0.001, Student's t-test). Our findings suggest that in non-neoplastic cells, CsA may stimulate P-gp as a mechanism of detoxification. Individual differences in the adaptive responses to glycoprotein may be responsible for the appearance of nephrotoxicity or a CsA-resistant rejection reaction in cases of overexpression on lymphocytes and macrophages. Images Figure 1 PMID:7856751

Garcia del Moral, R.; O'Valle, F.; Andujar, M.; Aguilar, M.; Lucena, M. A.; Lopez-Hidalgo, J.; Ramirez, C.; Medina-Cano, M. T.; Aguilar, D.; Gomez-Morales, M.

1995-01-01

148

The expression of redox proteins in phyllodes tumor.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the associations between the expression of redox-related proteins which regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the histologic factors in phyllodes tumor (PT). We used tissue microarrays to analyze 193 PTs and performed immunohistochemical staining against five redox-related proteins including catalase, thioredoxin reductase (TxNR), glutathione S-transferase ? (GST ?), thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). We then compared the immunohistochemical results and histologic parameters. The 193 PTs were classified as benign (n = 145, 75.1 %), borderline (n = 33, 17.1 %), and malignant (n = 15, 7.8 %). With worsening histologic grade, the expression of catalase, TxNR, TxNIP, and MnSOD in the stromal component increased (P < 0.001), and GST ? and MnSOD expression in the epithelial component increased (P = 0.014, and 0.038). Significant associations were found between the expression of catalse-TxNR, catalase-TxNIP, catalase-MnSOD, TxNR-TxNIP, TxNR-MnSOD, and TxNIP-MnSOD in both the epithelial and stromal components (P < 0.05). This study confirmed that the stromal expression of catalase, TxNR, TxNIP, and MnSOD increased with worsening histologic grade in PT, reflecting the change in ROS production during the malignant transformation of PT. PMID:24068538

Kim, Sewha; Kim, Do Hee; Jung, Woo Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

2013-10-01

149

Expression of targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 is associated with progression of human malignant astrocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, the targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a cell cycle-associated protein, and altered TPX2 expression has been found in various malignancies. However, the contribution of TPX2 expression to astrocytoma progression is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate TPX2 expression in human astrocytoma samples and cell lines. TPX2 protein expression was detected in

Bin Li; Xiang-Qian Qi; Xin Chen; Xin Huang; Guo-Ying Liu; Huai-Rui Chen; Cheng-Guang Huang; Chun Luo; Yi-Cheng Lu

2010-01-01

150

Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer  

SciTech Connect

With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance; (Accel. Tech.); (deCODE)

2009-12-01

151

Dark proteins: effect of inclusion body formation on quantification of protein expression.  

PubMed

Plasmid-borne gene expression systems have found wide application in the emerging fields of systems biology and synthetic biology, where plasmids are used to implement simple network architectures, either to test systems biology hypotheses about issues such as gene expression noise or as a means of exerting artificial control over a cell's dynamics. In both these cases, fluorescent proteins are commonly applied as a means of monitoring the expression of genes in the living cell, and efforts have been made to quantify protein expression levels through fluorescence intensity calibration and by monitoring the partitioning of proteins among the two daughter cells after division; such quantification is important in formulating the predictive models desired in systems and synthetic biology research. A potential pitfall of using plasmid-based gene expression systems is that the high protein levels associated with expression from plasmids can lead to the formation of inclusion bodies, insoluble aggregates of misfolded, nonfunctional proteins that will not generate fluorescence output; proteins caught in these inclusion bodies are thus "dark" to fluorescence-based detection methods. If significant numbers of proteins are incorporated into inclusion bodies rather than becoming biologically active, quantitative results obtained by fluorescent measurements will be skewed; we investigate this phenomenon here. We have created two plasmid constructs with differing average copy numbers, both incorporating an unregulated promoter (P(LtetO-1) in the absence of TetR) expressing the GFP derivative enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and inserted them into Escherichia coli bacterial cells (a common model organism for work on the dynamics of prokaryotic gene expression). We extracted the inclusion bodies, denatured them, and refolded them to render them active, obtaining a measurement of the average number of EGFP per cell locked into these aggregates; at the same time, we used calibrated fluorescent intensity measurements to determine the average number of active EGFP present per cell. Both measurements were carried out as a function of cellular doubling time, over a range of 45-75 min. We found that the ratio of inclusion body EGFP to active EGFP varied strongly as a function of the cellular growth rate, and that the number of "dark" proteins in the aggregates could in fact be substantial, reaching ratios as high as approximately five proteins locked into inclusion bodies for every active protein (at the fastest growth rate), and dropping to ratios well below 1 (for the slowest growth rate). Our results suggest that efforts to compare computational models to protein numbers derived from fluorescence measurements should take inclusion body loss into account, especially when working with rapidly growing cells. PMID:18350571

Iafolla, Marco A J; Mazumder, Mostafizur; Sardana, Vandit; Velauthapillai, Tharsan; Pannu, Karanbir; McMillen, David R

2008-09-01

152

Reduced Fhit protein expression in human malignant mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Human malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive neoplasm related to occupational exposure to asbestos and characterised by a long latency time. Multiple chromosomal deletions and DNA losses have been revealed in MM by studies performed with karyotypic, comparative genomic hybridisation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses. Among frequently deleted chromosomal sites, LOH at chromosome 3p has been detected in MM, suggesting the presence of one or several tumour suppressor genes that have an important role in development of the disease. The FHIT (fragile histidine triad) tumour suppressor gene, located at 3p14.2, has been proposed to be a target to major human lung carcinogens, such as tobacco smoke and asbestos. Although many studies have indicated decreased Fhit protein expression in a variety of malignancies, there is no report of FHIT gene aberrations or Fhit protein abnormalities in MM. We examined expression of the Fhit protein and LOH at the FHIT gene in malignant mesothelioma. Altogether, 13 paraffin embedded MM tumours were analysed for Fhit protein expression, and 21 fresh tumours and 10 cell cultures for LOH at the FHIT gene with two intragenic microsatellite markers. All tumours showed less intense immunostaining than normal bronchial epithelium or mesothelium. Fhit expression was absent or reduced in 54% (7 of 13) of the tumours, with the weakest staining observed in poorly differentiated areas. Allele loss was seen in 3 of 10 (30%) of the MM cell lines, but only in 1 of the 21 fresh tumours studied, suggesting concealment of LOH by normal cells present in MM tumours. In conclusion, our present data indicate a frequent decrease of Fhit protein expression, thus supporting the significance of FHIT inactivation in development of MM. PMID:14569398

Pylkkänen, Lea; Wolff, Henrik; Stjernvall, Tuula; Knuuttila, Aija; Anttila, Sisko; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

2004-01-01

153

Universal genetic assay for engineering extracellular protein expression.  

PubMed

A variety of strategies now exist for the extracellular expression of recombinant proteins using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli . However, secreted proteins often accumulate in the culture medium at levels that are too low to be practically useful for most synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. The situation is compounded by the lack of generalized screening tools for optimizing the secretion process. To address this challenge, we developed a genetic approach for studying and engineering protein-secretion pathways in E. coli . Using the YebF pathway as a model, we demonstrate that direct fluorescent labeling of tetracysteine-motif-tagged secretory proteins with the biarsenical compound FlAsH is possible in situ without the need to recover the cell-free supernatant. High-throughput screening of a bacterial strain library yielded superior YebF expression hosts capable of secreting higher titers of YebF and YebF-fusion proteins into the culture medium. We also show that the method can be easily extended to other secretory pathways, including type II and type III secretion, directly in E. coli . Thus, our FlAsH-tetracysteine-based genetic assay provides a convenient, high-throughput tool that can be applied generally to diverse secretory pathways. This platform should help to shed light on poorly understood aspects of these processes as well as to further assist in the construction of engineered E. coli strains for efficient secretory-protein production. PMID:24200127

Haitjema, Charles H; Boock, Jason T; Natarajan, Aravind; Dominguez, Miguel A; Gardner, Jeffrey G; Keating, David H; Withers, Sydnor T; DeLisa, Matthew P

2014-02-21

154

Expression and Localization of Plant Protein Disulfide Isomerase.  

PubMed Central

A cDNA clone encoding a putative protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, EC 5.3.4.1) from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and an antiserum was raised against the expressed PDI-active protein. The antiserum recognized a protein of approximately 60 kD in extracts from alfalfa, soybean, and tobacco roots and stems. Levels of this protein remained relatively constant on exposure of alfalfa cell suspension cultures to the protein glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin, whereas a slightly lower molecular mass form, also detected by the antiserum, was induced by this treatment. A lower molecular mass form of PDI was also observed in roots of alfalfa seedlings during the first 5 weeks after germination. PDI levels increased in developing soybean seeds up to 17 d after fertilization and then declined. Tissue print immunoblots revealed highest levels of PDI protein in the cambial tissues of soybean stems and petioles and in epidermal, subepidermal, cortical, and pith tissues of stems of alfalfa and tobacco. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the localization of PDI to the endoplasmic reticulum in soybean root nodules. PMID:12231974

Shorrosh, B. S.; Subramaniam, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Dixon, R. A.

1993-01-01

155

Expression and Targeting of Secreted Proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates in a vacuole termed the inclusion. Many of the interactions of chlamydiae with the host cell are dependent upon bacterial protein synthesis and presumably exposure of these proteins to the cytosol. Because of the dearth of genetic tools for chlamydiae, previous studies examining secreted proteins required the use of heterologous bacterial systems. Recent advances in genetic manipulation of chlamydia now allow for transformation of the bacteria with plasmids. We describe here a shuttle vector system, pBOMB4, that permits expression of recombinant proteins under constitutive or conditional promoter control. We show that the inclusion membrane protein IncD is secreted in a type III-dependent manner from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and also secreted from C. trachomatis in infected cells where it localizes appropriately to the inclusion membrane. IncD truncated of the first 30 amino acids containing the secretion signal is no longer secreted and is retained by the bacteria. Cytosolic exposure of secreted proteins can be confirmed by using CyaA, GSK, or microinjection assays. A protein predicted to be retained within the bacteria, NrdB is indeed localized to the chlamydia. In addition, we have shown that the chlamydial effector protein, CPAF, which is secreted into the host cell cytosol by a Sec-dependent pathway, also accesses the cytosol when expressed from this system. These assays should prove useful to assess the secretion of other chlamydial proteins that are potentially exposed to the cytosol of the host cell. PMID:24443531

Bauler, Laura D.

2014-01-01

156

Expression and targeting of secreted proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates in a vacuole termed the inclusion. Many of the interactions of chlamydiae with the host cell are dependent upon bacterial protein synthesis and presumably exposure of these proteins to the cytosol. Because of the dearth of genetic tools for chlamydiae, previous studies examining secreted proteins required the use of heterologous bacterial systems. Recent advances in genetic manipulation of chlamydia now allow for transformation of the bacteria with plasmids. We describe here a shuttle vector system, pBOMB4, that permits expression of recombinant proteins under constitutive or conditional promoter control. We show that the inclusion membrane protein IncD is secreted in a type III-dependent manner from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and also secreted from C. trachomatis in infected cells where it localizes appropriately to the inclusion membrane. IncD truncated of the first 30 amino acids containing the secretion signal is no longer secreted and is retained by the bacteria. Cytosolic exposure of secreted proteins can be confirmed by using CyaA, GSK, or microinjection assays. A protein predicted to be retained within the bacteria, NrdB is indeed localized to the chlamydia. In addition, we have shown that the chlamydial effector protein, CPAF, which is secreted into the host cell cytosol by a Sec-dependent pathway, also accesses the cytosol when expressed from this system. These assays should prove useful to assess the secretion of other chlamydial proteins that are potentially exposed to the cytosol of the host cell. PMID:24443531

Bauler, Laura D; Hackstadt, Ted

2014-04-01

157

Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice  

PubMed Central

Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P < 0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P < 0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression. PMID:24966923

Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

2014-01-01

158

Differential protein expression in perfusates from metastasized rat livers  

PubMed Central

Background Liver perfusates exhibit theoretical advantages regarding the discovery of disease biomarkers because they contain proteins that readily enter the blood-stream, and perfusion preserves the disease state in its natural context. The purpose of the study is to explore the value of liver perfusate proteome in the biomarker discovery of liver diseases. Results In this study, 86 differentially expressed proteins were identified in perfusates from isolated rat livers metastasized by Walker-256 tumor cells. Among these proteins, 27 were predicted to be secreted, and 59 were intracellular or membrane proteins. Most of the secretory proteins (70.4%) were decreased in metastasized liver perfusates. The main canonical ingenuity pathway to which these secretory proteins belonged was acute phase response, which indicated that the liver-associated immune reaction was damaged by the metastasis. In contrast, most of the intracellular or membrane proteins (86.4%) exhibited higher relative abundances in the metastasized liver perfusates. Some of these proteins, including Rpl21, Atic, Eif3s2, Echs1, Eps15 and Ywhab, have previously been reported to be involved in cancer genesis and progression. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, Ywhab plays a key role in cellular proliferation and oncogenic transformation and has been reported to be involved in the development of breast cancer. Its abundance was elevated by 3.5-fold in the metastasized perfusates. Validation by Western blotting revealed a 3.7-fold increase in the abundance of this protein in metastasized plasma. Conclusions These results show that perfusate proteome can be used as an alternative initial resource for biomarker identification, which ultimately requires validation in serum. PMID:23895178

2013-01-01

159

Expression of the scaffolding PDZ protein glutaminase-interacting protein in mammalian brain.  

PubMed

A human brain cDNA clone coding for a novel PDZ-domain protein of 124 amino acids was previously isolated in our laboratory. The protein was termed glutaminase-interacting protein (GIP), because it interacts with the C-terminal region of the human L-type glutaminase (LGA). The pattern of expression and functions of GIP in brain are completely unknown, so its significance remains undefined. Here we describe the expression of GIP mRNA and protein in mammalian brain. Northern blot analysis revealed that GIP mRNA was ubiquitous in most regions of human brain but was particularly abundant in spinal cord. The presence of the protein in rat and monkey brain was studied at the regional, cellular, and subcellular level by immunocytochemistry. The protein was found to be present in both neurons and astrocytes, with a cytosolic and mitochondrial subcellular localization. Double immunofluorescence labeling with anti-GIP and anti-LGA antibodies using confocal microscopy revealed colocalization of both proteins in astrocyte cell processes and their perivascular end feet. Electron microscopy of rat brain neurons revealed GIP immunoreactivity concentrated also in the nuclear envelope and the plasma membrane. The multiple locations for GIP in mammalian brain are in agreement with known protein interaction partners reported for this PDZ protein. The findings presented here support a role of GIP as an important scaffold in both astrocytes and neurons and point toward astrocytic processes and perivascular end feet as plausible anatomical substrates for interaction with glutaminase. PMID:17847083

Olalla, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Antonia; Jiménez, Antonio J; López-Téllez, Juan F; Khan, Zafar U; Pérez, Juan; Alonso, Francisco J; de la Rosa, Vanessa; Campos-Sandoval, José A; Segura, Juan A; Aledo, J Carlos; Márquez, Javier

2008-02-01

160

Expression and activation of signal regulatory protein alpha on astrocytomas.  

PubMed

High-grade astrocytomas and glioblastomas are usually unresectable because they extensively invade surrounding brain tissue. Here, we report the expression and function of a receptor on many astrocytomas that may alter both the proliferative and invasive potential of these tumors. Signal regulatory protein (SIRP) alpha1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally expressed in subsets of myeloid and neuronal cells. Transfection of many cell types with SIRPalpha1, including glioblastomas, has been shown to inhibit their proliferation in response to a range of growth factors. Furthermore, the expression of a murine SIRPalpha1 mutant has been shown to enhance cell adhesion and initial cell spreading but to inhibit cell extension and movement. The extracellular portion of SIRPalpha1 binds CD47 (integrin-associated protein), although this interaction is not required for integrin-mediated activation of SIRPalpha1. On phosphorylation, SIRPalpha1 recruits the tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, which are important in its functions. Although SHP-1 is uniquely expressed on hematopoietic cells, SHP-2 is ubiquitously expressed, so that SIRPalpha1 has the potential to function in many cell types, including astrocytomas. Because SIRPalpha1 regulates cell functions that may contribute to the malignancy of these tumors, we examined the expression of SIRPs in astrocytoma cell lines by flow cytometry using a monoclonal antibody against all SIRPs. Screening of nine cell lines revealed clear cell surface expression of SIRPs on five cell lines, whereas Northern blotting for SIRPalpha transcripts showed mRNA present in eight of nine cell lines. All nine cell lines expressed the ligand for SIRPalpha1, CD47. To further examine the expression and function of SIRPs, we studied the SF126 and U373MG astrocytoma cell lines, both of which express SIRPs, in greater detail. SIRP transcripts in these cells are identical in sequence to SIRPalpha1. The expressed deglycosylated protein is the same size as SIRPalpha1, but in the astrocytoma cells, it is underglycosylated compared with SIRPalpha1 produced in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. It is nonetheless still capable of binding soluble CD47. Moreover, SIRPalpha1 in each of the two cell lines recruited SHP-2 on phosphorylation, and SIRPalpha1 phosphorylation in cultured cells is CD47 dependent. Finally, examination of frozen sections from 10 primary brain tumor biopsies by immunohistochemistry revealed expression of SIRPs on seven of the specimens, some of which expressed high levels of SIRPs. Most of the tumors also expressed CD47. This is the first demonstration that astrocytomas can express SIRPalpha. Given the known role of SIRPalpha in regulating cell adhesion and responses to mitogenic growth factors, the expression of SIRPalpha1 on astrocytomas may be of considerable importance in brain tumor biology, and it offers the potential of a new avenue for therapeutic intervention. PMID:14729615

Chen, Thomas T; Brown, Eric J; Huang, Eric J; Seaman, William E

2004-01-01

161

Recombinant Dragline Silk-Like Proteins--Expression and Purification  

PubMed Central

Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous fiber with impressive physical characteristics making it attractive for use in advanced materials. The fiber is composed of two proteins (spidroins MaSp1 and MaSp2), each of which contains a large central repeat array flanked by non-repetitive N- and C-terminal domains. The repeat arrays appear to be largely responsible for the tensile properties of the fiber, suggesting that the N- and C-terminal domains may be involved in self-assembly. We recently isolated the MaSp1 and MaSp2 N-terminal domains from Nephila clavipes and have incorporated these into mini-silk genes for expression in transgenic systems. Current efforts involve the development of expression vectors that will allow purification using a removable affinity tag for scalable protein purification. PMID:23914141

Gaines, William A.; Marcotte, William R.

2011-01-01

162

Cooperative working of bacterial chromosome replication proteins generated by a reconstituted protein expression system  

PubMed Central

Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription–translation–replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a reconstituted transcription–translation system (PURE system). We found that low temperature is essential to express a complex protein, DNA polymerase III, in a single tube using the PURE system. Addition of the 13 genes, encoding initiator, DNA helicase, helicase loader, RNA primase and DNA polymerase III to the PURE system gave rise to a DNA replication system by a coupling manner. An artificial genetic circuit demonstrated that the DNA produced as a result of the replication is able to provide genetic information for proteins, indicating the in vitro central dogma can sequentially undergo two rounds. PMID:23737447

Fujiwara, Kei; Katayama, Tsutomu; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.

2013-01-01

163

Expression of rabies virus G protein in carrots ( Daucus carota )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigens derived from various pathogens can readily be synthesized at high levels in plants in their authentic forms. Such\\u000a antigens administered orally can induce an immune response and, in some cases, result in protection against a subsequent challenge.\\u000a We here report the expression of rabies virus G protein into carrots. The G gene was subcloned into the pUCpSSrabG vector\\u000a and

Edith Rojas-Anaya; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Maria Teresa Olivera-Flores; Miguel Gomez-Lim

2009-01-01

164

“Classic” myelin basic proteins are expressed in lymphoid tissue macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Classic” myelin basic proteins (MBPs) are demonstrated in lymph nodes of SJL mice by western blot and RT-PCR. Interestingly, expression of these “classic” MBPs was increased during the late relapsing phase of adoptive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). When splenocytes from SJL mice were separated into macrophage versus B lymphocyte-enriched populations, intact MBP isoforms were demonstrated in the macrophage-enriched population while

Hong-biao Liu; Allan J. MacKenzie-Graham; Karen Palaszynski; Stephanie Liva; Rhonda R. Voskuhl

2001-01-01

165

Monitoring the expression of green fluorescent protein in carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully used as a visual reporter at various stages of carrot (Daucus carota L.) transformation. GFP-fluorescence was non-invasively observed in protoplasts, callus and plants after the delivery of\\u000a mgfp5-er gene using two transformation methods: direct DNA transfer into polyethylene glycol (PEG) -treated protoplasts and inoculation\\u000a of root discs with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Transient GFP-expression was detected

Rafal Baranski; Evelyn Klocke; Ulrich Ryschka

2007-01-01

166

Splice Isoforms of Phosducin-like Protein Control the Expression of Heterotrimeric G Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Heterotrimeric G proteins play an essential role in cellular signaling; however, the mechanism regulating their synthesis and assembly remains poorly understood. A line of evidence indicates that the posttranslational processing of G protein ? subunits begins inside the protein-folding chamber of the chaperonin containing t-complex protein 1. This process is facilitated by the ubiquitously expressed phosducin-like protein (PhLP), which is thought to act as a CCT co-factor. Here we demonstrate that alternative splicing of the PhLP gene gives rise to a transcript encoding a truncated, short protein (PhLPs) that is broadly expressed in human tissues but absent in mice. Seeking to elucidate the function of PhLPs, we expressed this protein in the rod photoreceptors of mice and found that this manipulation caused a dramatic translational and posttranslational suppression of rod heterotrimeric G proteins. The investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that PhLPs disrupts the folding of G? and the assembly of G? and G? subunits, events normally assisted by PhLP, by forming a stable and apparently inactive tertiary complex with CCT preloaded with nascent G?. As a result, the cellular levels of G? and G?, which depends on G? for stability, decline. In addition, PhLPs evokes a profound and rather specific down-regulation of the G? transcript, leading to a complete disappearance of the protein. This study provides the first evidence of a generic mechanism, whereby the splicing of the PhLP gene could potentially and efficiently regulate the cellular levels of heterotrimeric G proteins. PMID:23888055

Gao, Xueli; Sinha, Satyabrata; Belcastro, Marycharmain; Woodard, Catherine; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan; Stoilov, Peter; Sokolov, Maxim

2013-01-01

167

Expression of XPG protein in human normal and tumor tissues  

PubMed Central

XPG (Xeroderma pigmentosum group G complementing factor) is a protein associated with DNA repair and transcription. Point mutations in ERCC5, the gene coding for XPG, cause the cancer-prone disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) while truncation mutations give rise to individuals with the combined clinical features of XP and Cockayne syndrome. Polymorphisms of ERCC5 or alterations in XPG mRNA expression were also associated to an increase risk of different cancers types and to prognosis of cancer patients. However, the expression of XPG protein in different normal or tumor human tissues is not well known. In the present work, we have validated an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay for detection of expression levels of XPG protein in FFPE human tissue samples. We have also tested this IHC assay in different normal and tumor human tissues. On a microarray containing 28 normal cores, positive staining was observed in 60% of the samples. The highest staining was detected in adrenal gland, breast, colon, heart, kidney, thyroid and tongue. In tumors, positive staining was observed in 9 of 10 breast cancer samples and in all 5 ovarian cancer and 5 sarcomas samples. Subcellular localization was predominantly nuclear. The use of this validated methodology would help to interpret the role of XPG in tumorogenesis and its use as a possible prognostic or predictive factor. PMID:23330005

Aracil, Miguel; Dauffenbach, Lisa M; Diez, Marta Martinez; Richeh, Rana; Moneo, Victoria; Leal, Juan Fernando Martinez; Fernandez, Luis Francisco Garcia; Kerfoot, Christopher A; Galmarini, Carlos M

2013-01-01

168

Differential protein expression between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia, and prognostic significance of protein markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protein expression involved in the progression from dysplasia to invasive esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and to analyze the prognostic value of markers. Immunohistochemistry was performed for cell cycle regulators [p53, p21, p27, p16, cyclin D1, Rb], apoptosis-related proteins [Fas, Fas-L, FADD, TRAIL, DR4, DR5, caspase-8, caspase-3, bcl-2, Bax], tumor suppressor

Mee Soo Chang; Hye Seung Lee; Byung Lan Lee; Young Tae Kim; Jeong Sang Lee; Woo Ho Kim

2005-01-01

169

Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.  

PubMed

Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. PMID:20347821

Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

2010-06-01

170

Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

Cruz, Tiago M. D.; Carvalho, Raquel F.; Richardson, Dale N.; Duque, Paula

2014-01-01

171

Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression.  

PubMed

Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

Cruz, Tiago M D; Carvalho, Raquel F; Richardson, Dale N; Duque, Paula

2014-01-01

172

Expression and characterization of a lepidopteran general odorant binding protein.  

PubMed

Olfaction in months involves the transport of volatile, hydrophobic odorant molecules through the aqueous interior of the antennal sensory hairs by soluble odorant binding proteins. Two subfamilies of the 17 kDa general odorant binding proteins, GOBP1 and GOBP2, are 47-57% identical to each other and 21-57% to the pheromone binding proteins (PBPs); identity within a GOBP subfamily exceeds 78% in all lepidopteran species examined. However, the ligands for GOBPs are unknown. In order to investigate odorant specificities of GOBPs, recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli using PCR-prepared expression cassettes based on the cDNA sequences of GOBP1 and GOBP2 from Manduca sexta. Both soluble and insoluble recombinant GOBPs (rGOBPs) were obtained, and the inclusion body GOBPs were solubilized, refolded and purified. The soluble and refolded rGOBPs were purified by preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), gel filtration, and finally by ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Only rGOBP2, but not rGOBP1, was crossreactive with an anti-GOBP2 (Antheraea polyphemus) antiserum. rGOBP2, but not rGOBP1, could be photoaffinity labelled by the diazoacetate pheromone analog [3H]-6E, 11Z, 16:Dza. For rGOBP2, plant odors such as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (3Z-6:OH), geraniol, geranyl acetate, and limonene showed significant competition for binding; binding specificity was sensitive to pH and to salt concentrations. Circular dichroism (CD) confirms that, as with the pheromone binding proteins, GOBP2 is predominantly alpha-helical. Although the characterization of rGOBP1 has resisted analysis, rGOBP2 is readily prepared and studied. We suggest that GOBP2 may be broadly tuned to a class of "green" and floral odors. PMID:9219366

Feng, L; Prestwich, G D

1997-05-01

173

Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression Modulates Intestine Immune Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is widely expressed across many tissue and cell types. Proteolytic processing of the protein gives rise to a plethora of protein fragments with varied biological activities. Although a large amount of data has been generated describing the metabolism of the protein in neurons, its role in regulating the phenotype of other cells remains unclear. Based upon prior work demonstrating that APP regulates the activation phenotype of monocytic lineage cells, we hypothesized that APP can regulate macrophage activation phenotype in tissues other than brain. Ileums of the small intestines from C57BL6/J wild type and APP?/? mice were compared as a representative tissue normally associated with abundant macrophage infiltration. APP?/? intestines demonstrated diminished CD68 immunoreactivity compared to wild type mice. This correlated with significantly less cycloxygenase-2 (cox-2), CD68, CD40, CD11c, and ?III-tubulin protein levels. Peritoneal macrophage from APP?/? mice demonstrated decreased in vitro migratory ability compared to wild type cells and diminished basal KC cytokine secretion. Whereas, APP?/? intestinal macrophage had an increase in basal KC cytokine secretion compared to wild type cells. Conversely, there was a significant decrease in multiple cytokine levels in APP?/? compared to wild type ileums. Finally, APP?/? mice demonstrated impaired absorption and increased motility compared to wild type mice. These data demonstrate the APP expression regulates immune cell secretions and phenotype and intestinal function. This data set describes a novel function for this protein or its metabolites that may be relevant not only for Alzheimer’s disease but a range of immune-related disorders. PMID:22124967

Puig, Kendra L.; Swigost, Adam J.; Zhou, Xudong; Sens, MaryAnn; Combs, Colin K.

2014-01-01

174

Expression and characterization of a soluble VEGF receptor 2 protein  

PubMed Central

Objective To clone and express a truncated, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (sVEGFR2) possessing the combined-functional domains 1–3 and 5 in eukaryotic cells and to test the inhibitory effects of full length VEGFR2 in vivo. Results pCMV6-trunctated-rVegfr2 (6100 bp) was successfully cloned. The transfection experiments showed that either pCMV6-truncated-rat-Vegfr2 (pCMV6-truncated-rVegfr2) or pCMV6-rVegfr2 inhibited the expression of intracellular green fluorescent protein, which is usually used as an exogenous transfected reporter gene to determine the transfected efficiency. An analysis of the transfected cells revealed that the amount of full-length VEGFR2 protein in the pCMV6-truncated-rVegfr2 transfected cells was 20% lower than that in the negative control (non-transfected HEK 293 cells). The differences in test results between the transfected and negative control groups were greatest from 24–30 h after transfection; this period was therefore chosen as optimal for collecting culture supernatants. This analysis was highly sensitive for detecting the amount of sVEGFR2 protein expressed and secreted by the cells, and the sVEGFR2 protein content was found to increase by approximately 26% in the transfected cells compared to that in the negative control cells (68.2% ± 1.7% vs. 41.9% ± 2.9%, P = 0.000) and by 18% compared to the negative control cells (68.2% ± 1.7% vs. 50.0% ± 0.5%, P = 0.003). Propidium iodide and Hoechst staining indicated no significant change in the number of HEK293 cells undergoing apoptosis 6 days after pCMV6-trucated-Vegfr2 transfection, compared to the negative control. Soluble VEGFR2 produced by pCMV6-truncated-rVegfr2 inhibited full-length VEGFR2 protein expression in the cell membrane. Conclusions This study employed a eukaryotic system to express sVEGFR2. The use of transient transfection technology greatly improved transfect efficiency. Recombinant sVEGFR2 inhibited the effect of endogenous full-length VEGFR2 but was not cytotoxic. PMID:24618407

2014-01-01

175

Constraints imposed by nonfunctional protein-protein interactions on gene expression and proteome size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crowded intracellular environments present a challenge for proteins to form functional specific complexes while reducing nonfunctional interactions with promiscuous nonfunctional partners. Here we show how nonfunctional interactions limit the proteome diversity and the average concentration of co-expressed and co-localized proteins. We use yeast compartments to verify our hypothesis that the yeast proteome has evolved to operate closely to the upper limit of its size, while keeping individual protein concentrations sufficiently low to reduce nonfunctional interactions. These findings have implication for conceptual understanding of intracellular compartmentalization, multicellularity, and differentiation.

Zhang, Jingshan; Maslov, Sergei; Shakhnovich, Eugene

2009-03-01

176

Optimizing Escherichia coli as a protein expression platform to produce Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunogenic proteins  

PubMed Central

Background A number of valuable candidates as tuberculosis vaccine have been reported, some of which have already entered clinical trials. The new vaccines, especially subunit vaccines, need multiple administrations in order to maintain adequate life-long immune memory: this demands for high production levels and degree of purity. Results In this study, TB10.4, Ag85B and a TB10.4-Ag85B chimeric protein (here-after referred as full) - immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis - were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The rational design of expression constructs and optimization of fermentation and purification conditions allowed a marked increase in solubility and yield of the recombinant antigens. Indeed, scaling up of the process guaranteed mass production of all these three antigens (2.5-25 mg of pure protein/L cultivation broth). Quality of produced soluble proteins was evaluated both by mass spectrometry to assess the purity of final preparations, and by circular dichroism spectroscopy to ascertain the protein conformation. Immunological tests of the different protein products demonstrated that when TB10.4 was fused to Ag85B, the chimeric protein was more immunoreactive than either of the immunogenic protein alone. Conclusions We reached the goal of purifying large quantities of soluble antigens effective in generating immunological response against M. tuberculosis by a robust, controlled, scalable and economically feasible production process. PMID:24252280

2013-01-01

177

Bacterial expression and photoaffinity labeling of a pheromone binding protein.  

PubMed

The first high-level production of a binding-active odorant binding protein is described. The expression cassette polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a DNA fragment encoding the pheromone binding protein (PBP) of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus. Transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a vector containing this construct generated clones which, when induced with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, produced the 14-kDa PBP in both the soluble fraction and in inclusion bodies. Purification of the soluble recombinant PBP by preparative isoelectric focusing and gel filtration gave > 95% homogeneous protein, which was immunoreactive with an anti-PBP antiserum and exhibited specific, pheromone-displaceable covalent modification by the photoaffinity label [3H]6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl diazoacetate. Recombinant PBP was indistinguishable from the insect-derived PBP, as determined by both native and denaturing gel electrophoresis, immunoreactivity, and photoaffinity labeling properties. Moreover, the insoluble inclusion body protein could be solubilized, refolded, and purified by the same procedures to give a recombinant PBP indistinguishable from the soluble PBP. Proton NMR spectra of the soluble and refolded protein provide further evidence that they possess the same folded structure. PMID:8453379

Prestwich, G D

1993-03-01

178

Preliminary identification of differentially expressed tear proteins in keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the proteins differentially expressed in the tear film of people with keratoconus and normal subjects. Methods Unstimulated tears from people with keratoconus (KC) and controls (C) were collected using a capillary tube. Tear proteins from people with KC and controls were partitioned using a novel in-solution electrophoresis, Microflow 10 (ProteomeSep), and analyzed using linear ion trap quadrupole fourier transform mass spectrometry. Spectral counting was used to quantify the individual tear proteins. Results Elevated levels of cathepsin B (threefold) were evident in the tears of people with KC. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (ninefold), fibrinogen alpha chain (eightfold), cystatin S (twofold), and cystatin SN (twofold) were reduced in tears from people with KC. Keratin type-1 cytoskeletal-14 and keratin type-2 cytoskeletal-5 were present only in the tears of people with KC. Conclusions The protein changes in tears, that is, the decrease in protease inhibitors and increase in proteases, found in the present and other previously published studies reflect the pathological events involved in KC corneas. Further investigations into tear proteins may help elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of KC, which could result in better treatment options. PMID:24194634

Wasinger, Valerie C.; Pye, David C.; Willcox, Mark D. P.

2013-01-01

179

Gene expression pattern for putative chloroplast localized COPII related proteins with emphasis on Rab related proteins.  

PubMed

Vesicle transport occurs in the cytosol through COPI, COPII and a clathrin coated vesicle system for transport of lipids and proteins to different subcellular compartments. All three systems consist of several different protein components to maintain a functional transport. In chloroplasts photosynthesis takes place in thylakoids. Thylakoids contain a large amount of lipids and proteins but none of these components are produced there. Transport of lipids occurs from the envelope membrane where they are produced and through the aqueous stroma before being directed to the thylakoids. Nuclear encoded proteins use distinct pathways for entering thylakoids after import into chloroplasts. Transport of lipids through stroma requires either lipid transfer proteins, association between the envelope and the thylakoid membrane, or a vesicle transport system similar to the cytosolic one. No evidence exists for lipid transfer proteins in chloroplasts, nor for a consistent association between the envelope and the thylakoid membrane. However, vesicle transport has support from e.g., biochemical and genetics data as well as transelectron microscopy data. Moreover, a recent bioinformatics study revealed putatively COPII related proteins to be chloroplast localized in Arabidopsis and thus function in vesicle transport in chloroplasts. Here we present gene expression profiles of these putatively COPII related chloroplast localized proteins using Genevestigator (https://www.genevestigator.com/gv/) with special emphasis on Rab related proteins since they represent several stage of vesicle transport e.g., uncoating, tethering and fusion. PMID:24577429

Alezzawi, Mohamed; Karim, Sazzad; Khan, Nadir Zaman; Aronsson, Henrik

2014-01-01

180

Protein expression in salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a widespread disease with high morbidity and health care costs. An experimental animal model was employed, using morphological and biochemical methods, to investigate the effects of DM on the expression and compartmentation of salivary gland proteins. The distribution of proline-rich proteins (PRP), submandibular mucin (Muc10) and the regulatory (RI and RII) subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I and type II was determined in the parotid and submandibular (SMG) glands of rats treated with streptozotocin. Quantitative immunocytochemistry of secretory granules in diabetic glands revealed decreases of 30% for PRP in both the parotid and SMG, and a 40% decrease in Muc10 in the SMG. Immunogold labelling showed that RII decreased in nuclei and the cytoplasm in diabetic acinar cells while labelling of secretory granules was similar in control and diabetic parotid. Electrophoresis and Western blotting of tissue extracts of two secretory proteins showed that the response to DM and insulin treatment was gland specific: PRP showed little change in the SMG, but decreased in the parotid in DM and was partially restored after insulin treatment. Photoaffinity labelling showed only RI present in the SMG and mainly RII in the parotid. The results of this and previous studies demonstrating highly specific changes in salivary protein expression indicate that the oral environment is significantly altered by DM, and that oral tissues and their function can be compromised. These findings may provide a basis for future studies to develop tests using saliva for diabetic status or progression in humans. PMID:19659899

Mednieks, Maija I; Szczepanski, Andrew; Clark, Brett; Hand, Arthur R

2009-01-01

181

Altered synaptic protein mRNA expression in STOP mutant mice 1 Altered Expression of Synaptic Protein mRNAs in STOP (MAP6)  

E-print Network

in the cerebellum. Alterations in synaptic protein mRNA expression were also detected in the frontal and occipital and Walsh, 2001; Moores et al., 2004), STOP proteins are thought to play a role in normal brain development

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein Fused to Magnetosome Proteins in Microaerophilic Magnetotactic Bacteria? †  

PubMed Central

The magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria are prokaryotic organelles consisting of a magnetite crystal bounded by a phospholipid bilayer that contains a distinct set of proteins with various functions. Because of their unique magnetic and crystalline properties, magnetosome particles are potentially useful as magnetic nanoparticles in a number of applications, which in many cases requires the coupling of functional moieties to the magnetosome membrane. In this work, we studied the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter for the magnetosomal localization and expression of fusion proteins in the microaerophilic Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and biochemical analysis. Although optimum conditions for high fluorescence and magnetite synthesis were mutually exclusive, we established oxygen-limited growth conditions, which supported growth, magnetite biomineralization, and GFP fluorophore formation at reasonable rates. Under these optimized conditions, we studied the subcellular localization and expression of the GFP-tagged magnetosome proteins MamC, MamF, and MamG by fluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting. While all fusions specifically localized at the magnetosome membrane, MamC-GFP displayed the strongest expression and fluorescence. MamC-GFP-tagged magnetosomes purified from cells displayed strong fluorescence, which was sensitive to detergents but stable under a wide range of temperature and salt concentrations. In summary, our data demonstrate the use of GFP as a reporter for protein localization under magnetite-forming conditions and the utility of MamC as an anchor for magnetosome-specific display of heterologous gene fusions. PMID:18539817

Lang, Claus; Schuler, Dirk

2008-01-01

183

Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression  

SciTech Connect

Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

Hu Hong [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Sung, Arthur [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Zhao, Guohua [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Shi, Lingfang [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Qiu Daoming [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Nishimura, Toshihiko [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States); Kao, Peter N. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5236 (United States)]. E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

2006-01-06

184

Effect of pregnancy on cytochrome P450 3a and P-glycoprotein expression and activity in the mouse: mechanisms, tissue specificity, and time course  

PubMed Central

The plasma concentrations of orally administered anti-HIV protease inhibitors are significantly reduced during human and mouse pregnancy. We have shown that in the mouse, at gestational day 19, this reduction is due to increased hepatic cytochrome P450 3a (Cyp3a) protein expression and activity. In the current study, we investigated the mechanisms by which Cyp3a activity is increased by pregnancy and the time course of change in expression of Cyp3a and P-gp in various tissues. We found hepatic transcripts of Cyp3a16, Cyp3a41 and Cyp3a44 were significantly increased during pregnancy, while those of Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a25 were significantly decreased. This resulted in a net increase in Cyp3a protein expression and activity in the liver during pregnancy. The increase in Cyp3a41 and Cyp3a44 transcripts was positively correlated (p<0.05) with HNF6 and ER? transcripts. The pregnancy-related factors that transcriptionally activated mouse Cyp3a isoforms also activated the human CYP3A4 promoter in pregnant CYP3A4-promoter-luciferase transgenic (CYP3A4-tg) mice. In contrast, intestinal Cyp3a protein expressions were not significantly affected by pregnancy. No change in P-gp protein expression was observed in the liver or kidney during pregnancy, though a significant decrease was observed in the placenta. Since hepatic CYP3A activity also appears to be induced during human pregnancy, the mouse (including CYP3A4-tg mouse) appears to be an excellent animal model to determine the molecular mechanisms for such induction. PMID:18509067

Zhang, Huixia; Wu, Xiaohui; Wang, Honggang; Mikheev, Andrei M.; Mao, Qingcheng; Unadkat, Jashvant D.

2008-01-01

185

Cellular Prion Protein Expression Is Not Regulated by the Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein Intracellular Domain  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrPC, modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP), through its inhibition of the ?-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-? bind to PrPC which may mediate amyloid-? neurotoxicity. In addition, the APP intracellular domain (AICD), which acts as a transcriptional regulator, has been reported to control the expression of PrPC. Through the use of transgenic mice, cell culture models and manipulation of APP expression and processing, this study aimed to clarify the role of AICD in regulating PrPC. Over-expression of the three major isoforms of human APP (APP695, APP751 and APP770) in cultured neuronal and non-neuronal cells had no effect on the level of endogenous PrPC. Furthermore, analysis of brain tissue from transgenic mice over-expressing either wild type or familial AD associated mutant human APP revealed unaltered PrPC levels. Knockdown of endogenous APP expression in cells by siRNA or inhibition of ?-secretase activity also had no effect on PrPC levels. Overall, we did not detect any significant difference in the expression of PrPC in any of the cell or animal-based paradigms considered, indicating that the control of cellular PrPC levels by AICD is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:22363722

Lewis, Victoria; Whitehouse, Isobel J.; Baybutt, Herbert; Manson, Jean C.; Collins, Steven J.; Hooper, Nigel M.

2012-01-01

186

Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins and Phosphorylated Proteins in Rice Seedlings in Response to Strigolactone Treatment  

PubMed Central

Strigolactones (SLs) are recently identified plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching and control various aspects of plant growth, development and interaction with parasites. Previous studies have shown that plant D10 protein is a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase that functions in SL biosynthesis. In this work, we used an allelic SL-deficient d10 mutant XJC of rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) to investigate proteins that were responsive to SL treatment. When grown in darkness, d10 mutant seedlings exhibited elongated mesocotyl that could be rescued by exogenous application of SLs. Soluble protein extracts were prepared from d10 mutant seedlings grown in darkness in the presence of GR24, a synthetic SL analog. Soluble proteins were separated on two-dimensional gels and subjected to proteomic analysis. Proteins that were expressed differentially and phosphoproteins whose phosphorylation status changed in response to GR24 treatment were identified. Eight proteins were found to be induced or down-regulated by GR24, and a different set of 8 phosphoproteins were shown to change their phosphorylation intensities in the dark-grown d10 seedlings in response to GR24 treatment. Analysis of these proteins revealed that they are important enzymes of the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways and key components of the cellular energy generation machinery. These proteins may represent potential targets of the SL signaling pathway. This study provides new insight into the complex and negative regulatory mechanism by which SLs control shoot branching and plant development. PMID:24699514

Chen, Fangyu; Jiang, Liangrong; Zheng, Jingsheng; Huang, Rongyu; Wang, Houcong; Hong, Zonglie; Huang, Yumin

2014-01-01

187

Characterisation and protein expression profiling of annexins in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

The annexins are family of calcium-regulated phospholipid-binding proteins with diverse roles in cell biology. Individual annexins have been implicated in tumour development and progression, and in this investigation a range of annexins have been studied in colorectal cancer. Annexins A1, A2, A4 and A11 were identified by comparative proteomic analysis to be overexpressed in colorectal cancer. Annexins A1, A2, A4 and A11 were further studied by immunohistochemistry with a colorectal cancer tissue microarray containing primary and metastatic colorectal cancer and also normal colon. There was significant increase in expression in annexins A1 (P=0.01), A2 (P<0.001), A4 (P<0.001) and A11 (P<0.001) in primary tumours compared with normal colon. There was increasing expression of annexins A2 (P=0.001), A4 (P=0.03) and A11 (P=0.006) with increasing tumour stage. An annexin expression profile was identified by k-means cluster analysis, and the annexin profile was associated with tumour stage (P=0.01) and also patient survival. Patients in annexin cluster group 1 (low annexin expression) had a better survival (log rank=5.33, P=0.02) than patients in cluster group 2 (high annexins A4 and A11 expression). In conclusion, this study has shown that individual annexins are present in colorectal cancer, specific annexins are overexpressed in colorectal cancer and the annexin expression profile is associated with survival. PMID:18071363

Duncan, R; Carpenter, B; Main, L C; Telfer, C; Murray, G I

2007-01-01

188

SAHA Regulates Histone Acetylation, Butyrylation, and Protein Expression in Neuroblastoma.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a clinically approved HDAC inhibitor for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, shows promising clinical benefits in neuroblastoma, the most common extra cranial solid neoplasm with limited choice of therapeutic intervention. However, the molecular mechanism under which the compound exerts its antitumor effect remains elusive. Here we report a quantitative proteomics study that determines changes of protein expression, histone lysine acetylation, and butyrylation in response to SAHA treatment. We detected and quantified 28 histone lysine acetylation and 18 histone lysine butyrylation marks, most of which are dramatically induced by SAHA. Importantly, we identified 11 histone Kbu sites as novel histone marks in human cells. Furthermore, quantitative proteomic analysis identified 5426 proteins, among which 510 proteins were up-regulated and 508 proteins were down-regulated (significant p value <0.05). The subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified distinct SAHA-response gene ontology (GO) categories and signaling pathways, including cellular metabolism and DNA-dependent pathways. Our study therefore reveals new histone epigenetic marks and offers key insights into the molecular mechanism by which SAHA regulates proteomic changes in neuroblastoma cells and identifies biomarker candidates for SAHA. PMID:25160476

Xu, Guofeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Zhixiang; Qian, Lili; Dai, Lunzhi; Wan, Xuelian; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Wu, Yeming

2014-10-01

189

Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein  

PubMed Central

The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0?Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6122 or P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6?Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress. PMID:18391421

Assenberg, Rene; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Herve; Grimes, Jonathan M.

2008-01-01

190

Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Expressing Cry1 Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a For more than a decade, genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (‘Bt’) that encode lepidopteran-specific protein toxins (Cry1Ab and\\u000a Cry1F) have been engineered into maize for protection against lepidopteran pests. An extensive body of research data and environmental\\u000a risk assessments (ERA) has been assembled on the potential environmental impact of Cry1 expressing maize. The available literature\\u000a so far suggests only minor environmental

Detlef Bartsch; Yann Devos; Rosie Hails; Jozsef Kiss; Paul Henning Krogh; Sylvie Mestdagh; Marco Nuti; Angela Sessitsch; Jeremy Sweet; Achim Gathmann

191

Evaluation of photodynamic therapy in adhesion protein expression  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that has clinical applications in both non-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases. PDT involves a light-sensitive compound (photosensitizer), light and molecular oxygen. This procedure may lead to several different cellular responses, including cell death. Alterations in the attachment of cancer cells to the substratum and to each other are important consequences of photodynamic treatment. PDT may lead to changes in the expression of cellular adhesion structure and cytoskeleton integrity, which are key factors in decreasing tumor metastatic potential. HEp-2 cells were photosensitized with aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and zinc phthalocyanine, and the proteins ?1-integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assayed using fluorescence microscopy. The verification of expression changes in the genes for FAK and ?1 integrin were performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that HEp-2 cells do not express ?-integrin or FAK 12 h following PDT. It was concluded that the PDT reduces the adhesive ability of HEp-2 cells, inhibiting their metastatic potential. The present study aimed to analyze the changes in the expression and organization of cellular adhesion elements and the subsequent metastatic potential of HEp-2 cells following PDT treatment. PMID:25013490

PACHECO-SOARES, CRISTINA; MAFTOU-COSTA, MAIRA; DA CUNHA MENEZES COSTA, CAROLINA GENUNCIO; DE SIQUEIRA SILVA, ANDREZA CRISTINA; MORAES, KAREN C.M.

2014-01-01

192

Expressed Protein Ligation: A Resourceful Tool to Study Protein Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

This review outlines the use of expressed protein ligation (EPL) to study protein structure, function and stability. EPL is a chemoselective ligation method that allows the selective ligation of unprotected polypeptides from synthetic and recombinant origin for the production of semi-synthetic protein samples of well-defined and homogeneous chemical composition. This method has been extensively used for the site-specific introduction of biophysical probes, unnatural amino acids, and increasingly complex post-translational modifications. Since it was introduced 10 years ago, EPL applications have grown increasingly more sophisticated in order to address even more complex biological questions. In this review we highlight how this powerful technology combined with standard biochemical analysis techniques has been used to improve our ability to understand protein structure and function. PMID:19685006

Berrade, Luis; Camarero, Julio A.

2013-01-01

193

A protein trap strategy to detect GFP-tagged proteins expressed from their endogenous loci in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Drosophila, enhancer trap strategies allow rapid access to expression patterns, molecular data, and mutations in trapped genes. However, they do not give any information at the protein level, e.g., about the protein subcellular localization. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a mobile artificial exon carried by a transposable P-element, we have developed a protein trap system. We screened

Xavier Morin; Richard Daneman; Michael Zavortink; William Chia

2001-01-01

194

Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448), using the recombinant expression system pFPYV2. Recombinant VP2 was purified to near homogeneity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroelution, and Extracti-Gel chromatography. Polyclonal serum to this protein which reacted specifically with recombinant VP2 as well as polyomavirus virion VP2 and VP3 on Western blots (immunoblots) was produced. Purified VP2 was used to establish an in vitro protein-protein interaction assay with polyomavirus structural proteins and purified recombinant VP1. Recombinant VP2 interacted with recombinant VP1, virion VP1, and the four virion histones. Recombinant VP1 coimmunoprecipitated with recombinant VP2 or truncated VP2 (delta C12VP2), which lacked the carboxy-terminal 12 amino acids. These experiments confirmed the interaction between VP1 and VP2 and revealed that the carboxyterminal 12 amino acids of VP2 and VP3 were not necessary for formation of this interaction. In vivo VP1-VP2 interaction study accomplished by cotransfection of COS-7 cells with VP2 and truncated VP1 (delta N11VP1) lacking the nuclear localization signal demonstrated that VP2 was capable of translocating delta N11VP1 into the nucleus. These studies suggest that complexes of VP1 and VP2 may be formed in the cytoplasm and cotransported to the nucleus for virion assembly to occur.

Cai, X.; Chang, D.; Rottinghaus, S.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

195

Radiofrequency radiation and gene/protein expression: a review.  

PubMed

Mobile telecommunications have developed considerably in recent years. With the proliferation of wireless technologies, there is much public anxiety about the potential health impact associated with exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation from these novel products. Contradictory scientific evidence, often reported in the popular media, has further fueled public concern. Some epidemiological studies have reported that ipsilateral use of a mobile phone is associated with an increased risk for brain tumors, while other studies have reported an association between brain tumor risk and mobile phone use for longer than 10 years. However, other large epidemiological studies have failed to find similar associations. Despite the existence of national and international RF-radiation exposure guidelines, there are increasing public demands for precaution with respect to human exposure to RF radiation. Since current epidemiological evidence is insufficient to make a definitive judgment on the health risks of low-level RF radiation exposure, laboratory evidence assessing biological plausibility and theoretical mechanisms of interaction are important. A number of studies have reported that RF radiation may induce alterations in gene/protein expression in a variety of cells/tissues that may be associated with potentially harmful health outcomes, while other studies have shown no clear effects related to RF radiation. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence related to changes in protein and gene expression induced by low-level RF radiation. PMID:19708776

McNamee, J P; Chauhan, V

2009-09-01

196

Association between Decreased WWOX Protein Expression and Thyroid Cancer Development  

PubMed Central

Context Chromosomal fragile sites are often related to cancer development. The WW domain–containing oxidoreductase gene (WWOX) spans the second most common chromosomal fragile site (FRA16D) and encodes an important proapoptotic protein. Objective To verify our hypothesis that underexpression of WWOX could contribute to malignant transformation of the thyroid cells. Method We compared WWOX expression among follicular adenomas (FAs) and differentiated thyroid carcinomas [follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs)] in 53 thyroid tumors resected from patients submitted to total thyroidectomy. Design Multiple fields of tumor areas of FAs, FTCs, and PTCs as well as normal thyroid tissue were stained with WWOX antiserum, and classified by the extent of staining (percentage of cells staining) and staining intensity. Main outcome PTCs showed a significantly decreased expression of WWOX when compared to FAs and FTCs. Further, using a unique model of comparison in patients in whom FAs and PTCs were concomitantly present, we detected the same result (i.e., no expression in PTCs). Conclusion We conclude that WWOX underexpression is an important step that might increase the vulnerability to the carcinogenesis process in PTCs. PMID:18047428

Dias, Eduardo P.; Pimenta, Flavio J.; Sarquis, Marta S.; Dias Filho, Marco A.; Aldaz, C. M.; Fujii, Julienne B.; Gomez, Ricardo S.; De Marco, Luiz

2014-01-01

197

Statins inhibit monocyte chemotactic protein 1 expression in endometriosis.  

PubMed

Statins are potent inhibitors of the endogenous mevalonate pathway. Besides inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis, statins may also demonstrate anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation is implicated in the attachment and invasion of endometrial cells to the peritoneal surface and growth of ectopic endometrium by inducing proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study, the effect of statins on monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) expression in endometriotic implants in nude mouse model and in cultured endometriotic cells was evaluated. In mouse model, simvastatin decreased MCP-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in endometriotic implants (P < .05). Similarly, both simvastatin and mevastatin revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of MCP-1 production in cultured endometriotic cells (P < .01). This inhibitory effect of the statins on MCP-1 production was reversed by the downstream substrates of the mevalonate pathway. Moreover, statins decreased MCP-1 messenger RNA expression in cultured endometriotic cells (P < .05). In conclusion, statins exert anti-inflammatory effect in endometriotic cells and could provide a potential treatment of endometriosis in the future. PMID:22267540

Cakmak, Hakan; Basar, Murat; Seval-Celik, Yasemin; Osteen, Kevin G; Duleba, Antoni J; Taylor, Hugh S; Lockwood, Charles J; Arici, Aydin

2012-06-01

198

Restricted-Expressed Proliferation–Associated Protein (Repp86) Expression in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the expression of repp86 (restricted-expressed protein of 86 kDa theoretical molecular mass), a proliferation-associated protein expressed in S-, G 2 - and M-phases of the cell cycle, in samples of normal mucosa as well as squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Patients and Methods: The repp86 labeling index (LI) was determined imunohistochemically in ten samples

Matthias Fenner; Falk Wehrhan; Marc Jehle; Kerstin Amann; Gerhard Grabenbauer; Johannes Zenk; Emeka Nkenke; Martin Schinhammer

2005-01-01

199

A correlation analysis of protein characteristics associated with genome-wide high throughput expression and solubility of Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins.  

PubMed

We have developed and evaluated a highly parallel protein expression and purification system using ORFs derived from the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae as a representative test case in conjunction with the Gateway cloning technology. Establishing high throughput protein production capability is essential for genome-wide characterization of protein function. In this study, we focused on protein expression and purification outcomes generated from an expression vector which encodes an NH(2)-terminal hexa-histidine tag and a COOH-terminal S-tag. Purified recombinant proteins were validated by SDS-PAGE, followed by in-gel digestion and identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Starting with 1360 sequence-validated destination clones we examined correlation analyses of expression and solubility of a wide variety of recombinant proteins. In total, 428 purified proteins (31%) were recovered in soluble form. We describe a semi-quantitative scoring method using an S-tag assay to improve the throughput and efficiency of expression and solubility studies for recombinant proteins. Given a relatively large dataset derived from proteins representing all functional groups in a microbial genome we correlated various protein characteristics as they relate to protein expression outcomes. PMID:17703947

Kwon, Keehwan; Pieper, Rembert; Shallom, Shamira; Grose, Carissa; Kwon, Erika; Do, Yu; Latham, Saeeda; Alami, Hamid; Huang, Shih-Ting; Gatlin, Christine; Papazisi, Leka; Fleischmann, Robert; Peterson, Scott

2007-10-01

200

Improved protein quality in transgenic soybean expressing a de novo synthetic protein, MB-16.  

PubMed

To improve soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed nutritional quality, a synthetic gene, MB-16 was introduced into the soybean genome to boost seed methionine content. MB-16, an 11 kDa de novo protein enriched in the essential amino acids (EAAs) methionine, threonine, lysine and leucine, was originally developed for expression in rumen bacteria. For efficient seed expression, constructs were designed using the soybean codon bias, with and without the KDEL ER retention sequence, and ?-conglycinin or cruciferin seed specific protein storage promoters. Homozygous lines, with single locus integrations, were identified for several transgenic events. Transgene transmission and MB-16 protein expression were confirmed to the T5 and T7 generations, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of developing seed showed that the transcript peaked in growing seed, 5-6 mm long, remained at this peak level to the full-sized green seed and then was significantly reduced in maturing yellow seed. Transformed events carrying constructs with the rumen bacteria codon preference showed the same transcription pattern as those with the soybean codon preference, but the transcript levels were lower at each developmental stage. MB-16 protein levels, as determined by immunoblots, were highest in full-sized green seed but the protein virtually disappeared in mature seed. However, amino acid analysis of mature seed, in the best transgenic line, showed a significant increase of 16.2 and 65.9 % in methionine and cysteine, respectively, as compared to the parent. This indicates that MB-16 elevated the sulfur amino acids, improved the EAA seed profile and confirms that a de novo synthetic gene can enhance the nutritional quality of soybean. PMID:24435987

Zhang, Yunfang; Schernthaner, Johann; Labbé, Natalie; Hefford, Mary A; Zhao, Jiping; Simmonds, Daina H

2014-06-01

201

Microsporidian Mitochondrial Proteins: Expression in Antonospora locustae Spores and Identification of Genes Coding for Two Further Proteins  

E-print Network

. We have investigated the expression of potential mitochondrial targeted proteins in the spore stage a possible pyruvate transporter, the other a subunit of the mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase. In yeastMicrosporidian Mitochondrial Proteins: Expression in Antonospora locustae Spores and Identification

Keeling, Patrick

202

Multi-Host Expression System for Recombinant Production of Challenging Proteins  

PubMed Central

Recombinant production of complex eukaryotic proteins for structural analyses typically requires a profound screening process to identify suitable constructs for the expression of ample amounts of properly folded protein. Furthermore, the evaluation of an optimal expression host has a major impact on protein yield and quality as well as on actual cost of the production process. Here we present a novel fast expression system for multiple hosts based on a single donor vector termed pFlp-Bac-to-Mam. The range of applications of pFlp-Bac-to-Mam comprises highly efficient transient transfection of HEK293-6E in serum-free suspension culture and subsequent large-scale production of challenging proteins expressing in mg per Liter level using either the baculoviral expression vector system or stable CHO production cell lines generated by Flp-mediated cassette exchange. The success of the multi-host expression vector to identify the optimal expression strategy for efficient production of high quality protein is demonstrated in a comparative expression study of three model proteins representing different protein classes: intracellular expression using a fluorescent protein, secretion of a single-chain-Fv-hIgG1Fc fusion construct and production of a large amount of highly homogeneous protein sample of the extracellular domain of a Toll-like receptor. The evaluation of the production efficiency shows that the pFlp-Bac-to-Mam system allows a fast and individual optimization of the expression strategy for each protein class. PMID:23874717

Meyer, Steffen; Lorenz, Carmen; Baser, Bahar; Wordehoff, Mona; Jager, Volker; van den Heuvel, Joop

2013-01-01

203

Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression  

PubMed Central

Summary G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest family of transmembrane signaling molecules and regulate a host of physiological and disease processes. To better understand the functions of GPCRs in vivo, we quantified transcript levels of 353 non-odorant GPCRs in 41 adult mouse tissues. Cluster analysis placed many GPCRs into anticipated anatomical and functional groups and predicted novel roles for less studied receptors. From one such prediction, we showed that the Gpr91 ligand succinate can regulate lipolysis in white adipose tissue suggesting that signaling by this citric acid cycle intermediate may regulate energy homeostasis. We also showed that pairwise analysis of GPCR expression across tissues may help predict drug side effects. This resource will aid studies to understand GPCR function in vivo and may assist in the identification of therapeutic targets. PMID:18984166

Regard, Jean B.; Sato, Isaac T.; Coughlin, Shaun R.

2008-01-01

204

C-reactive protein inhibits survivin expression via Akt/mTOR pathway downregulation by PTEN expression in cardiac myocytes.  

PubMed

C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We demonstrated that treatment of CRP resulted in a significant decrease of survivin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes. The upstream signaling proteins of survivin, such as Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, were also downregulated by CRP treatment. In addition, CRP increased the protein and mRNA levels of PTEN. The siRNA transfection or specific inhibitor treatment for PTEN restored the CRP-induced downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and survivin protein expression. Moreover, pretreatment with a specific p53 inhibitor decreased the CRP-induced PTEN expression. ERK-specific inhibitor also blocked the p53 phosphorylation and PTEN expression induced by CRP. Our study provides a novel insight into CRP-induced downregulation of survivin protein expression in cardiac myocytes through mechanisms that involved in downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway by expression of PTEN. PMID:24866016

Lee, Beom Seob; Kim, Soo Hyuk; Oh, Jaewon; Jin, Taewon; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Sungha; Lee, Sang-Hak; Chung, Ji Hyung; Kang, Seok-Min

2014-01-01

205

Expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 and glucose-regulated protein 94 in human esophageal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (grp94) in human esophageal carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues. METHODS: The expression of HSP70 and grp94 in 78 human esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and pathology photograph analysis. RESULTS: Both esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues could express

Xiao-Ping Wang; Guo-Zhen Liu; Ai-Li Song; Rui-Fen Chen; Hai-Yan Li; Yu Liu

206

RNA protein interactions governing expression of the most abundant protein in human body, type I collagen  

PubMed Central

Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. The protein turns over slowly and its replacement synthesis is low. However, in wound healing or in pathological fibrosis the cells can increase production of type I collagen several hundred fold. This increase is predominantly due to posttranscriptional regulation, including increased half life of collagen mRNAs and their increased translatability. Type I collagen is composed of two ?1 and one ?2 polypeptides that fold into a triple helix. This stochiometry is strictly regulated to prevent detrimental synthesis of ?1 homotrimers. Collagen polypeptides are co-translationally modified and the rate of modifications is in dynamic equilibrium with the rate of folding, suggesting coordinated translation of collagen ?1(I) and ?2(I) polypeptides. Collagen ?1(I) mRNA has in the 3’ UTR a C-rich sequence that binds protein ?CP, this binding stabilizes the mRNA in collagen producing cells. In the 5’UTR both collagen mRNAs have a conserved stem-loop structure (5’SL). The 5’SL is critical for high collagen expression, knock in mice with disruption of the 5’SL are resistant to liver fibrosis. the 5’SL binds protein LARP6 with strict sequence specificity and high affinity. LARP6 recruits RNA helicase A to facilitate translation initiation and associates collagen mRNAs with vimentin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. Binding to vimentin stabilizes collagen mRNAs, while nonmuscle myosin regulates coordinated translation of ?1(I) and ?2(I) mRNAs. When nonmuscle myosin filaments are disrupted the cells secrete only ?1 homotrimers. Thus, the mechanism governing high collagen expression involves two RNA binding proteins and development of cytoskeletal filaments. PMID:23907854

Stefanovic, Branko

2013-01-01

207

Modeling Signal Transduction from Protein Phosphorylation to Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Signaling networks are of great importance for us to understand the cell’s regulatory mechanism. The rise of large-scale genomic and proteomic data, and prior biological knowledge has paved the way for the reconstruction and discovery of novel signaling pathways in a data-driven manner. In this study, we investigate computational methods that integrate proteomics and transcriptomic data to identify signaling pathways transmitting signals in response to specific stimuli. Such methods can be applied to cancer genomic data to infer perturbed signaling pathways. METHOD We proposed a novel Bayesian Network (BN) framework to integrate transcriptomic data with proteomic data reflecting protein phosphorylation states for the purpose of identifying the pathways transmitting the signal of diverse stimuli in rat and human cells. We represented the proteins and genes as nodes in a BN in which edges reflect the regulatory relationship between signaling proteins. We designed an efficient inference algorithm that incorporated the prior knowledge of pathways and searched for a network structure in a data-driven manner. RESULTS We applied our method to infer rat and human specific networks given gene expression and proteomic datasets. We were able to effectively identify sparse signaling networks that modeled the observed transcriptomic and proteomic data. Our methods were able to identify distinct signaling pathways for rat and human cells in a data-driven manner, based on the facts that rat and human cells exhibited distinct transcriptomic and proteomics responses to a common set of stimuli. Our model performed well in the SBV IMPROVER challenge in comparison to other models addressing the same task. The capability of inferring signaling pathways in a data-driven fashion may contribute to cancer research by identifying distinct aberrations in signaling pathways underlying heterogeneous cancers subtypes.

Cai, Chunhui; Chen, Lujia; Jiang, Xia; Lu, Xinghua

2014-01-01

208

Preliminary study on preparation of E. coli cell-free system for protein expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the new era of “Omics”, the traditional techniques of protein expression in vivo can not come up with the exponential increase\\u000a of genetic information. The cellfree protein synthesis system provides a new strategy of protein expression with advantages\\u000a of rapid, convenient and high-throughput expression. The preparation of cell extracts, the optimization of substrate concentrations\\u000a and the energy regeneration system

Haiqin Chen; Zhinan Xu; Cheng Wang; Yuhua Liao; Peilin Cen

2008-01-01

209

Construction of pET-32 ? (+) Vector for Protein Expression and Purification  

PubMed Central

The construction of expression vector is a basic tool for biotechnology and production of desired proteins, this article summarized the construction of pET-32 ? (+) vector techniques which are generally used in research laboratories. The procedures include that acquisition of the exogenous DNA fragment for construction of the vector, subcloning the DNA fragment into pET-32 ? (+) expression vector, protein expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and protein purification under native conditions in E. coli lysates. PMID:23272309

Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

2012-01-01

210

Searching limiting steps in the expression of chloroplast-encoded proteins: relations between gene copy number,  

E-print Network

Searching limiting steps in the expression of chloroplast- encoded proteins: relations between gene copy number, transcription, transcript abundance and translation rate in the chloroplast number, transcription, transcript abundance and synthesis of photosynthetic proteins in the chloroplast

211

Molecular characterisation and expression of two venom allergen-like protein genes in Heterodera glycinesq  

E-print Network

Molecular characterisation and expression of two venom allergen-like protein genes in Heterodera venom allergen-like protein cDNAs (designated hg-vap-1 and hg-vap-2)were isolated from Heterodera Proteins similar to the allergen antigen 5 of extracellular proteins from hymenopteran insect venom (King

Hussey, Richard S.

212

Expression of the Transcriptional Repressor Protein Kid-1 Leads to the Disintegration of the Nucleolus*  

E-print Network

Expression of the Transcriptional Repressor Protein Kid-1 Leads to the Disintegration, Massachusetts 02129 The rat Kid-1 gene codes for a 66-kDa protein with KRAB domains at the NH2 terminus and two a biochemical and functional analysis of the Kid-1 protein in transfected cells. The full-length Kid-1 protein

Witzgall, Ralph - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III

213

Potential role of phenotypic mutations in the evolution of protein expression and stability  

E-print Network

, although phenotypic mutations are not individually sub- jected to inheritance and natural selection therefore play a role in shaping protein traits such as expression levels, stability, and tolerance

Tawfik, Dan S.

214

Expression patterns and protein structure of a lipid transfer protein END1 from Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis END1-LIKE (AtEND1) was identified as a homolog of the barley endosperm-specific gene END1 and provides a model for the study of this class of genes and their products. The END1 is expressed in the endosperm transfer cells (ETC) of grasses. The ETC are responsible for transfer of nutrients from maternal tissues to the developing endosperm. Identification of several ETC-specific genes encoding lipid transfer proteins (LTP), including the END1, provided excellent markers for identification of ETC during seed development. To understand how AtEND1 forms complexes with lipid molecules, a three-dimensional (3D) molecular model was generated and reconciled with AtEND1 function. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of AtEND1 were examined in transgenic Arabidopsis plants transformed with an AtEND1 promoter-GUS fusion construct. The AtEND1 promoter was found to be seed and pollen specific. In contrast to ETC-specific expression of homologous genes in wheat and barley, expression of AtEND1 is less specific. It was observed in ovules and a few gametophytic tissues. A series of AtEND1 promoter deletions fused to coding sequence (CDS) of the uidA were transformed in Arabidopsis and the promoter region responsible for AtEND1 expression was identified. A 163 bp fragment of the promoter was found to be sufficient for both spatial and temporal patterns of expression reflecting that of AtEND1. Our data suggest that AtEND1 could be used as a marker gene for gametophytic tissues and developing endosperm. The role of the gene is unclear but it may be involved in fertilization and/or endosperm cellularization. PMID:25204629

Li, Ming; Lopato, Sergiy; Hrmova, Maria; Pickering, Melissa; Shirley, Neil; Koltunow, Anna M; Langridge, Peter

2014-12-01

215

Differential expression of the Ebola virus GP 1, 2 protein and its fragments in E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial expression platforms are frequently used for the expression and production of different recombinant proteins. The full length Ebola virus (EBOV) GP1,2 gene and subfragments of the GP1 gene were cloned in a bacterial expression vector as a C-terminal His6 fusion protein. Surprisingly, the full length EBOV GP1,2 gene could not be expressed in Escherichia coli. The subfragments of GP1

Dipankar Das; Fred Jacobs; Heinz Feldmann; Steven M. Jones; Mavanur R. Suresh

2007-01-01

216

High-throughput instant quantification of protein expression and purity based on photoactive yellow protein turn off/on label  

PubMed Central

Quantifying the concentration and purity of a target protein is essential for high-throughput protein expression test and rapid screening of highly soluble proteins. However, conventional methods such as PAGE and dot blot assay generally involve multiple time-consuming tasks requiring hours or do not allow instant quantification. Here, we demonstrate a new method based on the Photoactive yellow protein turn Off/On Label (POOL) system that can instantly quantify the concentration and purity of a target protein. The main idea of POOL is to use Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP), or its miniaturized version, as a fusion partner of the target protein. The characteristic blue light absorption and the consequent yellow color of PYP is absent when initially expressed without its chromophore, but can be turned on by binding its chromophore, p-coumaric acid. The appearance of yellow color upon adding a precursor of chromophore to the co-expressed PYP can be used to check the expression amount of the target protein via visual inspection within a few seconds as well as to quantify its concentration and purity with the aid of a spectrometer within a few minutes. The concentrations measured by the POOL method, which usually takes a few minutes, show excellent agreement with those by the BCA Kit, which usually takes ?1 h. We demonstrate the applicability of POOL in E. coli, insect, and mammalian cells, and for high-throughput protein expression screening. PMID:23740751

Kim, Youngmin; Ganesan, Prabhakar; Ihee, Hyotcherl

2013-01-01

217

P-glycoprotein in sheep liver and small intestine: gene expression and transport efflux activity.  

PubMed

The role of the transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the disposition kinetics of different drugs therapeutically used in veterinary medicine has been demonstrated. Considering the anatomo-physiological features of the ruminant species, the constitutive expression of P-gp (ABCB1) along the sheep gastrointestinal tract was studied. Additionally, the effect of repeated dexamethasone (DEX) administrations on the ABCB1 gene expression in the liver and small intestine was also assessed. The ABCB1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. P-gp activity was evaluated in diffusion chambers to determine the efflux of rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) in the ileum from experimental sheep. The constitutive ABCB1 expression was 65-fold higher in the liver than in the intestine (ileum). The highest ABCB1 mRNA expression along the small intestine was observed in the ileum (between 6- and 120-fold higher). The treatment with DEX did not elicit a significant effect on the P-gp gene expression levels in any of the investigated gastrointestinal tissues. Consistently, no significant differences were observed in the intestinal secretion of Rho 123, between untreated control (Peff S-M = 3.99 × 10(-6)  ± 2.07 × 10(-6) ) and DEX-treated animals (Peff S-M = 6.00 × 10(-6)  ± 2.5 × 10(-6) ). The understanding of the efflux transporters expression and activity along the digestive tract may help to elucidate clinical implications emerging from drug interactions in livestock. PMID:23409949

Ballent, M; Wilkens, M R; Maté, L; Muscher, A S; Virkel, G; Sallovitz, J; Schröder, B; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

2013-12-01

218

Identities of Sequestered Proteins in Aggregates from Cells with Induced Polyglutamine Expression  

PubMed Central

Proteins with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. One common characteristic of expanded-polyQ expression is the formation of intracellular aggregates (IAs). IAs purified from polyQ-expressing cells were dissociated and studied by protein blot assay and mass spectrometry to determine the identity, condition, and relative level of several proteins sequestered within aggregates. Most of the sequestered proteins comigrated with bands from control extracts, indicating that the sequestered proteins were intact and not irreversibly bound to the polyQ polymer. Among the proteins found sequestered at relatively high levels in purified IAs were ubiquitin, the cell cycle–regulating proteins p53 and mdm-2, HSP70, the global transcriptional regulator Tata-binding protein/TFIID, cytoskeleton proteins actin and 68-kD neurofilament, and proteins of the nuclear pore complex. These data reveal that IAs are highly complex structures with a multiplicity of contributing proteins. PMID:11309410

Suhr, Steven T.; Senut, Marie-Claude; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Faull, Kym F.; Cuizon, Denise B.; Gage, Fred H.

2001-01-01

219

Differential expression of proteins and phosphoproteins during larval metamorphosis of the polychaete Capitella sp. I  

PubMed Central

Background The spontaneous metamorphosis of the polychaete Capitella sp. I larvae into juveniles requires minor morphological changes, including segment formation, body elongation, and loss of cilia. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression patterns of both proteins and phosphoproteins during the transition from larvae to juveniles in this species. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by multiplex fluorescent staining and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis to identify the differentially expressed proteins as well as the protein and phosphoprotein profiles of both competent larvae and juveniles. Results Twenty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified in the two developmental stages. Expression patterns of two of those proteins were examined at the protein level by Western blot analysis while seven were further studied at the mRNA level by real-time PCR. Results showed that proteins related to cell division, cell migration, energy storage and oxidative stress were plentifully expressed in the competent larvae; in contrast, proteins involved in oxidative metabolism and transcriptional regulation were abundantly expressed in the juveniles. Conclusion It is likely that these differentially expressed proteins are involved in regulating the larval metamorphosis process and can be used as protein markers for studying molecular mechanisms associated with larval metamorphosis in polychaetes. PMID:21888661

2011-01-01

220

Soluble expression of recombinant proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Pure, soluble and functional proteins are of high demand in modern biotechnology. Natural protein sources rarely meet the requirements for quantity, ease of isolation or price and hence recombinant technology is often the method of choice. Recombinant cell factories are constantly employed for the production of protein preparations bound for downstream purification and processing. Eschericia coli is a frequently used host, since it facilitates protein expression by its relative simplicity, its inexpensive and fast high density cultivation, the well known genetics and the large number of compatible molecular tools available. In spite of all these qualities, expression of recombinant proteins with E. coli as the host often results in insoluble and/or nonfunctional proteins. Here we review new approaches to overcome these obstacles by strategies that focus on either controlled expression of target protein in an unmodified form or by applying modifications using expressivity and solubility tags. PMID:15629064

Sørensen, Hans Peter; Mortensen, Kim Kusk

2005-01-01

221

Primate Transcript and Protein Expression Levels Evolve under Compensatory Selection Pressures  

PubMed Central

Changes in gene regulation have likely played an important role in the evolution of primates. Differences in mRNA expression levels across primates have often been documented, however, it is not yet known to what extent measurements of divergence in mRNA levels reflect divergence in protein expression levels, which are probably more important in determining phenotypic differences. We used high-resolution, quantitative mass spectrometry to collect protein expression measurements from human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and compared them to transcript expression data from the same samples. We found dozens of genes with significant expression differences between species at the mRNA level yet little or no difference in protein expression. Overall, our data suggest that protein expression levels evolve under stronger evolutionary constraint than mRNA levels. PMID:24136357

Khan, Zia; Ford, Michael J.; Cusanovich, Darren A.; Mitrano, Amy; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Gilad, Yoav

2014-01-01

222

Cell cycle perturbation in a human hepatoblastoma cell line constitutively expressing Hepatitis C virus core protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease with the potential for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The core protein of HCV has been shown to modulate expression of various cellular genes and to influence a number of cellular functions. We investigated the effect of constitutively expressed HCV core protein on cell cycle

A. Ruggieri; M. Murdolo; T. Harada; T. Miyamura; M. Rapicetta

2003-01-01

223

Teaching Molecular Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students: An Illustration of Protein Expression and Purification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical classes on protein expression and purification were given to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course "Introduction to Genetic Engineering." The heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)* of "Aequorea victoria" is an interesting system for didactic purposes because it can be viewed easily during…

Sommer, Cesar Adolfo; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Novo, Maria Teresa Marques

2004-01-01

224

Gene Expression of ABC Proteins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Perineoplastic Tissue, and Liver Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The development of hepatocellular carci- noma (HCC) is a frequent event during the natural history of cirrhosis. Effective treatment is, however, hampered by drug resistance related to the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins belonging to the ABC family transporters. Studying expression of genes coding for these proteins may help to explain the potential sensitiv- ity of HCC to

Serena Bonin; Lorella Pascolo; Lory S. Crocé; Giorgio Stanta; ClaudioTiribelli

2002-01-01

225

A streamlined implementation of the glutamine synthetase-based protein expression system  

PubMed Central

Background The glutamine synthetase-based protein expression system is widely used in industry and academia for producing recombinant proteins but relies on the cloning of transfected cells, necessitating substantial investments in time and handling. We streamlined the production of protein-producing cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells using this system by co-expressing green fluorescent protein from an internal ribosomal entry site and selecting for high green fluorescent protein-expressing cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results Whereas other expression systems utilizing green fluorescent protein and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based selection have relied on two or more sorting steps, we obtained stable expression of a test protein at levels >50% of that of an “average” clone and ~40% that of the “best” clone following a single sorting step. Versus clone-based selection, the principal savings are in the number of handling steps (reduced by a third), handling time (reduced by 70%), and the time needed to produce protein-expressing cultures (reduced by ~3 weeks). Coupling the glutamine synthetase-based expression system with product-independent selection in this way also facilitated the production of a hard-to-assay protein. Conclusion Utilizing just a single fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based selection step, the new streamlined implementation of the glutamine synthetase-based protein expression system offers protein yields sufficient for most research purposes, where <10 mg/L of protein expression is often required but relatively large numbers of constructs frequently need to be trialed. PMID:24063773

2013-01-01

226

?-synuclein and ?-synuclein enhance secretion protein production in baculovirus expression vector system.  

PubMed

The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely used as a tool for expressing of recombinant proteins in insect cells or larvae. However, the expression level of secretion pathway proteins is often lower than that of cytosolic and nucleus proteins. Thus, we attempted to improve production of secreted proteins by using a secretory alkaline phosphatase-EGFP fusion protein (SEFP)-based bi-cistronic baculovirus vector to identify chaperones that have potential on boosting secreted protein production. As co-expressed SEFP with a chaperone, calreticulin (CALR), it was found that the secreted SEFP enzyme activity can be boosted up to twofold. This result demonstrated the SEFP-based bi-cistronic approach can be used to identify the genes that can enhance secretion protein production in BEVS. Thus, the chaperone activity of ?-synuclein (?-syn) and ?-synuclein (?-syn) was evaluated in cells co-expressed with SEFP and compared that with CALR by analyzing localization, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity, and mRNA expression levels of SEFP. Our results showed that SEFP enzyme activity from cells co-expressed with both synuclein proteins can be enhanced up to 2.3-fold and this increment was better than that caused by CALR. Moreover, this enhancement might arise from the transcription enhancement or higher RNA stability. By this novel approach, we provided evidences that ?- and ?-syn can enhance secretion proteins production in BEVS. PMID:23314197

Teng, Chao-Yi; Chang, Shou-Lin; Tsai, Meng-Feng; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

2013-05-01

227

Analysis of protein expression regulated by lumican in PANC?1 cells using shotgun proteomics.  

PubMed

Lumican, a member of the class II small leucine-rich proteoglycan family, regulates the assembly and diameter of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix of various tissues. We previously reported that lumican expression in the stromal tissues of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) correlates with tumor invasion, and tends to correlate with poor prognosis. Lumican stimulates growth and inhibits the invasion of a PDAC cell line. In the present study, we performed a global shotgun proteomic analysis using lumican-overexpressing PANC?1 cells and lumican downregulated PANC?1 cells to identify candidate proteins that are regulated by lumican and related to cell growth and invasion in PDAC cells. A total of 448 proteins were identified from lumican-overexpressing PANC?1 and control cells. Additionally, 451 proteins were identified from lumican-downregulated PANC?1 cells and control cells. As a result of semi-quantification based on spectral counting, 174 differentially expressed proteins were identified by lumican upregulation, and 143 differentially expressed proteins were identified by lumican downregulation. The expression levels of 24 proteins, including apoptosis- and invasion-related proteins correlated with lumican expression levels. It is likely that the expression of these proteins is regulated by lumican, and that they are involved in apoptosis and invasion in PDAC. These findings suggest that lumican may be involved in cell growth and invasion through the regulation of these 24 proteins expressed in PDAC. PMID:23846574

Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Peng, Wei-Xia; Naito, Zenya

2013-10-01

228

Differential Protein Expression during Aging in Ventricular Myocardium of Fischer 344 X Brown Norway Hybrid Rats  

PubMed Central

The aging heart undergoes well characterized structural changes associated with functional decline, though the underlying mechanisms are not understood. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent ventricular myocardial protein expression was altered with age and which proteins underwent protein nitration. Fischer 344 X Brown Norway F1 hybrid (FBN) rats of four age groups were used, 4, 12, 24, and 34 months. Differential protein expression was determined by 2-DE and proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Altered protein nitration with age was assessed by immunoblotting. Over 1,000 protein spots per sample were detected, and 255 were found to be differentially expressed when all aged groups were compared to young rats (4 months) (p ? 0.05). A strong positive correlation between differential protein expression and increasing age (p=0.03, R2=0.997) indicated a progressive, rather than abrupt, change with age. Of 46 differentially expressed proteins identified, 17 have roles in apoptosis, 10 in hypertrophy, 7 in fibrosis, and 3 in diastolic dysfunction, aging-associated processes previously reported in both human and FBN rat heart. Protein expression alterations detected here could have beneficial effects on cardiac function; thus, our data indicate a largely adaptive change in protein expression during aging. In contrast, differential protein nitration increased abruptly, rather than progressively, at 24 months of age. Altogether, the results suggest that differential myocardial protein expression occurs in a progressive manner during aging, and that a proteomic-based approach is an effective method for the identification of potential therapeutic targets to mitigate aging-related myocardial dysfunction. PMID:18682286

Richardson, M.R.; Lai, X.; Mason, S.B.; Miller, S.J.; Witzmann, F.A.

2012-01-01

229

Various expression-augmenting DNA elements benefit from STAR-Select, a novel high stringency selection system for protein expression.  

PubMed

The creation of highly productive mammalian cell lines often requires the screening of large numbers of clones, and even then expression levels are often low. Previously, we identified DNA elements, anti-repressor or STAR elements, that increase protein expression levels. These positive effects of STAR elements are most apparent when stable clones are established under high selection stringency. We therefore developed a very high selection system, STAR-Select, that allows the formation of few but highly productive clones. Here we compare the influence of STAR and other expression-augmenting DNA elements on protein expression levels in CHO-K1 cells. The comparison is done in the context of the often-used cotransfection selection procedure and in the context of the STAR-Select system. We show that STAR elements, as well as MAR elements induce the highest protein expression levels with both selection systems. Furthermore, in trans cotransfection of multiple copies of STAR and MAR elements also results in higher protein expression levels. However, highest expression levels are achieved with the STAR-Select selection system, when STAR elements or MARs are incorporated in a single construct. Our results also show that the novel STAR-Select selection system, which was developed in the context of STAR elements, is also very beneficial for the use of MAR elements. PMID:17585780

Otte, Arie P; Kwaks, Ted H J; van Blokland, Rik J M; Sewalt, Richard G A B; Verhees, John; Klaren, Vincent N A; Siersma, Tjalling K; Korse, Hans W M; Teunissen, Nannette C; Botschuijver, Sara; van Mer, Charl; Man, Sue Y

2007-01-01

230

Stress protein expression in early phase spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury is a stress injury to the spinal cord. Our previous studies using differential proteomics identified 21 differentially expressed proteins (n > 2) in rabbits with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Of these proteins, stress-related proteins included protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70. In this study, we established New Zealand rabbit models of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by abdominal aorta occlusion. Results demonstrated that hind limb function initially improved after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, but then deteriorated. The pathological morphology of the spinal cord became aggravated, but lessened 24 hours after reperfusion. However, the numbers of motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord gradually decreased. The expression of protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. The expression of these proteins increased within 12 hours after reperfusion, and then decreased, reached a minimum at 24 hours, but subsequently increased again to similar levels seen at 6–12 hours, showing a characterization of induction-inhibition-induction. These three proteins were expressed only in cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. Moreover, the expression was higher in interneurons than in motor neurons, and the survival rate of interneurons was greater than that of motor neurons. It is assumed that the expression of stress-related proteins exhibited a protective effect on neurons.

Zhang, Shanyong; Wu, Dankai; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Yongming; Wang, Guoxiang; Yang, Maoguang; Yang, Xiaoyu

2013-01-01

231

Déjà vu in proteomics. A hit parade of repeatedly identified differentially expressed proteins.  

PubMed

After reading many 2-DE-based articles featuring lists of the differentially expressed proteins, one starts experiencing a disturbing déjà vu. The same proteins seem to predominate regardless of the experiment, tissue or species. To quantify the occurrence of individual differentially expressed proteins in 2-DE experiment reports, we compiled the identities of differentially expressed proteins identified in human, mouse, and rat tissues published in three recent volumes of Proteomics and calculated the appearance of the most predominant proteins in the dataset. The most frequently identified protein is a highly abundant glycolytic enzyme enolase 1, differentially expressed in nearly every third experiment on both human and rodent tissues. Heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) and heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) were differentially expressed in about 30 percent of human and rodent samples, respectively. Considering protein families as units, keratins and peroxiredoxins are the most frequently identified molecules, with at least one member of the group being differentially expressed in about 40 percent of all experiments. We suggest that the frequent identification of these proteins must be considered in the interpretation of any 2-DE studies. We consider if these commonly observed changes represent common cellular stress responses or are a reflection of the technical limitations of 2-DE. PMID:18442176

Petrak, Jiri; Ivanek, Robert; Toman, Ondrej; Cmejla, Radek; Cmejlova, Jana; Vyoral, Daniel; Zivny, Jan; Vulpe, Christopher D

2008-05-01

232

Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development  

PubMed Central

While there is a rich literature on transcription dynamics during the development of many organisms, protein data is limited. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to generate the largest developmental proteomic dataset for any animal. Expression dynamics of nearly 4,000 proteins of Xenopus laevis was generated from fertilized egg to neurula embryo. Expression clusters into groups. The cluster profiles accurately reflect the major events that mark changes in gene expression patterns during early Xenopus development. We observed decline in the expression of ten DNA replication factors after the midblastula transition (MBT), including a marked decline of the licensing factor XCdc6. Ectopic expression of XCdc6 leads to apoptosis; temporal changes in this protein are critical for proper development. Measurement of expression in single embryos provided no evidence for significant protein heterogeneity between embryos at the same stage of development. PMID:24626130

Sun, Liangliang; Bertke, Michelle M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

2014-01-01

233

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 269 Development of Novel Protein Expression Technologies for Glycosylated Cancer Related Proteins  

Cancer.gov

The purpose of this initiative is to provide support for the development of novel technologies for the expression of cancer-related glycosylated proteins. Many proteins become post-translationally modified (PTM) during the “secretory process” which involves of a journey from their site of synthesis in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), through the Golgi apparatus and then to various cellular and extracellular destinations.

234

A Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Fusion Expression System That Increases the Extracellular Productivity of Bacillus brevis  

PubMed Central

We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system. PMID:10653729

Kajino, Tsutomu; Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Udaka, Shigezo; Yamada, Yukio; Takahashi, Haruo

2000-01-01

235

G Proteins endogenously expressed in Sf 9 cells: interactions with mammalian histamine receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of functionally active mammalian histamine H1- and H2-receptors was recently demonstrated in Sf9 cells. Either receptor elicited phosphoinositide degradation leading to an increased cytoplasmic calcium concentration.\\u000a In the present study we focussed on identifying the Sf9 guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) involved. Immunodetection of Sf9 membranes showed expression of G? isoforms belonging to all four G protein subfamilies. During

Daniela Leopoldt; Christian Harteneck; B. Nürnberg

1997-01-01

236

Borrelia burgdorferi Proteins Whose Expression Is Similarly Affected by Culture Temperature and pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we had demonstrated the upregulation in the expression of several proteins, including the lipoproteins OspC and P35, of Borrelia burgdorferi in the stationary growth phase. Since the expression of OspC is also known to be affected by culture temperature and pH, we examined the effects of both variables on the expression of the remaining stationary-phase-upregulated proteins. Our study revealed

RAMESH RAMAMOORTHY; DOROTHY SCHOLL-MEEKER

2001-01-01

237

Pnn and SR family proteins are differentially expressed in mouse central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinin (pnn) is an SR-related protein that is ubiquitously expressed in most cell types and functions in regulating pre-mRNA\\u000a splicing and mRNA export. Previously, we demonstrated that pnn is expressed in all tissues during mouse embryonic development\\u000a with highest levels of expression in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that pnn and other SR proteins including\\u000a SC35 are

Shu-Yuan HsuYen-Jung; Yen-Jung Chen; Pin Ouyang

2011-01-01

238

Expression of an epidermal keratin protein in liver of transgenic mice causes structural and functional abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the role of keratin intermediate filament proteins in cell structure and function, trans- genie mice were isolated that express a modified form of the human K14 keratin protein in liver hepatoeytes. A modified K14 eDNA (K14.P) sequence was linked downstream of the mouse transthyretin (TTR) gene promoter and enhancer elements to achieve targeted expression in hepatocytes. Hepatoeytes expressing

Kathryn M. Albers; Frankie E. Davis; Teresa N. Perrone; Eun Y. Lee; Yong Liu; Mary Vore

1995-01-01

239

p53 protein expression in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities in p53 gene expression have been implicated in many inherited and sporadic forms of malignancies in humans. Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibody D0–7 for the p53 protein expression was performed in 81 cases of pure DCIS, 14 benign breast lesions and 2 cases with normal breast tissue. Expression of p53 protein was detected in 15 (18.5%) cases of pure

Prabha B. Rajan; David J. Scott; Robert H. Perry; Clive D. M. Griffith

1997-01-01

240

Green fluorescent protein and factorial approach: an effective partnership for screening the soluble expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

We report how the combined use of protein expression reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP), and of an incomplete factorial approach ("InFFact") made of 12 combinations of different states of three expression variables (bacterial strains, culture media and expression temperatures) created a convenient tool for screening the soluble expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli). In the first part of this work, we used two recombinant proteins that could be easily detected by Western blotting in the soluble fraction of E. coli lysate in most of the 12 InFFact combinations. When these proteins were fused to GFP and used in the same experiment ("InFFact-GFP"), fluorescence signals proved as sensitive and reliable as those provided by Western blotting. A trend analysis based on Western blot signals or on fluorescence allowed finding expression conditions for successfully scaling up the production of both proteins. Thus, GFP allowed InFFact trend analysis to be performed without gel electrophoresis or Western blotting. In the second part, we compared the results obtained by InFFact and InFFact-GFP when two other recombinant proteins were used which, in contrast with the proteins used in the first part, were barely detectable by Western blotting. Surprisingly, InFFact-GFP but not InFFact was able to find expression conditions for successfully scaling up the production of both proteins, suggesting that GFP could increase the solubility of the fusion partner. In conclusion, GFP allowed InFFact to be performed without gel electrophoresis and with at least the same sensitivity and specificity as that of Western blotting. PMID:18602837

Coutard, Bruno; Gagnaire, Mathieu; Guilhon, Aude-Agnès; Berro, Marine; Canaan, Stéphane; Bignon, Christophe

2008-10-01

241

Insertion of the Designed Helical Linker Led to Increased Expression of Tf-Based Fusion Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To demonstrate a high-level expression of transferrin (Tf)-based fusion proteins by inserting a helical linker between two\\u000a protein domains.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Tf-based fusion proteins were designed to contain oligonucleotides encoding a helical linker inserted between the protein\\u000a domains. Plasmid constructs were transfected into HEK293 cells and the secreted fusion proteins were purified from conditioned\\u000a serum free media. Expression was assessed using both

Nurmamet Amet; Hsin-Fang Lee; Wei-Chiang Shen

2009-01-01

242

High-throughput Cloning and Expression of Integral Membrane Proteins in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Recently, several structural genomics centers have been established and a remarkable number of three-dimensional structures of soluble proteins have been solved. For membrane proteins, the number of structures solved has been significantly trailing those for their soluble counterparts, not least because over-expression and purification of membrane proteins is a much more arduous process. By using high throughput technologies, a large number of membrane protein targets can be screened simultaneously and a greater number of expression and purification conditions can be employed, leading to a higher probability of successfully determining the structure of membrane proteins. This unit describes the cloning, expression and screening of membrane proteins using high throughput methodologies developed in our laboratory. Basic Protocol 1 deals with the cloning of inserts into expression vectors by ligation-independent cloning. Basic Protocol 2 describes the expression and purification of the target proteins on a miniscale. Lastly, for the targets that express at the miniscale, basic protocols 3 and 4 outline the methods employed for the expression and purification of targets at the midi-scale, as well as a procedure for detergent screening and identification of detergent(s) in which the target protein is stable. PMID:24510647

Bruni, Renato

2014-01-01

243

Protein Expression and PuriWcation 36 (2004) 207216 www.elsevier.com/locate/yprep  

E-print Network

Protein Expression and PuriWcation 36 (2004) 207­216 www.elsevier.com/locate/yprep 1046-5928/$ - see front matter 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.pep.2004.04.020 Protein from two other human membrane proteins were investigated. Peptide extensions with net negative charge 1

244

Compatible-Solute-Supported Periplasmic Expression of Functional Recombinant Proteins under Stress Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard method of producing recombinant proteins such as immunotoxins (rITs) in large quantities is to transform gram-negative bacteria and subsequently recover the desired protein from inclusion bodies by intensive de- and renaturing procedures. The major disadvantage of this technique is the low yield of active protein. Here we report the development of a novel strategy for the expression of

S. Barth; M. Huhn; B. Matthey; A. Klimka; E. A. Galinski; A. Engert

2000-01-01

245

Expression of recombinant GFP-actin fusion protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris  

E-print Network

was transformed with the pPIC3-GFP-actin 5C carrying HIS4 as a selective marker. The transformants were selectedExpression of recombinant GFP-actin fusion protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris a fusion protein consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and actin 5C of the fruit fly Drosophila

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

246

Correlation and prediction of gene expression level from amino acid and dipeptide composition of its protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A large number of papers have been published on analysis of microarray data with particular emphasis on normalization of data, detection of differentially expressed genes, clustering of genes and regulatory network. On other hand there are only few studies on relation between expression level and composition of nucleotide\\/protein sequence, using expression data. There is a need to understand why

Gajendra P. S. Raghava; Joon H. Han

2005-01-01

247

Overexpression of P-glycoprotein in L1210/VCR cells is associated with changes in several endoplasmic reticulum proteins that may be partially responsible for the lack of thapsigargin sensitivity.  

PubMed

L1210/VCR cells, which express an abundant amount of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), were found to be resistant to thapsigargin--an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA). In the current paper, we have studied the possible differences among L1210 and L1210/VCR cells in expression of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and calcium-dependent processes. Amounts of mRNA encoding both calcium release channels (ryanodine receptor channels--RyR and IP3-receptor channels--IP3R) were found to be at similar levels in sensitive and resistant cells. However, mRNAs encoding IP3R1 or 2 were decreased in resistant cells cultivated in the presence of VCR (1.08 micromol/l), while mRNA encoding RyR remained unchanged. The amount of mRNA for SERCA2 was decreased in resistant cells when compared with sensitive cells. This decrease was more pronounced when resistant cells were cultivated in the presence of vincristine (VCR). Calnexin was found to be less expressed at the protein level in resistant as in sensitive cells. The level of mRNA encoding calnexin was decreased only when resistant cells were cultivated in the presence of VCR. Calnexin was found to be associated with immature P-gp in resistant cells. Thus, differences exist between sensitive and resistant cells in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involved in the control of intracellular calcium homeostasis or calcium-dependent processes. These changes may be at least partially responsible for the lack of sensitivity of resistant cells to thapsigargin. PMID:18981537

Seres, M; Poláková, E; Krizanová, O; Hudecová, S; Klymenko, S V; Breier, A; Sulová, Z

2008-09-01

248

Altered brain protein expression profiles are associated with molecular neurological dysfunction in the PKU mouse model.  

PubMed

Phenylketonuria (PKU), if not detected and treated in newborns, causes severe neurological dysfunction and cognitive and behavioral deficiencies. Despite the biochemical characterization of PKU, the molecular mechanisms underlying PKU-associated brain dysfunction remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the pathogenesis of this neurological damage by analyzing protein expression profiles in brain tissue of Black and Tan BRachyury-PahEnu2 mice (a mouse model of PKU). We compared the cerebral protein expression of homozygous PKU mice with that of their heterozygous counterparts using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis, and identified 21 differentially expressed proteins, four of which were over-expressed and 17 under-expressed. An in silico bioinformatic approach indicated that protein under-expression was related to neuronal differentiation and dendritic growth, and to such neurological disorders as progressive motor neuropathy and movement disorders. Moreover, functional annotation analyses showed that some identified proteins were involved in oxidative metabolism. To further investigate the proteins involved in the neurological damage, we validated two of the proteins that were most strikingly under-expressed, namely, Syn2 and Dpysl2, which are involved in synaptic function and neurotransmission. We found that Glu2/3 and NR1 receptor subunits were over-expressed in PKU mouse brain. Our results indicate that differential expression of these proteins may be associated with the processes underlying PKU brain dysfunction, namely, decreased synaptic plasticity and impaired neurotransmission. We identified a set of proteins whose expression is affected by hyperphenylalaninemia. We think that phenylketonuria (PKU) brain dysfunction also depends on reduced Syn2 and Dpysl2 levels, increased Glu2/3 and NR1 levels, and decreased Pkm, Ckb, Pgam1 and Eno1 levels. These findings finally confirm that alteration in synaptic function, in transmission and in energy metabolism underlie brain damage provoked by hyperphenylalaninemias. PMID:24548049

Imperlini, Esther; Orrù, Stefania; Corbo, Claudia; Daniele, Aurora; Salvatore, Francesco

2014-06-01

249

The effect of corticosteroids on amyloid beta precursor protein/amyloid precursor-like protein expression and processing in vivo.  

PubMed

In this study, we have investigated the effect of altered corticosteroid levels on the expression and processing of the amyloid beta precursor protein (A betaPP) and its amyloid precursor-like protein (APLP) homologue in rat brain. Four groups of animals were used in the study: sham operated, adrenalectomised, and adrenalectomised treated with either dexamethasone or aldosterone, with the A betaPP/APLP expression being determined by western blot analysis. While there were no changes in the levels of A betaPP/APLP following adrenalectomy, treatment with dexamethasone, but not aldosterone, resulted in a marked increase in protein expression levels with the level of increase varying between the brain regions examined. Corticosteroids had a more marked effect on the particulate rather than the soluble form of the protein, thus suggesting that elevated glucocorticoids may also be adversely influencing A betaPP/APLP processing. PMID:10586975

Budas, G; Coughlan, C M; Seckl, J R; Breen, K C

1999-11-26

250

Yeast PPR proteins, watchdogs of mitochondrial gene expression  

PubMed Central

PPR proteins are a family of ubiquitous RNA-binding factors, found in all the Eukaryotic lineages, and are particularly numerous in higher plants. According to recent bioinformatic analyses, yeast genomes encode from 10 (in S. pombe) to 15 (in S. cerevisiae) PPR proteins. All of these proteins are mitochondrial and very often interact with the mitochondrial membrane. Apart from the general factors, RNA polymerase and RNase P, most yeast PPR proteins are involved in the stability and/or translation of mitochondrially encoded RNAs. At present, some information concerning the target RNA(s) of most of these proteins is available, the next challenge will be to refine our understanding of the function of the proteins and to resolve the yeast PPR-RNA-binding code, which might differ significantly from the plant PPR code. PMID:24184848

Herbert, Christopher J; Golik, Pawel; Bonnefoy, Nathalie

2013-01-01

251

In-Vivo Real-Time Control of Protein Expression from Endogenous and Synthetic Gene Networks  

PubMed Central

We describe an innovative experimental and computational approach to control the expression of a protein in a population of yeast cells. We designed a simple control algorithm to automatically regulate the administration of inducer molecules to the cells by comparing the actual protein expression level in the cell population with the desired expression level. We then built an automated platform based on a microfluidic device, a time-lapse microscopy apparatus, and a set of motorized syringes, all controlled by a computer. We tested the platform to force yeast cells to express a desired fixed, or time-varying, amount of a reporter protein over thousands of minutes. The computer automatically switched the type of sugar administered to the cells, its concentration and its duration, according to the control algorithm. Our approach can be used to control expression of any protein, fused to a fluorescent reporter, provided that an external molecule known to (indirectly) affect its promoter activity is available. PMID:24831205

Orabona, Emanuele; De Stefano, Luca; Ferry, Mike; Hasty, Jeff; di Bernardo, Mario; di Bernardo, Diego

2014-01-01

252

Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

2011-01-01

253

An efficient system for high-level expression and easy purification of authentic recombinant proteins  

PubMed Central

Expression of recombinant proteins as fusions to the eukaryotic protein ubiquitin has been found to significantly increase the yield of unstable or poorly expressed proteins. The benefit of this technique is further enhanced by the availability of naturally occurring deubiquitylating enzymes, which remove ubiquitin from the fusion product. However, the versatility of the system has been constrained due to the lack of a robust, easily purified deubiquitylating enzyme. Here we report the development of an efficient expression system, utilizing the ubiquitin fusion technique, which allows convenient high yield and easy purification of authentic protein. An Escherichia coli vector (pHUE) was constructed for the expression of proteins as histidine-tagged ubiquitin fusions, and a histidine-tagged deubiquitylating enzyme to cleave these fusions was expressed and purified. The expression system was tested using several proteins varying in size and complexity. These results indicate that this procedure will be suitable for the expression and rapid purification of a broad range of proteins and peptides, and should be amenable to high-throughput applications. PMID:15096636

Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Soboleva, Tatiana A.; Jans, David A.; Board, Philip G.; Baker, Rohan T.

2004-01-01

254

Artificial linear episome-based protein expression system for protozoon Leishmania tarentolae.  

PubMed

The trypanosomatid protozoon Leishmania tarentolae is a well-established model organism for studying causative agents of several tropical diseases that was more recently developed as a host for recombinant protein production. Although several expression architectures based on foreign RNA polymerases have been established for this organism, all of them rely on integration of the expression cassette into the genome. Here, we exploit a new type of expression architecture based on linear elements. These expression vectors were propagated in Escherichia coli as circular plasmids and converted into linear episomes with telomere-like structures prior to transfection of L. tarentolae. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in transgenic organisms exceeding 10% of total cellular protein, one of the highest overexpression levels obtained in a eukaryotic organism for a cytosolic protein. We show that the linear elements are stably propagated in L. tarentolae cells over long periods of time (> 90 generations) without major changes in structure or expression yields. Overexpressing cultures can be obtained without clonal selection of the transfected cells. To establish the utility of the developed system for protein production in a parallelized format, we expressed 37 cytosolic, peripheral, and membrane proteins as fusions with EGFP in L. tarentolae using linear vectors. We detected the expression of 30 of these targets and describe the preparative purification of two arbitrarily selected proteins. PMID:21167214

Kushnir, Susanna; Cirstea, Ion Cristian; Basiliya, Lyudmyla; Lupilova, Nataliya; Breitling, Reinhard; Alexandrov, Kirill

2011-04-01

255

Cell-free expression of protein kinase a for rapid activity assays.  

PubMed

Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag((R)) fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies. PMID:20520741

Leippe, Donna M; Zhao, Kate Qin; Hsiao, Kevin; Slater, Michael R

2010-01-01

256

The Structure and Expression of Cereal Storage Protein Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cereal endosperm stores several types of protein. All cereals appear to store 7S globulins in\\u000a their aleurone cells and prolamins in their starchy endosperm cells. In addition, the major storage proteins\\u000a in the starchy endosperm of rice and oats are related to the 11S globulins of dicotyledonous seeds. Smaller\\u000a amounts of proteins related to 11S globulins are also present

N. G. Halford; P. R. Shewry

257

Efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac system.  

PubMed

The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ?5?mg/L, which needs 55?h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2?×?10(6)?cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1?:?100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies. PMID:25136612

Lin, Bo; Meng, Hailing; Bing, Hui; Zhangsun, Dongting; Luo, Sulan

2014-01-01

258

Efficient Expression of Acetylcholine-Binding Protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac System  

PubMed Central

The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ?5?mg/L, which needs 55?h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2?×?106?cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1?:?100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies. PMID:25136612

Lin, Bo; Bing, Hui; Zhangsun, Dongting; Luo, Sulan

2014-01-01

259

RecA Protein from the Extremely Radioresistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans: Expression, Purification, and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RecA protein of Deinococcus radiodurans (RecADr) is essential for the extreme radiation resistance of this organism. The RecADr protein has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from this host. In some respects, the RecADr protein and the E. coli RecA (RecAEc) proteins are close functional homologues. RecADr forms filaments on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that are similar

Jong-Il Kim; Ajay K. Sharma; Stephen N. Abbott; Elizabeth A. Wood; David W. Dwyer; Aaron Jambura; Kenneth W. Minton; Ross B. Inman; Michael J. Daly; Michael M. Cox

2002-01-01

260

Expression of the CUB domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1) gene in colorectal tumour cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of CUB domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1) is upregulated in carcinoma cells. We quantitated CDCP1 gene expression in matched normal colon and tumour tissue and compared the level of expression to other genes upregulated in colorectal tumourigenesis. Furthermore, we show that the CDCP1 gene generates two transcripts which are co-expressed in normal and matched tumour tissue as well as

Sara E. Perry; Philip Robinson; Alan Melcher; Philip Quirke; Hans-Jörg Bühring; Graham P. Cook; G. Eric Blair

2007-01-01

261

Clinical significance of migration and invasion inhibitor protein expression in non-small-cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Migration and invasion inhibitor protein (MIIP) was initially identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Recently, MIIP has emerged as a key protein in regulating cell migration and invasion. However, the MIIP expression profile in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been analyzed. In the present study, MIIP mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method in 37 NSCLC specimens and matched normal tissue samples. MIIP protein expression in a further 94 NSCLC specimens was examined with immunohistochemistry. Patient survival data were collected retrospectively, and the association between MIIP protein expression and the five-year overall survival rate was evaluated. The results revealed that MIIP mRNA and protein expression were downregulated in cancer tissues, as compared with the matched normal tissues. MIIP expression levels were significantly associated with pathology and tumor stage, with reduced MIIP mRNA expression levels detected in advanced tumor stage samples. Furthermore, patients with MIIP-positive protein expression had an improved prognosis as compared with those patients with MIIP-negative protein expression, with five-year survival rates of 41.7 and 22.4%, respectively (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank, P=0.028). A significant association between MIIP protein expression and improved prognosis was also demonstrated using univariate and multivariate analyses (P=0.033 and P=0.040, respectively). These results suggest that MIIP may have a potential role in the pathogenesis of NSCLC and also confirm that MIIP is a putative tumor-suppressor gene. Therefore, MIIP may be identified as a functional genetic marker of NSCLC development and prognosis, and may be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:25360165

WANG, XINHUA; LIU, HONGLING; WANG, XIAOYU; AN, YUZHI

2014-01-01

262

Expression of the SET protein in testes of mice at different developmental stages  

PubMed Central

SET is a multifunctional protein involved in regulating many biological processes of the cell cycle. It is also a regulator of steroidogenesis in the ovary. However, the expression of SET protein in testis, and its function, still remains ambiguous. In this study, we observed the expression of SET in the testes of mice at different developmental stages, and have discussed its potential function in regulating spermatogenesis and androgen production. Forty-eight male mice at different developmental stages (1 week old as the infancy group; 4 weeks old as the prepubertal group; 12 weeks old as the adult group; over 12 months old as the ageing group) were used. Cellular location of SET protein in the testes was observed by immuno-histochemistry. Expression levels of Set mRNA and SET protein were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. SET protein was expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes; the highest level was mainly in haploid and tetraploid cells of the prepubertal and adult groups, and Leydig cells of the adult and ageing groups. There was a low expression in Sertoli cells. Expression of Set mRNA in the prepubertal group was significantly higher than that in the adult group (P < 0.05), while expression of SET protein was at the highest level in the adult group (P < 0.05). SET protein is mainly expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes, and poorly expressed in Sertoli cells, suggesting that it is involved in spermatogenesis. Expression of SET protein in Leydig cells suggests a possible role in steroidogenesis. PMID:24923460

Dai, Xiao-Nan; Liu, Shan; Shao, Li; Gao, Chao; Gao, Li; Liu, Jia-Yin; Cui, Yu-Gui

2014-01-01

263

PS2 protein in breast carcinomas: cut-off value of estrogen-regulated expression.  

PubMed

This study includes 152 patients with histologically confirmed breast carcinoma. Steroid hormone receptors (SR), estrogen (ER) and progesteron (PR) receptors, and pS2 protein were assayed on the same cytosolic extract in accordance with the recommendation of EORTC. Our results showed menopausal- and histologic grade-related expression of pS2 protein. Unfavorable carcinoma subgroups, in relation to expression of pS2 protein were defined: postmenopausal carcinomas with histologic grade II, and pre-, as well as postmenopausal carcinomas with histologic grade III. There were overlappings of individual pS2 protein values between favorable and unfavorable carcinoma subgroups in relation to the expression of pS2 protein. Otherwise, no overlapping of pS2 protein values was obtained between ER-positive and ER-negative carcinomas within defined unfavorable menopausal - and histologic grade-related expression of pS2 protein subgroups. The highest pS2 protein level observed in ER-negative unfavorable subgroups (15 ng/mg) was considered as the cut-off value which defined estrogen-regulated expression of pS2 protein. PMID:11327531

Nikoli?-Vukosavljevi?, D; Gruji?-Adanja, G; Jankovi?, R; Neskovi?-Konstantinovi?, Z; Brankovi?-Magi?, M

2001-01-01

264

IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION PROFILING OF BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER MEMBRANE PROTEINS  

PubMed Central

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) membrane proteins play crucial roles in the proper functioning of the BBB as well as in disease progression. Previously we developed a novel approach for identifying membrane proteins expressed at the BBB, which we referred to as Multiplex Expression Cloning (MEC). In the current study, the proteome coverage of the MEC approach was expanded to allow the identification of a total of 30 BBB membrane proteins that are diverse in function and abundance. To unveil those membrane proteins that are enriched at the BBB and hence partially responsible for some of its unique characteristics, the transcript abundance levels for all 30 BBB membrane proteins were compared to those found in microvessels derived from lung, liver, heart and kidney. Such quantitative PCR profiling (qPCR) of RNA samples from laser capture microdissected microvessels revealed that the transcripts for 5 membrane proteins, namely Lutheran glycoprotein, carbonic anhydrase IV, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), podocalyxin and solute carrier family 38, member 5 (SLC38A5) were BBB selective in that expression was elevated in brain microvessels when compared to all of the vascular beds tested. Many other membrane protein transcripts, while not as BBB-restricted, showed selective expression within subsets of tissues indicating other potential parallels and contrasts between vascular beds in the body. The identification of BBB membrane proteins could help better understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for BBB function and those with selective expression may have utility for BBB-targeted therapies. PMID:19895664

Agarwal, Nitin; Lippmann, Ethan S.; Shusta, Eric V.

2009-01-01

265

miR-24 and miR-205 expression is dependent on HPV onco-protein expression in keratinocytes?  

PubMed Central

A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miR-24 and miR-205. We investigated how expression of Human Papilloma Virus Type-16 (HPV16) onco-proteins E6 and E7 affected expression of miR-24 and miR-205 during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We show that the induction of both miR-24 and miR-205 observed during differentiation of HFKs is lost in HFKs expressing E6 and E7. We demonstrate that the effect on miR-205 is due to E7 activity, as miR-205 expression is dependent on pRb expression. Finally, we provide evidence that miR-24 effects in the cell may be due to targeting of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27. In summary, these results indicate that expression of both miR-24 and miR-205 are impacted by E6 and/or E7 expression, which may be one mechanism by which HPV onco-proteins can disrupt the balance between proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. PMID:24314651

McKenna, Declan J.; Patel, Daksha; McCance, Dennis J.

2014-01-01

266

[Expression of recombinant proteins in the milk of transgenic animals].  

PubMed

The bulky production of recombinant proteins can be achieved by procaryotes or eucaryotes cells. Cells from higher eucaryotes may be required when proteins have to be modified post-transcriptionally (glycosylation phosphorylation, cleavage, folding...). Cells from higher vertebrates in culture are used to prepare proteins like human factor VIII and erythropoietin. The use of transgenic organism has been suggested to reach the same goal. Indeed a whole living organism allows a very potent amplification, the number of cells involved in the biosynthesis of the recombinant proteins being very numerous and in the best metabolic conditions. Biological fluids (blood, milk, insect hemolymph, egg white...) and possibly organs from transgenic animals are a priori the best sources of recombinant proteins. Blood is abundant and it is a by-product of slaughter house. Its composition is relatively complex and the circulating recombinant proteins may heavily alter health of animals. Milk is very abundant, its composition is relatively simple, it is poor in proteolytic enzymes and it can be collected easily. Hemolymph from insects is relatively scarce. Egg white will be a possible source of recombinant proteins, when transgenesis has become more accessible in birds. Organs from transgenic animals should be solicited only when a particular cell type is required for the biosynthesis of the recombinant proteins. Milk appears therefore, presently, as the best source of recombinant proteins from transgenic animals. About 15 public and private laboratories try to use these techniques. They consist in preparing vectors containing regulatory regions of one of the milk proteins genes and the coding part (cDNA or gene) of the corresponding proteins to be produced. The transfer of these gene constructs to mouse, rabbit, sheep, goat, pig, shows that these techniques are indeed very promising. A single protein, human alpha 1-antitrypsin produced in milk of transgenic sheep, has presently reached the preparation at an industrial scale. This method has two theoretical limitations: 1) some of the proteins secreted in milk may be not matured as their native counterparts. Experiments carried out so far (about 20 proteins has been produced at an experimental scale) indicate that the mammary cell is able to achieve glycosylation in a correct way; 2) a significant proportion of the recombinant proteins migrate from the alveolar compartment of the mammary gland to blood circulation and they can alter health of lactating animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8476491

Houdebine, L M

1993-01-01

267

Development of Novel Rifampicin-Derived P-Glycoprotein Activators/Inducers. Synthesis, In Silico Analysis and Application in the RBE4 Cell Model, Using Paraquat as Substrate  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa transmembrane protein involved in the outward transport of many structurally unrelated substrates. P-gp activation/induction may function as an antidotal pathway to prevent the cytotoxicity of these substrates. In the present study we aimed at testing rifampicin (Rif) and three newly synthesized Rif derivatives (a mono-methoxylated derivative, MeORif, a peracetylated derivative, PerAcRif, and a reduced derivative, RedRif) to establish their ability to modulate P-gp expression and activity in a cellular model of the rat’s blood–brain barrier, the RBE4 cell line P-gp expression was assessed by western blot using C219 anti-P-gp antibody. P-gp function was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the accumulation of rhodamine123. Whenever P-gp activation/induction ability was detected in a tested compound, its antidotal effect was further tested using paraquat as cytotoxicity model. Interactions between Rif or its derivatives and P-gp were also investigated by computational analysis. Rif led to a significant increase in P-gp expression at 72 h and RedRif significantly increased both P-gp expression and activity. No significant differences were observed for the other derivatives. Pre- or simultaneous treatment with RedRif protected cells against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity, an effect reverted by GF120918, a P-gp inhibitor, corroborating the observed P-gp activation ability. Interaction of RedRif with P-gp drug-binding pocket was consistent with an activation mechanism of action, which was confirmed with docking studies. Therefore, RedRif protection against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in RBE4 cells, through P-gp activation/induction, suggests that it may be useful as an antidote for cytotoxic substrates of P-gp. PMID:23991219

Vilas-Boas, Vania; Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Sousa, Emilia; Ferreira, Luisa Maria; Branco, Paula Serio; Carvalho, Felix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remiao, Fernando

2013-01-01

268

RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

Mayfield, Stephen (Cardiff, CA)

2000-01-01

269

Expression of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 Protein in Malignant Cutaneous Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages cell molecules, and modifies cell signaling. The nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) is a critical transcription regulator, which protects cells against oxidative damage. Nrf2 expression is increased in a large number of cancers. However, little information has been reported regarding the expression of Nrf2 in skin cancers. Hence, we explored the expression of Nrf2 protein in skin cancers. Methods The Nrf2 protein expression in 24 specimens, including 6 malignant melanomas (MM), 6 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 6 basal cell carcinomas (BCC), and 6 normal skin tissues, was evaluated by western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining was performed. The expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), the key regulator of Nrf2, was also analyzed by western blotting. Results Small interfering RNA transfection to the melanoma cell line G361 confirmed that an approximately 66 kDa band was the true Nrf2 band. The western blot revealed that the Nrf2 protein was definitely expressed in normal skin tissues, but the Nrf2 expression was decreased in MM, SCC, and BCC. Immunohistochemical examination showed that expression of Nrf2 was decreased in all skin cancer tissues compared to the normal skin tissues. Keap1 was not expressed in all malignant skin tumors and normal skin tissues by western blot. Conclusions ROS was increased in various types of cancers which proteins were highly expressed or underexpressed. This study demonstrated that the expression of Nrf2 protein was down-regulated in human malignant skin tumors. We suggest that decreased expression of Nrf2 is related to skin cancers.

Choi, Chang Yong; Kim, Jin Young; Wee, Seo Yeong; Lee, Jang Hyun; Nam, Doo Hyun; Cho, Moon Kyun; Lee, Yoon Jin; Nam, Hae Seon; Lee, Sang Han; Cho, Sung Woo

2014-01-01

270

Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).  

PubMed

Drug interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may influence its tissue disposition including blood-brain barrier transport and result in potent drug-drug interactions. The limited data obtained using in-vitro models indicate that methadone, buprenorphine, and cannabinoids may interact with human P-gp; but almost nothing is known about drugs of abuse and BCRP. We used in vitro P-gp and BCRP inhibition flow cytometric assays with hMDR1- and hBCRP-transfected HEK293 cells to test 14 compounds or metabolites frequently involved in addiction, including buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, ibogaine, cocaine, cocaethylene, amphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, nicotine, ketamine, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), naloxone, and morphine. Drugs that in vitro inhibited P-gp or BCRP were tested in hMDR1- and hBCRP-MDCKII bidirectional transport studies. Human P-gp was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by norbuprenorphine>buprenorphine>methadone>ibogaine and THC. Similarly, BCRP was inhibited by buprenorphine>norbuprenorphine>ibogaine and THC. None of the other tested compounds inhibited either transporter, even at high concentration (100 microm). Norbuprenorphine (transport efflux ratio approoximately 11) and methadone (transport efflux ratio approoximately 1.9) transport was P-gp-mediated; however, with no significant stereo-selectivity regarding methadone enantiomers. BCRP did not transport any of the tested compounds. However, the clinical significance of the interaction of norbuprenorphine with P-gp remains to be evaluated. PMID:19887017

Tournier, Nicolas; Chevillard, Lucie; Megarbane, Bruno; Pirnay, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Declèves, Xavier

2010-08-01

271

Rift Valley Fever Virus Structural and Nonstructural Proteins: Recombinant Protein Expression and Immunoreactivity Against Antisera from Sheep  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) encodes the structural proteins nucleoprotein (N), aminoterminal glycoprotein (Gn), carboxyterminal glycoprotein (Gc), and L protein, 78-kD, and the nonstructural proteins NSm and NSs. Using the baculovirus system, we expressed the full-length coding sequence of N, NSs, NSm, Gc, and the ectodomain of the coding sequence of the Gn glycoprotein derived from the virulent strain of RVFV ZH548. Western blot analysis using anti-His antibodies and monoclonal antibodies against Gn and N confirmed expression of the recombinant proteins, and in vitro biochemical analysis showed that the two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, were expressed in glycosylated form. Immunoreactivity profiles of the recombinant proteins in western blot and in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against a panel of antisera obtained from vaccinated or wild type (RVFV)-challenged sheep confirmed the results obtained with anti-His antibodies and demonstrated the suitability of the baculo-expressed antigens for diagnostic assays. In addition, these recombinant proteins could be valuable for the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). PMID:23962238

Faburay, Bonto; Wilson, William; McVey, D. Scott; Drolet, Barbara S.; Weingartl, Hana; Madden, Daniel; Young, Alan; Ma, Wenjun

2013-01-01

272

Differential protein expressions in breast cancer between drug sensitive tissues and drug resistant tissues  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the differential expression of the sensitive and resistant relative proteins in human breast cancer tissue. Methods A drug sensitive group and a drug resistant group for chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer were selected through neoadjuvant therapy. The differential protein expression in 2 groups was detected by proteomic techniques, and parts of differential proteins were identified by Western blotting. Results There were 13 differential proteins in the 2 groups, in which the expression of 3 proteins was up-regulated and 10 down-regulated. Seven proteins were identified by Western blotting. The expressions of keratin type I cytoskeletal 19 (KIC19) and thymidine phosphorylase (TYPH) were up-regulated, and the expressions of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), keratin type I cytoskeletal 9 (KIC9), collagen alpha-2(VI) (CO6A2), vimentin (VIME), and actin cytoplasmic 1 (ACTB) were down-regulated in the drug resistant group. There were significant differences between these 2 groups (P<0.01). Conclusions The expressions of KIC19 and TYPH may be correlated with drug resistance in patients with breast cancer, and HSP27, KIC9, CO6A2, VIME, and ACTB may be correlated with drug sensitivity. PMID:25083461

Peng, Jing; Zhang, Yajie; Fu, Fenfen; Zou, Qiongyan; Tang, Yuanyuan

2013-01-01

273

InsectDirect System: rapid, high-level protein expression and purification from insect cells.  

PubMed

A fundamental challenge in high-throughput (HT) expression screening is to rapidly identify the appropriate expression system for many targets in parallel. Known or unknown open reading frames (ORFs) are typically amplified by PCR and then cloned into a variety of vectors, producing recombinants used to direct target protein expression in Escherichia coli, insect cells, mammalian cells, or yeast. To facilitate rapid expression and purification in Spodoptera insect cells (Sf9), we developed transient expression vectors that include an enterokinase cleavage site immediately upstream of a ligation-independent cloning site (Ek/LIC). We also developed a high-efficiency insect cell transfection reagent, and automation-compatible fusion protein purification system for insect cells to facilitate expression screening and protein production. Positive clones identified from the small-scale screening were subjected to a larger scale production. Using this InsectDirect approach, we successfully expressed milligram quantities of different human proteins including heat shock proteins, phospholipases, and protein kinases. PMID:16211518

Loomis, Kathryn H; Yaeger, Keith W; Batenjany, Michael M; Mehler, Mark M; Grabski, Anthony C; Wong, Shou C; Novy, Robert E

2005-01-01

274

BioBrick™ compatible vector system for protein expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.  

PubMed

We report here the creation of a modular, plasmid-based protein expression system utilizing elements of the native Rhodobacter puf promoter in a BioBrick(TM)-based vector system with DsRed encoding a red fluorescent reporter protein. A suite of truncations of the puf promoter were made to assess the influence of different portions of this promoter on expression of heterologous proteins. The 3' end of puf was found to be particularly important for increasing expression, with transformants accumulating significant quantities of DsRed under both aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. Expression levels of this reporter protein in Rhodobacter sphaeroides were comparable to those achieved in Escherichia coli using the strong, constitutive P lac promoter, thus demonstrating the robustness of the engineered system. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability to tune the designed expression system by modulating cellular DsRed levels based upon the promoter segment utilized and oxygenation conditions. Last, we show that the new expression system is able to drive expression of a membrane protein, proteorhodopsin, and that membrane purifications from R. sphaeroides yielded significant quantities of proteorhodopsin. This toolset lays the groundwork for the engineering of multi-step pathways, including recalcitrant membrane proteins, in R. sphaeroides. PMID:24509770

Tikh, Ilya B; Held, Mark; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

2014-04-01

275

Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

2002-01-01

276

Expression of MDR proteins in breast cancer and its correlation with some clinical and pathological parameters.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins, namely MDR1 (P-glycoprotein), MRP1 (multidrug resistance-related protein) and LRP (lung resistance-related protein), in 87 samples of breast carcinoma. Detection of these proteins was provided by using indirect enzymatic immunohistochemistry. Our findings were compared with the other clinical and pathological parameters: expression of Her2/neu, estrogen receptor status (ER), progesteron receptor status (PR), histological grade and regional lymph node status. For statistical analysis, non-parametric two sided Mann-Whitney-U test was used. Majority of breast carcinoma specimens show positivity for these proteins. The MDR1 and MRP1 signal was found in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. The expression of LRP was detected in the cytoplasm close to the nuclear membrane. The samples were positive for MDR1 protein in 57%, for MRP1 in 84% and for LRP in 79%. Comparing our results with other clinical and pathological parameters, negative correlation between ER, PR and MDR1 expressions and histological grading status was found. No associations were observed between the MRP1 and LRP proteins and histological grading, as well as between the expression of three MDR proteins and the other clinically relevant parameters. In conclusion, high frequency of expression of MDR proteins in breast carcinoma cells suggests, that these proteins might be an important factor of drug resistance in breast carcinoma. Nevertheless, the negative correlation between the histological grade of malignancy of tumor and the expression of ER, PR and MDR1 indicates possible influence of progressive tumor cell de-differentiation. However, this finding has to be confirmed in additional evaluations. PMID:16575468

Rybárová, S; Hodorová, I; Hajduková, M; Schmidtová, K; Mojzis, J; Kajo, K; Kviatkovská, Z; Plank, L; Benický, M; Mirossay, A; Biros, E; Bobrov, N; Wagnerová, M; Berc, A; Mirossay, L

2006-01-01

277

Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Neural Progenitor Cells as a Tool for Transplantation Studies  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to generate quadruple fluorescent protein (QFP) transgenic mice as a source for QFP-expressing neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) that could be utilized as a tool for transplantation research. When undifferentiated, these NSCs only express cyan fluorescent protein (CFP); however, upon neuronal differentiation, the cells express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). During astrocytic differentiation, the cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP), and during oligodendrocytic differentiation, the cells express red fluorescent protein (DsRed). Using immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, flow cytometry and electrophysiology, quadruple transgenic NPCs (Q-NPCs) and GFP-sorted NPCs were comprehensively characterized in vitro. Overall, the various transgenes did not significantly affect proliferation and differentiation of transgenic NPCs in comparison to wild-type NPCs. In contrast to a strong CFP and GFP expression in vitro, NPCs did not express YFP and dsRed either during proliferation or after differentiation in vitro. GFP-positive sorted NPCs, expressing GFP under the control of the human GFAP promoter, demonstrated a significant improvement in astroglial differentiation in comparison to GFP-negative sorted NPCs. In contrast to non-sorted and GFP-positive sorted NPCs, GFP-negative sorted NPCs demonstrated a high proportion of neuronal differentiation and proved to be functional in vitro. At 6 weeks after the intracerebroventricular transplantation of Q-NPCs into neonatal wild-type mice, CFP/DCX (doublecortin) double-positive transplanted cells were observed. The Q-NPCs did not express any other fluorescent proteins and did not mature into neuronal or glial cells. Although this model failed to visualize NPC differentiation in vivo, we determined that activation of the NPC glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) promoter, as indicated by GFP expression, can be used to separate neuronal and glial progenitors as a valuable tool for transplantation studies. PMID:24932758

Skardelly, Marco; Hempel, Eileen; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Wegner, Florian; Meixensberger, Jurgen; Milosevic, Javorina

2014-01-01

278

Optimized expression in Pichia pastoris eliminates common protein contaminants from subsequent His-tag purification.  

PubMed

A weakness of using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) to purify recombinant proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris is the co-purification of native proteins that exhibit high affinities for Ni-IMAC. We have determined the elution profiles of P. pastoris proteins and have examined the native proteins that co-purify when eluting with 100 mM imidazole. Four major contaminants were identified: mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III (mADH), nucleotide excision repair endonuclease, and the hypothetical proteins TPHA_0L01390 and TDEL_0B02190 which are homologous proteins derived from Tetrapisispora phaffii and Torulaspora delbrueckii, respectively. A new P. pastoris expression strain was engineered that eliminated the predominant contaminant, mADH, by gene disruption. The total amount of protein contaminants was reduced by 55 % without effecting cell growth. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using a proteomic approach to facilitate bioprocess optimization. PMID:24322766

Chen, Yong; Li, Yang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qun; Liu, Zhu

2014-04-01

279

Membrane-Expressed and Extracellular Stress Proteins in Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter focuses on the dichotomous effects of eukaryotic and microbial heat shock proteins (HSPs) with molecular weights\\u000a of 60, 70, and 90 kDa on the host’s immune system. It has previously been shown that membrane-bound and extracellular heat\\u000a shock proteins elicit potent anti-cancer immune responses. Herein are discussed the immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive\\u000a properties of heat shock proteins in bacterial and

Gabriele Multhoff

280

Evaluation of Protein Expression in Housekeeping Genes across Multiple Tissues in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Housekeeping genes, which show constant protein expression patterns between different tissue types, are very important in molecular biological studies as an internal control for protein research. Methods The protein expression profiles of seven housekeeping genes (HPRT1, PPIA, GYS1, TBP, YWHAZ, GAPDH and ACTB) in various rat tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, cardiac ventricle and atrium, psoas muscle, femoral muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, and aorta) were analyzed by Western blot and compared by coefficient of variation (CV). Results HPRT1 was stably expressed (CV?10%) in six tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, ventricle, femoral muscle, spleen, and kidney), PPIA was stably expressed in five tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, ventricle, spleen and kidney), YWHAZ was stably expressed in three tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, and kidney), and GAPDH was stably expressed in four tissues (cerebrum, ventricle, psoas muscle, and kidney). In comparison, GYS1, TBP, and ACTB were found to have CV values over 10% in all tissues. Of the seven genes examined, four (HPRT1, PPIA, YWHAZ, and GAPDH) were found to be stably expressed across multiple organs, with low CV values (?10%). Conclusions These results will provide fundamental information regarding internal controls for protein expression studies and can be used for analysis of postmortem protein degradation patterns in forensic medicine. PMID:25013417

Kim, Hye Jeong; Na, Jong In; Min, Byung Woo; Na, Joo Young; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Young Jik; Kim, Hyung Seok

2014-01-01

281

Pichia pastoris expressed EtMic2 protein as a potential vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.  

PubMed

Chicken coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species leads to tremendous economic losses to the avian industry worldwide. Identification of parasite life cycle specific antigens is a critical step in recombinant protein vaccine development against Eimeria infections. In the present study, we amplified and cloned the microneme-2 (EtMIC2) gene from Eimeria tenella wild type strain SD-01, and expressed the EtMic2 protein using Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli expression systems, respectively. The EtMic2 proteins expressed by P. pastoris and E. coli were used as vaccines to immunize chickens and their protective efficacies were compared and evaluated. The results indicated that both P. pastoris and E. coli expressed EtMic2 proteins exhibited good immunogenicity in stimulating host immune responses and the Pichia expressed EtMic2 provided better protection than the E. coli expressed EtMic2 did by significantly increasing growth rate, inducing high specific antibody response, reducing the oocyst output and cecal lesions. Particularly, the Pichia expressed EtMic2 protein exhibited much better ability in inducing cell mediated immune response than the E. coli expressed EtMic2. PMID:25047705

Zhang, Jie; Chen, Peipei; Sun, Hui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Shi, Wenyan; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Fangkun; Zhao, Xiaomin

2014-09-15

282

Expression and purification of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) CSDAZL protein.  

PubMed

The csdazl gene is a sex related gene of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Our research group have cloned full length cDNA of csdazl, and studied its expression pattern. To get the further information of csdazl, we constructed a prokaryotic expression plasmid, pET-32a-CSDAZL, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified the fusion protein by His Trap. In order to detect the biological activity of the fusion protein, we injected the protein with liposome into fish, and detected other sex-related genes' mRNA expression. The results showed that the expression levels of half-smooth tongue sole female-related genes Cyp19a and Foxl2 significantly decreased between 6 and 24 h; however, both genes' expressions returned to their normal levels 72 h after injection, indicating that recombinant CSDAZL protein could down-regulated the expression of female-related genes, Foxl2 and Cyp19a genes, implying that the fusion protein has biological activity and csdazl plays a role in sex differentiation by regulating sex related genes' expression. PMID:25064428

Wang, Kailin; Zhang, Hong; Hu, Qiaomu; Shao, Changwei; Chen, Songlin

2014-10-01

283

Z-DNA structure of a modified DNA hexamer at 1.4-A resolution: aminohexyl-5'-d(pCpGp[br5C]pGpCpG).  

PubMed

Oligonucleotides with modification at the 5'-end have been used for various biochemical applications. As a first step to better assess the effects of those modifications on DNA conformation, we determined at 1.4-A resolution the left-handed Z-DNA structure of a DNA hexamer, aminohexyl-5'-d(pCpGp[br5C]pGpCpG), by X-ray diffraction analysis. This hexamer was crystallized in the monoclinic C2 (a = 51.13 A, b = 18.44 A, c = 34.67 A, and beta = 120.9 degrees) space group. Its structure has been refined by the restrained least-squares refinement to a final R factor of 0.164 using 3727 [> 2.0 sigma (F)] observed reflections. The overall conformation of the double helix resembles that of the canonical Z-DNA. The terminal 5'-phosphate groups of the dC residues adopt conformations (beta approximately 180 degrees and gamma approximately 60 degrees) similar to phosphodiester's conformation of the internal dC residues. Two types of interhelical stackings are observed, one of which may serve as a model for a single-strand nick in the backbone of DNA double helix. A barium ion is found to bridge two side-by-side Z-DNA helices by coordinating to the O6 and N7 atoms of two guanines simultaneously. This "cross-linking" ability of barium ion may be a useful property in promoting the reversible aggregation of nucleic acids. PMID:8418858

Jean, Y C; Gao, Y G; Wang, A H

1993-01-12

284

Supplementary Methods Protein expression and purification of zebrafish Rad54  

E-print Network

M dithiothreitol (DTT). Construction of the Snf2 hmm. We constructed a SWI/SNF hmm starting with a seed alignment of 11 representative human SWI2/SNF2 proteins. The alignment encompassed the Rad54 sequence starting

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

285

In-Vivo Real-Time Control of Protein Expression from Endogenous and Synthetic Gene Networks  

E-print Network

We describe an innovative experimental and computational approach to control the expression of a protein in a population of yeast cells. We designed a simple control algorithm to automatically regulate the administration ...

Menolascina, Filippo

286

Advanced method for high-throughput expression of mutated eukaryotic membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

Crystallization of eukaryotic membrane proteins is a challenging, iterative process. The protein of interest is often modified in an attempt to improve crystallization and diffraction results. To accelerate this process, we took advantage of a GFP-fusion yeast expression system that uses PCR to direct homologous recombination and gene cloning. We explored the possibility of employing more than one PCR fragment to introduce various mutations in a single step, and found that when up to five PCR fragments were co-transformed into yeast, the recombination frequency was maintained as the number of fragments was increased. All transformants expressed the model membrane protein, while the resulting plasmid from each clone contained the designed mutations only. Thus, we have demonstrated a technique allowing the expression of mutant membrane proteins within 5 days, combining a GFP-fusion expression system and yeast homologous recombination.

Ito, Keisuke; Sugawara, Taishi [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shiroishi, Mitsunori [Iwata Human Receptor Crystallography Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tokuda, Natsuko [Department of Medical Chemistry, Kyoto University, Faculty of Medicine, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kurokawa, Azusa; Misaka, Takumi [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Makyio, Hisayoshi; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shimamura, Tatsuro [Iwata Human Receptor Crystallography Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nomura, Norimichi; Murata, Takeshi [Iwata Human Receptor Crystallography Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Department of Medical Chemistry, Kyoto University, Faculty of Medicine, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Abe, Keiko [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Iwata, So [Iwata Human Receptor Crystallography Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Department of Medical Chemistry, Kyoto University, Faculty of Medicine, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Division of Molecular Biosciences, Membrane Protein Crystallography Group, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.iwata@mfour.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp (and others)

2008-07-11

287

Context-dependent perturbation of neural systems in transgenic mice expressing a cytosolic prion protein  

E-print Network

We analyzed the relationship between pathogenic protein expression and perturbations to brain anatomy and physiology in a genetic model of prion disease. In this model, the mouse line 1D4, neuropathology is promoted by ...

Lindquist, Susan

288

Cloning and expression of Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A novel antifreeze protein cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR from the larva of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The coding fragment of 339 bp encodes a protein of 112 amino acid residues and was fused to the expression vectors pET32a and pTWIN1. The resulted expression plasmids were transformed into Escherischia coli strains BL21 (DE3), ER2566, and Origami B (DE3), respectively. Several strategies were used for expression of the highly disulfide-bonded beta-helix-contained protein with the activity of antifreeze in different expression systems. A protocol for production of refolded and active T. molitor antifreeze protein in bacteria was obtained. PMID:18256902

Yue, Chang-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

2009-03-01

289

VCU/Old Dominion University study finds CD97 gene expression and function correlate with WT1 protein expression  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center's VCU Massey Cancer Center and Harold F. Young Neurosurgical Center (Richmond, VA) and Old Dominion University (Norfolk, VA) have discovered that suppression of Wilms tumor 1 protein (WT1) results in downregulation of CD97 gene expression in three glioblastoma cell lines and reduces the characteristic invasiveness exhibited by glial tumor cells.

290

PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND PURIFICATION 6,700-706 (1995) Production of Rat Protein Disulfide Isomerase  

E-print Network

- ent at millimolar levels in the endoplasmic reticulum ofeukaryotic cells. This protein is an enzyme KDEL, which has been implicated as the signal for retention of a protein in the endoplasmic reticulum,1995, and in revised form June 8,1995 Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an abundant protein of the endoplasmic

Raines, Ronald T.

291

Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein and Doxorubicin Chemoresistance of Metastatic Breast Cancer Is Regulated by miR-298  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in cancer; therefore, they offer great diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We have developed doxorubicin-resistant and -sensitive metastatic human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) to study the chemoresistant mechanisms regulated by miRNAs. We found that doxorubicin localized exclusively to the cytoplasm and was unable to reach the nuclei of resistant tumor cells because of the increased nuclear expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp). An miRNA array between doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells showed that reduced expression of miR-298 in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells was associated with increased expression of P-gp. In a transient transfection experiment, miR-298 directly bound to the MDR1 3? untranslated region and regulated the expression of firefly luciferase reporter in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of miR-298 down-regulated P-gp expression, increasing nuclear accumulation of doxorubicin and cytotoxicity in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-298 increased P-gp expression and induced doxorubicin resistance in sensitive breast cancer cells. In summary, these results suggest that miR-298 directly modulates P-gp expression and is associated with the chemoresistant mechanisms of metastatic human breast cancer. Therefore, miR-298 has diagnostic and therapeutic potential for predicting doxorubicin chemoresistance in human breast cancer. PMID:22521303

Bao, Lili; Hazari, Sidhartha; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak; Moroz, Krzysztof; Dash, Srikanta

2012-01-01

292

Selection of yeast strains with enhanced expression of Plasmodium falciparum proteins.  

PubMed

The poor expression of Plasmodium falciparum proteins in heterologous systems and the difficulty in obtaining sufficient material directly from the parasite have limited the experimental characterization of many of the approximately 5200 proteins encoded by this organism. To improve the expression of P. falciparum proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we selected yeast ura3 mutants that acquired the ability to utilize the P. falciparum orthologue (PfOMPDC) of URA3 to grow on media lacking uracil. Two of these mutant strains, BY#29 and PJ#17, expressed up to 100-fold more of four P. falciparum proteins as a result of mutations in either HRP1 or KAP104, respectively. These mutations, as well as a temperature-sensitive rna15 mutation, likely decrease the efficiency of mRNA 3' end formation and produce longer mRNAs of P. falciparum genes. These yeast strains may be useful for the analysis and purification of P. falciparum proteins. PMID:19026694

LaCount, Douglas J; Schoenfeld, Lori W; Fields, Stanley

2009-02-01

293

Chemokines derived from soluble fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli are biologically active  

SciTech Connect

Chemokines are a class of low molecular weight proteins that are involved in leukocytes trafficking. Due to their involvement in recruiting immune cells to sites of inflammation, chemokines, and chemokine receptors have become an attractive class of therapeutic targets. However, when expressed in Escherichia coli chemokines are poorly soluble and accumulate in inclusion bodies. Several purification methods have been described but involve time-consuming refolding, buffer exchange, and purification steps that complicate expression of these proteins. Here, we describe a simple and reliable method to express chemokines as fusions to the protein NusA. The fusion proteins were largely found in the soluble fraction and could be readily purified in a single step. Proteolytic cleavage was used to obtain soluble recombinant chemokines that were found to be very active in a novel in vitro chemotaxis assays. This method could be applied to several {alpha} and {beta} human chemokines, suggesting that it is generally applicable to this class of proteins.

Magistrelli, Giovanni [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Gueneau, Franck [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Muslmani, Machadiya [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Ravn, Ulla [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Kosco-Vilbois, Marie [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Fischer, Nicolas [NovImmune SA, 64 avenue de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: nfischer@novimmune.com

2005-08-26

294

Transient recombinant protein expression in a human amniocyte cell line: the CAP-T® cell system.  

PubMed

The impact of transient gene expression approaches (TGE) on the rapid production of recombinant proteins is undisputed, despite that all efforts are currently relying on two host cell families only, namely HEK293 derivatives and CHO cell line(s). Yet, the increasing complexity of biological targets calls for more than two host cell types to meet the challenges of difficult-to-express proteins. For this reason, we evaluated the more recently established novel CAP-T® cell line derived from human amniocytes for its performance and potential in transient gene expression. Upon careful analyses and adaptation of all process parameters we show here that indeed the CAP-T® cells are extremely amenable to transient gene expression and recombinant protein production. Additionally, they possess inherent capabilities to express and secrete complex and difficult target molecules, thus adding an attractive alternative to the repertoire of existing host cell lines used in transient production processes. PMID:22488157

Fischer, Simon; Charara, Nadine; Gerber, Andrea; Wölfel, Jens; Schiedner, Gudrun; Voedisch, Bernd; Geisse, Sabine

2012-09-01

295

Expression Patterns of Cardiac Myofilament Proteins - Genomic and Protein Analysis of Surgical Myectomy Tissue from Patients with Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in myofilament proteins, most commonly MYBPC3-encoded myosin binding protein C and MYH7-encoded ?-myosin heavy chain, can cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Despite significant advances in structure-function relationships pertaining to the cardiac sarcomere, there is limited knowledge of how a mutation leads to clinical HCM. We therefore set out to study expression and localization of myofilament proteins in left ventricular tissue of patients with HCM. Methods and Results Frozen surgical myectomy specimens from 47 patients with HCM were examined and genotyped for mutations involving 8 myofilament-encoding genes. Myofilament protein levels were quantified by western blot with localization graded from immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections. Overall, 25/47 (53%) patients had myofilament-HCM including 12 with MYBPC3-HCM and 9 with MYH7-HCM. Compared to healthy heart tissue, levels of myofilament proteins were increased in patients manifesting a mutation in either gene. Patients with a frameshift mutation predicted to truncate MYBPC3 exhibited marked disturbances in protein localization as compared to missense mutations in either MYBPC3 or MYH7. Conclusions In this first expression study in human HCM tissue, increased myofilament protein levels in patients with either MYBPC3 or MYH7-mediated HCM suggest a poison peptide mechanism. Specifically, the mechanism of dysfunction may vary according to the genetic subgroup suggested by a distinctly abnormal distribution of myofilament proteins in patients manifesting a truncation mutation in MYBPC3. PMID:19808356

Theis, Jeanne L.; Bos, J. Martijn; Theis, Jason D.; Miller, Dylan V.; Dearani, Joseph A.; Schaff, Hartzell V.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Ommen, Steve R.; Moss, Richard L.; Ackerman, Michael J.

2009-01-01

296

Intracranial self stimulation upregulates the expression of synaptic plasticity related genes and Arc protein expression in rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Post-training lateral hypothalamus (LH) intracranial self stimulation (ICSS) has a reliable enhancing effect on explicit memory formation evaluated in hippocampus-dependent tasks such as the Morris water maze. In this study, the effects of ICSS on gene expression in the hippocampus are examined 4.5 h post treatment by using oligonucleotide microarray and real-time PCR, and by measuring Arc protein levels in the different layers of hippocampal subfields through immunofluorescence. The microarray data analysis resulted in 65 significantly regulated genes in rat ICSS hippocampi compared to sham, including cAMP-mediated signaling as one of the most significantly enriched Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) functional categories. In particular, expression of CREB-dependent synaptic plasticity related genes (c-Fos, Arc, Bdnf, Ptgs-2 and Crem and Icer) was regulated in a time-dependent manner following treatment administration. Immunofluorescence results showed that ICSS treatment induced a significant increase in Arc protein expression in CA1 and DG hippocampal subfields. This empirical evidence supports our hypothesis that the effect of ICSS on improved or restored memory functions might be mediated by increased hippocampal expression of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity related genes, including Arc protein expression, as neural mechanisms related to memory consolidation. PMID:23898803

Kádár, E; Huguet, G; Aldavert-Vera, L; Morgado-Bernal, I; Segura-Torres, P

2013-11-01

297

Regional Expression of Key Cell Cycle Proteins in Brain from Subjects with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is regarded as a transition stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and the more\\u000a serious problems caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies had demonstrated increased expression of cell cycle\\u000a proteins in AD brain. In the present study, we have analyzed the expression of the cell cycle proteins, CDK2, CDK5 and cyclin\\u000a G1 in

Rukhsana Sultana; D. Allan Butterfield

2007-01-01

298

Spatial and Temporal Expression of a Maize Lipid Transfer Protein Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the temporal and spatial pattern of lipid transfer protein (LTP) gene expression, as well as the localization of this protein, in maize. Using an LTP gene, we observed an accumulation of LTP mRNA in embryos and endosperms during seed maturation. LTP gene expression was also investigated in young seedlings. After germination, the leve1 of LTP mRNA in the

Lucienne Sossountzov; Luis Ruiz-Avila; Florence Vignols; Alain Jolliot; Vincent Arondel; Françoise Tchang; Michèle Grosbois; Françoise Guerbette; Emite Miginiac; Michel Delseny; Pere Puigdomenèch; Jean-Claude Kader

1991-01-01

299

Analysis of APC, ?-, ?-catenins, and N-cadherin protein expression in aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to analyze the cadherin\\/catenin adhesion complex in cells from abdominal and extra-abdominal aggressive fibromatosis tumors, and to estimate the correlation between the expression of the tested proteins and the clinical data of the desmoid patients.Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of the cadherin\\/catenin adhesion complex: APC protein, ?-, ?-catenin, and N-cadherin in archival

Tomasz Ferenc; Jan Wojciech Wro?ski; Janusz Kopczy?ski; Andrzej Kulig; Ma?gorzata Sidor; Liliana Stali?ska; Adam Dziki; Jacek Sygut

2009-01-01

300

Differential protein expression in Spirometra erinacei according to its development in its final host  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to identify genes involved in the growth and development of Spirometra erinacei larvae, an intestinal tapeworm of cats and dogs, within the final host. The differential protein expression at three different\\u000a stages of S. erinacei, the plerocercoid larvae, 8-day-old juveniles, and adults, was compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Specifically\\u000a or highly expressed proteins in juvenile worms were

Jae-Hwan Kim; Young Ju Kim; Woon-Mok Sohn; Young Mee Bae; Sung-Tae Hong; Min-Ho Choi

2009-01-01

301

Expression of proteinase inhibitor II proteins during floral development in Solanum americanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterologous expression of serine proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) proteins confers insect resistance in transgenic plants, but little is known of their endogenous roles. We have cloned two cDNAs encoding Solanum americanum PIN2 proteins, SaPIN2a and SaPIN2b. SaPIN2a is highly expressed in stem, particularly in the phloem, suggesting it could possibly regulate proteolysis in the sieve elements. When SaPIN2a was

Suk-Fong Sin; Mee-Len Chye

2004-01-01

302

Expression of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein in transgenic maize and immunological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plants have been employed successfully as a low-cost system for the production of therapeutically valuable proteins,\\u000a including antibodies, antigens and hormones. Here, we report the expression of the fusion (F) gene of the Newcastle disease\\u000a virus (NDV) in transgenic maize plants. The expression of the transgene, driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter, caused accumulation\\u000a of the F protein in

Octavio Guerrero-Andrade; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Teresa Olivera-Flores; Tamás Fehérvári-Bone; Miguel Angel Gómez-Lim

2006-01-01

303

Regulation of human protein C gene expression by the mouse WAP promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4.1 kb mouse whey acidic protein (mWAP) promoter was cloned from a C57BL\\/6 cosmid library. The tissue-specific and developmental pattern of expression of a hybrid gene comprised of the mWAP promoter fragment and the human protein C (HPC) gene was analysed in transgenic mice. The corresponding RNA was detected mainly in the mammary gland, with ‘leakage’ of expression in

Rekha K. Paleyanda; Da-Wei Zhang; Lothar Hennighausen; Robert A. McKnight; Henryk Lubon

1994-01-01

304

Cloning and expression of Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel antifreeze protein cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR from the larva of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The coding fragment of 339 bp encodes a protein of 112 amino acid residues and was fused to the expression vectors pET32a\\u000a and pTWIN1. The resulted expression plasmids were transformed into Escherischia coli strains BL21 (DE3), ER2566, and Origami B (DE3), respectively. Several

Chang-Wu Yue; Yi-Zheng Zhang

2009-01-01

305

Development of a new generation of vectors for gene expression, gene replacement, and protein-protein interaction studies in mycobacteria.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli-mycobacterium shuttle vectors are important tools for gene expression and gene replacement in mycobacteria. However, most of the currently available vectors are limited in their use because of the lack of extended multiple cloning sites (MCSs) and convenience of appending an epitope tag(s) to the cloned open reading frames (ORFs). Here we report a new series of vectors that allow for the constitutive and regulatable expression of proteins, appended with peptide tag sequences at their N and C termini, respectively. The applicability of these vectors is demonstrated by the constitutive and induced expression of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pknK gene, coding for protein kinase K, a serine-threonine protein kinase. Furthermore, a suicide plasmid with expanded MCS for creating gene replacements, a plasmid for chromosomal integrations at the commonly used L5 attB site, and a hypoxia-responsive vector, for expression of a gene(s) under hypoxic conditions that mimic latency, have also been created. Additionally, we have created a vector for the coexpression of two proteins controlled by two independent promoters, with each protein being in fusion with a different tag. The shuttle vectors developed in the present study are excellent tools for the analysis of gene function in mycobacteria and are a valuable addition to the existing repertoire of vectors for mycobacterial research. PMID:23315736

Parikh, Amit; Kumar, Devanand; Chawla, Yogesh; Kurthkoti, Krishna; Khan, Shazia; Varshney, Umesh; Nandicoori, Vinay K

2013-03-01

306

Annexin A1 protein regulates the expression of PMVEC cytoskeletal proteins in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by advanced liver disease, hypoxemia and intrapulmonary vascular dilatation (IPVD). The pathogenesis of HPS is not completely understood. Recent findings have established the role of proliferation and phenotype differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in IPVD of HPS; the change in cytoskeletal proteins and their molecular mechanism play an essential role in the proliferation, phenotype modulation and differentiation of PMVECs. However, little is known about the relevance of cytoskeletal protein expression and its molecular mechanism in IPVD of HPS. In addition, ANX A1 protein has been identified as a key regulator in some important signaling pathways, which influences cytoskeletal remodeling in many diseases, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, etc. Methods PMVECs were cultured from the normal rats and then divided into three groups(Ad-ANXA1-transfected group, a non-transfected group, and an adenovirus empty vector group) and incubated by nomal rat serum or hepatopulmonary syndrome rat serum respectively. mRNA level was evaluated by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was detected by western blot. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT and thymidine incorporation assay. Results In this study, we found that the serum from a common bile duct ligation(CBDL) Rat model decreased the expression levels of the ANX A1 mRNA and protein by at least two-fold in human PMVECs. We also found the expression of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin) in PMVECs significantly increased. After stimulating ANX A1 over-expression in PMVECs by adenovirus-mediated ANX A1 (Ad-ANXA1) transfection, we found the expression levels of cytoskeletal proteins were significantly suppressed in PMVECs at all time points. Additionally, we report here that serum from a CBDL Rat model increases the proliferation of PMVECs by nearly two-fold and that over-expression of Ad-ANXA1 significantly inhibits HPS-rat-serum-induced PMVEC proliferation (p <0.05). These findings suggest that the ANX A1 down-regulation of PMVEC proliferation in the presence of HPS-rat-serum may be the major cause of aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin) and may, therefore, play a fundamental role in the proliferation and phenotype differentiation of PMVECs in the PVD of HPS. Conclusion Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-ANXA1 results in inhibition of the aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins and proliferation of PMVECs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on PVD of HPS. PMID:23587191

2013-01-01

307

NF-?B1 inhibits c-Myc protein degradation through suppression of FBW7 expression  

PubMed Central

NF-?B is a well-known transcription factor in regulation of multiple gene transcription and biological processes, and most of them are relied on its transcriptional activity of the p65/RelA subunit, while biological function of another ubiquitously expressed subunit NF-?B1 (p50) remains largely unknown due to lack transcriptional activation domain. Here we discovered a novel biological function of p50 as a regulator of oncogenic c-Myc protein degradation upon arsenite treatment in a NF-?B transcriptional-independent mechanism. Our results found that p50 was crucial for c-Myc protein induction following arsenite treatment by using specific knockdown and deletion of p50 in its normal expressed cells as well as reconstituting expression of p50 in its deficient cells. Subsequently we showed that p50 upregulated c-Myc protein expression mainly through inhibiting its degradation. We also identified that p50 exhibited this novel property by suppression of FBW7 expression. FBW7 was profoundly upregulated in p50-defecient cells in comparison to that in p50 intact cells, whereas knockdown of FBW7 in p50-/- cells restored arsenite-induced c-Myc protein accumulation, assuring that FBW7 up-regulation was responsible for defect of c-Myc protein expression in p50-/- cells. In addition, we discovered that p50 suppressed fbw7 gene transcription via inhibiting transcription factor E2F1 transactivation. Collectively, our studies demonstrated a novel function of p50 as a regulator of c-Myc protein degradation, contributing to our notion that p50-regulated protein expression through multiple levels at protein translation and degradation, further providing a significant insight into the understanding of biomedical significance of p50 protein. PMID:24457827

Huang, Haishan; Ma, Li; Li, Jingxia; Yu, Yonghui; Zhang, Dongyun; Wei, Jinlong; Jin, Honglei; Xu, Derek; Gao, Jimin; Huang, Chuanshu

2014-01-01

308

Anatomical specificity of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase protein expression in glioblastomas.  

PubMed

O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is one of the important tumor-related biomarkers and is considered to be a prognostic factor for glioblastoma. This study aimed to investigate the anatomical location of tumor-related MGMT protein expression in histologically confirmed de novo glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Preoperative magnetic resonance images were retrospectively examined from GBM patients. Tumor tissues were manually segmented based on the structural image of each patient and subsequently registered to a standard brain atlas. Superimposition of the tumor tissues was carried out in patients with and without epigenetic changes. We used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to identify the specific brain regions that were associated with level of MGMT protein expression. The tumors with low expression of MGMT protein and those with high expression of MGMT protein showed not significant differences in tumor size on T2 imaging. The VLSM analysis demonstrated that tumors with low expression of MGMT protein were more likely to occur in the right temporal-parietal lobe, while tumors with high expression of MGMT protein occurred more often in the left frontal lobe. Based upon VLSM data, our results suggest that the epigenetic changes, which occur during tumorigenesis, may have anatomical specificity. The identified correlation between molecular biomarkers and anatomical distribution underscores the current understanding of the biological characteristics of glioblastoma. PMID:25031184

Wang, Yinyan; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Chuanbao; Zhang, Tan; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Shaowu; Wang, Lei; Ma, Jun; Jiang, Tao

2014-11-01

309

Evaluation of Affinity-Tagged Protein Expression Strategies using Local and Global Isotope Ratio Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Protein enrichments of engineered, affinity-tagged (or bait ) fusion proteins with interaction partners are often laden with background, non-specific proteins, due to interactions that occur in vitro as an artifact of the technique. Furthermore, the in vivo expression of the bait protein may itself affect physiology or metabolism. In this study, intrinsic affinity purification challenges were investigated in a model protein complex, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), encompassing chromosome- and plasmid-encoding strategies for bait proteins in two different microbial species: Escherichia coli and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Isotope ratio measurements of bait protein expression strains relative to native, wild-type strains were performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to assess bait protein expression strategies in each species. Authentic interacting proteins of RNAP were successfully discerned from artifactual co-isolating proteins by the isotopic differentiation of interactions as random or targeted (I-DIRT) method (A. J. Tackett et al. J. Proteome Res. 2005, 4 (5), 1752-1756). To investigate broader effects of bait protein production in the bacteria, we compared proteomes from strains harboring a plasmid that encodes an affinity-tagged subunit (RpoA) of the RNAP complex with the corresponding wild-type strains using stable isotope metabolic labeling. The ratio of RpoA abundance in plasmid strains versus wild type was 0.8 for R. palustris and 1.7 for E. coli. While most other proteins showed no appreciable difference, proteins significantly increased in abundance in plasmid-encoded bait-expressing strains of both species included the plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance protein, GenR and proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis. Together, these local, complex-specific and more global, whole proteome isotopic abundance ratio measurements provided a tool for evaluating both in vivo and in vitro effects of plasmid-encoding strategies for bait protein expression. This approach has the potential for enabling discovery of protein-protein interactions among the growing number of sequenced microbial species without the need for development of chromosomal insertion systems.

Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K [ORNL; Lankford, Patricia K [ORNL; Owens, Elizabeth T [ORNL; McKeown, Catherine K [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan S [ORNL; Foote, Linda J [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL

2009-01-01

310

Germ-cell specific protein gametogenetin protein 2 (GGN2), expression in the testis, and association with intracellular membrane.  

PubMed

Gametogenetin (Ggn) is a germ cell-specific gene with multiple splicing variants giving rise to three predicted protein products, gametogenetin protein 1 (GGN1), gametogenetin protein 2 (GGN2), and gametogenetin protein 3 (GGN3). GGN1 and GGN3 were reported to interact with Fanconi anemia complementation group L (FANCL) per proliferation of germ cells (POG), a ubiquitin E3 ligase involved in germ-cell-deficient (gcd) mutation. While GGN2, another protein from Ggn by alternative splicing did not interact with FANCL/POG since it lacked the domain mediating the interaction. Little is known about the expression and function of GGN2. Here through Northern blotting experiment we showed that Ggn was mainly expressed in the testis but hardly detectable in the ovary or the somatic tissues. By preparing GGN2-specific antibody we showed that GGN2 was detectable and only detectable in the testis. By comparing the expression of Ggn mRNA and GGN2 protein in developing mouse testis, we showed that there was no evident delay of the translation of Ggn mRNA after their transcription. Both the subcellular localization study and the germ cell membrane protein fractionation implied that GGN2 associated with the intracellular membrane system. Co-fractionation on Superdex and yeast two-hybrids suggested that like GGN1, GGN2 was also a potential interaction partner of gametogenetin binding protein 1 (GGNBP1). Our data suggested that gametogenetin proteins were mainly involved in male germ cell development and GGN2 was also a possible interaction partner of GGNBP1. Like GGN1, GGN2 was also possibly involved in cell trafficking. The possible involvement of GGN2 in acrosome biogenesis was proposed. PMID:15892049

Zhao, Qingguo; Zhou, Yu; Cao, Zhiguo; Zhu, Hengqi; Huang, Peitang; Lu, Baisong

2005-09-01

311

A Hybrid Approach to Protein Differential Expression in Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics  

SciTech Connect

Motivation: Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics involves statistical inference on protein abundance, based on the intensities of each protein's associated spectral peaks. However, typical MS-based proteomics data sets have substantial proportions of missing observations, due at least in part to censoring of low intensities. This complicates intensity-based differential expression analysis. Results: We outline a statistical method for protein differential expression, based on a simple Binomial likelihood. By modeling peak intensities as binary, in terms of 'presence/ absence,' we enable the selection of proteins not typically amendable to quantitative analysis; e.g., 'one-state' proteins that are present in one condition but absent in another. In addition, we present an analysis protocol that combines quantitative and presence/ absence analysis of a given data set in a principled way, resulting in a single list of selected proteins with a single associated FDR.

Wang, Xuan; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Dabney, Alan R.

2012-04-19

312

Regulators of Expression of the Oligopeptide Permease A Proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrelia burgdorferi undergoes an infectious cycle that requires adaptation to different hosts and marked differences in environment. B. burgdorferi copes with its different environments by regulating the expression of proteins required for survival in specific settings. The B. burgdorferi oligopeptide permease (Opp) is one of only a few transporters encoded by the B. burgdorferi genome. Opp proteins in other bacteria

Melisa S. Medrano; Yanpeng Ding; Xing-Guo Wang; Peng Lu; Jenifer Coburn; Linden T. Hu

2007-01-01

313

Functional Expression and Characterization of G-protein-gated Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channels Containing GIRK3  

E-print Network

Functional Expression and Characterization of G-protein-gated Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channels, USA Received: 13 January 1999/Revised: 2 March 1999 Abstract. The G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying: Potassium channels -- Kir 3.3 -- G --Ion channels Introduction The inward rectifier K+ channels are encoded

Clapham, David E.

314

Regeneration in sarcoglycanopathies: expression studies of sarcoglycans and other muscle proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the immunohistochemical expression of 14 different muscle proteins of the basal lamina, sarcolemma and cytoskeleton in primary sarcoglycanopathies (13 cases) and compared it with Duchenne dystrophy (6 cases) and myositis (5 cases). Sarcolemmal proteins (i.e. 4 sarcoglycans, ?-dystroglycan, dystrophin, ?-spectrin) were reduced both in sarcoglycanopathies and Duchenne dystrophy, because of structural and functional impairment of the plasma

Marina Fanin; Corrado Angelini

1999-01-01

315

Expression of Hepatitis C Virus Proteins Induces Distinct Membrane Alterations Including a Candidate Viral Replication Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plus-strand RNA viruses characteristically replicate their genome in association with altered cellular membranes. In the present study, the capacity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins to elicit intracellular membrane alterations was investigated by expressing, in tetracycline-regulated cell lines, a comprehensive panel of HCV proteins individually as well as in the context of the entire HCV polyprotein. As visualized by electron

Denise Egger; Benno Wölk; Rainer Gosert; Leonardo Bianchi; Hubert E. Blum; Darius Moradpour; Kurt Bienz

2002-01-01

316

Author's personal copy Protein expression following heat shock in the nervous system of Locusta migratoria  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Protein expression following heat shock in the nervous system of Locusta 9 August 2011 Keywords: Heat shock Nervous system Hsp70 Locusta migratoria Proteomics of Hsp70 transcript or protein in the nervous system. We compared Hsp70 increase following HS

Robertson, Meldrum

317

In vivo detection of membrane protein expression using surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) was applied for the detection of expression and functional incorporation of integral membrane proteins into plasma membranes of living cells in real time.A vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) tagged mutant of photoreceptor bovine rhodopsin was generated for high level expression with the semliki forest virus (SFV) system. Adherent baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells were cultivated

Simone S. Krupka; Birgit Wiltschi; Ute Reuning; Kerstin Hölscher; Masahiko Hara; Eva-Kathrin Sinner

2006-01-01

318

Protein Expression Profiling Identifies Subclasses of Breast Cancer and Predicts Prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease whose evolution is difficult to predict by using classic histoclinical prognostic factors. Prognostic classification can benefit from molecular analyses such as large-scale expression profiling. Using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, we have moni- tored the expression of 26 selected proteins in more than 1,600 cancer samples from 552 consecutive patients with early breast cancer. Both

Jocelyne Jacquemier; Christophe Ginestier; Jacques Rougemont; Valerie-Jeanne Bardou; Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret; Jeannine Geneix; Alane Koki; Gilles Houvenaeghel; Jacques Hassoun; Dominique Maraninchi; Patrice Viens; Daniel Birnbaum; Francois Bertucci

2005-01-01

319

345. Hematopoietic Stem-Progenitor Cells Express CD52 mRNA and Membrane Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene expression profile of human hematopoietic stem- progenitor cells (HSPCs) has been studied by several groups. Among the molecules differentially over-expressed in HSPCs, cell membrane proteins are of high interest, as they might allow enhanced identification and purification of HSPC subpopulations, as well as provide further insight into functional mechanisms. Based our own transcriptomic analyses of HSPCs and meta-analysis

Sebastien Morisot; Robert W. Georgantas; Curt I. Civin

2006-01-01

320

Human ?-Defensin Expression Is Not Dependent on CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-? in a Murine Model  

PubMed Central

Specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by recurrent infections. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? (C/EBP-?) gene. As a consequence, specific and gelatinase granules lack most matrix proteins. Furthermore, azurophil granules contain diminished amounts of their most abundant proteins, ?-defensins, also known as human neutrophil peptides (HNPs). In accordance with this, in vitro models have demonstrated induction of HNPs by C/EBP-?. Since mice do not express myeloid defensins, they cannot per se be used to characterize the role of C/EBP-? in controlling HNP expression in vivo. We therefore crossed a transgenic HNP-1-expressing mouse with the Cebpe-/- mouse to study the in vivo significance of C/EBP-? for HNP-1 transcription and expression. Surprisingly, neither expression nor processing of HNP-1 was affected by lack of C/EBP-? in these mice. Transduction of C/EBP-? into primary bone marrow cells from HNP-1 mice induced some HNP-1 expression, but not to levels comparable to expression human cells. Taken together, our data infer that the HNP-1 of the transgenic mouse does not show an expression pattern equivalent to endogenous secondary granule proteins. This limits the use of these transgenic mice as a model for human conditions. PMID:24658030

Glenth?j, Andreas; Dahl, Sara; Larsen, Maria T.; Cowland, Jack B.; Borregaard, Niels

2014-01-01

321

Tagging the Expressed Protein with 6 Histidines: Rapid Cloning of an Amplicon with Three Options  

PubMed Central

We report the designing of three expression vectors that can be used for rapid cloning of any blunt-end DNA segment. Only a single set of oligonucleotides are required to perform the amplification of the target DNA and its cloning in all three vectors simultaneously. The DNA thus cloned can express a protein either with or without a hexa-histidine tag depending upon the vector used. The expression occurs from T7 promoter when transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). Two of the three plasmids have been designed to provide the expressed protein with either N- or C-terminus 6 histidine amino acids in tandem. The third plasmid, however, does not add any tag to the expressed protein. The cloning is achieved quickly with the requirement of phosphorylation of PCR product without any restriction digestion. Additionally, the generated clones can be confirmed with a single step PCR reaction carried out from bacterial colonies (generally termed as “colony PCR”). We show the cloning, expression and purification of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as proof-of-concept. Additionally, we also show the cloning and expression of four sigma factors from Mycobacterium tuberculosis further demonstrating the utility of the designed plasmids. We strongly believe that the vectors and the strategy that we have developed will facilitate the rapid cloning and expression of any gene in E. coli BL21(DE3) with or without a hexa-histidine tag. PMID:23691118

Singh, Manika Indrajit; Jain, Vikas

2013-01-01

322

Genetic Variation Underlying Protein Expression in Eggs of the Marine Mussel Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of the genetic basis of gene expression variation is central to attempts to understand the causes of evolution- ary change. Although there are many transcriptomics studies estimating genetic variance and heritability in model organisms such as humans there is a lack of equiv- alent proteomics studies. In the present study, the herita- bility underlying egg protein expression was estimated

Angel P. Diz; Edward Dudley; Barry W. MacDonald; Benjamin Pina; Ellen L. R. Kenchington; Eleftherios Zouros; David O. F. Skibinski

2009-01-01

323

Downregulation of Placental Syncytin Expression and Abnormal Protein Localization in Pre-eclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of placentation and successful pregnancy depend on co-ordinated interactions between the maternal decidua and myometrium, and the invasive properties of the fetal trophoblast. Syncytin, a protein encoded by the envelope gene of a recently identified human endogenous defective retrovirus, HERV-W, is highly expressed in placental tissue. Previously, we have shown that the major site of syncytin expression is the

X. Lee; J. C. Keith; N. Stumm; I. Moutsatsos; J. M. McCoy; C. P. Crum; D. Genest; D. Chin; C. Ehrenfels; R. Pijnenborg; F. A. van Assche; S. Mi

2001-01-01

324

Expression analysis of G Protein-Coupled Receptors in mouse macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Monocytes and macrophages express an extensive repertoire of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that regulate inflammation and immunity. In this study we performed a systematic micro-array analysis of GPCR expression in primary mouse macrophages to identify family members that are either enriched in macrophages compared to a panel of other cell types, or are regulated by an inflammatory stimulus, the

Jane E Lattin; Kate Schroder; Andrew I Su; John R Walker; Jie Zhang; Tim Wiltshire; Kaoru Saijo; Christopher K Glass; David A Hume; Stuart Kellie; Matthew J Sweet

2008-01-01

325

Na monocarboxylate transport (SMCT) protein expression correlates with survival in colon cancer  

E-print Network

Na monocarboxylate transport (SMCT) protein expression correlates with survival in colon cancer in colon cancer [Li, H., et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 8412­8417]. Significantly, we show that higher expression of SMCT in colon samples from 113 colorectal cancer patients correlates with longer

Eskandari, Sepehr

326

Impact of dietary protein on lipid metabolism-related gene expression in porcine adipose tissue  

PubMed Central

Background High dietary protein can reduce fat deposition in animal subcutaneous adipose tissue, but little is known about the mechanism. Methods Sixty Wujin pigs of about 15 kg weight were fed either high protein (HP: 18%) or low protein (LP: 14%) diets, and slaughtered at body weights of 30, 60 or 100 kg. Bloods were collected to measure serum parameters. Subcutaneous adipose tissues were sampled for determination of adipocyte size, protein content, lipid metabolism-related gene expression, and enzyme activities. Results HP significantly reduced adipocyte size, fat meat percentage and backfat thickness, but significantly increased daily gain, lean meat percentage and loin eye area at 60 and 100 kg. Serum free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations in the HP group were significantly higher than in the LP group. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were not significantly affected by dietary protein at any body weight. HP significantly reduced gene expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) at 60 kg and 100 kg; however, the mRNA level and enzyme activity of FAS were increased at 30 kg. HP promoted gene and protein expression and enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), carmitine palmtoyltransferase-1B (CPT-1B), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and adipocyte-fatty acid binding proteins (A-FABP) at 60 kg, but reduced their expression at 100 kg. Gene expression and enzyme activity of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) was reduced markedly at 60 kg but increased at 100 kg by the high dietary protein. Levels of mRNA, enzyme activities and protein expression of ACC, FAS, SREBP-1c and PPAR? in both LP and HP groups increased with increasing body weight. However, gene and protein expression levels/enzyme activities of LPL, CPT-1B, A-FABP and HSL in both groups were higher at 60 kg than at 30 and 100 kg. Conclusion Fat deposition in Wujin pigs fed high dietary protein for 25 weeks was reduced mainly by depression of lipogenic gene expression. The mechanism of lipid transport, lipolysis and oxidation in adipose tissue regulated by dietary protein appeared to be different at 60 kg and 100 kg body weights. PMID:20205889

2010-01-01

327

Characterization and Expression Analysis of a Fiber Differentially Expressed Fasciclin-like Arabinogalactan Protein Gene in Sea Island Cotton Fibers  

PubMed Central

Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan (FLA) protein is a cell-wall-associated protein playing crucial roles in regulating plant growth and development, and it was characterized in different plants including Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In cDNA-AFLP analysis of 25 DPA (days post anthesis) fiber mRNA, two FLA gene-related transcripts exhibit differential expression between Sea Island cotton (G. barbadense L.) and Upland cotton. Based on the transcript-derived fragment, RACE-PCR and realtime PCR technique, GbFLA5 full-length cDNA was isolated and its expression profiles were characterized in both cotton plant tissues and secondary cell wall (SCW) fibers in this study. The 1154 bp GbFLA5 cDNA contains an ORF of 720 bp, encoding GbFLA5 protein of 239 amino acids residues in length with an estimated molecular mass of 25.41 kDa and isoelectric point of 8.63. The deduced GbFLA5 protein contains an N-terminal signal sequence, two AGP-like domains, a single fasciclin-like domain, and a GPI anchor signal sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows that GbFLA5 protein is homologous to some known SCW-specific expressed FLAs of plant developing xylem, tension wood and cotton fibers. In the SCW deposition stage from 15 to 45 DPA detected, FLA5 maintains a significantly higher expression level in Sea Island cotton fibers than in Upland cotton fibers. The increasing FLA5 transcript abundance coincided with the SCW deposition process and the expression intensity differences coincided with their fiber strength differences between Sea Island cotton and Upland cotton. These expression profile features of GbFLA5 in cotton fibers revealed its tissue-specific and SCW developmental stage-specific expression characters. Further analysis suggested that GbFLA5 is a crucial SCW-specific protein which may contribute to fiber strength by affecting cellulose synthesis and microfibril deposition orientation. PMID:23875019

Liu, Hengwei; Shi, Ruifeng; Wang, Xingfen; Pan, Yuxin; Li, Zhikun; Yang, Xinlei; Zhang, Guiyin; Ma, Zhiying

2013-01-01

328

Glucose Depletion Enhances P-Glycoprotein Expression in Hepatoma Cells: Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response1  

Microsoft Academic Search

P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR gene is one of the main factors in multidrug resistance. Its expression in cancer cells, which compromises cancer outcome, can be enhanced by some stress signals. Energy depletion, frequently observed in malignant cells, was shown to induce chemoresistance and could be one of these signals. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effect of

Severine Ledoux; Ruchung Yang; Gerard Friedlander; Denise Laouari

2003-01-01

329

SLocX: Predicting Subcellular Localization of Arabidopsis Proteins Leveraging Gene Expression Data.  

PubMed

Despite the growing volume of experimentally validated knowledge about the subcellular localization of plant proteins, a well performing in silico prediction tool is still a necessity. Existing tools, which employ information derived from protein sequence alone, offer limited accuracy and/or rely on full sequence availability. We explored whether gene expression profiling data can be harnessed to enhance prediction performance. To achieve this, we trained several support vector machines to predict the subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana proteins using sequence derived information, expression behavior, or a combination of these data and compared their predictive performance through a cross-validation test. We show that gene expression carries information about the subcellular localization not available in sequence information, yielding dramatic benefits for plastid localization prediction, and some notable improvements for other compartments such as the mitochondrion, the Golgi, and the plasma membrane. Based on these results, we constructed a novel subcellular localization prediction engine, SLocX, combining gene expression profiling data with protein sequence-based information. We then validated the results of this engine using an independent test set of annotated proteins and a transient expression of GFP fusion proteins. Here, we present the prediction framework and a website of predicted localizations for Arabidopsis. The relatively good accuracy of our prediction engine, even in cases where only partial protein sequence is available (e.g., in sequences lacking the N-terminal region), offers a promising opportunity for similar application to non-sequenced or poorly annotated plant species. Although the prediction scope of our method is currently limited by the availability of expression information on the ATH1 array, we believe that the advances in measuring gene expression technology will make our method applicable for all Arabidopsis proteins. PMID:22639594

Ryngajllo, Malgorzata; Childs, Liam; Lohse, Marc; Giorgi, Federico M; Lude, Anja; Selbig, Joachim; Usadel, Björn

2011-01-01

330

Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression Profile Is Modified by Dietary Protein Source and Calcium during Energy Restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The potential of whey protein and calcium to modify skeletal muscle gene expression during energy restriction (ER) was investigated in a model of diet-induced obesity. Methods: Obese C57BL\\/6J mice received casein (calcium 0.4%) and two different high-calcium (1.8%) whey protein-based [whey protein isolate (WPI) + Ca and ?-lactalbumin + Ca] diets for ER. Results: Compared to casein, WPI and

Eveliina Tauriainen; Markus Storvik; Piet Finckenberg; Saara Merasto; Essi Martonen; Taru K. Pilvi; Riitta Korpela; Eero M. Mervaala

2011-01-01

331

Mindin\\/F-spondin Family: Novel ECM Proteins Expressed in the Zebrafish Embryonic Axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

F-spondin is a secreted protein expressed at high levels by the floor plate cells. The C-terminal half of the protein contains six thrombospondin type 1 repeats, while the N-terminal half exhibited virtually no similarity to any other protein until recently, when aDrosophilagene termedM-spondinwas cloned; its product was found to share two conserved domains with the N-terminal half of F-spondin. We

Shin-ichi Higashijima; Akinao Nose; Goro Eguchi; Yoshiki Hotta; Hitoshi Okamoto

1997-01-01

332

Expression and characterization of penicillin-binding proteins in Burkholderia cenocepacia.  

PubMed

Putative penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) were identified in the genome of the Burkholderia cenocepacia strain J2315 based on homology to E. coli PBPs. The three sequences identified as homologs of E. coli PBP1a, BCAL2021, BCAL0274, and BCAM2632, were cloned and expressed as His(6)-tagged fusion proteins in E. coli. The fusion proteins were isolated and shown to bind beta-lactams, indicating these putative PBPs have penicillin-binding activity. PMID:19924480

Specht, Kimberly Musa; Sheetz, Kyle H; Alexander, Courtney M; Lamech, Lilian T; O'Connor, Lauren H; Walker, Dawn M; Stevenson, Hilary P

2010-04-01

333

Regulation of Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Transcription and Protein Expression In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are glucocorticoid-activated transcription factors that modulate expression of a variety of neuronal genes. Appropriate control of GR expression is there- fore critical for maintenance of cellular and organismic ho- meostasis. The present study assessed glucocorticoid regula- tion of the GR at the gene, mRNA, and protein level. Removal of circulating glucocorticoids (adrenalectomy) increased GR mRNA expression in

James P. Herman; Robert Spencer

1998-01-01

334

Smad3 Deficiency Ameliorates Hepatic Fibrogenesis through the Expression of Senescence Marker Protein-30, an Antioxidant-Related Protein  

PubMed Central

Smad3 is a key mediator of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 signaling pathway that plays central role in inflammation and fibrosis. In present study, we evaluated the effect of Smad3 deficiency in Smad3?/? mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. The animals were received CCl4 or olive oil three times a week for 4 weeks. Histopathological analyses were performed to evaluate the fibrosis development in the mice. Alteration of protein expression controlled by Smad3 was examined using a proteomic analysis. CCl4-induced liver fibrosis was rarely detected in Smad3?/? mice compared to Smad3+/+. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins related to antioxidant activities such as senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30), selenium-binding proteins (SP56) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were up-regulated in Smad3?/? mice. Western blot analysis confirmed that SMP30 protein expression was increased in Smad3?/? mice. And SMP30 levels were decreased in CCl4-treated Smad3+/+ and Smad3?/? mice. These results indicate that Smad3 deficiency influences the proteins level related to antioxidant activities during early liver fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that Smad3 deteriorate hepatic injury by inhibitor of antioxidant proteins as well as mediator of TGF-?1 signaling. PMID:24304543

Jeong, Da-Hee; Hwang, Meeyul; Park, Jin-Kyu; Goo, Moon-Jung; Hong, Il-Hwa; Ki, Mi-Ran; Ishigami, Akihito; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Joo; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

2013-01-01

335

Bacterial lipid modification of proteins requires appropriate secretory signals even for expression - Implications for biogenesis and protein engineering.  

PubMed

Abstract Sec- and Tat-mediated bacterial lipid modification of proteins are important posttranslational processes owing to their vital roles in cellular functions, membrane targeting and biotechnological applications like ELISA, biosensor, adjuvant-free vaccines, liposomal drug delivery etc. However a better understanding of the tight coupling of secretory and lipid modification machineries and the processes associated will help unravel this essential biological event and utilize it for engineering applications. Further, there is a need for a systematic and convincing investigation into membrane targeting, solubilization and ease-of-purification of engineered lipoproteins to facilitate scientists in readily applying this new protein engineering tool. Therefore, in this study, we have investigated systematically recombinant expression, translocation, solubilization and purification of three White Spot Syndrome Viral (WSSV) proteins, ICP11, VP28 and VP281. Our study shows that the lipid modification and secretion processes are tightly coupled to the extent that mismatch between folding kinetics and signal sequence of target proteins could lead to transcriptional-translational uncoupling or aborted translation. The proteins expressed as lipoproteins through Tat-pathway were targeted to the inner membrane achieving considerable enrichment. These His-tagged proteins were then purified to apparent homogeneity in detergent-free form using single-step Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography. This study has interesting findings in lipoprotein biogenesis enhancing the scope of this unique post-translational protein engineering tool for obtaining pure detergent-free, membrane or hydrophobic surface-associating diagnostic targets and vaccine candidates for WSSV. PMID:25156679

Kumar, Subramani; Balamurali, M M; Sankaran, Krishnan

2014-09-01

336

Arabinogalactan-proteins: structure, expression and function A. M. Showalter  

E-print Network

, from the whole plant to the cellular levels, using a variety of experimental techniques and tools functions of real or potential commercial value, most notably as emulsifiers in the food industry understanding of their structure and diversity, although posttranslational modifications of the core protein (e

Showalter, Allan M.

337

Protein expression by planktonic and biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus mutans, a major causal agent of dental caries, functions in nature as a component of a biofilm on teeth (dental plaque) and yet very little information is available on the physiology of the organism in such surface-associated communities. As a consequence, we undertook to examine the synthesis of proteins by planktonic and biofilm cells growing in a biofilm chemostat

G Svensäter; J Welin; J. C Wilkins; D Beighton; I. R Hamilton

2001-01-01

338

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein expression attenuates atherosclerosis in ovariectomized mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced estrogen levels result in loss of protec- tion from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Enhanced and diminished atherosclerosis have been associ- ated with plasma levels of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP); however, little is known about the role of CETP- ovarian hormone interactions in atherogenesis. We assessed the severity of diet-induced atherosclerosis in ovariecto- mized (OV) CETP transgenic

Patrícia M. Cazita; Jairo A. Berti; Carolina Aoki; Magnus Gidlund; Lila M. Harada; Valéria S. Nunes; Eder C. R. Quintão; Helena C. F. Oliveira

2003-01-01

339

PATTERNS & PHENOTYPES Abundant and Dynamic Expression of G Protein-  

E-print Network

to phospholipase C acti- vation, leading to the formation of inositol phosphate and mobilization of intracellular studied and has never been investigated in mammalian development. This study used the reverse, and liver. All the P2Y receptors studied were expressed as early as embryonic day 11, when most embryonic

Burnstock, Geoffrey

340

Nicotine Regulates Streptococcus mutans Extracellular Polysaccharide and Related Protein Expression.  

E-print Network

studies indicated nicotine stimulated S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolism. However, the detailed biofilm formation focused on extracellular polysaccharide synthesis. S. mutans UA159 (ATCC 700610 of 0, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ml nicotine on 24 h S. mutans biofilm extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) expression

Zhou, Yaoqi

341

Effects of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. Control of ovalbumin gene expression by non-histone proteins.  

PubMed

Chromatin was isolated from the oviducts of chicks which had either received diethylstilbestrol stimulation for 14 days (stimulated chromatin) or been treated and then withdrawn from hormone administration (withdrawn chromatin). These chromatin preparations were dissociated and then reconstituted in the presence of various non-histone protein fractions. cDNAov was used as a probe for measuring the level of mRNAov sequences synthesized in vitro from various reconstituted chromatins. Our results indicate that extractable non-histone proteins from stimulated chromatin are capable of activating the in vitro transcription of the ovalbumin gene when included in the reconstitution of withdrawn chromatin. On the other hand, addition of extractable non-histone proteins from withdrawn chromatin to stimulated chromatin does not affect the synthesis of mRNAov sequences. Therefore, the extractable non-histone proteins from stimulated chromatin contain a positive regulator(s) which controls the in vitro expression of the ovalbumin gene. PMID:977585

Tsai, S Y; Tsai, M J; Harris, S E; O'Malley, B W

1976-10-25

342

Protein differential expression induced by endocrine disrupting compounds in a terrestrial isopod.  

PubMed

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been studied due to their impact on human health and increasing awareness of their impact on wildlife species. Studies concerning the organ-specific molecular effects of EDC in invertebrates are important to understand the mechanisms of action of this class of toxicants but are scarce in the literature. We have used a dose/response approach to unravel the protein expression in different organs of isopods exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) and assess their potential use as surrogate species. Male isopods were exposed to a range of Vz or of BPA concentrations. After animal dissection, proteins were extracted from gut, hepatopancreas and testes. Protein profiles were analysed by electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI mass spectrometry. EDCs affected proteins involved in the energy metabolism (arginine kinase), proteins of the heat shock protein family (Hsp70 and GRP78) and most likely microtubule dynamics (tubulin). Different proteins expressed at different concentrations in different organs are indicative of the organ-specific effects of BPA and Vz. Additionally, several proteins were up-regulated at lower but not higher BPA or Vz concentrations, bringing new data to the non-monotonic response curve controversy. Furthermore, our findings suggest that some common responses to EDCs in both vertebrates and invertebrates may exist. PMID:20189627

Lemos, Marco F L; Esteves, Ana Cristina; Samyn, Bart; Timperman, Isaak; van Beeumen, Jozef; Correia, António; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Soares, Amadeu M V M

2010-04-01

343

Expression and characterization of the periplasmic cobalamin-binding protein of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.  

PubMed

Abstract Cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) is an essential cofactor in a variety of enzymatic reactions and most prokaryotes contain transport systems to import vitamin B(12). A gene coding for a periplasmic cobalamin-binding protein of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida was identified by in silico analysis of sequences from a genomic library. The open reading frame was composed of 834 bp encoding a protein of 277 amino acids. The protein showed 61% identity with the vitamin B(12)-binding protein precursor of P. profundum, 53% identity with the corresponding protein of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 43% identity with the periplasmic binding protein BtuF of Escherichia coli. The expression of the native protein was investigated in P. damselae subsp. piscicida, but BtuF was weakly expressed under normal conditions. To characterize the BtuF of P. damselae subsp. piscicida, the recombinant protein was expressed with a C-terminal His(6)-tag and purified; the molecular weight was estimated to be approximately 30 kDa. The protein does not contain any free thiol group, consistent with the view that the two cysteine residues are involved in a disulphide bond. The purified BtuF binds cyanocobalamin with an affinity constant of 6 +/- 2 microm. PMID:19490395

Boiani, R; Andreoni, F; Serafini, G; Bianconi, I; Pierleoni, R; Dominici, S; Gorini, F; Magnani, M

2009-09-01

344

Expressed Proteins of Herbaspirillum seropedicae in Maize (DKB240) Roots-Bacteria Interaction Revealed Using Proteomics.  

PubMed

Several molecular tools have been used to clarify the basis of plant-bacteria interaction; however, the mechanism behind the association is still unclear. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the root proteome of Zea mays (cv. DKB240) inoculated with Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1 grown in vitro and harvested 7 days after inoculation. Eighteen differentially accumulated proteins were observed in root samples, ten of which were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprint. Among the identified proteins, we observed three proteins present exclusively in inoculated root samples and six upregulated proteins and one downregulated protein relative to control. Differentially expressed maize proteins were identified as hypothetical protein ZEAMMB73_483204, hypothetical protein ZEAMMB73_269466, and tubulin beta-7 chain. The following were identified as H. seropedicae proteins: peroxiredoxin protein, EF-Tu elongation factor protein, cation transport ATPase, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase, dinitrogenase reductase, and type III secretion ATP synthase. Our results presented the first evidence of type III secretion ATP synthase expression during H. seropedicae-maize root interaction. PMID:25173675

Ferrari, Cibele Santos; Amaral, Fernanda Plucani; Bueno, Jessica Cavalheiro Ferreira; Scariot, Mirella Christine; Valentim-Neto, Pedro Alexandre; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave

2014-11-01

345

Generation and analysis of recombinant Bunyamwera orthobunyaviruses expressing V5 epitope-tagged L proteins  

PubMed Central

The L protein of Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; family Bunyaviridae) is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, 2238?aa in length, that catalyses transcription and replication of the negative-sense, tripartite RNA genome. To learn more about the molecular interactions of the L protein and to monitor its intracellular distribution we inserted a 14?aa V5 epitope derived from parainfluenza virus type 5, against which high-affinity antibodies are available, into different regions of the protein. Insertion of the epitope at positions 1935 or 2046 resulted in recombinant L proteins that retained functionality in a minireplicon assay. Two viable recombinant viruses, rBUNL4V5 and rBUNL5V5, expressing the tagged L protein were rescued by reverse genetics, and characterized with respect to their plaque size, growth kinetics and protein synthesis profile. The recombinant viruses behaved similarly to wild-type (wt) BUNV in BHK-21 cells, but formed smaller plaques and grew to lower titres in Vero E6 cells compared with wt BUNV. Immunofluorescent staining of infected cells showed the L protein to have a punctate to reticular distribution in the cytoplasm, and cell fractionation studies indicated that the L protein was present in both soluble and microsomal fractions. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopic assays confirmed an interaction between BUNV L and N proteins. The recombinant viruses expressing tagged L protein will be highly valuable reagents for the detailed dissection of the role of the BUNV L protein in virus replication. PMID:19141438

Shi, Xiaohong; Elliott, Richard M.

2009-01-01

346

WWOX protein expression varies among ovarian carcinoma histotypes and correlates with less favorable outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The putative tumor suppressor WWOX gene spans the common chromosomal fragile site 16D (FRA16D) at chromosome area 16q23.3-24.1. This region is a frequent target for loss of heterozygosity and chromosomal rearrangement in ovarian, breast, hepatocellular, prostate carcinomas and other neoplasias. The goal of these studies was to evaluate WWOX protein expression levels in ovarian carcinomas to determine if they correlated with clinico-pathological parameters, thus providing additional support for WWOX functioning as a tumor suppressor. Methods We performed WWOX protein expression analyses by means of immunobloting and immunohistochemistry on normal ovaries and specific human ovarian carcinoma Tissue Microarrays (n = 444). Univariate analysis of clinical-pathological parameters based on WWOX staining was determined by ?2 test with Yates' correction. The basic significance level was fixed at p < 0.05. Results Immunoblotting analysis from normal ovarian samples demonstrated consistently strong WWOX expression while 37% ovarian carcinomas showed reduced or undetectable WWOX protein expression levels. The immunohistochemistry of normal human ovarian tissue sections confirmed strong WWOX expression in ovarian surface epithelial cells and in epithelial inclusion cysts within the cortex. Out of 444 ovarian carcinoma samples analyzed 30% of tumors showed lack of or barely detectable WWOX expression. The remaining ovarian carcinomas (70%) stained moderately to strongly positive for this protein. The two histotypes showing significant loss of WWOX expression were of the Mucinous (70%) and Clear Cell (42%) types. Reduced WWOX expression demonstrated a significant association with clinical Stage IV (FIGO) (p = 0.007), negative Progesterone Receptor (PR) status (p = 0.008) and shorter overall survival (p = 0.03). Conclusion These data indicate that WWOX protein expression is highly variable among ovarian carcinoma histotypes. It was also observed that subsets of ovarian tumors demonstrated loss of WWOX expression and is potentially associated with patient outcome. PMID:15982416

Nunez, Maria I; Rosen, Daniel G; Ludes-Meyers, John H; Abba, Martin C; Kil, Hyunsuk; Page, Robert; Klein-Szanto, Andres JP; Godwin, Andrew K; Liu, Jinsong; Mills, Gordon B; Aldaz, C Marcelo

2005-01-01

347

Expression of a Recombinant Elastin-Like Protein in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

The translation of highly repetitive gene sequences is often associated with reduced levels of protein expression and may be prone to mutational events. In this report, we describe a modified concatemerization strategy to construct a gene with enhanced sequence diversity that encodes a highly repetitive elastin-like protein polymer for expression in Pichia pastoris. Specifically, degenerate oligonucleotides were used to create a monomer library, which after concatemerization yielded a genetically nonrepetitive DNA sequence that encoded identical pentapeptide repeat sequences. By limiting genetic repetition, the risk of genetic deletions, rearrangements, or premature termination errors during protein synthesis is minimized. PMID:19827084

Sallach, Rory E.; Conticello, Vincent P.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

2009-01-01

348

Nuclear microinjection to assess how heterologously expressed proteins impact Ca2+ signals in Xenopus oocytes.  

PubMed

The Xenopus oocyte is frequently used for heterologous expression and for studying the spatiotemporal patterning of Ca(2+) signals. Here, we outline a protocol for nuclear microinjection of the Xenopus oocyte for the purpose of studying how subsequently expressed proteins impact intracellular Ca(2+) signals evoked by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3). Injected oocytes can easily be identified by reporter technologies and the impact of heterologously expressed proteins on the generation and properties of InsP3-evoked Ca(2+) signals can be resolved using caged InsP3 and fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators. PMID:23457340

Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Marchant, Jonathan S

2013-03-01

349

Soluble expression and purification of synthetic human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A 345-bp gene that encodes human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2) has been synthesized. The codon usage of the resulting gene was modified to include those triplets that are utilized in highly expressed Escherichia coli genes. The hBMP-2 gene was efficiently expressed in E. coli as a soluble and active protein. Since the recombinant hBMP-2 was readily solublized, no further solublization steps were required throughout purification. No additional tagging residues were introduced into the synthetic hBMP-2 gene product. The developed synthetic gene is a promising approach for scaling-up the soluble expression of hBMP-2. PMID:18510873

Ihm, Hyo Jin; Yang, Seung-Ju; Huh, Jae-Wan; Choi, Soo Young; Cho, Sung-Woo

2008-05-31

350

Effects of dietary fiber and carcinogen on fatty acid binding protein expression in exfoliated colonocytes  

E-print Network

-FABP), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) and acyl CoA binding protein (ACBP) mRNA in fecal samples in order to establish their prognostic value in the development of colon cancer. Expression of L-FABP mRNA in tumor bearing animals was significantly... higher (P = 0. 058) than in non-tumor animals. The expression of L-FABP and I-FABP mRNA was significantly (P & 0. 05) higher in feces from animals fed a wheat bran diet versus animals fed an oat bran diet. The expression of ACBP mRNA was significantly...

Clark, Amy Eunice

2012-06-07

351

Protein Profile Changes during Porcine Oocyte Aging and Effects of Caffeine on Protein Expression Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that oocyte aging critically affects reproduction and development. By using proteomic tools, in the present study, changes in protein profiles during porcine oocyte aging and effects of caffeine on oocyte aging were investigated. By comparing control MII oocytes with aging MII oocytes, we identified 23 proteins that were up-regulated and 3 proteins that were down-regulated during

Guang-Jian Jiang; Ke Wang; De-Qiang Miao; Lei Guo; Yi Hou; Heide Schatten; Qing-Yuan Sun

2011-01-01

352

Gene expression pattern Cloning and expression of a novel cysteine-rich secreted protein  

E-print Network

protein; Thyroid; Pancreas; Embryo 1. Results and discussion The cysteine-rich secreted protein (CRISP persists throughout the dorsal pancreatic mesoderm through E6 as the pancreas continues to enlarge (Fig. 2C,D). After E6, the amount of mesoderm in the pancreas declines to a minimal level and little or no Sugar

Tabin, Cliff

353

Antigen 43/Fc?3 chimeric protein expressed by a novel bacterial surface expression system as an effective asthma vaccine.  

PubMed

The IgE Fc?3 domain is an active immunotherapeutic target for asthma and other allergic diseases. However, previous methods for preparing IgE fusion protein vaccines are complex. Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a surface protein found in Escherichia coli that contains ? and ? subunits (the ? subunit contains multiple T epitopes). Here we constructed a novel Ag43 surface display system (Ag43 system) to express Ag43 chimeric proteins to disrupt immune tolerance against IgE. The Ag43 system was constructed from the E. coli strain Tan109, in which the Ag43 gene was deleted and a recombinant plasmid (pETAg43) expressing a partial Ag43 gene was introduced. The Fc?3 domain of the IgE gene was then subcloned into plasmid pETAg43, resulting in a recombinant plasmid pETAg43/Fc?3, which was used to transform Tan109 for Ag43/Fc?3 surface expression. Thereafter, Ag43/Fc?3 was investigated as an asthma vaccine in a mouse model. Ag43/Fc?3 was expressed on and could be separated from the bacterial surface by heating to 60° while retaining activity. Ag43/Fc?3, as a protein vaccine, produced neutralizing autoantibodies to murine IgE, induced significant anti-asthma effects, and regulated IgE and T helper cytokines in a murine asthma model. Data show that Ag43/Fc?3 chimeric protein is a potential model vaccine for asthma treatment, and that the Ag43 system may be an effective tool for novel vaccine preparation to break immune tolerance to other self-molecules. PMID:24750112

Huang, Feng-Ying; Wang, Cai-Chun; Huang, Yong-Hao; Zhao, Huan-Ge; Guo, Jun-Li; Zhou, Song-Lin; Wang, Hua; Lin, Ying-Ying; Tan, Guang-Hong

2014-10-01

354

Atrazine Affects Phosphoprotein and Protein Expression in MCF-10A Human Breast Epithelial Cells.  

PubMed

Atrazine, a member of the 2-chloro-s-triazine family of herbicides, is the most widely used pesticide in the world and often detected in agriculture watersheds. Although it was generally considered as an endocrine disruptor, posing a potential threat to human health, the molecular mechanisms of atrazine effects remain unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we identified a panel of differentially expressed phosphoproteins and total proteins in human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells after being exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine. Atrazine treatments for 6 h resulted in differential expression of 4 phosphoproteins and 8 total-proteins as compared to the control cells (>1.5-fold, p < 0.05). MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins belong to various cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, membrane) and varied in function, including those regulating the stress response such as peroxiredoxin I, HSP70 and HSP27; structural proteins such as tropomyosin and profilin 1; and oncogenesis proteins such as ANP32A. Six of the 12 identified proteins were verified by quantitative PCR for their transcript levels. The most up-regulated phosphoprotein by atrazine treatment, ANP32A, was further analyzed for its expression, distribution and cellular localization using Western blot and immunocytochemical approaches. The results revealed that ANP32 expression after atrazine treatment increased dose and time dependently and was primarily located in the nucleus. This study may provide new evidence on the potential toxicity of atrazine in human cells. PMID:25275270

Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Song, Qisheng

2014-01-01

355

Atrazine Affects Phosphoprotein and Protein Expression in MCF-10A Human Breast Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Atrazine, a member of the 2-chloro-s-triazine family of herbicides, is the most widely used pesticide in the world and often detected in agriculture watersheds. Although it was generally considered as an endocrine disruptor, posing a potential threat to human health, the molecular mechanisms of atrazine effects remain unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we identified a panel of differentially expressed phosphoproteins and total proteins in human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells after being exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine. Atrazine treatments for 6 h resulted in differential expression of 4 phosphoproteins and 8 total-proteins as compared to the control cells (>1.5-fold, p < 0.05). MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins belong to various cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, membrane) and varied in function, including those regulating the stress response such as peroxiredoxin I, HSP70 and HSP27; structural proteins such as tropomyosin and profilin 1; and oncogenesis proteins such as ANP32A. Six of the 12 identified proteins were verified by quantitative PCR for their transcript levels. The most up-regulated phosphoprotein by atrazine treatment, ANP32A, was further analyzed for its expression, distribution and cellular localization using Western blot and immunocytochemical approaches. The results revealed that ANP32 expression after atrazine treatment increased dose and time dependently and was primarily located in the nucleus. This study may provide new evidence on the potential toxicity of atrazine in human cells. PMID:25275270

Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Song, Qisheng; Sheehan, David

2014-01-01

356

Expression of metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma: comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference in expression of metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) compared to those of the invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Tissue microarray was manufactured for 114 cases of ILC and 692 cases of IDC. Immunohistochemical stains were performed as follows: glycolysis (Glut-1, hexokinase II, CAIX, MCT4), glutaminolysis (GLS1, GDH, ASCT2), mitochondria (ATP synthase, SDHA, SDHB), and serine/glycine metabolism (PHGDH, PSAT1, PSPH, SHMT1, GLDC) related proteins. Pleomorphic type (n?=?12) of ILC revealed higher expression in hexokinase II, SDHB, and GLDC than classic type (n?=?102) (p?expression of glycolysis (Glut-1, CAIX, MCT4), glutaminolysis (GLS1, ASCT2), and serine/glycine metabolism (PSPH, SHMT1, GLDC) related protein than ILC in tumor cells, whereas ILC revealed higher expression in GDH, SDHA, PHGDH, and PSAT1 than IDC in tumor cells (p?expression of metabolism-related proteins than ILC in stromal tissue (p?expression patterns of metabolism-related proteins between IDC and ILC. PMID:25053597

Kim, Yon Hee; Jung, Woo Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

2014-10-01

357

[Establishment and identification of human hepatocellular carcinoma line stably expressing hepatitis C virus core protein].  

PubMed

Objective To establish SMMC-7721 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line stably expressing hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. Methods A lentiviral vector containing HCV core gene was constructed and transfected into HEK293T cells to package recombinant lentivirus (rLV-core) containing ZsGreen and HCV core genes. The SMMC-7721 cells were infected with the rLV-core. The expression of HCV core mRNA was examined by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and the HCV core protein was detected by immunofluorescence cytochemistry and Western blotting. The stably transfected cell line was screened. Results The lentiviral vector was confirmed by enzyme digestion and sequencing. The green fluorescence was seen under fluorescence microscope 48 hours after virus packaging. The SMMC-7721 cell line stably expressing HCV core protein was obtained after infected with the rLV-core. Real-time PCR showed the expression of HCV core mRNA, and both immunofluorescence cytochemistry and Western blotting verified the expression of HCV core protein. Conclusion The SMMC-7721 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line stably expressing HCV core protein has been established successfully. PMID:25374075

Qiao, Qinghua; Lv, Xin; Lei, Yingfeng; Yang, Jing; Yao, Min; Han, Peijun; Dang, Pinxiang; Zhao, Haiwei; Weng, Daihui; Yin, Wen

2014-11-01

358

In Vitro Expression and Production of Antibody Against Cymbidium mosaic virus Coat Protein.  

PubMed

Polyclonal rabbit antisera were produced using coat protein of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) Indian isolate expressed in E. coli as GST fusion. The expressed protein was purified by GST-fusion protein purification kit for use as an immunogen in rabbits. Antisera prepared in this manner reacted in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS ELISA) with extract from CymMV-infected tissue. The results indicate that polyclonal antisera prepared from expressed CymMV coat proteins were useful for the detection of CymMV in an array of assays. The detection system developed is highly effective for detection of Indian strain of the virus in comparison to kits available in the international market. PMID:23730003

Sherpa, A R; Hallan, V; Zaidi, A A

2012-06-01

359

Vector development for the expression of foreign proteins in the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19.  

PubMed

A vector for the expression of foreign antigens in the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 was developed by using a DNA fragment containing the regulatory sequences and the signal peptide of the Brucella bcsp31 gene. This fragment was cloned in broad-host-range plasmid pBBR4MCS, resulting in plasmid pBEV. As a reporter protein, a repetitive antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. The recombinant fusion protein is stably expressed and secreted into the Brucella periplasmic space, inducing a good antibody response against the T. cruzi antigen. The expression of the repetitive antigen in Brucella neither altered its growth pattern nor generated a toxic or lethal effect during experimental infection. The application of this strategy for the generation of live recombinant vaccines and the tagging of B. abortus S19 vaccine is discussed. This is the first time that a recombinant protein has been expressed in the periplasm of brucellae. PMID:9673273

Comerci, D J; Pollevick, G D; Vigliocco, A M; Frasch, A C; Ugalde, R A

1998-08-01

360

Complementary gene and protein expression studies and integrative approaches in toxicogenomics  

SciTech Connect

Parallel transcript and protein profiling is a strategy to gain further insight into the mechanisms of toxicity and disease. The technologies used to measure expression at the transcript and protein levels each convey different information and have different technical capabilities that can complement each other when combined. In this review, over twenty studies are considered for the use of -Omics platform, the chemical or disease being profiled, tissues, the number of genes and proteins found by each platform and common expression products. A strategy is suggested for toxicant expression profiling that combines the transcriptomics and proteomics of both the target tissue and blood/serum that could provide a more complete characterization of toxicity as well as synergize expression technologies toward biomarker discovery.

Merrick, B. Alex [National Center for Toxicogenomics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, D2-04, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)]. E-mail: merrick@niehs.nih.gov; Madenspacher, Jennifer H. [National Center for Toxicogenomics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, D2-04, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2005-09-01

361

Tumor suppressor PTEN in breast cancer: heterozygosity, mutations and protein expression.  

PubMed

Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is one of the most frequently mutated human tumor suppressor genes, implicated in cell growth and survival and suppressing tumor formation. Loss of PTEN activity, either at the protein or genomic level, has been related to many primary and metastatic malignancies including breast cancer. The present study investigates the heterozygosity, mutation spectrum and protein expression of PTEN in 43 patients with breast cancer or precursor lesions of the breast and 10 healthy individuals. Microsatellite analysis at the PTEN locus using D10S215, D10S541 and D10S579 markers indicated that the observed heterozygosity (Ho) is lower than the expected heterozygosity (Hs) in benign and malignant breast disease. Mutational analysis in exons 1, 5, 7 and 9 of the PTEN gene revealed several mutations, most of which cause truncation of the PTEN protein and consequently loss of activity. Increased circulating levels of PTEN and phosphorylated PTEN protein were also observed by immunostaining in patients with breast cancer and precursor breast lesions. In support, increased PTEN protein expression was detected in corresponding tissue specimens. Our data suggest an association between breast cancer and PTEN mutations, resulting in the production of truncated forms of the corresponding protein, thus indicating that breast carcinogenesis is potentially related to PTEN loss of activity rather than loss of expression. Peripheral blood sampling may provide an advantageous application for the determination of PTEN gene mutations and its protein expression in human cancer. PMID:24596386

Kechagioglou, Petros; Papi, Rigini M; Provatopoulou, Xeni; Kalogera, Eleni; Papadimitriou, Elli; Grigoropoulos, Petros; Nonni, Aphroditi; Zografos, George; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A; Gounaris, Antonia

2014-03-01

362

Feedback Control of Protein Expression in Mammalian Cells by Tunable Synthetic Translational Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Feedback regulation plays a crucial role in dynamic gene expression in nature, but synthetic translational feedback systems have yet to be demonstrated. Here we use an RNA/protein interaction-based synthetic translational switch to create a feedback system that tightly controls the expression of proteins of interest in mammalian cells. Feedback is mediated by modified ribosomal L7Ae proteins, which bind a set of RNA motifs with a range of affinities. We designed these motifs into L7Ae-encoding mRNA. Newly translated L7Ae binds its own mRNA, inhibiting further translation. This inhibition tightly feedback-regulates the concentration of L7Ae and any fusion partner of interest. A mathematical model predicts system behavior as a function of RNA/protein affinity. We further demonstrate that the L7Ae protein can simultaneously and tunably regulate the expression of multiple proteins of interest by binding RNA control motifs built into each mRNA, allowing control over the coordinated expression of protein networks. PMID:23651072

2011-01-01

363

Expression and Localization of CLC Chloride Transport Proteins in the Avian Retina  

PubMed Central

Members of the ubiquitously expressed CLC protein family of chloride channels and transporters play important roles in regulating cellular chloride and pH. The CLCs that function as Cl?/H+ antiporters, ClCs 3–7, are essential in particular for the acidification of endosomal compartments and protein degradation. These proteins are broadly expressed in the nervous system, and mutations that disrupt their expression are responsible for several human genetic diseases. Furthermore, knock-out of ClC3 and ClC7 in the mouse result in the degeneration of the hippocampus and the retina. Despite this evidence of their importance in retinal function, the expression patterns of different CLC transporters in different retinal cell types are as yet undescribed. Previous work in our lab has shown that in chicken amacrine cells, internal Cl? can be dynamic. To determine whether CLCs have the potential to participate, we used PCR and immunohistochemical techniques to examine CLC transporter expression in the chicken retina. We observed a high level of variation in the retinal expression levels and patterns among the different CLC proteins examined. These findings, which represent the first systematic investigation of CLC transporter expression in the retina, support diverse functions for the different CLCs in this tissue. PMID:21408174

McMains, Emily; Krishnan, Vijai; Prasad, Sujitha; Gleason, Evanna

2011-01-01

364

Developmental expression of the prion protein gene in glial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication of prions is dependent on the presence of the host protein PrPc. During the course of disease, PrPc is converted into an abnormal isoform, PrPsc, which accumulates in the brain. Attempts to identify the cell type(s) in which prion replication and PrP conversion occur have reached conflicting results. Although PrP mRNA is present in high amounts in neurons throughout

Markus Moser; Raymond J Colello; Uwe Pott; Bruno Oesch

1995-01-01

365

Application of Cydia pomonella expressed sequence tags: Identification and expression of three general odorant binding proteins in codling moth.  

PubMed

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is one of the most important pests of pome fruits in the world, yet the molecular genetics and the physiology of this insect remain poorly understood. A combined assembly of 8?341 expressed sequence tags was generated from Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencing of eight tissue-specific cDNA libraries. Putative chemosensory proteins (12) and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) (18) were annotated, which included three putative general OBP (GOBP), one more than typically reported for other Lepidoptera. To further characterize CpomGOBPs, we cloned cDNA copies of their transcripts and determined their expression patterns in various tissues. Cloning and sequencing of the 698?nt transcript for CpomGOBP1 resulted in the prediction of a 163 amino acid coding region, and subsequent RT-PCR indicated that the transcripts were mainly expressed in antennae and mouthparts. The 1?289 nt (160 amino acid) CpomGOBP2 and the novel 702 nt (169 amino acid) CpomGOBP3 transcripts are mainly expressed in antennae, mouthparts, and female abdomen tips. These results indicate that next generation sequencing is useful for the identification of novel transcripts of interest, and that codling moth expresses a transcript encoding for a new member of the GOBP subfamily. PMID:23956229

Garczynski, Stephen F; Coates, Brad S; Unruh, Thomas R; Schaeffer, Scott; Jiwan, Derick; Koepke, Tyson; Dhingra, Amit

2013-10-01

366

Multimerization of expressed protein-arginine methyltransferases during the growth and differentiation of rat liver.  

PubMed

Protein-arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification which yields monomethyl and dimethyl (asymmetric or symmetric) arginines in proteins. We investigated the expressions of PRMT1 and PRMT5 in relation to their catalytic activities in rat liver during growth and differentiation as well as in the pancreas. Western immunoblot analysis revealed that both PRMT1 and PRMT5 proteins were expressed in the cytosol of liver and pancreas with molecular mass of about 42 kDa and 72 kDa, respectively. However, on molecular sieve chromatography, the enzyme activities were eluted at about 500 kDa for PRMT5 and 440 kDa for PRMT1, indicating that the multimer complex of these expressed monomers were catalytically active. While the 500 kDa complex methylated predominantly myelin basic protein (MBP), the 440 kDa complex methylated hnRNP A1 protein. In fetal rat liver, the amount of expressed 42 kDa PRMT1 protein and the enzyme activity to methylate hnRNPA1 protein were 2- to 3-fold and 4- to 5-fold higher, respectively, than those of post-natal livers. While the 72 kDa PRMT5 protein was consistently expressed, its activity varied only about 2-fold. However, PRMT5 to methylate MBP showed one distinct peak at around the 20th day post-natal. Furthermore, while the PRMT1 enzyme activity increased more than 10-fold after 3 days of 70% partial hepatectomy, the amount of expressed PRMT1 protein was only about 3.2-fold higher than the control livers. In summary, we observed that PRMTs are catalytically active only in the form of multimers, but not as a dimer or tetramer of the expressed subunit. Furthermore, the amount of expressed PRMT protein, determined by Western immunoblot, did not correlate with the amount of their catalytic activity, and thus, some uncharacterized additional factor(s) may multimerize PRMTs to express catalytic activities in vivo. PMID:15837430

Lim, Yongchul; Kwon, Young-Ho; Won, Nam Hee; Min, Bon-Hong; Park, In-Sun; Paik, Woon Ki; Kim, Sangduk

2005-05-25

367

Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.  

PubMed

G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.) PMID:24575366

Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

2014-01-01

368

The extracellular matrix controls gap junction protein expression and function in postnatal hippocampal neural progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Background Gap junction protein and extracellular matrix signalling systems act in concert to influence developmental specification of neural stem and progenitor cells. It is not known how these two signalling systems interact. Here, we examined the role of ECM components in regulating connexin expression and function in postnatal hippocampal progenitor cells. Results We found that Cx26, Cx29, Cx30, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx47 mRNA and protein but only Cx32 and Cx36 mRNA are detected in distinct neural progenitor cell populations cultured in the absence of exogenous ECM. Multipotential Type 1 cells express Cx26, Cx30, and Cx43 protein. Their Type 2a progeny but not Type 2b and 3 neuronally committed progenitor cells additionally express Cx37, Cx40, and Cx45. Cx29 and Cx47 protein is detected in early oligodendrocyte progenitors and mature oligodendrocytes respectively. Engagement with a laminin substrate markedly increases Cx26 protein expression, decreases Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx47 protein expression, and alters subcellular localization of Cx30. These changes are associated with decreased neurogenesis. Further, laminin elicits the appearance of Cx32 protein in early oligodendrocyte progenitors and Cx36 protein in immature neurons. These changes impact upon functional connexin-mediated hemichannel activity but not gap junctional intercellular communication. Conclusion Together, these findings demonstrate a new role for extracellular matrix-cell interaction, specifically laminin, in the regulation of intrinsic connexin expression and function in postnatal neural progenitor cells. PMID:19236721

Imbeault, Sophie; Gauvin, Lianne G; Toeg, Hadi D; Pettit, Alexandra; Sorbara, Catherine D; Migahed, Lamiaa; DesRoches, Rebecca; Menzies, A Sheila; Nishii, Kiyomasa; Paul, David L; Simon, Alexander M; Bennett, Steffany AL

2009-01-01

369

Serum Immune-Related Proteins are Differentially Expressed during Hibernation in the American Black Bear  

PubMed Central

Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (?25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included ?2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin ? and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, ?2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears. PMID:23825529

Chow, Brian A.; Donahue, Seth W.; Vaughan, Michael R.; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

2013-01-01

370

Gene cloning and prokaryotic expression of recombinant outer membrane protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen in humans and marine animals. The outer membrane protein of bacteria plays an important role in the infection and pathogenicity to the host. Thus, the outer membrane proteins are an ideal target for vaccines. We amplified a complete outer membrane protein gene (ompW) from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. We then cloned and expressed the gene into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The gene coded for a protein that was 42.78 kDa. We purified the protein using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Anti-His antibody Western blotting, respectively. Our results provide a basis for future application of the OmpW protein as a vaccine candidate against infection by V. parahaemolyticus. In addition, the purified OmpW protein can be used for further functional and structural studies.

Yuan, Ye; Wang, Xiuli; Guo, Sheping; Qiu, Xuemei

2011-06-01

371

Comprehensive characterization of protein 4.1 expression in epithelium of large intestine.  

PubMed

The protein 4.1 family consists of four members, 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1B and 4.1G, each encoded by a distinct gene. All 4.1 mRNAs undergo extensive alternative splicing. Functionally, they usually serve as adapters that link actin-based cytoskeleton to plasma membrane proteins. It has been reported that 4.1 proteins are expressed in most animal cell types and tissues including epithelial cells and epithelial tissues. However, the expression of 4.1 proteins in large intestine has not been well characterized. In the present study, we performed RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis to characterize the transcripts, the protein expression and cellular localization of 4.1 proteins in the epithelia of mouse large intestine. We show that multiple transcripts derive from each gene, including eight 4.1R isoforms, four 4.1N isoforms, four 4.1B isoforms and six 4.1G isoforms. However, at the protein level, only one or two major bands were detected, implying that not all transcripts are translated and/or the proteins do not accumulate at detectable levels. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 4.1R, 4.1N and 4.1B are all expressed at the lateral membrane as well as cytoplasm of epithelial cells, suggesting a potentially redundant role of these proteins. Our findings not only provide new insights into the structure of protein 4.1 genes but also lay the foundation for future functional studies. PMID:24912669

Zhang, Jingxin; Yang, Shaomin; An, Chao; Wang, Jie; Yan, Hongxia; Huang, Yumin; Song, Jinlei; Yin, Changcheng; Baines, Anthony J; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

2014-11-01

372

Gene expression of ABC proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma, perineoplastic tissue, and liver diseases.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent event during the natural history of cirrhosis. Effective treatment is, however, hampered by drug resistance related to the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins belonging to the ABC family transporters. Studying expression of genes coding for these proteins may help to explain the potential sensitivity of HCC to chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, MDR1, and MDR3 was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR analyses in paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from 9 cases of HCC, 16 cases of cirrhosis, 10 cases of chronic extrahepatic cholestasis, and 16 cases of normal liver. In HCC cases, gene expression was assessed both in neoplastic and perineoplastic tissue after microscopically assisted microdissection. RESULTS: MRP1 was significantly and similarly overexpressed in HCC and perineoplastic tissue. MRP2 and MDR1 were also increased in HCC, but the level of expression did not correlate with that of perineoplastic tissue. The level of expression was either reduced or normal in cirrhotic liver and during chronic cholestasis. Expression of MDR3 was unchanged in all conditions investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic expression of multi-drug resistance proteins, in particular MRP1, MRP2, and MDR1, is increased during HCC. In the case of MRP1, the extent of expression is similar in neoplastic and perineoplastic tissue, but this is not the case for MRP2 and MDR1. The assessment of ABC protein expression pattern may provide important information for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC. PMID:12428063

Bonin, Serena; Pascolo, Lorella; Croce, Lory S.; Stanta, Giorgio; Tiribelli, Claudio

2002-01-01

373

Expression of mutant Ets protein at the neuromuscular synapse causes alterations in morphology and gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localized transcription of several muscle genes at the motor endplate is controlled by the Ets transcription factor GABP. To evaluate directly its contribution to the formation of the neuromuscular junction, we generated transgenic mice expressing a general Ets dominant-negative mutant specifically in skeletal muscle. Quantitative RT–PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of genes containing an Ets-binding site was severely

Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde; Jean Cartaud; Aymeric Ravel-Chapuis; Thierry Seroz; Fabien Pasteau; Lindsay M. Angus; Bernard J. Jasmin; Laurent Schaeffer; Jean-Pierre Changeux

2002-01-01

374

Genes involved in cell adhesion, cell motility and mitogenic signaling are altered due to HPV 16 E5 protein expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of the human papillomavirus type 16 E5 oncogene on cellular gene expression in human epithelial cells using cDNA microarray. In a genome-wide microarray assay, the expression of 179 genes was found to be significantly altered due to E5 expression. The expression of lamin A\\/C was downregulated at protein level. The expression of protein kinase C-? and

N Kivi; D Greco; P Auvinen; E Auvinen

2008-01-01

375

High Level Expression and Purification of Atl, the Major Autolytic Protein of Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen. Autolysins regulate the growth, turnover, cell lysis, biofilm formation, and the pathogenicity of S. aureus. Atl is the major autolysin in S. aureus. The biochemical and structural studies of staphylococcal Atl have been limited due to difficulty in cloning, high level overexpression, and purification of this protein. This study describes successful cloning, high level over-expression, and purification of two forms of fully functional Atl proteins. These pure proteins can be used to study the functional and structural properties of this important protein. PMID:24669224

Singh, Vineet K.

2014-01-01

376

Epstein-Barr virus-negative aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia with high P-glycoprotein activity and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2  

PubMed Central

Aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia (ANKL) is a rare type of disease with fulminant course and poor outcome. The disease is more prevalent among Asians than in other ethnic groups and shows strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression associated with multidrug resistance. Here we present a case of a 47 year old Caucasian female with a prior medical history of azathioprine treated ulcerative colitis who developed EBV-negative form of ANKL. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly, fever and nausea with peripheral blood and bone marrow infiltration with up to 70% of atypical lymphoid cells positive for cCD3, CD2, CD7, CD56, CD38, CD45, TIA1 and granzyme B, and negative for sCD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD34 and CD123 indicative of ANKL. Neoplastic CD56+ NK-cells showed high level of P-glycoprotein expression and activity, but also strong expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) MAP kinase. The patient was treated with an intensive polychemotherapy regimen designed for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, but one month after admission developed sepsis, coma and died of cardiorespiratory arrest. We present additional evidence that, except for the immunophenotype, leukaemic NK-cells resemble normal NK-cells in terms of P-gp functional capacity and expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 signalling molecule. In that sense drugs that block P-glycoprotein activity and activated signalling pathways might represent new means for targeted therapy. PMID:23087805

Perkovic, Sanj