Sample records for p-wave arrival times

  1. Whole mantle P-wave travel time tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Inoue; Yoshio Fukao; Kunio Tanabe; Yosihiko Ogata

    1990-01-01

    A method of tomographic inversion to obtain three-dimensional velocity perturbations in the Earth's whole mantle has been developed, and applied to more than two million P-wave arrival time data reported by International Seismology Center (ISC). The model is parameterized with 32,768 blocks; the divisions in latitude, longitude, and radius are 32, 64, and 16, respectively. Horizontal cell size is 5.6°

  2. Mantle Under the Vrancea Zone - Evidence from Dispersion of First-arriving P-Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodler, Fee-Alexandra; Bokelmann, Götz; Gerner, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The Vrancea region of the south-eastern Carpathians is one of the most active seismic zones in Europe and is known for its intermediate-depth seismicity, e.g., there are strong earthquakes in a very limited seismogenic volume at intermediate-depth (70-180 km). Seismic tomography has shown a high-velocity body in that anomalous zone, extending to a depth of at least 350 km. That high-velocity body has been interpreted either as a descending lithospheric slab or as mantle lithosphere. Indeed, the regional geodynamic models proposed for this area can be split into two main model assumptions: (a) The mantle seismicity in Vrancea is associated with a descending relic oceanic lithosphere (attached or already detached from the continental crust) beneath the bending zone of the SE-Carpathians, or (b) the intermediate depth earthquakes are caused by delamination of mantle lithosphere due to continental collision and orogenic thickening. In order to shed more light on the origin of the intermediate depth seismicity in the Vrancea zone, we investigate the frequency-dependence of P-wave group arrival times of local earthquakes excited beneath this area. Dispersed P-waves have been observed in many subduction zones around the world. A most natural, and almost exclusive, explanation is based on the upper few kilometers of subducted oceanic crust that are seismically distinct from surrounding material. Such a low-velocity layer several kilometers thick acts as a waveguide, causing higher frequencies to arrive later than lower frequencies. For Vrancea, such dispersion is observed at several stations sited at the bending zone of the SE-Carpathians while signals at a reference station further northwest do not show such a behaviour. The main interest of this technique is that it provides constraints that classical seismic tomography can not give, since the low-velocity channel is too thin to be resolved by the latter technique. The presence of a tabular and inclined low-velocity suggests the presence of subducted oceanic lithosphere rather than continental lithospheric delamination as the best simple geodynamic model for the area.

  3. Walk-Run Activity: An S and P Wave Travel Time Simulation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Larry Braile

    In this activity, students use walking and running speeds to simulate the difference in S- and P-wave travel times, a property used in the location of earthquakes. They will construct travel time curves using their measurements of walking and running arrival times and calculate the epicenter of a hypothetical earthquake by using triangulation.

  4. Nature of the Vrancea seismic zone (Eastern Carpathians) - New constraints from dispersion of first-arriving P-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokelmann, Götz; Rodler, Fee-Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    The Vrancea region of the southeastern Carpathians is one of the most active seismic zones in Europe and it is well-known for its strong intermediate depth earthquakes. Seismic tomography had revealed a high-velocity body beneath Vrancea and the Moesian platform that extends to a depth of at least 350 km and can be interpreted as descending lithosphere. The strong earthquakes occur within the northeastern part of this high-velocity body, in a very limited seismogenic volume at intermediate depth (70-180 km). Several geodynamic models have been proposed for this area. They can be split into two main categories, in terms of the nature of the high-velocity anomaly, which may (a) be associated with descending relic oceanic lithosphere beneath the bending zone of the SE-Carpathians, either attached or already detached from the continental crust; or (b) it may represent continental lithosphere that has been delaminated, after continental collision and orogenic thickening. Based on currently available information, it appears difficult to distinguish between these two types of models. In this paper we attempt to shed more light on the nature of the seismic anomaly, as well as that of the origin of the intermediate depth seismicity in the Vrancea zone, by investigating the waveform character of P-waves excited by local earthquakes beneath this area, and in particular the dependence of group arrival times on frequency. We present observations of such a dispersion from stations situated at the bending zone of the SE-Carpathians. On the other hand, signals from the same earthquakes, but observed at reference stations outside of the anomalous zone do not show that frequency dependence. A natural explanation for these observations is that it is caused by the presence of a low-velocity channel at the top of the seismic anomaly, which is too thin to be resolved by classical seismic tomographic techniques. Similar observations of dispersed first-arriving P-waves have been made above subduction zones around the world, in which low-velocity layers with a thickness of several kilometers are known to exist. This suggests that a tabular slab of subducted oceanic crust is present within the seismic anomaly under the Vrancea region, and that the anomaly consists of subducted oceanic lithosphere rather than continental lithosphere, at least at depths shallower than the seismically active zone.

  5. Final Arrival Location: Final Arrival Date: Final Arrival Time: FOREIGN TRAVEL

    E-print Network

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Final Arrival Location: Final Arrival Date: Final Arrival Time: FOREIGN TRAVEL REIMBURSEMENT obtain a Travel Advance for this trip? No Yes Was there any personal time during this trip? No Yes From.S. Citizen: Yes No City of Residence: Vendor I.D. # (if known): Purpose of Travel: Destination: Did you

  6. Final Arrival Location: Final Arrival Date: Final Arrival Time: FOREIGN TRAVEL

    E-print Network

    Ahlers, Guenter

    Final Arrival Location: Final Arrival Date: Final Arrival Time: FOREIGN TRAVEL REIMBURSEMENT: ______________________ Date:_____________________ Non-UC travelers - your SSN # is required:_______________ U.S. Citizen: Yes): _______________________ Purpose of Travel: Destination: Did you obtain a Travel Advance for this trip? No Yes Was there any

  7. Real-Time Prediction of Ground Motion from P-Wave Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, M.; Erdik, M.; Wenzel, F.

    2004-12-01

    Real-time prediction of ground motion parameters, such as peak values, seismic intensity or spectral response, at a critical site or facility as well as on regional scale, can help to reduce losses by strong earthquakes by the automatic triggering of protective steps seconds prior to the arrival of high amplitude seismic waves. We present a concept for an earthquake early warning system designed for real-time processing of information obtained from the low amplitude P-wave that is recorded at a number of accelerographs installed in the epicentral area. To allow for the adaptation to rupture dynamics, the estimation of ground motion parameters starts as soon as the first station is triggered and is continuously up-dated with ongoing time. Our design is in contrast to other earthquake early warning systems that are based on the explicit knowledge of magnitude and hypocenter location for the application of empirical attenuation laws. The level of the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) of the P-wave as well as relative values of CAV at different seismic stations give a good indicator for the severity of impending ground shaking. The site-specific prediction of ground motion parameters and interpolation for the generation of regional shake maps is achieved by the application of a three-layer feedforward neural network considering local site effects. The procedure is demonstrated for the Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System in Turkey.

  8. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume II P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (II), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 360 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1180 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4996, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4996, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  9. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume III P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (III), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 390 to 1220 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 40 ft (later relocated to 27.5 ft due to visibility in borehole after rain) in Borehole C4997, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4997, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  10. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume I P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  11. Quantum arrival time for open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We extend previous work on the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, in the framework of decoherent histories, to the case of a particle coupled to an environment. The usual arrival time probabilities are related to the probability current, so we explore the properties of the current for general open systems that can be written in terms of a master equation of the Lindblad form. We specialize to the case of quantum Brownian motion, and show that after a time of order the localization time of the current becomes positive. We show that the arrival time probabilities can then be written in terms of a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), which we compute. We perform a decoherent histories analysis including the effects of the environment and show that time-of-arrival probabilities are decoherent for a generic state after a time much greater than the localization time, but that there is a fundamental limitation on the accuracy {delta}t, with which they can be specified which obeys E{delta}t>>({h_bar}/2{pi}). We confirm that the arrival time probabilities computed in this way agree with those computed via the current, provided there is decoherence. We thus find that the decoherent histories formulation of quantum mechanics provides a consistent explanation for the emergence of the probability current as the classical arrival time distribution, and a systematic rule for deciding when probabilities may be assigned.

  12. Walk -Run Activity --An S and P Wave Travel Time ("S minus P" Earthquake Location Method)

    E-print Network

    Smith-Konter, Bridget

    Walk - Run Activity --An S and P Wave Travel Time Simulation ("S minus P" Earthquake Location between distance and time of travel of seismic waves (a travel time-curve). To use the constructed time-travel pencils) Procedure: Part One: Constructing the Travel-Time Graph To model how earthquake waves travel

  13. HELCATS Prediction of Planetary CME arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boakes, Peter; Moestl, Christian; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard; Byrne, Jason; Barnes, David; Isavnin, Alexey; Kilpua, Emilia; Rollett, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    We present the first results of CME arrival time prediction at different planetary locations and their comparison to the in situ data within the HELCATS project. The EU FP7 HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis & Techniques Service) is a European effort to consolidate the exploitation of the maturing field of heliospheric imaging. HELCATS aims to catalogue solar wind transients, observed by the NASA STEREO Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments, and validate different methods for the determination of their kinematic properties. This validation includes comparison with arrivals at Earth, and elsewhere in the heliosphere, as well as onsets at the Sun (http://www.helcats-fp7.eu/). A preliminary catalogue of manually identified CMEs, with over 1000 separate events, has been created from observations made by the STEREO/HI instruments covering the years 2007-2013. Initial speeds and directions of each CME have been derived through fitting the time elongation profile to the state of the art Self-Similar Expansion Fitting (SSEF) geometric technique (Davies et al., 2012). The technique assumes that, in the plane corresponding to the position angle of interest, CMEs can be modelled as circles subtending a fixed angular width to Sun-center and propagating anti-sunward in a fixed direction at a constant speed (we use an angular width of 30 degrees in our initial results). The model has advantages over previous geometric models (e.g. harmonic mean or fixed phi) as it allows one to predict whether a CME will 'hit' a specific heliospheric location, as well as to what degree (e.g. direct assault or glancing blow). We use correction formulae (Möstl and Davies, 2013) to convert CME speeds, direction and launch time to speed and arrival time at any in situ location. From the preliminary CME dataset, we derive arrival times for over 400 Earth-directed CMEs, and for over 100 Mercury-, Venus-, Mars- and Saturn-directed CMEs predicted to impact each planet. We present statistics of predicted CME arrival properties. In addition, we independently identify CME arrival at in situ locations using magnetic field data from the Venus Express, Messenger, and Ulysses spacecraft and show first comparisons to predicted arrival times. The results hold important implications for space weather prediction at Earth and other locations, allowing model and predicted CME parameters to be compared to their in situ counterparts.

  14. P-WAVE TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO

    E-print Network

    in the Williams Fork, based on ultrasonic core measurements and diagnostic fracture initiation testsP-WAVE TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO by Donald School of Mines in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science

  15. Target tracking and Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) Prediction for Arrival Aircraft

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Target tracking and Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) Prediction for Arrival Aircraft Kaushik Roy Benjamin Levy Claire J. Tomlin§ The problem of developing a unified algorithm for arrival aircraft target. One bottleneck in the flow of aircraft is traffic on the surface of and in the air surrounding

  16. Relativistic free-motion time-of-arrival

    E-print Network

    Zhi-Yong Wang; Cai-Dong Xiong

    2007-10-22

    Relativistic free-motion time-of-arrival theory for massive spin-1/2 particles is systematically developed. Contrary to the nonrelativistic time-of-arrival operator studied thoroughly in previous literatures, the relativistic time-of-arrival operator possesses self-adjoint extensions because of the particle-antiparticle symmetry. The nonrelativistic limit of our theory is in agreement with the nonrelativistic time-of-arrival theory. By comparing the time-of-arrival operator with the Hamiltonian operator of a free Dirac particle, one can show a duality between position space and momentum space.

  17. Acceleration of stable TTI P-wave reverse-time migration with GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseo; Cho, Yongchae; Jang, Ugeun; Shin, Changsoo

    2013-03-01

    When a pseudo-acoustic TTI (tilted transversely isotropic) coupled wave equation is used to implement reverse-time migration (RTM), shear wave energy is significantly included in the migration image. Because anisotropy has intrinsic elastic characteristics, coupling P-wave and S-wave modes in the pseudo-acoustic wave equation is inevitable. In RTM with only primary energy or the P-wave mode in seismic data, the S-wave energy is regarded as noise for the migration image. To solve this problem, we derive a pure P-wave equation for TTI media that excludes the S-wave energy. Additionally, we apply the rapid expansion method (REM) based on a Chebyshev expansion and a pseudo-spectral method (PSM) to calculate spatial derivatives in the wave equation. When REM is incorporated with the PSM for the spatial derivatives, wavefields with high numerical accuracy can be obtained without grid dispersion when performing numerical wave modeling. Another problem in the implementation of TTI RTM is that wavefields in an area with high gradients of dip or azimuth angles can be blown up in the progression of the forward and backward algorithms of the RTM. We stabilize the wavefields by applying a spatial-frequency domain high-cut filter when calculating the spatial derivatives using the PSM. In addition, to increase performance speed, the graphic processing unit (GPU) architecture is used instead of traditional CPU architecture. To confirm the degree of acceleration compared to the CPU version on our RTM, we then analyze the performance measurements according to the number of GPUs employed.

  18. Time-dependent three dimensional P-wave velocity models derived for the Geysers geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friberg, P. A.; Roecker, S. W.; Dricker, I. G.; Lisowski, S.; Hellman, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is a source of significant small earthquake (M< 2.0) seismicity in northern California. The region has been actively monitored for seismicity, both natural and induced, since the geothermal field has been put into production. A modern digital seismic monitoring network in the area consists of 34 LBNL/Calpine (BG) borehole short-period and 12 Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) network surface short-period seismic stations. The USGS has auto-located approximately 25,033 earthquakes (NCEDC catalog) for the years 2009 and 2010 combined from the composite seismic network. Using the auto-located solutions and a Geysers specific one-dimensional velocity model (Eberhart-Philips and Oppenheimer, 1984) as a starting point, we have simultaneously inverted for three dimensional P-wave velocities for each year's data set. Before beginning the inversion we established that the automatic S-phase picks were too unstable and thus focused only on the P-wave velocities. After culling events with initial RMS uncertainty greater than 0.06 seconds, we start with 7,403 earthquakes in 2009 and 11,199 earthquakes in 2010. The technique we use is a finite-difference travel time technique that Roecker et al. (Tectonophysics, 2006) used for the Parkfield SAFOD site. We will present the results of the simultaneous inversion for each of the 2009 and 2010 years along with plots of the seismicity relocated using these new velocity models.

  19. Arrival Times of Satellite-Broadened Laser Pulses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Iyer

    1976-01-01

    A method for measuring the time of arrival of very narrow laser pulses which have been reflected and randomly broadened by a target is examined. It is known that these return pulses from the target have very small rise times. A threshold detection algorithm that detects the rising edge of the pulse is used for obtaining the pulse arrival times.

  20. Regional Tomographic Inversion of P-wave Travel Times in Central Chile and Argentina, between 30° and 36° south.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.; Araujo, M.; Campos, J.; Charge Working Group,.

    2003-12-01

    We use regional P-wave travel times to model upper mantle structure beneath Chile and Argentina between 30° and 36° S. This area is of particular interest, because north of 33° S, the subducted Nazca plate descends normally to a depth of 100 km, but then flattens out, continuing along a subhorizontal path for some 400 km before resuming a normal subduction angle and descending into the mantle. South of 33° , the Nazca plate subducts with a constant dip. This difference in subduction style from the north to the south is correlated with changes in volcanism, seismicity, and orogenic structure. Data for this study comes from the CHARGE project, a 22 station broadband portable seismic deployment, and first arrival P-picks from the ISC catalog recorded at an additional 30 stations operated by INPRES and the Seismological Service of the Universidad de Chile. We use the tomographic inversion method of Zhao et al. [1994] to invert over 3100 P-wave picks from over 170 events recorded at 54 stations. This tomography method allows for the introduction of discrete discontinuities, such as the Moho and the top of the subducting slab, which allows for clearer vertical resolution because smearing across these boundaries is reduced. Preliminary results show evidence of low velocity zones possibly associated with the dehydration of the subducting oceanic plate. To the south where the Nazca plate descends at a dip of 30° , the low velocity zone appears to be confined to a narrow area above where the subducted plate reaches ~100 - 125 km depth and corresponds to the region beneath the active volcanic arc. To the north, the low velocity zone persists, extending east beneath the Sierras Pampeanas. This correlates well with the flat slab area, indicating that the Nazca plate may dewater continuously as it subducts east until it resumes a normal descent angle into the mantle. However, arc volcanism north of 33° S has been dormant for 8 Ma, suggesting that it is the cold thermal regime of the flat slab, rather than a lack of water, that is primarily responsible for shutting down the arc volcanism. Zhao, D., A. Hasegawa, and H. Kanamori, Deep structure of Japan subduction zone as derived from local, regional, and teleseismic events, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 22313-22329, 1994.

  1. Prediction of the shock arrival time with SEP observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Qin; M. Zhang; H. K. Rassoul

    2009-01-01

    Real-time prediction of the arrival times at Earth of shocks is very important for space weather research. Recently, various models for shock propagation are used to forecast the shock arriving times (SATs) with information of initial coronal shock and flare from near real-time radio and X-ray data. In this paper, we add the use of solar energetic particles (SEP) observation

  2. Wave separation: application for arrival time detection in ultrasonic signals.

    PubMed

    Avanesians, Patrick; Momayez, Moe

    2015-01-01

    A method to detect and accurately measure the arrival time of wave packets in ultrasonic signals using a nonlinear decomposition technique is presented. We specifically address the problem of extracting events that are not well separated in the time, space and frequency domains. Analysis of complex ultrasonic signals, even those composed of poorly separated echoes, provided exceptional estimates of the desired time of arrival, from the media under investigation. PMID:25194641

  3. Effects of lateral velocity heterogeneity under the Nevada Test Site on short-period P wave amplitudes and travel times

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Lynnes; Thorne Lay

    1990-01-01

    Short-period teleseismicP waves from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) show systematic variations in amplitudes and travel times, with low amplitudes corresponding to fast travel times, suggesting elastic focussing-defocussing effects. Also, the azimuthal amplitude and travel time patterns for events at the Pahute Mesa subsite are systematically different from those at the Yucca Flat subsite, indicating the presence of a near-source

  4. Inter-arrival times of message propagation on directed networks

    E-print Network

    Mihaljev, Tamara; Herrmann, Hans J

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges in fighting cybercrime is to understand the dynamics of message propagation on botnets, networks of infected computers used to send viruses, unsolicited commercial emails (SPAM) or denial of service attacks. We map this problem to the propagation of multiple random walkers on directed networks and we evaluate the inter-arrival time distribution between successive walkers arriving at a target. We show that the temporal organization of this process, which models information propagation on unstructured peer to peer networks, has the same features as SPAM arriving to a single user. We study the behavior of the message inter-arrival time distribution on three different network topologies using two different rules for sending messages. In all networks the propagation is not a pure Poisson process. It shows universal features on Poissonian networks and a more complex behavior on scale free networks. Results open the possibility to indirectly learn about the process of sending messages on networ...

  5. LLNL-G3Dv3: global P-wave tomography model for improved regional and teleseismic travel time prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2013-05-01

    We develop a global-scale P-wave velocity model (LLNL-G3Dv3) designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The model provides a new image of Earth's interior, but the underlying practical purpose of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. The LLNL-G3Dv3 model is based on ~2.8 million P and Pn arrivals that are re-processed using our global multiple-event locator called Bayesloc. We construct LLNL-G3Dv3 within a spherical tessellation based framework, allowing for explicit representation of undulating and discontinuous layers including the crust and transition zone layers. Using a multi-scale inversion technique, regional trends as well as fine details are captured where the data allow. LLNL-G3Dv3 exhibits large-scale structures including cratons and superplumes as well numerous complex details in the upper mantle including within the transition zone. Particularly, the model reveals new details of a vast network of subducted slabs trapped within the transition beneath much of Eurasia, including beneath the Tibetan Plateau. We demonstrate the impact of Bayesloc multiple-event location on the resulting tomographic images through comparison with images produced without the benefit of multiple-event constraints (single-event locations). We find that the multiple-event locations allow for better reconciliation of the large set of direct P phases recorded at 0-97° distance and yield a smoother and more continuous image relative to the single-event locations. Travel times predicted from a 3-D model are also found to be strongly influenced by the initial locations of the input data, even when an iterative inversion/relocation technique is employed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-559093 Summary of the LLNL-G3Dv3 model architecture. a) Selected levels of the spherical tessellation grids that define the location of nodes in the lateral extent. Nodes are placed at arbitrary radii in the direction of geocentric vectors pointing from the center of the Earth to the vertices. This hierarchical model structure is exploited in the PMTI imaging technique [see Simmons et al., 2011]. b) Description of the model layers.

  6. Time-of-arrival probabilities for general particle detectors

    E-print Network

    Charis Anastopoulos; Ntina Savvidou

    2012-07-16

    We develop a general framework for the construction of probabilities for the time of arrival in quantum systems. The time of arrival is identified with the time instant when a transition in the detector's degrees of freedom takes place. Thus, its definition is embedded within the larger issue of defining probabilities with respect to time for general quantum transitions. The key point in our analysis is that we manage to reduce the problem of defining a quantum time observable to a mathematical model where time is associated to a transition from a subspace of the Hilbert space of the total system to its complementary subspace. This property makes it possible to derive a general expression for the probability for the time of transition, valid for any quantum system, with the only requirement that the time of transition is correlated with a definite macroscopic record. The framework developed here allows for the consideration of any experimental configuration for the measurement of the time of arrival and it also applies to relativistic systems with interactions described by quantum field theory. We use the method in order to describe time-of-arrival measurements in high-energy particle reactions and for a rigorous derivation of the time-integrated probabilities in particle oscillations.

  7. A new pulse arrival-time recording system

    SciTech Connect

    Arnone, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    We describe a new pulse arrival-time recording system that is being developed at Los Alamos. The new PATRM/PCI (Pulse Arrival-Time Recording Module/Peripheral Component Interconnect) has had several features added. These features enhance our time-correlation measurement capabilities. By applying the latest advances in electronics and computer technology we are able to increase capability over existing instrumentation while lowering the per channel cost. The modular design approach taken allows easy configuration of both small and large systems.

  8. Incorporating fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times into seismic tomography: Application at Parkfield, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, Ninfa L.; Thurber, Clifford; Peng, Zhigang; Zhang, Haijiang; Zhao, Peng

    2013-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) P wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHWs), and data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSAs). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global- and local-minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of FZHWs and DWSAs results in as much as a 5% and a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast, respectively, for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to that of Thurber et al. [2006]. Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield earthquake hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Following Ampuero and Ben-Zion (2008), the pattern of velocity contrasts is consistent with the observed bilateral rupture propagation for the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Although the velocity contrasts also suggest bilateral rupture propagation for the 1966 Parkfield earthquake, the fault is creeping to the NW here, i.e., exhibiting velocity-strengthening behavior. Thus, it is not surprising that rupture propagated only SE during this event.

  9. Compound arrival times and a search model of marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mitter

    1990-01-01

    All customary parametric survival models show a high probability of event occurance at early times. This is not appropriate in most cases where arrival time is age. A way to overcome this problem is the decomposition of the observed period into (not observed) sub?periods with different duration distributions or different exposures to risk. In the search model presented in this

  10. Polynomial Time Algorithms for Scheduling of Arrival Kaushik Roy

    E-print Network

    Polynomial Time Algorithms for Scheduling of Arrival Aircraft Kaushik Roy Alexandre M. Bayen Claire States has again motivated the need for efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. Optimization, leading to large delays throughout the national airspace, reducing efficiency dramatically. A great deal

  11. A Comparison of CTAS and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Hsu, Rose Y.

    1999-01-01

    A statistically-based comparison of aircraft times of arrival between Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) air traffic control scheduling and airline predictions is presented. CTAS is found to provide much improved values, forming the foundation for airline operational improvements, as observed during an airline field trial of a CTAS display.

  12. Arrival Time Distribution by the New Observation System at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuyama, H.; Obara, Hitoshi; Kuramochi, Hiroshi; Ono, Shunichi; Origasa, Satoru; Mochida, Akinori; Sakuyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Noboru

    2003-07-01

    The arrival time distribution of EAS has been observed by using Ultra Fast Cherenkov detector (UFC) and oscilloscope at Taro observatory since 1995 (sea level 200m). The EAS array is arranged 169 sets of 0.25m2 scintillation detectors in the shape of a lattice at intervals of 1.5m and about 40 scintillation detectors which consists of 1m2 and 0.25m2 is arranged in the peripheral part. Then, it consists of 8 fast timing detectors. The UFC detector is installed in the palce of about 20m from the trigger center. The observation system of a UFC detector was changed from the autumn of 2000. The outline of a new observation system and EAS arrival time distribution are reported.

  13. The arrival time distribution of EAS at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, T.; Kuramochi, H.; Ono, S.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.

    The arrival time distribution of EAS has been observed since 1995 at Taro cosmicray laboratory (200m above sea level). The EAS arrays consist of 1m2 and 0.25m2 scintillation detectors, 0.25m2 fast timing counters and ultra fast Cherenkov detectors (UFC). 169 0.25m2 scintillation detectors are arranged in alattice configuration with a unit distance of 1.5m. UFC is placed at 20m from the center of lattice array. The arrival time distribution has been analyzed with distance from EAS core (r=10-60m). One of the results shows that the radius of corvature increases as shower size (Ne), near to the EAS core.

  14. Quantum arrival and dwell times via idealized clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J. M.; Downs, D. A.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hashagen, A. K. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    A number of approaches to the problem of defining arrival- and dwell-time probabilities in quantum theory makes use of idealized models of clocks. An interesting question is the extent to which the probabilities obtained in this way are related to standard semiclassical results. In this paper, we explore this question using a reasonably general clock model, solved using path-integral methods. We find that, in the weak-coupling regime, where the energy of the clock is much less than the energy of the particle it is measuring, the probability for the clock pointer can be expressed in terms of the probability current in the case of arrival times, and the dwell-time operator in the case of dwell times, the expected semiclassical results. In the regime of strong system-clock coupling, we find that the arrival-time probability is proportional to the kinetic-energy density, consistent with an earlier model involving a complex potential. We argue that, properly normalized, this may be the generically expected result in this regime. We show that these conclusions are largely independent of the form of the clock Hamiltonian.

  15. Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks Mosalam Shaltout1 ,M.Youssef 1and R.Mawad2 1 National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) ,Helwan -Cairo-Egypt Email: mosalamshaltout@hotmail.com 2 Faculty of Science-Monifiia University-Physics Department-Shiben Al-Koum -Monifiia-Egypt We are got the Data of the SSC events from Preliminary Reports of the ISGI (Institut de Physique du Globe, France) .Also we are selected the same CME interval 1996-2005 from SOHO/LASCO/C2.We have estimated the arrival time of ICME shocks during solar cycle 23rd (1996-2005), we take the Sudden storm commencement SSC as a indicator of the arrival of CMEs at the Earth's Magnetosphere (ICME).Under our model ,we selected 203 ICME shock-SSC associated events, we got an imperial relation between CME velocity and their travel time, from which we obtained high correlation between them, R=0.75.

  16. UCSF Shuttle GPS coming May 1, 2013 View real-time shuttle arrival times on your

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    real-time arrival predictions via phone, cell phone, or SMT (Text) messaging. · Obtain NextBus alerts UCSF Shuttle GPS coming May 1, 2013 View real-time shuttle arrival times on your phone students, faculty, staff, patients and affiliates will be able use the latest GPS technology to view, track

  17. The Effects of Predator Arrival Timing on Adaptive Radiation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Knope, M. L.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Much of Earth’s biodiversity is thought to have arisen by adaptive radiation, the rapid diversification of a single ancestral species to fill a wide-variety of ecological niches. Both theory and empirical evidence have long supported competition for limited resources as a primary driver of adaptive radiation. While predation has also been postulated to be an important selective force during radiation, empirical evidence is surprisingly scant and its role remains controversial. However, two recent empirical studies suggest that predation can promote divergence during adaptive radiation. Using an experimental laboratory microcosm system, we examined how predator arrival timing affects the rate and extent of diversification during adaptive radiation. We varied the introduction timing of a protozoan predator (Tetrahymena thermophila) into populations of the bacteria Pseudomonas flourescens, which is known for its ability to undergo rapid adaptive radiation in aqueous microcosms. While our results show that predator arrival timing may have a significant impact on the rate, but not extent, of diversification, these results are tenuous and should be interpreted with caution, as the protozoan predators died early in the majority of our treatments, hampering our ability for comparison across treatments. Additionally, the abundance of newly derived bacterial genotypes was markedly lower in all treatments than observed in previous experiments utilizing this microbial experimental evolution system. To address these shortcomings, we will be repeating the experiment in the near future to further explore the impact of predator arrival timing on adaptive radiation. Smooth Morph and small-Wrinkly Spreader Pseudomonas flourescens diversification in the 96 hour treatment. Day 10, diluted to 1e-5.

  18. Upper mantle anisotropy beneath Australia and Tahiti from P wave polarization: Implications for real-time earthquake location

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice R. Fontaine; Guilhem Barruol; Brian L. N. Kennett; Goetz H. R. Bokelmann; Dominique Reymond

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of long-period P wave polarization (Ppol) in Australia and Tahiti made by combining modeling of the polarization deviation and harmonic analysis. The analysis of the deviation of the horizontal polarization of the P wave as a function of event back azimuth may be used to obtain information about (1) sensor misorientation, (2) dipping discontinuities, (3) seismic anisotropy,

  19. Fault plane orientations of microearthquakes at Mt. Etna from the inversion of P-wave rise times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Martinez-Arevalo, Carmen; Patanè, Domenico; Romeo, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    A crucial point in the analysis of tectonic earthquakes occurring in a volcanic area is the inference of the orientation of the structures along which the ruptures occur. These structures represent zones of weakness which could favor the migration of melt toward the surface and the assessment of their geometry is a fundamental step toward efficient evaluation of volcanic risk. We analyzed a high-quality dataset of 171 low-magnitude, tectonic earthquakes that occurred at Mt. Etna during the 2002-2003 eruption. We applied a recently developed technique aimed at inferring the source parameters (source size, dip and strike fault) and the intrinsic quality factor Qp of P waves from the inversion of rise times. The technique is based on numerically calibrated relationships among the rise time of first P waves and the source parameters for a circular crack rupturing at a constant velocity. For the most of the events the directivity source effect did not allow us to constrain the fault plane orientation. For a subset of 45 events with well constrained focal mechanisms we were able to constrain the "true" fault plane orientation. The level of resolution of the fault planes was assessed through a non linear analysis based on the random deviates technique. The significance of the retrieved fault plane solutions and the fit of the assumed source model to data were assessed through a ?-square test. Most of the retrieved fault plane solutions agree with the geometrical trend of known surface faults. The inferred source parameters and Qp are in agreement with the results of previous studies.

  20. Rounding of Arrival and Departure Times in Travel Surveys: An Interpretation in Terms of Scheduled Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piet Rietveld

    2001-01-01

    In travel surveys most respondents apply rounding of departure and arrival times to multiples of 5, 15 and 30 minutes: in the annual Dutch travel survey about 85-95 percent of all reported times are 'round' ones. We estimate rounding models for departure and arrival times. The model allows one to compute the probability that a reported arrival time m (say

  1. ConcepTest: P Wave Arrival

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Examine the seismogram below that shows a 26-minute long record of the seismic waves from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake as it was received by a seismograph station in Germany, over 14,000 km away. Which letter ...

  2. Marginal picture of quantum dynamics related to intrinsic arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Vega, Gabino [Physics Department, Cinvestav, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico City, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2007-09-15

    We introduce a marginal picture of the evolution of quantum systems, in which the representation vectors are the quantities that evolve and operators and wave packets remain static. The representation vectors can be seen as probe functions that are the evolution of a {delta} function with initial support on q=X in coordinate space. This picture of the dynamics is suited for the determination of intrinsic arrival distributions for quantum systems, providing a clear physical meaning to the 'time eigenstates' used in these calculations. We also analyze Galapon et al.'s 'confined time eigenstates' [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180406 (2004)] from this point of view, and propose alternative probe functions for confined systems without the need of a quantized time.

  3. Velocity Structure of the Tibetan Lithosphere: Constraints from P-Wave Travel Times of Regional Earthquakes

    E-print Network

    Nowack, Robert L.

    further constraints on Moho structure and upper-mantle­lid velocities. We use three-dimensional ray tracing to model the travel times, and the results indicate that the Moho beneath the Lhasa terrane=s. Travel times from events to the west and east of the array indicate that both Moho structure and mantle

  4. Early magnitude estimation for the MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using progressively expanded P-wave time window

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chaoyong; Yang, Jiansi; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    More and more earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are developed or currently being tested in many active seismic regions of the world. A well-known problem with real-time procedures is the parameter saturation, which may lead to magnitude underestimation for large earthquakes. In this paper, the method used to the MW9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is explored with strong-motion records of the MW7.9, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We measure two early warning parameters by progressively expanding the P-wave time window (PTW) and distance range, to provide early magnitude estimates and a rapid prediction of the potential damage area. This information would have been available 40?s after the earthquake origin time and could have been refined in the successive 20?s using data from more distant stations. We show the suitability of the existing regression relationships between early warning parameters and magnitude, provided that an appropriate PTW is used for parameter estimation. The reason for the magnitude underestimation is in part a combined effect of high-pass filtering and frequency dependence of the main radiating source during the rupture process. Finally we suggest only using Pd alone for magnitude estimation because of its slight magnitude saturation compared to the ?c magnitude. PMID:25346344

  5. Probability distribution of arrival times in quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    V. Delgado

    1997-12-03

    In a previous paper [V. Delgado and J. G. Muga, Phys. Rev. A 56, 3425 (1997)] we introduced a self-adjoint operator $\\hat {{\\cal T}}(X)$ whose eigenstates can be used to define consistently a probability distribution of the time of arrival at a given spatial point. In the present work we show that the probability distribution previously proposed can be well understood on classical grounds in the sense that it is given by the expectation value of a certain positive definite operator $\\hat J^{(+)}(X)$ which is nothing but a straightforward quantum version of the modulus of the classical current. For quantum states highly localized in momentum space about a certain momentum $p_0 \

  6. Global-scale P wave tomography optimized for prediction of teleseismic and regional travel times for Middle East events: 1. Data set development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Simmons, N. A.

    2011-04-01

    We extend the Bayesloc seismic multiple-event location algorithm for application to global arrival time data sets. Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability distribution spanning multiple-event location parameters, including hypocenters, travel time corrections, pick precision, and phase labels. Stochastic priors may be used to constrain any of the Bayesloc parameters. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling is used to draw samples from the joint probability distribution, and the posteriori samples are summarized to infer conventional location parameters such as the hypocenter. The first application of the broad area Bayesloc algorithm is to a data set consisting of all well-recorded events in the Middle East and the most well-recorded events with 5° spatial sampling globally. This sampling strategy is designed to provide the ray coverage needed to determine lithospheric-scale P wave velocity structure in the Middle East using the complementary ray geometry provided by regional (subhorizontal) and teleseismic (subvertical) raypaths and to determine a consistent, albeit lower-resolution, image of global mantle structure. The data set consists of 5401 events and 878,535 P, Pn, pP, sP, and PcP arrivals recorded at 4606 stations. Relocated epicenters are an average of 16 km from bulletin locations. The data set included events that are known to an accuracy of 1 km (a.k.a. GT1) based on nonseismic information. The average distance between GT1 epicenters and our relocated epicenters is 5.6 km. For arrivals labeled P, Pn, and PcP, ˜92%, ˜90%, and 96% are properly labeled with probability >0.9, respectively. Incorrect phase labels are found to be erroneous at rates of 0.6%, 0.2%, 1.6%, and 2.5% for P, Pn, PcP, and depth phases (pP and sP), respectively. Labels found to be incorrect, but not erroneous, were reassigned to another phase label. P and Pn residual standard deviation with respect to ak135 travel times are dramatically reduced from 3.45 s to 1.01 s. The differences between travel time residuals for nearly reciprocal raypaths are significantly reduced from the input event locations, suggesting that Bayesloc relocation improves data set consistency. The reciprocity tests suggest that the dominant contribution to travel time residuals calculated from information provided in global bulletins is location and picks errors, not travel time prediction errors due to 3-D structure. Modeling the whole multiple-event system results in accurate locations and an internally consistent data set that is ideal for tomography and other travel time calibration studies. Simmons et al. (2011) (companion paper) use the Bayesloc-processed data set to develop a 3-D tomographic image, which further reduces residual standard deviation to 0.50 s.

  7. Theoretical P-Wave Travel Times, Magnitude 6.7 Island of Hawaii, Hawaii, Sunday, October 15, 2006 at 17:07:49 UTC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earthquake Hazards Program

    This page from the USGS displays the predicted travel times of the P-Waves originating from the 6.7 magnitude earthquake that struck near Puako, HI on October 15th, 2006. There is a table of data as well as the map visualization.

  8. P-wave tomography of crust and upper mantle under Southern California: Influence of topography of Moho discontinuity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Li Huang; Da-Peng Zhao

    2003-01-01

    We use 146 422 P-wave arrival times from 6 347 local earthquakes recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network to determine\\u000a a detailed three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure at 0–35 km depth. We have taken into account the Moho depth variations,\\u000a which were obtained by seismological methods. Checkerboard tests suggest that our inversion results are reliable. Our models\\u000a provide new information

  9. A self-adjoint arrival time operator inspired by measurement models

    E-print Network

    J. J. Halliwell; J. Evaeus; J. London; Y. Malik

    2015-04-21

    We introduce an arrival time operator which is self-adjoint and, unlike previously proposed arrival time operators, has a close link to simple measurement models. Its spectrum leads to an arrival time distribution which is a variant of the Kijowski distribution (a re-ordering of the current) in the large momentum regime but is proportional to the kinetic energy density in the small momentum regime, in agreement with measurement models. A brief derivation of the latter distribution is given. We make some simple observations about the physical reasons for self-adjointness, or its absence, in arrival time operators and also compare our operator with the dwell time operator.

  10. Teleseismic P-wave Delay Time Tomography of the southern Superior Province and Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollmann, T. A.; van der Lee, S.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Wolin, E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) and the northern midwest footprint of USArray's Transportable Array recorded continuous ground motion for a period of 2.5 years. From around 400 M>5.5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded at 337 stations, we measured body wave delay times for 255 of these earthquakes. The P wave delays are accumulated over more than 45 thousand wave paths with turning points in the lower mantle. We combine these delay times with a similar number delay times used in previous tomographic studies of the study region. The latter delay times stem from fewer stations, including Polaris and CNSN stations, and nearly a thousand earthquakes. We combine these two sets of delay times to image the three-dimensional distribution of seismic velocity variations beneath the southern Superior Province and surrounding provinces. This combined data coverage is illustrated in the accompanying figure for a total number of 447 stations . The coverage and the combined delays form the best configuration yet to image the three-dimensional distribution of seismic P and S-wave velocity variations beneath the southern Superior and surrounding provinces. Closely spaced stations (~12 km) along and across the MRS provide higher resolving power for lithospheric structure beneath the rift system. Conforming to expectations that the entire region is underlain by thick, cool lithosphere, a mean delay of -.55 +/- .54 s. This is very similar to the mean delays -.6s +/- .37s measured for this region before 2012. Event corrections range from -.2 +/-.54 s and correlate with tectonics for 80% of the earthquakes. An inversion of these nearly one hundred thousand P and around thirty thousand S-wave delay times for high-resolution P and S-wave velocity structure, respectively, does not show structures that are obviously related to the crustal signature of the MRS. None of structures imaged, align with or have a similar shape to the high Mid-continent Gravity Anomaly (MGA). However, a low-velocity structure is imaged in the lithosphere just east of the MGA.

  11. A COMPARISON OF COLLAPSING AND PRECISE ARRIVAL-TIME MAPPING OF MICROSEISMICITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTLEDGE, JAMES T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JONES, ROB H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-05

    In this paper they compare the improvements in microseismic location images obtained using precise arrival times with that obtained by the collapsing technique. They first collapse the initial locations for a hydraulic-fracture data set from the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, they then use the precise-arrival-time locations as measure for the effectiveness of the collapsing. Finally, they examine the changes when applying collapsing to the precise-arrival-time locations.

  12. A particle filtering approach for spatial arrival time tracking in ocean acoustics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rashi; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this work is on arrival time and amplitude estimation from acoustic signals recorded at spatially separated hydrophones in the ocean. A particle filtering approach is developed that treats arrival times as "targets" and tracks their "location" across receivers, also modeling arrival time gradient. The method is evaluated via Monte Carlo simulations and is compared to a maximum likelihood estimator, which does not relate arrivals at neighboring receivers. The comparison demonstrates a significant advantage in using the particle filter. It is also shown that posterior probability density functions of times and amplitudes become readily available with particle filtering. PMID:21682358

  13. Moho depth variations in the Taiwan orogen from joint inversion of seismic arrival time and Bouguer gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiwei; Roecker, Steven; Kim, Kwanghee; Xu, Ya; Hao, Tianyao

    2014-09-01

    The joint inversion of different geophysical datasets is an effective means to reduce the non-uniqueness and improve the reliability of geophysical inversion. In this study, seismic arrival time and Bouguer gravity datasets are jointly inverted to obtain an image of 3-D velocity structures in the Taiwan orogen. The model obtained from joint inversion fits the arrival time observations at least as well as when inverted individually, and the gravity observations are much better fit when included in the inversion, implying a reduction in ambiguity by simultaneously modeling the disparate datasets. Moho depth variations estimated by the 3-D P wave velocity model suggest a maximum Moho depth of 56 km located beneath the Backbone Central Range, and the trend of the Moho is largely consistent with the topography of the Central Range with eastward, asymmetric crustal thickening. The root beneath the Central Range appears to be smaller in lateral extent than previously imaged, and the velocity gradients into the uppermost mantle are significantly higher. The lack of evidence for a significant amount of Eurasian crust in the mantle supports geodynamical models of accreted, rather than consumed, continental crust in a collisional environment.

  14. Timing the Random and Anomalous Arrival of Particles in a Geiger Counter with GPS Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, F.; La Rocca, P.; Riggi, F.; Riggi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of the arrival time distribution of particles in a detector have been studied by the use of a small Geiger counter, with a GPS device to tag the event time. The experiment is intended to check the basic properties of the random arrival time distribution between successive events and to simulate the investigations carried out by…

  15. Grid travel{time tracing: second{order method for the rst arrivals in smooth media *

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Grid travel{time tracing: second{order method for the #12;rst arrivals in smooth media * Lud#20;ek the #12;rst{arrival travel times on a rectangular grid of points is proposed. Whereas the former "#12;nite is of the second{order accu- racy. It means that the relative propagation{velocity error of calculated travel time

  16. Arrival timing in subadult and adult Black Redstart males: competition-dependent behaviour?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Schwarzová; P. Štros; D. Frynta; R. Fuchs

    2010-01-01

    The different arrival times of 1-year-old and older males is a widely recognised phenomenon in most migrating passerines. The converse pattern, i.e. the yearlings arriving at the breeding grounds at the same time as adults, has been reported only exceptionally. Two hypotheses have been formulated to explain the delayed arrival of yearling males: investment reduction, and energetic constraint hypotheses, respectively.

  17. Optimal convolutive filters for real-time detection and arrival time estimation of transient signals

    E-print Network

    Wichmann, Felix

    . In the case of transient signals, a filter has not only to detect the presence of a specific waveform, beamforming, Capon beamformer, linear filters, performance measure I. INTRODUCTION FOR detection of signals of simultaneously detecting the presence as well as estimating the arrival time of transient signals. This work

  18. Localization of a noisy broadband surface target using time differences of multipath arrivals.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, John; Siderius, Martin; McCargar, Reid; Allen, John S; Pusey, Grant

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies [Tiemann et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 2355-2365 (2006)] have reported the localization of marine mammals in 3-D from their clicks using multipath arrivals. Bathymetric variations were advantageously used to predict multipath arrival times with a raytracer. These arrivals are directly discernible from the time series for impulsive sources, such as whale clicks, but extension of the method to continuous broadband sources presents additional complications. By pulse compressing noise emitted from a small boat using two hydrophones, the hyperbolic direct-arrival ambiguity can be refined in both range and bearing. Acoustic-derived results are validated with target GPS measurements. PMID:23862911

  19. Passive source localization employing intersecting spherical surfaces from time-of-arrival differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. SCHAU; A. Z. ROBINSON

    1987-01-01

    Problems associated with the use of intersecting hyperboloids for passive source localization from time-of-arrival difference signals are discussed. A closed-form solution for source location is presented given time-of-arrival difference measurements when the distance from the source to any arbitrary reference is unknown.

  20. P wave travel times: Stability and change within the source volume of a M = 7.2 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Arch C.; Wyss, M.; Koyanagi, R.; Habermann, R. E.

    1982-08-01

    The dense seismograph network on the south flank of Kilauea afforded a unique opportunity to study travel time changes as a function of space and time within the source volume of the Hawaii earthquake (Ms = 7.2) of 1975. Careful analysis of more than 600 teleseismic P arrivals from deep Fiji-Tonga earthquakes revealed the following: out of eight stations studied, six showed constant travel times to within ±0.03 s for up to 10 years with the exception of some small changes of about 0.03 s at the time of the main shock. One station, AHU, showed a highly significant and unique travel time decrease by 0.13 s during 1971/1972. At the beginning of this velocity anomaly a southwest rift intrusion caused closure of surface cracks associated with normal faults located near the station AHU. Also, geodetic measurements revealed that between August and October 1971 compressive strain of 4×10-5 was accumulated perpendicular to the southwest rift in the area of AHU. We conclude that these data show for the first time that in situ velocity increases occur due to the closure of cracks by tectonic forces. The AHU residuals returned to normal approximately at the time of a major earthquake swarm on the fault zone near AHU, during which surface cracks were observed to have opened again. This travel time decrease was corroborated by residuals from Novaya Zemlya explosions, but highfrequency local signals did not show it. Assuming that the stress sensitivity of the velocity was similar to that found by Reasenberg and Aki (1974), we have interpreted the teleseismic residual change at AHU as due to a P velocity increase of about 10% in the top 3.5±1.5-km of the crust. The only station, WHA, which showed a large (0.2 s) and extended (1972 to 1975) travel time increase was located only 4-km from the main shock epicenter. We interpret this velocity decrease as a precursor to the 1975 main shock, and we hypothesize that a process reverse from that at AHU caused this anomaly by first opening and then closing cracks in the crust below WHA. Both of these velocity anomalies were extremely localized in crustal volumes of dimensions of about 5±3-km.

  1. Incorporating fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times into seismic tomography: Application at Parkfield, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2011-12-01

    Large crustal faults such as the San Andreas fault (SAF) often juxtapose rocks of significantly different elastic properties, resulting in well-defined bimaterial interfaces. A sharp material contrast across the fault interface is expected to generate fault zone head waves (FZHW's) that spend a large portion of their propagation paths refracting along the bimaterial interface (Ben-Zion 1989, 1990; Ben-Zion & Aki 1990). Because of this FZHW's provide a high-resolution tool for imaging the velocity contrast across the fault. Recently, Zhao et al. (2010) systematically analyzed large data sets of near-fault waveforms recorded by several permanent and temporary seismic networks along the Parkfield section of the SAF. The local-scale tomography study of Zhang et al. (2009) for a roughly 10 km3 volume centered on SAFOD and the more regional-scale study of Thurber et al. (2006) for a 130 km x 120 km x 20 km volume centered on the 2004 Parkfield earthquake rupture provide what are probably the best 3D images of the seismic velocity structure of the area. The former shows a low velocity zone associated with the SAF extending to significant depth, and both image the well-known velocity contrast across the fault. Seismic tomography generally uses just first P and/or S arrivals because of the relative simplicity of phase picking and ray tracing. Adding secondary arrivals such as FZHW's, however, can enhance the resolution of structure and strengthen constraints on earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. We present a model of 3D velocity structure for the Parkfield region that utilizes a combination of arrival times for FZHW's and the associated direct-wave secondary arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. The resulting image provides a higher-resolution model of the SAF at depth than previously published models. In addition, we plan to measure polarizations of the direct P and S waves and FZHW's and incorporate the data into our updated velocity tomography/relocation inversion. Through these efforts, we hope to refine the 3D tomographic image of seismic velocity structure and the complex geometry of the active fault strands near SAFOD and along the Parkfield rupture zone.

  2. The prediction of bus arrival time using Automatic Vehicle Location Systems data 

    E-print Network

    Jeong, Ran Hee

    2005-02-17

    is required. In addition to the prediction interval of bus arrival time, the probability that a given bus is on time was calculated. The probability density function of schedule adherence seemed to be the gamma distribution or the normal distribution...

  3. Effect of time window length for maximum amplitude estimation on P wave magnitude: application for Earthquake Early Warning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hoshiba; K. Iwakiri; K. Ohtake

    2009-01-01

    Earthquake early warning, EEW, aims at issuing the warning of strong ground shaking before its arrival by analyzing seismic waveform data obtained near the hypocenter. Rapid estimation is important as well as precise anticipation of strong shaking. At present, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) anticipates the strong shaking using magnitude, attenuation relation and site amplification factors, and the anticipation is performed

  4. Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging: Relative Time of Arrival, Maximum Derivatives and Fractional Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Kenneth K.; Wu, Ona; Chan, Suk-Tak; Nelissen, Koen; Kholodov, Mykhaylo; Chesler, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Time of arrival (TOA) of a bolus of contrast agent to the tissue voxel is a reference time point critical for the Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging Method (ET) to make relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) maps. Due to the low contrast to noise (CNR) condition at TOA, other useful reference time points known as relative time of arrival data points (rTOA) are investigated. Candidate rTOA's include the time to reach the maximum derivative, the maximum second derivative, and the maximum fractional derivative. Each rTOA retains the same relative time distance from TOA for all tissue flow levels provided that ET's basic assumption is met, namely, no contrast agent has a chance to leave the tissue before the time of rTOA. The ET's framework insures that rCBF estimates by different orders of the derivative are theoretically equivalent to each other and monkey perfusion imaging results supported the theory. In rCBF estimation, maximum values of higher order fractional derivatives may be used to replace the maximum derivative which runs a higher risk of violating ET's assumption. Using the maximum values of the derivative of orders ranging from 1 to 1.5 to 2, estimated rCBF results were found to demonstrate a gray-white matter ratio of approximately 3, a number consistent with flow ratio reported in the literature. PMID:21600995

  5. A Comparison of Waterflood Management Using Arrival Time Optimization and NPV Optimization

    E-print Network

    Tao, Qing

    2011-02-22

    allocation to the injectors and producers. Through optimal rate control, we can manage the propagation of the flood front, delay water breakthrough at the producers and also increase the sweep and hence, the recovery efficiency. The arrival time optimization...

  6. The Quantum-Classical Comparison of the Arrival Time Distribution through the Probability Current

    E-print Network

    Md. Manirul Ali; A. S. Majumdar; Alok Kumar Pan

    2006-12-22

    We consider the arrival time distribution defined through the quantum probability current for a Gaussian wave packet representing free particles in quantum mechanics in order to explore the issue of the classical limit of arrival time. We formulate the classical analogue of the arrival time distribution for an ensemble of free particles represented by a phase space distribution function evolving under the classical Liouville's equation. The classical probability current so constructed matches with the quantum probability current in the limit of minimum uncertainty. Further, it is possible to show in general that smooth transitions from the quantum mechanical probability current and the mean arrival time to their respective classical values are obtained in the limit of large mass of the particles.

  7. A review of the decoherent histories approach to the arrival time problem in quantum theory

    E-print Network

    James M Yearsley

    2010-12-12

    We review recent progress in understanding the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, from the point of view of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory. We begin by discussing the arrival time problem, focussing in particular on the role of the probability current in the expected classical solution. After a brief introduction to decoherent histories we review the use of complex potentials in the construction of appropriate class operators. We then discuss the arrival time problem for a particle coupled to an environment, and review how the arrival time probability can be expressed in terms of a POVM in this case. We turn finally to the question of decoherence of the corresponding histories, and we show that this can be achieved for simple states in the case of a free particle, and for general states for a particle coupled to an environment.

  8. Arrival-time fluctuations of coherent reflections from surface gravity water waves.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Eickmeier, Justin; Song, Aijun

    2014-05-01

    Arrival time fluctuations of coherent reflections from surface gravity waves are examined. A two-dimensional ray model with an evolving rough sea surface is used to explain the mechanism and formation of the deterministic striation patterns due to the surface reflection. Arrival time predictions from the ray model match qualitatively well with the measurements from bidirectional acoustic transmissions in a water depth of 100?m. PMID:24815293

  9. The prediction of bus arrival time using Automatic Vehicle Location Systems data

    E-print Network

    Jeong, Ran Hee

    2005-02-17

    their transit vehicles in real-time. The need for the model or technique to predict transit travel time using AVL data is increasing. While some research on this topic has been conducted, it has been shown that more research on this topic is required.... The objectives of this research were 1) to develop and apply a model to predict bus arrival time using AVL data, 2) to identify the prediction interval of bus arrival time and the probabilty of a bus being on time. In this research, the travel time prediction...

  10. Mapping P-wave crustal structure using deformable-layer tomography in Southern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Li

    2007-01-01

    P-wave first arrival time data from earthquakes and surface seismic data have been used to map the crustal velocity structure in southern California. The combined data result in a dense and highly non-uniform ray-path distribution in the study area. Moho depths obtained from previous published studies have been used in the tomographic inversions to improve the lower crust portion of

  11. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of Mt. Etna, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Villaseñor; H. M. Benz; L. Filippi; G. De Luca; R. Scarpa; G. Patanè; S. Vinciguerra

    1998-01-01

    The three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of Mt. Etna is determined to depths of 15 km by tomographic inversion of first arrival times from local earthquakes recorded by a network of 29 permanent and temporary seismographs. Results show a near-vertical low-velocity zone that extends from beneath the central craters to a depth of 10 km. This low-velocity region is coincident with

  12. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  13. Grid travel{time tracing: second{order method for the rst arrivals in smooth media

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Grid travel{time tracing: second{order method for the #12;rst arrivals in smooth media Lud#20;ek{order accuracy. This means that the error of the calculated travel time is proportional to the second power presented for the appropriate evaluation of the errors of calculated travel times to check their accuracy

  14. Continuous measurement of the arrival times of x-ray photon sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Qiurong; Sheng Lizhi [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 710119, Xi'an (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao Baosheng; Liu Yong'an [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 710119, Xi'an (China)

    2011-05-15

    In order to record x-ray pulse profile for x-ray pulsar-based navigation and timing, this paper presents a continuous, high-precision method for measuring arrival times of photon sequence with a common starting point. In this method, a high stability atomic clock is counted to measure the coarse time of arrival photon. A high resolution time-to-digital converter is used to measure the fine time of arrival photon. The coarse times and the fine times are recorded continuously and then transferred to computer memory by way of memory switch. The pulse profile is obtained by a special data processing method. A special circuit was developed and a low-level x-ray pulse profile measurement experiment system was setup. The arrival times of x-ray photon sequence can be consecutively recorded with a time resolution of 500 ps and the profile of x-ray pulse was constructed. The data also can be used for analysis by many other methods, such as statistical distribution of photon events per time interval, statistical distribution of time interval between two photon events, photon counting histogram, autocorrelation and higher order autocorrelation.

  15. Multichannel deconvolution of p waves at seismic arrays and three-component stations. Annual report, 1 October 1985-1 October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Der, Z.A.; Lees, A.C.; Shumway, R.H.; McElfresh, T.W.; Marshall, M.E.

    1986-10-30

    The results of a new multichannel method, applied to array recordings and three-component station networks for teleseismic P waves, are presented and interpreted in terms of possible surface reflections and other arrivals from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Novaya Zemlya, and Eastern Kazakh Test Site (EKTS) nuclear explosions. The deconvolution method utilizes the well known fact that P-wave spectra can be decomposed into source and receiver spectral factors. The source functions obtained in the deconvolution process provide a better picture of the nature of explosion source time functions and, in particular, of the presence or lack of secondary arrivals following the P wave such as pP or spall. The presence of such secondary arrivals and their effects on the first cycle of the P wave are very important in yield estimation. For most events at the eastern part of EKTS the source time functions appear to contain a pP arrival but they also show later, unexplained arrivals and other complexities. At other test sites often there are no clearly identifiable pP phases in the deconvolved traces. Joint deconvolution of central EKTS data using all AWRE arrays indicated strong azimuthal asymmetries in the body-wave radiation. Deconvolutions of NTS events were considerably degraded by the limited signal bandwidth due to strong mantle attenuation under this test site. The site functions are also complex in most cases. Site and source effects contribute about equally to the energy observed in the P codas of the events analyzed.

  16. Using Time-Varying Tolls to Optimize Truck Arrivals at Ports Xiaoming Chen

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Xuesong

    between truck turn times and crane availability/deployment at terminal yards, Huynh (2005) developed a simulation-based framework to model detailed movements of trucks and yard cranes. By further combiningUsing Time-Varying Tolls to Optimize Truck Arrivals at Ports Xiaoming Chen Department of Civil

  17. Idle and inter-arrival time statistics in public access mobile radio (PAMR) systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Barceló; Sergio Bueno

    1997-01-01

    The statistics of the message arrivals to a PAMR trunked system are investigated. The tools used to perform the statistical analysis have been previously used in similar works and are extremely simple. First, the probability density functions are fitted to the channel idle time (time between the end of a message and the beginning of the next one on the

  18. Changes in the timing of departure and arrival of Irish migrant waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Alison; Geyer, Heather; Yu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    There have been many recent reports across Europe and North America of a change in the timing of arrival and departure of a range of migrant bird species to their breeding grounds. These studies have focused primarily on passerine birds and climate warming has been found to be one of the main drivers of earlier arrival and departure in spring. In Ireland, rising spring temperature has been shown to result in the earlier arrival of sub-Saharan passerine species and the early departure of the Whooper Swan. In order to investigate changes in spring arrival and departure dates of waterbirds to Ireland, we extracted latest dates as an indicator of the timing of departure of winter visitors (24 species) and earliest dates as an indicator of the timing of arrival of spring/summer migrants (2 species) from BirdWatch Ireland's East Coast Bird reports (1980-2003). Three of the winter visitors showed evidence of later departure and one of earlier departure whereas one of the spring/summer visitors showed evidence of earlier arrival. In order to determine any influence of local temperature on these trends, we analysed data from two synoptic weather stations within the study area and found that spring (average February, March and April) air temperature significantly (P < 0.05) increased at a rate of 0.03 °C per year, which was strongly correlated with changes in latest and earliest records. We also tested the sensitivity of bird departure/arrival to temperature and found that Northern Pintail would leave 10 days earlier in response to a 1 °C increase in spring temperature. In addition, we investigated the impact of a large-scale circulation pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on the timing of arrival and departure which correlated with both advances and delays in departure and arrival. We conclude that the impact of climate change on earliest and latest records of these birds is, as expected, species specific and that local temperature had less of an influence than large-scale circulation patterns. PMID:25653907

  19. Validation of a priori CME arrival predictions made using real-time heliospheric imager observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker-Hood, Kimberley; Scott, Chris; Owens, Mathew; Jackson, David; Barnard, Luke; Davies, Jackie A.; Crothers, Steve; Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Savani, Neel P.; Wilkinson, J.; Harder, B.; Eriksson, G. M.; L Baeten, E. M.; Wan Wah, Lily Lau

    2015-01-01

    Between December 2010 and March 2013, volunteers for the Solar Stormwatch (SSW) Citizen Science project have identified and analyzed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the near real-time Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imager observations, in order to make "Fearless Forecasts" of CME arrival times and speeds at Earth. Of the 60 predictions of Earth-directed CMEs, 20 resulted in an identifiable Interplanetary CME (ICME) at Earth within 1.5-6 days, with an average error in predicted transit time of 22 h, and average transit time of 82.3 h. The average error in predicting arrival speed is 151 km s-1, with an average arrival speed of 425km s-1. In the same time period, there were 44 CMEs for which there are no corresponding SSW predictions, and there were 600 days on which there was neither a CME predicted nor observed. A number of metrics show that the SSW predictions do have useful forecast skill; however, there is still much room for improvement. We investigate potential improvements by using SSW inputs in three models of ICME propagation: two of constant acceleration and one of aerodynamic drag. We find that taking account of interplanetary acceleration can improve the average errors of transit time to 19 h and arrival speed to 77 km s-1.

  20. Real-time Upstream Monitoring System: Predicting interplanetary shock arrivals using energetic particle data from ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donegan, M. M.; Vandegriff, J.; Ho, G. C.; Wagstaff, K. L.

    2004-05-01

    We have created a system for predicting the arrival times at Earth of interplanetary (IP) shocks that originate at the Sun. Our prediction algorithm uses the real-time data stream from the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument on NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. Most IP shocks are accompanied by locally accelerated energetic storm particle (ESP) events; signatures of ESP events can be used to predict the arrival of IP shocks. We have previously reported on the development and implementation of an algorithm to forecast the arrival of IP shocks. This prediction capability is combined with a web-based system that uses real-time ACE/EPAM data provided by the NOAA Space Environment Center (http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/UPOS/RISP/index.html.) The most recent ACE data is continually processed and when an event is approaching, predictions of shock arrival time are updated every five minutes. Tests on the algorithm show an average error of ~9 hours for predictions made 24 hours before the shock arrival and ~5 hours when the shock is 12 hours away. This can provide significant lead-time and deliver critical information to mission planners, satellite operations controllers, and scientists. As of February 4, 2004, the ACE real-time stream has been switched to include data from another detector on EPAM. We are now processing the new real-time data stream and have made improvements to our neural network based on this data. In this paper, we report prediction results from this new network.

  1. Intrinsic and attenuative dispersion characteristics of direct P-waves in and near the source area of the 1999 M W 7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earth- quake before and after the mainshock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiqiang Liu; Chauhuei Chen; Yanwen Zhou; Junhao Qu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the measurement of the arrival time of maxima magnitude from band-pass filtering signals which were determined using\\u000a a new Morlet wavelet multiple-filter method, we develop a method for measuring intrinsic and attenuative dispersion of the\\u000a first cycle direct P-wave. We determine relative group delays of spectral components of direct P-waves for 984 ray paths from\\u000a SML and ALS

  2. Multiband Time-of-Arrival Positioning Technique for Cognitive Radio Systems

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    Multiband Time-of-Arrival Positioning Technique for Cognitive Radio Systems Robin R. Thomas, Bassem.knopp}@eurecom.fr Abstract--Accurate information regarding a cognitive radio user's location and environment can enhance the adaptive and spectral awareness capabilities of cognitive radio systems. In this paper, a single

  3. Optimal Time Advance In Terminal Area Arrivals: Throughput vs. Fuel Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V .; Swenson, Harry N.; Haskell, William B.; Rakas, Jasenka

    2011-01-01

    The current operational practice in scheduling air traffic arriving at an airport is to adjust flight schedules by delay, i.e. a postponement of an aircrafts arrival at a scheduled location, to manage safely the FAA-mandated separation constraints between aircraft. To meet the observed and forecast growth in traffic demand, however, the practice of time advance (speeding up an aircraft toward a scheduled location) is envisioned for future operations as a practice additional to delay. Time advance has two potential advantages. The first is the capability to minimize, or at least reduce, the excess separation (the distances between pairs of aircraft immediately in-trail) and thereby to increase the throughput of the arriving traffic. The second is to reduce the total traffic delay when the traffic sample is below saturation density. A cost associated with time advance is the fuel expenditure required by an aircraft to speed up. We present an optimal control model of air traffic arriving in a terminal area and solve it using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. The admissible controls allow time advance, as well as delay, some of the way. The cost function reflects the trade-off between minimizing two competing objectives: excess separation (negatively correlated with throughput) and fuel burn. A number of instances are solved using three different methods, to demonstrate consistency of solutions.

  4. Instate Travel Are departure and arrival times included on the travel expense statement?

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Instate Travel Are departure and arrival times included on the travel expense statement? Is expense attached? For overnight travel, are per diem rates on the day of departure and day of return listed at 75 utilized a personal vehicle for travel and departed from or returned to his/her personal residence

  5. The Use of Packet Inter-Arrival Times for Investigating Unsolicited Internet Traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Zimmermann; Andrew Clark; George M. Mohay; Fabien Pouget; Marc Dacier

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring the Internet reveals incessant activity, that has been referred to as background radiation. In this paper, we propose an original approach that makes use of packet inter-arrival times, or IATs, to analyse and identify such abnormal or unexpected network activity. Our study exploits a large set of data collected on a distributed network of honeypots during more than six

  6. Estimates of exposure rates and fallout arrival times near the Nevada Test Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol B. Thompson

    1990-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP) was to estimate doses to individuals resulting from exposure to fallout from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Dose estimates are based on estimates of the exposure rate 12 h post-detonation (H + 12) and the time of fallout arrival from events producing discernible fallout at

  7. Time of Arrival Estimation for WLAN Indoor Positioning Systems using Matrix Pencil Super Resolution Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali AASSIE ALI; A. S. OMAR

    The accuracy of prediction of time of arrival (TOA) in wireless local area networks (WLAN) is the most important parameter for indoor positioning systems. This paper presents the application of super resolution matrix pencil (MP) algorithm for TOA estimation for indoor positioning application. Also it presents the results of frequency sweep measurements of indoor channel for the WLAN IEEE 801.11

  8. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR TIME-DIFFERENCE-OF-ARRIVAL BASED LOCALIZATION

    E-print Network

    So, Hing-Cheung

    swarm optimization (PSO), an evolutionary search algorithm, to provide a robust and accurate solutionPARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR TIME-DIFFERENCE-OF-ARRIVAL BASED LOCALIZATION Kenneth W. K. Lui and broadly applied in many fields. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed

  9. Accurate seismic phase identification and arrival time picking of glacial icequakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. A.; Doyle, S. H.; Dow, C.; Kulessa, B.; Hubbard, A.

    2010-12-01

    A catastrophic lake drainage event was monitored continuously using an array of 6, 4.5 Hz 3 component geophones in the Russell Glacier catchment, Western Greenland. Many thousands of events and arrival time phases (e.g., P- or S-wave) were recorded, often with events occurring simultaneously but at different locations. In addition, different styles of seismic events were identified from 'classical' tectonic earthquakes to tremors usually observed in volcanic regions. The presence of such a diverse and large dataset provides insight into the complex system of lake drainage. One of the most fundamental steps in seismology is the accurate identification of a seismic event and its associated arrival times. However, the collection of such a large and complex dataset makes the manual identification of a seismic event and picking of the arrival time phases time consuming with variable results. To overcome the issues of consistency and manpower, a number of different methods have been developed including short-term and long-term averages, spectrograms, wavelets, polarisation analyses, higher order statistics and auto-regressive techniques. Here we propose an automated procedure which establishes the phase type and accurately determines the arrival times. The procedure combines a number of different automated methods to achieve this, and is applied to the recently acquired lake drainage data. Accurate identification of events and their arrival time phases are the first steps in gaining a greater understanding of the extent of the deformation and the mechanism of such drainage events. A good knowledge of the propagation pathway of lake drainage meltwater through a glacier will have significant consequences for interpretation of glacial and ice sheet dynamics.

  10. Erratum: Operational time of arrival in quantum phase space [Phys. Rev. A 60, 2689 (1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocha?ski, Piotr; Wódkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2000-02-01

    An operational time of arrival is introduced using a realistic position and momentum measurement scheme. The phase space measurement involves the dynamics of a quantum particle probed by a measuring device. For such a measurement an operational positive operator valued measure in phase space is introduced and investigated. In such an operational formalism a quantum mechanical time operator is constructed and analyzed. A phase space time and energy uncertainty relation is derived.

  11. Techniques for measuring arrival times of pulsar signals 1: DSN observations from 1968 to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, G. S.; Reichley, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques used in the ground based observations of pulsars are described, many of them applicable in a navigation scheme. The arrival times of the pulses intercepting Earth are measured at time intervals from a few days to a few months. Low noise, wide band receivers, amplify signals intercepted by 26 m, 34, and 64 m antennas. Digital recordings of total received signal power versus time are cross correlated with the appropriate pulse template.

  12. Monitoring molecular interactions using photon arrival-time interval distribution analysis

    DOEpatents

    Laurence, Ted A. (Livermore, CA); Weiss, Shimon (Los Angels, CA)

    2009-10-06

    A method for analyzing/monitoring the properties of species that are labeled with fluorophores. A detector is used to detect photons emitted from species that are labeled with one or more fluorophores and located in a confocal detection volume. The arrival time of each of the photons is determined. The interval of time between various photon pairs is then determined to provide photon pair intervals. The number of photons that have arrival times within the photon pair intervals is also determined. The photon pair intervals are then used in combination with the corresponding counts of intervening photons to analyze properties and interactions of the molecules including brightness, concentration, coincidence and transit time. The method can be used for analyzing single photon streams and multiple photon streams.

  13. Time-of-arrival estimation for E-OTD location in GERAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Fischer; Ari Kangas

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation for E-OTD location in a GSM\\/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) is described. To increase the number of available bursts for TOA estimation (and therefore increase the accuracy), the mobile can use bursts from all time slots. However, this requires that the TOA estimation algorithm is able to handle GMSK and 8PSK

  14. A Comparison of Center/TRACON Automation System and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Benefits from information sharing between an air traffic service provider and a major air carrier are evaluated. Aircraft arrival time schedules generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) were provided to the American Airlines System Operations Control Center in Fort Worth, Texas, during a field trial of a specialized CTAS display. A statistical analysis indicates that the CTAS schedules, based on aircraft trajectories predicted from real-time radar and weather data, are substantially more accurate than the traditional airline arrival time estimates, constructed from flight plans and en route crew updates. The improvement offered by CTAS is especially advantageous during periods of heavy traffic and substantial terminal area delay, allowing the airline to avoid large predictive errors with serious impact on the efficiency and profitability of flight operations.

  15. HF (high-frequency) absolute time of arrival sensing. Interim report, September 1981-May 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.B.

    1986-02-01

    In late 1980 questions arose concerning whether the ionosphere was sufficiently stable to allow precisely measured time of arrival of skywave signals to be used for geolocation in the high-frequency (HF) band between 2 and 32 MHz. The chief limitation in the accuracy of this type of system is the amount of uncertainty in the ionospheric-height estimation and its temporal stability. Traditional ionospheric research resources did not address the issue in sufficient detail and time resolution to be of any assistance. In order to understand the exact nature of the ionospheric uncertainties and to quantify their extent, experimentation was proposed to sense the variation in the refraction height of the ionosphere as it relates to the time of arrival of the HF signal. The objective of this work was to determine the range of environmentally induced errors in a skywave Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) measurement, thereby bounding the ultimate geolocation accuracy one could expect from this technique. The first experimental measurement system started operation in early 1981. This effort involved establishing a continuous absolute Time of Arrival (TOA) experiment over the one-hop midlatitude path between San Diego, California and Fort Collins, Colorado. The system is fully digital and stabilized with a cesium-beam standard. This work was supplemented with vertical incidence sounder data at both ends of the path, a collateral Doppler sensing system, and coincident satellite solar data. A fully annotated database was prepared and is maintained by the Naval Ocean Systems Center Advanced Propagation Forecasting System (PROPHET).

  16. Cerebral arterial bolus arrival time is prolonged in multiple sclerosis and associated with disability.

    PubMed

    Paling, David; Thade Petersen, Esben; Tozer, Daniel J; Altmann, Daniel R; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Kapoor, Raju; Miller, David H; Golay, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the overall cerebral hemodynamics have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, their cause and significance is unknown. While potential venous causes have been examined, arterial causes have not. In this study, a multiple delay time arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging sequence at 3T was used to quantify the arterial hemodynamic parameter bolus arrival time (BAT) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and deep gray matter in 33 controls and 35 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Bolus arrival time was prolonged in MS in NAWM (1.0±0.2 versus 0.9±0.2?seconds, P=0.031) and deep gray matter (0.90±0.18 versus 0.80±0.14?seconds, P=0.001) and CBF was increased in NAWM (14±4 versus 10±2?mL/100?g/min, P=0.001). Prolonged BAT in NAWM (P=0.042) and deep gray matter (P=0.01) were associated with higher expanded disability status score. This study demonstrates alteration in cerebral arterial hemodynamics in MS. One possible cause may be widespread inflammation. Bolus arrival time was longer in patients with greater disability independent of atrophy and T2 lesion load, suggesting alterations in cerebral arterial hemodynamics may be a marker of clinically relevant pathology. PMID:24045400

  17. Cerebral arterial bolus arrival time is prolonged in multiple sclerosis and associated with disability

    PubMed Central

    Paling, David; Thade Petersen, Esben; Tozer, Daniel J; Altmann, Daniel R; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia AM; Kapoor, Raju; Miller, David H; Golay, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the overall cerebral hemodynamics have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, their cause and significance is unknown. While potential venous causes have been examined, arterial causes have not. In this study, a multiple delay time arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging sequence at 3T was used to quantify the arterial hemodynamic parameter bolus arrival time (BAT) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and deep gray matter in 33 controls and 35 patients with relapsing–remitting MS. Bolus arrival time was prolonged in MS in NAWM (1.0±0.2 versus 0.9±0.2?seconds, P=0.031) and deep gray matter (0.90±0.18 versus 0.80±0.14?seconds, P=0.001) and CBF was increased in NAWM (14±4 versus 10±2?mL/100?g/min, P=0.001). Prolonged BAT in NAWM (P=0.042) and deep gray matter (P=0.01) were associated with higher expanded disability status score. This study demonstrates alteration in cerebral arterial hemodynamics in MS. One possible cause may be widespread inflammation. Bolus arrival time was longer in patients with greater disability independent of atrophy and T2 lesion load, suggesting alterations in cerebral arterial hemodynamics may be a marker of clinically relevant pathology. PMID:24045400

  18. AIMBAT: A Python/Matplotlib Tool for Measuring Teleseismic Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.; Lloyd, S.

    2013-12-01

    Python is an open-source, platform-independent, and object-oriented scripting language. It became more popular in the seismologist community since the appearance of ObsPy (Beyreuther et al. 2010, Megies et al. 2011), which provides a powerful framework for seismic data access and processing. This study introduces a new Python-based tool named AIMBAT (Automated and Interactive Measurement of Body-wave Arrival Times) for measuring teleseismic body-wave arrival times on large-scale seismic event data (Lou et al. 2013). Compared to ObsPy, AIMBAT is a lighter tool that is more focused on a particular aspect of seismic data processing. It originates from the widely used MCCC (Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation) method developed by VanDecar and Crosson (1990). On top of the original MCCC procedure, AIMBAT is automated in initial phase picking and is interactive in quality control. The core cross-correlation function is implemented in Fortran to boost up performance in addition to Python. The GUI (graphical user interface) of AIMBAT depends on Matplotlib's GUI-neutral widgets and event-handling API. A number of sorting and (de)selecting options are designed to facilitate the quality control of seismograms. By using AIMBAT, both relative and absolute teleseismic body-wave arrival times are measured. AIMBAT significantly improves efficiency and quality of the measurements. User interaction is needed only to pick the target phase arrival and to set a time window on the array stack. The package is easy to install and use, open-source, and is publicly available. Graphical user interface of AIMBAT.

  19. Crustal and upper mantle velocity structure beneath central Tibet by P-wave teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhao, Junmeng; Xu, Qiang

    2012-09-01

    A detailed 3-D P-wave velocity model beneath central Tibet was obtained using 26 741 arrival times from 1025 teleseismic events recorded by the portable stations of the Hi-CLIMB project. In the crustal correction, we consider both vertical and lateral velocity variations. Our teleseismic P-wave tomography result reveals that the Indian lithospheric mantle underthrusts no further than 32.5°N. In addition, the presence of low velocity anomalies under the Indus-Tsangpo suture suggests that subduction is not a simple and continuous process. We suggest that the delamination of Indian mantle lithosphere induces mantle upwelling beneath the rifts, which in turn created cracks or a break in the subducted plate. Moreover, the formation of active rifts near the profile is related to the mantle upwelling.

  20. Kilometer-wave type III burst - Harmonic emission revealed by direction and time of arrival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F. T.; Potter, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A type III solar burst was observed at seven frequencies between 3.5 MHz and 80 kHz by the Michigan experiment aboard the IMP-6 satellite. From the data burst direction of arrival as well as time of arrival can be determined. These quantities are predicted, using simple models whose parameters are varied to obtain a good fit to the observations. It is found that between 3.5 MHz and 230 kHz the observed radiation was emitted at the fundamental of the local plasma frequency, while below 230 kHz it was emitted at the second harmonic. The exciter particles that produced the burst onset and burst peak have velocities of 0.27 and 0.12, respectively, in units of the velocity of light.

  1. Acute stroke: why do some patients arrive in time and others do not?

    PubMed

    Soomann, Maarja; Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Janika

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors are associated with early hospital arrival and help-seeking delays in acute stroke. All consecutive eligible patients were interviewed face-to-face within 72?h of admission. Factors associated with early arrival were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. The data of 195 patients were analysed. The patients who first called the emergency medical services rather than the family physician arrived earlier (odds ratio 15.9, 95% confidence interval 3.23-78.3, P<0.01). Those who contacted the emergency medical services within 30?min of symptom onset were more likely to receive thrombolysis (odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence interval 2.6-18.4, P<0.01). The most common reasons for delaying seeking help were the hope for spontaneous recovery and perceiving the elapsed time as insignificant. The patients who call their family physician lose valuable time and their chance for thrombolysis. Many patients probably neglect symptoms because of stroke itself and therefore do not act fast enough. PMID:25222429

  2. Comparing seismic tomographic images from automatically- and manually-detected arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallarossa, Daniele; Scafidi, Davide; Turino, Chiara; Ferretti, Gabriele; Viganò, Alfio

    2013-04-01

    In this work we compare local earthquake tomographic images obtained using arrival times detected by an automatic picking procedure and by an expert seismologist. For this purpose we select a reference dataset composed of 476 earthquakes occurred in the Trentino region (north-eastern Italy) in the period 1994-2007. Local magnitudes are comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Original recordings are mainly from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), and from other networks operating in the surrounding areas (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The automatic picking of P and S phases is performed through a picker engine based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC). In particular, the proposed automatic phase picker includes: (i) envelope calculation, (ii) band-pass filtering, (iii) Akaike information criterion (AIC) detector for both P- and S-arrivals, (iv) checking for impulsive arrivals, (v) evaluation of expected S onset on the basis of a preliminary location derived from the P-arrival times, and (vi) quality assessment. Simultaneously, careful manual inspection by expert seismologists is applied to the same waveform dataset, to obtain manually-repicked phase readings. Both automatic and manual procedures generate a comparable amount of readings (about 6000 P- and 5000 S-phases). These data are used for the determination of two similar 3-D propagation models for the Trentino region, applying the SIMULPS code. In order to quantitatively estimate the difference of these two models we measure their discrepancies in terms of velocity at all grid points. The small differences observed among tomographic results allow us to demonstrate that the automatic picking engine adopted in this test can be used for reprocessing large amount of seismic recordings with the aim of perform a local tomographic study with an accuracy comparable to the one obtainable with a complete manual data revision.

  3. A bias-free quantum random number generation using photon arrival time selectively

    E-print Network

    Jian-min Wang; Tian-yu Xie; Hong-fei Zhang; Dong-xu Yang; Chao Xie; Jian Wang

    2015-05-20

    We present a high-quality, bias-free quantum random number generator (QRNG) using photon arrival time selectively in accordance with the number of photon detection events within a sampling time interval in attenuated light. It is well showed in both theoretical analysis and experiments verification that this random number production method eliminates both bias and correlation perfectly without more post processing and the random number can clearly pass the standard randomness tests. We fulfill theoretical analysis and experimental verification of the method whose rate can reach up to 45Mbps.

  4. Highly efficient arrival timing diagnostics for femtosecond X-ray and optical laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takahiro; Togashi, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Katayama, Tetsuo; Inubushi, Yuichi; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina

    2015-01-01

    We developed a diagnostic system for measuring the arrival timing between femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and near-infrared laser pulses with high efficiency. The ultrafast change in optical transmittance induced by intense XFEL light was probed by a spatial decoding technique. For enhancing detection efficiency, we utilized an X-ray elliptical mirror that increases X-ray intensity by forming a line-focused profile. We found that the system is applicable to the timing diagnostics for 12 keV X-ray pulses with a pulse energy as small as 12 µJ.

  5. Predicting Ambulance Time of Arrival to the Emergency Department Using Global Positioning System and Google Maps

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Ross J.; Lundquist, Mark; Jui, Jonathan; Newgard, Craig D.; Warden, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a model that accurately predicts ambulance arrival time that could be implemented as a Google Maps web application. Methods This was a retrospective study of all scene transports in Multnomah County, Oregon, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Scene and destination hospital addresses were converted to coordinates. ArcGIS Network Analyst was used to estimate transport times based on street network speed limits. We then created a linear regression model to improve the accuracy of these street network estimates using weather, patient characteristics, use of lights and sirens, daylight, and rush-hour intervals. The model was derived from a 50% sample and validated on the remainder. Significance of the covariates was determined by p < 0.05 for a t-test of the model coefficients. Accuracy was quantified by the proportion of estimates that were within 5 minutes of the actual transport times recorded by computer-aided dispatch. We then built a Google Maps-based web application to demonstrate application in real-world EMS operations. Results There were 48,308 included transports. Street network estimates of transport time were accurate within 5 minutes of actual transport time less than 16% of the time. Actual transport times were longer during daylight and rush-hour intervals and shorter with use of lights and sirens. Age under 18 years, gender, wet weather, and trauma system entry were not significant predictors of transport time. Our model predicted arrival time within 5 minutes 73% of the time. For lights and sirens transports, accuracy was within 5 minutes 77% of the time. Accuracy was identical in the validation dataset. Lights and sirens saved an average of 3.1 minutes for transports under 8.8 minutes, and 5.3 minutes for longer transports. Conclusions An estimate of transport time based only on a street network significantly underestimated transport times. A simple model incorporating few variables can predict ambulance time of arrival to the emergency department with good accuracy. This model could be linked to global positioning system data and an automated Google Maps web application to optimize emergency department resource use. Use of lights and sirens had a significant effect on transport times. PMID:23865736

  6. Crustal parameters estimated from P-waves of earthquakes recorded at a small array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, James N.; Steppe, J. Alan

    1980-09-01

    The P-arrival times of local and regional earthquakes that are outside of a small network of seismometers can be used to interpret crustal parameters beneath the network by employing the time-term technique. Even when the estimate of the refractor velocity is poorly determined, useful estimates of the station time-terms can be made. The method is applied to a 20 km diameter network of eight seismic stations which was operated near Castaic, California, during the winter of 1972 73. The stations were located in sedimentary basins. Beneath the network, the sedimentary rocks of the basins are known to range from 1 to more than 4 km in thickness. Relative time-terms are estimated from P-waves assumed to be propagated by a refractor in the mid-crust, and again from P-waves propagated by a refractor in the upper basement. For the range of velocities reported by others, the two sets of time-terms are very similar. They suggest that both refractors dip to the southwest, and the geology also indicates that the basement dips in this direction. In addition, the P-wave velocity estimated for the refractor of mid-crustal depths, roughly 6.7 km/sec, agrees with values reported by others. Thus, even in this region of complicated geologic structure, the method appears to give realistic results.

  7. Crustal parameters estimated from P-waves of earthquakes recorded at a small array

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, J.N.; Steppe, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The P-arrival times of local and regional earthquakes that are outside of a small network of seismometers can be used to interpret crustal parameters beneath the network by employing the time-term technique. Even when the estimate of the refractor velocity is poorly determined, useful estimates of the station time-terms can be made. The method is applied to a 20 km diameter network of eight seismic stations which was operated near Castaic, California, during the winter of 1972-73. The stations were located in sedimentary basins. Beneath the network, the sedimentary rocks of the basins are known to range from 1 to more than 4 km in thickness. Relative time-terms are estimated from P-waves assumed to be propagated by a refractor in the mid-crust, and again from P-waves propagated by a refractor in the upper basement. For the range of velocities reported by others, the two sets of time-terms are very similar. They suggest that both refractors dip to the southwest, and the geology also indicates that the basement dips in this direction. In addition, the P-wave velocity estimated for the refractor of mid-crustal depths, roughly 6.7 km/sec, agrees with values reported by others. Thus, even in this region of complicated geologic structure, the method appears to give realistic results. ?? 1980 Birkha??user Verlag.

  8. Analytical arrival and persistence time distributions for flow thresholds in seasonally dry climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems, which include Mediterranean, tropical monsoonal and tropical savannah climates, cover approximately 30% of the planet's land area and are globally significant biodiversity hotspots. Due to a highly variable climate, the streamflow available for ecosystems and ecosystems services in these regions is typified by large inter-annual variability. Methods to quantify this variability could shed light on stream ecosystem stress, particularly new stresses imposed by human activity or climate change. This study develops a probabilistic framework to examine controls on dry season flow characteristics in seasonally dry climates. Assuming a typical recession pattern, which is conditioned on an initial value that is sampled from the wet season flows [1,2], analytical PDFs for the arrival time of a given dry season flow threshold can be obtained. Below-flow-threshold persistence time distributions are computed as the difference between an (assumed) normally distributed dry season length and the mean flow threshold arrival time. A number of hypotheses are proposed to explain unexpected sources of variability in the empirical arrival time distributions. The ecologic implications of extended low flow persistence, such as the hydrologic fragmentation of lower order watersheds, are discussed. [1] Müller, M. F., D. N. Dralle, and S. E. Thompson (2014), Analytical model for flow duration curves in seasonally dry climates, Water Resour. Res., 50, doi:10.1002/2014WR015301 [2] Botter, G., A. Porporato, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, and A. Rinaldo (2007), Basin-scale soil moisture dynamics and the probabilistic characterization of carrier hydrologic flows: Slow, leaching-prone components of the hydrologic response, Water Resour. Res., 43, W02417, doi:10.1029/2006WR005043

  9. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Fujimaru, S.

    2012-12-01

    Time-of-arrival (TOA) analysis is applied to observations performed during ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. In 2012, a variety of ELF/VLF wave generation techniques were employed to identify the dominant source altitude for each case. Observations were performed for beat-wave modulation, AM modulation, STF modulation, ICD modulation, and cubic frequency modulation, among others. For each of these cases, we identify the dominant ELF/VLF source altitude and compare the experimental results with theoretical HF heating predictions.

  10. Processing advances for localization of beaked whales using time difference of arrival.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization of clicking Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) using an array of widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones. A set of signal and data processing advances are presented that together make reliable tracking a possibility. These advances include a species-specific detector, elimination of spurious time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) estimates, improved tracking of TDOA estimates, positive association of TDOA estimates using different hydrophone pairs, and joint localization of multiple whales. A key innovation in three of these advances is the principle of click-matching. The methods are demonstrated using real data. PMID:23742359

  11. Ziv-Zakai bound on time-of-arrival estimation with statistical channel knowledge at the receiver

    E-print Network

    Dardari, Davide

    Time-of-arrival (TOA) based localization plays an important role due to the possibility to exploit the fine delay resolution property when wideband signals are adopted. This paper investigates lower bounds on TOA estimation ...

  12. Comparative Study of Bunch Length And Arrival Time Measurements at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Schlarb, H.; Azima, A.; Dusterer, S.; Huning, M.; Knabbe, E.A.; Roehrs, M.; Rybnikov, V.; Schmidt, B.; Steffen, B.; /DESY; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC; Schmueser, P.; Winter, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2007-04-16

    Diagnostic devices to precisely measure the longitudinal electron beam profile and the bunch arrival time require elaborate new instrumentation techniques. At FLASH, two entirely different methods are used. The bunch profile can be determined with high precision by a transverse deflecting RF structure, but the method is disruptive and does not allow to monitor multiple bunches in a macro-pulse train. It is therefore complemented by two non-disruptive electrooptical devices, called EO and TEO. The EO setup uses a dedicated diagnostic laser synchronized to the machine RF. The longitudinal electron beam profile is encoded in the intensity profile of a chirped laser pulse and analyzed by looking at the spectral composition of the pulse. The second setup, TEO, utilizes the TiSa-based laser system used for pump-probe experiments. Here, the temporal electron shape is encoded into the spatial dimension of the laser pulse by an intersection angle between the laser and the electron beam at the EO-crystal. In this paper, we present a comparative study of bunch length and arrival time measurements performed simultaneously with all three experimental techniques.

  13. Real-time Upstream Monitoring System (RUMS): Forecasting arrival times of interplanetary shocks using energetic particle data from ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, G.; Donegan, M.; Vandegriff, J.; Wagstaff, K.

    We have created a system for predicting the arrival times at Earth of interplanetary (IP) shocks that originate at the Sun. This system is currently available on the web (http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/UPOS/RISP/index.html) and runs in real-time. Input data to our prediction algorithm is energetic particle data from the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument on NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. Real-time EPAM data is obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Space Environment Center (SEC). Our algorithm operates in two stages. First it watches for a velocity dispersion signature (energetic ions show flux enhancement followed by subsequent enhancements in lower energies), which is commonly seen upstream of a large IP shock. Once a precursor signature has been detected, a pattern recognition algorithm is used to analyze the time series profile of the particle data and generate an estimate for the shock arrival time. Tests on the algorithm show an average error of roughly 9 hours for predictions made 24 hours before the shock arrival and roughly 5 hours when the shock is 12 hours away. This can provide significant lead-time and deliver critical information to mission planners, satellite operations controllers, and scientists. As of February 4, 2004, the ACE real-time stream has been switched to include data from another detector on EPAM. We are now processing the new real-time data stream and have made improvements to our algorithm based on this data. In this paper, we report prediction results from the updated algorithm.

  14. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10...departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? You must record...record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim when your travel...

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10...departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? You must record...record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim when your travel...

  16. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10...departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? You must record...record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim when your travel...

  17. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  18. High Bandwidth Pickup Design for Bunch Arrival-time Monitors for Free-Electron Laser

    E-print Network

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Hansli, Matthias; Penirschke, Andreas; Schnepp, Sascha M; Bousonville, Michael; Schlarb, Holger; Bock, Marie Kristin; Weiland, Thomas; Jakoby, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and realization of high bandwidth pickup electrodes with a cutoff frequency above 40 GHz. The proposed cone-shaped pickups are part of a bunch arrival-time monitor (BAM) designed for high (> 500 pC) and low (20 pC) bunch charge operation mode providing for a time resolution of less than 10 fs for both operation modes. The proposed design has a fast voltage response, low ringing, and a resonance-free spectrum. For assessing the influence of manufacturing tolerances on the performance of the pickups, an extensive tolerance study has been performed via numerical simulations. A non-hermetic model of the pickups was built for measurement and validation purposes. The measurement and simulation results are in good agreement and demonstrate the capability of the proposed pickup system to meet the given specifications.

  19. Relaxing the closure assumption in single-season occupancy models: staggered arrival and departure times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, William L.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    Occupancy statistical models that account for imperfect detection have proved very useful in several areas of ecology, including species distribution and spatial dynamics, disease ecology, and ecological responses to climate change. These models are based on the collection of multiple samples at each of a number of sites within a given season, during which it is assumed the species is either absent or present and available for detection while each sample is taken. However, for some species, individuals are only present or available for detection seasonally. We present a statistical model that relaxes the closure assumption within a season by permitting staggered entry and exit times for the species of interest at each site. Based on simulation, our open model eliminates bias in occupancy estimators and in some cases increases precision. The power to detect the violation of closure is high if detection probability is reasonably high. In addition to providing more robust estimation of occupancy, this model permits comparison of phenology across sites, species, or years, by modeling variation in arrival or departure probabilities. In a comparison of four species of amphibians in Maryland we found that two toad species arrived at breeding sites later in the season than a salamander and frog species, and departed from sites earlier.

  20. Gluon fragmentation into P wave heavy quarkonium

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, Eric; Yuan, Tzu Chiang

    1994-03-01

    The fragmentation functions for gluons to split into P-wave heavy quarkonium states are calculated to leading order in the QCD coupling constant. Long-distance effects are factored into two nonperturbative parameters: the derivative of the radial wavefunction at the origin and a second parameter related to the probability for a heavy-quark-antiquark pair that is produced in a color-octet S-wave state to form a color-singlet P-wave bound state. The fragmentation probabilities for a high transverse momentum gluon to split into the P-wave charmonium states \\chi_{c0}, \\chi_{c1}, and \\chi_{c2} are estimated to be 0.4 \\times 10^{-4}, 1.8 \\times 10^{-4}, and 2.4 \\times 10^{-4}, respectively. This fragmentation process may account for a significant fraction of the rate for the inclusive production of \\chi_{cJ} at large transverse momentum in p \\bar p colliders.

  1. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Bionta, M R; Hartmann, N; Weaver, M; French, D; Nicholson, D J; Cryan, J P; Glownia, J M; Baker, K; Bostedt, C; Chollet, M; Ding, Y; Fritz, D M; Fry, A R; Kane, D J; Krzywinski, J; Lemke, H T; Messerschmidt, M; Schorb, S; Zhu, D; White, W E; Coffee, R N

    2014-08-01

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10-100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for "measure-and-sort" at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses. PMID:25173255

  2. Statistical analysis of inter-arrival times of rainfall events for Italian Sub-Alpine and Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, C.; Baiamonte, G.; Cammalleri, C.; Cat Berro, D.; Ferraris, S.; Mercalli, L.

    2012-09-01

    In this work a set of time-series of inter-arrival times of rainfall events, at daily scale, was analysed, with the aim to verify the issue of increasing duration of dry periods. The set consists of 12 time-series recorded at rain gauges in 1926-2005, six of them belong to an Italian Sub-Alpine area (Piedmont) and six to a Mediterranean one (Sicily). In order to overcome the problem related to limited sample size for high values of inter-arrival times, the discrete probability polylog-series distribution was used to fit the empirical data from partial (20 yr) time-series. Moreover, a simple qualitative trend analysis was applied to some high quantiles of inter-arrival times as well as to the average extent of rain clusters. The preliminary analysis seems to confirm the issue of increasing duration of dry periods for both environments, which is limited to the "cold" season.

  3. Constrained Optimization of Average Arrival Time via a Probabilistic Approach to Transport Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Dunbar, Michelle; Ghaderi, Hadi; Mokhtarian, Payam

    2015-01-01

    To achieve greater transit-time reduction and improvement in reliability of transport services, there is an increasing need to assist transport planners in understanding the value of punctuality; i.e. the potential improvements, not only to service quality and the consumer but also to the actual profitability of the service. In order for this to be achieved, it is important to understand the network-specific aspects that affect both the ability to decrease transit-time, and the associated cost-benefit of doing so. In this paper, we outline a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed changes to average transit-time, so as to determine the optimal choice of average arrival time subject to desired punctuality levels whilst simultaneously minimizing operational costs. We model the service transit-time variability using a truncated probability density function, and simultaneously compare the trade-off between potential gains and increased service costs, for several commonly employed cost-benefit functions of general form. We formulate this problem as a constrained optimization problem to determine the optimal choice of average transit time, so as to increase the level of service punctuality, whilst simultaneously ensuring a minimum level of cost-benefit to the service operator. PMID:25992902

  4. Measuring pulse times of arrival from broad-band pulsar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Desvignes, G.; Cognard, I.; Stappers, B. W.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Lee, K. J.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Karuppusamy, R.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, instrumentation enabling pulsar observations with unprecedentedly high fractional bandwidth has been under development which can be used to substantially improve the precision of pulsar timing experiments. The traditional template-matching method used to calculate pulse times of arrival (ToAs) may not function effectively on these broad-band data due to a variety of effects such as diffractive scintillation in the interstellar medium, profile variation as a function of frequency, dispersion measure (DM) evolution, and so forth. In this paper, we describe the channelized discrete Fourier transform method that can greatly mitigate the influence of the aforementioned effects when measuring ToAs from broad-band timing data. The method is tested on simulated data, and its potential in improving timing precision is shown. We further apply the method to PSR J1909-3744 data collected at the Nançay Radio Telescope with the Nançay Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument. We demonstrate removal of systematics due to the scintillation effect as well as improvement on ToA measurement uncertainties. Our method also determines temporal variations in DM, which are consistent with multichannel timing approaches used earlier.

  5. Analysis of small intestinal transit and colon arrival times of non-disintegrating tablets administered in the fasted state.

    PubMed

    Pišlar, Mitja; Brelih, Hana; Mrhar, Aleš; Bogataj, Marija

    2015-07-30

    In this study individual data on tablet gastrointestinal transit times (i.e. gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, ileocecal junction residence, and colon arrival times) were obtained from literature in order to present and analyze their distributions and relationships. The influence of the time of food intake after tablet administration in fasted state on gastrointestinal transit times was additionally evaluated. There were 114 measurements from subjects who received the first meal at 4h after tablet administration. Approximately 32% of the tablets arrived into the colon before the meal intake at 4h. An evident increase in the frequency of colon arrival of tablets within 40min after the meal intake at 4h post-dose was observed, where approximately 39% of all tablets arrived into the colon. This is in accordance with findings described in literature where a meal ingested several hours post-dose accelerates tablet transit through the terminal ileum and shortens the transit through the small intestine. The median (min, max) of gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colon arrival times in the group where the first meal intake was at 4h post-dose is 35 (0,192), 215 (60,544), and 254 (117,604) minutes, respectively. The dependence of colon arrival times on gastric emptying times was described by the nonparametric regression curve, and compared with the presumed interval of colon arrival times, calculated by summation of observed gastric emptying times and frequently cited small intestinal transit time interval, i.e. 3-4h. For shorter gastric emptying times the trend of colon arrival times was within the presumed interval. At short gastric emptying times many observation points are also within the presumed interval since this interval coincides with short period after meal intake at 4h post-dose. Additionally, in numerous occasions relatively long ileocecal junction residence times were obtained, which may be important information from the point of view of drug absorption. The findings of gastrointestinal transit times are important and should be taken into consideration when predicting the in vivo performance of dosage forms after oral administration. PMID:25769525

  6. Priority effects of time of arrival of plant functional groups override sowing interval or density effects: a grassland experiment.

    PubMed

    von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Rascher, Uwe; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Plückers, Christine; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Temperton, Vicky M

    2014-01-01

    Priority effects occur when species that arrive first in a habitat significantly affect the establishment, growth, or reproduction of species arriving later and thus affect functioning of communities. However, we know little about how the timing of arrival of functionally different species may alter structure and function during assembly. Even less is known about how plant density might interact with initial assembly. In a greenhouse experiment legumes, grasses or forbs were sown a number of weeks before the other two plant functional types were sown (PFT) in combination with a sowing density treatment. Legumes, grasses or non-legume forbs were sown first at three different density levels followed by sowing of the remaining PFTs after three or six-weeks. We found that the order of arrival of different plant functional types had a much stronger influence on aboveground productivity than sowing density or interval between the sowing events. The sowing of legumes before the other PFTs produced the highest aboveground biomass. The larger sowing interval led to higher asymmetric competition, with highest dominance of the PFT sown first. It seems that legumes were better able to get a head-start and be productive before the later groups arrived, but that their traits allowed for better subsequent establishment of non-legume PFTs. Our study indicates that the manipulation of the order of arrival can create priority effects which favour functional groups of plants differently and thus induce different assembly routes and affect community composition and functioning. PMID:24497995

  7. Measurement of arrival time of particles in extensive air showers using TDC32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Christiansen, J.; Hayashi, Y.; Jain, A.; Mohanty, P. K.; Ravindran, K. C.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2013-04-01

    Arrival time of particles in an extensive air shower (EAS) is a key physical parameter to determine its direction. EAS direction is useful for studies of anisotropy and composition of cosmic rays, and search for multi-TeV ?-rays sources. Accurate timing may be used to search exotic phenomena such as production of new particles at extremely high energies available during early stages of development of EAS and also for detecting sub-relativistic hadrons in EAS. Time to digital converters (TDCs) are used to perform this task. Traditional TDCs operate in the START-STOP mode with limited dynamic range and single-hit capability. With the advent of high luminosity collider LHC, need for TDCs with large dynamic range, multi-hit capability and TRIGGERED mode of operation became necessary. A 32 channel TDC was designed for the GRAPES-3 experiment on a CAMAC platform around TDC32, an ASIC developed by micro-electronics group at CERN, Geneva. Four modules were operated in the GRAPES-3 experiment. Here, we present details of the circuit design and their performance over several years. The multi-hit feature of this device was used to study the time structure of particles in the EAS on time scale of ~1 ?s. The distribution of time intervals in the multi-hit data shows an exponential profile with a time constant of ~370 ns. These delayed particles are likely to be neutrons produced in the EAS core that were recorded in the scintillator detectors following the relativistic EAS front.

  8. The NANOGrav Nine-year Data Set: Observations, Arrival Time Measurements, and Analysis of 37 Millisecond Pulsars

    E-print Network

    Arzoumanian, Z; Burke-Spolaor, S; Chamberlin, S; Chatterjee, S; Christy, B; Cordes, J M; Cornish, N; Crowter, K; Demorest, P B; Dolch, T; Ellis, J A; Ferdman, R D; Fonseca, E; Garver-Daniels, N; Gonzalez, M E; Jenet, F A; Jones, G; Jones, M; Kaspi, V M; Koop, M; Lazio, T J W; Lam, M T; Levin, L; Lommen, A N; Lorimer, D R; Luo, J; Lynch, R S; Madison, D; McLaughlin, M A; McWilliams, S T; Nice, D J; Palliyaguru, N; Pennucci, T T; Ransom, S M; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stinebring, D R; Stovall, K; Swiggum, J K; Vallisneri, M; van Haasteren, R; Wang, Y; Zhu, W

    2015-01-01

    We present high-precision timing observations spanning up to nine years for 37 millisecond pulsars monitored with the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project. We describe the observational and instrumental setups used to collect the data, and methodology applied for calculating pulse times of arrival; these include novel methods for measuring instrumental offsets and characterizing low signal-to-noise ratio timing results. The time of arrival data are fit to a physical timing model for each source, including terms that characterize time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-dependent pulse shape evolution. In conjunction with the timing model fit, we have performed a Bayesian analysis of a parameterized timing noise model for each source, and detect evidence for time-correlated "red" signals in 10 of the pulsars. Subsequent papers in this series will present further analysis of this data set aimed at detecting o...

  9. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a research and development effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar./Mars rovers and astronauts during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. U IATB impulse radio (UWB-IR) technology is exploited in the design and implementation of the prototype location and tracking system. A three-dimensional (3D) proximity tracking prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Time-Difference- Of-Arrival (TDOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. The TDOA tracking algorithm is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. Simulations show that the TDOA algorithm can achieve the fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA estimates for close-in tracking. Field tests demonstrated that this prototype UWB TDOA High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System is feasible for providing positioning-awareness information in a 3D space to a robotic control system. This 3D tracking system is developed for a robotic control system in a facility called "Moonyard" at Honeywell Defense & System in Arizona under a Space Act Agreement.

  10. Joint microseismic location and anisotropic tomography using differential arrival times and differential backazimuths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junlun; Zhang, Haijiang; Rodi, William L.; Toksoz, M. Nafi

    2013-12-01

    We develop a new method to locate microseismic events induced by hydraulic fracturing with simultaneous anisotropic tomography, using differential arrival times and differential backazimuths. Compared to the existing double-difference method, our method incorporates backazimuth information to better constrain microseismic locations in the case of downhole linear seismic arrays used for monitoring induced seismicity. The tomography is constrained to a 1-D layered VTI (transversely isotropic structure with a vertical symmetry axis) structure to improve inversion stability given the limited passive seismic data. We derive analytical sensitivities for the elastic moduli (Cij) and layer thickness L, and verify the analytical results with numerical calculations. The forward modelled traveltimes and sensitivities are all calculated analytically without weak anisotropy assumption. By incorporating the relative information among events, the extended double-difference method can provide better relative locations for events and, therefore, can characterize the fractures with higher accuracy. In the two tests with synthetic data, our method provides more accurate relative locations than the traditional methods, which only use absolute information. With fast speed and high accuracy, our inversion scheme is suitable for real-time microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing.

  11. Wavepacket approach to particle diffraction by thin targets: Quantum trajectories and arrival times

    E-print Network

    C. Efthymiopoulos; N. Delis; G. Contopoulos

    2011-11-30

    We develop a wavepacket approach to the diffraction of charged particles by a thin material target and we use the de Broglie-Bohm quantum trajectories to study various phenomena in this context. We find the form of the separator, i.e.the limit between the domains of prevalence of the ingoing and outgoing quantum flow. The structure of the quantum-mechanical currents in the neighborhood of the separator implies the formation of an array of \\emph{quantum vortices} (nodal point - X point complexes). We show how the deformation of the separatior near Bragg angles explains the emergence of a diffraction pattern by the de Broglie - Bohm trajectories. We calculate the arrival time distributions for particles scattered at different angles. The predictions of the de Broglie - Bohm theory for $\\Delta T$ turn to be different from estimates of the same quantity using other theories on time observables like the sum-over-histories or the Kijowski approach. We propose an experimental setup aiming to test such predictions. Finally, we explore the semiclassical limit of short wavelength and short quantum coherence lengths, and demonstrate how, in this case, results with the de Broglie - Bohm trajectories are similar to the classical results of Rutherford scattering.

  12. Upper mantle seismic velocity anomaly beneath southern Taiwan as revealed by teleseismic relative arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Fei; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Chiao, Ling-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Probing the lateral heterogeneity of the upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath southern and central Taiwan is critical to understanding the local tectonics and orogeny. A linear broadband array that transects southern Taiwan, together with carefully selected teleseismic sources with the right azimuth provides useful constraints. They are capable of differentiating the lateral heterogeneity along the profile with systematic coverage of ray paths. We implement a scheme based on the genetic algorithm to simultaneously determine the relative delayed times of the teleseismic first arrivals of array data. The resulting patterns of the delayed times systematically vary as a function of the incident angle. Ray tracing attributes the observed variations to a high velocity anomaly dipping east in the mantle beneath the southeast of Taiwan. Combining the ray tracing analysis and a pseudo-spectral method to solve the 2-D wave propagations, we determine the extent of the anomaly that best fits the observations via the forward grid search. The east-dipping fast anomaly in the upper mantle beneath the southeast of Taiwan agrees with the results from several previous studies and indicates that the nature of the local ongoing arc-continent collision is likely characterized by the thin-skinned style.

  13. Evaluation of Operational Procedures for Using a Time-Based Airborne Inter-arrival Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Abbott, Terence S.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2002-01-01

    An airborne tool has been developed based on the concept of an aircraft maintaining a time-based spacing interval from the preceding aircraft. The Advanced Terminal Area Approach Spacing (ATAAS) tool uses Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) aircraft state data to compute a speed command for the ATAAS-equipped aircraft to obtain a required time interval behind another aircraft. The tool and candidate operational procedures were tested in a high-fidelity, full mission simulator with active airline subject pilots flying an arrival scenario using three different modes for speed control. The objectives of this study were to validate the results of a prior Monte Carlo analysis of the ATAAS algorithm and to evaluate the concept from the standpoint of pilot acceptability and workload. Results showed that the aircraft was able to consistently achieve the target spacing interval within one second (the equivalent of approximately 220 ft at a final approach speed of 130 kt) when the ATAAS speed guidance was autothrottle-coupled, and a slightly greater (4-5 seconds), but consistent interval with the pilot-controlled speed modes. The subject pilots generally rated the workload level with the ATAAS procedure as similar to that with standard procedures, and also rated most aspects of the procedure high in terms of acceptability. Although pilots indicated that the head-down time was higher with ATAAS, the acceptability of head-down time was rated high. Oculometer data indicated slight changes in instrument scan patterns, but no significant change in the amount of time spent looking out the window between the ATAAS procedure versus standard procedures.

  14. Fault zone structure determined through the analysis of earthquake arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Michelini, A.

    1991-10-01

    This thesis develops and applies a technique for the simultaneous determination of P and S wave velocity models and hypocenters from a set of arrival times. The velocity models are parameterized in terms of cubic B-splines basis functions which permit the retrieval of smooth models that can be used directly for generation of synthetic seismograms using the ray method. In addition, this type of smoothing limits the rise of instabilities related to the poor resolving power of the data. V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratios calculated from P and S models display generally instabilities related to the different ray-coverages of compressional and shear waves. However, V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratios are important for correct identification of rock types and this study introduces a new methodology based on adding some coupling (i.e., proportionality) between P and S models which stabilizes the V{sub P}/V{sub S} models around some average preset value determined from the data. Tests of the technique with synthetic data show that this additional coupling regularizes effectively the resulting models.

  15. Annual variation in arrival and departure times of carrion insects at carcasses: implications for succession studies in forensic entomology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Archer

    2003-01-01

    A succession of insect species associate with decaying bodies, and because of the relatively predictable arrival and departure times of many species, this process is routinely used to estimate minimum post-mortem interval. Corpse fauna are compared with baseline data on succession rates, which are usually taken from decomposing animal carcasses. Baseline data are traditionally collected over a single year only;

  16. Possibility of Detecting Moons of Pulsar Planets Through Time-of-Arrival Analysis

    E-print Network

    Karen M. Lewis; Penny D. Sackett; Rosemary A. Mardling

    2008-05-28

    The perturbation caused by planet-moon binarity on the time-of-arrival signal of a pulsar with an orbiting planet is derived for the case in which the orbits of the moon and the planet-moon barycenter are both circular and coplanar. The signal consists of two sinusoids with frequency (2n_p - 3n_b) and (2n_p - n_b ), where n_p and n_b are the mean motions of the planet and moon around their barycenter, and the planet-moon system around the host, respectively. The amplitude of the signal is equal to the fraction sin I[9(M_p M_m)/16(M_p + M_m)^2] [r/R]^5 of the system crossing time R/c, where M_p and M_m are the the masses of the planet and moon, r is their orbital separation, R is the distance between the host pulsar and planet-moon barycenter, I is the inclination of the orbital plane of the planet, and c is the speed of light. The analysis is applied to the case of PSR B1620-26 b, a pulsar planet, to constrain the orbital separation and mass of any possible moons. We find that a stable moon orbiting this pulsar planet could be detected, if the moon had a separation of about one fiftieth of that of the orbit of the planet around the pulsar, and a mass ratio to the planet of ~5% or larger.

  17. The Great "Non-Event" of 7 January 2014: Challenges in CME Arrival Time and Geomagnetic Storm Strength Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, M. L.; Thompson, B. J.; Jian, L.; Evans, R. M.; Savani, N.; Odstrcil, D.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Richardson, I. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present a case study of the 7 January 2014 event in order to highlight current challenges in space weather forecasting of CME arrival time and geomagnetic storm strength. On 7 January 2014 an X1.2 flare and CME with a radial speed ~2400 km/s was observed from active region 11943. The flaring region was only ten degrees southwest of disk center with extensive dimming south of the active region and preliminary analysis indicated a fairly rapid arrival at Earth (~36 hours). Of the eleven forecasting groups world-wide who participated in CCMC's Space Weather Scoreboard (http://kauai.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/SWScoreBoard), nine predicted early arrivals and six predicted dramatic geomagnetic storm impacts (Kp predictions ranged from 6 to 9). However, the CME only had a glancing blow arrival at Earth - Kp did not rise above 3 and there was no geomagnetic storm. What happened? One idea is that the large coronal hole to the northeast of the active region could have deflected the CME. This coronal hole produced a high speed stream near Earth reaching an uncommon speed of 900 km/s four days after the observed CME arrival. However, no clear CME deflection was observed in the outer coronagraph fields of view (~5-20Rs) where CME measurements are derived to initiate models, therefore deflection seems unlikely. Another idea is the effect of the CME flux rope orientation with respect to Earth orbit. We show that using elliptical major and minor axis widths obtained by GCS fitting for the initial CME parameters in ENLIL would have improved the forecast to better reflect the observed glancing blow in-situ signature. We also explore the WSA-ENLIL+Cone simulations, the background solar wind solution, and compare with the observed CME arrival at Venus (from Venus Express) and Earth.

  18. `Inter-Arrival Time' Inspired Algorithm and its Application in Clustering and Molecular Phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolekar, Pandurang S.; Kale, Mohan M.; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila

    2010-10-01

    Bioinformatics, being multidisciplinary field, involves applications of various methods from allied areas of Science for data mining using computational approaches. Clustering and molecular phylogeny is one of the key areas in Bioinformatics, which help in study of classification and evolution of organisms. Molecular phylogeny algorithms can be divided into distance based and character based methods. But most of these methods are dependent on pre-alignment of sequences and become computationally intensive with increase in size of data and hence demand alternative efficient approaches. `Inter arrival time distribution' (IATD) is a popular concept in the theory of stochastic system modeling but its potential in molecular data analysis has not been fully explored. The present study reports application of IATD in Bioinformatics for clustering and molecular phylogeny. The proposed method provides IATDs of nucleotides in genomic sequences. The distance function based on statistical parameters of IATDs is proposed and distance matrix thus obtained is used for the purpose of clustering and molecular phylogeny. The method is applied on a dataset of 3' non-coding region sequences (NCR) of Dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3), subtype III, reported in 2008. The phylogram thus obtained revealed the geographical distribution of DENV-3 isolates. Sri Lankan DENV-3 isolates were further observed to be clustered in two sub-clades corresponding to pre and post Dengue hemorrhagic fever emergence groups. These results are consistent with those reported earlier, which are obtained using pre-aligned sequence data as an input. These findings encourage applications of the IATD based method in molecular phylogenetic analysis in particular and data mining in general.

  19. Arterial spin labelling reveals prolonged arterial arrival time in idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bachari, Sarah; Parkes, Laura M.; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Hanby, Martha F.; Tharaken, Vivek; Leroi, Iracema; Emsley, Hedley C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, yet effective disease modifying treatments are still lacking. Neurodegeneration involves multiple interacting pathological pathways. The extent to which neurovascular mechanisms are involved is not well defined in IPD. We aimed to determine whether novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including arterial spin labelling (ASL) quantification of cerebral perfusion, can reveal altered neurovascular status (NVS) in IPD. Fourteen participants with IPD (mean ± SD age 65.1 ± 5.9 years) and 14 age and cardiovascular risk factor matched control participants (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 4.2 years) underwent a 3T MRI scan protocol. ASL images were collected before, during and after a 6 minute hypercapnic challenge. FLAIR images were used to determine white matter lesion score. Quantitative images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) were calculated from the ASL data both at rest and during hypercapnia. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) images were calculated, depicting the change in CBF and AAT relative to the change in end-tidal CO2. A significant (p = 0.005) increase in whole brain averaged baseline AAT was observed in IPD participants (mean ± SD age 1532 ± 138 ms) compared to controls (mean ± SD age 1335 ± 165 ms). Voxel-wise analysis revealed this to be widespread across the brain. However, there were no statistically significant differences in white matter lesion score, CBF, or CVR between patients and controls. Regional CBF, but not AAT, in the IPD group was found to correlate positively with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores. These findings provide further evidence of alterations in NVS in IPD. PMID:25379411

  20. Search for NonRandom Features in Arrival Time Series of Air Showers Observed at Mt.Chacaltaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ochi; H. Aoki; K. Hashimoto; K. Honda; N. Inoue; N. Kawasumi; N. Ohmori; A. Ohsawa; K. Shinozaki; M. Tamada; I. Tsushima; K. Yokoi; C. Aguirre; N. Martinic; R. Ticona

    2003-01-01

    Using arrival time series of air showers observed at Mt. Chacaltaya during 1991-1995, we have performed a time series analysis to search for non-random features of UHE cosmic rays. The location of the Chacaltaya air shower array (5200m a.s.l. and in the Southern hemisphere) is expected to reveal new asp ects of UHE cosmic rays which cannot be observed by

  1. YO{exclamation_point} - A Time-of-Arrival Receiver for Removal of Femtosecond Helicity-Correlated Beam Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Musson, J.; Allison, T.; Freyberger, A. [TJNAF, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kuhn, J.; Quinn, B. [Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2004-11-10

    The G0 parity violation experiment at Jefferson Lab is based on time-of-flight measurements, and is sensitive to timing effects between the two electron helicity states of the beam. Photon counters triggered by time-of-arrival at the target mandate that timing must be independent of delays associated with different orbits taken by the two helicity states. In addition, the standard 499 MHz beam structure is altered such that 1 of every 16 microbunches are filled, resulting in an arrival frequency of 31.1875 (31) MHz, and an average current of 40 {mu}A. Helicity correction involves identifying and tracking the 31 MHz sub-harmonic, applying a fast/fine phase correction, and finally producing a clean 31 MHz trigger and a 499 MHz clock train. These signals are phase-matched to the beam arrival at the target on the order of femtoseconds. The 10 kHz output bandwidth is sufficiently greater than the 30 Hz helicity flip settling time (500 {mu}s). This permits the system to correct each helicity bin for any orbit-induced timing inequalities. A sampling phase detection scheme is used in order to eliminate the unavoidable 2n/n phase shifts associated with frequency dividers. Conventional receiver architecture and DSP techniques are combined for maximum sensitivity, bandwidth, and flexibility. Results of bench tests, commissioning and production data will be presented.

  2. YO!-A Time-of-Arrival Receiver for Removal of Femtosecond Helicity-Correlated Beam Effects

    SciTech Connect

    John Musson; Trent Allison; Arne Freyberger; Joachim Kuhn; Brian Quinn

    2004-05-02

    The G0 parity violation experiment at Jefferson Lab is based on time-of-flight measurements, and is sensitive to timing effects between the two electron helicity states of the beam. Photon counters triggered by time-of-arrival at the target mandate that timing must be independent of delays associated with different orbits taken by the two helicity states. In addition, the standard 499 MHz beam structure is altered such that 1 of every 16 microbunches are filled, resulting in an arrival frequency of 31.1875 (31) MHz, and an average current of 40 {micro}A. Helicity correction involves identifying and tracking the 31 MHz subharmonic, applying a fast/fine phase correction, and finally producing a clean 31 MHz trigger and a 499 MHz clock train. These signals are phase-matched to the beam arrival at the target on the order of femtoseconds. The 10 kHz output bandwidth is sufficiently greater than the 30 Hz helicity flip settling time (500 {micro}s). This permits the system to correct each helicity bin for any orbit-induced timing inequalities. A sampling phase detection scheme is used in order to eliminate the unavoidable 2n/n phase shifts associated with frequency dividers. Conventional receiver architecture and DSP techniques are combined for maximum sensitivity, bandwidth, and flexibility. Results of bench tests, commissioning and production data will be presented.

  3. Pulse arrival time is not an adequate surrogate for pulse transit time as a marker of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanqun; Gao, Mingwu; Xu, Da; Olivier, N Bari; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2011-12-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is a proven, simple to measure, marker of blood pressure (BP) that could potentially permit continuous, noninvasive, and cuff-less BP monitoring (after an initial calibration). However, pulse arrival time (PAT), which is equal to the sum of PTT and the pre-ejection period, is gaining popularity for BP tracking, because it is even simpler to measure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that PAT is an adequate surrogate for PTT as a marker of BP. PAT and PTT were estimated through the aorta using high-fidelity invasive arterial waveforms obtained from six dogs during wide BP changes induced by multiple interventions. These time delays and their reciprocals were evaluated in terms of their ability to predict diastolic, mean, and systolic BP (DBP, MBP, and SBP) per animal. The root mean squared error (RMSE) between the BP parameter predicted via the time delay and the measured BP parameter was specifically used as the evaluation metric. Taking the reciprocals of the time delays tended to reduce the RMSE values. The DBP, MBP, and SBP RMSE values for 1/PAT were 9.8 ± 5.2, 10.4 ± 5.6, and 11.9 ± 6.1 mmHg, whereas the corresponding values for 1/PTT were 5.3 ± 1.2, 4.8 ± 1.0, and 7.5 ± 2.2 mmHg (P < 0.05). Thus tracking BP via PAT was not only markedly worse than via PTT but also unable to meet the FDA BP error limits. In contrast to previous studies, our results quantitatively indicate that PAT is not an adequate surrogate for PTT in terms of detecting challenging BP changes. PMID:21960657

  4. P-wave Receiver Functions reveal the Bohemian Massif crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampfova Exnerova, Hana; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek

    2015-04-01

    In this study we present initial results of P-wave Receiver Functions (RF) calculated from broad-band waveforms of teleseismic events recorded by temporary and permanent stations in the Bohemian Massif (BM, Central Europe). Temporary arrays BOHEMA I (2001-2003), BOHEMA II (2004-2005) and BOHEMA III (2005-2006) operated during passive seismic experiments oriented towards studying velocity structure of the lithosphere and the upper mantle. Receiver Functions show relative response of the Earth structure under a seismic station and nowadays represent frequently-used method to retrieve structure of the crust, whose knowledge is needed in various studies of the upper mantle. The recorded waveforms are composites of direct P and P-to-S converted waves that reverberate in the structure beneath the receiver (Ammon, 1997). The RFs are sensitive to seismic velocity contrast and are thus suited to identifying velocity discontinuities in the crust, including the Mohorovi?i? discontinuity (Moho). Relative travel-time delays of the converted phases detected in the RFs are transformed into estimates of discontinuity depths assuming external information on the vp/vs and P velocity. To evaluate RFs we use the Multiple-taper spectral correlation (MTC) method (Park and Levin, 2000) and process signals from teleseismic events at epicentral distances of 30 - 100° with magnitude Mw > 5.5. Recordings are filtered with Butterworth band-pass filter of 2 - 8 s. To select automatically signals which are strong enough, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) in two steps. In the first step we calculate SNR for signals from intervals (-1s, 3s)/(-10s, -2s), where P-arrival time represent time zero. In the second step we broaden the intervals and calculate SNR for (-1s, 9s)/(-60s, -2s). We also employ forward modelling of the RFs using Interactive Receiver Functions Forward Modeller (IRFFM) (Tkal?i? et al., 2010) to produce, in the first step, one-dimensional velocity models under individual seismic station. Stacked traces of the RFs show strong conversions with positive polarity (indicating a velocity increase across the discontinuity) between 3.3 and 4.5 s after the P-wave arrival at almost all stations. We relate these pulses to conversions at the Moho discontinuity. Assuming a constant crustal vp/vs ratio (1.73) and average crustal velocity vp=6.3 km/s for all stations, analogically to Geissler et al (2012), we multiply the evaluated Ps delay times by factor of 8.3 km/s and estimate the Moho beneath the Bohemian Massif at depths between 27 and 37 km. The crust is thinnest in the western part of the BM, beneath the SW end of the Eger Rift. The Moldanubian part of the BM exhibits the thickest crust. At most of the stations we also see one or two intra-crustal conversions, sometimes stronger than that related to the Moho. Several stations exhibit significant variations of the RF with back-azimuth. The aim of this study is to update existing three dimensional P-velocity crustal model of the Bohemian Massif (Karousová et al., 2012) compiled from control-source seismic results.

  5. Fast computation algorithm of ray-paths and their travel times including later arrivals for a multi layered earth model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kubota; E. Nishiyama; K. Murase; J. Kasahara

    2005-01-01

    Seismic tomography techniques have been rapidly developed to interpret crustal seismic refraction data. Forward modeling approaches, however, are also necessary to examine an initial model for inversion and\\/or later phases. Ray-paths and travel times of later phases, as well as fastest arrivals, such as reflection, later refraction and P-SV converted waves, provide indispensable information for seismic crustal structure analyses. Although

  6. Predicting the Arrival Time of Coronal Mass Ejections with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell and Drag Force Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tong; Wang, Yikang; Wan, Linfeng; Cheng, Xin; Ding, Mingde; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Accurately predicting the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Earth based on remote images is of critical significance for the study of space weather. In this paper, we make a statistical study of 21 Earth-directed CMEs, specifically exploring the relationship between CME initial speeds and transit times. The initial speed of a CME is obtained by fitting the CME with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and is thus free of projection effects. We then use the drag force model to fit results of the transit time versus the initial speed. By adopting different drag regimes, i.e., the viscous, aerodynamics, and hybrid regimes, we get similar results, with a least mean estimation error of the hybrid model of 12.9 hr. CMEs with a propagation angle (the angle between the propagation direction and the Sun–Earth line) larger than their half-angular widths arrive at the Earth with an angular deviation caused by factors other than the radial solar wind drag. The drag force model cannot be reliably applied to such events. If we exclude these events in the sample, the prediction accuracy can be improved, i.e., the estimation error reduces to 6.8 hr. This work suggests that it is viable to predict the arrival time of CMEs to the Earth based on the initial parameters with fairly good accuracy. Thus, it provides a method of forecasting space weather 1–5 days following the occurrence of CMEs.

  7. Dual subduction tectonics and plate dynamics of central Japan shown by three-dimensional P-wave anisotropic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, Motoko; Miyake, Hiroe; Koketsu, Kazuki

    2015-07-01

    The central Japanese subduction zone is characterized by a complex tectonic setting affected by the dual subduction of oceanic plates and collisions between the island arcs. To better understand of the subduction system, we performed an anisotropic tomography analysis using P-wave arrival times from local earthquakes to determine the three-dimensional structure of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy in the overriding plate and the Pacific and Philippine Sea (PHS) slabs. The principal characteristics of anisotropy in the subducted and subducting plates are (1) in the overriding plate, the distribution pattern of fast direction of crustal anisotropy coincides with that of the strike of geological structure, (2) in the two oceanic plates, fast propagation directions of P-wave were sub-parallel to the directions of seafloor spreading. Additionally, our tomographic images demonstrate that (1) the bottom of the Median Tectonic Line, the longest fault zone in Japan, reaches to the lower crust, and seems to link to the source region of an inter-plate earthquake along the PHS slab, (2) the segmentation of the PHS slab - the Izu Islands arc, the Nishi-Shichito ridge, and the Shikoku basin - due to the formation history, is reflected in the regional variation of anisotropy. The tomographic study further implies that there might be a fragment of the Pacific slab suggested by a previous study beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area. The overall findings strongly indicate that seismic anisotropy analysis provide potentially useful information to understand a subduction zone.

  8. Search for Coincidences in Time and Arrival Direction of Auger Data with Astrophysical Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-06-01

    The data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for coincidences between the arrival directions of high-energy cosmic rays and the positions in the sky of astrophysical transients. Special attention is directed towards gamma ray observations recorded by NASA's Swift mission, which have an angular resolution similar to that of the Auger surface detectors. In particular, we check our data for evidence of a signal associated with the giant flare that came from the soft gamma repeater 1806-20 on December 27, 2004.

  9. P-Wave Wave in a Slinky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Lahr

    This animation shows how P-waves (primary, or compressional, waves) travel through a Slinky toy. It is accompanied by a brief written explanation that describes some of the properties of P-waves and how they are generated in a real Slinky.

  10. 3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Crust and Relocation of Earthquakes in 21 the Lushan Source Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.

    2014-12-01

    The double difference seismic tomography method is applied to the absolute first arrival P wave arrival times and high quality relative P arrival times of the Lushan seismic sequence to determine the detailed crustal 3D P wave velocity structure and the hypocenter parameters in the Lushan seismic area. The results show that the Lushan mainshock locates at 30.28 N, 103.98 E, with the depth of 16.38 km. The leading edge of aftershock in the northeast of mainshock present a spade with a steep dip angle, the aftershocks' extended length is about 12 km. In the southwest of the Lushan mainshock, the leading edge of aftershock in low velocity zone slope gently, the aftershocks' extended length is about 23 km. The P wave velocity structure of the Lushan seismic area shows obviously lateral heterogeneity. The P wave velocity anomalies represent close relationship with topographic relief and geological structure. In Baoxing area the complex rocks correspond obvious high-velocity anomalies extending down to 15 km depth?while the Cenozoic rocks are correlated with low-velocity anomalies. Our high-resolution tomographic model not only displays the general features contained in the previous models, but also reveals some new features. An obvious high-velocity anomaly is visible in Daxing area. The high-velocity anomalies beneath Baoxing and Daxing connect each other in 10 km depth, which makes the contrast between high and low velocity anomalies more sharp. Above 20 km depth the velocity structure in southwest and northeast segment of the mainshock shows a big difference: low-velocity anomalies are dominated the southwest segment, while high-velocity anomalies rule the northeast segment. The Lushan mainshock locates at the leading edge of a low-velocity anomaly surrounded by the Baoxing and Daxing high-velocity anomalies. The Lushan aftershocks in southwest are distributed in low-velocity anomalies or the transition belt: the footwall represents low-velocity anomalies, while the hanging wall shows high-velocity anomalies. The northeastern aftershocks are distributed at the boundary between high-velocity anomalies in Baoxing and Daxing area. The main seismogenic layer dips to northwest.

  11. Automatic re-picking and re-weighting of first arrival times from the Italian Seismic Network waveforms database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. di Stefano; A. Amato; F. Aldersons; E. Kissling

    2002-01-01

    The high resolution P-wave tomography of the Italian Peninsula and surrounding regions from crustal to upper mantle depths is the aim of a joint project between INGV (Roma) and ETH (Zurich). The project is subdivided into two steps, first of which is to establish a 3D P-wave velocity model for the crust, using both passive and active seismic sources. Getting

  12. Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1987-03-10

    An apparatus is disclosed for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously. 3 figs.

  13. Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, Robert F. (315 Rover Blvd., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously.

  14. Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1983-10-18

    An apparatus for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously.

  15. Connecting speeds, directions and arrival times of 22 coronal mass ejections from the sun to 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Möstl, C.; Veronig, A. M.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Peinhart, V. [Kanzelhöhe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz (Austria); Amla, K.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Colaninno, R. C. [Space Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A. [RAL Space, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom); Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Liu, Y. D. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vršnak, B., E-mail: christian.moestl@uni-graz.at [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Ka?i?eva 26, HR-10000, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting the in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather and is of general interest for studying the interaction of CMEs with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a single heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, imaging the solar wind density from the Sun to 1 AU, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. We compare the predictions of speed and arrival time for 22 CMEs (in 2008-2012) to the corresponding interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) parameters at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). The list consists of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s{sup –1}). We track the CMEs to 34.9 ± 7.1 deg elongation from the Sun with J maps constructed using the SATPLOT tool, resulting in prediction lead times of –26.4 ± 15.3 hr. The geometrical models we use assume different CME front shapes (fixed-?, harmonic mean, self-similar expansion) and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant superiority in the predictive capability of any of the three methods. The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.3 hr (rms value of 10.9 hr). Speeds are consistent to within 284 ± 288 km s{sup –1}. Empirical corrections to the predictions enhance their performance for the arrival times to 6.1 ± 5.0 hr (rms value of 7.9 hr), and for the speeds to 53 ± 50 km s{sup –1}. These results are important for Solar Orbiter and a space weather mission positioned away from the Sun-Earth line.

  16. Alignment of leading-edge and peak-picking time of arrival methods to obtain accurate source locations

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Fox, C.; and Vanderlinde, O.

    2009-08-01

    The location of a radiating source can be determined by time-tagging the arrival of the radiated signal at a network of spatially distributed sensors. The accuracy of this approach depends strongly on the particular time-tagging algorithm employed at each of the sensors. If different techniques are used across the network, then the time tags must be referenced to a common fiducial for maximum location accuracy. In this report we derive the time corrections needed to temporally align leading-edge, time-tagging techniques with peak-picking algorithms. We focus on broadband radio frequency (RF) sources, an ionospheric propagation channel, and narrowband receivers, but the final results can be generalized to apply to any source, propagation environment, and sensor. Our analytic results are checked against numerical simulations for a number of representative cases and agree with the specific leading-edge algorithm studied independently by Kim and Eng (1995) and Pongratz (2005 and 2007).

  17. Position surveillance using one active ranging satellite and time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Frey, R. L.; Lewis, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Position surveillance using one active ranging/communication satellite and the time-of-arrival of signals from an independent satellite was shown to be feasible and practical. A towboat on the Mississippi River was equipped with a tone-code ranging transponder and a receiver tuned to the timing signals of the GOES satellite. A similar transponder was located at the office of the towing company. Tone-code ranging interrogations were transmitted from the General Electric Earth Station Laboratory through ATS-6 to the towboat and to the ground truth transponder office. Their automatic responses included digital transmissions of time-of-arrival measurements derived from the GOES signals. The Earth Station Laboratory determined ranges from the satellites to the towboat and computed position fixes. The ATS-6 lines-of-position were more precise than 0.1 NMi, 1 sigma, and the GOES lines-of-position were more precise than 1.6 NMi, 1 sigma. High quality voice communications were accomplished with the transponders using a nondirectional antenna on the towboat. The simple and effective surveillance technique merits further evaluation using operational maritime satellites.

  18. On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times from extensive air showers: Application for Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Arsene, N.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O. [Institute of Space Science (ISS), Bucharest-Magurele, P.O. Box MG-23 (Romania) and Physics Department, University of Bucharest, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Physics Department, University of Bucharest, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2012-11-20

    In this paper we study the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray by observing the muon arrival times in ground detectors. We analyzed extensive air showers (EAS) induced by proton and iron nuclei with the same energy 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV simulated with CORSIKA, and analyzed the muon arrival times at ground measured by the infill array detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO). From the arrival times of the core and of the muons the atmospheric depth of muon generation locus is evaluated. The results suggest a potential mass discrimination on the basis of muon arrival times and of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production. An analysis of a larger set of CORSIKA simulations carried out for primary energies above 10{sup 18} eV is in progress.

  19. Predicting the Arrival Time of Coronal Mass Ejections with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell and Drag Force Model

    E-print Network

    Shi, Tong; Wan, Linfeng; Cheng, Xin; Ding, Mingde; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Accurately predicting the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Earth based on remote images is of critical significance in the study of space weather. In this paper, we make a statistical study of 21 Earth directed CMEs, exploring in particular the relationship between CME initial speeds and transit times. The initial speed of a CME is obtained by fitting the CME with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and is thus free of projection effects. We then use the drag force model to fit results of the transit time versus the initial speed. By adopting different drag regimes, i.e., the viscous, aerodynamics, and hybrid regimes, we get similar results, with the least mean estimation error of the hybrid model of 12.9 hours. CMEs with a propagation angle (the angle between the propagation direction and the Sun-Earth line) larger than its half angular width arrive at the Earth with an angular deviation caused by factors other than the radial solar wind drag. The drag force model cannot be well applied to s...

  20. A one-particle time of arrival operator for a free relativistic spin- 0 charged particle in (1 + 1) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunao, Joseph; Galapon, Eric A.

    2015-02-01

    We construct a one-particle TOA operator T ˆ canonically conjugate with the Hamiltonian describing a free, charged, spin- 0, relativistic particle in one spatial dimension and show that it is maximally symmetric. We solve for its eigenfunctions and show that they form a complete and non-orthogonal set. Plotting the time evolution of their corresponding probability densities, it implies that the eigenfunctions become more localized at the origin at the time equal to their eigenvalues. That is, a particle being described by an eigenfunction of T ˆ is in a state of definite arrival time at the origin and at the corresponding eigenvalue. We also calculate the TOA probability distribution of a particle in some initial state.

  1. ESTIMATING THE ARRIVAL TIME OF EARTH-DIRECTED CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AT IN SITU SPACECRAFT USING COR AND HI OBSERVATIONS FROM STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Wageesh; Srivastava, Nandita, E-mail: wageesh@prl.res.in [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 198, Badi Road, Udaipur 313 001 (India)

    2013-07-20

    Predicting the arrival time and transit speed of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Earth is critical to understanding the solar-terrestrial relationship. Even though STEREO observations now provide multiple views of CMEs in the heliosphere, the true speeds derived from stereoscopic reconstruction of SECCHI coronagraph data are not quite sufficient for accurate forecasting of the arrival time at Earth of a majority of CMEs. This uncertainty is due to many factors that change CME kinematics, such as the interaction of two or more CMEs or the interaction of CMEs with the pervading solar wind. In order to understand the propagation of CMEs, we have used the three-dimensional triangulation method on SECCHI coronagraph (COR2) images and geometric triangulation on the J-maps constructed from Heliospheric Imagers HI1 and HI2 data for eight Earth-directed CMEs observed during 2008-2010. Based on the reconstruction, and implementing the drag-based model for the distance where the CMEs could not be tracked unambiguously in the interplanetary (IP) medium, the arrival time of these CMEs have been estimated. These arrival times have also been compared with the actual arrival times as observed by in situ instruments. The analysis reveals the importance of heliospheric imaging for improved forecasting of the arrival time and direction of propagation of CMEs in the IP medium.

  2. Ratios in Higher Order Statistics (RHOS) values of Seismograms for Improved Automatic P-Phase Arrival Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mulugeta Dugda; Abebe Kebede

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present two new procedures for automatic detection and picking of P-wave arrivals. The first involves the application of kurtosis and skewness on the vector magnitude of three component seismograms. Customarily, P-wave arrival detection techniques use vertical component seismogram which is appropriate only for teleseismic events. The inherent weakness of those methods stems from the fact that

  3. [Development of estimated time of arrival method and usefulness in pulmonary artery/vein separation 3D-CT].

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Katsutoshi; Nagasawa, Naoki; Yamazaki, Akio; Kubooka, Naoya; Yamao, Yoshikazu; Murashima, Syuichi; Fujita, Makiko; Takao, Motoshi; Tenpaku, Hironori; Shimamoto, Akira; Maki, Hiroaki; Sakuma, Hajime

    2014-11-01

    We have developed an estimated time of arrival (ETA) method as a new single-phase scan for pulmonary artery/vein separation. This method enables differentiation of CT values between arteries and veins by means of two-step consecutive injection of contrast medium based on the pulmonary circulation time. This paper presents an overview of the ETA method and scan technique. Since the ETA method is a single-phase scan, it uses a low radiation dose compared with the conventional multi-phase scan. Moreover, this method eliminates gaps due to breath holding. The ETA method can detect irregularities and obtain high-quality pulmonary artery/vein separation 3D-CT images. PMID:25410332

  4. Lightning First Pulses Used in the "Last" (Time-of-Arrival) and "Atlas" (Single Station) Total Lightning Mapping Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markson, Ralph; Ruhnke, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    The first RF pulse from "total lightning' discharges (cloud and ground flashes) has been used in different ways to locate the origin of flashes in two new types of lightning detection systems. The multisensor LASI time-of-arrival (TOA) system uses GPS timing of the first pulse. The ATLAS single sensor system uses the amplitude of the first pulse, which is invariant in magnitude and polarization for all lightning discharges, to determine distance from the sensor. It is significantly more accurate than past single sensor lightning mapping systems. The polarity of the first pulse generally identifies lightning type (IC or CG). Both systems utilize only the first pulse which makes signal processing much simpler than with previous lightning locating systems. Knowing the position where lightning begins (maximum electric fields, mixed phase hydrometeors and updrafts) is valuable for identifying convective cells producing the hazardous meteorological conditions caused by thunderstorms. It is also important for research studying thunderstorm electrification and associated microphysical problems.

  5. Delay Analysis in Temperature-Constrained Hard Real-Time Systems with General Task Arrivals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengquan Wang; Riccardo Bettati

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study temperature-constrained hard real- time systems, where real-time guarantees must be met with- out exceeding safe temperature levels within the proces- sor. Dynamic speed scaling is one of the major techniques to manage power so as to maintain safe temperature lev- els. As example, we adopt a simple reactive speed con- trol technique in our work.

  6. Tensor field guidance for time-based waypoint arrival of UAVs by 4D trajectory generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane C. Degen; Luis Mejias; Jason J. Ford; Rodney A. Walker

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at incorporating time information into a waypoint trajectory-generation technique known as Vector Field Guidance to give a 4D trajectory generator henceforth known as Tensor Field Guidance. The time-based information is local in that it is relative from waypoint to waypoint. We envisage that a higher-level controller or an Air Traffic Management system automates the waypoint generation, while

  7. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1990-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smolts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time. 10 figs, 15 tabs.

  8. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, William R.

    1989-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smelts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clear-water rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time.

  9. Deriving the orbital properties of pulsators in binary systems through their light arrival time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Simon J.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    2015-07-01

    We present the latest developments to the phase modulation method for finding binaries among pulsating stars. We demonstrate how the orbital elements of a pulsating binary star can be obtained analytically, that is, without converting time delays to radial velocities by numerical differentiation. Using the time delays directly offers greater precision, and allows the parameters of much smaller orbits to be derived. The method is applied to KIC 9651065, KIC 10990452 and KIC 8264492, and a set of the orbital parameters is obtained for each system. Radial velocity curves for these stars are deduced from the orbital elements thus obtained.

  10. Florian Lhl FLASH seminar February 26, 2008 Commissioning of the bunch arrival time

    E-print Network

    , a new beam pick-up (design: K. Hacker) was installed instead of the ring electrodes to improve the pick-up performance. 17mm 14.5mm 1.2mm thick Alumina disk old ring electrode: new design: 6.2mm #12;Florian Löhl FLASH) The timing information of the electron bunch is transferred into a laser amplitude modulation

  11. for four time intervals: Late Pleistocene (before humans arrived in the Americas), Holocene (when

    E-print Network

    by the National Center for Eco- logical Analysis and Synthesis (funded by NSF grant DEB-0072909, the University of California, and the University of California, Santa Barbara). Additional support was also provided and com- ments on the manuscript. R E V I E W Noisy Clockwork: Time Series Analysis of Population

  12. Effect of method and timing of castration on newly arrived stocker cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of castration method and timing on the performance and health of newly received stocker cattle. Two hundred and seventy-one crossbred male calves (184 bulls, 87 steers; 210 ± 14.7 kg) were purchased at auction barns and shipped in three groups. ...

  13. Supercurrent in p-wave Holographic Superconductor

    E-print Network

    Hua-Bi Zeng; Wei-Min Sun; Hong-Shi Zong

    2011-02-01

    The p-wave and $p+ip$-wave holographic superconductors with fixed DC supercurrent are studied by introducing a non-vanishing vector potential. We find that close to the critical temperature $T_c$ of zero current, the numerical results of both the p wave model and the $p+ip$ model are the same as those of Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) theory, for example, the critical current $j_c \\sim (T_c-T)^{3/2}$ and the phase transition in the presence of a DC current is a first order transition. Besides the similar results between both models, the $p+ip$ superconductor shows isotropic behavior for the supercurrent, while the p-wave superconductor shows anisotropic behavior for the supercurrent.

  14. Post-Arrival Screening for Malaria in Asymptomatic Refugees Using Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Matisz, Chelsea E.; Naidu, Prenilla; Shokoples, Sandra E.; Grice, Diane; Krinke, Valerie; Brown, Stuart Z.; Kowalewska-Grochowska, Kinga; Houston, Stan; Yanow, Stephanie K.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a significant health risk to refugee populations originating from endemic areas, but there is little consensus on screening and/or treatment approaches for malaria in this population. Furthermore, detection of malaria in semi-immune asymptomatic refugees is limited by the sensitivity of diagnostic tests used for screening. We determined the prevalence of malaria by microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a consecutive population of 324 asymptomatic refugees examined in Edmonton, Canada, during 2009–2010. Although all thick and thin blood smear results were negative, 10 subjects (3.1%) tested PCR positive for Plasmodium DNA. Interestingly, 6 of 10 PCR positive subjects are at risk of malaria relapse by P. vivax or P. ovale infections. These results suggest that appropriate guidelines for malaria screening should consider the risk of relapsing infections, and they highlight the potential usefulness of real-time PCR in the diagnosis of asymptomatic malaria. PMID:21212221

  15. Random number generation based on the time of arrival of single photons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hai-Qiang; Xie, Yuejian; Wu, Ling-An

    2005-12-20

    We report the demonstration of a new type of true random number generator based on the random distribution of the time interval between photons from a single-photon-like source. The experimental setup is simple and robust against mechanical and temperature disturbances. With improved detector resolution and efficiency, the random number bit rate could be increased by more than an order of magnitude to satisfy practical requirements. PMID:16381524

  16. Random number generation based on the time of arrival of single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hai-Qiang; Xie, Yuejian; Wu, Ling-An

    2005-12-01

    We report the demonstration of a new type of true random number generator based on the random distribution of the time interval between photons from a single-photon-like source. The experimental setup is simple and robust against mechanical and temperature disturbances. With improved detector resolution and efficiency, the random number bit rate could be increased by more than an order of magnitude to satisfy practical requirements.

  17. Teleseismic P-wave tomogram of the Yellowstone plume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huaiyu Yuan; Ken Dueker

    2005-01-01

    Inversion of a new data set of teleseismic P-wave travel-times from three PASSCAL seismic deployments around the Yellowstone hotspot reveals a 100 km diameter upper mantle plume that extends from the Yellowstone volcanic caldera to 500 km depth and dips 20° to the northwest. A monotonic decrease in the velocity perturbation of the plume from ?3.2% at 100 km to

  18. Teleseismic P-wave tomogram of the Yellowstone plume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huaiyu Yuan; Ken Dueker

    2005-01-01

    Inversion of a new data set of teleseismic P-wave travel-times from three PASSCAL seismic deployments around the Yellowstone hotspot reveals a 100 km diameter upper mantle plume that extends from the Yellowstone volcanic caldera to 500 km depth and dips 20° to the northwest. A monotonic decrease in the velocity perturbation of the plume from -3.2% at 100 km to

  19. Orbital magnetic dynamics in chiral p -wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braude, V.; Sonin, E. B.

    2006-08-01

    We present a theory of orbital magnetic dynamics for a chiral p -wave superconductor with broken time-reversal symmetry. In contrast to the common Landau-Lifshitz theory for spin ferromagnets, the case of orbital magnetism cannot be described in terms of local magnetization density. Hence, it is impossible to define unambiguously the spontaneous magnetic moment: the latter would depend on conditions of its experimental investigation. As an example of this we consider orbital magnetization waves and the domain-structure energy.

  20. Decay constants of $P$-wave mesons

    E-print Network

    Guo-Li Wang

    2007-05-18

    Decay constants of $P$-wave mesons are computed in the framework of instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter method (Salpeter method). By analyzing the parity and possible charge conjugation parity, we give the relativistic configurations of wave functions with definite parity and possible charge conjugation parity. With these wave functions as input, the full Salpeter equations for different $P$-wave states are solved, and the mass spectra as well as the numerical values of wave functions are obtained. Finally we compute the leptonic decay constants of heavy-heavy and heavy-light $^3P_0$, $^3P_1$ and $^1P_1$ states.

  1. One dimensional P wave velocity structure of the crust beneath west Java and accurate hypocentre locations from local earthquake inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Supardiyono; Santosa, Bagus Jaya [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Surabaya, Surabaya (Indonesia) and Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya (Indonesia); Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya (Indonesia)

    2012-06-20

    A one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and station corrections for the West Java zone were computed by inverting P-wave arrival times recorded on a local seismic network of 14 stations. A total of 61 local events with a minimum of 6 P-phases, rms 0.56 s and a maximum gap of 299 Degree-Sign were selected. Comparison with previous earthquake locations shows an improvement for the relocated earthquakes. Tests were carried out to verify the robustness of inversion results in order to corroborate the conclusions drawn out from our reasearch. The obtained minimum 1-D velocity model can be used to improve routine earthquake locations and represents a further step toward more detailed seismotectonic studies in this area of West Java.

  2. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1987-09-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smolts during the 1986 spring outmigration at two migrant traps, one each on the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Average migration rates for freeze-branded chinook salmon smolts were 28.2 km per day and 22.1 km per day for steelhead trout smolts between release sites and the head of Lower Granite Reservoir. The yearling chinook salmon migration begins in earnest when Salmon River discharge makes a significant rise in early to mid-April. Most yearling chinook salmon pass into Lower Granite Reservoir in April followed by passage of steelhead trout in May. Chinook salmon smolt recapture data from the Snake River trap suggest a strong dependence of migration rate on quantity of Snake and Salmon River discharge, although no statistical correlation exists at this time. Daily and seasonal descaling rates were calculated for each species at each trap. Rates were highest for hatchery steelhead trout, intermediate for yearling chinook salmon, and lowest for wild steelhead trout. Descaling rates were generally higher in 1986 than those observed in 1984 and 1985. 4 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Joint inversion of gravity and arrival time data from Parkfield: New constraints on structure and hypocenter locations near the SAFOD drill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roecker, S.; Thurber, C.; McPhee, D.

    2004-01-01

    Taking advantage of large datasets of both gravity and elastic wave arrival time observations available for the Parkfield, California region, we generated an image consistent with both types of data. Among a variety of strategies, the best result was obtained from a simultaneous inversion with a stability requirement that encouraged the perturbed model to remain close to a starting model consisting of a best fit to the arrival time data. The preferred model looks essentially the same as the best-fit arrival time model in areas where ray coverage is dense, with differences being greatest at shallow depths and near the edges of the model where ray paths are few. Earthquake locations change by no more than about 100 m, the general effect being migration of the seismic zone to the northeast, closer to the surface trace of the San Andreas Fault. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Seismic Imaging of a Bimaterial Interface along the Hayward Fault, CA, with Fault Zone Head Waves and Direct P Arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Peng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We show the existence and image properties of a seismic velocity contrast along the Hayward fault using moveout analysis and joint inversion of fault zone head waves (FZHW) and direct P arrivals. The analysis is based on FZHW and P arrival times for 5834 earthquakes recorded at up to 27 stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) and the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN). Robust identification of FZHW requires the combination of multiple techniques due to the diverse instrumentation of the BDSN and NCSN. For single-component short-period instruments, FZHW are identified by examining sets of waveforms from both sides of the fault, and finding on one (the slow) side emergent reversed-polarity arrivals before the direct P waves. For three-component broadband and strong-motion instruments, the FZHW are identified with polarization analysis that detects early arrivals from the fault direction before the regular body waves with polarizations in the source-receiver directions. The initial results indicate a velocity contrast of 5-12% along the central portion of the Hayward fault, with the southwest side having faster P wave velocity in agreement with tomography results. A systematic moveout between the FZHW and direct P waves for a roughly 70 km long fault section suggest a single continuous fault interface over that distance. We also find some complexities near the junction with the Calaveras fault in the southernmost portion and near the city of Oakland. Regions giving rise to variable FZHW arrival times can be correlated to first order with the presence of lithological complexity, including slivers of high-velocity metamorphic rocks and serpentinized rocks. The seismic velocity contrast and geological complexity have important implications for earthquake and rupture dynamics of the Hayward fault.

  5. ARRIVAL TIME CALCULATION FOR INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH CIRCULAR FRONTS AND APPLICATION TO STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2009 FEBRUARY 13 ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Moestl, C.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Biernat, H. K. [Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Graz A-8010 (Austria); Lugaz, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Crothers, S. [RAL Space, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W., E-mail: christian.moestl@uni-graz.at [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz A-8042 (Austria)

    2011-11-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is to study the feasibility of forecasting the direction, arrival time, and internal structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a vantage point outside the Sun-Earth line. Through a case study, we discuss the arrival time calculation of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) in the ecliptic plane using data from STEREO/SECCHI at large elongations from the Sun in combination with different geometric assumptions about the ICME front shape [fixed-{Phi} (FP): a point and harmonic mean (HM): a circle]. These forecasting techniques use single-spacecraft imaging data and are based on the assumption of constant velocity and direction. We show that for the slow (350 km s{sup -1}) ICME on 2009 February 13-18, observed at quadrature by the two STEREO spacecraft, the results for the arrival time given by the HM approximation are more accurate by 12 hr than those for FP in comparison to in situ observations of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters by STEREO/IMPACT/PLASTIC, and by 6 hr for the arrival time at Venus Express (MAG). We propose that the improvement is directly related to the ICME front shape being more accurately described by HM for an ICME with a low inclination of its symmetry axis to the ecliptic. In this case, the ICME has to be tracked to >30{sup 0} elongation to obtain arrival time errors < {+-} 5 hr. A newly derived formula for calculating arrival times with the HM method is also useful for a triangulation technique assuming the same geometry.

  6. Observations of high-frequency P wave earthquake and explosion spectra compared with ?-3, ?-2, and sharpe source models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, William R.; Brune, James N.; Priestley, Keith F.; Fletcher, Jon

    1988-06-01

    Observations of 10-, 20-, and 30-Hz P wave spectral amplitudes from earthquakes and explosions are compared with the Archambeau [1968, 1972] earthquake model featuring a P wave falloff of ?-3 beyond the corner frequency, a modified Brune [1970, 1971] earthquake model with ?-2 falloff, and the Sharpe [1942] explosion model which has a ?-2 falloff. The Archambeau and Sharpe models have been, in part, the basis of a proposal by Evernden et al. [1986] that high-frequency (?30 Hz) seismic energy could provide an effective solution to the problem of detection and identification of low-yield coupled and fully decoupled underground nuclear explosions. The observations of earthquakes show an increase in spectral amplitude with moment approximately in agreement with the ?-2 falloff model and, for larger moments, in disagreement with the ?-3 model. Comparison of theoretical and actual seismograms narrow-band filtered at 30 Hz shows that in part the increase in spectral amplitude of earthquakes is due to the complex and long duration of the rupture process and not because of an increase in an impulsive first arrival like that characteristic of an explosion. The 30-Hz amplitudes for explosions show much scatter, and many events have a spectral falloff greater than the ?-2 predicted by the Sharpe model. Whether this is due entirely to attenuation or is the actual source spectrum is not determined. High stress drop earthquakes are predicted to have larger spectral amplitudes than the Sharpe model. Thus any discrimination technique using high-frequency P wave spectra should probably take into account differences in pulse shape and amplitude in the time domain.

  7. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and ULYSSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laros, J. G.; Hurley, K. C.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Briggs, M. S.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Cline, T. L.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.

    1998-10-01

    Between the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) launch in 1991 April and the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) demise in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by CGRO, PVO, and Ulysses was obtained for several hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the PVO and Ulysses thresholds, 37 were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to ~2° accuracy by the CGRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and three were also localized by COMPTEL. We computed arrival-time error boxes, whose larger dimensions range from about 2' to several degrees and whose smaller dimensions are in the arcminute range. Twelve have areas less than 10 arcmin2, and only four have areas greater than 1 deg2. The area of the smallest box is 0.44 arcmin2. We find that the overall BATSE localization accuracy for these events is consistent with the most recent stated uncertainties. This work indicates that the ROSAT soft X-ray source found within a preliminary IPN error box for GB920501 (Trig 1576) (Hurley et al.) is less likely to be the GRB counterpart than previously reported.

  8. The estimation of subsample time delay of arrival in the discrete-time measurement of phase delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Maskell; Graham S. Woods

    1999-01-01

    Time delay estimation (TDE) techniques based upon the identification of the extremum of the cross-correlation function, or some other statistic of two signals, typically use some form of interpolation between points to obtain a resolution finer than the sample period. Often these techniques introduce some bias because of mismatch between the interpolating function and the actual discrete-time correlation function. We

  9. The effects of iron deficiency anemia on p wave duration and dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Hakk?; Gunes, Yilmaz; Demir, Cengiz; Sahin, Musa; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali; Tuncer, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between P wave dispersion and iron deficiency anemia has not been documented in the literature. In this study, we evaluated P wave dispersion in patients with iron deficiency anemia and the possible relationships between P wave dispersion and other echocardiographic parameters. INTRODUCTION: The iron status of an individual may play an important role in cardiovascular health. Anemia is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. P wave dispersion is a simple electrocardiographic marker that has a predictive value for the development of atrial fibrillation. Apart from cardiovascular diseases, several conditions, such as seasonal variation, alcohol intake and caffeine ingestion, have been demonstrated to affect P wave dispersion. METHODS: The study included 97 patients who had iron deficiency anemia and 50 healthy subjects. The cases were evaluated with a clinical examination and diagnostic tests that included 12?lead electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, patients with iron deficiency anemia showed significantly longer maximum P wave duration (Pmax) (91.1±18.0 vs. 85.8±6.7 msec, p?=?0.054), P wave dispersion (PWD) (48.1±7.7 vs. 40.9±5.6 msec, p<0.001), mitral inflow deceleration time (DT) (197.5±27.9 vs. 178.8±8.9 msec, p<0.001) and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) (93.3±9.2 vs. 77.4±8.2 msec, p<0.001); they also showed increased heart rate (85.7±16.1 vs. 69.0±4.4, p<0.001) and frequency of diastolic dysfunction (7 (7.2%) vs. 0). Correlation analysis revealed that PWD was significantly correlated with IVRT, DT, heart rate, the presence of anemia and hemoglobin level. CONCLUSIONS: Iron deficiency anemia may be associated with prolonged P wave duration and dispersion and impaired diastolic left ventricular filling. PMID:21243273

  10. The effects of pre-ejection period on post-exercise systolic blood pressure estimation using the pulse arrival time technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mico Yee Man Wong; Emma Pickwell-MacPherson; Yuan Ting Zhang; Jack C. Y. Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Pulse arrival time (PAT) is comprised of the vascular transit time (TT) through the arterial system and the pre-ejection period\\u000a (PEP) in the heart. It has been used to predict arterial blood pressure (BP) without using a cuff. The aim of this study was\\u000a to investigate the effects of including the PEP on the accuracy of cuffless systolic BP (SBP)

  11. P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhtia, Anand

    2012-01-01

    A variational wave function incorporating short range correlations via Hylleraas type functions plus long-range polarization terms of the polarized orbital type but with smooth cut-off factors has been used to calculate P-wave phase shifts for electron-hydrogen scattering. This approach gives the direct r(exp -4) potential and a non-local optical potential which is definite. The resulting phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the convergence is much faster than those obtained without the modification of the target function. Final results will be presented at the conference.

  12. Tracer arrival timing-insensitive technique for estimating flow in MR perfusion-weighted imaging using singular value decomposition with a block-circulant deconvolution matrix.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ona; Østergaard, Leif; Weisskoff, Robert M; Benner, Thomas; Rosen, Bruce R; Sorensen, A Gregory

    2003-07-01

    Relative cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue mean transit time (MTT) estimates from bolus-tracking MR perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) have been shown to be sensitive to delay and dispersion when using singular value decomposition (SVD) with a single measured arterial input function. This study proposes a technique that is made time-shift insensitive by the use of a block-circulant matrix for deconvolution with (oSVD) and without (cSVD) minimization of oscillation of the derived residue function. The performances of these methods are compared with standard SVD (sSVD) in both numerical simulations and in clinically acquired data. An additional index of disturbed hemodynamics (oDelay) is proposed that represents the tracer arrival time difference between the AIF and tissue signal. Results show that PWI estimates from sSVD are weighted by tracer arrival time differences, while those from oSVD and cSVD are not. oSVD also provides estimates that are less sensitive to blood volume compared to cSVD. Using PWI data that can be routinely collected clinically, oSVD shows promise in providing tracer arrival timing-insensitive flow estimates and hence a more specific indicator of ischemic injury. Shift maps can continue to provide a sensitive reflection of disturbed hemodynamics. PMID:12815691

  13. Computer program modifications of Open-file report 82-1065; a comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction and arrival-time data using interactive computer methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackermann, Hans D.; Pankratz, Leroy W.; Dansereau, Danny A.

    1983-01-01

    The computer programs published in Open-File Report 82-1065, A comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction arrival-time data using interactive computer methods (Ackermann, Pankratz, and Dansereau, 1982), have been modified to run on a mini-computer. The new version uses approximately 1/10 of the memory of the initial version, is more efficient and gives the same results.

  14. Eastern Edge of the Laurentian Cratonic Lithosphere Beneath Southern Quebec from Teleseismic P Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, W. H.; Neitz, T.; Levin, V. L.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern margin of Laurentia was deformed by the late-Proterozoic Grenville orogeny, which metamorphosed the original Archean-age cratonic crust and added extensive intrusive rocks. The Laurentian crust clearly extends as far east as the Laurentian Highlands, just north of the St. Laurence River, where Grenville-deformed rocks outcrop. Small outliers of Grenville-deformed rocks amongst west-thrust Paleozoic sediments, 20-50 km east of the Appalachian Front in southern Quebec, suggest that the Laurentian crust extends beneath the shallow thrust sheets of this region, too. On the other hand, Laurentia does not extend east of the Norumbega fault in coastal Maine, for the crust there is derived from the Avalon micro-continent. We search for the eastern edge of Laurentia within this ~250 km wide interval using relative arrival times of teleseismic P waves which ascend sub-vertically through the lithosphere beneath the region. These times are expected to be most sensitive to upper mantle compressional velocity and so to be able to discriminate the cratonic lithosphere on the basis of its faster than average speed. We use signal-correlation techniques to measured delay times for all broadband seismic stations in the region, including the QMIII array, which is especially designed to have high station density near the Appalachian Front. As expected, we observe central Quebec to have anomalously early times and coastal Maine to have anomalously late times, by as much as ±1s, when compared to the predictions of the global AK135 traveltime model. The boundary between the two arrival time regimes is sharp and is collinear with the Appalachian Front, to within the ± 25 km spatial resolution of our study. We hypothesize that it represents the eastern edge of the Laurentian cratonic lithosphere. Tomographic inversion of the data indicates a 0.2 km/s (2.4%) drop in compressional velocity of the shallow (90 km deep) mantle from west to east across the boundary. This is a strong jump in mantle properties, as either a 400 deg C increase in temperature or a 11 decrease in Mg# (or some other as yet unidentified source of heterogeneity) is needed to explain it. Future work will use teleseismic shear waves to further characterize the lithosphere across this boundary.

  15. Effect of immiscible liquid contaminants on P-wave transmission through natural aquifer samples

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Jil T.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2003-01-31

    We performed core-scale laboratory experiments to examine the effect of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants on P-wave velocity and attenuation in heterogeneous media. This work is part of a larger project to develop crosswell seismic methods for minimally invasive NAPL detection. The test site is the former DOE Pinellas Plant in Florida, which has known NAPL contamination in the surficial aquifer. Field measurements revealed a zone of anomalously high seismic attenuation, which may be due to lithology and/or contaminants (NAPL or gas phase). Intact core was obtained from the field site, and P-wave transmission was measured by the pulse-transmission technique with a 500 kHz transducer. Two types of samples were tested: a clean fine sand from the upper portion of the surficial aquifer, and clayey-silty sand with shell fragments and phosphate nodules from the lower portion. Either NAPL trichloroethene or toluene was injected into the initially water-saturated sample. Maximum NAPL saturations ranged from 30 to 50% of the pore space. P-wave velocity varied by approximately 4% among the water-saturated samples, while velocities decreased by 5 to 9% in samples at maximum NAPL saturation compared to water-saturated conditions. The clay and silt fraction as well as the larger scatterers in the clayey-silty sands apparently caused greater P-wave attenuation compared to the clean sand. The presence of NAPLs caused a 34 to 54% decrease in amplitudes of the first arrival. The central frequency of the transmitted energy ranged from 85 to 200 kHz, and was sensitive to both grain texture and presence of NAPL. The results are consistent with previous trends observed in homogeneous sand packs. More data will be acquired to interpret P-wave tomograms from crosswell field measurements, determine the cause of high attenuation observed in the field data and evaluate the sensitivity of seismic methods for NAPL detection.

  16. P wave velocity structure in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leiph Preston; Ken Smith; David von Seggern

    2007-01-01

    We have performed a crustal tomographic inversion using over 250,000 P arrival times from local earthquake sources and surface explosions in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, region. Within the shallowest 2–3 km, topographic features tend to dominate the structure with high velocities imaged under Bare Mountain, the Funeral Mountains, and higher terrain to the east of Yucca Mountain and low velocities

  17. Chiral p-wave order in Sr2RuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallin, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    Shortly after the discovery in 1994 of superconductivity in Sr2RuO4, it was proposed on theoretical grounds that the superconducting state may have chiral p-wave symmetry analogous to the A phase of superfluid 3He. Substantial experimental evidence has since accumulated in favor of this pairing symmetry, including several interesting recent results related to broken time-reversal symmetry (BTRS) and vortices with half of the usual superconducting flux quantum. Great interest surrounds the possibility of chiral p-wave order in Sr2RuO4, since this state may exhibit topological order analogous to that of a quantum Hall state, and can support such exotic physics as Majorana fermions and non-Abelian winding statistics, which have been proposed as one route to a quantum computer. However, serious discrepancies remain in trying to connect the experimental results to theoretical predictions for chiral p-wave order. In this paper, I review a broad range of experiments on Sr2RuO4 that are sensitive to p-wave pairing, triplet superconductivity and time-reversal symmetry breaking and compare these experiments to each other and to theoretical predictions. In this context, the evidence for triplet pairing is strong, although some puzzles remain. The ‘smoking gun’ experimental results for chiral p-wave order, those which directly look for evidence of BTRS in the superconducting state of Sr2RuO4, are most perplexing when the results are compared with each other and to theoretical predictions. Consequently, the case for chiral p-wave superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 remains unresolved, suggesting the need to consider either significant modifications to the standard chiral p-wave models or possible alternative pairing symmetries. Recent ideas along these lines are discussed.

  18. The relationship between CME speed and soft X-ray emission and the prediction of the arrival times of ICMEs near Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Salas Matamoros, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    While STEREO observations provided a major step forward in our understanding of the interplanetary propagation of coronal mass ejections (CME), the basic observational input to the forecasting of CME arrival at Earth has for a long time been the CME speed estimated from coronagraphic measurements on the Sun-Earth line. In this contribution the performance of these measurements is compared with a proxy approach: the speed of Earth-directed CMEs in the corona is inferred from the fluence of the associated soft X-ray bursts, using an empirical relationship that we established considering CMEs originating near the solar limb in solar cycle 23. We use both the CME speed measured in the plane of the sky by SoHO/LASCO and the speed estimated from the soft X-rays as an input to the simple empirical interplanetary propagation model devised by Gopalswamy and coworkers, and compared the predicted arrival times of the interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) near 1 AU with in situ measurements in the case of 26 well-observed events. We show that for a range of CME speeds between about 700 and 1700 km/s the soft X-ray proxy gives a better prediction of the ICME arrival than the use of the plane-of-the-sky speed measured by the coronagraph on the Sun-Earth line.

  19. Crosswell seismic studies in gas hydrate-bearing sediments: P wave velocity and attenuation tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K.; Haberland, Ch.; Pratt, R. G.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M. H.; Mallik Working Group

    2003-04-01

    We present crosswell seismic data from the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program, an international research project on Gas Hydrates in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The program participants include 8 partners; The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), The Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Department of the Energy (USDOE), India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)/Gas Authority of India (GAIL) and the Chevron-BP-Burlington joint venture group. The crosswell seismic measurements were carried out by making use of two 1160 m deep observation wells (Mallik 3L-38 and 4L-38) both 45 m from and co-planar with the 1188 m deep production research well (5L-38). A high power piezo-ceramic source was used to generate sweeped signals with frequencies between 100 and 2000 Hz recorded with arrays of 8 hydrophones per depth level. A depth range between 800 and 1150 m was covered, with shot and receiver spacings of 0.75 m. High quality data could be collected during the survey which allow for application of a wide range of crosswell seismic methods. The initial data analysis included suppression of tube wave energy and picking of first arrivals. A damped least-squares algorithm was used to derive P-wave velocities from the travel time data. Next, t* values were derived from the decay of the amplitude spectra, which served as input parameters for a damped least-squares attenuation tomography. The initial results of the P-wave velocity and attenuation tomography reveal significant features reflecting the stratigraphic environment and allow for detection and eventually quantification of gas hydrate bearing sediments. A prominent correlation between P velocity and attenuation was found for the gas hydrate layers. This contradicts to the apparently more meaningful inverse correlation as it was determined for the gas hydrates at the Blake Ridge but supports the results from the Mallik 2L-38 sonic log data. The P velocities and attenuation values, if combined with other information can be important for the quantitative evaluation of the gas hydrate saturation, and may further constrain petrophysical models of the hydrate bearing sediment formation.

  20. Computed bipolar precordial leads for improved P wave detection.

    PubMed

    Batchvarov, Velislav N; Behr, Elijah R

    2015-01-01

    We present an excerpt from a 24-hour 12-lead Holter recording acquired in an 85-year-old man investigated for the Brugada syndrome. The rhythm cannot be determined because no P waves can be discerned due to the high level of noise and to merging of the T and P waves. The P waves, however, are clearly visible and the noise is considerably reduced in bipolar precordial leads computed from the standard unipolar precordial leads. The case demonstrates the potential usefulness of various computed leads for rhythm analysis by detecting P waves that are not visible in the standard leads. PMID:25537311

  1. Stereoscopic study of the kinematic evolution of a coronal mass ejection and its driven shock from the sun to the earth and the prediction of their arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie, E-mail: phess4@gmu.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R {sub ?} and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R {sub ?} combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  2. Influence of health-related quality of life on time from symptom onset to hospital arrival and the risk of readmission in patients with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Catrin; Larsson, Margareta; Herlitz, Johan; Karlsson, Jan-Erik; Wernroth, Lisa; Lindahl, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite increased awareness of the importance of early treatment in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the delay from symptom onset to hospital arrival is still too long and rehospitalisations are frequent. Little is known about how health-related quality of life (HRQL) affects delay time and the frequency of readmissions. Method We used quality registers to investigate whether patients’ HRQL has any impact on delay time with a new AMI, and on the rate of readmissions during the first year. Patients with AMI <75?years, with HRQL assessed with EQ-5D at 1-year follow-up, and who thereafter had a new AMI registered, were evaluated for the correlation between HRQL and delay time (n=454). The association between HRQL and readmissions was evaluated among those who had an additional AMI and a new 1-year follow-up registration (n=216). Results Patients who reported poor total health status (EQ-VAS ?50), compared to those who reported EQ-VAS 81–100, had tripled risk to delay ?2?h from symptom onset to hospital arrival (adjusted OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.43 to 6.34). Patients scoring EQ-VAS ?50 had also a higher risk of readmissions in the univariate analysis (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.53). However, the correlation did not remain significant after adjustment (OR 1.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 4.38). EQ-index was not independently associated with delay time or readmissions. Conclusions Aspects of total health status post-AMI were independently associated with delay time to hospital arrival in case of a new AMI. However, the influence of total health status on the risk of readmissions was less clear. PMID:25525504

  3. Environmental and lunar cues are predictive of the timing of river entry and spawning-site arrival in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, P S; Scribner, K T; Crossman, J A; Ragavendran, A; Baker, E A; Davis, C; Smith, K K

    2012-07-01

    The associations were quantified between daily and interannual variation in the timing of a closed population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens migration and arrival at spawning sites with stream environmental and lunar covariates. Spawning data were gathered from 1262 fish in Black Lake, Michigan 2001 to 2008 and by video monitoring 2000 to 2002. Sex-specific variation in responses to external cues was also tested. Results showed that a greater number of individuals initiated migration from lake to riverine habitats at dawn and dusk relative to other times of the day. Current and lagged effects of water temperature and river discharge, and periods in the lunar cycle were important variables in models quantifying movements into the river and timing of adult arrival at spawning sites. Different suites of covariates were predictive of A. fulverscens responses during different periods of the spawning season. The timing of initiation of migration and spawning, and the importance of covariates to the timing of these events, did not differ between sexes. Stream flow and temperature covaried with other variables including day length and the lunar cycle. Anthropogenic disruption of relationships among variables may mean that environmental cues may no longer reliably convey information for Acipenseriformes and other migratory fishes. PMID:22747803

  4. Arrival time and magnitude of airborne fission products from the Fukushima, Japan, reactor incident as measured in Seattle, WA, USA

    E-print Network

    J. Diaz Leon; D. A. Jaffe; J. Kaspar; A. Knecht; M. L. Miller; R. G. H. Robertson; A. G. Schubert

    2011-08-23

    We report results of air monitoring started due to the recent natural catastrophe on 11 March 2011 in Japan and the severe ensuing damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor complex. On 17-18 March 2011, we registered the first arrival of the airborne fission products 131-I, 132-I, 132-Te, 134-Cs, and 137-Cs in Seattle, WA, USA, by identifying their characteristic gamma rays using a germanium detector. We measured the evolution of the activities over a period of 23 days at the end of which the activities had mostly fallen below our detection limit. The highest detected activity amounted to 4.4 +/- 1.3 mBq/m^3 of 131-I on 19-20 March.

  5. Trends of some high quantiles of average and extremes inter-arrival times and rainfall depths at daily scale for an Italian Sub-Alpine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Stefano; Agnese, Carmelo; Baiamonte, Giorgio; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio; Cat Berro, Daniele; Mercalli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of rainfall statistical structure represents an important research area in hydrology, meteorology, atmospheric physics and climatology, because of the several theoretical and practical implications. The statistical inference of the alternation of wet periods (WP) and dry periods (DP) in daily rainfall records can be achieved through the modelling of inter-arrival time-series (IT), defined as the succession of times elapsed from a rainy day and the one immediately preceding it. It has been shown previously that the statistical structure of IT can be well described by the 3-parameter Lerch distribution (Lch). In this work, Lch was successfully applied to IT data belonging to a sub-alpine area (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta, NW Italy); furthermore the same statistical procedure was applied to daily rainfall records to ITs associated. The analysis has been carried out for 26 daily rainfall long-series (? 90 yr of observations). The main objective of this work was to detect temporal trends of some features describing the statistical structure of both inter-arrival time-series (IT) and associated rainfall depth (H). Each time-series was divided on subsets of five years long and for each of them the estimation of the Lch parameter was performed, so to extend the trend analysis to some high quantiles.

  6. Comparison of P-wave and S-wave data in a fractured reservoir

    E-print Network

    Al-Mustafa, Husam Mustafa

    1993-01-01

    and eliminate the efect of multiples. Velocity analyses were performed to determine the stacking velocities. The data were NMO corrected, muted, and stacked. Residual static corrections were applied to correct for misalignments of reflectors caused by near...-surface irregularities. Due to the presence of noise at frequencies less than 10 Hz in the P-wave data, a highpass filter was applied to the P-wave data before calculating the residual static corrections a second time. Frequencies less than 10 Hz were rejected...

  7. Upper crustal structure of Newberry Volcano from P-wave tomography and finite difference waveform modeling

    E-print Network

    Hooft, Emilie

    modeling Matthew W. Beachly,1 Emilie E. E. Hooft,1 Douglas R. Toomey,1 and Gregory P. Waite2 Received 16 body in the upper crust at Newberry Volcano. We obtain a P-wave tomographic image by combining travel-time tomography alone. Citation: Beachly, M. W., E. E. E. Hooft, D. R. Toomey, and G. P. Waite (2012), Upper

  8. Evidence for the subducting lithosphere under Southern Vancouver Island and Western Oregon from teleseismic P wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, C.A.

    1981-05-10

    Long-period teleseismic P waves recorded at VIC (Victoria, British Columbia) and COR (Corvallis, Orgeon) show anomalously large Ps conversions and later arriving P-to-S reverberations not observed from typical continental crustal sections or from previously proposed structures for these stations determined from refraction surveys. The timing and large amplitude of the Ps phase, relative to direct P, suggests a high velocity-contrast interface at 45 to 50 km depth under VIC and COR forming the base of a distinct low velocity zone. This interface is proposed to be the oceanic Moho which is being subducted under North America. Off azimuth Ps recorded at COR is consistent with a 20/sup 0/ eastward dip for the interface. Horizontal particle motion at both sites show evidence for lateral heterogeneity in local crustal structure. The distinct low velocity zone and its negative gradient with depth has important consequences for refraction interpretation in the region since the usual assumption of increasing velocity with depth is violated. Crustal thicknesses derived from such misinterpretation may be overestimated. In principle, this type of structure suggests a solution for the Vancouver Island crustal thickness problem in which the observed positive Bouguer gravity anomaly is inconsistent with the 50 km thick crustal thickness derived from previous refraction work.

  9. Analysis of near-source contributions to early P-wave coda for underground explosions. II. Frequency dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, T.

    1987-08-01

    Analysis of dispersion in more than 1600 teleseismic short-period P waves from 46 underground explosions has established that near-source effects are responsible for systematic frequency-dependent variations observed in the first 15 sec of the P signals. Explosions from the Nevada, Amchitka, and Novaya Zemlya test sites exhibit a common magnitude dependence of the dispersive behavior, with smaller events having relatively enriched low-frequency (0.4 to 0.8 Hz) energy in the coda. For the Nevada and Amchitka sites, the larger events have relatively enhanced high-frequency (0.8 to 1.1 hz) energy in the coda as well, which may be a consequence of diminished high-frequency content of the direct arrivals. The dispersive behavior also correlates well with known source depths for the Nevada Test Site and Amchitka events, and with estimated pP delay times for the Novaya Zemlya events, indicating that burial depth and/or explosion size are important factors. Pahute Mesa tests show a secondary dependence on position in the site, with centrally located events having stronger dispersion, as well as more pronounced slowly varying azimuthal patterns in frequency dependence. Stations at azimuths NNE from the Mesa have particularly strong dispersion for centrally located events. Spatial and azimuthal variations for Pahute Mesa events do not appear to be the result of aftershock radiation but instead are associated with frequency-dependent defocusing and scattering from a high-velocity structure beneath the test site.

  10. A Study of Process Arrival Patterns for MPI Collective Operations

    E-print Network

    Yuan, Xin

    A Study of Process Arrival Patterns for MPI Collective Operations Ahmad Faraj Pitch Patarasuk Xin Process arrival pattern, which denotes the timing when different processes arrive at an MPI collective the process arrival patterns in a set of MPI programs on two common cluster platforms, use a micro

  11. Repeatable timing of northward departure, arrival and breeding in Black-tailed Godwits Limosa l. limosa , but no domino effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro M. Lourenço; Rosemarie Kentie; Julia Schroeder; Niko M. Groen; Jos C. E. W. Hooijmeijer; Theunis Piersma

    When early breeding is advantageous, migrants underway to the breeding areas may be time stressed. The timing of sequential\\u000a events such as migration and breeding is expected to be correlated because of a “domino effect”, and would be of particular\\u000a biological importance if timings are repeatable within individuals between years. We studied a colour-marked population of\\u000a Black-tailed Godwits Limosa l.

  12. Determination of three-dimensional velocity anomalies under a seismic array using first P arrival times from local earthquakes 1. A homogeneous initial model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiiti Aki; W. H. K. Lee

    1976-01-01

    Geiger's method of locating local earthquakes has been extended to include the effect of P velocity variation along the ray paths in three dimensions. The crustal structure was modeled by rectangular blocks, and a parameter was assigned to each block describing the perturbation of P wave slowness in the block. On the basis of an initial model, a set of

  13. Collisional properties of p-wave Feshbach molecules.

    PubMed

    Inada, Yasuhisa; Horikoshi, Munekazu; Nakajima, Shuta; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Ueda, Masahito; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2008-09-01

    We have observed p-wave Feshbach molecules for all three combinations of the two lowest hyperfine spin states of 6Li. By creating a pure molecular sample in an optical trap, we measured the inelastic collision rates of p-wave molecules. We have also measured the elastic collision rate from the thermalization rate of a breathing mode which was excited spontaneously upon molecular formation. PMID:18851195

  14. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Marcus Alexander; Willis, Michael David; Covert, Timothy T.

    2014-09-01

    The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as the more meaningful pressure time histories.

  15. Discretized versus continuous models of p-wave interacting fermions in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, Dominik; Fleischhauer, Michael; Schmidt, Bernd [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    We present a general mapping between continuous and lattice models of Bose and Fermi gases in one dimension, interacting via local two-body interactions. For s-wave interacting bosons we arrive at the Bose-Hubbard model in the weakly interacting, low-density regime. The dual problem of p-wave interacting fermions is mapped to the spin-1/2 XXZ model close to the critical point in the highly polarized regime. The mappings are shown to be optimal in the sense that they produce the least error possible for a given discretization length. As an application we examine the ground state of an interacting Fermi gas in a harmonic trap, calculating numerically real-space and momentum-space distributions as well as two-particle correlations. In the analytically known limits the convergence of the results of the lattice model with the continuous one is shown.

  16. Tracking unilateral earthquake rupture by P-wave polarization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, B.; Kind, R.; Hoffmann, M.; Yuan, X.; Meier, T.

    2012-03-01

    Rapid estimation of earthquake rupture propagation is essential to declare an early warning for tsunami-generating earthquakes. An increasing number of seismological methods have been developed to determine rupture parameters, such as length, velocity and propagation direction, especially since the occurrence of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that resulted in a devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean region. Here, we present a new method to follow the rupture process in near real time by a polarization analysis of local and regional P phases that permits a faster determination of rupture properties than using teleseismic records. The new technique has the capability to provide detailed information in less than 10 min. Originally, the method stems from a single-station earthquake location method and is expanded here to monitor P-phase polarization variations through time. As the earthquake source moves away from the hypocentre, the backazimuth of an incoming P phase is expected to change accordingly. With polarization analysis we may be able to monitor the temporal change in P-wave backazimuth to follow the rupture process in near real time. Three component P phases are scanned to determine the azimuthal variation as a function of time. The backazimuth of a moving rupture front is determined by the first eigenvector of the covariance matrix. The linearity of the particle motion is used as a measure of the quality of the data. Seismic stations at local and regional distances (?) are used. We tested the new method with a theoretical simulation and observed seismograms of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (2004 December 26, Mw= 9.3), and we were able to follow the rupture for the first 200 s. For larger ruptures, stations at more than 30° epicentral distances would be required. The method is also successfully applied to the Wenchuan earthquake (2008 May 12, Mw= 8.0).

  17. Supercurrent in a p-wave holographic superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Huabi [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The p-wave and p+ip-wave holographic superconductors with fixed DC supercurrent are studied by introducing a nonvanishing vector potential. We find that close to the critical temperature T{sub c} of zero current, the numerical results of both the p-wave model and the p+ip model are the same as those of Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory; for example, the critical current is j{sub c}{approx}(T{sub c}-T){sup 3/2} and the phase transition in the presence of a DC current is a first-order transition. Beside the similar results between both models, the p+ip superconductor shows isotropic behavior for the supercurrent, while the p-wave superconductor shows anisotropic behavior for the supercurrent.

  18. Shallow three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure revealed by seismic experiment Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tameguri, T.; Iguchi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Sakurajima is a post-caldera cone situated on the southern rim of Aira caldera, south Kyushu, Japan. It consists of two adjoining stratovolcanoes, Kitadake (-13,000 yrs BP) and Minamidake (-5,000 yrs BP). Explosive eruptions have frequently occurred at the summit crater Minamidake since 1955. Main magma reservoir is estimated at a depth of 10 km near the center of the Aira caldera and a minor reservoir is located at shallow (5 km) beneath the Minamidake (Eto, 1991). The two reservoirs are possibly connected by a tensile fault of strike NE-SW as inferred from hypocenter distributions and source mechanisms of VT earthquakes and geodetic data (Hidayati et al., 2007). Seismic experiment was carried in November, 2008 in order to investigate seismic velocity structure, location of magma storage and magma path from the chamber beneath the Aira caldera to the crater of Sakurajima volcano. In the seismic experiment, we used 15 shot points of dynamite and installed about 640 temporary seismic stations. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure beneath the Sakurajima volcano is estimated using 3400 arrival times of the first motions from large 8 shots. A high velocity anomaly (+10 % from initial structure) at sea level is detected at north part of the active crater and velocity around mountain body is lower than 2.1 km/s. This high velocity may correspond to old mountain body of the Kitadake. A high velocity anomaly (+15 %) and a low velocity anomaly (-10 %) are found in SSE and NE parts of the crater at the depth of 2 km, respectively. Gravity survey showed that high and low gravity anomalies at SE and NE parts of Sakurajima, respectively (Komazawa et al., 2008). The seismic velocity structure is consistent with the anomalies of the gravity research. The low velocity anomaly at NE part at the depth of 2 km may be related to magma path from the reservoir beneath the Aira caldera to the Minamidake crater, because tensile fault across the volcano from magma reservoir beneath the Aira caldera (Hidayati et al., 2007) is located beneath the low velocity anomaly.

  19. 3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Deep Galicia Rifted Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakci, Gaye; Minshull, Timothy; Davy, Richard; Sawyer, Dale; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Reston, Timothy; Shillington, Donna; Ranero, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    The combined wide-angle reflection-refraction and multi-channel seismic (MCS) experiment, Galicia 3D, was carried out in 2013 at the Galicia rifted margin in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain. The main geological features within the 64 by 20 km (1280 km²) 3D box investigated by the survey are the peridotite ridge (PR), the fault bounded, rotated basement blocks and the S reflector, which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault. 44 short period four-component ocean bottom seismometers and 28 ocean bottom hydrophones were deployed in the 3D box. 3D MCS profiles sampling the whole box were acquired with two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. fired alternately every 37.5 m. We present the results from 3D first-arrival time tomography that constrains the P-wave velocity in the 3D box, for the entire depth sampled by reflection data. Results are validated by synthetic tests and by the comparison with Galicia 3D MCS lines. The main outcomes are as follows: 1- The 3.5 km/s iso-velocity contour mimics the top of the acoustic basement observed on MCS profiles. Block bounding faults are imaged as velocity contrasts and basement blocks exhibit 3D topographic variations. 2- On the southern profiles, the top of the PR rises up to 5.5 km depth whereas, 20 km northward, its basement expression (at 6.5 km depth) nearly disappears. 3- The 6.5 km/s iso-velocity contour matches the topography of the S reflector where the latter is visible on MCS profiles. Within a depth interval of 0.6 km (in average), velocities beneath the S reflector increase from 6.5 km/s to 7 km/s, which would correspond to a decrease in the degree of serpentinization from ~45 % to ~30 % if these velocity variations are caused solely by variations in hydration. At the intersections between the block bounding normal faults and the S reflector, this decrease happens over a larger depth interval (> 1 km), suggesting that faults act as conduit for the water flow in the upper mantle.

  20. 3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Deep Galicia Rifted Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakci, G.; Minshull, T. A.; Davy, R. G.; Sawyer, D. S.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Reston, T. J.; Shillington, D. J.; Ranero, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The combined wide-angle reflection-refraction and multi-channel seismic (MCS) experiment, Galicia 3D, was carried out in 2013 at the Galicia rifted margin in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain. The main geological features within the 64 by 20 km (1280 km²) 3D box investigated by the survey are the peridotite ridge (PR), the fault bounded, rotated basement blocks and the S reflector, which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault. 44 short period four-component ocean bottom seismometers and 28 ocean bottom hydrophones were deployed in the 3D box. 3D MCS profiles sampling the whole box were acquired with two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. fired alternately every 37.5 m. We present the results from 3D first-arrival time tomography that constrains the P-wave velocity in the 3D box, for the entire depth sampled by reflection data. Results are validated by synthetic tests and by the comparison with Galicia 3D MCS lines. The main outcomes are as follows: 1- The 3.5 km/s iso-velocity contour mimics the top of the acoustic basement observed on MCS profiles. Block bounding faults are imaged as velocity contrasts and basement blocks exhibit 3D topographic variations. 2- On the southern profiles, the top of the PR rises up to 5.5 km depth whereas, 20 km northward, its basement expression (at 6.5 km depth) nearly disappears. 3- The 6.5 km/s iso-velocity contour matches the topography of the S reflector where the latter is visible on MCS profiles. Within a depth interval of 0.6 km (in average), velocities beneath the S reflector increase from 6.5 km/s to 7 km/s, which would correspond to a decrease in the degree of serpentinization from ~45 % to ~30 % if these velocity variations are caused solely by variations in hydration. At the intersections between the block bounding normal faults and the S reflector, this decrease happens over a larger depth interval (> 1 km), suggesting that faults act as conduit for the water flow in the upper mantle.

  1. Memory of the Lake Rotorua catchment - time lag of the water in the catchment and delayed arrival of contaminants from past land use activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Daughney, Christopher J.; Stewart, Michael K.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2013-04-01

    The transit time distribution of streamflow is a fundamental descriptor of the flowpaths of water through a catchment and the storage of water within it, controlling its response to landuse change, pollution, ecological degradation, and climate change. Significant time lags (catchment memory) in the responses of streams to these stressors and their amelioration or restoration have been observed. Lag time can be quantified via water transit time of the catchment discharge. Mean transit times can be in the order of years and decades (Stewart et al 2012, Morgenstern et al., 2010). If the water passes through large groundwater reservoirs, it is difficult to quantify and predict the lag time. A pulse shaped tracer that moves with the water can allow quantification of the mean transit time. Environmental tritium is the ideal tracer of the water cycle. Tritium is part of the water molecule, is not affected by chemical reactions in the aquifer, and the bomb tritium from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing represents a pulse shaped tracer input that allows for very accurate measurement of the age distribution parameters of the water in the catchment discharge. Tritium time series data from all catchment discharges (streams and springs) into Lake Rotorua, New Zealand, allow for accurate determination of the age distribution parameters. The Lake Rotorua catchment tritium data from streams and springs are unique, with high-quality tritium data available over more than four decades, encompassing the time when the bomb-tritium moved through the groundwater system, and from a very high number of streams and springs. Together with the well-defined tritium input into the Rotorua catchment, this data set allows for the best understanding of the water dynamics through a large scale catchment, including validation of complicated water mixing models. Mean transit times of the main streams into the lake range between 27 and 170 years. With such old water discharging into the lake, most of the water inflows into the lake are not yet fully representing the nitrate loading in their sub-catchments from current land use practises. These water inflows are still 'diluted' by pristine old water, but over time, the full amount of nitrate load will arrive at the lake. With the age distribution parameters, it is possible to predict the increase in nitrate load to the lake via the groundwater discharges. All sub-catchments have different mean transit times. The mean transit times are not necessarily correlated with observable hydrogeologic properties like hydraulic conductivity and catchment size. Without such age tracer data, it is therefore difficult to predict mean transit times (lag times, memory) of water transfer through catchments. References: Stewart, M.K., Morgenstern, U., McDonnell, J.J., Pfister, L. (2012). The 'hidden streamflow' challenge in catchment hydrology: A call to action for streamwater transit time analysis. Hydrol. Process. 26,2061-2066, Invited commentary. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9262 Morgenstern, U., Stewart, M.K., and Stenger, R. (2010) Dating of streamwater using tritium in a post nuclear bomb pulse world: continuous variation of mean transit time with streamflow, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, 14, 2289-2301

  2. 14 CFR 93.23 - Arrival Authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and Delay Reduction at Chicago O'Hare International...following factors: (1) The number of delays; (2) The length of delays; (3) Weather conditions; (4) On-time arrivals and departures; (5)...

  3. 14 CFR 93.23 - Arrival Authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and Delay Reduction at Chicago O'Hare International...following factors: (1) The number of delays; (2) The length of delays; (3) Weather conditions; (4) On-time arrivals and departures; (5)...

  4. Tomographic imaging of local earthquake delay times for three-dimensional velocity variation in western Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Lees; Robert S. Crosson

    1990-01-01

    Tomographic inversion is applied to delay times from local earthquakes to image three dimensional velocity variations in the Puget Sound region of western Washington. The 37,500 square km region is represented by nearly cubic blocks of 5 km per side. P-wave arrival time observations from 4,387 crustal earthquakes, with depths of 0 to 40 km, were used as sources producing

  5. Tomographic imaging of local earthquake delay times for three-dimensional velocity variation in Western Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Lees; Roberts S. Crosson

    1990-01-01

    Tomographic inversion is applied to delay times from local earthquakes to image three dimensional velocity variations in the Puget Sound region of Western Washington. The 37,500 square km region is represented by nearly cubic blocks of 5 km per side. P-wave arrival time observations from 4,387 crustal earthquakes, with depths of 0 to 40 km, were used as sources producing

  6. Crust and upper mantle P wave velocity structure beneath Valles caldera, New Mexico: Results from the Jemez teleseismic tomography experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, Lee K.; Fehler, Michael C.; Roberts, Peter M.; Baldridge, W. Scott; Stafford, Darrik G. [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Lutter, William J.; Sessions, Robert [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)] [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    1998-10-01

    New results are presented from the teleseismic component of the Jemez Tomography Experiment conducted across Valles caldera in northern New Mexico. We invert 4872 relative {ital P} wave arrival times recorded on 50 portable stations to determine velocity structure to depths of 40 km. The three principle features of our model for Valles caldera are: (1) near-surface low velocities of {minus}17{percent} beneath the Toledo embayment and the Valle Grande, (2) midcrustal low velocities of {minus}23{percent} in an ellipsoidal volume underneath the northwest quadrant of the caldera, and (3) a broad zone of low velocities ({minus}15{percent}) in the lower crust or upper mantle. Crust shallower than 20 km is generally fast to the northwest of the caldera and slow to the southeast. Near-surface low velocities are interpreted as thick deposits of Bandelier tuff and postcaldera volcaniclastic rocks. Lateral variation in the thickness of these deposits supports increased caldera collapse to the southeast, beneath the Valle Grande. We interpret the midcrustal low-velocity zone to contain a minimum melt fraction of 10{percent}. While we cannot rule out the possibility that this zone is the remnant 1.2 Ma Bandelier magma chamber, the eruption history and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks erupted in Valles caldera following the Bandelier tuff make it more likely that magma results from a new pulse of intrusion, indicating that melt flux into the upper crust beneath Valles caldera continues. The low-velocity zone near the crust-mantle boundary is consistent with either partial melt in the lower crust or mafic rocks without partial melt in the upper mantle. In either case, this low-velocity anomaly indicates that underplating by mantle-derived melts has occurred. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  7. Crustal structure beneath Long Valley caldera from modeling of teleseismic P wave polarizations and Ps converted waves

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, L.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Prothero, W.A. Jr. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1994-04-10

    In this study, the authors present new constraints on the nature of the low-velocity zone beneath Long Valley caldera, based on the measured propagation directions of teleseismic P waves and on modeling of P to S converted waves. The low-velocity body is a large asymmetrical volume which deepens to the east, extending from depths of 7 to 30 km. It contains lower velocities than originally proposed by earlier teleseismic studies. In particular, there is a tabular feature between 7 and 11 km depth that has a reduction in velocity of about 30%. These low velocities imply a much greater percentage of melt in the crust beneath Long Valley caldera than previously estimated. Array analysis of large delayed arrivals identifies them to be Ps converted waves from the shoulders and roof of this tabular zone. These conversions bound the depth to the magma chamber roof to be within about 10 km of the surface. These results are consistent with elements from several other studies, and the authors present an integrated and improved model of crustal structure at Long Valley. The concordance of the deeper low-velocity zones with regional structural trends implies that the shallow low-velocity feature is a cupola on top of an asymmetric diapiric ridge rising up from the migmatized lower crust of the Basin and Range. The authors present two contrasting interpretations of the geometry of low-velocity zones in the crust: one implies a time-invariant magma chamber and conduit system for Long Valley caldera, the other implies an evolution of that system from a simple vertical regime to its current asymmetrical geometry. 37 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  8. P-wave attenuation tomography of Mount St. Helens: preliminary results from coda-normalized spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Siena, L.; Hicks, S.; Waite, G. P.; Moran, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The P-wave velocity structure of Mount St. Helens has been recently imaged with local earthquake tomography, using the data recorded since its eruption in 1980. Part of this dataset has been processed to obtain a preliminary frequency dependent Qp image of the crust below the volcanic cone. We extended the so-called coda-normalization method, usually applied to S-waves, to the measurement of path-dependent P-wave attenuation. A scattering model has been developed in order to select the best time-window to measure the P-wave spectral amplitude on each trace. The objective is to average the effect of the source radiation pattern with the properties of early coda. The weighting matrix in the final inversion is dependent on the source radiation pattern and the spectral amplitude of noise. The Discrete Picard Condition and the Discrepancy Principle have been applied to investigate the maximum resolution available in each part of the medium. Truncated Singular Value Decomposition as well as Zeroth-, first- and second-order Tikhonov regularization techniques have been investigated by using the multi-resolution inversion code (MuReATA). The interpretation of the preliminary results is carried out by using cluster analysis on velocity and attenuation measurements.

  9. Estimating Seismic Moment From Broadband P-Waves for Tsunami Warnings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshorn, B. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), located in Ewa Beach, Oahu, Hawaii, is responsible for issuing local, regional, and distant tsunami warnings to Hawaii, and for issuing regional and distant tsunami warnings to the rest of the Pacific Basin, exclusive of the US West Coast. The PTWC must provide these tsunami warnings as soon as technologically possible, based entirely on estimates of a potentially tsunamigenic earthquake's source parameters. We calculate the broadband P-wave moment magnitude, Mwp, from the P or pP wave velocity seismograms [Tsuboi et al., 1995, 1999]. This method appears to work well for regional and teleseismic events [ Tsuboi et al (1999], Whitmore et al (2002), Hirshorn et al (2004) ]. Following Tsuboi, [1995], we consider the displacement record of the P-wave portion of the broadband seismograms as an approximate source time function and integrate this record to obtain the moment rate function, Mo(t), and the moment magnitude [Hanks and Kanamori, 1972] as a function of time, Mw(t). We present results for Mwp for local, regional, and teleseismic broad band recordings for earthquakes in the Mw 5 to 9.3 range. As large Hawaii events are rare, we tested this local case using other Pacific events in the magnitude 5.0 to 7.5 range recorded by nearby stations. Signals were excluded, however, if the epicentral distance was so small (generally less than 1 degree) that there was contamination by the S-wave too closely following the P-waves. Scatter plots of Mwp against the Harvard Mw for these events shows that Mwp does predict Mw well from seismograms recorded at local, regional, and teleseismic distances. For some complex earthquakes, eg. the Mw 8.4(HRV) Peru earthquake of June 21, 2001, Mwp underestimates Mw if the first moment release is not the largest. Our estimates of Mwp for the Mw 9.3 Summatra-Andaman Island's earthquake of December 26, 2004 and for the Mw 8.7 (HRV) Summatra event of March 28, 2005, were Mwp 8.1, Mwp 8.7 respectively, from p-waves recorded at 15 - 90 degrees from each hypocenter.

  10. Holographic p-wave superconductors from Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Ronggen; Nie Zhangyu; Zhang Haiqing [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-09-15

    We study the holographic p-wave superconductors in a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity with an SU(2) Yang-Mills gauge field. In the probe approximation, we find that when the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient grows, the condensation of the vector field becomes harder, both the perpendicular and parallel components, with respect to the direction of the condensation, of the anisotropic conductivity decrease. We also study the mass of the quasiparticle excitations, the gap frequency and the DC conductivities of the p-wave superconductor. All of them depend on the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient. In addition, we observe a strange behavior for the condensation and the relation between the gap frequency and the mass of quasiparticles when the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient is larger than 9/100, which is the upper bound for the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient from the causality of the dual field theory.

  11. P-wave baryons in the quark model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Isgur; Gabriel Karl

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the spectrum and mixing angles of negative-parity baryons in a quark-model framework inspired by quantum chromodynamics. We take into account in zero order the removal of the degeneracy between the two P-wave states of the three-quark system in the S=-1 sector, as well as the hyperfine interaction between quarks, but neglect spin-orbit coupling. We find good agreement with

  12. Decays rates for S- and P-wave bottomium

    SciTech Connect

    Bodwin, G.T.; Kim, S.; Sinclair, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    The authors use the Bodwin-Braaten-Lepage factorization scheme to separate the long- and short-distance factors that contribute to the decay rates of {Upsilon}, {eta}{sub b} (S-wave) and {chi}{sub b},h{sub b} (P-wave). The long distance matrix elements are calculated on the lattice in the quenched approximation using a non-relativistic formulation of the b quark dynamics.

  13. Electrocardiographic P-wave characteristics in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Erdogan, Ercan; Tasal, Abdurrrahman; Vatankulu, Mehmet Akif; Kul, Seref; Sevgili, Emrah; Ertas, Gokhan; Dizman, Didem; Onsun, Nahide; Uysal, Omer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Psoriasis vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders. Patients with psoriasis carry an excessive risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The differences between the maximum (Pmax) and the minimum (Pmin) P-wave duration on ECG are defined as P-wave dispersion (PWD). Prolongation of PWD is an independent risk factor for the development of AF. The aim of this the study was to investigate P-wave duration and PWD in patients with psoriasis. Methods Sixty-one adult patients with psoriasis vulgaris (group 1) and 58 age and sex-matched healthy individuals (group 2) were included in this study. ECG recordings were obtained, and the P-wave variables were calculated. Results were reported as mean ± standard deviation and percentages. Continuous variables were analysed using Student's t test. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically signi?cant. Results Pmax and PWD were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (108.8 ± 21.3 ms versus 93.3 ± 13.0 ms, P < 0.001; 67.4 ± 22.9 ms versus 45.0 ± 19.6 ms, P < 0.001, respectively). Also, Pmin was significantly lower in group 1 (41.3 ± 12.3 ms versus 48.3 ± 14.3 ms, P = 0.04). The psoriasis disease activity score and hsCRP correlated with PWD (P < 0.01). Conclusions Atrial conduction of sinus impulses was impaired in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. It was more prominent in patients with severe disease. Physicians caring for patients with psoriasis vulgaris should screen them for AF development. PMID:23153368

  14. Kondo resonance from p-wave hybridization in graphene.

    PubMed

    Jafari, S A; Tohyama, T

    2014-10-15

    The p-wave hybridization in graphene present a distinct class of Kondo problem in pseudogap Fermi systems with bath density of states (DOS) ??(?) ? |?|. The peculiar geometry of substitutional and hollow-site ad-atoms, and effectively the vacancies allow for a p-wave form of momentum dependence in the hybridization of the associated local orbital with the Dirac fermions of the graphene host which results in a different picture than the s-wave momentum independent hybridization. For the p-wave hybridization function, away from the Dirac point we find closed-form formulae for the Kondo temperature TK which in contrast to the s-wave case is non-zero for any value of hybridization strength V of the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM). At the Dirac point where the DOS vanishes, we find a conceivably small value of Vmin above which the Kondo screening takes place even in the presence of particle-hole symmetry. We also show that the non-Lorentzian line shape of the local spectrum arising from anomalous hybridization function leads to much larger TK in vacant graphene compared to a metallic host with similar bandwidth and SIAM parameters. PMID:25237820

  15. Kondo resonance from p-wave hybridization in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, S. A.; Tohyama, T.

    2014-10-01

    The p-wave hybridization in graphene present a distinct class of Kondo problem in pseudogap Fermi systems with bath density of states (DOS) ?0(?) ? |?|. The peculiar geometry of substitutional and hollow-site ad-atoms, and effectively the vacancies allow for a p-wave form of momentum dependence in the hybridization of the associated local orbital with the Dirac fermions of the graphene host which results in a different picture than the s-wave momentum independent hybridization. For the p-wave hybridization function, away from the Dirac point we find closed-form formulae for the Kondo temperature TK which in contrast to the s-wave case is non-zero for any value of hybridization strength V of the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM). At the Dirac point where the DOS vanishes, we find a conceivably small value of Vmin above which the Kondo screening takes place even in the presence of particle–hole symmetry. We also show that the non-Lorentzian line shape of the local spectrum arising from anomalous hybridization function leads to much larger TK in vacant graphene compared to a metallic host with similar bandwidth and SIAM parameters.

  16. p-wave optical Feshbach resonances in {sup 171}Yb

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Krittika; Deutsch, Ivan [Center for Quantum Information and Control, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Reichenbach, Iris [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    We study the use of an optical Feshbach resonance to modify the p-wave interaction between ultracold polarized {sup 171}Yb spin-1/2 fermions. A laser exciting two colliding atoms to the {sup 1}S{sub 0}+{sup 3}P{sub 1} channel can be detuned near a purely-long-range excited molecular bound state. Such an exotic molecule has an inner turning point far from the chemical binding region, and thus, three-body recombination in the Feshbach resonance will be highly suppressed in contrast to that typically seen in a ground-state p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance. We calculate the excited molecular bound-state spectrum using a multichannel integration of the Schroedinger equation, including an external perturbation by a magnetic field. From the multichannel wave functions, we calculate the Feshbach resonance properties, including the modification of the elastic p-wave scattering volume and inelastic spontaneous scattering rate. The use of magnetic fields and selection rules for polarized light yields a highly controllable system. We apply this control to propose a toy model for three-color superfluidity in an optical lattice for spin-polarized {sup 171}Yb, where the three colors correspond to the three spatial orbitals of the first excited p band. We calculate the conditions under which tunneling and on-site interactions are comparable, at which point quantum critical behavior is possible.

  17. GPS/Loran-C interoperability for time and frequency applications: A survey of the times of arrival of Loran-C transmissions via GPS common mode/common view satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penrod, Bruce; Funderburk, Richard; Dana, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The results from this survey clearly indicate that the Global Positioning System (GPS) time transfer capability is superior to that of the Loran-C system for absolute timing accuracy, and that even with the most careful calibration of the Loran-C receiver delay and propagation path, inexplicable time of arrival (TOA) biases remain which are larger than the variations across all of the transmitters. Much more data covering years would be needed to show that these biases were stable enough to be removed with a one time site calibration. The synchronization of the transmissions is excellent, all showing low parts in 10(exp 13) offsets versus the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) master clock. With the exception of the Searchlight transmitter, all of the transmissions exhibit timing stabilities over the entire period of less than 300 ns RMS which is at the observed levels of GPS under selective availability (SA). The Loran-C phase instabilities take place over a much greater time interval than those being forced onto the GPS signals under SA, providing for better medium to short term frequency stability. Data show that all but the most distant transmitters offer better than three parts in 10(exp 11) stability at this averaging time. It is in the frequency control area where GPS/Loran-C interoperation will offer some synergistic advantages over GPS alone under SA.

  18. Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Arrival Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Data for Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Structure Around SAFOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.; Maceira, M.; Roux, P.

    2013-12-01

    The crust around the San Andreas Fault Observatory at depth (SAFOD) has been the subject of many geophysical studies aimed at characterizing in detail the fault zone structure and elucidating the lithologies and physical properties of the surrounding rocks. Seismic methods in particular have revealed the complex two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the crustal volume around SAFOD and the strong velocity reduction in the fault damage zone. In this study we conduct a joint inversion using body-wave arrival times and surface-wave dispersion data to image the P-and S-wave velocity structure of the upper crust surrounding SAFOD. The two data types have complementary strengths - the body-wave data have good resolution at depth, albeit only where there are crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution and are not dependent on the earthquake source distribution because they are derived from ambient noise. The body-wave data are from local earthquakes and explosions, comprising the dataset analyzed by Zhang et al. (2009). The surface-wave data are for Love waves from ambient noise correlations, and are from Roux et al. (2011). The joint inversion code is based on the regional-scale version of the double-difference (DD) tomography algorithm tomoDD. The surface-wave inversion code that is integrated into the joint inversion algorithm is from Maceira and Ammon (2009). The propagator matrix solver in the algorithm DISPER80 (Saito, 1988) is used for the forward calculation of dispersion curves from layered velocity models. We examined how the structural models vary as we vary the relative weighting of the fit to the two data sets and in comparison to the previous separate inversion results. The joint inversion with the 'optimal' weighting shows more clearly the U-shaped local structure from the Buzzard Canyon Fault on the west side of SAF to the Gold Hill Fault on the east side.

  19. Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Arrival Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Data in the Wavelet Domain Constrained by Sparsity Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Fang, H.; Yao, H.; Maceira, M.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, Zhang et al. (2014, Pure and Appiled Geophysics) have developed a joint inversion code incorporating body-wave arrival times and surface-wave dispersion data. The joint inversion code was based on the regional-scale version of the double-difference tomography algorithm tomoDD. The surface-wave inversion part uses the propagator matrix solver in the algorithm DISPER80 (Saito, 1988) for forward calculation of dispersion curves from layered velocity models and the related sensitivities. The application of the joint inversion code to the SAFOD site in central California shows that the fault structure is better imaged in the new model, which is able to fit both the body-wave and surface-wave observations adequately. Here we present a new joint inversion method that solves the model in the wavelet domain constrained by sparsity regularization. Compared to the previous method, it has the following advantages: (1) The method is both data- and model-adaptive. For the velocity model, it can be represented by different wavelet coefficients at different scales, which are generally sparse. By constraining the model wavelet coefficients to be sparse, the inversion in the wavelet domain can inherently adapt to the data distribution so that the model has higher spatial resolution in the good data coverage zone. Fang and Zhang (2014, Geophysical Journal International) have showed the superior performance of the wavelet-based double-difference seismic tomography method compared to the conventional method. (2) For the surface wave inversion, the joint inversion code takes advantage of the recent development of direct inversion of surface wave dispersion data for 3-D variations of shear wave velocity without the intermediate step of phase or group velocity maps (Fang et al., 2014, Geophysical Journal International). A fast marching method is used to compute, at each period, surface wave traveltimes and ray paths between sources and receivers. We will test the new joint inversion code at the SAFOD site to compare its performance over the previous code. We will also select another fault zone such as the San Jacinto Fault Zone to better image its structure.

  20. Estimation of Electro-Magnetic Signals Generated by Stress Changes before the Arrival of Seismic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to increase the efficiency of earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. Conventional EEW systems detect occurrence of earthquakes by means of detecting seismic P-waves; thus, they cannot make alert before P-waves reach the ground surface in principle. If we desires to break this limitation, we must observe other physical quantities including the electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational fields, variations of which propagate faster than elastic waves. The present study focuses on changes in the magnetic field generated by co-seismic stress changes in the Earth's crust. When magnetic minerals in the Earth's crust are subjected to mechanical forces, increments or decrements of magnetization appear. This is called the piezomagnetic effect. Significant changes in values of the geomagnetic field has frequently observed between before and after major earthquakes or volcanic ground deformation, which is considered to be generated by the piezomagnetic effect. The problem is, however, whether or not co-seismic changes in the stress field generates earlier signals, that is, changes in the magnetic field at observation sites which occur before arrival of seismic waves. To answer the question, a set of equations governing elastodynamics, electromagnetics, and the piezomagnetic effect, are solved for a whole space stuffed with a uniform physical properties. An impulsive double couple is assumed to represent the earthquake source mechanism. A set of solutions is derived in time-domain, and its features are investigated for several sets of parameters including electrical conductivity and seismic velocities. We can confirm that there are certain amount of changes in the EM field, even before arrival of seismic waves. EM signals before arrival of seismic waves (i.e. earlier EM signals) are relatively large in the case that the Earth's crust is conductive (> 0.01 S/m). However, the appearance of relatively large EM signal is not simultaneous to the rupture; instead, it is only after seismic waves approach the observation site. This result means detection of earthquakes by means of observing piezomagnetic signals is not easy at present in general, although it will be possible if sensitivity of EM sensors improves.

  1. Observing Majorana bound States in p-Wave Superconductors Using Noise Measurements in Tunneling Experiments

    E-print Network

    Demler, Eugene

    are interested in the case of p-wave chiral superconductors (i.e., with an order parameter of the type ^px i ^py3) [4]. Superconductors with p-wave orbital symmetry have spin-triplet pairing, and the orderObserving Majorana bound States in p-Wave Superconductors Using Noise Measurements in Tunneling

  2. Original Article Assessment of the P Wave Dispersion and Duration in Elite Women Basketball Players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gokhan Metin; Mustafa Yildiz; Bulent Bayraktar; Ilker Yucesir; Hasan Kasap; Lutfi Cakar

    Background: P wave dispersion is an independent predictor of atrial fibrillation. P wave dispersion is associated with inhomogeneous and discontinuous propagation of sinus impulses. The purpose of this study was to investigate P wave dispersion and transthoracic echocardiographic findings in elite women basketball players. Methods: We recruited 27 well-trained woman athletes with a training history of many years (11.9 ±

  3. First in line or first in time? Effects of settlement order and arrival date on reproduction in a group-living beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    PubMed

    Latty, Tanya M; Reid, Mary L

    2009-05-01

    1. In group-living organisms, individuals that initiate aggregations, termed pioneers, may suffer higher mortality costs than individuals that join established aggregations. Here we examine the hypothesis that aggregation initiators achieve higher reproductive success in the early phases of colonization, potentially through lower competition and increased access to the resource (finder's advantage), and that this benefit is sufficient to outweigh the costs of pioneering. 2. We also examine the role of arrival date (irrespective of order within the aggregation) on reproductive success, because individuals in seasonal environments may gain an advantage by arriving early. We test these hypotheses using mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), an obligately aggregating insect wherein pioneers suffer high mortality due to tree defences. We measured reproductive success at the start of winter when most components of final offspring number were likely to be determined. 3. Surviving pioneers that successfully recruited conspecifics had smaller broods than individuals that joined aggregations, refuting our hypothesis. The later that a beetle settled within an aggregation, the higher its reproductive success. However, beetles that settled early in the season produced more offspring than those that settled later in the season, and this effect was generally stronger than settlement order within an aggregation. Our study highlights the importance of examining the effects of both settlement order and arrival date on the costs and benefits of pioneering aggregations. PMID:19292705

  4. Quasi-Newton inversion of seismic first arrivals using source finite1 bandwidth assumption: application to landslides characterization2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Samyn et al. (2011) used a 3D seismic refraction traveltime52 tomography to provide a valuableMarillier (2000) interpreted the late arrivals of P-waves to image the bedrock geometry48 using seismic reflection and continuous representation of the 3D structure and geology of a53 landslide. Grandjean et al. (2007

  5. Vortex with Fractional Quantum Numbers in Chiral p-Wave Superconductor

    E-print Network

    J. Goryo

    1999-11-10

    We show that a vortex in a chiral p-wave superconductor, which has the p_{x}+ i p_{y}-wave pairing state and breaks U(1), parity and time reversal symmetry simultaneously, has fractional charge -{n e}/{4} and fractional angular momentum -n^{2}/{16} (n; vorticity). This suggests that the vortex could be anyon and could obey fractional statistics. Electromagnetic property of the vortex is also discussed and we find that an electric field is induced near the vortex core.

  6. p-Wave Cold Collisions in an Optical Lattice Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, N. D.; Sherman, J. A.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Stecher, J. von; Rey, A. M. [JILA, NIST, and University of Colorado, Department of Physics, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2011-09-02

    We study ultracold collisions in fermionic ytterbium by precisely measuring the energy shifts they impart on the atoms' internal clock states. Exploiting Fermi statistics, we uncover p-wave collisions, in both weakly and strongly interacting regimes. With the higher density afforded by two-dimensional lattice confinement, we demonstrate that strong interactions can lead to a novel suppression of this collision shift. In addition to reducing the systematic errors of lattice clocks, this work has application to quantum information and quantum simulation with alkaline-earth atoms.

  7. Hydrodynamic Modes of a holographic $p-$ wave superfluid

    E-print Network

    Raul E. Arias; Ignacio Salazar Landea

    2014-11-04

    In this work we analyze the hydrodynamics of a $p-$ wave superfluid on its strongly coupled regime by considering its holographic description. We obtain the poles of the retarded Green function through the computation of the quasi-normal modes of the dual AdS black hole background finding diffusive, pseudo-diffusive and sound modes. For the sound modes we compute the speed of sound and its attenuation as function of the temperature. For the diffusive and pseudo-diffusive modes we find that they acquire a non-zero real part at certain finite momentum.

  8. Endstates in multichannel spinless p-wave superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, M.-T.; Kells, G.; Duckheim, M.; Meidan, D.; Brouwer, P. W.

    2012-09-01

    Multimode spinless p-wave superconducting wires with a width W much smaller than the superconducting coherence length ? are known to have multiple low-energy subgap states localized near the wire's ends. Here we compare the typical energies of such endstates for various terminations of the wire: A superconducting wire coupled to a normal-metal stub, a weakly disordered superconductor wire and a wire with smooth confinement. Depending on the termination, we find that the energies of the subgap states can be higher or lower than for the case of a rectangular wire with hard-wall boundaries.

  9. $ SU(3) $ Classification of $ p $-Wave $ ??$ and $ ?'?$ Systems

    E-print Network

    S. U. Chung; E. Klempt; J. G. Körner

    2002-11-07

    An exotic meson, the $\\pi_1(1400)$ with $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$, has been seen to decay into a p-wave $\\eta\\pi$ system. If this decay conserves flavor SU(3), then it can be shown that this exotic meson must be a four-quark state ($q\\bar q+q\\bar q$) belonging to a flavor ${\\bf10}\\oplus{\\bf\\bar{10}}$ representation of SU(3). In contrast, the $\\pi_1(1600)$ with a substantial decay mode into $\\eta'\\pi$ is likely to be a member of a flavor octet.

  10. A Bayesian approach to the detection of temporal changes in P wave velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuo Hurukawa; Masajiro Imoto

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of Akaike's Bayesian information criterion (ABIC), a new method is proposed for detecting a temporal change in a seismic velocity in a source region. The method of joint hypocenter determination was modified in order to determine a seismic velocity in a source layer as a function of time together with hypocenters and station corrections. Arrival times of

  11. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  12. Teleseismic P wave delays and modes of shortening the mantle lithosphere beneath South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Tim; Molnar, Peter; Okaya, David; Eberhart-Phillips, Donna

    2000-09-01

    A high-speed zone in the mantle directly beneath the Southern Alps of New Zealand is required by the recorded pattern of teleseismic P waves. Two parallel lines of 80 seismographs spaced at ˜2 km intervals recorded three earthquakes from the western Pacific with epicentral distances of 52°, 53° and 78°. Azimuthal bearings were all within 15 degrees of the mean trends of the seismograph lines. Differences between measured delays and those predicted from the crustal structure reach 0.8 s along one line and 1.0 s along the other, with the rays for the earliest arriving signals passing the depth of ˜120 km beneath the center of the island. Assuming these early arrivals are due to structure within the mantle shallower than 200 km, they imply that the core of the high-speed zone lies beneath the thickest crust, which has been shortened by ˜100 km of convergence during the past 6-7 Myr. Although the shape and position of the high-speed body cannot be fixed uniquely, a roughly symmetric body centered about a depth of 120 km, 80-100 km wide, with a depth extent of 100 km and with a maximum speed advance of ˜7% satisfies the observations. The pattern of residuals does not fit with those predicted by simple models of intracontinental subduction in which crust and mantle lithosphere are detached and one slab of mantle lithosphere underthrusts the other. Rather, the residuals favor thickening of mantle lithosphere by a more homogenous straining of it, as if mantle lithosphere beneath continental crust behaved as a continuum. An excess mass in the mantle is also required by the observed gravity anomalies, once allowance is made for the seismically determined crustal thickness. This high-density mantle anomaly provides sufficient force (per unit length) to maintain the crustal root, which is approximately twice as thick as that necessary to support the topography.

  13. Relationship between macro-fracture density, P-wave velocity, and permeability of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haichao; Pan, Jienan; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Haitao

    2015-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the quantitative relationship between macro-fracture density, P-wave velocity, porosity and permeability of different coal rank samples from mining areas in North China. The coal sample permeability shows an exponential growth with increasing fracture density. The relation between P-wave velocity and porosity is power function and P-wave velocity decreases with the increasing porosity. P-wave velocity linearly or nonlinearly decreases with the increase of fracture density in the selected coal samples (0.73-3.59% Ro). However, the overall trend is that P-wave velocity decreases with an increase in macro-fracture density. The permeability of coal samples linearly decreases with the increase of P-wave velocity. The quantitative relationship between P-wave velocity and permeability could provide reference for the further study of permeability predicting.

  14. Improved P-wave Tomography of the Lowermost Mantle and Consequences for Mantle and Core Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalcic, H.; Young, M. K.; Muir, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The core mantle boundary (CMB) separates the liquid iron core from the slowly-convecting solid mantle. The ~300 km thick barrier above the boundary has proven to be far more than a simple dividing layer; rather it is a complex region with a range of proposed phenomena such as thermal and compositional heterogeneity, partial melting and anisotropy. Characterizing the heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle through seismic tomography will prove crucial to accurately understanding key geodynamical processes within our planet, not just in the mantle above, but also a possible "mapping" onto the inner core boundary (ICB) through a thermochemical convection in the outer core, which in turn might control the growth of the inner core (e.g. Aubert et al., 2008; Gubbins et al., 2011). Here we obtain high-resolution compressional wave (P-wave) velocity images and uncertainty estimates for the lowermost mantle using travel time data collected by waveform cross-correlation. Strikingly, independent datasets of seismic phases that "see" the lowermost mantle in a different way yield similar P-wave velocity distributions at lower harmonic degrees. We also consider the effect of CMB topography. The images obtained are void of explicit model parameterization and regularization (through transdimensional Bayesian tomography) and contain features on multiple spatial scales. Subsequent spectral analyses reveal a power of heterogeneity three times larger than previous estimates. The P-wave tomograms of the lowermost mantle contain the harmonic degree 2-structure, similar to tomographic images derived from S-wave data (e.g. Ritsema et al. 2011), but with additional higher harmonic degrees (notably, 3-7). In other words, the heterogeneity size is uniformly distributed between about 500 and 6000 km. Inter alia, the resulting heterogeneity spectrum provides a bridge between the long-wavelength features of most global models and the very short-scale dimensions of scatterers mapped in independent studies. We argue that the new images of P-wave velocity in the lowermost mantle, void of explicit parameterization and damping, improve the imaging resolution and provide realistic boundary conditions at the CMB (due to a high sensitivity to heat flux) with important consequences for Earth dynamics.

  15. P wave dispersion in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yavuzkir, Mustafa F.; Atmaca, Murad; Gurok, M. Gurkan; Adiyaman, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: P wave dispersion (Pd) is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P wave duration. It has recently been associated with increased anxiety levels, thereby predisposing affected individuals to fatal heart disease. Despite of evidence of this autonomous nervous system (ANS) relationship, there are no electrocardiography (ECG) studies in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the Pd in OCD patients. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of a total of 25 patients with OCD and same number of physically and mentally healthy age- and gender-matched controls. For psychological testing, Yale-Brown Obsession and Compulsion (Y-BOCS) was administered. Results: Pmax was found to be significantly higher in the patients compared to controls. Pmin did not differ between groups. Left atrium sizes were not different between groups. As for the main parameter investigated in the present study, it was found that Pd was significantly increased in the OCD patients than the controls. Y-BOCS scores for the patient group was positively correlated with Pd (r = 0.73, P < 0.01). Conclusions: In conclusion, our results suggest that Pd may be associated with OCD though our sample is too small to allow us to obtain a clear conclusion. Future studies with larger sample evaluating the effects of treatment are required.

  16. Rupture history of the 1997 Cariaco, Venezuela, earthquake from teleseismic P waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.

    2000-01-01

    A two-step finite-fault waveform inversion scheme is applied to the broadband teleseismic P waves recorded for the strike-slip, Cariaco, Venezuela, earthquake of 9 July 1997 to recover the distribution of mainshock slip. The earthquake is first analyzed using a long narrow fault with a maximum rise time of 20 sec. This line-source analysis indicates that slip propagated to the west with a constant rupture velocity and a relatively short rise time. The results are then used to constrain a second inversion of the P waveforms using a 60-km by 20-km two-dimensional fault. The rupture shows a zone of large slip (1.3-m peak) near the hypocenter and a second, broader source extending updip and to the west at depths shallower than 5 km. The second source has a peak slip of 2.1 meters and accounts for most of the moment of 1.1 × 1026 dyne-cm (6.6 Mww) estimated from the P waves. The inferred rupture pattern is consistent with macroseismic effects observed in the epicentral area.

  17. Search for double charmonium decays of the P-wave spin-triplet bottomonium states

    E-print Network

    Shen, C P; Iijima, T

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 158 million $\\Upsilon(2S)$ events collected with the Belle detector, we search for the first time for double charmonium decays of the $P$-wave spin-triplet bottomonium states ($\\Upsilon(2S) \\to \\gamma \\chi_{bJ}$, $\\chi_{bJ} \\to \\jpsi \\jpsi$, $\\jpsi \\psp$, $\\psp \\psp$ for J=0, 1, and 2). No significant $\\chi_{bJ}$ signal is observed in the double charmonium mass spectra, and we obtain the following upper limits, $\\BR(\\chi_{bJ} \\to \\jpsi \\jpsi)psp)psp \\psp)<3.1\\times 10^{-5}$, $6.2\\times 10^{-5}$, $1.6\\times 10^{-5}$ for J=0, 1, and 2, respectively, at the 90% confidence level. These limits are significantly lower than the central values (with uncertainties of 50% to 70%) predicted using the light cone formalism but are consistent with calculations using the NRQCD factorization approach.

  18. Non-topological nature of the edge current in a chiral p-wave superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edward; Huang, Wen; Lederer, Samuel; Kallin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    The edges of time reversal symmetry breaking topological superconductors support chiral Majorana bound states as well as spontaneous charge currents. The Majorana modes are a robust, topological property, but the charge currents are non-topological-and therefore sensitive to microscopic details-even if we neglect Meissner screening. We give insight into the non-topological nature of edge currents in chiral p-wave superconductors using a variety of theoretical techniques, including lattice Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, the quasiclassical approximation, and the gradient expansion, and describe those special cases where edge currents do have a topological character. While edge currents are not quantized, they are generically large, but can be substantially reduced for a sufficiently anisotropic gap function, a scenario of possible relevance for the putative chiral p-wave superconductor Sr2RuO4 . Supported by NSERC and CIFAR at McMaster and by the Canada Research Chair and Canada Council Killam programs and NSF Grant No. NSF PHY11-25915 (CK). SL is supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, contract DEAC02-76SF00515

  19. Applications of detailed 3D P-wave velocity crustal model in Poland for local, regional and global seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2015-04-01

    The 3D P-wave seismic velocity model was obtained by combining data from multiple studies during past 50 years. Data sources included refraction seismology, reflection seismology, geological boreholes, vertical seismic profiling, magnetotellurics and gravimetry. Use of many data sources allowed creation of detailed 3D P-wave velocity model that reaches to depth of 60 km and includes 6-layers of sediments and 3-layers of the crust. Purpose of this study is to analyze how 3D model influences local (accuracy of location and source time estimation for local events), regional (identification of wide-angle seismic phases) and global (teleseismic tomography) seismic travel times. Additionally we compare results of forward seismic wave propagation with signals observed on short period and broadband stations. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  20. Crustal parameters estimated from P -waves of earthquakes recorded at a small array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James N. Murdock; J. Alan Steppe

    1980-01-01

    TheP-arrival times of local and regional earthquakes that are outside of a small network of seismometers can be used to interpret crustal parameters beneath the network by employing the time-term technique. Even when the estimate of the refractor velocity is poorly determined, useful estimates of the station time-terms can be made. The method is applied to a 20 km diameter

  1. Crustal parameters estimated from P-waves of earthquakes recorded at a small array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James N. Murdock; J. Alan Steppe

    1980-01-01

    The P-arrival times of local and regional earthquakes that are outside of a small network of seismometers can be used to interpret crustal parameters beneath the network by employing the time-term technique. Even when the estimate of the refractor velocity is poorly determined, useful estimates of the station time-terms can be made. The method is applied to a 20 km

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Average Thickness and P-wave Speed of the Crust by Virtual Deep Seismic Sounding (VDSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, D.; Yu, C.; Ning, J.; TAO, K.; Chen, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    Using teleseismic S-waves, VDSS treats the SV-to-P conversion under the free surface (on the station-side) as a virtual source to generate strong, post-critical reflection off the Moho (SsPmp phase). With just a single, good-quality earthquake, arrival-time difference between SsPmp and the direct S-phase (TSsPmp-Ss) can effectively determine the crustal thickness (H) near the receiver. However, there is a strong trade-off between H and P-wave speed (Vp) in the crust. Here we extend VDSS to constrain both H and Vp by taking advantage of the variation in ray-parameters, or incident angles, as a function of epicentral distance. Note that in conventional receiver functions, information contained in data of different ray-parameters is usually lost, because stacking over move-out corrected data is required to get a clear signal. At a given station, we collect data from many events, each with a different ray-parameter of the direct S-phase (ps­). For each event, we 1) estimate the source wavelet of the direct S-wave through particle motion analysis; 2) deconvolve this wavelet from the vertical- and radial-component seismograms (Yu et al., GJI, 2013); and then 3) determine TSsPmp-Ss through waveform modeling. Finally, we analyze data pairs (ps2, T2SsPmp-Ss) to find the best-fitting values of H and Vp. Synthetic tests verify the robustness of the method even with 15% of white noise. Moreover, we applied the method to public domain data from Forrest (FORT), located in the Eucla basin of western Australia. Based on 30 earthquakes from a narrow back-azimuth range (105±15°) but with ps changing from 0.1221 to 0.1349 s/km, we estimate that near FORT, H and Vp are about 44±2 km and 6.67±0.35 km/s, respectively. This crustal thickness is consistent with previous reports - a surprisingly high value for a region where the elevation is less than 200 m. Together with the high Vp, our results imply that the crust has a dense, mafic component.

  3. Seismic Tomography of the Sacramento -- San Joaquin River Delta: Joint P-wave/Gravity and Ambient Noise Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teel, Alexander C.

    The Sacramento -- San Joaquin River Delta (SSJRD) is an area that has been identified as having high seismic hazard but has resolution gaps in the seismic velocity models of the area due to a scarcity of local seismic stations and earthquakes. I present new three-dimensional (3D) P-wave velocity (Vp) and S-wave velocity (Vs) models for the SSJRD which fill in the sampling gaps of previous studies. I have created a new 3D seismic velocity model for the SSJRD, addressing an identified need for higher resolution velocity models in the region, using a new joint gravity/body-wave tomography algorithm. I am able to fit gravity and arrival-time residuals jointly using an empirical density-velocity relationship to take advantage of existing gravity data in the region to help fill in the resolution gaps of previous velocity models in the area. I find that the method enhances the ability to resolve the relief of basin structure relative to seismic-only tomography at this location. I find the depth to the basement to be the greatest in the northwest portion of the SSJRD and that there is a plateau in the basement structure beneath the southeast portion of the SSJRD. From my findings I infer that the SSJRD may be prone to focusing effects and basin amplification of ground motion. A 3D, Vs model for the SSJRD and surrounding area was created using ambient noise tomography. The empirical Green's functions are in good agreement with published cross-correlations and match earthquake waveforms sharing similar paths. The group velocity and shear velocity maps are in good agreement with published regional scale models. The new model maps velocity values on a local scale and successfully recovers the basin structure beneath the Delta. From this Vs model I find the maximum depth of the basin to reach approximately 15 km with the Great Valley Ophiolite body rising to a depth of 10 km east of the SSJRD. We consider our basement-depth estimates from the Vp model to be more robust than from the Vs model.

  4. OSU CAREER FAIR INFORMATION PRE ARRIVAL ARRANGEMENTS

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    registration fee. #12;ARRIVAL INFORMATION Location, Check-in and Unloading Materials The Career Fair is located on the north side of the CH2M Hill Alumni Center to unload and check in before you park. Parking permits and student parking areas. Booth Set Up You may unload your materials any time after 8:30 a.m. at the north

  5. PRE-ARRIVAL HANDBOOK International Office

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    THAMMASAT UNIVERSITY PRE-ARRIVAL HANDBOOK International Office Student Visa Health & Insurance not recommend you to apply for a tourist visa to come to Thailand as a student unless there is a special to student. Then you have to renew after the end of period. This is rather costly and time consumption

  6. An efficient hybrid pseudospectral/finite-difference scheme for solving the TTI pure P-wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Ge; Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2013-04-01

    The pure P-wave equation for modelling and migration in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media has attracted more and more attention in imaging seismic data with anisotropy. The desirable feature is that it is absolutely free of shear-wave artefacts and the consequent alleviation of numerical instabilities generally suffered by some systems of coupled equations. However, due to several forward-backward Fourier transforms in wavefield updating at each time step, the computational cost is significant, and thereby hampers its prevalence. We propose to use a hybrid pseudospectral (PS) and finite-difference (FD) scheme to solve the pure P-wave equation. In the hybrid solution, most of the cost-consuming wavenumber terms in the equation are replaced by inexpensive FD operators, which in turn accelerates the computation and reduces the computational cost. To demonstrate the benefit in cost saving of the new scheme, 2D and 3D reverse-time migration (RTM) examples using the hybrid solution to the pure P-wave equation are carried out, and respective runtimes are listed and compared. Numerical results show that the hybrid strategy demands less computation time and is faster than using the PS method alone. Furthermore, this new TTI RTM algorithm with the hybrid method is computationally less expensive than that with the FD solution to conventional TTI coupled equations.

  7. Arrival Map and Unloading Directions

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Arrival Map and Unloading Directions Arrival Day Instructions If you live in Butterfield A or B at the Exley Science Center before unloading. If you live in Clark Hall, Butterfield C, 200 Church Street, Fauver, or 156 High Street, check in and unload at your residential area, park in one of the des- ignated

  8. Calibration of the bunched exponential distribution of arrival headways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahmi Akçelik; Edward Chung

    The estimation of arrival headways is fundamental to the modelling of gap acceptance processes for estimating capacities of sign-controlled traffic streams, roundabout entry streams and filter turns at signalised intersections. It is also essential in modelling both vehicle-actuated signal timings and queuing at all types of intersections for performance prediction. This paper considers a class of arrival headway distributions known

  9. Signal processing and tracking of arrivals in ocean acoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Dzieciuch, Matthew A

    2014-11-01

    The signal processing for ocean acoustic tomography experiments has been improved to account for the scattering of the individual arrivals. The scattering reduces signal coherence over time, bandwidth, and space. In the typical experiment, scattering is caused by the random internal-wave field and results in pulse spreading (over arrival-time and arrival-angle) and wander. The estimator-correlator is an effective procedure that improves the signal-to-noise ratio of travel-time estimates and also provides an estimate of signal coherence. The estimator-correlator smoothes the arrival pulse at the expense of resolution. After an arrival pulse has been measured, it must be associated with a model arrival, typically a ray arrival. For experiments with thousands of transmissions, this is a tedious task that is error-prone when done manually. An error metric that accounts for peak amplitude as well as travel-time and arrival-angle can be defined. The Viterbi algorithm can then be adapted to the task of automated peak tracking. Repeatable, consistent results are produced that are superior to a manual tracking procedure. The tracking can be adjusted by tuning the error metric in logical, quantifiable manner. PMID:25373953

  10. The correlations between the saturated and dry P-wave velocity of rocks.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, S

    2007-11-01

    Sometimes engineers need to estimate the wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity. An estimation equation embracing all rock classes will be useful for the rock engineers. To investigate the predictability of wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity, P-wave velocity measurements were performed on 41 different rock types, 11 of which were igneous, 15 of which were sedimentary and 15 of which was metamorphic. In addition to the dry- and wet-rock P-wave velocity measurements, the P-wave velocity changing as a function of saturation degree was studied. Moreover, dry-rock S-wave velocity measurements were conducted. The test results were modeled using Gassmann's and Wood's theory and it was seen that the measured data did not fit the theories. The unconformity is due to the fact that the theories are valid for high-porosity unconsolidated sediments at low frequencies. Gassmann's equation was modified for the rocks except high-porosity unconsolidated sediments. The dry- and wet-rock P-wave velocity values were evaluated using regression analysis. A strong linear correlation between the dry- and wet-rock P-wave velocities was found. Regression analyses were repeated for the rock classes and it was shown that correlation coefficients were increased. Concluding remark is that the derived equations can be used for the prediction of wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity. PMID:17624388

  11. P-wave velocity anomalies of the plume beneath the French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayashi, Masayuki; Yoshimitsu, Junko; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Isse, Takehi; Shiobara, Hajime; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2015-04-01

    The French Polynesian region is characterized by positive topographic anomalies of 700 m, a concentration of hotspot chains. Many seismic tomography results show a broad low-velocity anomaly in the lower mantle continued from the base of the mantle. These observations suggest that a large-scale mantle flow rises from the bottom of the mantle beneath the region. Joint Japanese-French broadband seismological observations were performed from 2001 to 2005 with 10 island stations from the Polynesian PLUME project (Barruol et al. 2002) and 10 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) from the Polynesian BBOBS project (Suetsugu et al. 2005). A P-wave tomography using the data from these projects revealed that large-scale low-velocity anomalies (on the order of 1000 km in diameter) from the bottom of the mantle become smaller-scale low-velocity anomalies (on the order of 100 km in diameter) at the depth of about 1000 km. However the connection of the small-scale low-velocity anomalies to the surface hotspots was not unrevealed because of the poor resolution in the upper mantle. A new P-wave tomography with better resolution in the upper mantle was obtained by adding data from BBOSBSs around Society Islands deployed along the TIARES project during 2009 - 2010 (Suetsugu et al. 2012) and by taking the finite frequency effect into account for the frequency-depended differential travel times. The frequency-depended differential travel times were measured by multi-band cross correlating P waveforms. The new P-wave tomography shows strong low-velocity anomalies beneath the Society Islands and Pitcairn in the upper mantle although they do not extend to the 660-km discontinuity. This model also shows that small-scale low-velocity anomalies in the uppermost lower mantle. The low-velocity anomalies in the depth range about 550 - 900 km are smaller both in lateral area and amplitude than those in most of the upper mantle and the lower mantle. The velocity patterns are well correlated each other in the depth range but are not correlated with the patterns above and below, indicating the mantle beneath the French polynesia can be divided into 3 layers in terns of radial correlation.

  12. Converted-wave PS arrivals in tilted TI media: Analysis of ray-paths and amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Martinez, J.; Calderon-Macias, C.

    2005-05-01

    Converted-waves, i.e., downgoing P-waves that convert upon reflection to S-waves, excited by a compressional source and recorded by horizontal geophones provide a measure of media properties that relate to rock type and fluid saturation. Other uses that have arisen from measuring, analyzing and interpreting PS-waves, include improved structural imaging in formations with occurrence of gas and analysis of seismic anisotropy for estimating fracture density and orientation. Addressing anisotropy in the seismic processing flow is paramount due to the strong influence of this phenomenon in the wave path. Furthermore, analyses of both traveltimes and amplitudes that include anisotropic parameters provide a better picture of the subsurface. Anisotropy types used to describe common geologic scenarios include vertical and horizontal transversely isotropy (VTI and HTI, respectively). Presence of horizontal shale formations is a common cause of the VTI type, while a single vertical fracture system is a typical example of the HTI. Another degree of complexity is to consider a tilted symmetry axis corresponding to a formation with thin layers that are dipping, or the presence of non-vertical fractures. These media, described as tilted TI, have important observable effects on the converted-wave arrivals: i) asymmetry of the wave-path; ii) shear-wave splitting; and iii) non-zero amplitudes at zero offset. Based on numerical modeling, effects of the tilt in the simmetry axis on arrival times, travel path, and amplitudes of the converted waves are analyzed. Ultimate objectives of the work include quantifying these effects on converted-wave data processing, and investigating the reflected wavefield signature for retrieving tilt angle in situations where the stress field induces thin layering or fractures with a tilted symmetry axis.

  13. P -wave charmed baryons from QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Chen, Wei; Mao, Qiang; Hosaka, Atsushi; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2015-03-01

    We study the P -wave charmed baryons using the method of QCD sum rule in the framework of heavy quark effective theory. We consider systematically all possible baryon currents with a derivative for internal ? - and ? -mode excitations. We have found a good working window for the currents corresponding to the ? -mode excitations for ?c(2595 ), ?c(2625 ), ?c(2790 ), and ?c(2815 ) that complete two S U (3 ) 3¯F multiplets of JP=1 /2- and 3 /2-, while the currents corresponding to the ? -mode excitations seem also consistent with the data. Our results also suggest that there are two ?c(2800 ) states of JP=1 /2- and 3 /2- whose mass splitting is 14 ±7 MeV , and two ?c(2980 ) states whose mass splitting is 12 ±7 MeV . They have two ?c partners of JP=1 /2- and 3 /2-, whose masses are around 3.25 ±0.20 GeV with mass splitting 10 ±6 MeV . All of them together complete two S U (3 ) 6F multiplets of JP=1 /2- and 3 /2-. They may also have JP=5 /2- partners. ?c(3080 ) may be one of them, and the other two are ?c(5 /2-) and ?c(5 /2-), whose masses are 85 ±23 MeV and 50 ±27 MeV larger.

  14. Magnetic-field effects on p-wave phase transition in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Jin, Yong-Yi; Lu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Si-Yu; Wang, Cui

    2014-07-01

    In the probe limit, we study the holographic p-wave phase transition in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity via numerical and analytical methods. Concretely, we study the influences of the external magnetic field on the Maxwell complex vector model in the five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole and soliton backgrounds, respectively. For the two backgrounds, the results show that the magnetic field enhances the superconductor phase transition in the case of the lowest Landau level, while the increasing Gauss-Bonnet parameter always hinders the vector condensate. Moreover, the Maxwell complex vector model is a generalization of the SU(2) Yang-Mills model all the time. In addition, the analytical results backup the numerical results. Furthermore, this model might provide a holographic realization for the QCD vacuum instability.

  15. Magnitude determination using initial P waves: A single-station Yih-Min Wu,1

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Magnitude determination using initial P waves: A single-station approach Yih-Min Wu,1 Hsin-Yi Yen,1 the magnitudes of earthquakes and the properties of the first three seconds of the P waves at a single station within 100-km epicentral distance, we found a linear correlation between the magnitudes

  16. Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anupama Venkataraman; Andrew A. Nyblade; Jeroen Ritsema

    2004-01-01

    We measure P wave spectral amplitude ratios from deep-focus earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations of the Tanzania network to estimate regional variation of sublithospheric mantle attenuation beneath the Tanzania craton and the eastern branch of the East African Rift. One-dimensional profiles of QP adequately explain the systematic variation of P wave attenuation in the sublithospheric upper mantle: QP ~

  17. Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anupama Venkataraman; Andrew A. Nyblade; Jeroen Ritsema

    2004-01-01

    We measure P wave spectral amplitude ratios from deep-focus earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations of the Tanzania network to estimate regional variation of sublithospheric mantle attenuation beneath the Tanzania craton and the eastern branch of the East African Rift. One-dimensional profiles of QP adequately explain the systematic variation of P wave attenuation in the sublithospheric upper mantle: QP ?

  18. EFFECT OF IMMISCIBLE LIQUID CONTAMINANTS ON P-WAVE TRANSMISSION THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER SAMPLES

    E-print Network

    Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    EFFECT OF IMMISCIBLE LIQUID CONTAMINANTS ON P-WAVE TRANSMISSION THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER SAMPLES Jil the effect of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants on P-wave velocity and attenuation contamination in the surficial aquifer. Field measurements revealed a zone of anomalously high seismic

  19. P wave dispersion is prolonged in patients with Wilson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurcan Arat; Sabite Kacar; Zehra Golbasi; Meral Akdogan; Yeliz Sokmen; Sedef Kuran; Ramazan Idilman; Türkiye Yüksek

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the P wave dispersion as a non- invasive marker of intra-atrial conduction disturbances in patients with Wilson's disease. METHODS: We compared Wilson's disease patients (n = 18) with age matched healthy subjects (n = 15) as controls. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests (ceruloplasmin, urinary and hepatic copper concentrations). P wave dispersion, a measurement

  20. Inferences on Crustal Velocities and Densities from P Wave Delays and Gravity Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHAWN BIEI-ILER

    1964-01-01

    A correlation is demonstrated between P wave delays and Bouguer gravity anomalies. For California data it is given approximately by (Ag> _-- --355PD where (Ag> is the Bouguer (slab equivalent) gravity change in milligals and PD is the delay in seconds. The increases in P wave delays and negative gravity anomalies associated with topographic highs are manifestations of isostatic adjustment.

  1. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  2. Finite-fault source inversion using teleseismic P waves: simple parameterization and rapid analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the ability of teleseismic P waves to provide a timely image of the rupture history for large earthquakes using a simple, 2D finite?fault source parameterization. We analyze the broadband displacement waveforms recorded for the 2010 Mw~7 Darfield (New Zealand) and El Mayor?Cucapah (Baja California) earthquakes using a single planar fault with a fixed rake. Both of these earthquakes were observed to have complicated fault geometries following detailed source studies conducted by other investigators using various data types. Our kinematic, finite?fault analysis of the events yields rupture models that similarly identify the principal areas of large coseismic slip along the fault. The results also indicate that the amount of stabilization required to spatially smooth the slip across the fault and minimize the seismic moment is related to the amplitudes of the observed P waveforms and can be estimated from the absolute values of the elements of the coefficient matrix. This empirical relationship persists for earthquakes of different magnitudes and is consistent with the stabilization constraint obtained from the L?curve in Tikhonov regularization. We use the relation to estimate the smoothing parameters for the 2011 Mw 7.1 East Turkey, 2012 Mw 8.6 Northern Sumatra, and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes and invert the teleseismic P waves in a single step to recover timely, preliminary slip models that identify the principal source features observed in finite?fault solutions obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC) from the analysis of body? and surface?wave data. These results indicate that smoothing constraints can be estimated a priori to derive a preliminary, first?order image of the coseismic slip using teleseismic records.

  3. [A new approach to wavelet-based P-wave detection].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiangkui; Qin, Shuren; Liang, Xiaorong; Ding, Jianping

    2006-08-01

    According to the characteristics of four basic P morphologies, combining the wavelet transform and the amplitude and slope of transformed P wave, a new P-wave detecting method based on "wavelet-amplitude-slope" algorithm is presented: First search out all modulus maximum pairs to satisfy the threshold after wavelet transform, and then applying the amplitude and slope criterion exclude the interferes and detect the P peak and its shape, last determine the onset and end of P wave respectively which should be separately calculated for single-peak and double-peak P wave (or biphasic P wave). The approach is applied in experiments of data from MIT/BIH database and randomly collected data of clinical ECG. The experimental statistical results shows that the correct detecting rate is as high as 96% compared to manual annotation. PMID:17002093

  4. Pseudo 3-D P wave refraction seismic monitoring of permafrost in steep unstable bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, Michael; Draebing, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    permafrost in steep rock walls can cause hazardous rock creep and rock slope failure. Spatial and temporal patterns of permafrost degradation that operate at the scale of instability are complex and poorly understood. For the first time, we used P wave seismic refraction tomography (SRT) to monitor the degradation of permafrost in steep rock walls. A 2.5-D survey with five 80 m long parallel transects was installed across an unstable steep NE-SW facing crestline in the Matter Valley, Switzerland. P wave velocity was calibrated in the laboratory for water-saturated low-porosity paragneiss samples between 20°C and -5°C and increases significantly along and perpendicular to the cleavage by 0.55-0.66 km/s (10-13%) and 2.4-2.7 km/s (>100%), respectively, when freezing. Seismic refraction is, thus, technically feasible to detect permafrost in low-porosity rocks that constitute steep rock walls. Ray densities up to 100 and more delimit the boundary between unfrozen and frozen bedrock and facilitate accurate active layer positioning. SRT shows monthly (August and September 2006) and annual active layer dynamics (August 2006 and 2007) and reveals a contiguous permafrost body below the NE face with annual changes of active layer depth from 2 to 10 m. Large ice-filled fractures, lateral onfreezing of glacierets, and a persistent snow cornice cause previously unreported permafrost patterns close to the surface and along the crestline which correspond to active seasonal rock displacements up to several mm/a. SRT provides a geometrically highly resolved subsurface monitoring of active layer dynamics in steep permafrost rocks at the scale of instability.

  5. Model input and output files for the simulation of time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Frenzel, Peter F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains listings of model input and output files for the simulation of the time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table from the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF), about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. This simulation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-developed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and Multimedia Exposure Assessment (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the production of leachate by a landfill and transport of landfill leachate to the water table. Model input data files used with and output files generated by the HELP and MULTIMED models are provided in ASCII format on a 3.5-inch 1.44-megabyte IBM-PC compatible floppy disk.

  6. Project SMART 2013 -Frequently asked questions The remaining payment can be made any time before arrival by check. It is $3200 if you do not

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Project SMART ­ 2013 - Frequently asked questions The remaining payment can be made any time before schedule? Is there daily homework? DEPENDS ON THE MODULE - FULL DAY OF SCHEDULE - NO REAL HOME WORK mail from home while they are @ UNH? YES ­ SEE HOUSING INFO - TYPICALLY THEY COMMUNICATE BY CELL PHONE

  7. Complex seismic amplitude inversion for P-wave and S-wave quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2015-07-01

    Stratum quality factors (P-wave and S-wave quality factors, Qp and Qs) have gradually been utilized in the study of physical state of crust and uppermost mantle, tectonic evolution, hydrogeololgy, gas hydrates, petroleum exploration, etc. Different opinions of the seismic attenuation mechanism result in various approaches to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Considering the viscoelasticity of the underground medium, the constitutive matrix of the Earth medium is written as the superposition of homogeneous background medium, elastic perturbation medium and viscoelastic perturbation medium. Under the hypothesis of Born integral and stationary phase approximation, the seismic reflectivity is initially raised in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Furthermore, incorporating the complex seismic traces with the seismic wavelets at different offsets, a two-step inversion approach is proposed to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. The AVO/AVA Bayesian inversion approach is suggested to estimate the P-wave modulus and S-wave modulus with the real component of the pre-stack seismic data initially. Taking the estimated P-wave and S-wave moduli as prior information, the P-wave and S-wave quality factors are further estimated with the imaginary component of the complex pre-stack seismic data, which is the quadrature of the original data. Finally, synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to estimate P-wave and S-wave quality factors stably and properly, and two field data examples demonstrate that the proposed approach may work as an efficient approach to fluid identification.

  8. Electric car arrives - again

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.

    1997-03-01

    The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  9. hal-00166351,version2-1Apr2008 Three fully polarized fermions close to a p-wave Feshbach resonance

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    hal-00166351,version2-1Apr2008 Three fully polarized fermions close to a p-wave Feshbach resonance a resonant interaction in the p-wave channel via a Feshbach resonance represented by a two-channel model superfluidity with p-wave pairing is related to a large class of subjects in very different areas of physics

  10. Spin density wave fluctuations and p-wave pairing in Sr2RuO4.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jia-Wei; Rice, T M; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2013-04-19

    Recently, a debate has arisen over which of the two distinct parts of the Fermi surface of Sr(2)RuO(4) is the active part for the chiral p-wave superconductivity exhibited. Early theories proposed p-wave pairing on the two-dimensional ? band, whereas a recent proposal focuses on the one-dimensional (?, ?) bands whose nesting pockets are the source of the strong incommensurate spin density wave (SDW) fluctuations. We apply a renormalization group theory to study quasi-one-dimensional repulsive Hubbard chains and explain the form of SDW fluctuations, reconciling the absence of long-range order with their nesting Fermi surface. The mutual exclusion of p-wave pairing and SDW fluctuations in repulsive Hubbard chains favors the assignment of the two-dimensional ? band as the source of p-wave pairing. PMID:23679633

  11. A black hole window into p-wave dark matter annihilation

    E-print Network

    Jessie Shelton; Stuart L. Shapiro; Brian D. Fields

    2015-06-12

    We present a new method to measure or constrain p-wave-suppressed cross sections for dark matter (DM) annihilations inside the steep density spikes induced by supermassive black holes. We demonstrate that the high DM densities, together with the increased velocity dispersion, within such spikes combine to make thermal p-wave annihilation cross-sections potentially visible in gamma-ray observations of the Galactic center (GC). The resulting DM signal is a bright central point source with emission originating from DM annihilations in the absence of a detectable spatially-extended signal from the halo. We define two simple reference theories of DM with a thermal p-wave annihilation cross-section and establish new limits on the combined particle and astrophysical parameter space of these models, demonstrating that Fermi is currently sensitive to thermal p-wave DM over a wide range of possible scenarios for the DM distribution in the GC.

  12. A black hole window into p-wave dark matter annihilation

    E-print Network

    Shelton, Jessie; Fields, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to measure or constrain p-wave-suppressed cross sections for dark matter (DM) annihilations inside the steep density spikes induced by supermassive black holes. We demonstrate that the high DM densities, together with the increased velocity dispersion, within such spikes combine to make thermal p-wave annihilation cross-sections potentially visible in gamma-ray observations of the Galactic center (GC). The resulting DM signal is a bright central point source with emission originating from DM annihilations in the absence of a detectable spatially-extended signal from the halo. We define two simple reference theories of DM with a thermal p-wave annihilation cross-section and establish new limits on the combined particle and astrophysical parameter space of these models, demonstrating that Fermi is currently sensitive to thermal p-wave DM over a wide range of possible scenarios for the DM distribution in the GC.

  13. Mariscope: Observing P Waves (and much more) Everywhere in the Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolet, G.; Hello, Y.; Bonnieux, S.; Sukhovich, A.; Simons, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The lack of stations on islands or the ocean bottom deprives seismic tomographers of almost 2/3 of the information potentially available for global seismic tomography. The "Mermaid", developed at Geoazur, is an underwater seismograph, based on a TWR Apex float. P wave signals are automatically identified and transmitted using the detection algorithm from Sukhovich et al. (GRL, 2011), GPS is used to locate the sensor at the time of transmission. We have studied the performance of Mermaids under different noise conditions in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean and most recently near the Galapagos islands and will show a selection of observations. In the Mediterranean, we regularly detect P waves at teleseismic distances of earthquakes with magnitude 6, occasionally below that. Local and regional earthquakes of much lower magnitude, such as a M 4.9 earthquake near Barcelonette (figure), yield seismograms with a high signal to noise ratio.In the much noisier environment of the Indian Ocean the threshold for useful seismograms is close to magnitude 6.5. Yet we were also able to record 235 low magnitude events when a Mermaid was close to a swarm near the Indian Ocean triple junction, with the lowest magnitude estimated to be 2.1; this sequence also enabled us to put an upper limit of about 250 m to the error in sensor location at the time of recording. Preliminary data from the Galapagos indicate low noise conditions similar to those in the Mediterranean, with good recordings of events in the magnitude 5 range.A new prototype of a spherical "MultiMermaid" is currently being tested. It allows for multidisciplinary observations (seismic and kHz acoustics, magnetic field, temperature, bathymetry) and will function about five years with lithium batteries. A global deployment of such instruments in a five-year program is affordable: project MariScope aims for at least 300 floating seismometers in the world's oceans. At the time of writing of this abstract, a proposal is being prepared that involves geophysicists and biologists from France, Germany, Italy and Greece and should result in a first installment of MariScope. We shall discuss the possibility of a local rapid response network in which the instruments locate themselves while under water.

  14. A Powerful Twin Arrives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    First Images from FORS2 at VLT KUEYEN on Paranal The first, major astronomical instrument to be installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was FORS1 ( FO cal R educer and S pectrograph) in September 1998. Immediately after being attached to the Cassegrain focus of the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU , it produced a series of spectacular images, cf. ESO PR 14/98. Many important observations have since been made with this outstanding facility. Now FORS2 , its powerful twin, has been installed at the second VLT Unit Telescope, KUEYEN . It is the fourth major instrument at the VLT after FORS1 , ISAAC and UVES.. The FORS2 Commissioning Team that is busy installing and testing this large and complex instrument reports that "First Light" was successfully achieved already on October 29, 1999, only two days after FORS2 was first mounted at the Cassegrain focus. Since then, various observation modes have been carefully tested, including normal and high-resolution imaging, echelle and multi-object spectroscopy, as well as fast photometry with millisecond time resolution. A number of fine images were obtained during this work, some of which are made available with the present Press Release. The FORS instruments ESO PR Photo 40a/99 ESO PR Photo 40a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 203k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 563kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1280 x 1103 pix - 666kb] Caption to PR Photo 40a/99: This digital photo shows the twin instruments, FORS2 at KUEYEN (in the foreground) and FORS1 at ANTU, seen in the background through the open ventilation doors in the two telescope enclosures. Although they look alike, the two instruments have specific functions, as described in the text. FORS1 and FORS2 are the products of one of the most thorough and advanced technological studies ever made of a ground-based astronomical instrument. They have been specifically designed to investigate the faintest and most remote objects in the universe. They are "multi-mode instruments" that may be used in several different observation modes. FORS2 is largely identical to FORS1 , but there are a number of important differences. For example, it contains a Mask Exchange Unit (MXU) for laser-cut star-plates [1] that may be inserted at the focus, allowing a large number of spectra of different objects, in practice up to about 70, to be taken simultaneously. Highly sophisticated software assigns slits to individual objects in an optimal way, ensuring a great degree of observing efficiency. Instead of the polarimetry optics found in FORS1 , FORS2 has new grisms that allow the use of higher spectral resolutions. The FORS project was carried out under ESO contract by a consortium of three German astronomical institutes, the Heidelberg State Observatory and the University Observatories of Göttingen and Munich. The participating institutes have invested a total of about 180 man-years of work in this unique programme. The photos below demonstrate some of the impressive possibilities with this new instrument. They are based on observations with the FORS2 standard resolution collimator (field size 6.8 x 6.8 armin = 2048 x 2048 pixels; 1 pixel = 0.20 arcsec). In addition, observations of the Crab pulsar demonstrate a new observing mode, high-speed photometry. Protostar HH-34 in Orion ESO PR Photo 40b/99 ESO PR Photo 40b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 444 pix - 220kb] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 887 pix - 806kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2000 x 2217 pix - 3.6Mb] The Area around HH-34 in Orion ESO PR Photo 40c/99 ESO PR Photo 40c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 494 pix - 262kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 802 x 991 pix - 760 kb] The HH-34 Superjet in Orion (centre) PR Photo 40b/99 shows a three-colour composite of the young object Herbig-Haro 34 (HH-34) , now in the protostar stage of evolution. It is based on CCD frames obtained with the FORS2 instrument in imaging mode, on November 2 and 6, 1999. This object has a remarkable, very complicated appearance that includes two opposite jets that ram into the surrounding interstellar matter. This structure is produced by a machine-gu

  15. Tuning p-wave interactions in an ultracold Fermi gas of atoms.

    PubMed

    Regal, C A; Ticknor, C; Bohn, J L; Jin, D S

    2003-02-01

    We have measured a p-wave Feshbach resonance in a single-component, ultracold Fermi gas of 40K atoms. We have used this resonance to enhance the normally suppressed p-wave collision cross section to values larger than the background s-wave cross section between 40K atoms in different spin states. In addition to the modification of two-body elastic processes, the resonance dramatically enhances three-body inelastic collisional loss. PMID:12633351

  16. P wave anisotropy, stress, and crack distribution at Coso geothermal field, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Lees; Huatao Wu

    1999-01-01

    A new inversion method for P wave anisotropy [Wu and Lees, 1999a] has been applied to high-precision, microseismic traveltime data collected at Coso geothermal region, California. Direction-dependent P wave velocity and thus its perturbation, are represented by a symmetric positive definite matrix A instead of a scalar. The resulting anisotropy distribution is used to estimate variations in crack density, stress

  17. Local Determination of Weak Anisotropy Parameters from qP -wave Slowness and Particle Motion Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XUYAO ZHENG; I. Pšen?ík

    2002-01-01

    -- We propose an algorithm for local evaluation of weak anisotropy (WA) parameters from measurements of slowness vector components and\\/or of particle motions of qP waves at individual receivers in a borehole in a multi-azimuthal multiple-source offset VSP experiment. As a byproduct the algorithm yields approximate angular variation of qP-wave phase velocity. The formulae are derived under assumption of weak

  18. Collaborative Arrival Planning: Data Sharing and User Preference Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard E.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Air traffic growth and air carrier economic pressures have motivated efforts to increase the flexibility of the air traffic management process and change the relationship between the air traffic control service provider and the system user. One of the most visible of these efforts is the U.S. government/industry "free flight" initiative, in which the service provider concentrates on safety and cross-airline fairness, and the user on their business objectives and operating preferences, including selecting their own path and speed in real-time. In the terminal arrival phase of flight, severe restrictions and rigid control are currently placed on system users, typically without regard for individual user operational preferences. Airborne delays applied to arriving aircraft into capacity constrained airports are imposed on a first-come, first-serve basis, and thus do not allow the system user to plan for or prioritize late arrivals, or to economically optimize their arrival sequence. A central tenant of the free-flight operating paradigm is collaboration between service providers and users in reaching air traffic management decisions. Such collaboration would be particularly beneficial to an airline's "hub" operation, where off-schedule arrival aircraft are a consistent problem, as they cause serious air-port ramp difficulties, rippling airline scheduling effects, and result in large economic inefficiencies. Greater collaboration can also lead to increased airport capacity and decrease the severity of over-capacity rush periods. In the NASA Collaborative Arrival Planning (CAP) project, both independent exchange of real-time data between the service provider and system user and collaborative decision support tools are addressed. Data exchange of real-time arrival scheduling, airspace management, and air carrier fleet data between the FAA service provider and an air carrier is being conducted and evaluated. Collaborative arrival decision support tools to allow intra-airline arrival preferences are being developed and simulated. The CAP project is part of and leveraged from the NASA/FAA Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS), a fielded set of decision support tools that provide computer generated advisories for both enroute and terminal area controllers to manage and control arrival traffic more efficiently. In this paper, the NASA Collaborative Arrival Planning project is outlined and recent results detailed, including the real-time use of CTAS arrival scheduling data by a major air carrier and simulations of tactical and strategic user preference decision support tools.

  19. Murray Edwards Arriving by Road

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Murray Edwards College Arriving by Road To reach the Storey's Way car park using sat-nav, enter the postcode CB3 0DR/number 61. Please note that due to road-narrowing bollards, Storey's Way is a no-through road for wide vehicles/coaches. Murray Edwards College is situated on Huntingdon Road, 1 mile west

  20. Location: From To Depart Arrive

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    . A credit card slip is not a valid receipt by itself. Phone calls on hotel bill must be business (academicDate: Email: Phone: Location: From To Depart Arrive A B C Amount D DATE: I HEREBY CERTIFY THAT I AM in the conference registration you may not claim Per Diem for that meal. Get baggage handling and taxi receipts. Any

  1. THE OBSERVABILITY OF MULTIPLY REFLECTED P WAVES Michel Foundotos, Guust Nolet Geosciences Azur, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foundotos, M.; Nolet, G.

    2009-12-01

    In order to constrain the shallow structure of the Earth in global tomography, Love and Rayleigh waves are often used. However these waves are mostly sensitive to the S wave velocity structure. P-wave energy is either evanescent, or leaking away at every surface reflection that generates an S wave which travels much deeper into the mantle. For that reason, to study the shallow P velocity structure of the Earth, we need to study P-waves at regional distances if a good seismic station coverage is available. Otherwise we can use multiple P reflections at teleseismic distance when regional data are not available (as in the oceans for instance). The major aim of this work was first of all to ensure that these multiply reflected P waves can adequately be observed in real data and also to investigate how many reflections at the surface these reflected waves can still be seen and to investigate how strongly the amplitude of multiply reflected P diminishes because of energy loss into S waves. For this study we are comparing the synthetic predictions computed with a Spectral Element Method for a spherically symmetric earth (Nissen-Meyer et al, 2007) with observed data. We used 150 events recorded (26575 seismograms) from the dense network of US ARRAY, which allows us to make a very large number of observations. Our study shows that three times reflected PPP waves are very well observed for epicentral distances > 60 degrees and for events with Mw<6.0, despite the ray-theoretical prediction that at certain distances almost all of their compressional energy is converted to shear waves. However, the four times reflected PPPP waves do not appear everywhere clearly. PPPP can be observed for epicentral distances > 90 degrees.

  2. Body surface mapping of atrial arrhythmias: atlas of paced P wave integral maps to localize the focal origin of right atrial tachycardia.

    PubMed

    SippensGroenewegen, A; Roithinger, F X; Peeters, H A; Linnenbank, A C; van Hemel, N M; Steiner, P R; Lesh, M D

    1998-01-01

    Successful curative treatment of right atrial tachycardia (AT) can be obtained provided detailed catheter activation mapping of the target site for radiofrequency energy application has been accomplished. However, right AT mapping may be difficult with a single roving catheter due to infrequent presence or noninducibility of the arrhythmia. The present report describes the preliminary clinical use of body surface mapping as an adjunctive noninvasive method to identify the region of AT origin prior to catheter ablation. This technique has been previously applied to develop a reference data base of 17 different paced P wave integral map patterns. The data base was designed by performing right atrial pace mapping in patients without structural heart disease. Each P wave integral map pattern in the data base is unique to ectopic activation onset in a circumscribed right atrial endocardial segment. Localization of the segment of AT origin is accomplished by matching the P wave integral map of a single AT beat with the data base of paced P wave integral maps. The use of body surface mapping as an integral part of the mapping protocol during radiofrequency catheter ablation of right AT offers the possibility to: (1) noninvasively determine the arrhythmogenic target area for ablation using a single beat analysis approach; (2) confine detailed catheter activation mapping to a limited area; and (3) accelerate the overall procedure and limit fluoroscopic exposure by reducing the time required for mapping. PMID:9988010

  3. Terminal area arrival management concepts using tactical merge management techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aslaug Haraldsdottir; Janet King; Julien Scharl

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes operational concept options for 4D trajectory-based arrival management in the terminal area, using Flight Management Systems (FMS) capable of Area Navigation (RNAV), Required Navigation Performance (RNP), Vertical Navigation (VNAV), as well as Required Time of Arrival (RTA) and airplane-based Interval Management (IM). Furthermore, it is assumed that the ATM automation system provides support to the controller to

  4. Recording of anomalous shear energy in the teleseismic P-wave coda at Long Valley Caldera, California, on a small aperture array

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J.J.; Zandt, G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Steck, L.K.; Prothero, W.A. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA). Dept. of Geology)

    1990-03-01

    Anomalous energy in the coda of teleseismic P-waves at Long Valley caldera has been suggested to be a P to S converted arrival, perhaps with the conversion occurring at the boundaries of magma bodies beneath the caldera. We have collected new data with a small-aperture, three-component array located in the northwestern quadrant of the caldera with the purpose of testing this hypothesis. An examination of three teleseismic events using array and particle motion techniques shows that converted P- to S-waves comprise a significant fraction of the early arriving anomalous energy. In volcanic areas such as Long Valley, the scattered energy could originate at a high velocity contrast feature such as magma body interface. In addition, later arriving energy was detected with slow phase velocity and is tentatively identified as body wave to surface wave scattering. Our interpretation is illustrated with waveforms of two earthquakes from the Kuril Islands and one in northern Peru. Our results show that a small-aperture, three-component array can be used to perform detailed analysis of the coda. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Scattering of teleseismic P-waves by the Japan Trench: A significant effect of reverberation in the seawater column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takuto; Furumura, Takashi; Obara, Kazushige

    2014-07-01

    We detected a scattered wave train in data from the high-sensitivity seismograph network in Japan (Hi-net) following the arrival of the near-vertically incident P-wave generated by the 2009 earthquake (Mw 7.8) off the South Island of New Zealand. The scattered wave train represented predominantly vertical ground motion at a period of 20 to 50 s and with an apparent velocity of 3.5 km/s; it propagated cylindrically westward through the Kanto area of central Japan. Array analysis showed that the scattered wave train developed beneath the Pacific Ocean near the Boso triple junction, southeast of the Kanto area. A 3D finite-difference simulation of seismic wave propagation using a high-resolution model incorporating subsurface structure, topography, and bathymetry revealed that the strong scattered waves that were generated along the Japan Trench and propagated normal to the trench axis represented multiple reverberations of seismic waves between the seafloor and the Pacific plate boundary. In addition, strong reverberation of acoustic waves in the seawater column above the Boso triple junction causes elongated scattered waves, which reasonably explains our observations.

  6. Teleseismic P-wave Tomography and Dynamic Processes of the Tien Shan Orogenic Belt in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Zhao, D.

    2006-12-01

    In this study, an updated version of the teleseismic tomographic method is applied to 7176 high-quality first P- wave arrivals from four combined seismic networks to determine the detailed deep structure under the central Tien Shan. Our high-resolution tomographic model not only displays the general features contained in the previous model, but also reveals some new features. A much narrower titled columnar high-velocity anomaly with a diameter of about 60 km below 150-200 km under the Tien Shan extends down to the mantle transition zone, suggesting that the breaking- and dropping-off of the collided portions of the southward underthrusting Kazakh Shield and the northward underthrusting Tarim Basin. Prominent low-velocity anomalies above 150-200 km depth beneath the Tien Shan may be related to two branches of ascending low-velocity anomalies. The one is from the lower mantle beneath the Tarim Basin. The other is from the top of the mantle transition zone beneath the western Kazakh Shield. These results suggest that the underthrusting of the Tarim Basin and Kazakh Shield and the upwelling of low-V anomalies indeed play an important role in the mountain building of the central Tien Shan. These dynamic processes might be related to the collision of the Indian with Eurasian plate.

  7. Teleseismic P-wave tomography and the upper mantle structure of the central Tien Shan orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jianshe; Zhao, Dapeng

    2007-07-01

    In this study, an updated version of the teleseismic tomographic method is applied to 7176 high-quality first P-wave arrivals from four combined seismic networks to determine the detailed deep structure under the central Tien Shan. Our high-resolution tomographic model not only displays the general features contained in the previous models, but also reveals some new features. A much narrower tilted columnar high-velocity anomaly with a diameter of about 60 km below 150-200 km depth under the Tien Shan extends down to the mantle transition zone, suggesting the breaking- and dropping-off of the collided portions of the southward underthrusting Kazakh Shield and the northward underthrusting Tarim Basin. Prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomalies above 150-200 km depth beneath the Tien Shan may be related to two branches of ascending hot anomalies. One rises upward from the lower mantle beneath the Tarim Basin, while the other rises up from the top of the mantle transition zone beneath the western Kazakh Shield. These results suggest that the underthrusting of the Tarim Basin and Kazakh Shield and the upwelling of hot anomalies indeed play an important role in the mountain building of the central Tien Shan. These dynamic processes might be related to the collision of the Indian plate with Eurasian plate.

  8. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone and simulated time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Peter F.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) is located about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. The landfill is built on the Hueco Bolson, a deposit that yields water to five public-supply wells within 1.1 miles of the landfill boundary on all sides. The bolson deposits consist of lenses and mixtures of sand, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. The unsaturated zone at the landfill is about 300 feet thick. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and the Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model for Evaluating the Land Disposal of Wastes (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the time of first arrival of landfill leachate at the water table. Site-specific data were collected for model input. At five sites on the landfill cover, hydraulic conductivity was measured by an in situ method; in addition, laboratory values were obtained for porosity, moisture content at field capacity, and moisture content at wilting point. Twenty-seven sediment samples were collected from two adjacent boreholes drilled near the southwest corner of the landfill. Of these, 23 samples were assumed to represent the unsaturated zone beneath the landfill. The core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for various characteristics required for the HELP and MULTIMED models: initial moisture content, dry bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention percentages at various suction values, total organic carbon, and pH. Parameters were calculated for the van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey equations that relate hydraulic conductivity to saturation. A reported recharge value of 0.008 inch per year was estimated on the basis of soil- water chloride concentration. The HELP model was implemented using input values that were based mostly on site-specific data or assumed in a conservative manner. Exceptions were the default values used for waste characteristics. Flow through the landfill was assumed to be at steady state. The HELP-estimated landfill leakage rate was 101.6 millimeters per year, approximately 500 times the estimated recharge rate for the area near the landfill. The MULTIMED model was implemented using input values that were based mainly on site-specific data and some conservatively assumed values. Landfill leakage was assumed to begin when the landfill was established and to continue at a steady-state rate of 101.6 millimeters per year as estimated by the HELP model. By using an assumed solute concentration in the leachate of 1 milligram per liter and assuming no delay or decay of solute, the solute serves as a tracer to indicate the first arrival of landfill leachate. The simulated first arrival of leachate at the water table was 204 to 210 years after the establishment of the landfill.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variations in t s \\/t p and in P Wave Residuals at Blue Mountain Lake, New York: Application to Earthquake Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yash P. Aggarwal; Lynn R. Sykes; David W. Simpson; Paul G. Richards

    1975-01-01

    Renewed earthquake activity at Blue Mountain Lake (BML), New York, in July 1973 provided an excellent opportunity to monitor the travel time ratio of $ to P waves (ts\\/t,) in real time and to test the ts\\/t, technique as a predictive tool. From a mean value of 1.73 on July 30, 1973, ts\\/t, decreased to about 1.5 over the next

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by {ital Pioneer} {ital V}{ital enus} {ital Orbiter}, {ital Compton} {ital Gamma}-{ital Ray} {ital Observatory}, and {ital Ulysses}

    SciTech Connect

    Laros, J.G. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hurley, K.C. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Briggs, M.S. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)] [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M.L. [USRA, at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)] [USRA, at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Fishman, G.J.; Meegan, C.A. [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)] [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Cline, T.L. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Boer, M.; Niel, M. [CESR, F-31029 Toulouse Cedex (France)] [CESR, F-31029 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    1998-10-01

    Between the {ital Compton} {ital Gamma} {ital Ray} {ital Observatory} ({ital CGRO}) launch in 1991 April and the {ital Pioneer} {ital V}{ital enus} {ital Orbiter} ({ital PVO}) demise in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by {ital CGRO}, {ital PVO}, and {ital Ulysses} was obtained for several hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the {ital PVO} and {ital Ulysses} thresholds, 37 were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to {approximately}2{degree} accuracy by the {ital CGRO} Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and three were also localized by COMPTEL. We computed arrival-time error boxes, whose larger dimensions range from about 2{prime} to several degrees and whose smaller dimensions are in the arcminute range. Twelve have areas less than 10 arcmin{sup 2}, and only four have areas greater than 1 deg{sup 2}. The area of the smallest box is 0.44 arcmin{sup 2}. We find that the overall BATSE localization accuracy for these events is consistent with the most recent stated uncertainties. This work indicates that the {ital ROSAT} soft X-ray source found within a preliminary IPN error box for GB920501 (Trig 1576) (Hurley et al.) is less likely to be the GRB counterpart than previously reported. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  11. Imaging the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Oregon using teleseismic P wave residuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Iyer, H.M.; Dawson, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Images the Juan de Fuca plate in southern Oregon using seismic tomography. P wave travel time residuals from a 366-km-long seismic array operated in southern Oregon in 1982 are inverted. The southeast striking array extended from the Coast ranges to the Modoc Plateau and crossed the High Cascades at Crater Lake, Oregon. Three features under the array were imaged: one high-velocity zone and two low-velocity zones. The high-velocity zone is 3-4% faster than the surrounding upper mantle. It dips steeply at 65?? to the east beneath the Cascade Range and extends down to at least 200 km. It is proposed that this high-velocity feature is subducted Juan de Fuca plate. Two low-velocity zones were also imaged, both of which are 3-4% slower than the surrounding earth structure. The southeastern low-velocity zone may be caused by partially molten crust underlying the Crater Lake volcano region. -from Authors

  12. Upper mantle and crustal P-wave attenuation beneath the North Korea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, M.; Randall, G. E.; Patton, H. J.; Phillips, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the magnitude of crustal seismic sources is dependent upon a strong understanding of the anelastic P-wave attenuation in the crust and upper mantle. In this study, we estimate the crustal/upper mantle average attenuation (t*) for the region around North Korea by expanding upon methods described by Ichinose et al. [2013]. We estimate t* by modeling the observed spectra and spectral ratio of regional and teleseismic P- and pP-phases of large, deep (> 500 km) earthquakes rupturing beneath the North Korea region. We use seismograms, acquired from the IRIS data archive, from operational stations at the time of each earthquake. Because of a trade-off between the variables, we use multi-variable optimization to estimate the best-fitting corner frequency (fc) and t* for each spectrum. In addition to using a more quantitative and global approach than earlier studies, we introduce new measurement approaches enabling a better understanding of the uncertainty in the measured t* value and its trade-off with fc.

  13. What Do s- and p-Wave Neutron Average Radiative Widths Reveal

    SciTech Connect

    Mughabghab, S.F.

    2010-04-30

    A first observation of two resonance-like structures at mass numbers 92 and 112 in the average capture widths of the p-wave neutron resonances relative to the s-wave component is interpreted in terms of a spin-orbit splitting of the 3p single-particle state into P{sub 3/2} and P{sub 1/2} components at the neutron separation energy. A third structure at about A = 124, which is not correlated with the 3p-wave neutron strength function, is possibly due to the Pygmy Dipole Resonance. Five significant results emerge from this investigation: (i) The strength of the spin-orbit potential of the optical-model is determined as 5.7 {+-} 0.5 MeV, (ii) Non-statistical effects dominate the p-wave neutron-capture in the mass region A = 85 - 130, (iii) The background magnitude of the p-wave average capture-width relative to that of the s-wave is determined as 0.50 {+-} 0.05, which is accounted for quantitatively in tenns of the generalized Fermi liquid model of Mughabghab and Dunford, (iv) The p-wave resonances arc partially decoupled from the giant-dipole resonance (GDR), and (v) Gamma-ray transitions, enhanced over the predictions of the GDR, are observed in the {sup 90}Zr - {sup 98}Mo and Sn-Ba regions.

  14. Chiral superfluidity with p-wave symmetry from an interacting s-wave atomic Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Wu, Biao; Liu, W. Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Chiral p-wave superfluids are fascinating topological quantum states of matter that have been found in the liquid 3He-A phase and arguably in the electronic Sr2RuO4 superconductor. They are fundamentally related to the fractional 5/2 quantum Hall state, which supports fractional exotic excitations. Past studies show that they require spin-triplet pairing of fermions by p-wave interaction. Here we report that a p-wave chiral superfluid state can arise from spin-singlet pairing for an s-wave interacting atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice. This p-wave state is conceptually distinct from all previous conventional p-wave states as it is for the centre-of-mass motion, instead of the relative motion. It leads to spontaneous generation of angular momentum, finite Chern numbers and topologically protected chiral fermionic zero modes bounded to domain walls, all occuring at a higher critical temperature in relative scales. Signature quantities are predicted for the cold atom experimental condition.

  15. Fluorescence Assay for Polymerase Arrival Rates

    E-print Network

    Che, Austin

    2003-08-31

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  16. Fluorescence assay for polymerase arrival rates

    E-print Network

    Che, Austin, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  17. Multistatic Pulse-Wave Angle-of-arrival-assisted relative interferometric RADAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Friedman; Thomas Schmid; Zainul Charbiwala; Mani B. Srivastava; Y. H. Cho

    2009-01-01

    In this work we propose a Pulse-Wave (PW) extension to the Angle-of-arrival-assisted Radio Interferometry (ARI) technique to dramatically reduce the scan-time and the number of vantage points necessary to obtain high-fidelity target position estimation. Accordingly, we call this enhanced process PW-ARI. PW-ARI is the fusion of data from three domains: time (time-of-flight), phase (relative phase-of-arrival), and angle (direction-of-arrival). It has

  18. Direction of arrival measurements at UHF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Matthews; B. Mohebbi

    1989-01-01

    Direction of arrival measurements have been made at 870 MHz using land mobile radio systems in an urban environment. Examples are given showing the multipath components arriving at the receiver after reflection and scattering from buildings. A synthetic aperture technique is used to measure the directions of arrival.

  19. Saskatoon | Saskatchewan | Canada Pre-Arrival

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    Saskatoon | Saskatchewan | Canada Pre-Arrival Guidefor International Students Studious Ingenious to the University of Saskatchewan (U of S). We are very pleased that you have chosen our university as your place Outstanding Documentation | 21 University of Saskatchewan Pre-Arrival Guide 1 #12;BeforeYouArrive Apply

  20. P-wave-enhanced spin field effect transistor and recent patents.

    PubMed

    Gau, Ming-Hong; Lo, Ikai; Wang, Wan-Tsang; Chiang, Jih-Chen; Chou, Mitch Ming-Chi

    2007-01-01

    P-wave-enhanced spin field-effect transistor made of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was designed for the spintronic devices operated at high power and high temperature. The operation theory is based on the spin-polarized field-effect transistor designed by Datta and Das [Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 665 (1990)]. The mechanism of the p-wave enhancement in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was investigated. The recent development and related patents in the spin-polarized field-effect transistor were reviewed. In particular, we will focus on the recent patents which could enhance p-wave probability and control of spin precession of 2DEG in the AlGaN/GaN transistor structure. PMID:19076030

  1. Factors Influencing Intracavitary Electrocardiographic P-Wave Changes during Central Venous Catheter Placement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guorong; Guo, Ling; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Min; Zhang, Jian; Qin, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude changes in the P-wave of intracavitary electrocardiography have been used to assess the tip placement of central venous catheters. The research assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this sign in comparison with standard radiographic techniques for tip location, focusing on factors influencing its clinical utility. Both intracavitary electrocardiography guided tip location and X-ray positioning were used to verify catheter tip locations in patients undergoing central venous catheter insertion. Intracavitary electrocardiograms from 1119 patients (of a total 1160 subjects) showed specific amplitude changes in the P-wave. As the results show, compared with X-ray positioning, the sensitivity of electrocardiography-guided tip location was 97.3%, with false negative rate of 2.7%; the specificity was 1, with false positive rate of zero. Univariate analyses indicated that features including age, gender, height, body weight, and heart rate have no statistically significant influence on P-wave amplitude changes (P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that catheter insertion routes (OR = 2.280, P = 0.003) and basal P-wave amplitude (OR = 0.553, P = 0.003) have statistically significant impacts on P-wave amplitude changes. As a reliable indicator of tip location, amplitude change in the P-wave has proved of good sensitivity and excellent specificity, and the minor, zero, false positive rate supports the clinical utility of this technique in early recognition of malpositioned tips. A better sensitivity was achieved in placement of centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs) than that of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). In clinical practice, a combination of intracavitary electrocardiography, ultrasonic inspection and the anthropometric measurement method would further improve the accuracy. PMID:25915758

  2. Near-surface seismic attenuation of P-waves in West Texas

    E-print Network

    Al-Zahrani, Said Awdhah

    1992-01-01

    NEAR-SURFACE SEISMIC ATTENUATION OF P-WAVES IN WEST TEXAS A Thesis by SAID AWDHAH AL-ZAHRANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1992 Major Subject: Geophysics NEAR-SURFACE SEISMIC ATTENUATION OF P-WAVES IN WEST TEXAS A Thesis by SAID AWDHAH AL-ZAHRANI Approved as to style and content by: Steven H. arder (Chair of Committee) rry W. S neer (Me ber) I S. Watkins...

  3. Delay analysis of bursty tasks using workload arrival functions

    E-print Network

    Kim, Junwhan

    2001-01-01

    During the time interval [0, t), if the total tasks leaving processor j is W, (t), the time H, (t) when Wi(t) ? th task arrives at processor j is given as H, (t) = G, '(W, (t)). (2 9) Note: Hi(t) & t. LEMMA 5 If the total amount of tasks arriving...-to-end delay analysis, which better take into account delay dependencies. Algorithm Integrated, described in Figure 5, computes end-to-end delays in a cycle-free network with processors sched- uled by FIFO order. It first partitions the network...

  4. Confinement-induced p-wave resonances from s-wave interactions

    E-print Network

    Yusuke Nishida; Shina Tan

    2010-12-27

    We show that a purely s-wave interaction in three dimensions (3D) can induce higher partial-wave resonances in mixed dimensions. We develop two-body scattering theories in all three cases of 0D-3D, 1D-3D, and 2D-3D mixtures and determine the positions of higher partial-wave resonances in terms of the 3D s-wave scattering length assuming a harmonic confinement potential. We also compute the low-energy scattering parameters in the p-wave channel (scattering volume and effective momentum) that are necessary for the low-energy effective theory of the p-wave resonance. We point out that some of the resonances observed in the Florence group experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153202 (2010)] can be interpreted as the p-wave resonances in the 2D-3D mixed dimensions. Our study paves the way for a variety of physics, such as Anderson localization of matter waves under p-wave resonant scatterers.

  5. Magnitude estimation using the first three seconds P-wave amplitude in earthquake early warning

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Magnitude estimation using the first three seconds P-wave amplitude in earthquake early warning Yih as a function of magnitude M, and obtained the following relationship: log (Pd) = À3.463 + 0.729 Â M À 1.374 Â to the epicenter, this relationship can be used to define a so-called ``Pd magnitude'' of earthquakes. Our result

  6. Polarization, phase velocity and NMO velocity of qP waves in arbitrary weakly anisotropic media

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    ). Accuracy of presented formulae is tested on two examples of anisotropic media with relatively strongPolarization, phase velocity and NMO velocity of qP waves in arbitrary weakly anisotropic media) in isotropic media, the WA parameters are zero and the corresponding equations reduce to equations

  7. A model for P-wave attenuation and dispersion in a porous medium ...

    E-print Network

    lll

    2005-09-05

    fluid-saturated porous medium composed of two constituents, b and c can be ... 376. M. Brajanovski, B. Gurevich and M. Schoenberg. The results presented in this .... 9 ??µ?. K2 g . (30). As with the frequency-dependent P-wave modulus, the

  8. Investigation of semileptonic B meson decays to p-wave charm mesons

    E-print Network

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Darling, C.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Hancock, N.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan

    1998-05-01

    We have studied semileptonic B meson decays with a p-wave charm meson in the final state using 3.29 x 10(6) B (B) over bar events collected with the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring. We find ...

  9. ccsd-00004932,version3-13Feb2006 Modeling interactions for resonant p-wave scattering

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    experiments on ultra-cold polarized fermions, the zero-range potential approach is generalized to situations interactions is introduced. This formalism is used in the context of ultra-cold spin-polarized fermions, whereccsd-00004932,version3-13Feb2006 Modeling interactions for resonant p-wave scattering Ludovic

  10. P-wave Local Earthquake Tomography in the Central Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafanejad, A.; Hosein Shomali, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The Alborz Mountain ranges in the southern margin of the Caspian Sea, as a part of the Alpine- Himalayan orogenic belt is an arc of parallel synclines and anticlines. Among the major tectonic and geological features of the Alborz Mountains are the Damavand quaternary volcano, and active and seismic faults like the Mosha, and North Tehran faults. In this study, the first 3D P-wave velocity model of the upper crust in the Central Alborz Mountains is obtained using a local travel-time earthquake tomography method. A data set of 895 earthquakes recorded on a local 19 station short-period network between 1996 and 2006 provided by the Iranian Seismological Centre (ISC) is used in this inversion. The result of tomography shows considerable velocity anomalies in this region. These anomalies show remarkable features in the vicinity of the Mosha and North Tehran faults, as well as in the Damavand volcanic area. In depth of 15 kilometer a low velocity region is observed parallel to the above two mentioned faults. This can be caused by the crushed rocks along these two faults. In the place of splitting North Tehran fault from the Mosha fault, a very noticeable low velocity anomaly represents intense fracturing in rocks. In the Damavand volcanic area and in the northern side of the summit an anomalous high velocity body found to the depth of 20 kilometer. According to its considerable correlation with the position of the old Damavand cone, it is related to the older and crystallized magma chamber of the Damavand volcano. A low velocity anomaly exactly beneath the present cone to the depth of seven kilometer, with another low velocity anomaly in depth of 10 to 20 kilometer constitutes the present magma chamber of the Damavand volcano.

  11. Predicting travel times for a broad suite of seismic phases with full 3-D ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2013-12-01

    We recently constructed a global-scale P-wave model (LLNL-G3D version 3, Simmons et al. 2012, JGR) designed to predict travel times for the first arriving P-wave energy at regional and teleseismic distances (Pn and P phases). The model is complex with undulating structures explicitly represented including 7 crustal units, the Moho, and the upper mantle phase transitions. The explicit aspherical representation of the Earth is required to perform true 3-D ray tracing, which was employed to construct the model. Our tests have demonstrated a significant improvement in event location accuracy using P and Pn travel times predicted from the LLNL-G3D model. There is a need to predict additional seismic phases using a single model so that the travel times are self-consistent. Therefore, we are developing full 3-D ray tracing procedures for additional seismic phases (pP, PcP, PKP branches, PP, S phases). We will demonstrate the ability (or inability) of the current model to predict some of these travel times and explore the usefulness of these arrivals in constructing the next version of the LLNL-G3D model. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-641528

  12. Anisotropic changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during deformation and fluid infiltration of granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanchits, S.A.; Lockner, D.A.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid infiltration and pore fluid pressure changes are known to have a significant effect on the occurrence of earthquakes. Yet, for most damaging earthquakes, with nucleation zones below a few kilometers depth, direct measurements of fluid pressure variations are not available. Instead, pore fluid pressures are inferred primarily from seismic-wave propagation characteristics such as Vp/Vs ratio, attenuation, and reflectivity contacts. We present laboratory measurements of changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during the injection of water into a granite sample as it was loaded to failure. A cylindrical sample of Westerly granite was deformed at constant confining and pore pressures of 50 and 1 MPa, respectively. Axial load was increased in discrete steps by controlling axial displacement. Anisotropic P-wave velocity and attenuation fields were determined during the experiment using an array of 13 piezoelectric transducers. At the final loading steps (86% and 95% of peak stress), both spatial and temporal changes in P-wave velocity and peak-to-peak amplitudes of P and S waves were observed. P-wave velocity anisotropy reached a maximum of 26%. Transient increases in attenuation of up to 483 dB/m were also observed and were associated with diffusion of water into the sample. We show that velocity and attenuation of P waves are sensitive to the process of opening of microcracks and the subsequent resaturation of these cracks as water diffuses in from the surrounding region. Symmetry of the orientation of newly formed microcracks results in anisotropic velocity and attenuation fields that systematically evolve in response to changes in stress and influx of water. With proper scaling, these measurements provide constraints on the magnitude and duration of velocity and attenuation transients that can be expected to accompany the nucleation of earthquakes in the Earth's crust.

  13. Effects of exciting frequencies, grain sizes, and damage upon P-wave velocity for ultrasonic NDT of concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiann W. Ju; Lisheng Weng

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental study of the effects of exciting frequencies, grain (aggregate) sizes, and damage upon the ultrasonic P-wave velocity when performing the ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) for concrete specimens. Two batches of concrete and mortar specimens were prepared in the laboratory for the investigation of the effects from the stated factors upon the P-wave velocity. Damage

  14. P-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Iceland from local earthquake tomography

    E-print Network

    Shen, Yang

    P-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Iceland from local earthquake tomography Ting Yang*, Yang Shen Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, South Ferry develop a three-dimensional P-wave velocity model of the Icelandic crust and uppermost mantle from

  15. Delaying the Catastrophic Arrival of the Brown Tree Snake to Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Burnett; James Roumasset; Yacov Tsur

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a two-stage model for the optimal management of a potential invasive species. The arrival of an invasive species is modeled as an irreversible event with an uncertain arrival time. The model is solved in two stages, beginning with the post-invasion stage. In this stage, we assume perfect certainty regarding population size and arrivals. The loss-minimizing paths of

  16. Reallocating arrival slots during a ground delay program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan F. Bard; Dinesh Natarajan Mohan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new model and solution methodology for the arrival slot reallocation problem faced by airlines when responding to a ground delay program (GDP). The objective is to reassign the flights in the GDP to time slots made available by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) such that flight delay and passenger missed connection costs are minimized. The problem

  17. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times of the aircraft. Findings from these initial experiments indicate that it is possible to schedule arrivals into Anchorage with minimal delays under low-visibility conditions with less disruption to high-cost, international flights.

  18. Teleseismic travel times, the Isabella anomaly, and the missing Moho, from the Sierra Nevada EarthScope experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Jones, C.; Reeg, H.; Gilbert, H.; Zandt, G.; Owens, T.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic studies of the southern and central Sierra Nevada revealed a region within the western foothills where the teleseismic P to S Moho conversion is very weak or absent (Zandt et al., Nature, 2004; Burdick et al., this meeting). The conversion could be destroyed by a downward pointing cusp on the Moho produced as crust is entrained in the foundering of the garnet-rich Sierran lower crustal root. The first phase of the recently deployed Sierra Nevada Earthscope Project (SNEP) consists of an array of over 40 broadband seismometers spanning the central Sierra Nevada for a ~15-month period. Initial examination of the new teleseismic travel times from the SNEP stations reveal earlier P-wave arrivals above the "missing" Moho than in the surrounding area. These P-arrivals appear to be inconsistent with the concept of the downward cusp on the Moho: if there were a thicker crust where the Moho is "missing" then the P-wave arrivals in that area should be later than in surrounding areas. P-wave residuals, some of which are more than a second early, indicate that a subsurface high wavespeed body is instead present; these residuals are in part due to the previously described "Isabella anomaly" under the southwestern Sierra. By evaluating the P-wave arrival times from 30 different teleseisms to the SNEP,1997 Sierran Paradox, and 1988 Southern Sierra experiments, we can approximate the spatial geometry of the body or bodies as an elongated body plunging toward the southeast. A preliminary cross section of teleseismic P-residuals using events from the northwest and southeast suggests that the anomaly extends from less than 30 km to as much as 250 km depth. Quite possibly two anomalies exist: one near the Moho in the northwest and one closer to 200 km depth to the southeast. The shallow level of the upper, northwestern end of the body suggests that the "Moho hole" might instead reflect a region where high-wavespeed material exists in the crust, diminishing the contrast at the Moho and thus disrupting the Ps conversion, or that high-wavespeed material overwhelms the effect of thickened crust in this area. The lower bound on the bottom of the Isabella anomaly suggests that the entire foundering body remains in the uppermost mantle and that completed imaging from the combined 1988, 1997, and SNEP experiments will finally complete our picture of this enigmatic body.

  19. Rapid estimation of earthquake size using the broadband P-wave magnitude mB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, J.; Bormann, P.

    2007-12-01

    The size of an earthquake is the most fundamental characteristic besides its location. In order to adequately respond to an earthquake, especially when human life is at stake, an accurate size estimate must be available rapidly. Quick quantification of earthquake magnitude, however, continues to present a challenge particularly for large events. Especially following the disastrous December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman event, a number of new methods have been proposed to overcome this difficulty. As early as 1956, Gutenberg and Richter introduced the body wave magnitude mB = log10(A/T)max + Q(?,z). They determined the displacement amplitude A and dominant period T from intermediate- period displacement seismograms. The calibration function Q was derived accordingly. Later the same formula and calibration function was adopted for the narrow-band, WWSSN short-period magnitude mb, resulting in systematically underestimated magnitudes for events larger than about 5.5. We demonstrate that by using the full broadband P-waveform, the original but long-forgotten mB provides excellent magnitude estimates up to at least magnitude 8. It is probably the simplest of all P-wave based magnitudes, since modern broadband instruments record ground velocity directly and (A/T)max may simply be replaced by Vmax/2?. Based on broadband recordings of more than 1000 large earthquakes since 1990, we derived a new mB calibration function, spanning the distance range from 5 to 100 degrees. By using this calibration function, first mB estimates may become available after as little as 2 minutes following the origin time. The trivially simple computation makes mB a competitor for MWP. The latter involves double integration of velocity seismograms and is known to suffer from stability problems. Furthermore, it is highly susceptible to noise. In contrast, mB is guaranteed to be numerically stable and noise is of less concern. This is an important consideration especially in automated setups where processing speed is crucial and time-consuming manual interaction has to be avoided.

  20. ECG manifestations of multiple electrolyte imbalance: peaked T wave to P wave ("tee-pee sign").

    PubMed

    Johri, Amer M; Baranchuk, Adrian; Simpson, Christopher S; Abdollah, Hoshiar; Redfearn, Damian P

    2009-04-01

    The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is a useful instrument in the detection of metabolic disturbances. The accurate characterization of these disturbances, however, may be considerably more difficult when more than one metabolic abnormality is present in the same individual. While "classic" ECG presentations of common electrolyte disturbances are well described, multiple electrolyte disturbances occurring simultaneously may generate ECG abnormalities that are not as readily recognizable. We report a case of hyperkalemia, with concurrent hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia resulting in (1) peaking of the T wave, (2) a prominent U wave, and (3) prolongation of the descending limb of the T wave such that it overlapped with the next P wave. In this particular ECG from a patient with combined electrolyte imbalance, we have dubbed the unusual appearance of the segment between the peak of the T wave to the next P wave as the "tee-pee" sign. PMID:19419407

  1. The Galileo arrival date selection process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwinski, Jan M.; Gershman, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Galileo arrival date selection process has culminated in the selection of December 7,1995. This arrival date will provide excellent science opportunities at Jupiter as well as the first spacecraft reconnaissance ever of not one, but two asteroids during the cruise to Jupiter.

  2. Illuminating the near-sonic rupture velocities of the intracontinental Kokoxili Mw 7.8 and Denali fault Mw 7.9 strike-slip earthquakes with global P wave back projection imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristoffer T. Walker; Peter M. Shearer

    2009-01-01

    The Denali and Kokoxili strike-slip earthquakes are two of the longest recent intracontinental ruptures. Previous studies report a range of rupture velocities. Here we image these earthquakes by reverse time migration of the intermediate-frequency P wave train recorded by global broadband seismometers. This technique permits a relatively direct measure of rupture velocity (speed and direction) as constrained by the radiated

  3. Isolated vortex and vortex lattice in a holographic p-wave superconductor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Murray; Zlatko Tesanovic

    2011-01-01

    Using the holographic gauge-gravity duality, we find a solution for an isolated vortex and a vortex lattice in a 2+1-dimensional p-wave superconductor, which is described by the boundary theory dual to an SU(2) gauge theory in 3+1-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. Both px+ipy and px-ipy components of the superconducting order parameter, as well as the effects of a magnetic field on

  4. P-Wave Velocity Structure and Its Tectonics beneath Dabie-Sulu Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Xu; Z. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    The 3-D crustal structure of P-wave velocity in the Dabie-Sulu region and the vicinities was studied based on the data obtained by wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction surveys. The results suggest that the high velocity structure zones exist in the upper crust shallower than 20 km beneath the Sulu and Dabie regions. The cause of high velocity zones is attributable

  5. Rapid Assessment of Damage Potential of Earthquakes in Taiwan from the Beginning of P Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yih-Min Wu; Hiroo Kanamori

    2005-01-01

    To rapidly assess the potential for damage of an earthquake for purposes of earthquake early warning in Taiwan, we used the peak displacement and velocity amplitudes of the first 3 sec of the P wave. The vertical-component records, high- pass filtered at 0.075 Hz, are used. We found that the peak initial-displacement amplitude (Pd) correlates well with the peak ground-motion

  6. Testable Signatures of Quantum Nonlocality in a Two-Dimensional Chiral p-Wave Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, Sumanta; Zhang Chuanwei; Das Sarma, S. [Condensed Matter Theory Center, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Nayak, Chetan [Microsoft Station Q, CNSI Building, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93108 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Lee, Dung-Hai [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Material Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2008-01-18

    A class of topological excitations--the odd-winding number vortices--in a spinless 2D chiral p-wave (p{sub x}+ip{sub y}) superconductor traps Majorana fermion states in the vortex cores. For a dilute gas of such vortices, the lowest energy fermionic eigenstates are intrinsically nonlocal. We predict two testable signatures of this unusual quantum nonlocality in quasiparticle tunneling experiments. We discuss why the associated teleportationlike phenomenon does not imply the violation of causality.

  7. Spin polarization and Zeeman effects in ferromagnet\\/ferromagnetic p -wave superconductor junctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Li; Xinjian Yang

    2011-01-01

    An extended Blonder–Tinkham–Klapwijk (BTK) approach is applied to study the spin polarization and Zeeman effects in ferromagnet\\/ferromagnetic p-wave superconductor (FM\\/FpS) junctions. Three kinds of pairings for FpS are chosen: px,py,px+ipy waves. It is found that the normalized conductance strongly depends on both kinds of pairings and the relative orientations of the effective exchange field in the FM and FpS. In

  8. Ferromagnetic insulator effects in ferromagnetic semiconductor\\/ferromagnetic insulator\\/ p-wave superconductor junctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Li; Xinjian Yang

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the ferromagnetic insulator on tunneling conductance in ferromagnetic semiconductor\\/ferromagnetic insulator\\/p-wave superconductor (FS\\/FI\\/P) junctions is studied based on a scattering theory. Three kinds of pairings for the P side are chosen: px, py ,px+ipy waves. It is shown that the spin filtering effect originating from the exchange field in the FI strongly modifies the normalization conductance. Many novel

  9. Input-output characterization of fiber reinforced composites by P waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renneisen, John D.; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Input-output characterization of fiber composites is studied theoretically by tracing P waves in the media. A new path motion to aid in the tracing of P and the reflection generated SV wave paths in the continuum plate is developed. A theoretical output voltage from the receiving transducer is calculated for a tone burst. The study enhances the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the nondestructive evaluation of fiber composites which can be modeled as transversely isotropic media.

  10. Segmented African lithosphere beneath the Anatolian region inferred from teleseismic P-wave tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Berk Biryol; Susan L. Beck; George Zandt; A. Arda Özacar

    2011-01-01

    Lithospheric deformation throughout Anatolia, a part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, is controlled mainly by collision-related tectonic escape of the Anatolian Plate and subduction roll-back along the Aegean Subduction Zone. We study the deeper lithosphere and mantle structure of Anatolia using teleseismic, finite-frequency, P-wave traveltime tomography. We use data from several temporary and permanent seismic networks deployed in the region.

  11. A Study of the Core-Mantle Boundary Using P Waves Diffracted by the Earth's Core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelton S. Alexander; Robert A. Phinney

    1966-01-01

    Ratios of the spectrums of diffracted P waves can be used to isolate effects of propagation along the core-mantle boundary, and the rate of attenuation with distance as a function of frequency is a useful quantitative measure of core-mantle properties. Spectrums of the attenuation coefficient for a number of patches on the core-mantle boundary were measured in the frequency range

  12. Effect of cracks on the pressure dependence of P wave velocities in crystalline rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Carlson; Anthony F. Gangi

    1985-01-01

    To test the ``bed of nails'' model, we have made detailed measurements of P wave velocities in five low-porosity, crystalline rocks at effective pressures to 500 MPa and fit two equations based on the model to the laboratory data. The first equation, V(P) =V0(1+P\\/Pi)(1-m)\\/2, applies at relatively low pressures because it assumes that the grain modulus is very much larger

  13. Quantum Phase Transition in the BCS-to-BEC Evolution of p -wave Fermi Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Botelho; C. A. R. Sá de Melo

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of a quantum phase transition in ultra-cold spin-polarized Fermi gases which exhibit a p-wave Feshbach resonance. We show that when fermionic atoms form a condensate that can be externally tuned between the BCS and BEC limits, the zero temperature compressibility and the spin susceptibility of the fermionic gas are non-analytic functions of the two-body bound state

  14. Permeability and P-wave velocity change in granitic rocks under freeze–thaw cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Takarli; W. Prince

    2007-01-01

    An extensive experimental investigation of microstructural changes in granites under freeze–thaw cycles using permeability and P-wave velocity measurements is described. Two types of natural granite rocks are considered and tested under dry and saturated conditions. The specimens were subjected to 200 heating–cooling cycles (??20°C\\/?+?20°C); each cycle had a duration of 24 h. The results indicate that the ageing process decreases the

  15. P-wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath Hawaii from traveltime tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilmann, F.J.; Benz, H.M.; Priestley, K.F.; Okubo, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the P-wave velocity structure beneath the island of Hawaii using P-wave residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismic network. The station geometry and distribution of events makes it possible to image the velocity structure between ~ 40 and 100 km depth with a lateral resolution of ~ 15 km and a vertical resolution of ~ 30 km. For depths between 40 and 80 km, P-wave velocities are up to 5 per cent slower in a broad elongated region trending SE-NW that underlies the island between the two lines defined by the volcanic loci. No direct correlation between the magnitude of the lithospheric anomaly and the current level of volcanic activity is apparent, but the slow region is broadened at ~ 19.8??N and narrow beneath Kilauea. In the case of the occanic lithosphere beneath Hawaii, slow seismic velocities are likely to be related to magma transport from the top of the melting zone at the base of the lithosphere to the surface. Thermal modelling shows that the broad elongated low-velocity zone cannot be explained in terms of conductive heating by one primary conduit per volcano but that more complicated melt pathways must exist.

  16. Simulation Results for Airborne Precision Spacing along Continuous Descent Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a fast-time simulation experiment and a high-fidelity simulator validation with merging streams of aircraft flying Continuous Descent Arrivals through generic airspace to a runway at Dallas-Ft Worth. Aircraft made small speed adjustments based on an airborne-based spacing algorithm, so as to arrive at the threshold exactly at the assigned time interval behind their Traffic-To-Follow. The 40 aircraft were initialized at different altitudes and speeds on one of four different routes, and then merged at different points and altitudes while flying Continuous Descent Arrivals. This merging and spacing using flight deck equipment and procedures to augment or implement Air Traffic Management directives is called Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing, an important subset of a larger Airborne Precision Spacing functionality. This research indicates that Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing initiated while at cruise altitude and well prior to the Terminal Radar Approach Control entry can significantly contribute to the delivery of aircraft at a specified interval to the runway threshold with a high degree of accuracy and at a reduced pilot workload. Furthermore, previously documented work has shown that using a Continuous Descent Arrival instead of a traditional step-down descent can save fuel, reduce noise, and reduce emissions. Research into Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing is a cooperative effort between government and industry partners.

  17. Finite-difference modelling to evaluate seismic P-wave and shear-wave field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burschil, T.; Beilecke, T.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution reflection seismic methods are an established non-destructive tool for engineering tasks. In the near surface, shear-wave reflection seismic measurements usually offer a higher spatial resolution in the same effective signal frequency spectrum than P-wave data, but data quality varies more strongly. To discuss the causes of these differences, we investigated a P-wave and a SH-wave seismic reflection profile measured at the same location on the island of Föhr, Germany and applied seismic reflection processing to the field data as well as finite-difference modelling of the seismic wave field. The simulations calculated were adapted to the acquisition field geometry, comprising 2 m receiver distance (1 m for SH wave) and 4 m shot distance along the 1.5 km long P-wave and 800 m long SH-wave profiles. A Ricker wavelet and the use of absorbing frames were first-order model parameters. The petrophysical parameters to populate the structural models down to 400 m depth were taken from borehole data, VSP (vertical seismic profile) measurements and cross-plot relations. The simulation of the P-wave wave-field was based on interpretation of the P-wave depth section that included a priori information from boreholes and airborne electromagnetics. Velocities for 14 layers in the model were derived from the analysis of five nearby VSPs (vP =1600-2300 m s-1). Synthetic shot data were compared with the field data and seismic sections were created. Major features like direct wave and reflections are imaged. We reproduce the mayor reflectors in the depth section of the field data, e.g. a prominent till layer and several deep reflectors. The SH-wave model was adapted accordingly but only led to minor correlation with the field data and produced a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, we suggest to consider for future simulations additional features like intrinsic damping, thin layering, or a near-surface weathering layer. These may lead to a better understanding of key parameters determining the data quality of near-surface shear-wave seismic measurements.

  18. Queueing-blocking system with two arrival streams and guard channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROCH GUERIN

    1988-01-01

    An approach to the study of a multichannel cutoff priority system for two Poisson arrival streams with distinct arrival rates and the same potential service time distribution is proposed. This approach makes it possible to obtain the state probabilities in simple closed-form expressions. These expressions provide a straightforward way to derive the distribution of the number of busy servers, the

  19. Factors Associated with Early Hospital Arrival in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dongbeom; Tanaka, Eijirou; Lee, Kijeong; Sato, Shoichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Kim, Young Dae; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Factors associated with early arrival may vary according to the characteristics of the hospital. We investigated the factors associated with early hospital arrival in two different stroke centers located in Korea and Japan. Methods Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke arrived hospital within 48 hours of onset between January 2011 and December 2012 were identified and the clinical and time variables were retrieved from the prospective stroke registries of Severance Hospital of Yonsei University Health System (YUHS; Seoul, Korea) and National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (NCVC; Osaka, Japan). Subjects were dichotomized into early (time from onset to arrival ?4.5 hours) and late (>4.5 hours) arrival groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with early hospital arrival. Results A total of 1,966 subjects (992 from YUHS; 974 from NCVC) were included in this study. The median time from onset to arrival was 6.1 hours [interquartile range, 1.7-17.8 hours]. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with early arrival were atrial fibrillation (Odds ratio [OR], 1.505; 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.168-1.939]), higher initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores (OR, 1.037; 95% CI [1.023-1.051]), onset during daytime (OR, 2.799; 95% CI [2.173-3.605]), and transport by an emergency medical service (OR, 2.127; 95% CI [1.700-2.661]). These factors were consistently associated with early arrival in both hospitals. Conclusions Despite differences between the hospitals, there were common factors related to early arrival. Efforts to identify and modify these factors may promote early hospital arrival and improve stroke outcome.

  20. Joint Tomographic Inversion of Body-Wave Arrivals and Gravity Data at the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teel, A.; Thurber, C. H.; Bennington, N. L.; Zhang, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (SSJRD) occurs at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers in the Central Valley of California. The Central Valley is a sedimentary basin that divides the granitic Sierra Nevada range on the east from the heterogeneous Franciscan formation to the west. It is home to a series of levees that control about half of California's annual stream flow, and more than half of Californians get their drinking water from the SSJRD area. Previous studies show that ground motion from magnitude 6.0 earthquakes, which have recurrence intervals of about 100 years in the area, are capable of causing levee failure. While the highest risk for levee failure is in the western SSJRD, since it is near at least five major faults, a medium to high risk of catastrophic levee failure also exists for most of the central SSJRD. These assessments incorporate qualitative estimates of parameters such as basin amplification based on individual knowledge and experience, since geotechnical information is limited in the area. Likewise, two fault models are used in the study, which differ primarily in the assumed presence or absence of a blind thrust fault under the northwest corner of the SSJRD. To improve hazard assessment, particularly in regards to basin amplification of strong ground motion, local tomographic imaging is necessary to determine the shape of the Central Valley at depth and to help evaluate the presence of faults. We will present a new local P-wave velocity model for the SSJRD, determined from joint inversion of seismic arrival times and gravity measurements. For the purposes of this study, gravity data primarily complement body-wave data by providing information on shallow density structure and are more effective at delineating lateral density variations. Seismic waves provide better depth resolution but are limited by the spatial distribution of earthquake and receiver locations. Our datasets comprise over 213,000 (regional and local) arrival times and approximately 5000 local Bouguer-corrected gravity readings. We are developing a version of the seismic tomography code tomoDD, modified to incorporate gravity data. Published empirical relationships between density and seismic velocity will be used to connect the two data types. Current density-velocity relationships are based on rocks from different geologic settings and can not account for non-uniqueness in density and velocity for different rock types. We will strive to implement these density-velocity relationships with depth dependence in order to model them more realistically.

  1. Velocity Structure of the Tibetan Lithosphere: Constraints from P-Wave Travel Times of Regional Earthquakes

    E-print Network

    Nowack, Robert L.

    - ing of the Moho depth and a decrease in Pn velocities to the north. The corrected Figure 5 is shown error Shallowing of Moho and decrease in Pn velocities to the north Shallowing of Moho and decrease in Pn velocities to the north Shallowing of Moho and decrease in Pn velocities to the north Shallowing

  2. Does Pet Arrival Trigger Prosocial Behaviors in Individuals with Autism?

    PubMed Central

    Grandgeorge, Marine; Tordjman, Sylvie; Lazartigues, Alain; Lemonnier, Eric; Deleau, Michel; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors – an important aspect of development – is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have never been scientifically evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the presence or the arrival of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes in his or her prosocial behaviors. Of 260 individuals with autism - on the basis of presence or absence of pets - two groups of 12 individuals and two groups of 8 individuals were assigned to: study 1 (pet arrival after age of 5 versus no pet) and study 2 (pet versus no pet), respectively. Evaluation of social impairment was assessed at two time periods using the 36-items ADI-R algorithm and a parental questionnaire about their child-pet relationships. The results showed that 2 of the 36 items changed positively between the age of 4 to 5 (t0) and time of assessment (t1) in the pet arrival group (study 1): “offering to share” and “offering comfort”. Interestingly, these two items reflect prosocial behaviors. There seemed to be no significant changes in any item for the three other groups. The interactions between individuals with autism and their pets were more – qualitatively and quantitatively - reported in the situation of pet arrival than pet presence since birth. These findings open further lines of research on the impact of pet’s presence or arrival in families with an individual with autism. Given the potential ability of individuals with autism to develop prosocial behaviors, related studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of such child-pet relationship. PMID:22870246

  3. P-wave morphology during right atrial pacing before and after atrial flutter ablation—A new marker for success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed H. Hamdan; Jonathan M. Kaiman; Hal V. Barron; Michael D. Lesh

    1997-01-01

    Simple examination of the surface P wave in the inferior leads when pacing from a location lateral to the subeustachian isthmus might be a substitute for the more cumbersome endocardial mapping needed for demonstration of bidirectional block.

  4. P-wave signal-averaged electrocardiogram in patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse syndrome and supraventricular arrhythmias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waldemar Banasiak; Iwona Pajak; Piotr Ponikowski; Wieslaw Lacheta; Krzysztof Wiech; Massimo Piepoli; Czeslaw Telichowski

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether the P-wave triggered signal-averaged ECG (SAECG) used in patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse syndrome could predict the risk of the development of supraventricular arrhythmias. Fifty patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse syndrome (15 men, 35 women, mean age: 37 ± 9 years) were prospectively studied. P-wave triggered SAECG was recorded

  5. Induced p-wave superfluidity in strongly interacting imbalanced Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Kelly R.; Sheehy, Daniel E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The induced interaction among the majority spin species, due to the presence of the minority species, is computed for the case of a population-imbalanced resonantly interacting Fermi gas. It is shown that this interaction leads to an instability, at low temperatures, of the recently observed polaron Fermi liquid phase of strongly imbalanced Fermi gases to a p-wave superfluid state. We find that the associated transition temperature, while quite small in the weakly interacting BCS regime, is experimentally accessible in the strongly interacting unitary regime.

  6. An exactly soluble model with tunable p-wave paired fermion ground states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Yu; Ziqiang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the work of Kitaev, we construct an exactly soluble spin-½ model on a honeycomb lattice whose ground states are identical to Delta1xpx+Delta1ypy+i(Delta2xpx+Delta2ypy)-wave paired fermions on a square lattice, with tunable paring order parameters. We derive a universal phase diagram for this general p-wave theory which contains a gapped A-phase and a topologically non-trivial B-phase. We show that the

  7. Entanglement Entropy in Holographic P-Wave Superconductor/Insulator Model

    E-print Network

    Rong-Gen Cai; Li Li; Li-Fang Li; Ru-Keng Su

    2013-05-27

    We continue our study of entanglement entropy in the holographic superconducting phase transitions. In this paper we consider the holographic p-wave superconductor/insulator model, where as the back reaction increases, the transition is changed from second order to first order. We find that unlike the s-wave case, there is no additional first order transition in the superconducting phase. We calculate the entanglement entropy for two strip geometries. One is parallel to the super current, and the other is orthogonal to the super current. In both cases, we find that the entanglement entropy monotonically increases with respect to the chemical potential.

  8. Condensates of p-Wave Pairs Are Exact Solutions for Rotating Two-Component Bose Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, T [UTK/ORNL/GSI-Darmstadt/Inst. für Kernphysik, Tech. Univ. Darmstadt-Germany; Reimann, S. M. [Lund University, Sweden; Kavoulakis, G. M. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion, Greece

    2012-01-01

    We derive exact analytical results for the wave functions and energies of harmonically trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with weakly repulsive interactions under rotation. The isospin symmetric wave functions are universal and do not depend on the matrix elements of the two-body interaction. The comparison with the results from numerical diagonalization shows that the ground state and low-lying excitations consist of condensates of p-wave pairs for repulsive contact interactions, Coulomb interactions, and the repulsive interactions between aligned dipoles.

  9. P-wave pentaquark and its decay in the quark model with instanton induced interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Oka, Makoto [Department of Physics, H-27, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Takeuchi, Sachiko [Japan College of Social Work, Kiyose 204-8555 (Japan)

    2006-09-01

    P-wave pentaquarks with strangeness +1, I=0, and J{sup P}=1/2{sup +} are studied in the nonrelativistic quark model with instanton induced interaction (III). We present their mass splittings and orbital-spin-isospin-color structures. It is found that decompositions of the wave functions are sensitive to III, while the mass splittings are insensitive. The decay of the lowest energy pentaquark, {theta}{sup +}, is found to be suppressed when the contribution of III is increased. Spin structure of the dominant components of the wave function is studied.

  10. A Split of Direction of Propagation and Attenuation of P Waves in the Po Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, R.; Tento, A.; Marcellini, A.

    2013-12-01

    On July 17, 2011 a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred in the PO valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te (Mantova). The station is situated on deep quaternary sediments: the uppermost layers are mainly composed of clay and silty clay with interbedded sands; the Robertson index is 1.4P wave particle motion, that appears rather difficult to explain if we assume the homogeneity of the P waves (that means attenuation is scalar). Note that the degree of nonlinearity is very low given that the maximum strain can be roughly estimated as 10-5 on the basis of maximum ground velocity of the P wave train considered and the Vp. On the contrary we show that P wave particle motion can be fully (and easily) described by a Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic model (HILV). HILV, as in the 2009 Borcherdt formulation adopted here, allows two different directions of propagation and attenuation; in other words attenuation becomes a vector that is not necessarily parallel to the propagation vector. The results evidence that the incidence angle and the inhomogeneity angle (it is the angle between propagation and attenuation vectors and it is closely related to Q factor) are in good agreement with the geological conditions of the site. Finally, we observed that these results are very similar to the ones obtained when we analyzed two explosions recorded by a seismic station in Milano, also situated in the Po valley at some 140 km from Mantova (Marcellini & Tento, 2011). Borcherdt, R.D. (2009) 'Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media', Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 305 pp. Marcellini, A. and A. Tento (2011) ' Explosive Sources Prove the Validity of Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic Models', BSSA, Vol. 101, No. 4, pp. 1576-1583.

  11. Local Determination of Weak Anisotropy Parameters from qP-wave Slowness and Particle Motion Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuyao Zheng; Ivan Pšen?ík

    \\u000a We propose an algorithm for local evaluation of weak anisotropy (WA) parameters from measurements of slowness vector components\\u000a and\\/or of particle motions ofqPwaves at individual receivers in a borehole in a multi-azimuthal multiple-source offset VSP experiment. As a byproduct the\\u000a algorithm yields approximate angular variation of qP-wave phase velocity. The formulae are derived under assumption of weak\\u000a but arbitrary anisotropy

  12. Multi-object filtering with Poisson arrival-rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel; Nagappa, Sharad

    2011-06-01

    Recent interest in multi-object filtering has focussed on the problem of discrete-time filtering, where sets of measurements are collected at regular intervals from the sensor. Many sensors do not provide multiple measurements at regular intervals but instead provide single-measurement reports at irregular time-steps. In this paper we study the multi-object filtering problem for estimation from measurements where the target and clutter processes provide measurements with Poisson arrival rates. In particular, we show that the Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter can be adapted to Poisson arrival rate measurements by modelling the probability of detection with an exponential distribution. We demonstrate the approach in simulated scenarios.

  13. Research Of Airborne Precision Spacing to Improve Airport Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2004, the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation to mutually develop, modify, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices to meet the need for safe and efficient air navigation and air traffic control in the future. In the United States and Europe, these efforts are defined within the architectures of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Program and Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Program respectively. Both programs have identified Airborne Spacing as a critical component, with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) as a key enabler. Increased interest in reducing airport community noise and the escalating cost of aviation fuel has led to the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel usage compared to current procedures. To provide these operational enhancements, arrival flight paths into terminal areas are planned around continuous vertical descents that are closer to an optimum trajectory than those in use today. The profiles are designed to be near-idle descents from cruise altitude to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and are typically without any level segments. By staying higher and faster than conventional arrivals, CDAs also save flight time for the aircraft operator. The drawback is that the variation of optimized trajectories for different types and weights of aircraft requires the Air Traffic Controller to provide more airspace around an aircraft on a CDA than on a conventional arrival procedure. This additional space decreases the throughput rate of the destination airport. Airborne self-spacing concepts have been developed to increase the throughput at high-demand airports by managing the inter-arrival spacing to be more precise and consistent using on-board guidance. It has been proposed that the additional space needed around an aircraft performing a CDA could be reduced or eliminated when using airborne spacing techniques.

  14. Any P-wave kinematic algorithm for vertical transversely isotropic media can be ADAPTed to moderately anisotropic media of arbitrary symmetry type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasolofosaon, Patrick N. J.

    2003-12-01

    Most of P-wave anisotropic kinematic algorithms (modeling, processing, and inversion) have been developed for the case of Transverse Isotropy (TI). Does it mean that when dealing with more complex symmetry types (Arbitrarily tilted TI, orthorhombic, monoclinic or even triclinic), all these algorithms are irrelevant? In fact, not at all. It has recently been demonstrated that in 2D geometry any qP-wave TI kinematic algorithm can be simply generalized to the case of monoclinic symmetry using the so-called Azimuthally Dependent Anisotropy Parameter Transformation (ADAPT), assuming moderate anisotropy. The extension of the technique to the case of arbitrary anisotropy type (triclinic) is achieved in this paper. The method is successfully checked for seismic modeling in a full 2D model with layers of contrasted anisotropy types and with arbitrary vertical and horizontal velocity variations (non-constant gradient). Typically, the approximate travel times using ADAPT differ from the exact travel times by a few milliseconds for total travel times of the order of a few seconds. Applications to seismic processing are also described. The simplicity of the procedure and the generality of the applicability of the ADAPT recipe are striking and very convenient for practical applications. They certainly deserve further analysis.

  15. Selection and evolutionary potential of spring arrival phenology in males and females of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Tarka, M; Hansson, B; Hasselquist, D

    2015-05-01

    The timing of annual life-history events affects survival and reproduction of all organisms. A changing environment can perturb phenological adaptations and an important question is if populations can evolve fast enough to track the environmental changes. Yet, little is known about selection and evolutionary potential of traits determining the timing of crucial annual events. Migratory species, which travel between different climatic regions, are particularly affected by global environmental changes. To increase our understanding of evolutionary potential and selection of timing traits, we investigated the quantitative genetics of arrival date at the breeding ground using a multigenerational pedigree of a natural great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) population. We found significant heritability of 16.4% for arrival date and directional selection for earlier arrival in both sexes acting through reproductive success, but not through lifespan. Mean arrival date advanced with 6 days over 20 years, which is in exact accordance with our predicted evolutionary response based on the breeder's equation. However, this phenotypic change is unlikely to be caused by microevolution, because selection seems mainly to act on the nongenetic component of the trait. Furthermore, demographical changes could also not account for the advancing arrival date. Instead, a strong correlation between spring temperatures and population mean arrival date suggests that phenotypic plasticity best explains the advancement of arrival date in our study population. Our study dissects the evolutionary and environmental forces that shape timing traits and thereby increases knowledge of how populations cope with rapidly changing environments. PMID:25847825

  16. P-wave Velocity, Density, and Vertical Stress Magnitude Along the Crustal Po Plain (Northern Italy) from Sonic Log Drilling Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, Paola; Mariucci, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    In order to characterize better P-wave velocities for the shallow crust of the Po Plain and surrounding regions, we have selected 64 deep wells mainly located in the plain and also along the Apennine belt and Adriatic coast. In particular, we have analyzed the stratigraphic profiles for all wells, and the available sonic logs (37 out of 64). From these data we have examined the P-wave velocity trend with depth and estimated rock density following an empirical relationship between sonic velocity and density in sedimentary rocks. Then we have calculated, notably, for the first time in a large area of Italy, the overburden stress magnitude for each well. For instance, at a depth of 5 km we have found values varying from 105 to 130 MPa moving from the Adriatic coast to the Apennine belt. Consequently, the Apennine belt shows a maximum regional lithostatic gradient of around 26 MPa/km while the Po Plain and Adriatic region have values of around 21 MPa/km. The maximum density value that can be considered for the Apennine crustal belt corresponds to 2.65 g/cm3; in the Po Plain the mean density is around 2.25 g/cm3, while in the Adriatic area the average density has the lowest value in the region at 2.13 g/cm3. Although in this area a 2D crustal P-wave velocity model does not adequately constrain the complicated and uneven tectonics, we have nevertheless established a shallow model consisting of five separate layers. The strength of this paper lies in the possible use of these direct data, together with other derived geological and geophysical information, to build a 3D model of the area.

  17. Collective modes of p-wave superfluid Fermi gases in BEC phase

    E-print Network

    Matera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The low-energy modes of a superfluid atomic Fermi gas at zero temperature are investigated. The Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) side of the superfluid phase is studied in detail. The atoms are assumed to be in only one internal state, so that for a sufficiently diluted gas the pairing of fermions can be considered effective in the l=1 channel only. In agreement with previous works on p-wave superfluidity in Fermi systems, it is found that the $p_x+ip_y$ phase represents the lowest energy state in both the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and BEC sides. Our calculations show that at low energy three branches of collective modes can emerge, with different species of dispersion relations: a phonon-like mode, a single-particle-like mode and a gapped mode. A comparison with the Bogoliubov excitations of the corresponding spinor Bose condensate is made. They reproduce the dispersion relations of the excitation modes of the p-wave superfluid Fermi gas to a high accuracy.

  18. The effect of diabetic autonomic neuropathy on P-wave duration, dispersion and atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Bissinger, Andrzej; Grycewicz, Tomasz; Grabowicz, Wlodzimierz; Lubinski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus and has a negative impact on the cardiovascular system. There are no data about the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) in the population with DAN. Material and methods We analysed the data of 100 patients with PAF. The study population was divided into three groups: group I: 28 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and DAN, group II: 34 patients with DM without DAN, and group III: 38 patients without DM. P-wave duration (FPD) and dispersion (PWD) were measured during sinus rhythm and AF episodes were counted during 12 months of follow-up. Results Recurrence of PAF was higher in group I (47 episodes/year) compared to groups II and III (26 and 22 episodes/year) – p<0.01. The FPD was longer in group I (137.4 ±12.0 ms vs. 126 ±23.0 ms in II group and 129 ±18.3 ms in group III; p<0.001). The PWD was longer in patients with DAN (53 ±19 ms vs. 36 ±18 ms and 34 ± 20 ms, p<0.001). Conclusions The results showed that the presence of DAN caused a significant increase in P-wave duration and dispersion, which might be responsible for the recurrence of AF. PMID:22291825

  19. Preliminary Results for Crustal Structure in Southeastern Africa from P-wave Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Mulowezi, A.; Kunkuta, E.; De Magalhães, V.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Julia, J.

    2013-12-01

    The crustal structure of southeastern Africa is investigated by modeling P-wave receiver functions using H-k stacking and joint inversion methods. P-wave receiver functions are analyzed for 29 broadband seismic stations in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. Estimates for the Moho depth and Poisson's ratio are determined from H-k stacking, and estimates for the shear wave velocity are determined by the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion. Preliminary results show that Moho depths beneath southeastern Africa range from 32 km to 51 km. Thicker crust is found in Proterozoic terrains, such as the Irumide Belt, while thinner crust is found in reworked Archean terrains, such as the Bangweulu Block. These results are consistent with previous studies and global averages for Precambrian terrains. The preliminary results also show a range of Poisson's ratios from 0.2 to 0.3. These new results for southeastern Africa are being combined with similar results from elsewhere in eastern and southern Africa to improve our understanding of African crustal structure.

  20. Preliminary Results for Crustal Structure in Southeastern Africa from P-wave Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Mulibo, G.; Mulowezi, A.; Kunkuta, E.; De Magalhães, V.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.; Julia, J.

    2012-12-01

    The crustal structure of southeastern Africa is investigated by modeling P-wave receiver functions using H-k stacking and joint inversion methods. P-wave receiver functions are analyzed for 29 broadband seismic stations in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. Estimates for the Moho depth and Poisson's ratio are determined from H-k stacking, and estimates for the shear wave velocity are determined by the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion. Preliminary results show that Moho depths beneath southeastern Africa range from 32 km to 51 km. Thicker crust is found in Proterozoic terrains, such as the Irumide Belt, while thinner crust is found in reworked Archean terrains, such as the Bangweulu Block. These results are consistent with previous studies and global averages for Precambrian terrains. The preliminary results also show a range of Poisson's ratios from 0.2 to 0.3. These new results for southeastern Africa are being combined with similar results from elsewhere in eastern and southern Africa to improve our understanding of African crustal structure.

  1. Amplitude and angle of arrival measurements on a 28.56 GHz Earth-space path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devasirvatham, D. M. J.; Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The amplitude and angle of arrival measurements on an Earth-space path using the 28.56 GHz COMSTAR D3 satellite beacon are described. These measurements were made by the Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory during the period September 1978 to September 1979. Monthly, quarterly, and annual distributions of attenuation, angle of arrival, and variance of both these parameters are reported. During this period, fades exceeding 29 dB for .00% of the time and angle of arrival fluctuations exceeding .12 degrees for .01% of the time were observed.

  2. NASA's SOFIA Arrives in Christchurch, New Zealand, July 14, 2013 - Duration: 101 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy airborne observatory arrived at Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, July 14 at 12:14 p.m. (New Zealand Standard Time) to investi...

  3. How do I collect my key on arrival at Lister House? Keys are collected directly from Lister House office, but please read the separate `arrival

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    available) The email address is lister@gla.ac.uk What are the Office opening hours? The Lister House Office time and do need to know your date and time of arrival in advance. How close is the Lister House as the office is only open part time and there is not always someone available to show you round. #12;What do I

  4. [Getting qi and arrival of qi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Nong-Yu

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the inter-relationship between getting qi and arrival of qi, the relevant theory in the Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor is re-considered, and then the relationship of the two concepts by combining with some opinions from scholars is compared and analyzed. Getting qi is the signal of acupuncture at an acupoint; also it is a sign of arrival of qi at an acupoint; what's more, it is the premise for reinforcing or reducing manipulation. The sensation of arrival of qi comes from both doctors and patients, characterized with explicit symptoms including "tight and swift", "sunken, sticky and tight", "light, loose and slow", "warm at the acupoint" or "cold at the acupoint" as well as implicit symptom including "qi moving along the meridians"; also there is the condition of qi regulation that is characterized with "paced and harmony" stomach qi. The arrival of qi could be divided into "qi moving to the needles" and "qi traveling to the diseases". The "qi moving to the needles" has similar meaning to getting qi. The "qi traveling to the diseases" is reflected as "qi arrival with efficacy" and characterized as an immediate effect or a delayed effect. There are differences between the concepts of getting qi and arrival of qi. Getting qi focuses on the importance of the doctor during acupuncture processes (differentiate the nature of qi, guard qi, manipulate qi), which also suggests the clinical significance of implicit getting qi. "Arrival of qi" emphasizes "qi arrival with efficacy", and indicates that during treatment the differences of the exterior or interior and deficit or surplus should be distinguished. For external and shallow diseases involving myofascia-related diseases, miu needling and shallow needling can achieve an immediate treatment effect; for deep, internal and deficient diseases, reinforcing or reducing manipulation should be used to achieve stomach qi, which has delayed effects but can be used as an indicator. It is believed that pulse diagnosis shall not be neglected in clinical treatment of acupuncture. PMID:25335272

  5. Effects of p-wave annihilation on the angular power spectrum of extragalactic gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sheldon; Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We present a formalism for estimating the angular power spectrum of extragalactic gamma-rays produced by dark matter annihilating with any general velocity-dependent cross section. The relevant density and velocity distribution of dark matter is modeled as an ensemble of smooth, universal, rigid, disjoint, spherical halos with distribution and universal properties constrained by simulation data. We apply this formalism to theories of dark matter with p-wave annihilation, for which the relative-velocity-weighted annihilation cross section is {sigma}v=a+bv{sup 2}. We determine that this significantly increases the gamma-ray power if b/a > or approx. 10{sup 6}. The effect of p-wave annihilation on the angular power spectrum is very similar for the sample of particle physics models we explored, suggesting that the important effect for a given b/a is largely determined by the cosmic dark matter distribution. If the dark matter relic from strong p-wave theories is thermally produced, the intensities of annihilation gamma-rays are strongly p-wave suppressed, making them difficult to observe. If an angular power spectrum consistent with a strong p wave were to be observed, it would likely indicate nonthermal production of dark matter in the early Universe.

  6. Effects of exciting frequencies, grain sizes, and damage upon P-wave velocity for ultrasonic NDT of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Jiann W.; Weng, Lisheng

    2000-05-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental study of the effects of exciting frequencies, grain (aggregate) sizes, and damage upon the ultrasonic P-wave velocity when performing the ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) for concrete specimens. Two batches of concrete and mortar specimens were prepared in the laboratory for the investigation of the effects from the stated factors upon the P-wave velocity. Damage here mostly refers to microcracks and microvoids in concrete. Five different aggregate sizes, 0' (mortar), 3/8', 1/2', 3/4', and 1', were selected to demonstrate the grain (aggregate) size effect. Exciting frequencies of the ultrasonic wave were set to range from 100 kHz to 1,000 kHz, with increment of 50 kHz, to demonstrate the frequency effect. Styrofoam particles were mixed into the comparison concrete and mortar specimens to simulate the distributed microvoids (damage). Different volume fractions of styrofoam particles were mixed into the mortar specimens in order to study the effect of different porosities (damage) upon the P-wave velocity. The experimental observations show that, for mortar and concrete specimens with aggregate sizes from 0 to 1 inch, the P-wave velocity would not be affected significantly within the tested frequency range (100 - 1000 kHz). The normalized P-wave velocity exhibits almost identical pattern upon the exciting frequencies for all specimens.

  7. Modeling Biot's Coefficient for High Porosity Sediments From P Wave Velocity and Density Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, I. L.

    2006-12-01

    The effective stress coefficient predicts to which extent the fluid pressure in a given sediment counteracts the load of overlying sediments. When monitoring changes in fluid pressure and fluid composition from seismic data, the effective stress coefficient may be approximated by Biot's coefficient, ?. ? is under assumption of hydrostatic stress and linear elasticity defined as: ? = 1 - Kdry/Kmin where Kdry is bulk modulus of the dry sediment and Kmin is the mineral bulk modulus. In heavily cemented sedimentary rocks ? is close to porosity. In lightly cemented sediments Biot's coefficient is close to one and the effective stress, ?' is then predicted from Terzaghi's law: ?' = ? - U where ? is the stress due to the total load of the overburden and U is pore pressure. When ? is taken into account we get the equivalent expression: ?' = ? - ? U For calculation of ? we need information on Kdry. It may be calculated from density, ?dry, P wave velocity vP-dry and shear velocity vS-dry for the dry sediment: Kdry = ?dry (vP-dry2 - 4/3 vS-dry2) In many cases only wet density and P wave velocity are known, and then a possibility is to use Castagna's relations for predicting wet shear wave velocity and then using Gassmann's equations to predict the sonic velocities of the dry sediment. An alternative, which also works outside the range of Castagna's relations is to calculate the isoframe value from wet density and wet P-wave velocity and then use the isoframe value to model Kdry. The isoframe value, IF, is derived from a Hashin-Shtrikman model: K = ((? + (1-IF)(1-?))/(Ksus + 4/3Gmin) + (IF(1-?))/(Kmin + 4/3Gmin))-1 - 4/3Gmin G = ((? + (1-IF)(1-?))/? + (IF(1-?))/(Gmin + ?))-1 - ? ? = Gmin/6 ((9Kmin + 8 Gmin)/(Kmin + 2Gmin)) M = K + 4/3G = ? vP2 Where: K is bulk modulus, G is shear modulus, ? is porosity, Gmin is mineral shear modulus, Kfluid is bulk modulus of pore fluid, Kair is bulk modulus of air, and where for wet sediments: Ksus = (?/Kfluid + ((1-?)(1-IF))/ Kmin)-1 and for dry sediments: Ksus = Kair

  8. Effect of cracks on the pressure dependence of P wave velocities in crystalline rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Richard L.; Gangi, Anthony F.

    1985-09-01

    To test the "bed of nails" model, we have made detailed measurements of P wave velocities in five low-porosity, crystalline rocks at effective pressures to 500 MPa and fit two equations based on the model to the laboratory data. The first equation, V(P) = V0(1 + P/ Pi)(1 - m)/2, applies at relatively low pressures because it assumes that the grain modulus is very much larger than the crack modulus. It can be fit to four of the five data sets. The fit to the data for a monomineralic epidote yields values for V0, Piand m of 8.02±0.02 km/s, 1.2±0.5 MPa, and 0.9845±0.0004, respectively, with a rms error of 6.28 m/s. The second equation, 1/V2 (P) = (1/Vc2 - Vg2)/(1 + P/Pi)1 - m + 1/Vg2 assigns a constant velocity to the grains and applies when the modulus of the cracks is of the order of the grain modulus at high pressures. This equation can be fit to three of the data sets; the fit to data for a diopside pyroxenite yields values of Vc, Vg, Pi, and m of 6.20±0.04 km/s, 8.28±0.02 km/s, 7±1 MPa, and 0.20±0.05, with a rms error of 17.9 m/s. For all seven fits to the laboratory data the rms errors range from 0.1 to 0.3% and are of the order of the limits of precision of the measurements. The "bed of nails" model explains the pressure dependence of P wave velocities in the samples remarkably well, as evidenced by the small rms errors. The variation with pressure of P wave velocities in these rocks clearly reflects the increasing stiffness of cracks. The fact that the first equation fits four of five data sets is one of several indications that cracks significantly affect the mechanical properties of the rocks even at 500 MPa. Finally, we note that different kinds of cracks have markedly different mechanical properties; the best fitting model parameters reflect the nature of the cracks which populate the samples.

  9. Holographic phase transitions of p-wave superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with backreaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Ronggen; Nie Zhangyu; Zhang Haiqing [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the phase transitions of holographic p-wave superconductors in (4+1)-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet theories, in a grand canonical ensemble. Turning on the backreaction of the Yang-Mills field, it is found that the condensations of vector order parameter become harder if the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient grows up or the backreaction becomes stronger. In particular, the vector order parameter exhibits the features of first order and second order phase transitions, while only the second order phase transition is observed in the probe limit. We discuss the roles that the Gauss-Bonnet term and the backreaction play in changing the order of phase transition.

  10. Spin polarization and Zeeman effects in ferromagnet/ferromagnetic p-wave superconductor junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Yang, Xinjian

    2011-01-01

    An extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) approach is applied to study the spin polarization and Zeeman effects in ferromagnet/ferromagnetic p-wave superconductor ( FM/FpS) junctions. Three kinds of pairings for F pS are chosen: px,py,px+ipy waves. It is found that the normalized conductance strongly depends on both kinds of pairings and the relative orientations of the effective exchange field in the FM and FpS. In triplet superconductor junctions the multiplication of zero-energy Andreev bound states (ABSs) with the Zeeman effect induces an additional peak splitting. This property may serve as a method to identify triplet symmetry of ferromagnetic superconductors.

  11. Segmented African lithosphere beneath the Anatolian region inferred from teleseismic P-wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk Biryol, C.; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George; Özacar, A. Arda

    2011-03-01

    Lithospheric deformation throughout Anatolia, a part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, is controlled mainly by collision-related tectonic escape of the Anatolian Plate and subduction roll-back along the Aegean Subduction Zone. We study the deeper lithosphere and mantle structure of Anatolia using teleseismic, finite-frequency, P-wave traveltime tomography. We use data from several temporary and permanent seismic networks deployed in the region. Approximately 34 000 P-wave relative traveltime residuals, measured in multiple frequency bands, are inverted using approximate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. Our tomograms reveal segmented fast seismic anomalies beneath Anatolia that corresponds to the subducted portion of the African lithosphere along the Cyprean and the Aegean trenches. We identify these anomalies as the subducted Aegean and the Cyprus slabs that are separated from each other by a gap as wide as 300 km beneath Western Anatolia. This gap is occupied by slow velocity perturbations that we interpret as hot upwelling asthenosphere. The eastern termination of the subducting African lithosphere is located near the transition from central Anatolia to the Eastern Anatolian Plateau or Arabian-Eurasian collision front that is underlain by large volumes of hot, underplating asthenosphere marked by slow velocity perturbations. Our tomograms also show fast velocity perturbations at shallow depths beneath northwestern Anatolia that sharply terminates towards the south at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The associated velocity contrast across the NAFZ persists down to a depth of 100-150 km. Hence, our study is the first to investigate and interpret the vertical extent of deformation along this nascent transform plate boundary. Overall, the resolved upper-mantle structure of Anatolia is directly related with the geology and tectonic features observed at the surface of the Anatolian Plate and suggest that the segmented nature of the subducted African lithosphere plays an important role in the evolution of Anatolia and distribution of its tectonic provinces.

  12. Formation and propagation of Love waves from a P-wave source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florence, A. L.; Miller, S. A.; Kirkpatrick, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to experimentally investigate and support, by finite element calculations, the formation and propagation of Love waves from a P-wave source due to scattering at material heterogeneities. A series of experiments were conducted where surface strains were measured parallel and perpendicular to a planar granite scattering surface. The granite wall that is cast in a surface layer waveguide of a low-impedance grout and then cast on a granite base provided the interface for generating horizontally polarized (SH) waves in the surface layer. The in-plane shear waves are the Love waves we measured at the surface. The P-wave source was a 1-cm-diameter spherical explosive of PETN diluted with microballoons to provide a charge density of 0.45 g/cm cast in a styrofoam sphere to further attenuate the peak pressure. We successfully measured the strains at three locations parallel to the wall and two locations perpendicular to the wall, and the test repeatability was good. Good agreement was also observed between the measured and calculated strain at all locations. The code calculations also showed that in-plane shear strains form along the surface layer/granite interface, and these shear strains propagate with little reduction in amplitude but transform relatively high-frequency oscillations to low-frequency wave packets. The experimental configuration used to generate and measure Love waves, an evaluation of the source used in the surface layer experiments, and results from finite element code calculations of the experiment are presented.

  13. BeforeYou Arrive . . . Plan Ahead

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Invertebrates · TheScientistIsIn Favorites Activities Favorites #12;New Discoveries for Kids Can you guess where IBeforeYou Arrive . . . Plan Ahead Learn what exciting activities and exhibitions may be available Things Fly, American Indian Museum's imagiNATIONS Activity Center, Natural History Museum's Q?rius (check

  14. While at Paranal Arrival at Reception (Logistics)

    E-print Network

    Liske, Jochen

    While at Paranal Arrival at Reception (Logistics) Meals General Health Recommendations Safety member and most of their belongings are stored in the closets and/or room. Logistics can provide youLockers in the Control Building and base camp as well as a safe in the Logistics office are available to store your

  15. Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    The preliminary Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA) concept of operations is described in this paper. The WTMA concept provides further detail to work initiated by the Wake Vortex Avoidance System Concept Evaluation Team and is an evolution of the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departure concept. Anticipated benefits about reducing wake turbulence separation standards in crosswind conditions, and candidate WTMA system considerations are discussed.

  16. Before you arrive Complete your offer

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    of your passport and visa. Visit www.ntu.ac.uk/enrol to find out more. Collect your student ID card You sure you pack a jacket or jumper. There are many shops in Nottingham to buy clothing for the winter you arrive Settle into your accommodation Find out where your local supermarket is and buy some food

  17. Research Article Forecasting hotel arrivals and occupancy

    E-print Network

    Atiya, Amir

    A U TH O R C O PY Research Article Forecasting hotel arrivals and occupancy using Monte Carlo-Shishinyc and Neamat E. Gayara a Department of Information Technology, Faculty of Computers and Information, Cairo Advanced Technology and Center for Advanced Studies at IBM Technology Development Center, Cairo, Egypt

  18. New Accessions Arriving at Field Records

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Materials arrive from across the country to be accessioned and processed at the Denver Library, Field Records Collection. Geologic Discipline scientists are encouraged to deposit their project materials and with the Field Records Collection. Materials in the collection are managed as Federal records...

  19. Energy Harvesting Communications with Continuous Energy Arrivals

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Energy Harvesting Communications with Continuous Energy Arrivals Burak Varan Kaya Tutuncuoglu Aylin--This work considers an energy harvesting transmit- ter that gathers a continuous flow of energy from intermittent sources, thus relaxing the modeling assumption of discrete amounts of harvested energy present

  20. NASA's ATM Technology Demonstration-1: Integrated Concept of Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Swenson, Harry N.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) demonstration will integrate three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to touchdown. It also enables aircraft to conduct Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and implantation into an operational environment. Goals of the ATD-1 demonstration include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  1. The relationship between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity of pressure cores obtained in the Eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Fujii, T.; Nagao, J.

    2014-12-01

    P-wave velocity is an important parameter to estimate gas hydrate saturation in sediments. In this study, the relationship between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity have been analyzed using natural hydrate-bearing-sediments obtained in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The sediment samples were collected by the Hybrid Pressure Coring System developed by Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology during June-July 2012, aboard the deep sea drilling vessel CHIKYU. P-wave velocity was measured on board by the Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System developed by Geotek Ltd. The samples were maintained at a near in-situ pressure condition during coring and measurement. After the measurement, the samples were stored core storage chambers and transported to MHRC under pressure. The samples were manipulated and cut by the Pressure-core Non-destructive Analysis Tools or PNATs developed by MHRC. The cutting sections were determined on the basis of P-wave velocity and visual observations through an acrylic window equipped in the PNATs. The cut samples were depressurized to measure gas volume for saturation calculations. It was found that P-wave velocity correlates well with hydrate saturation and can be reproduced by the hydrate frame component model. Using pressure cores and pressure core analysis technology, nondestructive and near in-situ correlation between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity can be obtained. This study was supported by funding from the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Japan.

  2. Does the arrival index predict physiological stress reactivity in children.

    PubMed

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge about children's stress reactivity and its correlates is mostly based on one stress task, making it hard to assess the generalizability of the results. The development of an additional stress paradigm for children, that also limits stress exposure and test time, could greatly advance this field of research. Research in adults may provide a starting point for the development of such an additional stress paradigm, as changes in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) over a 1-h pre-stress period in the laboratory correlated strongly with subsequent reactivity to stress task (Balodis et?al., 2010, Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:1363-73). The present study examined whether such strong correlations could be replicated in 9- to 11-year-old children. Cortisol and sAA samples were collected from 158 children (83 girls) during a 2.5-h visit to the laboratory. This visit included a 1-h pre-stress period in which children performed some non-stressful tasks and relaxed before taking part in a psychosocial stress task (TSST-C). A higher cortisol arrival index was significantly and weakly correlated with a higher AUCg but unrelated to cortisol reactivity to the stressor. A higher sAA arrival index was significantly and moderately related to lower stress reactivity and to a lower AUCi. Children's personality and emotion regulation variables were unrelated to the cortisol and sAA arrival indices. The results of this study do not provide a basis for the development of an additional stress paradigm for children. Further replications in children and adults are needed to clarify the potential meaning of an arrival index. PMID:24930802

  3. Seismological Research Letters Volume 83, Number 1 January/February 2012 103doi: 10.1785/gssrl.83.1.103 Testing a P-Wave Earthquake Early Warning

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    .1.103 Testing a P-Wave Earthquake Early Warning System by Simulating the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Mw 7.6 Earthquake Da-Yi Chen, Ting-Li Lin, Yih-Min Wu, and Nai-Chi Hsiao Da-Yi Chen,1,2 Ting-Li Lin,1,3 Yih-Min Wu,1 and hence reduce the blind zone without timely warning, the initial part of the -wave (usually three seconds

  4. Spring arrival response to climate change in birds: a case study from eastern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mecislovas Zalakevicius; Galina Bartkeviciene; Liutauras Raudonikis; Justinas Janulaitis

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the dependence of the first spring arrival dates of short\\/medium- and long-distance migrant bird species\\u000a on climate warming in eastern Europe. The timing of arrival of the selected species at the observation site correlates with\\u000a the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, precipitation and wind characteristics.\\u000a A positive correlation of fluctuations in winter and

  5. CELEBRATION 2000: P-wave velocity models of the Bohemian Massif

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hrubcova

    2003-01-01

    Deep structure of the Bohemian Massif (BM), the largest stable outcrop of Variscan rocks in Central Europe, was studied along two refraction profiles, CEL09 that traverses the whole massif in the NW-SE direction, and CEL10 that extends along its eastern edge almost perpendicularly to CEL09. Good quality recordings with clear first arrivals of crustal and upper mantle phases show apparent

  6. Optimal Integration of Departure and Arrivals in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean

    2012-01-01

    Coordination of operations with spatially and temporally shared resources such as route segments, fixes, and runways improves the efficiency of terminal airspace management. Problems in this category include scheduling and routing, thus they are normally difficult to solve compared with pure scheduling problems. In order to reduce the computational time, a fast time algorithm formulation using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA) was introduced in this work and applied to a test case based on existing literature. The experiment showed that new method can solve the whole problem in fast time instead of solving sub-problems sequentially with a window technique. The results showed a 60% or 406 second delay reduction was achieved by sharing departure fixes (more details on the comparison with MILP results will be presented in the final paper). Furthermore, the NSGA algorithm was applied to a problem in LAX terminal airspace, where interactions between 28% of LAX arrivals and 10% of LAX departures are resolved by spatial segregation, which may introduce unnecessary delays. In this work, spatial segregation, temporal segregation, and hybrid segregation were formulated using the new algorithm. Results showed that spatial and temporal segregation approaches achieved similar delay. Hybrid segregation introduced much less delay than the other two approaches. For a total of 9 interacting departures and arrivals, delay reduction varied from 4 minutes to 6.4 minutes corresponding flight time uncertainty from 0 to 60 seconds. Considering the amount of flights that could be affected, total annual savings with hybrid segregation would be significant.

  7. STS-85 Crew Arrival for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Mission STS-85 crew arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility for their mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. They are (from left): Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Payload Commander N. Jan Davis; Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam; Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; Pilot Kent V. Rominger; and Payload Specialist Bjarni V. Tryggvason. The liftoff for STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.

  8. Two-body state with p -wave interaction in a one-dimensional waveguide under transversely anisotropic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tian-You; Peng, Shi-Guo; Jiang, Kaijun

    2015-04-01

    We theoretically study two atoms with p -wave interaction in a one-dimensional waveguide, investigating how the transverse anisotropy of the confinement affects the two-body state, especially the properties of the resonance. For a bound-state solution, we find there are a total of three two-body bound states due to the richness of the orbital magnetic quantum number of the p -wave interaction, while only one bound state is supported by the s -wave interaction. Two of them become nondegenerate due to the breaking of the rotation symmetry under a transversely anisotropic confinement. For a scattering solution, the effective one-dimensional scattering amplitude and scattering length are derived. We find the position of the p -wave confinement-induced resonance shifts apparently versus the transverse anisotropy. In addition, a two-channel mechanism for the confinement-induced resonance in a one-dimensional waveguide is generalized to the p -wave interaction, which was previously proposed only for the s -wave interaction. All our calculations are based on the parametrization of the 40K-atom experiments and can thus be confirmed in future experiments.

  9. Experimental study on monitoring CO2 sequestration by conjoint analysis of the P-wave velocity and amplitude.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Yang, Shenglai; Huan, Kangning; Li, Fangfang; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Aiai; Zhang, Xing

    2013-09-01

    CO2 sequestration has been considered to be one of the most straightforward carbon management strategies for industrial CO2 emission. Monitoring of the CO2 injection process is one of the best ways to make sure the safety storage but is also a major challenge in CO2 geological sequestration. Previous field and laboratory researches have shown that seismic methods are among the most promising monitoring methods because of the obvious reduction in P-wave velocities caused by CO2 injection. However, as CO2 injection continues, the P-wave velocity becomes increasingly insensitive according to the pilot projects when CO2 saturation is higher than 20-40%. Therefore, the conventional seismic method needs improvement or replacement to solve its limitations. In this study, P-wave velocity and amplitude responses to supercritical CO2 injection in brine-saturated core samples from Jilin oilfield were tested using core displacement and an ultrasonic detection integrated system. Results showed that neither the P-wave velocity nor amplitude could simply be used to monitor the CO2 injection process because of the insensitive or nonmonotonous response. Consequently, a new index was established by synthetically considering these two parameters to invert and monitor the CO2 process, which can be thought of as a newer and more effective assessment criterion for the seismic method. PMID:23915233

  10. Anisotropy of Electrical Resistivity and P-wave Velocity in Discrete Samples From Nantroseize Expeditions 315 and 316

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, L.; Henry, P.; Humbert, F.; Knuth, M.; Likos, W.; Scientists, I.

    2008-12-01

    We present results of electrical conductivity and P-wave velocity measurements in discrete samples processed onboard Chikyu during Nantroseize expeditions 315 and 316 in the Mega Splay fault and Frontal Thrust of the Nankai accretionary prism. Quasi cubes of 20 mm thickness nominally saturated with seawater were measured across the three parallel sets of faces, first for electrical conductivity, then for P-wave velocity. Average properties and their anisotropies appeared to show some sensitivity to both lithological and fault related features. Overall, strong transverse anisotropy due to sedimentary compaction was observed for both properties with minimum electrical conductivity and P-wave velocity along the vertical core axis direction. Within the horizontal plane perpendicular to the core axis, slight anisotropies were also measured, which are likely related to tectonically driven horizontal shortening, affecting noticeably the original compaction fabric. In order to get some structural insight, samples were reoriented in our laboratories using alternative field demagnetization technique and the in-plane (i.e. perpendicular to the core axis) data rotated accordingly. For the P-wave anisotropy, initial cubes were shaped into polyhedrons in order to get even more accurate estimates. These additional measurements allowed for retrieving for each sample the 3 principal values and vectors of the best fitting ellipsoidal function. Resulting stereoplots were then compared with electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and structural data.

  11. The Moho structure beneath the tension area of the central Tibet by teleseismic P wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yaohui; Tian, Xiaobo; Liang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Tao; Bai, Zhiming; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Gaohua; Wu, Chenglong; Wu, Zhenbo; Li, Wei; Wang, Minling; Guo, Xi; Zhang, Minghui; Zhou, Beibei; Nie, Shitan; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Wei, Zhi; Teng, Jiwen

    2015-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, with a crustal thickness twice of the normal thickness and an average elevation of 5km, is generated by the continental-continental collision between the India and Eurasian plates as well as the subsequent convergence. The central Tibet filled with a large quantity of normal faults and eastward escaped conjugated strike-slip faults which represent the tension function is thought to be a deformation crush zone between the colliding plates. In order to understand the relationship between the deep structure of the plateau and the surface texture evolution and to build the connection of the subduction of the India plate and shallow surface response, we build 53 broadband seismic stations around the Bangong-Nujiang Suture (named SANDWICH). In this paper, we calculate 3851 high signal-to-noise receiver functions of teleseismic P wave from the SANDWICH broad-band waveforms, and obtain the images of Moho structure of 7 profiles using the common conversion points time to depth migration. Our results show that the average crustal thickness of the central Tibet is 60-70km and crustal thickness of the south of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture is thicker than that of the north. Besides, this part of the plateau is divided into several blocks with different crustal thickness by the normal faults, eastward escaped conjugated strike-slip faults and the Bangong-Nujiang Suture despite the surface is flat which implying that there are some relationships between the deep offset and the shallow faults .We also find the negative amplitude in the depth of 20km around, which probably be the interface of the brittle upper crust and the ductile middle crust. Based on the result, we are willing to investigate how the surface faults tension and the deep tension are connected through the ductile middle crust.

  12. "Welcome to Sweden...": Newly Arrived Students' Experiences of Pedagogical and Social Provision in Introductory and Regular Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Jenny; Axelsson, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Education for newly arrived students in Sweden is commonly organised in introductory classes, providing a basis for transition to the mainstream system. Focusing on the hitherto underinvestigated question of how newly arrived students experience the time in and transition between introductory and regular classes, we analyse the social and…

  13. Arrival and departure impulsive Delta V determination for precessing Mars parking orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Buglia, James J.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop a method for realistic estimation of the initial LEO mass. The method takes into account the actual geometry between the inbound and outbound hyperbolic asymptotes and the parking orbit, along with precession effects caused by the oblateness of Mars, in calculating the arrival and departure Delta V values. Three mission scenarios alternative to the arbitrarily assumed two tangential periapsis burns are described: a tangential periapsis arrival and an in-plane departure; an in-plane arrival and in-plane departure; and a tangential periapsis arrival and a 3D departure. Results obtained by the method under consideration compared well with a trajectory integration code, where the differences in the initial LEO orbit mass were within one percent, for all three cases. The method is considered to be an ideal tool for preliminary mission design, since it reduces the analysis computation time with minimal loss in accuracy.

  14. Can learning intelligence outperforms information sharing in supply chain performances - an order arrival prediction perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kune-muh Tsai; Feng-chin Chou; Wen-chen Chen

    2007-01-01

    To improve competitive advantage and operational performances of supply chains, we implement multi-agent supply chain modeling with learning capability to predict order arrival times that manufacturers can pre-produce to shorten order lead time for downstream customer orders. As order lead time is reduced, bullwhip effect of supply chains would also be minimized. Two kinds of learning agents are embedded in

  15. Crustal Structure across the Appalachian Orogen in Pennsylvania from P-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, G.; Nyblade, A.; Homman, K.

    2014-12-01

    Crustal structure across the Appalachian Orogen from eastern Ohio to New Jersey is investigated using P-wave receiver functions to estimate Moho depths and crustal Vp/Vs ratios. Data for this study comes from the PASEIS and the USArray Transportable Array. The PASEIS seismic network includes 22 broadband seismic stations throughout Pennsylvania that were in installed in February 2013. Preliminary results from H-K stacking show that Moho depth varies greatly across the Appalachians, ranging from 53 km in northern Pennsylvania to only 32 km just west of the New Jersey border. The thickest crust can be found nearest to Lake Erie, and a relatively thick crust is maintained in northeastern Pennsylvania and along the Pennsylvania-Ohio border. Crustal thickness decreases to the southeast, and a rather sharp decrease can be seen well before the start of the Allegheny Front. Crustal thickness remains relatively uniform between 43 and 45km in the Appalachian Mountains, and decreases to 33-38km in the Piedmont province. Vp/Vs values range from 1.75 to 1.83, with no observable pattern to the variation.

  16. An exactly soluble model with tunable p-wave paired fermion ground states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yue; Wang, Ziqiang

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the work of Kitaev, we construct an exactly soluble spin-½ model on a honeycomb lattice whose ground states are identical to ?1xpx+?1ypy+i(?2xpx+?2ypy)-wave paired fermions on a square lattice, with tunable paring order parameters. We derive a universal phase diagram for this general p-wave theory which contains a gapped A-phase and a topologically non-trivial B-phase. We show that the gapless condition in the B-phase is governed by a generalized inversion (G-inversion) symmetry under px leftrightarrow (?1y / ?1x)py. The G-inversion symmetric gapless B-phase near the phase boundaries is described by (1+1)-dimensional gapless Majorana fermions in the asymptotic long-wavelength limit, i.e. the c=1/2 conformal field theory. The gapped B-phase has G-inversion symmetry breaking and is the weak pairing phase described by the Moore-Read Pfaffian. We show that in the gapped B-phase, vortex pair excitations are separated from the ground state by a finite energy gap.

  17. Annihilation Rate of Heavy 0^{++} P-wave Quarkonium in Relativistic Salpeter Method

    E-print Network

    Guo-Li Wang

    2007-08-26

    Two-photon and two-gluon annihilation rates of P-wave scalar charmonium and bottomonium up to third radial excited states are estimated in the relativistic Salpeter method. We solved the full Salpeter equation with a well defined relativistic wave function and calculated the transition amplitude using the Mandelstam formalism. Our model dependent estimates for the decay widths: $\\Gamma(\\chi_{c0} \\to 2\\gamma)=3.78$ keV, $\\Gamma(\\chi'_{c0} \\to 2\\gamma)=3.51$ keV, $\\Gamma(\\chi_{b0} \\to 2\\gamma)=48.8$ eV and $\\Gamma(\\chi'_{b0} \\to 2\\gamma)=50.3$ eV. We also give estimates of total widths by the two-gluon decay rates: $\\Gamma_{tot}(\\chi_{c0})=10.3$ MeV, $\\Gamma_{tot}(\\chi'_{c0})=9.61$ MeV, $\\Gamma_{tot}(\\chi_{b0})=0.887$ MeV and $\\Gamma_{tot}(\\chi'_{b0})=0.914$ MeV.

  18. Hybrid Theory of P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand

    2012-01-01

    We report on a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a combination of a modified method of polarized orbitals and the optical potential formalism. The calculation is restricted to P waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions are of Hylleraas type. It is found that the phase shifts are not significantly affected by the modification of the target function by a method similar to the method of polarized orbitals and they are close to the phase shifts calculated earlier by Bhatia. This indicates that the correlation function is general enough to include the target distortion (polarization) in the presence of the incident electron. The important fact is that in the present calculation, to obtain similar results only 35-term correlation function is needed in the wave function compared to the 220-term wave function required in the above-mentioned previous calculation. Results for the phase shifts, obtained in the present hybrid formalism, are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts.

  19. P-wave velocity in granulites from South India: implications for the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, C.

    1992-01-01

    P-wave velocities ( Vp) were measured in 160 high-grade metamorphic rocks from the South Indian granulite terrain (SGT). The wide variations observed in the Vp of charnockites and gneisses could be due to the complex prograde and retrograde metamorphic histories of the two major rock types of the SGT. The velocity-density relation showed distinct trends for charnockites and gneisses. Initial stages of retrograde metamorphism in charnockites significantly affected their magnetic properties, however, its effect on velocity and density is not diagnostic. Contrasting physical properties on either side of the Palghat-Cauvery (P-C) shear zone lends support for the contention that the P-C shear zone is a major paleosuture. The laboratory mean Vpof the rocks from the northern SGT are comparable with the mid-crustal DSS velocity in the adjacent granite greenstone terrain (GGT), suggesting that the GGT is possibly underlain by a felsic granulite basement. The physical properties of the high-grade metamorphic rocks from SGT are significantly lower than that of the lower crust. The physical properties and tectonic considerations show that the granulites of South India may not be of lower crustal origin and hence not representative of the lower crust, as generally thought. A simplified two-layer crustal model with a predominantly felsic granulite upper crust and a mafic granulite lower crust, is suggested for the SGT.

  20. 7 CFR 352.7 - Notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 352.7 Notice of arrival. Immediately upon arrival of any shipment of plants or plant products (including noxious weeds) subject to this part and covered by a specific permit, the importer shall submit in duplicate through the...

  1. 7 CFR 352.7 - Notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 352.7 Notice of arrival. Immediately upon arrival of any shipment of plants or plant products (including noxious weeds) subject to this part and covered by a specific permit, the importer shall submit in duplicate through the...

  2. Measurement of parity-nonconserving rotation of neutron spin in the 0.734-eV p-wave resonance of $^{139}La$

    E-print Network

    T. Haseyama; K. Asahi; J. D. Bowman; P. P. J. Delheij; H. Funahashi; S. Ishimoto; G. Jones; A. Masaike; Y. Masuda; Y. Matsuda; K. Morimoto; S. Muto; S. I. Penttilä; V. R. Pomeroy; K. Sakai; E. I. Sharapov; D. A. Smith; V. W. Yuan

    2001-11-21

    The parity nonconserving spin rotation of neutrons in the 0.734-eV p-wave resonance of $^{139}La$ was measured with the neutron transmission method. Two optically polarized $^3He$ cells were used before and behind a a 5-cm long $^{139}La$ target as a polarizer and an analyzer of neutron spin. The rotation angle was carefully measured by flipping the direction of $^3He$ polarization in the polarizer in sequence. The peak-to-peak value of the spin rotation was found to be $ (7.4 \\pm 1.1) \\times 10^{-3} $ rad/cm which was consistent with the previous experiments. But the result was statisticallly improved. The s-p mixing model gives the weak matrix element as $xW = (1.71 \\pm 0.25)$ meV. The value agrees well with the one deduced from the parity-nonconserving longitudinal asymmetry in the same resonance.

  3. Tuning p-Wave Interactions in an Ultracold Fermi Gas of Atoms C. A. Regal, C. Ticknor, J. L. Bohn, and D. S. Jin*

    E-print Network

    Jin, Deborah

    for ultra- cold fermionic atoms. For identical fermions the Pauli exclusion principle forbids sTuning p-Wave Interactions in an Ultracold Fermi Gas of Atoms C. A. Regal, C. Ticknor, J. L. Bohn have measured a p-wave Feshbach resonance in a single-component, ultracold Fermi gas of 40K atoms. We

  4. Recent Investigations and Findings about the 2d- and 3d- Neutron Strength Functions and the p-wave Scattering Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mughabghab, S. F.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive and detailed investigations were recently undertaken due to the scarcity of available data on the neutron d-wave strength functions and the need to obtain precise average resonance parameters for advanced technologies. This information is derived by fitting available total cross section data from few keV to 14 MeV neutron energy using the least-squares method, where the total cross section is described in terms of the scattering radius R? for various partial waves, the s-, p-, d-, f- and g- neutron strength functions, neutron penetration factors and phase shifts. The present results reveal the following findings: (i) the peak of the 2d strength function is observed for the first time at A=50; (ii) due to nuclear deformation effects, the 3d-peak is depressed producing two peaks located at 152 and 170, similar to the s-wave case; (iii) except for the deformed mass region, a spherical optical model calculation for the d-wave strength function reasonably describes the trend of the present data; (iv) the derived s- and p-wave strength functions and the s-wave scattering radii are in good agreement with those obtained from the resolved energy region, as reported in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances; (v) the d-wave strength functions are however generally discrepant with available data; (vi) several d-wave strength functions are derived here for the first time; (vii) a new finding is that the p-wave scattering radii for 92 nuclei in the mass region 16O-242Pu exhibit minima roughly at A?80 and 230 and maxima at A?50 and 160.

  5. 9 CFR 93.706 - Notification of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Miscellaneous Animals § 93.706 Notification of arrival. Upon the arrival of a hedgehog or tenrec at the port of first arrival in the United States, the importer or his or her agent must present the import...

  6. 9 CFR 93.706 - Notification of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Miscellaneous Animals § 93.706 Notification of arrival. Upon the arrival of a hedgehog or tenrec at the port of first arrival in the United States, the importer or his or her agent must present the import...

  7. 9 CFR 93.706 - Notification of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Miscellaneous Animals § 93.706 Notification of arrival. Upon the arrival of a hedgehog or tenrec at the port of first arrival in the United States, the importer or his or her agent must present the import...

  8. 9 CFR 93.706 - Notification of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Miscellaneous Animals § 93.706 Notification of arrival. Upon the arrival of a hedgehog or tenrec at the port of first arrival in the United States, the importer or his or her agent must present the import...

  9. 9 CFR 93.706 - Notification of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Miscellaneous Animals § 93.706 Notification of arrival. Upon the arrival of a hedgehog or tenrec at the port of first arrival in the United States, the importer or his or her agent must present the import...

  10. Patterns of spring arrival dates differ in two hirundines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Sparks; Piotr Tryjanowski

    2007-01-01

    We examined the first arrival dates in the UK over a 56 yr period of 2 hirundines, sand martin Riparia riparia and barn swallow Hirundo rustica, in relation to temperatures along migration routes and at destination. Changes in arrival dates have been much greater for sand martin than for barn swallow, and the arrival order of the 2 species now

  11. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume V S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (V), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  12. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume VI S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (VI), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  13. 'To arrive where we started, and know the place for the first time': Heidegger, phenomenology, the way human beings first appear in the world, and fresh perspectives on the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Mumford, James

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual stalemate in the abortion debate can be traced in part to its being framed as a standoff between religion and secular philosophy. While the former is thought to generate a broadly 'pro-life' position, the latter is associated with more 'pro-choice' thinking. This essay attempts to break free of this framing by criticising the philosophy informing 'pro-choice' positions, but not by resorting immediately to religious arguments but rather by drawing upon a rival philosophical tradition--the movement within twentieth and twenty-first Continental philosophy which was and is phenomenology. A phenomenological approach to human 'emergence', and in particular an application of the framework Heidegger developed in Being and Time (1927), leads to a radical questioning of whether contemporary English-speaking beginning-of-life ethics have adequately taken into account the way human beings come forth in the world. PMID:25109125

  14. Three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurber, C.H.; Brocher, T.M.; Zhang, H.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    A new three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay region has been derived using the double-difference seismic tomography method, using data from about 5,500 chemical explosions or air gun blasts and approximately 6,000 earthquakes. The model region covers 140 km NE-SW by 240 km NW-SE, extending from 20 km south of Monterey to Santa Rosa and reaching from the Pacific coast to the edge of the Great Valley. Our model provides the first regional view of a number of basement highs that are imaged in the uppermost few kilometers of the model, and images a number of velocity anomaly lows associated with known Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the study area. High velocity (Vp > 6.5 km/s) features at ???15-km depth beneath part of the edge of the Great Valley and along the San Francisco peninsula are interpreted as ophiolite bodies. The relocated earthquakes provide a clear picture of the geometry of the major faults in the region, illuminating fault dips that are generally consistent with previous studies. Ninety-five percent of the earthquakes have depths between 2.3 and 15.2 km, and the corresponding seismic velocities at the hypocenters range from 4.8 km/s (presumably corresponding to Franciscan basement or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Sequence) to 6.8 km/s. The top of the seismogenic zone is thus largely controlled by basement depth, but the base of the seismogenic zone is not restricted to seismic velocities of ???6.3 km/s in this region, as had been previously proposed. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. SUPRACENTER: Locating fireball terminal bursts in the atmosphere using seismic arrivals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Edwards; A. R. Hildebrand

    2004-01-01

    Terminal bursts and fragmentations of meteoritic fireballs in the atmosphere may now be accurately located in four dimensions (three spatial + temporal) using seismic arrival times of their acoustic waves recorded by seismometer, camera, microphone, and\\/or infrasound stations on the ground. A computer program, SUPRACENTER, calculates travel times by ray tracing through realistic atmospheres (that include winds) and locates source

  16. Location of high-frequency P wave microseismic noise in the Pacific Ocean using multiple small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Moira L.; Koper, Keith D.; Euler, Garrett G.; Burlacu, Relu

    2015-04-01

    We investigate source locations of P wave microseisms within a narrow frequency band (0.67-1.33 Hz) that is significantly higher than the classic microseism band (~0.05-0.3 Hz). Employing a backprojection method, we analyze data recorded during January 2010 from five International Monitoring System arrays that border the Pacific Ocean. We develop a ranking scheme that allows us to combine beam power from multiple arrays to obtain robust locations of the microseisms. Some individual arrays exhibit a strong regional component, but results from the combination of all arrays show high-frequency P wave energy emanating from the North Pacific basin, in general agreement with previous observations in the double-frequency (DF) microseism band (~0.1-0.3 Hz). This suggests that the North Pacific source of ambient P noise covers a broad range of frequencies and that the wave-wave interaction model is likely valid at shorter periods.

  17. Spontaneous internal field around the non-magnetic impurity in spin-triplet p-wave superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, p.-wave superconductivity M.; Ichioka, M.; Kuroki, K.; Tanaka, Y.

    2005-11-01

    The electronic structure around an impurity in spin triplet p-wave superconductors is investigated by the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory on a tight-binding model. We calculate the spontaneous current and the local density of states around the impurity and discuss the difference between sin px+i sin py-wave and sin(px+py)-i sin(-px+py)-wave superconducting states.

  18. Application of P-wave reflection imaging to unknown bridge foundations and comparison with other non-destructive test methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermani, Behnoud

    Proper design of bridge structures requires an appreciation for the possible failure mechanisms that can develop over the lifetime of the bridge, many of which are related to natural hazards. For example, scour is one of the most common causes of bridge failures. Scour occurs due to the erosion of soil and sediment within a channel with flowing water. During a flood event, the extent of scour can be so great that it can destabilize an existing bridge structure. In order to evaluate the scour potential of a bridge, it is necessary to have information regarding the substructure, particularly the bridge foundations. However, as of 2011 there are more than 40,000 bridges across United States with unknown foundations. Generally for these bridges there are no design or as-built plans available to show the type, depth, geometry, or materials incorporated into the foundations. Several non-destructive testing (NDT) methods have been developed to evaluate these unknown foundations. The primary objective of this research is to identify the most current and widely used NDT methods for determining the embedment depth of unknown bridge foundations and to compare these methods to an ultrasonic P-wave reflection imaging system. The ultrasonic P-wave reflection system has tremendous potential to provide more information and address several short-comings of other NDT methods. A laboratory study was initiated to explore various aspects related to the P-wave system performance, in order to characterize the limitations of the system in evaluation of unknown foundations prior to deployment in field studies. Moreover, field testing was performed using the P-wave system and a number of the current NDT methods at two selected bridge foundations to allow comparison between the results.

  19. P-wave morphology during right atrial pacing before and after atrial flutter ablation--a new marker for success.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, M H; Kalman, J M; Barron, H V; Lesh, M D

    1997-05-15

    Fourteen patients with typical atrial flutter underwent pacing from the low lateral right atrium and the proximal coronary sinus in normal sinus rhythm before and after catheter ablation. During low lateral right atrial pacing, a positive change in P-wave morphology in the inferior leads was noted in every patient (n = 12) in whom bidirectional block was achieved; no recurrence was noted in any of these patients. PMID:9165174

  20. Analysis of near-source contributions to early P-wave coda for underground explosions. 1. Wave form complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Thorne; J. L. Welc

    1987-01-01

    A data set of more than 1600 teleseismic short-period P waves from 46 nuclear explosions is analyzed to establish near-source contributions to the first 15 sec of the P signals. The near-source components are isolated by event-to-event comparisons of first-cycle magnitudes, RMS amplitudes in the first 5 and next 10 sec of the wave forms, and energy temporal centroid measurements.

  1. [P-wave ekg averaging technique--a new method of selecting patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Opolski, G; Kraska, T; Piatkowska-Janko, E; S?omka, K; Górecki, A; Stanis?awska, J; Scis?o, P; Piatkowski, A; Cieciura, M

    1995-10-01

    The aim of study was to assess the value of signal averaged ecg for detection of patients (pts) at risk for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (paf). We examined three groups of pts: group I-41 pts with nonvalvular paf, group II-20 pts with hypertension and/or ischemic heart disease without paf and group 3-26 health persons, without organic heart disease. In all pts the signal-averaged electrocardiogram triggered by P waves was recorded. Seven parameters of the spatial magnitude of filtered P wave were measured. Significant difference between group I and group II or III was found in most parameters. Using the method of multidimensional variance analysis we constructed "the diagnostic vector" in multidimensional parameters space, which was used to determine patients belonging to group. Total percent of right decision was 85%. These findings suggest that pts at risk for paf could be detected while in sinus rhythm by using the P wave-triggered signal-averaged ecg. PMID:8650057

  2. Comparison of P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs, dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background P-wave dispersion (Pd) is a new ECG index used in human cardiology and veterinary medicine. It is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different ECG leads. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of P-wave dispersion in dogs. Methods The current study was aimed at determining proper value of Pd in healthy dogs (group I), dogs with chronic valvular disease (group II) and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction (group III). The tests were carried out in 53 healthy dogs, 23 dogs with chronic valvular disease and 12 dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction of various breeds, sexes and body weight from 1,5 to 80 kg, aged between 0,5 and 17 years, submitted to the ECG examination. ECG was acquired in dogs in a standing position with BTL SD-8 electrocardiographic device and analyzed once the recording was enlarged. P-wave duration was calculated in 9 ECG leads (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V4) from 5 cardiac cycles. Results The proper P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs was determined at up to 24 ms. P-wave dispersion was statistically significant increased (p < 0.01) in dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. In dogs with the atrial enlargement the P-wave dispersion is also higher than in healthy dogs, although no significant correlation between the size of left atria and Pd was noticed (p = 0.1, r = 0,17). Conclusions The P-wave dispersion is a constant index in healthy dogs, that is why it can be used for evaluating P wave change in dogs with chronic valvular disease and in dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. PMID:21396110

  3. Determining Mars parking orbits which ensure in-plane arrival and departure burns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Buglia, James J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical method to find suitable Mars parking orbits is developed which takes into account geometries associated with the asymptotes, along with the nodal precession caused by the oblateness of Mars. A selected orbital plane which contains the arrival asymptote precesses through the stay time to the plane also containing the departure asymptote. The parking orbit is co-planar with both the arrival and departure asymptotes and only in-plane burns are required at both Mars arrival and departure. The need for a plane change at Mars departure to achieve the proper velocity vector for earth return is eliminated. The method requires very little computation time to determine a set of all possible inclinations and right ascensions of the ascending nodes.

  4. P-1 truss arrival at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On July 26, 2000 the P-1 truss arrived at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard its 'Super Guppy' transport. The truss was loaded onto a flatbed truck in preparation for movement to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, SO, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000- pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the International Space Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  5. P-1 truss arrival at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On July 26, 2000 the P-1 truss arrived at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard its 'Super Guppy' transport. The transport's cargo bay was opened showing the American flag and NASA logo as the P-1 truss was off loaded in preparation for movement to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, SO, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000- pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the International Space Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  6. P-1 truss arrival at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On July 26, 2000 the P-1 truss arrived at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard its 'Super Guppy' transport. The transport's cargo bay was opened showing the American flag and NASA logo as the P-1 truss was off loaded in preparation for movement to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, SO, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000- pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the International Space Station's radiators away form the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  7. P-1 truss arrival at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On July 26, 2000 the P-1 truss arrived at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard its 'Super Guppy' transport. A flatbed truck was backed up to begin the off loading of the P-1 truss in preparation for movement to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, SO, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the International Space Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  8. P-1 truss arrival at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On July 26, 2000 the P-1 truss arrived at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard its 'Super Guppy' transport. The truss was loaded by crane onto a flatbed truck in preparation for movement to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, SO, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000- pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the International Space Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  9. STS-83 Crew Arrival for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Members of the STS-83 flight crew pose alongside a T-33 jet trainer aircraft after arriving at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility for Terminal Countdown Demonstration (TCDT) exercises for that space flight. They are (left to right) Payload Specialist Roger K. Crouch; Pilot Susan L. Still; Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr.; Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt; Payload Specialist She is the second woman to fly in this capacity on the Space Shuttle. The Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) Spacelab module is the primary payload on this 16-day mission. The MSL-1 will used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station, while the seven-member crew conducts combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments.

  10. Distribution of Arrival Times of Air Shower Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bassi; G. Clark; B. Rossi

    1953-01-01

    We have studied the instantaneous distribution of particles in extensive air showers at sea level by measuring the relative delays between particles with three liquid scintillation counters. The delays measured were in the range from 5 to 300 mmusec. The sizes of the showers were in the range from 105 to 106 particles. Using statistical methods of analysis we have

  11. Morning, Midday Most Common Time for Babies' Arrival, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... typically occurred in the early morning -- after 1 a.m. "In general, these births have fewer interventions, and ... hospital births in 2013 occurred in the 8 a.m. hour, and another 6 percent at the noon ...

  12. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON PULSAR ARRIVAL TIMES: GENERAL ORIENTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yan [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Creighton, Teviet; Price, Richard H.; Jenet, Frederick A. [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, Texas 78520 (United States)

    2009-11-10

    A pulsar beam passing close to a black hole can provide a probe of very strong gravitational fields even if the pulsar itself is not in a strong field region. In the case that the spin of the hole can be ignored, we have previously shown that all strong field effects on the beam can be understood in terms of two 'universal' functions: F(phi{sub in}) and T(phi{sub in}) of the angle of beam emission phi{sub in}; these functions are universal in that they depend only on a single parameter, the pulsar/black hole distance from which the beam is emitted. Here we apply this formalism to general pulsar-hole-observer geometries, with arbitrary alignment of the pulsar spin axis and arbitrary pulsar beam direction and angular width. We show that the analysis of the observational problem has two distinct elements: (1) the computation of the location and trajectory of an observer-dependent 'keyhole' direction of emission in which a signal can be received by the observer; and (2) the determination of an annulus that represents the set of directions containing beam energy. Examples of each are given along with an example of a specific observational scenario.

  13. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  14. STS-93 crew leaves SLF after arrival for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-93 crew leave the Shuttle Landing Facility after answering questions for the media and posing for photographers, whose shadows stretch across the SLF. From left are Mission Specialists Michel Tognini of France, who is with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Commander Eileen M. Collins (waving), Mission Specialist Catherine G. 'Cady' Coleman (Ph.D.), and Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby. The crew arrived at KSC for pre-launch activities. Collins is the first woman to serve as mission commander. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  15. Optimal Integration of Departures and Arrivals in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean

    2013-01-01

    Coordination of operations with spatially and temporally shared resources, such as route segments, fixes, and runways, improves the efficiency of terminal airspace management. Problems in this category are, in general, computationally difficult compared to conventional scheduling problems. This paper presents a fast time algorithm formulation using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA). It was first applied to a test problem introduced in existing literature. An experiment with a test problem showed that new methods can solve the 20 aircraft problem in fast time with a 65% or 440 second delay reduction using shared departure fixes. In order to test its application in a more realistic and complicated problem, the NSGA algorithm was applied to a problem in LAX terminal airspace, where interactions between 28% of LAX arrivals and 10% of LAX departures are resolved by spatial separation in current operations, which may introduce unnecessary delays. In this work, three types of separations - spatial, temporal, and hybrid separations - were formulated using the new algorithm. The hybrid separation combines both temporal and spatial separations. Results showed that although temporal separation achieved less delay than spatial separation with a small uncertainty buffer, spatial separation outperformed temporal separation when the uncertainty buffer was increased. Hybrid separation introduced much less delay than both spatial and temporal approaches. For a total of 15 interacting departures and arrivals, when compared to spatial separation, the delay reduction of hybrid separation varied between 11% or 3.1 minutes and 64% or 10.7 minutes corresponding to an uncertainty buffer from 0 to 60 seconds. Furthermore, as a comparison with the NSGA algorithm, a First-Come-First-Serve based heuristic method was implemented for the hybrid separation. Experiments showed that the results from the NSGA algorithm have 9% to 42% less delay than the heuristic method with varied uncertainty buffer sizes.

  16. Survival probability of an edge Majorana in a one-dimensional p-wave superconducting chain under sudden quenching of parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajak, Atanu; Dutta, Amit

    2014-04-01

    We consider the temporal evolution of a zero-energy edge Majorana of a spinless p-wave superconducting chain following a sudden change of a parameter of the Hamiltonian. Starting from one of the topological phases that has an edge Majorana, the system is suddenly driven to the other topological phase or to the (topologically) trivial phases and to the quantum critical points (QCPs) separating these phases. The survival probability of the initial edge Majorana as a function of time is studied following the quench. Interestingly when the chain is quenched to the QCP, we find a nearly perfect oscillation of the survival probability, indicating that the Majorana travels back and forth between two ends, with a time period that scales with the system size. We also generalize to the situation when there is a next-nearest-neighbor hopping in a superconducting chain and there results in a pair of edge Majorana at each end of the chain in the topological phase. We show that the frequency of oscillation of the survival probability gets doubled in this case. We also perform an instantaneous quenching of the Hamiltonian (with two Majorana modes at each end of the chain) to an another Hamiltonian which has only one Majorana mode in equilibrium; the MSP shows oscillations as a function of time with a noticeable decay in the amplitude. On the other hand for a quenching which is reverse to the previous one, the MSP decays rapidly and stays close to zero with fluctuations in amplitude.

  17. Body surface mapping during pacing at multiple sites in the human atrium: P-wave morphology of ectopic right artrial activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne SippensGroenewegen; Heidi A. P. Peeters; Emile R. Jessurun; Andre C. Linnenbank; Etienne O. Robles de Medina; Michael D. Lesh; Hemel van N. M

    1998-01-01

    Background—The morphology and polarity of the P wave on 12-lead ECG are of limited clinical value in localizing ectopic atrial rhythms. It was the aim of this study to assess the spatial resolution of body surface P-wave integral mapping in identifying the site of origin of ectopic right atrial (RA) impulse formation in patients without structural atrial disease. Methods and

  18. A simple and efficient class of functions to model arrival curve of packetised flows

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    traffic constraints and service contracts with arrival curves and service curves. As usual in modelling-BASED SYSTEMS]: Real-time and embedded systems 1. INTRODUCTION Context of the problem. Aircrafts today embed hun or affiliate of the na- tional government of France. As such, the government of France retains a nonexclusive

  19. Analysis of delay reducing and fuel saving sequencing and spacing algorithms for arrival traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, Frank; Erzberger, Heinz

    1991-01-01

    The air traffic control subsystem that performs sequencing and spacing is discussed. The function of the sequencing and spacing algorithms is to automatically plan the most efficient landing order and to assign optimally spaced landing times to all arrivals. Several algorithms are described and their statistical performance is examined. Sequencing brings order to an arrival sequence for aircraft. First-come-first-served sequencing (FCFS) establishes a fair order, based on estimated times of arrival, and determines proper separations. Because of the randomness of the arriving traffic, gaps will remain in the sequence of aircraft. Delays are reduced by time-advancing the leading aircraft of each group while still preserving the FCFS order. Tightly spaced groups of aircraft remain with a mix of heavy and large aircraft. Spacing requirements differ for different types of aircraft trailing each other. Traffic is reordered slightly to take advantage of this spacing criterion, thus shortening the groups and reducing average delays. For heavy traffic, delays for different traffic samples vary widely, even when the same set of statistical parameters is used to produce each sample. This report supersedes NASA TM-102795 on the same subject. It includes a new method of time-advance as well as an efficient method of sequencing and spacing for two dependent runways.

  20. Broadband Direction-Of-Arrival Estimation Based on Second Order Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justinian P. Rosca; Joseph Ó Ruanaidh; Alexander Jourjine; Scott Rickard

    1999-01-01

    wideband sources recorded using closely spaced receivers can feasibly be separated based only on second order statistics when using a physical model of the mixing process. In this case we show that the parameter estimation problem can be essentially reduced to considering directions of arrival and attenuations of each signal. The paper presents two demixing methods operating in the time

  1. Student will be arriving ________ minutes late Student will be leaving ________ minutes early

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    : Date: Faculty/Instructor agrees to support the student by allowing student to defer any final examinations related to the above Time Conflict in the event that the student requests it. FacultyStudent will be arriving ________ minutes late Student will be leaving ________ minutes early

  2. ECOLOGY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY Species Assemblage Arriving at and Emerging from Trees Colonized

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    by Ips pini in the Great Lakes Region: Partitioning by Time Since Colonization, Season, and Host Species, resource partitioning, tritrophic interactions, kairo- mones THE PINE ENGRAVER, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera of insects that arrive at and reproduce in trees colonized byI. pini, and how this assemblage is partitioned

  3. Electronic structure and spontaneous internal field around nonmagnetic impurities in spin-triplet chiral p -wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, Mitsuaki; Ichioka, Masanori; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Yukio

    2005-12-01

    The electronic structure around an impurity in spin-triplet p -wave superconductors is studied by the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory on a tight-binding model, where we have chosen sinpx+isinpy -wave or sin(px+py)+isin(-px+py) -wave states, which are considered to be candidates for the pairing state in Sr2RuO4 . We calculate the spontaneous current and the local density of states around the impurity and discuss the difference between the two types of pairing. We propose that it is possible to discriminate the two pairing states by studying the spatial dependence of the magnetic field around a pair of impurities.

  4. Influence of spin-orbit coupling on differential conductance of normal metal/ferromagnetic p wave superconductor junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Shujing; Chen, Huabao

    2013-10-01

    The extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model is applied to studying tunneling conductance in normal metal/ferromagnetic p wave superconductor junctions. It is found that the spin-orbit scattering at the interfaces significantly affects the tunneling conductance. The interface spin-orbit coupling (SOC) suppresses the split conductance peaks in the N/ferromagnetic px wave superconductor junction and enhances the zero-bias conductance dip (ZBCD) of py wave superconductor junction. The SOC gives rise to the asymmetry of the conductance spectrum in the ferromagnetic px + py wave superconductor junctions.

  5. Role of P-wave inelasticity in J/{psi}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Peng; Mitchell, Ryan [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    We discuss the importance of inelasticity in the P-wave {pi}{pi} amplitude on the Dalitz distribution of 3{pi} events in J/{psi} decay. The inelasticity, which becomes sizable for {pi}{pi} masses above 1.4 GeV, is attributed to KK{yields}{pi}{pi} rescattering. We construct an analytical model for the two-channel scattering amplitude and use it to solve the dispersion relation for the isobar amplitudes that parametrize the J/{psi} decay. We present comparisons between theoretical predictions for the Dalitz distribution of 3{pi} events with available experimental data.

  6. Ferromagnetism stabilized by lattice distortion at the surface of the p-wave superconductor Sr(2)RuO(4)

    PubMed

    Matzdorf; Fang; Ismail; Zhang; Kimura; Tokura; Terakura; Plummer

    2000-08-01

    Ferromagnetic (FM) spin fluctuations are believed to mediate the spin-triplet pairing for the p-wave superconductivity in Sr(2)RuO(4). Our experiments show that, at the surface, a bulk soft-phonon mode freezes into a static lattice distortion associated with an in-plane rotation of the RuO(6) octahedron. First-principle calculations confirm this structure and predict a FM ground state at the surface. This coupling between structure and magnetism in the environment of broken symmetry at the surface allows a reconsideration of the coupling mechanism in the bulk. PMID:10926529

  7. A deeper statistical examination of arrival dates of migratory breeding birds in relation to global climate change.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Using an 18-year dataset of arrival dates of 65 species of Maine migratory breeding birds, I take a deeper view of the data to ask questions about the shapes of the distribution. For each year, most species show a consistent right-skewed pattern of distribution, suggesting that selection is stronger against individuals that arrive too early compared to those that arrive later. Distributions are consistently leptokurtic, indicating a narrow window of optimal arrival dates. Species that arrive earlier in the spring show higher skewness and kurtosis values. Nectarivorous species showed more pronounced skewness. Wintering area did not explain patterns of skewness or kurtosis. Deviations from average temperatures and the North Atlantic Oscillation index explained little variation in skewness and kurtosis. When arrival date distributions are broken down into different medians (e.g., 5% median and 75% median), stronger correlations emerge for portions of the distribution that are adjacent, suggesting species fine-tune the progress of their migration. Interspecific correlations for birds arriving around the same time are stronger for earliest migrants (the 25% median) compared to the true median and the 75% median. PMID:24832806

  8. 27 CFR 26.128 - Taxpayment at port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.128 Taxpayment at port of arrival...articles is not paid in Puerto Rico, it shall be paid by the tourist at the port of arrival prior to release of the liquors...

  9. 27 CFR 26.128 - Taxpayment at port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.128 Taxpayment at port of arrival...articles is not paid in Puerto Rico, it shall be paid by the tourist at the port of arrival prior to release of the liquors...

  10. 27 CFR 26.128 - Taxpayment at port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.128 Taxpayment at port of arrival...articles is not paid in Puerto Rico, it shall be paid by the tourist at the port of arrival prior to release of the liquors...

  11. 27 CFR 26.128 - Taxpayment at port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.128 Taxpayment at port of arrival...articles is not paid in Puerto Rico, it shall be paid by the tourist at the port of arrival prior to release of the liquors...

  12. 27 CFR 26.128 - Taxpayment at port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.128 Taxpayment at port of arrival...articles is not paid in Puerto Rico, it shall be paid by the tourist at the port of arrival prior to release of the liquors...

  13. Doctoral Symposium ICRAT 2014 Optimization of Arrival and Departure

    E-print Network

    is proposed for aircraft routings that minimizes the noise impact in the residential communities surrounding of the flights. Optimizing departure and arrival procedures is therefore crucial to regulate air traffic flow and arrival routes at a strategic level in 3D is interesting as it may help to regulate air traffic flow

  14. Nearest Neighbour Algorithms for Forecasting Call Arrivals in Call Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandjai Bhulai; Wing Hong Kan; Elena Marchiori

    In this paper we study a nearest neighbour algorithm for forecasting call arrivals to call centers. The algorithm does not require an underlying model for the arrival rates and it can be applied to historical data without pre-processing it. We show that this class of algorithms provides a more accurate forecast when compared to the conven- tional method that simply

  15. Does Pet Arrival Trigger Prosocial Behaviors in Individuals with Autism?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Does Pet Arrival Trigger Prosocial Behaviors in Individuals with Autism? Marine Grandgeorge1 Brest, Ho^pital de Bohars, Centre de Ressources Autisme, Bohars, France, 2 UMR-CNRS 6552, Laboratoire between the presence or the arrival of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes

  16. Arrival direction of late sound and listener envelopment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Furuya; Kazutoshi Fujimoto; Choi Young Ji; Noriaki Higa

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between the arrival direction of late sound and perceived listener envelopment (LEV). In this paper, two kinds of psychological experiments are conducted with three-dimensional simulated sound fields in an anechoic room. Firstly, the effect of late energy arriving from four fundamental directions on perceived LEV is individually investigated. The results

  17. Theoretical and numerical comparison of 3D numerical schemes for their accuracy with respect to P-wave to S-wave speed ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczo, P.; Kristek, J.; Galis, M.; Chaljub, E.; Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical modeling of earthquake ground motion in sedimentary basins and valleys often has to account for the P-wave to S-wave speed ratios (VP/VS) as large as five and even larger, mainly in sediments below groundwater level. The ratio can attain values larger than 10 - the unconsolidated lake sediments in Ciudad de México are a good example. At the same time, accuracy of the numerical schemes with respect to VP/VS has not been sufficiently analyzed. The numerical schemes are often applied without adequate check of the accuracy. We present theoretical analysis and numerical comparison of 18 3D numerical time-domain explicit schemes for modeling seismic motion for their accuracy with the varying VP/VS. The schemes are based on the finite-difference, spectral-element, finite-element and discontinuous-Galerkin methods. All schemes are presented in a unified form. Theoretical analysis compares accuracy of the schemes in terms of local errors in amplitude and vector difference. In addition to the analysis we compare numerically simulated seismograms with exact solutions for canonical configurations. We compare accuracy of the schemes in terms of the local errors, grid dispersion and full wavefield simulations with respect to the structure of the numerical schemes.

  18. Analysis and interpretation of compressional (P-wave) and shear (SH-wave) reflection seismic and geologic data over the Bane Dome, Giles County, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresko, M. J.

    Approximately 37 km of predominantly 24-fold p-wave Vibroseis data and 16 km of 24-fold SH-wave Vibroseis data were acquired the southern portion of the folded Appalachians near the Bane Dome in Giles County, Virginia. Data processing techniques included the application of newly developed methods for crossdip removal as well as the determination of static solutions in the case of time variant shifts within the data traces. Minimum-phase filter deconvolution was also applied for the removal of reverberating energy and multiples recorded on the SH-wave lines. V sub p/ V sub s ratios were used to aid in the determination of lithologies in the absence of bore-hole data. Interpreted thicknening of the Lower Cambriano to Upper Precambrian sequence beneath the Bane Dome appears to represent Eocambrian rifting. Faults generated at that time may now be reactivated by the present stress regime, causing earthquake activity in this area. Interpretation of the seismic data supports a duplex structure proposed for the Paleozoic rocks of the Bane Dome Complex within the Narrows thrust sheet of southwestern Virginia.

  19. GHz ultrasonic interferometry in a diamond anvil cell: P-wave velocities in periclase to 4.4 GPa and 207°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. H.; Reichmann, H.-J.; Chen, G.; Angel, R. J.; Bassett, W. A.; Spetzler, H.

    P-wave velocities in periclase were determined up to 4.4 GPa and 207°C using a GHz ultrasonic interferometer and a resistance-heated diamond anvil cell. The samples were disks of synthetic periclase single crystal cut parallel to the (100) plane with dimensions of 300 ?m in diameter and 46 ?m in thickness. A 250-?m-thick tungsten-tantalum alloy as well as rhenium foils were used as gaskets. The signal was introduced through a buffer rod which was directly coupled to one of the diamond anvils by means of force applied to the buffer rod. The sample was coupled to one of the diamond anvils by means of normal force applied from the pressure medium, which was a fine-grain potassium bromide powder. The pressures in room temperature runs were determined by ruby fluorescence. Least squares fitting to the elastic constants derived from our experimental data yield c11 (GPa) = 296.8(±0.7) + 10.9(±0.9) × P (GPa). The results are in good agreement with previous determinations using ultrasonic interferometry on larger samples at lower frequencies and at lower pressures. The ultrasonic signals obtained in the high-temperature runs showed no deterioration in quality, and we were able to obtain travel-time data. By extrapolating the results from earlier work, we were able to estimate the pressure in the sample chamber while at high temperatures using the travel-time data.

  20. Illuminating the near-sonic rupture velocities of the intracontinental Kokoxili Mw 7.8 and Denali fault Mw 7.9 strike-slip earthquakes with global P wave back projection imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kristoffer T.; Shearer, Peter M.

    2009-02-01

    The Denali and Kokoxili strike-slip earthquakes are two of the longest recent intracontinental ruptures. Previous studies report a range of rupture velocities. Here we image these earthquakes by reverse time migration of the intermediate-frequency P wave train recorded by global broadband seismometers. This technique permits a relatively direct measure of rupture velocity (speed and direction) as constrained by the radiated seismic energy, free from restrictive assumptions or rupture speed bounds placed on the solution. We compare our results with published seismic, GPS displacement, and surface slip inversion results. Both ruptures were initially subshear and transitioned over a distance no longer than 40 km to supershear speeds close to the P wave speed of ˜5.6 km/s. We investigate the accuracy of our results with synthetic data and experiment with using different imaging parameters and seismic subnetworks. These tests allow us to rule out the possibility of subshear speeds along the supershear segments. Although we cannot exclude supershear speeds of 4.5-6.5 km/s, our most reliable rupture velocities of ˜5.6 km/s are close to the local P wave speeds. We hypothesize that these intracontinental faults have weak shear strengths or high breakdown slips or crustal rigidities and experience at least moderate slip or slip rate weakening. Our observations and previous published results lead us to speculate that very long, surface-extending faults with general homogeneity in prestress and fault strength, together with smaller adjacent fault segments to provide triggering, may be necessary ingredients for the sub-Rayleigh to supershear rupture speed transition in strike-slip earthquakes.

  1. A model for P-wave attenuation and dispersion in a porous medium permeated by aligned fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brajanovski, Miroslav; Gurevich, Boris; Schoenberg, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Fractures in a porous rock can be modelled as very thin and highly porous layers in a porous background. First, a dispersion equation for a P wave propagating in periodically layered poroelastic medium is obtained using propagator matrix approach applied to Biot equations of poroelasticity with periodic coefficients. Then in the limit of low stiffness and thickness this dispersion equation yields an expression for the effective P-wave modulus of the fractured porous material. When both pores and fractures are dry, this material is equivalent to a transversely isotropic elastic porous material with linear-slip interfaces. When saturated with a liquid this material exhibits significant attenuation and velocity dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow between pores and fractures. In the low-frequency limit the material properties are equal to those obtained by anisotropic Gassmann (or Brown-Korringa) theory applied to a porous material with linear-slip interfaces. At low frequencies inverse quality factor scales with the first power of frequency ?. At high frequencies the effective elastic properties are equal to those for isolated fluid-filled fractures in a solid (non-porous) background, and inverse quality factor scales with ?-1/2. The magnitude of both attenuation and dispersion strongly depends on both the degree of fracturing and background porosity of the medium. The characteristic frequency of the attenuation and dispersion depends on the background permeability, fluid viscosity, as well as fracture density and spacing.

  2. Analysis of near-source contributions to early P-wave coda for underground explosions. 1. Wave form complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, L.; Welc, J.L.

    1987-06-01

    A data set of more than 1600 teleseismic short-period P waves from 46 nuclear explosions is analyzed to establish near-source contributions to the first 15 sec of the P signals. The near-source components are isolated by event-to-event comparisons of first-cycle magnitudes, RMS amplitudes in the first 5 and next 10 sec of the wave forms, and energy temporal centroid measurements. Events from the Nevada, Amchitka, and Novaya Zemlya test sites are analyzed separately to characterize overall source-region variations. Event-averaged waveform complexity variations between explosions within a given site are tested for dependence on source strength, burial depth, location within the site, and tectonic release. Azimuthal patterns of the individual event complexity anomalies are used to discriminate between possible near-source influences. For events at Pahute Mesa, a strong azimuthal amplitude pattern in both the direct P waves and the P coda for all of the events is produced principally by deep mantle variations. Defocusing by a high-velocity anomaly in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the site has a stronger effect on the direct P signals than on the early P coda, resulting in a systematic, spatially varying relative pattern.

  3. How Green Will Electricity beHow Green Will Electricity be When Electric Vehicles Arrive?When Electric Vehicles Arrive?

    E-print Network

    How Green Will Electricity beHow Green Will Electricity be When Electric Vehicles Arrive?When Electric Vehicles Arrive? Edward S. Rubin Department of Engineering and Public Policy Department-carbon electricity and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) ? · In light of the above, would adoption of PHEVs

  4. A practical database method for predicting arrivals of “average” interplanetary shocks at Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. S. Feng; Y. Zhang; W. Sun; M. Dryer; C. D. Fry; C. S. Deehr

    2009-01-01

    A practical database method for predicting the interplanetary shock arrival time at L1 point is presented here. First, a shock transit time database (hereinafter called Database-I) based on HAFv.1 (version 1 of the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry model) is preliminarily established with hypothetical solar events. Then, on the basis of the prediction test results of 130 observed solar events during the period from

  5. the P-wave upper mantle structure beneath an active spreading center: The Gulf of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walck, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed analysis of short period travel time, and waveform data reveals the upper mantle structure beneath an oceanic ridge to depths of 900 km. More than 1400 digital seismograms from earthquakes in Mexico and central America recorded at SCARLET yield 1753 travel times and 58 direct measurements of short period travel time as well as high quality, stable waveforms. The 29 events combine to form a continuous record section from 9 deg to 40 deg with an average station spacing of less than 5 km. First the travel times are inverted. Further constraints arise from the observed relative amplitudes of mantle phases, which are modeled by trial and error.

  6. What prevents phenological adjustment to climate change in migrant bird species? Evidence against the ``arrival constraint'' hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, Anne E.; Hart, Adam G.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Phenological studies have demonstrated changes in the timing of seasonal events across multiple taxonomic groups as the climate warms. Some northern European migrant bird populations, however, show little or no significant change in breeding phenology, resulting in synchrony with key food sources becoming mismatched. This phenological inertia has often been ascribed to migration constraints (i.e. arrival date at breeding grounds preventing earlier laying). This has been based primarily on research in The Netherlands and Germany where time between arrival and breeding is short (often as few as 9 days). Here, we test the arrival constraint hypothesis over a 15-year period for a U.K. pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca) population where laying date is not constrained by arrival as the period between arrival and breeding is substantial and consistent (average 27 ± 4.57 days SD). Despite increasing spring temperatures and quantifiably stronger selection for early laying on the basis of number of offspring to fledge, we found no significant change in breeding phenology, in contrast with co-occurring resident blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus). We discuss possible non-migratory constraints on phenological adjustment, including limitations on plasticity, genetic constraints and competition, as well as the possibility of counter-selection pressures relating to adult survival, longevity or future reproductive success. We propose that such factors need to be considered in conjunction with the arrival constraint hypothesis.

  7. Knowledge-Based Scheduling of Arrival Aircraft in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzeczowski, K. J.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, Israel; Bergh, Christopher P.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assign runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithm is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reductions, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithm is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper describes the scheduling algorithms, gives examples of their use, and presents data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  8. Stochastic Queueing Models for Air Transportation Systems with Scheduled Arrivals

    E-print Network

    Nikoleris, Anastasios Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    or through simulation. For a surge of N aircraft arrivals,aircraft delays. The accuracy of the approximation method was assessed through simulationaircraft delays. The accuracy of the approximation method was demonstrated through simulation

  9. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration...arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a port of entry...which the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h)...

  10. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration...arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a port of entry...which the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h)...

  11. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration...arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a port of entry...which the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h)...

  12. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration...arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a port of entry...which the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h)...

  13. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration...arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a port of entry...which the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h)...

  14. Director McNutt Arrives from Boat Tour in Tahoe

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Director Marcia McNutt from the USGS, Tim Rowe a hydrologist from the Nevada Water Center and Joanne Marchetta the Tahoe regional planning agency executive Director pose for the camera after arriving back from the boat tour in Tahoe....

  15. Quantum phase transitions and phase diagram for a one-dimensional p-wave superconductor with an incommensurate potential.

    PubMed

    Cai, X

    2014-04-16

    The effect of the incommensurate potential is studied for the one-dimensional p-wave superconductor. It is determined by analyzing various properties, such as the superconducting gap, the long-range order of the correlation function, the inverse participation ratio and the Z2 topological invariant, etc. In particular, two important aspects of the effect are investigated: (1) as disorder, the incommensurate potential destroys the superconductivity and drives the system into the Anderson localized phase; (2) as a quasi-periodic potential, the incommensurate potential causes band splitting and turns the system with certain chemical potential into the band insulator phase. A full phase diagram is also presented in the chemical potential-incommensurate potential strength plane. PMID:24675766

  16. Interplay of p-wave pairing potential and spin-orbit coupling in two-dimensional noncentrosymmetric superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ningning; Zhao, Jingxiang; Yan, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Both pairing potential and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) play important roles in two-dimensional noncentrosymmetric superconductivity. Supposing that p-wave pairing potential is present between quasiparticles, spin-singlet pairs arise and mix with spin-triplet pairs in the electron space. Our results show that the effect of SOC on the electron superconducting order parameters is different below and above a critical pairing potential VbarC. If the pairing potential VbarVbarC, increasing SOC leads to increment of the spin-singlet pairing, but reduction of the triplet one. Moreover, VbarC increases with SOC.

  17. Estimated Moho Temperature from Observed Heat Flow and Comparison with P-Wave Velocity in the East Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W. Y.; Wood, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    We have estimated temperatures at the Moho surface by employing a published empirical relationship of Perry et al's work (JGR, doi:10.1029/2005JB003921) to the observed heat flow measurements in the East Sea (Sea of Japan), Korea. We assumed in our computation that the parameter values are all the same although the Perry et al's relationship between crustal thickness and heat flows to compute Moho temperature was derived for the Canadian Shield. For the heat flow data, we used the published global heat flow data (http://www.heatflow.und.edu) augmented with some recent heat flow measurements from Korea, and the LLN3_G3Dv3 for P-wave tomography model (JGR, doi:10.1029/2012JB009525). Preliminary results do not show a significant correlation between the computed Moho temperature and the P-wave velocity model perhaps due to uncertainty in the parameter values used in the computation as well as the empirical relation. An empirical relationship between the observed heat flow and the Moho temperature for the Canadian shield might be different for a backarec basin area like the East Sea, Korea. However, we noted that there exists a moderate negative correlation between the total crustal thickness and heat flow - less heat flows with increasing crustal thickness with a relation of Heat_Flow (mW/m2) = 205 - 18.3 * Crustal_Thickness (km). The modeled Moho temperature displays a trend of higher values (900o K -1400o K) from Japan toward the beneath of Yamato Basin and Rise in the NW direction, and beneath the Ulleung Basin area. Another higher Moho temperature (>1000o K) contour band is observed in the area north of Japan Basin, approximately centered along the 139.5o E.

  18. Composite Anisotropies Revealed by P-Wave Velocity Data Under the Approximation of 2nd Rank Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, L.; David, C.; Robion, P.

    2003-12-01

    From diagenesis to tectonic stress induced deformation, rock microstructures always present some anisotropy associated with a preferential orientation, shape or spatial arrangement of its constituents. Considering the consequences this anisotropy has on directional transport and mechanical properties, as the geological history it carries, its 3D characterisation has received a particular attention in numerous works. A fast and simple way to give an overall estimation of the microstructural state of a rock sample is the determination of some physical property fabrics, provided that one is able to assign the measured anisotropies to one or more microstructural features. In non porous metamorphic and igneous rocks that often present a strong textural anisotropy, the relations between shape or lattice preferred orientation and acoustic or magnetic properties are quite well established. However, this is not the case for weakly anisotropic granular media in which the recognition of a microstructural anisotropy implies a statistical analysis on thin sections. In this latter case, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been intensively used in structural studies, providing a mid-scale (cm) tool to infer different stages of deformation depending on the position in the studied structure, but leading to an unresolved interpretation problem in terms of microstructures since the origin of the magnetic signal rarely fits a directly observable feature. In the work that will be presented, we propose to complete the classical AMS approach with the estimation of P-wave velocity anisotropies (APV), assuming that this property, like the magnetic susceptibility, supports also a tensorial notation as a first order approximation. Through a careful study of samples retrieved from different deformed structures, we show that P-wave velocities reveal a strong sensitivity to all observable anisotropic microstructural features, which is used to highlight evidences for location-dependence of grain-scale fabrics.

  19. A Pseudo Ramp Manager Workstation for the Laboratory Development of Airline-ATC Collaborative Arrival Planning Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard; Mathan, Santosh; Quinn, Cheryl; Dorsky, Susan

    1998-01-01

    The continued expansion of air traffic and air carrier economic pressures are demanding changes to air traffic management and the relationship between the air traffic control service provider and the system user. Such pressures have motivated efforts to increase the flexibility of air traffic management operations and allow collaboration between the service provider and system user. The government/industry "free-flight" initiative, whose ultimate vision is to allow users to select their own path and speed in real-time with air traffic control imposing restrictions only when necessary, is the most visible of such efforts. Shared decision making and collaboration between system users and service providers has been identified as providing benefits necessary to support subsequent phases of free-flight. In the terminal arrival phase of flight, many restrictions and a high degree of control are placed on system users without regard for individual user operational preferences. Commonly imposed airborne delays applied to arriving aircraft on a first-come, first-serve basis do not allow the system users to prioritize for late arrivals or to economically optimize their arrival sequence. Service provider/system user collaborative arrival planning decision support tools are being developed to allow such priorities. Airline preferences are most important to an airline's "hub operation," where off-schedule arrival aircraft are common and sought to be corrected, as they cause serious airport ramp difficulties and result in large airline operational inefficiencies. In this work, a simulated ramp manager workstation is described which was developed to support the laboratory simulation development of collaborative arrival planning tools. These tools are derived from the NASA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The workstation presents a "gant chart" type display of arriving and departing aircraft sorted by airport gate, as typically used by "hub and spoke" air carriers in their airport ramp towers. This Pseudo Ramp Manager is a critical element for proper laboratory development of future service provider/system user cooperative ATM decision support tools.

  20. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...