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Sample records for p-wave arrival times

  1. Automated Determination of P-Wave Arrival Times Using Higher Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the continuously increasing amount of digital, seismological data, automatic localication of seismic events becomes more and more important. The main difficulty is the automatic identification and precise determination of P- and S-wave arrival times. Here we present an algorithm based on higher order statistics for the automated determination of P-onsets of local and regional seismic events. Using the 4th central moment, a characteristic function is calculated, on which the "picker" is applied. Important is the automatic estimation of the quality of the P-onset. In order to get rid off false P-readings, several algorithms are applied to single station as well as to the finishing multy station processing. The robustness and reliability of the automatic has been tested on a very heterogeneous data set of the temporary, regional seismological network EGELADOS, using manual P-readings, which serve as reference picks, as well as by a comparison with the Allen- and the Baer- & Kradolfer-picker. The accuracy and the speed of the presented automatic makes this processing scheme to an option for the implementation into a near-real time processing, e.g. for earthquake early-warning systems.

  2. P-wave arrival times for the 1991 racha, Georgia earthquake sequence at stations of a test, sparse network

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Schultz, C A; Ryall, F

    2000-02-02

    The following arrival information is a supplement to Myers and Schultz (2000). Myers and Schultz (2000) demonstrate the improvement in sparse-network location that can be achieved by using travel-time corrections determined with a Bayesian Kriging algorithm (Schultz et al., 1998). Precise, benchmark locations are provided by a local aftershock study of the 1991 Racha, Georgia earthquake sequence in the Caucasus Mountains (Fuenzalida et al., 1997). A test network is used to relocate the aftershocks with and without travel-time corrections. The test network is meant to represent a typical International Monitoring System configuration, with 6 stations at regional to near teleseismic distances (less then 30{sup o} from the epicenter). The following arrival-time data help to facilitate the reproduction of Myers and Schultz (2000). The arrival picks were obtained from the International Seismic Center (ISC) (openly available) and a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) analyst (Flori Ryan). Table 1 lists the arrivals in epic time (time since January 1, 1970). The author of the arrival pick is listed as either ''flori'' or ''-'', where ''-'' indicates ISC. Table 2 lists the hypocenter information determined in the local aftershock study of Fuenzalida et al. (1997), and Table 3 lists the station information for the Racha test network. Fields in all tables are described in the CSS3.O database schema.

  3. Evidence for a bimaterial interface along the Mudurnu segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from P wave arrival times and polarization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, F.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Bohnhoff, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present results on imaging the contrast of seismic velocities across the Mudurnu segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in northwestern Turkey with two new basic techniques using signals in P waveforms generated by near-fault seismicity and recorded by near-fault stations. The first technique uses changes in motion polarity from fault-normal to source-receiver directions to identify early-arriving fault zone head wave on the slow side of the fault, and measure the arrival times of the head and direct P waves. The moveout between the head and direct waves with increasing source-receiver distance along the fault provides an estimate of the average contrast of seismic velocities across the fault. The second technique involves measuring travel times from near-fault earthquakes to a pair of stations located at similar distances across the fault, and using the results to estimate average velocities associated with the different ray paths. The results from both techniques indicate that the average contrast of P wave velocities across the Mudurnu segment of the NAFZ is at least 6%, with the south block being the faster side. The findings provide a basis for deriving improved event locations, focal mechanisms and estimated shaking hazard associated with earthquakes on the fault. The analysis techniques can be used in other fault zones monitored using sparse seismic instrumentation.

  4. A non-parametric method for automatic determination of P-wave and S-wave arrival times: application to local micro earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawles, Christopher; Thurber, Clifford

    2015-08-01

    We present a simple, fast, and robust method for automatic detection of P- and S-wave arrivals using a nearest neighbours-based approach. The nearest neighbour algorithm is one of the most popular time-series classification methods in the data mining community and has been applied to time-series problems in many different domains. Specifically, our method is based on the non-parametric time-series classification method developed by Nikolov. Instead of building a model by estimating parameters from the data, the method uses the data itself to define the model. Potential phase arrivals are identified based on their similarity to a set of reference data consisting of positive and negative sets, where the positive set contains examples of analyst identified P- or S-wave onsets and the negative set contains examples that do not contain P waves or S waves. Similarity is defined as the square of the Euclidean distance between vectors representing the scaled absolute values of the amplitudes of the observed signal and a given reference example in time windows of the same length. For both P waves and S waves, a single pass is done through the bandpassed data, producing a score function defined as the ratio of the sum of similarity to positive examples over the sum of similarity to negative examples for each window. A phase arrival is chosen as the centre position of the window that maximizes the score function. The method is tested on two local earthquake data sets, consisting of 98 known events from the Parkfield region in central California and 32 known events from the Alpine Fault region on the South Island of New Zealand. For P-wave picks, using a reference set containing two picks from the Parkfield data set, 98 per cent of Parkfield and 94 per cent of Alpine Fault picks are determined within 0.1 s of the analyst pick. For S-wave picks, 94 per cent and 91 per cent of picks are determined within 0.2 s of the analyst picks for the Parkfield and Alpine Fault data set

  5. Microseismic event location using an inverse method of joint P-S phase arrival difference and P-wave arrival difference in a borehole system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Wang, Liangshu; Guan, Luping; Guo, Quanshi; Cui, Shuguo; Yu, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The accuracy of hypocenter location is the essential issue for microseismic monitoring, and is the basis for evaluating the effect of fracture. Although the signal obtained from a borehole monitoring system has a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) than the surface system, a narrow monitoring aperture makes the location sensitive to noise and tends to be a misguided shape. In order to overcome this disadvantage and obtain a more accurate estimation of the source, we develop a ‘jointing method’, which combines the P-S phase arrival difference and P-wave arrival difference of each receiver pair (PSP) in the objective function. In the synthetic example, we compare the noise responses of three different location methods which are based on P-wave arrival time difference, P-S wave arrival time difference and the PSP method, respectively. This analysis shows that the P-wave arrival difference method is more sensitive to arrival time error than the others and the location results tend to be in a misleading line directed to the receivers. The P-S arrival difference method is more robust than the method using P-wave and its error distribution is perpendicular to the ray-path direction. The PSP method, as expected, is the most stable and accurate. When the P-S method and PSP method are applied to field data of a coal bed methane hydro-fracture process monitoring, the results indicate that the PSP method is preferable. The successful location with the PSP method proves that it is suitable for field data.

  6. Source Time Function of P-wave Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the site effect of time function of the Taiwan area will be invested. The recorded response function of a single earthquake will be calculated by Complex Demodulation. The path effect of each event-station pair will be estimated by using the forward method with a 3-D attenuation structure. After removing the path effect, the source frequency function of each single event will be obtained by averaging the whole station gotten. Using this source time function to calculate the path effect of the all stations, the theoretic received time frequency function can be obtained. The difference between this theoretic function and the recorded function is the site effect function of the single station. The characterics of the site effect in Taiwan area will be analyzed. Recalculate the path effect and remove the site effect of each station to get the new source time function of P-wave acceleration.

  7. An anomalous upper mantle unit beneath southern Norway revealed by P-wave travel time residuals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondo, A.; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.; England, R. W.; Kind, R.; Bödvarsson, R.; Weidle, C.; Gregersen, S.; Voss, P.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate whether high topography in southern Norway is associated with an anomalous upper mantle and we identify the western boundary of thick shield lithosphere. Several studies describe crustal structure in southern Scandinavia, whereas high-resolution information on upper mantle structures is sparse. We present relative P-wave travel time residuals (P-residuals) and preliminary tomography from southern Norway, southern Sweden and northern Denmark. We analyze distant earthquakes registered by seismological stations in projects CENMOVE, CALAS, MAGNUS and SCANLIPS together with selected TOR stations, and permanent stations in southern Sweden, southern Norway and Denmark. Station means of P-residuals corrected for topography and contributions from the crust varies by up to about 1 s across the study area. We associate early arrivals to the east of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone (STZ) and east of the Oslo Graben with thick shield lithosphere. Late arrivals observed in the Norwegian-Danish Basin southwest of the STZ are consistent with thinned lithosphere related to the basin formation. In southern Norway west of the Oslo Graben area, late arrivals indicate reduced P-wave velocity in the upper mantle and perhaps some regional isostatic buoyancy from the upper mantle. However, arrivals are early in the northern part of southern Norway, still in areas of high topography. Thus, a clear spatial correlation with areas of high topography is not observed. We identify the western boundary of thick shield lithosphere by interpretation of station means of P-residuals, together with the azimuthal dependence of single P-residuals in southern Scandinavia. We find this boundary to follow the STZ from the southeast into the northern part of Jutland. From there it proceed northwards. In southern Norway the western boundary of thick shield lithosphere is found around the Oslo Graben, proceeding to the northwest approaching the Norwegian coast.

  8. Joint Optimization of Vertical Component Gravity and Seismic P-wave First Arrivals by Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Basler-Reeder, K.; Kent, G. M.; Pullammanappallil, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous joint seismic-gravity optimization improves P-wave velocity models in areas with sharp lateral velocity contrasts. Optimization is achieved using simulated annealing, a metaheuristic global optimization algorithm that does not require an accurate initial model. Balancing the seismic-gravity objective function is accomplished by a novel approach based on analysis of Pareto charts. Gravity modeling uses a newly developed convolution algorithm, while seismic modeling utilizes the highly efficient Vidale eikonal equation traveltime generation technique. Synthetic tests show that joint optimization improves velocity model accuracy and provides velocity control below the deepest headwave raypath. Detailed first arrival picking followed by trial velocity modeling remediates inconsistent data. We use a set of highly refined first arrival picks to compare results of a convergent joint seismic-gravity optimization to the Plotrefa™ and SeisOpt® Pro™ velocity modeling packages. Plotrefa™ uses a nonlinear least squares approach that is initial model dependent and produces shallow velocity artifacts. SeisOpt® Pro™ utilizes the simulated annealing algorithm and is limited to depths above the deepest raypath. Joint optimization increases the depth of constrained velocities, improving reflector coherency at depth. Kirchoff prestack depth migrations reveal that joint optimization ameliorates shallow velocity artifacts caused by limitations in refraction ray coverage. Seismic and gravity data from the San Emidio Geothermal field of the northwest Basin and Range province demonstrate that joint optimization changes interpretation outcomes. The prior shallow-valley interpretation gives way to a deep valley model, while shallow antiformal reflectors that could have been interpreted as antiformal folds are flattened. Furthermore, joint optimization provides a clearer image of the rangefront fault. This technique can readily be applied to existing datasets and could

  9. Arrival time and backflow effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grübl, Gebhard; Kreidl, Sabine; Penz, Markus; Ruggenthaler, Michael

    2006-06-01

    We contrast the average arrival time at x according to the Bohmian mechanics of one dimensional free Schrödinger evolution with the standard quantum mechanical one. For positive momentum wave functions the first cannot be larger than the second one. Equality holds if and only if the wave function does not lead to position probability backflow through x. This position probability backflow has the least upper bound of approximately 0.04. We describe a numerical method to determine this backflow constant, introduced by Bracken and Melloy, more precisely and we illustrate the approximate wave function of maximal backflow.

  10. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume I P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  11. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume II P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (II), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 360 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1180 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4996, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4996, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  12. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume III P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (III), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 390 to 1220 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 40 ft (later relocated to 27.5 ft due to visibility in borehole after rain) in Borehole C4997, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4997, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  13. Quantum arrival time for open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J. M.

    2010-07-15

    We extend previous work on the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, in the framework of decoherent histories, to the case of a particle coupled to an environment. The usual arrival time probabilities are related to the probability current, so we explore the properties of the current for general open systems that can be written in terms of a master equation of the Lindblad form. We specialize to the case of quantum Brownian motion, and show that after a time of order the localization time of the current becomes positive. We show that the arrival time probabilities can then be written in terms of a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), which we compute. We perform a decoherent histories analysis including the effects of the environment and show that time-of-arrival probabilities are decoherent for a generic state after a time much greater than the localization time, but that there is a fundamental limitation on the accuracy {delta}t, with which they can be specified which obeys E{delta}t>>({h_bar}/2{pi}). We confirm that the arrival time probabilities computed in this way agree with those computed via the current, provided there is decoherence. We thus find that the decoherent histories formulation of quantum mechanics provides a consistent explanation for the emergence of the probability current as the classical arrival time distribution, and a systematic rule for deciding when probabilities may be assigned.

  14. P wave velocity structure below India and Tibet incorporating anisotropic delay time effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Debasis D.; Singh, Arun; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Srinagesh, D.; Humphreys, Eugene D.

    2016-03-01

    We incorporate the effects of anisotropy to refine the continental-scale 3-D isotropic velocity model previously produced for India and Tibet by inverting 52,050 teleseismic P wave residuals. We have exploited a total of 1648 individual SKS splitting parameters to calculate the P wave travel time corrections due to azimuthal anisotropy. Our results suggest that anisotropy affects the P wave delays significantly (-0.3 to +0.5 s). Integration of these corrections into the 3-D modeling is achieved in two ways: (a) a priori adjustment to the delay time vector and (b) inverting only for anisotropic delays by introducing strong damping above 80 km and below 360 km depths and then subtracting the obtained anisotropic artifact image from the isotropic image, to get the corrected image. Under the assumption of azimuthal anisotropy resulting from lattice preferred orientation (LPO) alignment due to horizontal flow, the bias in isotropic P wave tomographic images is clear. The anisotropy corrected velocity perturbations are in the range of ±1.2% at depths of around 150 km and reduced further at deeper levels. Although the bias due to anisotropy does not affect the gross features, it does introduce certain artifacts at deeper levels.

  15. HELCATS Prediction of Planetary CME arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boakes, Peter; Moestl, Christian; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard; Byrne, Jason; Barnes, David; Isavnin, Alexey; Kilpua, Emilia; Rollett, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    We present the first results of CME arrival time prediction at different planetary locations and their comparison to the in situ data within the HELCATS project. The EU FP7 HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis & Techniques Service) is a European effort to consolidate the exploitation of the maturing field of heliospheric imaging. HELCATS aims to catalogue solar wind transients, observed by the NASA STEREO Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments, and validate different methods for the determination of their kinematic properties. This validation includes comparison with arrivals at Earth, and elsewhere in the heliosphere, as well as onsets at the Sun (http://www.helcats-fp7.eu/). A preliminary catalogue of manually identified CMEs, with over 1000 separate events, has been created from observations made by the STEREO/HI instruments covering the years 2007-2013. Initial speeds and directions of each CME have been derived through fitting the time elongation profile to the state of the art Self-Similar Expansion Fitting (SSEF) geometric technique (Davies et al., 2012). The technique assumes that, in the plane corresponding to the position angle of interest, CMEs can be modelled as circles subtending a fixed angular width to Sun-center and propagating anti-sunward in a fixed direction at a constant speed (we use an angular width of 30 degrees in our initial results). The model has advantages over previous geometric models (e.g. harmonic mean or fixed phi) as it allows one to predict whether a CME will 'hit' a specific heliospheric location, as well as to what degree (e.g. direct assault or glancing blow). We use correction formulae (Möstl and Davies, 2013) to convert CME speeds, direction and launch time to speed and arrival time at any in situ location. From the preliminary CME dataset, we derive arrival times for over 400 Earth-directed CMEs, and for over 100 Mercury-, Venus-, Mars- and Saturn-directed CMEs predicted to impact each planet. We present statistics of

  16. Acceleration of stable TTI P-wave reverse-time migration with GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseo; Cho, Yongchae; Jang, Ugeun; Shin, Changsoo

    2013-03-01

    When a pseudo-acoustic TTI (tilted transversely isotropic) coupled wave equation is used to implement reverse-time migration (RTM), shear wave energy is significantly included in the migration image. Because anisotropy has intrinsic elastic characteristics, coupling P-wave and S-wave modes in the pseudo-acoustic wave equation is inevitable. In RTM with only primary energy or the P-wave mode in seismic data, the S-wave energy is regarded as noise for the migration image. To solve this problem, we derive a pure P-wave equation for TTI media that excludes the S-wave energy. Additionally, we apply the rapid expansion method (REM) based on a Chebyshev expansion and a pseudo-spectral method (PSM) to calculate spatial derivatives in the wave equation. When REM is incorporated with the PSM for the spatial derivatives, wavefields with high numerical accuracy can be obtained without grid dispersion when performing numerical wave modeling. Another problem in the implementation of TTI RTM is that wavefields in an area with high gradients of dip or azimuth angles can be blown up in the progression of the forward and backward algorithms of the RTM. We stabilize the wavefields by applying a spatial-frequency domain high-cut filter when calculating the spatial derivatives using the PSM. In addition, to increase performance speed, the graphic processing unit (GPU) architecture is used instead of traditional CPU architecture. To confirm the degree of acceleration compared to the CPU version on our RTM, we then analyze the performance measurements according to the number of GPUs employed.

  17. Cascadia tremor located near plate interface constrained by S minus P wave times.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Mario; Creager, Kenneth C; Galluzzo, Danilo; Malone, Steve; Vidale, John E; Sweet, Justin R; Wech, Aaron G

    2009-01-30

    Nonvolcanic tremor is difficult to locate because it does not produce impulsive phases identifiable across a seismic network. An alternative approach to identifying specific phases is to measure the lag between the S and P waves. We cross-correlate vertical and horizontal seismograms to reveal signals common to both, but with the horizontal delayed with respect to the vertical. This lagged correlation represents the time interval between vertical compressional waves and horizontal shear waves. Measurements of this interval, combined with location techniques, resolve the depth of tremor sources within +/-2 kilometers. For recent Cascadia tremor, the sources locate near or on the subducting slab interface. Strong correlations and steady S-P time differences imply that tremor consists of radiation from repeating sources. PMID:19179527

  18. Alternative stable qP wave equations in TTI media with their applications for reverse time migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Huazhong; Liu, Wenqing

    2015-10-01

    Numerical instabilities may arise if the spatial variation of symmetry axis is handled improperly when implementing P-wave modeling and reverse time migration in heterogeneous tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media, especially in the cases where fast changes exist in TTI symmetry axis’ directions. Based on the pseudo-acoustic approximation to anisotropic elastic wave equations in Cartesian coordinates, alternative second order qP (quasi-P) wave equations in TTI media are derived in this paper. Compared with conventional stable qP wave equations, the proposed equations written in stress components contain only spatial derivatives of wavefield variables (stress components) and are free from spatial derivatives involving media parameters. These lead to an easy and efficient implementation for stable P-wave modeling and imaging. Numerical experiments demonstrate the stability and computational efficiency of the presented equations in complex TTI media.

  19. JPL pulsar timing observations. II - Geocentric arrival times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, G. S.; Reichley, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Monitoring of the behavior of naturally pulsating galactic radio sources, or pulsars, through regularly spaced measurements of pulse arrival times, has been conducted by several laboratories. A tabular presentation is here made of pulse arrival time measurements from the NASA Deep Space Network between late 1968 and early 1981. By expressing the measurements in ephemeris time, and referring them to the geocenter, usable tables of results have been generated for each pulsar listed in the first of the tables given. The considerations addressed by the tables are: (1) a necessary step in the study of pulsar dynamics is the reduction of topocentric arrival times to the barycenter of the solar system; (2) the tabulated data are accessible to all opinions as to the procedures to be used in interpreting arrival time data; and (3) different observing programs can usually be combined to produce an improvement in the total data set.

  20. Fast determination of earthquake magnitude and fault extent from real-time P-wave recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

    2015-08-01

    This work is aimed at the automatic and fast characterization of the extended earthquake source, through the progressive measurement of the P-wave displacement amplitude along the recorded seismograms. We propose a straightforward methodology to quickly characterize the earthquake magnitude and the expected length of the rupture, and to provide an approximate estimate of the average stress drop to be used for Earthquake Early Warning and rapid response purposes. We test the methodology over a wide distance and magnitude range using a massive Japan earthquake, accelerogram data set. Our estimates of moment magnitude, source duration/length and stress drop are consistent with the ones obtained by using other techniques and analysing the whole seismic waveform. In particular, the retrieved source parameters follow a self-similar, constant stress-drop scaling (median value of stress drop = 0.71 MPa). For the M 9.0, 2011 Tohoku-Oki event, both magnitude and length are underestimated, due to limited, available P-wave time window (PTWs) and to the low-frequency cut-off of analysed data. We show that, in a simulated real-time mode, about 1-2 seconds would be required for the source parameter determination of M 4-5 events, 3-10 seconds for M 6-7 and 30-40 s for M 8-8.5. The proposed method can also provide a rapid evaluation of the average slip on the fault plane, which can be used as an additional discriminant for tsunami potential, associated to large magnitude earthquakes occurring offshore.

  1. First arrival time surface, estimation of statics

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, J.H.; Jacewitz, C.A.

    1983-09-05

    The problem of obtaining surface consistent statics using first arrival refractions has several phases. To begin with, the first arrivals must be picked in some reasonable, consistent fashion. Next, appropriate techniques must be used to solve for surface-consistent statics. Finally, the interpreter must be provided with an evaluation of the quality of the estimated statics. First arrival refractions are part of reflection seismic data. Early seismic reflection work used first arrival refractions for weathering static corrections. With the advent of the common midpoint (CMP) method, first arrivals lost their predominance in statics to correlation techniques within CMP gathers. However, the increasing use of a large number of receivers and a small group interval has made first arrival statics more reliable. In addition, recent work has helped to revitalize interest in the use of first arrival refractions for surface-consistent static corrections.

  2. Mantle P wave travel time tomography of Eastern and Southern Africa: New images of mantle upwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Li, C.; van der Hilst, R.

    2006-12-01

    Much of Eastern Africa, including Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, has undergone extensive tectonism, including rifting, uplift, and volcanism during the Cenozoic. The cause of this tectonism is often attributed to the presence of one or more mantle upwellings, including starting thermal plumes and superplumes. Previous regional seismic studies and global tomographic models show conflicting results regarding the spatial and thermal characteristics of these upwellings. Additionally, there are questions concerning the extent to which the Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere has been altered by possible thermal upwellings in the mantle. To further constrain the mantle structure beneath Southern and Eastern Africa and to investigate the origin of the tectonism in Eastern Africa, we present preliminary results of a large-scale P wave travel time tomographic study of the region. We invert travel time measurements from the EHB database with travel time measurements taken from regional PASSCAL datasets including the Ethiopia Broadband Seismic Experiment (2000-2002); Kenya Broadband Seismic Experiment (2000-2002); Southern Africa Seismic Experiment (1997- 1999); Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment (1995-1997), and the Saudi Arabia PASSCAL Experiment (1995-1997). The tomographic inversion uses 3-D sensitivity kernels to combine different datasets and is parameterized with an irregular grid so that high spatial resolution can be obtained in areas of dense data coverage. It uses an adaptive least-squares context using the LSQR method with norm and gradient damping.

  3. Time Variation of Cosmic Ray Arrival Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Henry; Desiati, P.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have been used to characterize the anisotropy in the arrival directions of muons produced in cosmic ray air showers. The anisotropy can be fairly well described as a superposition of a dipole and quadrupole of unknown origin in celestial equatorial coordinates. It is also expected to be described as a dipole associated with the Compton-Getting effect in a coordinate system fixed with respect to the Sun. We utilized IceCube data collected from 2008 through 2011, containing 3.69 x 10^10 events with a median cosmic ray particle energy of 20 TeV. We limited our analysis to data from four azimuthal regions, allowing the rotation of the Earth to trace out a periodic signal. We used a Lomb-Scargle periodogram to approximate a frequency spectrum from the event rates. The frequency spectrum contained four peaks with a significance level greater than 5σ, including a peak at 0.997 day^-1 that is consistent with a sideband caused by modulation of the solar dipole. If further analysis confirms this modulation, interference between the solar and sidereal time frames will need to be considered in future analyses of the anisotropy. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881 to the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  4. Global slab structure from (P-wave) travel time tomography: neither layered nor whole mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Li, C.

    2007-12-01

    We comment on the fate of slabs of subducted lithosphere using a new global model of three dimensional (3-D) variations in mantle P-wave velocity. The model is parameterized by means of rectangular cells in latitude, longitude, and radius, the size of which adapts to sampling. The largest single data source is ISC-NEIC data reprocessed by Engdahl and co-workers, from which we use routinely picked, short period P, Pg, Pn, pP and pwP data (for earthquakes between 1964-2004). Resolution in the lowermost and uppermost mantle is improved by differential times of core phases (PKPDF - PKPAB, PKPBC - PKPAB, Pdiff - PKPDF) and surface reflected waves (PP-P), respectively. The low frequency differential times (Pdiff, PP) are measured by waveform cross-correlation. Approximate 3-D finite frequency kernels are used to integrate the long period data (Pdiff, PP) and short period (P, pP, PKP) data. Spatial resolution is ~100 km in best sampled upper mantle regions. Our model reveals in unprecedented detail the rich variation in style of subduction of lithospheric slabs into the mantle. The images confirm the structural complexity of downwellings in the transition zone discussed in previous papers (Van der Hilst et al., Nature, 1991, 1995, 1997). Slab deflection is apparent in the transition zone beneath back arc regions in the western Pacific and the Mediterranean (Fukao et al., Rev. Geophys., 2001), but deeper penetration seems to occur beneath many other convergent margins, in particular Indonesia and the eastern Pacific/Americas (e.g., Ren et al., JGR, 2007). Owing to added data from stations in China, our model reveals with more clarity the structure of slab fragments stagnant in the transition zone beneath East Asia. As we have suggested before, these results of variable depth subduction are not consistent with the canonical models of either strict layering at 660 km depth or unhindered whole mantle convection.

  5. Confined quantum time of arrival for the vanishing potential

    SciTech Connect

    Galapon, Eric A.; Caballar, Roland F.; Bahague, Ricardo

    2005-12-15

    We give full account of our recent report in E. A. Galapon, R. Caballar, and R. Bahague, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180406 (2004), where it is shown that formulating the free quantum time of arrival problem in a segment of the real line suggests rephrasing the quantum time of arrival problem to finding a complete set of states that evolve to unitarily arrive at a given point at a definite time. For a spatially confined particle, here it is shown explicitly that the problem admits a solution in the form of an eigenvalue problem of a class of compact and self-adjoint time of arrival operators derived by a quantization of the classical time of arrival. The eigenfunctions of these operators are numerically demonstrated to unitarily arrive at the origin at their respective eigenvalues.

  6. An Exploratory Study of Runway Arrival Procedures: Time Based Arrival and Self-Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Vincent E.; Barmore, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a flight crew to deliver their aircraft to its arrival runway on time is important to the overall efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Over the past several years, the NAS has been stressed almost to its limits resulting in problems such as airport congestion, flight delay, and flight cancellation to reach levels that have never been seen before in the NAS. It is predicted that this situation will worsen by the year 2025, due to an anticipated increase in air traffic operations to one-and-a-half to three times its current level. Improved arrival efficiency, in terms of both capacity and environmental impact, is an important part of improving NAS operations. One way to improve the arrival performance of an aircraft is to enable the flight crew to precisely deliver their aircraft to a specified point at either a specified time or specified interval relative to another aircraft. This gives the flight crew more control to make the necessary adjustments to their aircraft s performance with less tactical control from the controller; it may also decrease the controller s workload. Two approaches to precise time navigation have been proposed: Time-Based Arrivals (e.g., required times of arrival) and Self-Spacing. Time-Based Arrivals make use of an aircraft s Flight Management System (FMS) to deliver the aircraft to the runway threshold at a given time. Self-Spacing enables the flight crew to achieve an ATC assigned spacing goals at the runway threshold relative to another aircraft. The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), a multi-agency initiative established to plan and coordinate the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), has asked for data for both of these concepts to facilitate future research and development. This paper provides a first look at the delivery performance of these two concepts under various initial and environmental conditions in an air traffic simulation environment.

  7. Mobile TV's Time to Shine Has Arrived

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitson, Fred

    MoFilm, the first mobile film festival, achieved some legitimacy when multiple Academy Award-winning actor Kevin Spacey hosted the show in 2009. Spacey commented: "[I]n some countries, this might be the first time they [people] ever see a movie. … They won't see it on that big screen; they'll see it on a small one."1 According to a 2007 Gartner report, sales of cell phones skyrocketed for the first time to more than 1 billion.2 In 2008, the number of worldwide subscribers topped 4 billion, covering 60% of the world population.3 There are more mobile phones than TVs (there are 1.4 billion TVs worldwide4). Spacey concluded: "The quality of work and the simple ability at storytelling, the thing that ignites someone and inspires them to tell a story, can really come from anywhere."5

  8. Prediction of the shock arrival time with SEP observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, G.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2009-09-01

    Real-time prediction of the arrival times at Earth of shocks is very important for space weather research. Recently, various models for shock propagation are used to forecast the shock arriving times (SATs) with information of initial coronal shock and flare from near real-time radio and X-ray data. In this paper, we add the use of solar energetic particles (SEP) observation to improve the shock arrival time (SAT) prediction. High-energy SEPs originating from flares move to the Earth much faster than the shocks related to the same flares. We develop an SAT prediction model by combining a well-known shock propagation model, STOA, and the analysis of SEPs detected at Earth. We demonstrate that the SAT predictions are improved by the new model with the help of 38-53 keV electron SEP observations. In particular, the correct prediction to false alarm ratio is improved significantly.

  9. A new pulse arrival-time recording system

    SciTech Connect

    Arnone, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    We describe a new pulse arrival-time recording system that is being developed at Los Alamos. The new PATRM/PCI (Pulse Arrival-Time Recording Module/Peripheral Component Interconnect) has had several features added. These features enhance our time-correlation measurement capabilities. By applying the latest advances in electronics and computer technology we are able to increase capability over existing instrumentation while lowering the per channel cost. The modular design approach taken allows easy configuration of both small and large systems.

  10. Fault plane orientations of microearthquakes at Mt. Etna from the inversion of P-wave rise times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Martinez-Arevalo, Carmen; Patanè, Domenico; Romeo, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    A crucial point in the analysis of tectonic earthquakes occurring in a volcanic area is the inference of the orientation of the structures along which the ruptures occur. These structures represent zones of weakness which could favor the migration of melt toward the surface and the assessment of their geometry is a fundamental step toward efficient evaluation of volcanic risk. We analyzed a high-quality dataset of 171 low-magnitude, tectonic earthquakes that occurred at Mt. Etna during the 2002-2003 eruption. We applied a recently developed technique aimed at inferring the source parameters (source size, dip and strike fault) and the intrinsic quality factor Qp of P waves from the inversion of rise times. The technique is based on numerically calibrated relationships among the rise time of first P waves and the source parameters for a circular crack rupturing at a constant velocity. For the most of the events the directivity source effect did not allow us to constrain the fault plane orientation. For a subset of 45 events with well constrained focal mechanisms we were able to constrain the "true" fault plane orientation. The level of resolution of the fault planes was assessed through a non linear analysis based on the random deviates technique. The significance of the retrieved fault plane solutions and the fit of the assumed source model to data were assessed through a χ-square test. Most of the retrieved fault plane solutions agree with the geometrical trend of known surface faults. The inferred source parameters and Qp are in agreement with the results of previous studies.

  11. A geometrical result regarding time-of-arrival lightning location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solakiewicz, Richard

    1996-01-01

    One reason for investigating Lightning Detection And Ranging (LDAR) is to validate data from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD). A Time-Of-Arrival (TOA) procedure may be used with radio wave portions of lighting signatures. An antenna is in place at KSC.

  12. A Comparison of CTAS and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Hsu, Rose Y.

    1999-01-01

    A statistically-based comparison of aircraft times of arrival between Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) air traffic control scheduling and airline predictions is presented. CTAS is found to provide much improved values, forming the foundation for airline operational improvements, as observed during an airline field trial of a CTAS display.

  13. Early magnitude estimation for the MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using progressively expanded P-wave time window.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chaoyong; Yang, Jiansi; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    More and more earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are developed or currently being tested in many active seismic regions of the world. A well-known problem with real-time procedures is the parameter saturation, which may lead to magnitude underestimation for large earthquakes. In this paper, the method used to the MW9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is explored with strong-motion records of the MW7.9, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We measure two early warning parameters by progressively expanding the P-wave time window (PTW) and distance range, to provide early magnitude estimates and a rapid prediction of the potential damage area. This information would have been available 40 s after the earthquake origin time and could have been refined in the successive 20 s using data from more distant stations. We show the suitability of the existing regression relationships between early warning parameters and magnitude, provided that an appropriate PTW is used for parameter estimation. The reason for the magnitude underestimation is in part a combined effect of high-pass filtering and frequency dependence of the main radiating source during the rupture process. Finally we suggest only using Pd alone for magnitude estimation because of its slight magnitude saturation compared to the τc magnitude. PMID:25346344

  14. Early magnitude estimation for the MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using progressively expanded P-wave time window

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chaoyong; Yang, Jiansi; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    More and more earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are developed or currently being tested in many active seismic regions of the world. A well-known problem with real-time procedures is the parameter saturation, which may lead to magnitude underestimation for large earthquakes. In this paper, the method used to the MW9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is explored with strong-motion records of the MW7.9, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We measure two early warning parameters by progressively expanding the P-wave time window (PTW) and distance range, to provide early magnitude estimates and a rapid prediction of the potential damage area. This information would have been available 40 s after the earthquake origin time and could have been refined in the successive 20 s using data from more distant stations. We show the suitability of the existing regression relationships between early warning parameters and magnitude, provided that an appropriate PTW is used for parameter estimation. The reason for the magnitude underestimation is in part a combined effect of high-pass filtering and frequency dependence of the main radiating source during the rupture process. Finally we suggest only using Pd alone for magnitude estimation because of its slight magnitude saturation compared to the τc magnitude. PMID:25346344

  15. The arrival time distribution of EAS at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, T.; Kuramochi, H.; Ono, S.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.

    The arrival time distribution of EAS has been observed since 1995 at Taro cosmicray laboratory (200m above sea level). The EAS arrays consist of 1m2 and 0.25m2 scintillation detectors, 0.25m2 fast timing counters and ultra fast Cherenkov detectors (UFC). 169 0.25m2 scintillation detectors are arranged in alattice configuration with a unit distance of 1.5m. UFC is placed at 20m from the center of lattice array. The arrival time distribution has been analyzed with distance from EAS core (r=10-60m). One of the results shows that the radius of corvature increases as shower size (Ne), near to the EAS core.

  16. Arrival Time Distribution by the New Observation System at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuyama, H.; Obara, Hitoshi; Kuramochi, Hiroshi; Ono, Shunichi; Origasa, Satoru; Mochida, Akinori; Sakuyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Noboru

    2003-07-01

    The arrival time distribution of EAS has been observed by using Ultra Fast Cherenkov detector (UFC) and oscilloscope at Taro observatory since 1995 (sea level 200m). The EAS array is arranged 169 sets of 0.25m2 scintillation detectors in the shape of a lattice at intervals of 1.5m and about 40 scintillation detectors which consists of 1m2 and 0.25m2 is arranged in the peripheral part. Then, it consists of 8 fast timing detectors. The UFC detector is installed in the palce of about 20m from the trigger center. The observation system of a UFC detector was changed from the autumn of 2000. The outline of a new observation system and EAS arrival time distribution are reported.

  17. Quantum arrival and dwell times via idealized clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J. M.; Downs, D. A.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hashagen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    A number of approaches to the problem of defining arrival- and dwell-time probabilities in quantum theory makes use of idealized models of clocks. An interesting question is the extent to which the probabilities obtained in this way are related to standard semiclassical results. In this paper, we explore this question using a reasonably general clock model, solved using path-integral methods. We find that, in the weak-coupling regime, where the energy of the clock is much less than the energy of the particle it is measuring, the probability for the clock pointer can be expressed in terms of the probability current in the case of arrival times, and the dwell-time operator in the case of dwell times, the expected semiclassical results. In the regime of strong system-clock coupling, we find that the arrival-time probability is proportional to the kinetic-energy density, consistent with an earlier model involving a complex potential. We argue that, properly normalized, this may be the generically expected result in this regime. We show that these conclusions are largely independent of the form of the clock Hamiltonian.

  18. Line Nodes and Time Reversal Symmetry Breaking in p-wave Sr2RuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annett, Jf; Gyorffy, Bl; Litak, G.; Wysokinski, Ki

    2001-03-01

    The superconductor Sr_2RuO4 exhibits broken time reversal symmetry and has a contant Knight shift below Tc. These experiments suggest a pairing state of the ^3He-A type, d(k) = (k_x+ik_y)hatz. On the other hand specific heat measurements of Nishizaki Maeno and Mao (J. Phys. Soc. Japan 69, 572 (2000)) imply that the gap has line nodes. To resolve this contradiction we calculate the energy gap and heat capacity in several alternative scenarios for the pairing interaction. We find that on-site Hunds rule exchange cannot produce the observed T_c. Nearest neighbour spin independent attraction leads to d-wave pairing, while nearest neighbour parallel spin interaction leads to a p-wave state with no line nodes. However we can also obtain a state with line nodes on the alpha-beta Fermi surface sheets, and time reversal symmetry breaking on the gamma sheet. We discuss the possible physical origin of this state and the comparison with available experimental data.

  19. Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks Mosalam Shaltout1 ,M.Youssef 1and R.Mawad2 1 National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) ,Helwan -Cairo-Egypt Email: mosalamshaltout@hotmail.com 2 Faculty of Science-Monifiia University-Physics Department-Shiben Al-Koum -Monifiia-Egypt We are got the Data of the SSC events from Preliminary Reports of the ISGI (Institut de Physique du Globe, France) .Also we are selected the same CME interval 1996-2005 from SOHO/LASCO/C2.We have estimated the arrival time of ICME shocks during solar cycle 23rd (1996-2005), we take the Sudden storm commencement SSC as a indicator of the arrival of CMEs at the Earth's Magnetosphere (ICME).Under our model ,we selected 203 ICME shock-SSC associated events, we got an imperial relation between CME velocity and their travel time, from which we obtained high correlation between them, R=0.75.

  20. S-P wave travel time residuals and lateral inhomogeneity in the mantle beneath Tibet and the Himalaya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, P.; Chen, W.-P.

    1984-01-01

    S-P wave travel time residuals were measured in earthquakes in Tibet and the Himalaya in order to study lateral inhomogeneities in the earth's mantle. Average S-P residuals, measured with respect to Jeffrey-Bullen (J-B) tables for 11 earthquakes in the Himalaya are less than +1 second. Average J-B S-P from 10 of 11 earthquakes in Tibet, however, are greater than +1 second even when corrected for local crustal thickness. The largest values, ranging between 2.5 and 4.9 seconds are for five events in central and northern Tibet, and they imply that the average velocities in the crust and upper mantle in this part of Tibet are 4 to 10 percent lower than those beneath the Himalaya. On the basis of the data, it is concluded that it is unlikely that a shield structure lies beneath north central Tibet unless the S-P residuals are due to structural variations occurring deeper than 250 km.

  1. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  2. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T; Carlson, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia. PMID:27131647

  3. The Effects of Predator Arrival Timing on Adaptive Radiation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Knope, M. L.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Much of Earth’s biodiversity is thought to have arisen by adaptive radiation, the rapid diversification of a single ancestral species to fill a wide-variety of ecological niches. Both theory and empirical evidence have long supported competition for limited resources as a primary driver of adaptive radiation. While predation has also been postulated to be an important selective force during radiation, empirical evidence is surprisingly scant and its role remains controversial. However, two recent empirical studies suggest that predation can promote divergence during adaptive radiation. Using an experimental laboratory microcosm system, we examined how predator arrival timing affects the rate and extent of diversification during adaptive radiation. We varied the introduction timing of a protozoan predator (Tetrahymena thermophila) into populations of the bacteria Pseudomonas flourescens, which is known for its ability to undergo rapid adaptive radiation in aqueous microcosms. While our results show that predator arrival timing may have a significant impact on the rate, but not extent, of diversification, these results are tenuous and should be interpreted with caution, as the protozoan predators died early in the majority of our treatments, hampering our ability for comparison across treatments. Additionally, the abundance of newly derived bacterial genotypes was markedly lower in all treatments than observed in previous experiments utilizing this microbial experimental evolution system. To address these shortcomings, we will be repeating the experiment in the near future to further explore the impact of predator arrival timing on adaptive radiation. Smooth Morph and small-Wrinkly Spreader Pseudomonas flourescens diversification in the 96 hour treatment. Day 10, diluted to 1e-5.

  4. Teleseismic P-wave Delay Time Tomography of the southern Superior Province and Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollmann, T. A.; van der Lee, S.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Wolin, E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) and the northern midwest footprint of USArray's Transportable Array recorded continuous ground motion for a period of 2.5 years. From around 400 M>5.5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded at 337 stations, we measured body wave delay times for 255 of these earthquakes. The P wave delays are accumulated over more than 45 thousand wave paths with turning points in the lower mantle. We combine these delay times with a similar number delay times used in previous tomographic studies of the study region. The latter delay times stem from fewer stations, including Polaris and CNSN stations, and nearly a thousand earthquakes. We combine these two sets of delay times to image the three-dimensional distribution of seismic velocity variations beneath the southern Superior Province and surrounding provinces. This combined data coverage is illustrated in the accompanying figure for a total number of 447 stations . The coverage and the combined delays form the best configuration yet to image the three-dimensional distribution of seismic P and S-wave velocity variations beneath the southern Superior and surrounding provinces. Closely spaced stations (~12 km) along and across the MRS provide higher resolving power for lithospheric structure beneath the rift system. Conforming to expectations that the entire region is underlain by thick, cool lithosphere, a mean delay of -.55 +/- .54 s. This is very similar to the mean delays -.6s +/- .37s measured for this region before 2012. Event corrections range from -.2 +/-.54 s and correlate with tectonics for 80% of the earthquakes. An inversion of these nearly one hundred thousand P and around thirty thousand S-wave delay times for high-resolution P and S-wave velocity structure, respectively, does not show structures that are obviously related to the crustal signature of the MRS. None of structures imaged, align with or have a similar shape to the high Mid-continent Gravity Anomaly

  5. POLENET/LAPNET teleseismic P wave travel time tomography model of the upper mantle beneath northern Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvennoinen, Hanna; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Kissling, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    The POLENET/LAPNET (Polar Earth Observing Network) broadband seismic network was deployed in northern Fennoscandia (Finland, Sweden, Norway, and Russia) during the third International Polar Year 2007-2009. The array consisted of roughly 60 seismic stations. In our study, we estimate the 3-D architecture of the upper mantle beneath the northern Fennoscandian Shield using high-resolution teleseismic P wave tomography. The P wave tomography method can complement previous studies in the area by efficiently mapping lateral velocity variations in the mantle. For this purpose 111 clearly recorded teleseismic events were selected and the data from the stations hand-picked and analysed. Our study reveals a highly heterogeneous lithospheric mantle beneath the northern Fennoscandian Shield though without any large high P wave velocity area that may indicate the presence of thick depleted lithospheric "keel". The most significant feature seen in the velocity model is a large elongated negative velocity anomaly (up to -3.5 %) in depth range 100-150 km in the central part of our study area that can be followed down to a depth of 200 km in some local areas. This low-velocity area separates three high-velocity regions corresponding to the cratonic units forming the area.

  6. P-wave Variability and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Censi, Federica; Corazza, Ivan; Reggiani, Elisa; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of P-wave template has been widely used to extract indices of Atrial Fibrillation (AF) risk stratification. The aim of this paper was to assess the potential of the analysis of the P-wave variability over time in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation. P-wave features extracted from P-wave template together with novel indices of P-wave variability have been estimated in a population of patients suffering from persistent AF and compared to those extracted from control subjects. We quantify the P-wave variability over time using three algorithms and we extracted three novel indices: one based on the cross-correlation coefficients among the P-waves (Cross-Correlation Index, CCI), one associated to variation in amplitude of the P-waves (Amplitude Dispersion Index, ADI), one sensible to the phase shift among P-waves (Warping Index, WI). The control group resulted to be characterized by shorter P-wave duration and by a less amount of fragmentation and variability, respect to AF patients. The parameter CCI shows the highest sensitivity (97.3%) and a good specificity (95%). PMID:27225709

  7. Sediment sound speed inversion with time-frequency analysis and modal arrival time probability density functions.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Pole, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The dispersion pattern of a received signal is critical for understanding physical properties of the propagation medium. The objective of this work is to estimate accurately sediment sound speed using modal arrival times obtained from dispersion curves extracted via time-frequency analysis of acoustic signals. A particle filter is used that estimates probability density functions of modal frequencies arriving at specific times. Employing this information, probability density functions of arrival times for modal frequencies are constructed. Samples of arrival time differences are then obtained and are propagated backwards through an inverse acoustic model. As a result, probability density functions of sediment sound speed are estimated. Maximum a posteriori estimates indicate that inversion is successful. It is also demonstrated that multiple frequency processing offers an advantage over inversion at a single frequency, producing results with reduced variance. PMID:27475202

  8. P wave travel times: Stability and change within the source volume of A M = 7. 2 earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.C.; Wyss, M.; Habermann, R.E.

    1982-08-10

    The dense seismograph network on the south flank of Kilauea afforded a unique opportunity to study travel time changes as a function of space and time within the source volume of the Hawaii earthquake (M/sub S/ = 7.2) of 1975. Careful analysis of more than 600 teleseismic P arrivals from deep Fiji-Tonga earthquakes revealed the following: out of eight stations studied, six showed constant travel times to within +- 0.03 s for up to 10 years with the exception of some small changes of about 0.03 s at the time of the main shock. One station, AHU, showed a highly significant and unique travel time decrease by 0.13 s during 1971/1972. At the beginning of this velocity anomaly a southwest rift intrusion caused closure of surface cracks associated with normal faults located near the station AHU. Also, geodetic measurements revealed that between August and October 1971 compressive strain of 4 x 10/sup -5/ was accumulated perpendicular to the southwest rift in the area of AHU. We conclude that these data show for the first time that in situ velocity increases occur due to the closure of cracks by tectonic forces. The AHU residuals returned to normal approximately at the time of a major earthquake swarm on the fault zone near AHU, during which surface cracks were observed to have opened again.We have interpreted the teleseismic residual change at AHU as due to a P velocity increase of about 10% in the top 3.5-1.5-km of the crust. The only station, WHA, which showed a large (0.2 s) and extended (1972 to 1975) travel time increase was located only 4-km from the main shock epicenter. We interpret this velocity decrease as a precursor to the 1975 main shock, and we hypopthesize that a process reverse from that at AHU caused this anomaly by first opening and then closing cracks in the crust below WHA.

  9. Uppermost mantle P wave velocities beneath Turkey and Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Chen, W.; Molnar, P.

    1980-01-01

    The uppermost mantle P wave velocities beneath Turkey and Iran were estimated by applying the conventional travel time-distance relation method to arrival times of well located earthquakes recorded at a few stations. The average uppermost mantle P wave velocity under Turkey is estimated from two stations of the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN), Istanbul and Tabriz. The data are consistent with a crust of uniform, but poorly determined, thickness and an uppermost mantle P wave velocity of 7.73 +- 0.08 km/s. This velocity is very similar to that for the Aegean Sea and suggests that its structure could be closely related to that beneath Turkey. For Iran, the results calculated from travel times to three WWSSN stations, Meshed, Shiraz, and Tabriz, can be explained by a crust dipping toward the south-southeast at about 1/sup 0/ with an uppermost mantle P wave velocity of 8.0 +- 0.1 km/s. If the crustal thickness were 34 km in the north it would reach about 49 km in the south. Based on these uppermost mantle velocities, the temperature at Moho beneath Turkey is probably close to the melting temperature of peridotite but that beneath Iran is probably lower.

  10. A simple approach to estimate earthquake magnitude from the arrival time of the peak acceleration amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, S.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) to be effective, the rapid determination of magnitude (M) is important. At present, there are no methods which can accurately determine M even for extremely large events (ELE) for EEW, although a number of the methods have been suggested. In order to solve the problem, we use a simple approach derived from the fact that the time difference (Top) from the onset of the body wave to the arrival time of the peak acceleration amplitude of the body wave scales with M. To test this approach, we use 15,172 accelerograms of regional earthquakes (most of them are M4-7 events) from the K-NET, as the first step. Top is defined by analyzing the S-wave in this step. The S-onsets are calculated by adding the theoretical S-P times to the P-onsets which are manually picked. As the result, it is confirmed that logTop has high correlation with Mw, especially for the higher frequency band (> 2Hz). The RMS of residuals between Mw and M estimated in this step is less than 0.5. In case of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, M is estimated to be 9.01 at 150 seconds after the initiation of the event.To increase the number of the ELE data, we add the teleseismic high frequency P-wave records to the analysis, as the second step. According to the result of various back-projection analyses, we consider the teleseismic P-waves to contain information on the entire rupture process. The BHZ channel data of the Global Seismographic Network for 24 events are used in this step. 2-4Hz data from the stations in the epicentral distance range of 30-85 degrees are used following the method of Hara [2007]. All P-onsets are manually picked. Top obtained from the teleseimic data show good correlation with Mw, complementing the one obtained from the regional data. We conclude that the proposed approach is quite useful for estimating reliable M for EEW, even for the ELE.

  11. Simultaneous Local and Teleseismic P-Wave Velocity Tomography in Western Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C. R.; Alarcon, E.; Ochoa, J.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    In western Mexico, the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North America plate has deformed and fragmented the overriding plate, forming several structural rifts and crustal blocks. To improve the current tomographic images of the continental crust and uppermost mantle in this complex area, we used P-wave arrivals of local and teleseismic earthquakes along with the Fast Marching Method tomography technique. Our traveltime datasets include 2100 local earthquakes P-wave arrival times and 5,062 P-wave relative arrival time residuals of teleseismic earthquakes. The local earthquake phase picking was manually corrected and the relative arrival time residuals were estimated using the Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation method. All earthquakes occurred between 2006 and 2007 and were recorded by seismic stations deployed during the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone (MARS) experiment. The temporal seismic network consisted of 50 stations equipped with Streckeisen STS-2 and Quanterra Q330. We use an iterative nonlinear tomographic procedure and the fast marching method to map the residual patterns as P wave velocity anomalies. We followed an inversion scheme consisting of: (1) selection of a local and teleseismic earthquake, (2) estimation of improved 1-D reference velocity model, and (3) checkerboard testing to determine the optimum configuration of the velocity nodes, and inversion parameters, finally (4) perform final tomography and results analysis.

  12. A Fast-Time Simulation Tool for Analysis of Airport Arrival Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Meyn, Larry A.; Neuman, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The basic objective of arrival sequencing in air traffic control automation is to match traffic demand and airport capacity while minimizing delays. The performance of an automated arrival scheduling system, such as the Traffic Management Advisor developed by NASA for the FAA, can be studied by a fast-time simulation that does not involve running expensive and time-consuming real-time simulations. The fast-time simulation models runway configurations, the characteristics of arrival traffic, deviations from predicted arrival times, as well as the arrival sequencing and scheduling algorithm. This report reviews the development of the fast-time simulation method used originally by NASA in the design of the sequencing and scheduling algorithm for the Traffic Management Advisor. The utility of this method of simulation is demonstrated by examining the effect on delays of altering arrival schedules at a hub airport.

  13. Finite frequency global P wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montelli, R.; Nolet, G.; Masters, G.; Dahlen, F. A.; Hung, S.-H.

    2003-04-01

    The travel time of a finite frequency wave is sensitive to velocity structure off the geometrical ray within a volume known as the Fresnel zone. We compute 3D travel time sensitivity efficiently by using the paraxial approximation in conjunction with ray theory and the Born approximation (Dahlen et al., 2000) to invert global travel times of long-period compressional waves. Our data set consists of 67540 P and 20266 PP-P travel times measured by cross-correlation. The sensitivity of a broad-band P arrival time resembles a hollow-banana surrounding the unperturbed path with sensitivity being zero on the ray. Typical widths of sensitivity kernels at the turning point are about 1000 km and 1300 km for a P wave at 60o and 80o epicentral distance, respectively. The region of insensitivity around the geometrical ray is small near the source and the receiver but can extend to about 400 km near the turning point for a P wave at 80o epicentral distance. Because of the minimax nature, surface reflected PP waves show a much more complicated shape of the sensitivity region, with the banana-doughnut shape replaced by a saddle-shaped region upon passage of a caustic. Not surprisingly, the introduction of such complicated sensitivity has consequences for the final tomographic images. We compare tomographic models inverted with the new method and with the more standard technique of ray theory for the same data fit (i.e. same χ2) and each smoothed to resolve very similar length scales. Depending on depth and size of the anomaly, amplitudes of the velocity perturbations in finite frequency images are on average 30%-60% higher than those obtained with ray theory. This demonstrates a major shortcoming of ray theory. It is not possible to neglect wavefront healing effect, as ray theory does. The images obtained by inverting long-period waves provide unambiguous evidence that a limited number of hot-spots are fed by plumes originating in the lower mantle. To better constrain the P wave

  14. Joint Inversion of Geoid Anomaly and Teleseismic P-Wave Delay Times: Modeling Density and Velocity Perturbations Beneath the Parana Magmatic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, C. A. M.; Ussami, N.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Parana Magmatic Province (PMP) is one of the largest continental igneous provinces (LIP) on Earth. It is well dated at 133 Ma preceding the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, but the causative geodynamic processes are still poorly understood. Although a low-velocity anomaly has been imaged by seismic tomography in the northeast region of the PMP and interpreted as a fossil conduct of a mantle plume that is related to the flood basalt eruptions, geochemical data indicate that such magmatism is caused by the melting of a heterogeneous and enriched lithospheric mantle with no deep plume participation. Models of density perturbations in the upper mantle estimated from joint inversion of geoid anomalies and P-wave delay times will offer important constraints on mantle dynamics. A new generation of accurate global geopotential models derived from satellite-missions (e.g. GRACE, GOCE) allows us to estimate density distribution within the Earth from geoid inversion. In order to obtain the residual geoid anomaly related to the density structure of the mantle, we use the EGM2008 model removing estimated geoid perturbations owing to variations in crustal structure (i.e., topographical masses, Moho depth, thickness of sediments and basalts). Using a spherical-Earth approximation, the density model space is represented by a set of tesseroids and the velocity model is parameterized in nodes of a spherical grid where cubic B-splines are utilized as an interpolation function. To constrain the density inversion, we add more than 10,000 manually picked teleseismic P-wave delay times. During the inversion procedure, density and P-wave velocity are linked through the optimization of a constant linear factor correlating density and velocity perturbation. Such optimization will be performed using a probability density function (PDF) [Tarantola, 2005]. We will present the preliminary results of this joint inversion scheme and hypothesize on the geodynamic processes responsible for

  15. A COMPARISON OF COLLAPSING AND PRECISE ARRIVAL-TIME MAPPING OF MICROSEISMICITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTLEDGE, JAMES T.; JONES, ROB H.

    2007-01-05

    In this paper they compare the improvements in microseismic location images obtained using precise arrival times with that obtained by the collapsing technique. They first collapse the initial locations for a hydraulic-fracture data set from the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, they then use the precise-arrival-time locations as measure for the effectiveness of the collapsing. Finally, they examine the changes when applying collapsing to the precise-arrival-time locations.

  16. The calculation of mean first arrival time for double mutants, crossing the fitness valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakian, David B.

    2015-05-01

    We calculated the mean first arrival time of the new double mutant in the Wright-Fisher and Moran models with selection where N is the population size, the mutation probability scales as 1/N and selection coefficient as 1/\\sqrt{N} . We mapped the mean first arrival time problem into Kummer equation. Our results have a O(1/\\sqrt{N}) relative accuracy. Our analytic result is rather universal, it describes the mean first arrival time in these models.

  17. Community assembly in experimental grasslands: suitable environment or timely arrival?

    PubMed

    Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Graae, Bente J

    2006-05-01

    It is hard to defend the view that biotic communities represent a simple and predictable response to the abiotic environment. Biota and the abiotic environment interact, and the environment of an individual certainly includes its neighbors and visitors in the community. The complexity of community assembly calls forth a quest for general principles, yet current results and theories on assembly rules differ widely. Using a grassland microcosm as a model system, we manipulated fertility, disturbance by defoliation, soil/microclimate, and arrival order of species belonging to two groups differing in functional attributes. We analyzed the outcome of community assembly dynamics in terms of species richness, invasibility, and species composition. The analyses revealed strong environmental control over species richness and invasibility. Species composition was mainly determined by the arrival order of species, indicating that historical contingency may change the outcome of community assembly. The probability for multiple equilibria appeared to increase with productivity and environmental stability. The importance of arrival order offers an explanation of the difficulties in predicting local occurrences of species in the field. In our experiment, variation in fertility and disturbance was controlling colonization with predictable effects on emergent community properties such as species richness. The key mechanism is suggested to be asymmetric competition, and our results show that this mechanism is relatively insensitive to the species through which it works. While our analyses indicate a positive and significant correlation between richness and invasibility, the significance disappears after accounting for the effect of the environment. The importance of arrival order (historical contingency) and environmental control supports the assumption of the unified neutral theory that different species within a trophic level can be considered functionally equivalent when it comes

  18. P wave detection thresholds, Pn velocity estimates, and T wave location uncertainty from oceanic hydrophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Philip D.; Fox, Christopher G.; Dziak, Robert P.

    1999-06-01

    P wave arrivals recorded by the U.S. Navy's SOund SUrveillance System (SOSUS) hydrophone arrays were used to estimate earthquake detection thresholds and Pn velocities in the northeast Pacific Ocean. The Navy hydrophones have been used successfully to detect and locate oceanic earthquakes using their waterborne acoustic tertiary (T) waves; however, use of these hydrophones for seismic body wave detection allows regional seismic analyses to be extended to the oceanic environment. The P wave detection threshold of the SOSUS hydrophones was quantified using the epicentral distance and magnitude of 250 northeast Pacific Ocean earthquakes. Earthquakes with body wave magnitudes as low as 2 have detectable P wave arrivals at epicentral distances of ≤500 km. Earthquakes with mb between 3.5 and 5 were detected ˜50% of the time at distances of 100-1500 km, while events with mb > 5 were all detected, even out to distances of 1000-1500 km. Both P and T wave hydrophone arrival times were used to estimate the epicenters of 100 earthquakes. The peak amplitude of the T wave coda and the onset of the P wave were used as the earthquake arrival times to estimate event locations. T wave arrival time residuals have a Gaussian distribution with zero mean, which implies that using T wave peak amplitude is consistent with using the P wave onset as the arrival time. There are typically ≤6 stations used to derive a T wave based location, hence location error ellipses are not well constrained. A Monte Carlo technique was employed to estimate T wave event location uncertainty. T wave locations have error bars of ˜1 km in latitude and longitude when >3 hydrophones are used for a location estimate. The detected P wave arrivals and earthquake locations were used to measure Pn velocities. Pn velocity values of 7.9 ± 0.1 and 8.0 ± 0.1 km/s were found for the Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates, respectively. A Pn velocity of 7.5 ± 0.1 km/s was measured for rays traveling northward from the

  19. Timing the Random and Anomalous Arrival of Particles in a Geiger Counter with GPS Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, F.; La Rocca, P.; Riggi, F.; Riggi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of the arrival time distribution of particles in a detector have been studied by the use of a small Geiger counter, with a GPS device to tag the event time. The experiment is intended to check the basic properties of the random arrival time distribution between successive events and to simulate the investigations carried out by…

  20. Transition from discrete to continuous time-of-arrival distribution for a quantum particle

    SciTech Connect

    Galapon, Eric A.; Delgado, F.; Muga, J. Gonzalo; Egusquiza, Inigo

    2005-10-15

    We show that the Kijowski distribution for time of arrivals in the entire real line is the limiting distribution of the time-of-arrival distribution in a confining box as its length increases to infinity. The dynamics of the confined time-of-arrival eigenfunctions is also numerically investigated and demonstrated that the eigenfunctions evolve to have point supports at the arrival point at their respective eigenvalues in the limit of arbitrarily large confining lengths, giving insight into the ideal physical content of the Kijowsky distribution.

  1. Particle detection and non-detection in a quantum time of arrival measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sombillo, Denny Lane B.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The standard time-of-arrival distribution cannot reproduce both the temporal and the spatial profile of the modulus squared of the time-evolved wave function for an arbitrary initial state. In particular, the time-of-arrival distribution gives a non-vanishing probability even if the wave function is zero at a given point for all values of time. This poses a problem in the standard formulation of quantum mechanics where one quantizes a classical observable and uses its spectral resolution to calculate the corresponding distribution. In this work, we show that the modulus squared of the time-evolved wave function is in fact contained in one of the degenerate eigenfunctions of the quantized time-of-arrival operator. This generalizes our understanding of quantum arrival phenomenon where particle detection is not a necessary requirement, thereby providing a direct link between time-of-arrival quantization and the outcomes of the two-slit experiment.

  2. Incorporating fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times into seismic tomography: Application at Parkfield, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2011-12-01

    Large crustal faults such as the San Andreas fault (SAF) often juxtapose rocks of significantly different elastic properties, resulting in well-defined bimaterial interfaces. A sharp material contrast across the fault interface is expected to generate fault zone head waves (FZHW's) that spend a large portion of their propagation paths refracting along the bimaterial interface (Ben-Zion 1989, 1990; Ben-Zion & Aki 1990). Because of this FZHW's provide a high-resolution tool for imaging the velocity contrast across the fault. Recently, Zhao et al. (2010) systematically analyzed large data sets of near-fault waveforms recorded by several permanent and temporary seismic networks along the Parkfield section of the SAF. The local-scale tomography study of Zhang et al. (2009) for a roughly 10 km3 volume centered on SAFOD and the more regional-scale study of Thurber et al. (2006) for a 130 km x 120 km x 20 km volume centered on the 2004 Parkfield earthquake rupture provide what are probably the best 3D images of the seismic velocity structure of the area. The former shows a low velocity zone associated with the SAF extending to significant depth, and both image the well-known velocity contrast across the fault. Seismic tomography generally uses just first P and/or S arrivals because of the relative simplicity of phase picking and ray tracing. Adding secondary arrivals such as FZHW's, however, can enhance the resolution of structure and strengthen constraints on earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. We present a model of 3D velocity structure for the Parkfield region that utilizes a combination of arrival times for FZHW's and the associated direct-wave secondary arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. The resulting image provides a higher-resolution model of the SAF at depth than previously published models. In addition, we plan to measure polarizations of the direct P and S waves and FZHW's and incorporate the data into our updated velocity tomography

  3. Time-lapse interpretation of p-wave data for a hydraulically fractured reservoir, Wattenberg Field, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Matthew D.

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has contributed to making production from low permeability source rocks economic for oil and gas companies. However, few direct observations have been made regarding the physical modifications of the reservoir resulting from the hydraulic fracturing process. This thesis investigates the time-lapse seismic response generated by hydraulically fracturing an unconventional reservoir. Compressional seismic data sets were acquired before and after completions in a single section in Wattenberg Field, CO. Cross-equalization of the time-lapse seismic data sets was required for the comparison of seismic amplitudes. A time-shift anomaly and amplitude anomaly were observed in the reservoir interval, and time-lapse changes are spatially aligned with the wellbores. To understand the physical change that caused this seismic anomaly, percentage change of acoustic P-impedance was calculated. A decrease in the acoustic P-impedance of up to 7% was observed from the baseline to the monitor survey in the reservoir interval. This observation was put into physical context through interpretation of a structural geologic model, and completions parameter and timing. An increase in pore pressure due to hydraulic fracturing was interpreted as the physical mechanism causing the change in P-impedance. Hydraulic fracturing is highly dependent on local geology, and the integration of geoscience with parameter design is necessary for optimization. Seismic monitoring can assist assist reservoir management of Wattenberg Field.

  4. Carbon isotope turnover as a measure of arrival time in migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2009-01-01

    Arrival time on breeding or non-breeding areas is of interest in many ecological studies exploring fitness consequences of migratory schedules. However, in most field studies, it is difficult to precisely assess arrival time of individuals. Here, we use carbon isotope turnover in avian blood as a technique to estimate arrival time for birds switching from one habitat or environment to another. Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in blood assimilate to a new equilibrium following a diet switch according to an exponential decay function. This relationship can be used to determine the time a diet switch occurred if δ13C of both the old and new diet are known. We used published data of captive birds to validate that this approach provides reliable estimates of the time since a diet switch within 1–3 weeks after the diet switch. We then explored the utility of this technique for King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) arriving on terrestrial breeding grounds after wintering and migration at sea. We estimated arrival time on breeding grounds in northern Alaska (95% CI) from red blood cell δ13C turnover to be 4–9 June. This estimate overlapped with arrival time of birds from the same study site tracked with satellite transmitters (5–12 June). Therefore, we conclude that this method provides a simple yet reliable way to assess arrival time of birds moving between isotopically distinct environments.

  5. Feasibility of water seepage monitoring in concrete with embedded smart aggregates by P-wave travel time measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dujian; Liu, Tiejun; Huang, Yongchao; Zhang, Fuyao; Du, Chengcheng; Li, Bo

    2014-06-01

    Water seepage in concrete threatens the safety of marine constructions and reduces the durability of concrete structures. This note presents a smart aggregate-based monitoring method to monitor the travel time evolution of a harmonic stress wave during the water infiltrating process in concrete structures. An experimental investigation, in which two plain concrete columns were examined under different water infiltration cases, verified the validity of the proposed monitoring method. The test results show that the travel time of the harmonic stress wave is sensitive to the development of water seepage in concrete and decreases with increasing water seepage depth. The proposed active monitoring method provides an innovative approach to monitor water seepage in concrete structures.

  6. Automated determination of P-phase arrival times at regional and local distances using higher order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lee, J.; Friederich, W.; Working Group, EGELADOS

    2010-05-01

    We present an algorithm for automatic P-phase arrival time determination for local and regional seismic events based on higher order statistics (HOS). Using skewness or kurtosis a characteristic function is determined to which a new iterative picking algorithm is applied. For P-phase identification we apply the Akaike Information Criterion to the characteristic function, while for a precise determination of the P-phase arrival time a pragmatic picking algorithm is applied to a recalculated characteristic function. In addition, an automatic quality estimate is obtained, based on the slope and the signal-to-noise ratio, both calculated from the characteristic function. To get rid of erroneous picks, a Jackknife procedure and an envelope function analysis is used. The algorithm is applied to a large data set with very heterogeneous qualities of P-onsets acquired by a temporary, regional seismic network of the EGELADOS-project in the southern Aegean. The reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithm is tested by comparing more than 3000 manually derived P readings, serving as reference picks, with the corresponding automatically estimated P-wave arrival times. We find an average deviation from the reference picks of 0.26 +/- 0.64s when using kurtosis and 0.38 +/- 0.75s when using skewness. If automatically as excellent classified picks are considered only, the average difference from the reference picks is 0.07 +/- 0.31s and 0.07 +/- 0.41s, respectively. However, substantially more P-arrival times are determined when using kurtosis, indicating that the characteristic function derived from kurtosis estimation is to be preferred. Since the characteristic function is calculated recursively, the algorithm is very fast and hence suited for earthquake early warning purposes. Furthermore, a comparative study with automatically derived P-readings using Allen's and Baer & Kradolfer's picking algorithms applied to the same data set demonstrates better quantitative and

  7. A new look at the structure of the Antarctic continent from P wave travel times and adaptively parameterized tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. A.; Hansen, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    The geologic processes shaping the Antarctic continent are widely debated. In order to evaluate candidate models for the region, tomographic images that highlight the upper mantle structure are crucial; however, existing continental-scale tomography models for Antarctica lack sufficient resolution to delineate important, diagnostic features. Most tomographic models are generated using a uniformly-spaced grid over the entire study area, which can result in reduced resolution by over-emphasizing poorly sampled areas of the model and not providing enough emphasis in areas containing pertinent small-scale structure. Alternatively, the adaptively parameterized tomography method constructs a more condensed grid spacing in areas with better seismic ray coverage, thereby allowing such regions to be better resolved, while at the same time limiting the resolution of features in areas with less seismic coverage. By generating such a model for Antarctica, this approach allows candidate geologic models to be more critically assessed, resulting in a better understanding not only of Antarctic geodynamic processes but also of important processes on a global scale. In addition, the resulting tomographic model will impact thermal lithospheric estimates used to characterize ice sheet dynamics and climate-ice models, which are important in understanding the cooling history of the continent. Preliminary results will be shown.

  8. A note on some statistical properties of rise time parameters used in muon arrival time measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwalt, D. J.; Devilliers, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most investigations of the muon arrival time distribution in EAS during the past decade made use of parameters which can collectively be called rise time parameters. The rise time parameter T sub A/B is defined as the time taken for the integrated pulse from a detector to rise from A% to B% of its full amplitude. The use of these parameters are usually restricted to the determination of the radial dependence thereof. This radial dependence of the rise time parameters are usually taken as a signature of the particle interaction characteristics in the shower. As these parameters have a stochastic nature, it seems reasonable that one should also take notice of this aspect of the rise time parameters. A statistical approach to rise time parameters is presented.

  9. Perturbation analysis of queueing systems with a time-varying arrival rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassandras, Christos G.; Pan, Jie

    1991-01-01

    The authors consider an M/G/1 queuing with a time-varying arrival rate. The objective is to obtain infinitesimal perturbation analysis (IPA) gradient estimates for various performance measures of interest with respect to certain system parameters. In particular, the authors consider the mean system time over n arrivals and an arrival rate alternating between two values. By choosing a convenient sample path representation of this system, they derive an unbiased IPA gradient estimator which, however, is not consistent, and investigate the nature of this problem.

  10. Holographic p -wave superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Lu, Jian-Bo; Yu, Fang

    2014-12-01

    In the probe limit, we numerically construct a holographic p -wave superfluid model in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional (5D) anti-de Sitter black holes coupled to a Maxwell-complex vector field. We find that, for the condensate with the fixed superfluid velocity, the results are similar to the s -wave cases in both 4D and 5D spacetimes. In particular, the Cave of Winds and the phase transition, always being of second order, take place in the 5D case. Moreover, we find that the translating superfluid velocity from second order to first order S/yμ increases with the mass squared. Furthermore, for the supercurrent with fixed temperature, the results agree with the Ginzburg-Landau prediction near the critical temperature. In addition, this complex vector superfluid model is still a generalization of the SU(2) superfluid model, and it also provides a holographic realization of the H e3 superfluid system.

  11. Arrival-time fluctuations of coherent reflections from surface gravity water waves.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Eickmeier, Justin; Song, Aijun

    2014-05-01

    Arrival time fluctuations of coherent reflections from surface gravity waves are examined. A two-dimensional ray model with an evolving rough sea surface is used to explain the mechanism and formation of the deterministic striation patterns due to the surface reflection. Arrival time predictions from the ray model match qualitatively well with the measurements from bidirectional acoustic transmissions in a water depth of 100 m. PMID:24815293

  12. The PDV Velocity History and Shock Arrival Time Analyzer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-08-29

    This software allows the user to analyze heterodyne beat signals generated when a Doppler-shifted laser light interacts with un-shifted laser light. The software analyzes the data in a joint time frequency domain to extract instantaneous velocity.

  13. A Fast-Time Study of Aircraft Reordering in Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Greg; Neuman, Frank; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to ensure that the safe capacity of the terminal area is not exceeded, Air Traffic Management ATM often places restrictions on arriving flights transitioning from en route airspace to terminal airspace. This restriction of arrival traffic is commonly referred to as arrival flow management, and includes techniques such as metering, vectoring, fix-load balancing, and the imposition of miles-in-trail separations. These restrictions are enacted without regard for the relative priority which airlines may be placing on individual flights based on factors such as crew criticality, passenger connectivity, critical turn times, gate availability, on-time performance, fuel status, or runway preference. The development of new arrival flow management techniques which take into consideration priorities expressed by air carriers will likely reduce the economic impact of ATM restrictions on the airlines and lead to increased airline economic efficiency by allowing airlines to have greater control over their individual arrival banks of aircraft. NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have designed and developed a suite of software decision support tools (DSTs) collectively known as the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). One of these tools, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is currently being used at the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center to perform arrival flow management of traffic into the Dallas/Fort Worth airport (DFW). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that assists Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and En Route Air Traffic Controllers in efficiently balancing arrival demand with airport capacity. The primary algorithm in the TMA is a real-time scheduler which generates efficient landing sequences and landing times for arrivals within about 200 no a. from touchdown. This scheduler will sequence aircraft so that they arrive in a first- come - first-served (FCFS) order. While FCFS sequencing establishes a fair order based

  14. Lithospheric structure of the Illinois Basin from teleseismic P-wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B.; Gilbert, H. J.; Hamburger, M. W.; Merrell, T.; Pavlis, G. L.; Sherrill, E.

    2013-12-01

    We examine heterogeneity of the crust and upper mantle associated with a major intracratonic basin, using arrival time data from a regional EarthScope experiment extending across the western margin of the Illinois Basin. We measured 24,062 P-wave residuals associated with 399 teleseismic events recorded from January 2012 to March 2013 by 122 stations in the Illinois Basin region. We used data from the Ozark Illinois INdiana Kentucky (OIINK) Flexible Array, the permanent New Madrid Seismic Network, and a portion of the Earthscope Transportable Array. Precise relative arrival times were determined using array cross-correlation methods. We plotted the measured arrivals as residual maps to identify first order patterns of velocity heterogeneity and to fix outliers. These data were then inverted for P-wave velocity using non-linear tomography code developed by Steven Roecker. Our preliminary results indicate the upper 200 km of the mantle can be characterized by two blocks with a transition zone centered roughly parallel to the Ohio River boundary of Illinois and Kentucky. Estimated P-wave velocities are higher in Kentucky, located southeast of the transition zone compared to Missouri and Illinois, located northwest. We caution that at this stage our tomography model may be biased as we have not accounted for variations in crustal structure or applied corrections associated with the Illinois Basin. Parallel work with receiver functions by our group and the known geometry of the Illinois Basin will be used to calculate these corrections and modify the tomographic model accordingly.

  15. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  16. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-04-01

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34±0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  17. Scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a random-walking magnetic domain.

    PubMed

    Im, M-Y; Lee, S-H; Kim, D-H; Fischer, P; Shin, S-C

    2008-04-25

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34+/-0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls. PMID:18518241

  18. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  19. Predator density and timing of arrival affect reef fish community assembly.

    PubMed

    Stier, Adrian C; Geange, Shane W; Hanson, Kate M; Bolker, Benjamin M

    2013-05-01

    Most empirical studies of predation use simple experimental approaches to quantify the effects of predators on prey (e.g., using constant densities of predators, such as ambient vs. zero). However, predator densities vary in time, and these effects may not be well represented by studies that use constant predator densities. Although studies have independently examined the importance of predator density, temporal variability, and timing of arrival (i.e., early or late relative to prey), the relative contribution of these different predator regimes on prey abundance, diversity, and composition remains poorly understood. The hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), a carnivorous coral reef fish, exhibits substantial variability in patch occupancy, density, and timing of arrival to natural reefs. Our field experiments demonstrated that effects of hawkfish on prey abundance depended on both hawkfish density and the timing of their arrival, but not on variability in hawkfish density. Relative to treatments without hawkfish, hawkfish presence reduced prey abundance by 50%. This effect increased with a doubling of hawkfish density (an additional 33% reduction), and when hawkfish arrived later during community development (a 34% reduction). Hawkfish did not affect within-patch diversity (species richness), but they increased between-patch diversity (beta) based on species incidence (22%), and caused shifts in species composition. Our results suggest that the timing of predator arrival can be as important as predator density in modifying prey abundance and community composition. PMID:23858646

  20. Development of an Adaptive Multi-Method Algorithm for Automatic Picking of First Arrival Times: Application to Near Surface Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, A.; Camerlynck, C. M.; Schneider, A. C.; Florsch, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate picking of first arrival times plays an important role in many seismic studies, particularly in seismic tomography and reservoirs or aquifers monitoring. Many techniques have been developed for picking first arrivals automatically or semi-automatically, but most of them were developed for seismological purposes which does not attain the accuracy objectives due to the complexity of near surface structures, and to usual low signal-to-noise ratio. We propose a new adaptive algorithm for near surface data based on three picking methods, combining multi-nested windows (MNW), Higher Order Statistics (HOS), and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). They exploit the benefits of integrating many properties, which reveal the presence of first arrivals, to provide an efficient and robust first arrivals picking. This strategy mimics the human first-break picking, where at the beginning the global trend is defined. Then the exact first-breaks are searched in the vicinity of the now defined trend. In a multistage algorithm, three successive phases are launched, where each of them characterize a specific signal property. Within each phase, the potential picks and their error range are automatically estimated, and then used sequentially as leader in the following phase picking. The accuracy and robustness of the implemented algorithm are successfully validated on synthetic and real data which have special challenges for automatic pickers. The comparison of resulting P-wave arrival times with those picked manually, and other algorithms of automatic picking, demonstrated the reliable performance of the new scheme under different noisy conditions. All parameters of our multi-method algorithm are auto-adaptive thanks to the integration in series of each sub-algorithm results in the flow. Hence, it is nearly a parameter-free algorithm, which is straightforward to implement and demands low computational resources.

  1. EFFECTS OF REFRACTION ON ANGLES AND TIMES OF ARRIVAL OF SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Gopalswamy, N. E-mail: Robert.MacDowall@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    Solar type III and type II radio bursts suffer severe bending and group delay due to refraction while escaping from the source where the refractive index {mu} can be as low as {approx}0 to the observer where {mu} {approx} 1. These propagation effects can manifest themselves as errors in the observed directions and times of arrival at the telescope. We describe a ray-tracing technique that can be used to estimate these errors. By applying this technique to the spherically symmetric density model derived using the data from the WIND/Waves experiment, we show that (1) the fundamental and harmonic emissions escape the solar atmosphere in narrow cones (at 625 kHz the widths of these escape cones are {approx}1.{sup 0}1 and {approx}8{sup 0}, respectively), (2) the errors in the angles as well as the times of arrival increase monotonically with the angle of arrival (at 625 kHz these errors are 0.{sup 0}26 and {approx}17.2 s for the fundamental and {approx}0.{sup 0}52 and {approx}7.6 s for the harmonic at the maximum possible angles of arrival of {approx}0.{sup 0}55 and {approx}4{sup 0}, respectively), and (3) the lower the frequencies are, the higher the errors in both the angles and times of arrival are. This implies that at 625 kHz the measured arrival angles and arrival times of the fundamental and harmonic are off by {approx}50% and {approx}13%, and {approx}3.4% and {approx}1.5%, respectively.

  2. Operator-normalized quantum arrival times in the presence of interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hegerfeldt, G.C.; Seidel, D.; Muga, J.G.; Navarro, B.

    2004-07-01

    We model ideal arrival-time measurements for free quantum particles and for particles subject to an external interaction by means of a narrow and weak absorbing potential. This approach is related to the operational approach of measuring the first photon emitted from a two-level atom illuminated by a laser. By operator normalizing the resulting time-of-arrival distribution, a distribution is obtained which for freely moving particles not only recovers the axiomatically derived distribution of Kijowski for states with purely positive momenta but is also applicable to general momentum components. For particles interacting with a square barrier the mean arrival time and corresponding 'tunneling time' obtained at the transmission side of the barrier become independent of the barrier width (Hartman effect) for arbitrarily wide barriers, i.e., without the transition to the ultraopaque, classical-like regime dominated by wave packet components above the barrier.

  3. Multi-Mode Lamb Wave Arrival Time Extraction for Improved Tomographic Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hinders, Mark K.; Hou Jidong; Leonard, Kevin R.

    2005-04-09

    An ultrasonic signal processing technique is applied to multi-mode arrival time estimation from Lamb waveforms. The basic tool is a simplified time-scale projection called a dynamic wavelet fingerprint (DWFP) which enables direct observation of the variation of features of interest in non-stationary ultrasonic signals. The DWFP technique was used to automatically detect and evaluate each candidate through-transmitted Lamb mode. The area of the dynamic wavelet fingerprint was then used as a feature to distinguish false modes caused by noise and other interference from the true modes of interest. The set of estimated arrival times were then used as inputs for tomographic reconstruction. The Lamb wave tomography images generated with these estimated arrival times were able to indicate different defects in aluminum plates.

  4. Continuous measurement of the arrival times of x-ray photon sequence.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Sheng, Lizhi; Liu, Yong'an

    2011-05-01

    In order to record x-ray pulse profile for x-ray pulsar-based navigation and timing, this paper presents a continuous, high-precision method for measuring arrival times of photon sequence with a common starting point. In this method, a high stability atomic clock is counted to measure the coarse time of arrival photon. A high resolution time-to-digital converter is used to measure the fine time of arrival photon. The coarse times and the fine times are recorded continuously and then transferred to computer memory by way of memory switch. The pulse profile is obtained by a special data processing method. A special circuit was developed and a low-level x-ray pulse profile measurement experiment system was setup. The arrival times of x-ray photon sequence can be consecutively recorded with a time resolution of 500 ps and the profile of x-ray pulse was constructed. The data also can be used for analysis by many other methods, such as statistical distribution of photon events per time interval, statistical distribution of time interval between two photon events, photon counting histogram, autocorrelation and higher order autocorrelation. PMID:21639490

  5. Continuous measurement of the arrival times of x-ray photon sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Qiurong; Sheng Lizhi; Zhao Baosheng; Liu Yong'an

    2011-05-15

    In order to record x-ray pulse profile for x-ray pulsar-based navigation and timing, this paper presents a continuous, high-precision method for measuring arrival times of photon sequence with a common starting point. In this method, a high stability atomic clock is counted to measure the coarse time of arrival photon. A high resolution time-to-digital converter is used to measure the fine time of arrival photon. The coarse times and the fine times are recorded continuously and then transferred to computer memory by way of memory switch. The pulse profile is obtained by a special data processing method. A special circuit was developed and a low-level x-ray pulse profile measurement experiment system was setup. The arrival times of x-ray photon sequence can be consecutively recorded with a time resolution of 500 ps and the profile of x-ray pulse was constructed. The data also can be used for analysis by many other methods, such as statistical distribution of photon events per time interval, statistical distribution of time interval between two photon events, photon counting histogram, autocorrelation and higher order autocorrelation.

  6. Automatic re-picking and re-weighting of first arrival times from the Italian Seismic Network waveforms database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stefano, R.; Amato, A.; Aldersons, F.; Kissling, E.

    2002-12-01

    The high resolution P-wave tomography of the Italian Peninsula and surrounding regions from crustal to upper mantle depths is the aim of a joint project between INGV (Roma) and ETH (Zurich). The project is subdivided into two steps, first of which is to establish a 3D P-wave velocity model for the crust, using both passive and active seismic sources. Getting a reliable high resolution model is of fundamental importance since the 3D crustal model will be used in the second step to correct teleseismic travel times following a method successfully applied in the last years to the Alps (Waldhauser et al. 2002). In the present work we focus on the passive sources dataset (local and regional events) to complement the CSS crustal information. Our keywords being "high-resolution" and "detailed model" we followed the idea, based on the experience of previous works in this area, that a large number of high quality pickings and a high level of consistency in the dataset represent the first goals. The Italian region (Western Mediterranean) is characterized by a high rate of seismicity including important seismic sequences. Since 1988, digital recordings for about 40,000 local and regional earthquakes are available, which INGV bulletin readings have been used in previous local earthquake tomography works. To increase the sampling power and to better locate some border events we will integrate Italian National Seismic Network data with recordings from other local and regional networks. Due to the large amount of data thus collected, a manual re-picking of all first arrivals would ask for a too long time while it would not prevent from human readings errors and inconsistencies. This would partially contrast the positive effect of a high-quality pickings. To meet the quality and consistency requests, we applied an advanced automatic re-picking procedure, the MannekenPick (MP), recently developed by F. Aldersons as a fast, reliable and "consistent" picker. We tested the whole

  7. Improvements of the shock arrival times at the Earth model STOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Prediction of the shocks' arrival times (SATs) at the Earthis very important for space weather forecast. There is a well-known SAT model,STOA, which is widely used in the space weather forecast. However, the shocktransit time from STOA model usually has a relative large error comparedto the real measurements. In addition, STOA tends to yield too much 'yes'prediction, which causes a large number of false alarms. Therefore, in thiswork, we work on the modification of STOA model. First, we give a new methodto calculate the shock transit time by modifying the way to use the solar windspeed in STOA model. Second, we develop new criteria for deciding whetherthe shock will arrive at the Earth with the help of the sunspot numbers andthe angle distances of the flare events. It is shown that our work can improvethe SATs prediction significantly, especially the prediction of flare events with-out shocks arriving at the Earth.

  8. Multiple mantle upwellings in the transition zone beneath the northern East-African Rift system from relative P-wave travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James O. S.; Goes, Saskia; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, J.-Michael; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rümpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham W.

    2015-09-01

    Mantle plumes and consequent plate extension have been invoked as the likely cause of East African Rift volcanism. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed configurations ranging from a single broad plume connected to the large low-shear-velocity province beneath Southern Africa, the so-called African Superplume, to multiple lower-mantle sources along the rift. We present a new P-wave travel-time tomography model below the northern East-African, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden rifts and surrounding areas. Data are from stations that span an area from Madagascar to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated data set allows us to image structures of ˜100 km length-scale down to depths of 700-800 km beneath the study region. Our images provide evidence of two clusters of low-velocity structures consisting of features with diameter of 100-200 km that extend through the transition zone, the first beneath Afar and a second just west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, a region with off-rift volcanism. Considering seismic sensitivity to temperature, we interpret these features as upwellings with excess temperatures of 100 ± 50 K. The scale of the upwellings is smaller than expected for lower mantle plume sources. This, together with the change in pattern of the low-velocity anomalies across the base of the transition zone, suggests that ponding or flow of deep-plume material below the transition zone may be spawning these upper mantle upwellings. This article was corrected on 28 SEP 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  9. An Exploratory Investigation of Diffused Point Arrival Time and Source Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Leslie A.; Ward, Jean M.

    Because much conjecture (but limited empirical research) exists about the nonverbal variable to time, this exploratory study investigated the effects of differential arrival times on four dimensions of source credibility: sociability, dynamism, competence, and composure. Subjects were 84 educational secretaries with a mean age of 49 years. Each…

  10. Fallout-particle-trajectory computations and fallout-particle arrival time calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, V.E.; Kennedy, N.C.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) procedure for deriving estimates of fallout-particle arrival times along a fallout pattern. Analyses of meteorological data are discussed. The equations and calculations used in deriving particle-sedimentation velocities and times in layers are discussed. 17 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Changes in the timing of departure and arrival of Irish migrant waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Heather; Yu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    There have been many recent reports across Europe and North America of a change in the timing of arrival and departure of a range of migrant bird species to their breeding grounds. These studies have focused primarily on passerine birds and climate warming has been found to be one of the main drivers of earlier arrival and departure in spring. In Ireland, rising spring temperature has been shown to result in the earlier arrival of sub-Saharan passerine species and the early departure of the Whooper Swan. In order to investigate changes in spring arrival and departure dates of waterbirds to Ireland, we extracted latest dates as an indicator of the timing of departure of winter visitors (24 species) and earliest dates as an indicator of the timing of arrival of spring/summer migrants (2 species) from BirdWatch Ireland’s East Coast Bird reports (1980–2003). Three of the winter visitors showed evidence of later departure and one of earlier departure whereas one of the spring/summer visitors showed evidence of earlier arrival. In order to determine any influence of local temperature on these trends, we analysed data from two synoptic weather stations within the study area and found that spring (average February, March and April) air temperature significantly (P < 0.05) increased at a rate of 0.03 °C per year, which was strongly correlated with changes in latest and earliest records. We also tested the sensitivity of bird departure/arrival to temperature and found that Northern Pintail would leave 10 days earlier in response to a 1 °C increase in spring temperature. In addition, we investigated the impact of a large-scale circulation pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on the timing of arrival and departure which correlated with both advances and delays in departure and arrival. We conclude that the impact of climate change on earliest and latest records of these birds is, as expected, species specific and that local temperature had less of an influence

  12. Changes in the timing of departure and arrival of Irish migrant waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Alison; Geyer, Heather; Yu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    There have been many recent reports across Europe and North America of a change in the timing of arrival and departure of a range of migrant bird species to their breeding grounds. These studies have focused primarily on passerine birds and climate warming has been found to be one of the main drivers of earlier arrival and departure in spring. In Ireland, rising spring temperature has been shown to result in the earlier arrival of sub-Saharan passerine species and the early departure of the Whooper Swan. In order to investigate changes in spring arrival and departure dates of waterbirds to Ireland, we extracted latest dates as an indicator of the timing of departure of winter visitors (24 species) and earliest dates as an indicator of the timing of arrival of spring/summer migrants (2 species) from BirdWatch Ireland's East Coast Bird reports (1980-2003). Three of the winter visitors showed evidence of later departure and one of earlier departure whereas one of the spring/summer visitors showed evidence of earlier arrival. In order to determine any influence of local temperature on these trends, we analysed data from two synoptic weather stations within the study area and found that spring (average February, March and April) air temperature significantly (P < 0.05) increased at a rate of 0.03 °C per year, which was strongly correlated with changes in latest and earliest records. We also tested the sensitivity of bird departure/arrival to temperature and found that Northern Pintail would leave 10 days earlier in response to a 1 °C increase in spring temperature. In addition, we investigated the impact of a large-scale circulation pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on the timing of arrival and departure which correlated with both advances and delays in departure and arrival. We conclude that the impact of climate change on earliest and latest records of these birds is, as expected, species specific and that local temperature had less of an influence than

  13. Disclosing hidden information in the quantum Zeno effect: Pulsed measurement of the quantum time of arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echanobe, J.; Del Campo, A.; Muga, J. G.

    2008-03-01

    Repeated measurements of a quantum particle to check its presence in a region of space was proposed long ago [G. R. Allcock, Ann. Phys. 53, 286 (1969)] as a natural way to determine the distribution of times of arrival at the orthogonal subspace, but the method was discarded because of the quantum Zeno effect: in the limit of very frequent measurements the wave function is reflected and remains in the original subspace. We show that by normalizing the small bits of arriving (removed) norm, an ideal time distribution emerges in correspondence with a classical local-kinetic-energy distribution.

  14. Time-of-Arrival Lightning Location Retrieval Using an Oblate Spheroidal Earth Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solakiewicz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The problem of retrieving lightning ground strike location on an oblate spheroidal Earth using a network of 4 or more time-of-arrival sensors is considered. A recently developed analytic method for obtaining such retrievals on a spherical Earth surface is perturbed resulting in an iterative procedure to get correction terms. The perturbation procedure consists of applying a vector Newton's method to eqs. relating the distances from the lightning location to each sensor along a geodesic and the times of arrival of the wave produced by the lightning source at each sensor.

  15. Optimal Time Advance In Terminal Area Arrivals: Throughput vs. Fuel Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V .; Swenson, Harry N.; Haskell, William B.; Rakas, Jasenka

    2011-01-01

    The current operational practice in scheduling air traffic arriving at an airport is to adjust flight schedules by delay, i.e. a postponement of an aircrafts arrival at a scheduled location, to manage safely the FAA-mandated separation constraints between aircraft. To meet the observed and forecast growth in traffic demand, however, the practice of time advance (speeding up an aircraft toward a scheduled location) is envisioned for future operations as a practice additional to delay. Time advance has two potential advantages. The first is the capability to minimize, or at least reduce, the excess separation (the distances between pairs of aircraft immediately in-trail) and thereby to increase the throughput of the arriving traffic. The second is to reduce the total traffic delay when the traffic sample is below saturation density. A cost associated with time advance is the fuel expenditure required by an aircraft to speed up. We present an optimal control model of air traffic arriving in a terminal area and solve it using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. The admissible controls allow time advance, as well as delay, some of the way. The cost function reflects the trade-off between minimizing two competing objectives: excess separation (negatively correlated with throughput) and fuel burn. A number of instances are solved using three different methods, to demonstrate consistency of solutions.

  16. Maximum Likelihood Time-of-Arrival Estimation of Optical Pulses via Photon-Counting Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Many optical imaging, ranging, and communications systems rely on the estimation of the arrival time of an optical pulse. Recently, such systems have been increasingly employing photon-counting photodetector technology, which changes the statistics of the observed photocurrent. This requires time-of-arrival estimators to be developed and their performances characterized. The statistics of the output of an ideal photodetector, which are well modeled as a Poisson point process, were considered. An analytical model was developed for the mean-square error of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, demonstrating two phenomena that cause deviations from the minimum achievable error at low signal power. An approximation was derived to the threshold at which the ML estimator essentially fails to provide better than a random guess of the pulse arrival time. Comparing the analytic model performance predictions to those obtained via simulations, it was verified that the model accurately predicts the ML performance over all regimes considered. There is little prior art that attempts to understand the fundamental limitations to time-of-arrival estimation from Poisson statistics. This work establishes both a simple mathematical description of the error behavior, and the associated physical processes that yield this behavior. Previous work on mean-square error characterization for ML estimators has predominantly focused on additive Gaussian noise. This work demonstrates that the discrete nature of the Poisson noise process leads to a distinctly different error behavior.

  17. Improvements of the shock arrival times at the Earth model STOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.-L.; Qin, G.

    2015-07-01

    Prediction of the shocks' arrival times (SATs) at the Earth is very important for space weather forecast. There is a well-known SAT model, Shock Time of Arrival (STOA), which is widely used in the space weather forecast. However, the shock transit time from STOA model usually has a relative large error compared to the real measurements. In addition, STOA tends to yield too much "yes" prediction, which causes a large number of false alarms. Therefore, in this work, we work on the modification of STOA model. First, we give a new method to calculate the shock transit time by modifying the way to use the solar wind speed in STOA model. Second, we develop new criteria for deciding whether the shock will arrive at the Earth with the help of the sunspot numbers and the angle distances of the flare events. It is shown that our work can improve the SATs prediction significantly, especially the prediction of flare events without shocks arriving at the Earth.

  18. Techniques for measuring arrival times of pulsar signals 1: DSN observations from 1968 to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, G. S.; Reichley, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques used in the ground based observations of pulsars are described, many of them applicable in a navigation scheme. The arrival times of the pulses intercepting Earth are measured at time intervals from a few days to a few months. Low noise, wide band receivers, amplify signals intercepted by 26 m, 34, and 64 m antennas. Digital recordings of total received signal power versus time are cross correlated with the appropriate pulse template.

  19. High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite.

  20. High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite. PMID:26233362

  1. Monitoring molecular interactions using photon arrival-time interval distribution analysis

    DOEpatents

    Laurence, Ted A.; Weiss, Shimon

    2009-10-06

    A method for analyzing/monitoring the properties of species that are labeled with fluorophores. A detector is used to detect photons emitted from species that are labeled with one or more fluorophores and located in a confocal detection volume. The arrival time of each of the photons is determined. The interval of time between various photon pairs is then determined to provide photon pair intervals. The number of photons that have arrival times within the photon pair intervals is also determined. The photon pair intervals are then used in combination with the corresponding counts of intervening photons to analyze properties and interactions of the molecules including brightness, concentration, coincidence and transit time. The method can be used for analyzing single photon streams and multiple photon streams.

  2. High resolution time of arrival estimation for a cooperative sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morhart, C.; Biebl, E. M.

    2010-09-01

    Distance resolution of cooperative sensors is limited by the signal bandwidth. For the transmission mainly lower frequency bands are used which are more narrowband than classical radar frequencies. To compensate this resolution problem the combination of a pseudo-noise coded pulse compression system with superresolution time of arrival estimation is proposed. Coded pulsecompression allows secure and fast distance measurement in multi-user scenarios which can easily be adapted for data transmission purposes (Morhart and Biebl, 2009). Due to the lack of available signal bandwidth the measurement accuracy degrades especially in multipath scenarios. Superresolution time of arrival algorithms can improve this behaviour by estimating the channel impulse response out of a band-limited channel view. For the given test system the implementation of a MUSIC algorithm permitted a two times better distance resolution as the standard pulse compression.

  3. A Comparison of Center/TRACON Automation System and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Benefits from information sharing between an air traffic service provider and a major air carrier are evaluated. Aircraft arrival time schedules generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) were provided to the American Airlines System Operations Control Center in Fort Worth, Texas, during a field trial of a specialized CTAS display. A statistical analysis indicates that the CTAS schedules, based on aircraft trajectories predicted from real-time radar and weather data, are substantially more accurate than the traditional airline arrival time estimates, constructed from flight plans and en route crew updates. The improvement offered by CTAS is especially advantageous during periods of heavy traffic and substantial terminal area delay, allowing the airline to avoid large predictive errors with serious impact on the efficiency and profitability of flight operations.

  4. Breaking the fixed-arrival-time restriction in reaching movements of neural prosthetic devices.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan; da Silva, Marco

    2011-06-01

    We routinely generate reaching arm movements to function independently. For paralyzed users of upper extremity neural prosthetic devices, flexible, high-performance reaching algorithms will be critical to restoring quality-of-life. Previously, algorithms called real-time reach state equations (RSE) were developed to integrate the user's plan and execution-related neural activity to drive reaching movements to arbitrary targets. Preliminary validation under restricted conditions suggested that RSE might yield dramatic performance improvements. Unfortunately, real-world applications of RSE have been impeded because the RSE assumes a fixed, known arrival time. Recent animal-based prototypes attempted to break the fixed-arrival-time assumption by proposing a standard model (SM) that instead restricted the user's movements to a fixed, known set of targets. Here, we leverage general purpose filter design (GPFD) to break both of these critical restrictions, freeing the paralyzed user to make reaching movements to arbitrary target sets with various arrival times and definitive stopping. In silico validation predicts that the new approach, GPFD-RSE, outperforms the SM while offering greater flexibility. We demonstrate the GPFD-RSE against SM in the simulated control of an overactuated 3-D virtual robotic arm with a real-time inverse kinematics engine. PMID:21189232

  5. Simulated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Increases P-Wave Duration and P-Wave Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Wons, Annette M.; Rossi, Valentina; Bratton, Daniel J.; Schlatzer, Christian; Schwarz, Esther I.; Camen, Giovanni; Kohler, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Background A high P-wave duration and dispersion (Pd) have been reported to be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), a condition linked to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis of whether a short-term increase of P-wave duration and Pd can be induced by respiratory manoeuvres simulating OSA in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Methods 12-lead-electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded continuously in 24 healthy subjects and 33 patients with PAF, while simulating obstructive apnea (Mueller manoeuvre, MM), obstructive hypopnea (inspiration through a threshold load, ITH), central apnea (AP), and during normal breathing (BL) in randomized order. The P-wave duration and Pd was calculated by using dedicated software for ECG-analysis. Results P-wave duration and Pd significantly increased during MM and ITH compared to BL in all subjects (+13.1ms and +13.8ms during MM; +11.7ms and +12.9ms during ITH; p<0.001 for all comparisons). In MM, the increase was larger in healthy subjects when compared to patients with PAF (p<0.05). Conclusion Intrathoracic pressure swings through simulated obstructive sleep apnea increase P-wave duration and Pd in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Our findings imply that intrathoracic pressure swings prolong the intra-atrial and inter-atrial conduction time and therefore may represent an independent trigger factor for the development for PAF. PMID:27071039

  6. Cerebral arterial bolus arrival time is prolonged in multiple sclerosis and associated with disability

    PubMed Central

    Paling, David; Thade Petersen, Esben; Tozer, Daniel J; Altmann, Daniel R; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia AM; Kapoor, Raju; Miller, David H; Golay, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the overall cerebral hemodynamics have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, their cause and significance is unknown. While potential venous causes have been examined, arterial causes have not. In this study, a multiple delay time arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging sequence at 3T was used to quantify the arterial hemodynamic parameter bolus arrival time (BAT) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and deep gray matter in 33 controls and 35 patients with relapsing–remitting MS. Bolus arrival time was prolonged in MS in NAWM (1.0±0.2 versus 0.9±0.2 seconds, P=0.031) and deep gray matter (0.90±0.18 versus 0.80±0.14 seconds, P=0.001) and CBF was increased in NAWM (14±4 versus 10±2 mL/100 g/min, P=0.001). Prolonged BAT in NAWM (P=0.042) and deep gray matter (P=0.01) were associated with higher expanded disability status score. This study demonstrates alteration in cerebral arterial hemodynamics in MS. One possible cause may be widespread inflammation. Bolus arrival time was longer in patients with greater disability independent of atrophy and T2 lesion load, suggesting alterations in cerebral arterial hemodynamics may be a marker of clinically relevant pathology. PMID:24045400

  7. UNCERTAINTY IN PHASE ARRIVAL TIME PICKS FOR REGIONAL SEISMIC EVENTS: AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    A. VELASCO; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    The detection and timing of seismic arrivals play a critical role in the ability to locate seismic events, especially at low magnitude. Errors can occur with the determination of the timing of the arrivals, whether these errors are made by automated processing or by an analyst. One of the major obstacles encountered in properly estimating travel-time picking error is the lack of a clear and comprehensive discussion of all of the factors that influence phase picks. This report discusses possible factors that need to be modeled to properly study phase arrival time picking errors. We have developed a multivariate statistical model, experimental design, and analysis strategy that can be used in this study. We have embedded a general form of the International Data Center(IDC)/U.S. National Data Center (USNDC) phase pick measurement error model into our statistical model. We can use this statistical model to optimally calibrate a picking error model to regional data. A follow-on report will present the results of this analysis plan applied to an implementation of an experiment/data-gathering task.

  8. Observation of arrival times of EAS with energies or = 6 x 10 (14) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere is continually being bombarded by primary cosmic ray particles which are generally believed to be high-energy nuclei. The fact that the majority of cosmic ray primaries are charged particles and that space is permeated with random magnetic fields, means that the particles do not travel in straight lines. The arrival time distribution of EAS may also transfer some information about the primary particles. Actually, if the particles come to our Earth in a completely random process, the arrival time distribution of pairs of successive particles should fit an exponential law. The work reported here was arried out at Sydney University from May 1982 to January 1983. All the data are used to plot the arrival-time distribution of the events, that is, the distribution of time-separation between consecutive events on a 1 minute bin size. During this period more than 2300 showers were recorded. The results are discussed and compared with that of some other experiments.

  9. Arrival time determined by vertical array: Experimental results in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Too, Gee-Pinn J.; Wang, Chih-Chung K.; Chen, Chifang; Lynch, Jim; Newhall, Arthur

    2002-11-01

    The arrival time determined by vertical array is a useful parameter to apply matched field processing (MFP) methods for source localization. In this paper, the procedure including wavelet transform for extracting the signal, adaptive filter for retrieving the signal, and wigner-vill distribution for determining the arrival time between sensors is presented. During the South China Sea ASIAEX Experiment, the 103 m deep source was towed by a ship. The data receiving system was a satellite-buoy underwater measurement system with a 16-element vertical line array. The experiment showed that the data was collected with very good quality. Results of this procedure are more efficient, and faster than earlier results based on power spectrum for MFP.

  10. Time difference of arrival blast localization using a network of disposable sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Plummer, Thomas J.

    2007-04-01

    Determining the location of an explosive event using a networked sensor system within an acceptable accuracy is a challenging problem. McQ has developed such a system, using a mesh network of inexpensive acoustic sensors. The system performs a three-dimensional, time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) localization of blasts of various yields in several different environments. Localization information of the blast is provided to the end user by exfiltration over satellite communications. The system is able to perform accurately in the presence of various sources of error including GPS position, propagation effects, temperature, and error in determining the time of arrival (TOA). The system design as well as its performance are presented.

  11. Accurate tremor locations from coherent S and P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, John G.; Kim, Won-Young; Rubin, Allan M.

    2014-06-01

    Nonvolcanic tremor is an important component of the slow slip processes which load faults from below, but accurately locating tremor has proven difficult because tremor rarely contains clear P or S wave arrivals. Here we report the observation of coherence in the shear and compressional waves of tremor at widely separated stations which allows us to detect and accurately locate tremor events. An event detector using data from two stations sees the onset of tremor activity in the Cascadia tremor episodes of February 2003, July 2004, and September 2005 and confirms the previously reported south to north migration of the tremor. Event detectors using data from three and four stations give Sand P arrival times of high accuracy. The hypocenters of the tremor events fall at depths of ˜30 to ˜40 km and define a narrow plane dipping at a shallow angle to the northeast, consistent with the subducting plate interface. The S wave polarizations and P wave first motions define a source mechanism in agreement with the northeast convergence seen in geodetic observations of slow slip. Tens of thousands of locations determined by constraining the events to the plate interface show tremor sources highly clustered in space with a strongly similar pattern of sources in the three episodes examined. The deeper sources generate tremor in minor episodes as well. The extent to which the narrow bands of tremor sources overlap between the three major episodes suggests relative epicentral location errors as small as 1-2 km.

  12. Estimates of exposure rates and fallout arrival times near the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B. )

    1990-11-01

    One of the tasks of the Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP) was to estimate doses to individuals resulting from exposure to fallout from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Dose estimates are based on estimates of the exposure rate 12 h post-detonation (H + 12) and the time of fallout arrival from events producing discernible fallout at locations off the NTS. These estimates are derived from both published fallout patterns and survey meter readings taken by monitors in the field. Each fallout pattern is digitized, and kriging is used to interpolate estimates of exposure rate and arrival time onto a 10-km grid covering the contours of the pattern. These grid values are then used to calculate estimates at any location of interest within the pattern. Exposure rate is also estimated from the survey meter readings for a particular nuclear event by decay-correcting the measurements near a selected location to H + 12 and then aggregating them into one estimate. Estimates of discernible exposure rate and time of fallout arrival from 74 nuclear events at the NTS are contained in the Town Data Base. Estimates are given for 352 locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. Each record in the data base contains estimates for a specified event and location. The distribution of exposure rate is represented by a geometric mean and standard deviation; the distribution of fallout arrival time is represented by an arithmetic mean and standard deviation. A more extensive description and a listing of the Town Data Base are included in a separate report.

  13. AIMBAT: A Python/Matplotlib Tool for Measuring Teleseismic Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.; Lloyd, S.

    2013-12-01

    Python is an open-source, platform-independent, and object-oriented scripting language. It became more popular in the seismologist community since the appearance of ObsPy (Beyreuther et al. 2010, Megies et al. 2011), which provides a powerful framework for seismic data access and processing. This study introduces a new Python-based tool named AIMBAT (Automated and Interactive Measurement of Body-wave Arrival Times) for measuring teleseismic body-wave arrival times on large-scale seismic event data (Lou et al. 2013). Compared to ObsPy, AIMBAT is a lighter tool that is more focused on a particular aspect of seismic data processing. It originates from the widely used MCCC (Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation) method developed by VanDecar and Crosson (1990). On top of the original MCCC procedure, AIMBAT is automated in initial phase picking and is interactive in quality control. The core cross-correlation function is implemented in Fortran to boost up performance in addition to Python. The GUI (graphical user interface) of AIMBAT depends on Matplotlib's GUI-neutral widgets and event-handling API. A number of sorting and (de)selecting options are designed to facilitate the quality control of seismograms. By using AIMBAT, both relative and absolute teleseismic body-wave arrival times are measured. AIMBAT significantly improves efficiency and quality of the measurements. User interaction is needed only to pick the target phase arrival and to set a time window on the array stack. The package is easy to install and use, open-source, and is publicly available. Graphical user interface of AIMBAT.

  14. Toward an Accurate Prediction of the Arrival Time of Geomagnetic-Effective Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, T.; Wang, Y.; Wan, L.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurately predicting the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Earth based on remote images is of critical significance for the study of space weather. Here we make a statistical study of 21 Earth-directed CMEs, specifically exploring the relationship between CME initial speeds and transit times. The initial speed of a CME is obtained by fitting the CME with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and is thus free of projection effects. We then use the drag force model to fit results of the transit time versus the initial speed. By adopting different drag regimes, i.e., the viscous, aerodynamics, and hybrid regimes, we get similar results, with a least mean estimation error of the hybrid model of 12.9 hr. CMEs with a propagation angle (the angle between the propagation direction and the Sun-Earth line) larger than their half-angular widths arrive at the Earth with an angular deviation caused by factors other than the radial solar wind drag. The drag force model cannot be reliably applied to such events. If we exclude these events in the sample, the prediction accuracy can be improved, i.e., the estimation error reduces to 6.8 hr. This work suggests that it is viable to predict the arrival time of CMEs to the Earth based on the initial parameters with fairly good accuracy. Thus, it provides a method of forecasting space weather 1-5 days following the occurrence of CMEs.

  15. Kilometer-wave type III burst - Harmonic emission revealed by direction and time of arrival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F. T.; Potter, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A type III solar burst was observed at seven frequencies between 3.5 MHz and 80 kHz by the Michigan experiment aboard the IMP-6 satellite. From the data burst direction of arrival as well as time of arrival can be determined. These quantities are predicted, using simple models whose parameters are varied to obtain a good fit to the observations. It is found that between 3.5 MHz and 230 kHz the observed radiation was emitted at the fundamental of the local plasma frequency, while below 230 kHz it was emitted at the second harmonic. The exciter particles that produced the burst onset and burst peak have velocities of 0.27 and 0.12, respectively, in units of the velocity of light.

  16. Optimal first-arrival times in Lévy flights with resetting.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    We consider the diffusive motion of a particle performing a random walk with Lévy distributed jump lengths and subject to a resetting mechanism, bringing the walker to an initial position at uniformly distributed times. In the limit of an infinite number of steps and for long times, the process converges to superdiffusive motion with replenishment. We derive a formula for the mean first arrival time (MFAT) to a predefined target position reached by a meandering particle and we analyze the efficiency of the proposed searching strategy by investigating criteria for an optimal (a shortest possible) MFAT. PMID:26651667

  17. Fast P wave propagation in subducted Pacific lithosphere: Refraction from the plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gideon; Gubbins, David; Mao, Weijian

    1994-12-01

    P waves traveling from events in the Tonga-Kermadec seismic zone to stations in New Zealand are very fast with highly emergent, dispersed waveforms. Ray tracing has shown the waves to travel close to the subducted Pacific plate throughout their length, and synthetic seismogram calculations have shown the dispersion requires a very thin (8-12 km) fast layer. Previous work has been based on data from analog records and one digital, single-component short-period instrument; no polarization analysis was possible, and measurements of dispersion were limited by the bandwidth. From January 1991 to August 1992 we deployed nine broad band, three-component seismometers in good sites for observing these arrivals; the data are augmented by three-component, short-period digital records from new stations of the New Zealand National Network. In this study we analyze 1191 broad-band and 2076 short period seismograms from 71 events for polarization of the initial P wave. The polarization directions are found to be up to 30 deg off the great circle path and consistently steep (20 deg from vertical). They are too steep to be explained by standard ray paths or refraction from a fast horizontal layer. We invert the polarization directions for a tilted interface beneath the array and use arrival times to control the depth to the interface, which is found to lie close to the top of the subducted plate inferred from the seismicity. We conclude that these precursive, emergent P waves have traveled through a fast layer close to the top of the subducted plate and refract upward to the station. A second arrival, with lower dominant frequency near 1 Hz and normal travel time, is occasionally seen on both broad band and short-time stations. Its polarization direction is similarly steep but difficult to measure; the evidence suggests that it also travels within the plate with similar ray path to the precursor.

  18. Size speed bias or size arrival effect-How judgments of vehicles' approach speed and time to arrival are influenced by the vehicles' size.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, Tibor

    2016-10-01

    Crashes at railway level crossings are a key problem for railway operations. It has been suggested that a potential explanation for such crashes might lie in a so-called size speed bias, which describes the phenomenon that observers underestimate the speed of larger objects, such as aircraft or trains. While there is some evidence that this size speed bias indeed exists, it is somewhat at odds with another well researched phenomenon, the size arrival effect. When asked to judge the time it takes an approaching object to arrive at a predefined position (time to arrival, TTA), observers tend to provide lower estimates for larger objects. In that case, road users' crossing decisions when confronted with larger vehicles should be rather conservative, which has been confirmed in multiple studies on gap acceptance. The aim of the experiment reported in this paper was to clarify the relationship between size speed bias and size arrival effect. Employing a relative judgment task, both speed and TTA estimates were assessed for virtual depictions of a train and a truck, using a car as a reference to compare against. The results confirmed the size speed bias for the speed judgments, with both train and truck being perceived as travelling slower than the car. A comparable bias was also present in the TTA estimates for the truck. In contrast, no size arrival effect could be found for the train or the truck, neither in the speed nor the TTA judgments. This finding is inconsistent with the fact that crossing behaviour when confronted with larger vehicles appears to be consistently more conservative. This discrepancy might be interpreted as an indication that factors other than perceived speed or TTA play an important role for the differences in gap acceptance between different types of vehicles. PMID:27428866

  19. Crustal parameters estimated from P-waves of earthquakes recorded at a small array

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, J.N.; Steppe, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The P-arrival times of local and regional earthquakes that are outside of a small network of seismometers can be used to interpret crustal parameters beneath the network by employing the time-term technique. Even when the estimate of the refractor velocity is poorly determined, useful estimates of the station time-terms can be made. The method is applied to a 20 km diameter network of eight seismic stations which was operated near Castaic, California, during the winter of 1972-73. The stations were located in sedimentary basins. Beneath the network, the sedimentary rocks of the basins are known to range from 1 to more than 4 km in thickness. Relative time-terms are estimated from P-waves assumed to be propagated by a refractor in the mid-crust, and again from P-waves propagated by a refractor in the upper basement. For the range of velocities reported by others, the two sets of time-terms are very similar. They suggest that both refractors dip to the southwest, and the geology also indicates that the basement dips in this direction. In addition, the P-wave velocity estimated for the refractor of mid-crustal depths, roughly 6.7 km/sec, agrees with values reported by others. Thus, even in this region of complicated geologic structure, the method appears to give realistic results. ?? 1980 Birkha??user Verlag.

  20. Fast-Time Evaluations of Airborne Merging and Spacing in Terminal Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Barmore, Bryan; Bussink, Frank; Weitz, Lesley; Dahlene, Laura

    2005-01-01

    NASA researchers are developing new airborne technologies and procedures to increase runway throughput at capacity-constrained airports by improving the precision of inter-arrival spacing at the runway threshold. In this new operational concept, pilots of equipped aircraft are cleared to adjust aircraft speed to achieve a designated spacing interval at the runway threshold, relative to a designated lead aircraft. A new airborne toolset, prototypes of which are being developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, assists pilots in achieving this objective. The current prototype allows precision spacing operations to commence even when the aircraft and its lead are not yet in-trail, but are on merging arrival routes to the runway. A series of fast-time evaluations of the new toolset were conducted at the Langley Research Center during the summer of 2004. The study assessed toolset performance in a mixed fleet of aircraft on three merging arrival streams under a range of operating conditions. The results of the study indicate that the prototype possesses a high degree of robustness to moderate variations in operating conditions.

  1. Temporal dispersion of the emergence of intelligence: an inter-arrival time analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hair, Thomas W.

    2011-02-01

    Many reasons for why extraterrestrial intelligences might avoid communications with our civilization have been proposed. One possible scenario is that all civilizations follow the lead of some particularly distinguished civilization. This paper will examine the impact the first successful civilization could have on all other subsequent civilizations within its sphere of influence and the ramifications of this as it relates to the Fermi Paradox. Monte Carlo simulation is used to map the inter-arrival times of early civilizations and to highlight the immense epochs of time that the earliest civilizations could have had the Galaxy to themselves.

  2. Time-dependent solution for the manufacturing line with unreliable machine and batched arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, W. M.; Paprocka, I.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.

    2015-11-01

    Time-dependent queue-size distribution in a finite-buffer manufacturing line with unreliable machine is investigated. Successive jobs arrive in batches (groups) with sizes being generally distributed random variables, and are being processed individually with exponential service times. Applying the approach based on the memory less property of exponential distribution and the total probability law, a system of integral equations for the transient queue- size distribution conditioned by the initial level of buffer saturation is derived. The solution of the corresponding system written for Laplace transforms is found via linear-algebraic approach.

  3. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  4. The function of bilateral odor arrival time differences in olfactory orientation of sharks.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Jayne M; Atema, Jelle

    2010-07-13

    The direction of an odor signal source can be estimated from bilateral differences in signal intensity and/or arrival time. The best-known examples of the use of arrival time differences are in acoustic orientation. For chemoreception, animals are believed to orient by comparing bilateral odor concentration differences, turning toward higher concentrations. However, time differences should not be ignored, because odor plumes show chaotic intermittency, with the concentration variance several orders of magnitude greater than the concentration mean. We presented a small shark species, Mustelus canis, with carefully timed and measured odor pulses directly into their nares. They turned toward the side stimulated first, even with delayed pulses of higher concentration. This is the first conclusive evidence that under seminatural conditions and without training, bilateral time differences trump odor concentration differences. This response would steer the shark into an odor patch each time and thereby enhance its contact with the plume, i.e., a stream of patches. Animals with more widely spaced nares would be able to resolve smaller angles of attack at higher swimming speeds, a feature that may have contributed to the evolution of hammerhead sharks. This constitutes a novel steering algorithm for tracking odor plumes. PMID:20541411

  5. Predicting Ambulance Time of Arrival to the Emergency Department Using Global Positioning System and Google Maps

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Ross J.; Lundquist, Mark; Jui, Jonathan; Newgard, Craig D.; Warden, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a model that accurately predicts ambulance arrival time that could be implemented as a Google Maps web application. Methods This was a retrospective study of all scene transports in Multnomah County, Oregon, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Scene and destination hospital addresses were converted to coordinates. ArcGIS Network Analyst was used to estimate transport times based on street network speed limits. We then created a linear regression model to improve the accuracy of these street network estimates using weather, patient characteristics, use of lights and sirens, daylight, and rush-hour intervals. The model was derived from a 50% sample and validated on the remainder. Significance of the covariates was determined by p < 0.05 for a t-test of the model coefficients. Accuracy was quantified by the proportion of estimates that were within 5 minutes of the actual transport times recorded by computer-aided dispatch. We then built a Google Maps-based web application to demonstrate application in real-world EMS operations. Results There were 48,308 included transports. Street network estimates of transport time were accurate within 5 minutes of actual transport time less than 16% of the time. Actual transport times were longer during daylight and rush-hour intervals and shorter with use of lights and sirens. Age under 18 years, gender, wet weather, and trauma system entry were not significant predictors of transport time. Our model predicted arrival time within 5 minutes 73% of the time. For lights and sirens transports, accuracy was within 5 minutes 77% of the time. Accuracy was identical in the validation dataset. Lights and sirens saved an average of 3.1 minutes for transports under 8.8 minutes, and 5.3 minutes for longer transports. Conclusions An estimate of transport time based only on a street network significantly underestimated transport times. A simple model incorporating few variables can predict ambulance time of

  6. Analytical arrival and persistence time distributions for flow thresholds in seasonally dry climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems, which include Mediterranean, tropical monsoonal and tropical savannah climates, cover approximately 30% of the planet's land area and are globally significant biodiversity hotspots. Due to a highly variable climate, the streamflow available for ecosystems and ecosystems services in these regions is typified by large inter-annual variability. Methods to quantify this variability could shed light on stream ecosystem stress, particularly new stresses imposed by human activity or climate change. This study develops a probabilistic framework to examine controls on dry season flow characteristics in seasonally dry climates. Assuming a typical recession pattern, which is conditioned on an initial value that is sampled from the wet season flows [1,2], analytical PDFs for the arrival time of a given dry season flow threshold can be obtained. Below-flow-threshold persistence time distributions are computed as the difference between an (assumed) normally distributed dry season length and the mean flow threshold arrival time. A number of hypotheses are proposed to explain unexpected sources of variability in the empirical arrival time distributions. The ecologic implications of extended low flow persistence, such as the hydrologic fragmentation of lower order watersheds, are discussed. [1] Müller, M. F., D. N. Dralle, and S. E. Thompson (2014), Analytical model for flow duration curves in seasonally dry climates, Water Resour. Res., 50, doi:10.1002/2014WR015301 [2] Botter, G., A. Porporato, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, and A. Rinaldo (2007), Basin-scale soil moisture dynamics and the probabilistic characterization of carrier hydrologic flows: Slow, leaching-prone components of the hydrologic response, Water Resour. Res., 43, W02417, doi:10.1029/2006WR005043

  7. Ready…Go: Amplitude of the fMRI Signal Encodes Expectation of Cue Arrival Time

    PubMed Central

    Montague, P. Read; Eagleman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    What happens when the brain awaits a signal of uncertain arrival time, as when a sprinter waits for the starting pistol? And what happens just after the starting pistol fires? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have discovered a novel correlate of temporal expectations in several brain regions, most prominently in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Contrary to expectations, we found little fMRI activity during the waiting period; however, a large signal appears after the “go” signal, the amplitude of which reflects learned expectations about the distribution of possible waiting times. Specifically, the amplitude of the fMRI signal appears to encode a cumulative conditional probability, also known as the cumulative hazard function. The fMRI signal loses its dependence on waiting time in a “countdown” condition in which the arrival time of the go cue is known in advance, suggesting that the signal encodes temporal probabilities rather than simply elapsed time. The dependence of the signal on temporal expectation is present in “no-go” conditions, demonstrating that the effect is not a consequence of motor output. Finally, the encoding is not dependent on modality, operating in the same manner with auditory or visual signals. This finding extends our understanding of the relationship between temporal expectancy and measurable neural signals. PMID:19652698

  8. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono

    2015-04-01

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  9. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    SciTech Connect

    Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono

    2015-04-24

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  10. Pulse arrival time estimation from the impedance plethysmogram obtained with a handheld device.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Clapers, J; Casanella, R; Pallas-Areny, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method to estimate pulse arrival time (PAT) from the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the impedance plethysmogram (TPG) obtained by using a compact and easy-to-use handheld device with only four electrodes. A proof-of-concept has been carried out where PAT values obtained with the proposed device have been compared to PAT values measured between the ECG and the photoplethysmogram (PPG) during three experiments of paced respiration to induce controlled PAT changes. The results show that both methods yield equivalent PAT values in within ± 7 ms (95 % confidence interval), which is less than typical deviations reported for common PAT measurements. PMID:22254361

  11. Processing advances for localization of beaked whales using time difference of arrival.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization of clicking Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) using an array of widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones. A set of signal and data processing advances are presented that together make reliable tracking a possibility. These advances include a species-specific detector, elimination of spurious time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) estimates, improved tracking of TDOA estimates, positive association of TDOA estimates using different hydrophone pairs, and joint localization of multiple whales. A key innovation in three of these advances is the principle of click-matching. The methods are demonstrated using real data. PMID:23742359

  12. Measurement-induced spatial modulation of spontaneous decay and photon arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanthier, Joachim Von; Bastin, Thierry; Agarwal, Girish S.

    2006-12-01

    We report a way of manipulating the spontaneous emission process leading to a spatial modulation of spontaneous decay. The effect is observed in the case of coherently driven atoms separated by less than a transition wavelength. It is quantified by Glauber’s photon-photon second-order correlation function. We show that the photon arrival time, usually regarded as an entirely random process, depends not only on where a photon is detected but also on where a former photon had been recorded previously. Our results shed light on the unexpected consequences of state reduction and entanglement for the fundamental process of spontaneous emission.

  13. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Fujimaru, S.

    2012-12-01

    Time-of-arrival (TOA) analysis is applied to observations performed during ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. In 2012, a variety of ELF/VLF wave generation techniques were employed to identify the dominant source altitude for each case. Observations were performed for beat-wave modulation, AM modulation, STF modulation, ICD modulation, and cubic frequency modulation, among others. For each of these cases, we identify the dominant ELF/VLF source altitude and compare the experimental results with theoretical HF heating predictions.

  14. VLF long-range lightning location using the arrival time difference technique (ATD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ierkic, H. Mario

    1996-01-01

    A new network of VLF receiving systems is currently being developed in the USA to support NASA's Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The new network will be deployed in the east coast of the US, including Puerto Rico, and will be operational in late 1995. The system should give affordable, near real-time, accurate lightning locating capabilities at long ranges and with extended coverage. It is based on the Arrival Time Difference (ATD) method of Lee (1986; 1990). The ATD technique is based on the estimation of the time of arrival of sferics detected over an 18 kHz bandwith. The ground system results will be compared and complemented with satellite optical measurements gathered with the already operational Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instrument and in due course with its successor the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Lightning observations are important to understand atmospheric electrification phenomena, discharge processes, associated phenomena on earth (e.g. whistlers, explosive Spread-F) and other planets. In addition, lightning is a conspicuous indicator of atmospheric activity whose potential is just beginning to be recognized and utilized. On more prosaic grounds, lightning observations are important for protection of life, property and services.

  15. Marginal Bayesian nonparametric model for time to disease arrival of threatened amphibian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiming; Hanson, Timothy; Knapp, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the extinction of hundreds of amphibian species worldwide. It has become increasingly important to be able to precisely predict time to Bd arrival in a population. The data analyzed herein present a unique challenge in terms of modeling because there is a strong spatial component to Bd arrival time and the traditional proportional hazards assumption is grossly violated. To address these concerns, we develop a novel marginal Bayesian nonparametric survival model for spatially correlated right-censored data. This class of models assumes that the logarithm of survival times marginally follow a mixture of normal densities with a linear-dependent Dirichlet process prior as the random mixing measure, and their joint distribution is induced by a Gaussian copula model with a spatial correlation structure. To invert high-dimensional spatial correlation matrices, we adopt a full-scale approximation that can capture both large- and small-scale spatial dependence. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with delayed rejection is proposed for posterior computation, and an R package spBayesSurv is provided to fit the model. This approach is first evaluated through simulations, then applied to threatened frog populations in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. PMID:26148536

  16. Simultaneous elastic parameter inversion in 2-D/3-D TTI medium combined later arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-ying; Wang, Tao; Yang, Shang-bei; Li, Xing-wang; Huang, Guo-jiao

    2016-04-01

    Traditional traveltime inversion for anisotropic medium is, in general, based on a "weak" assumption in the anisotropic property, which simplifies both the forward part (ray tracing is performed once only) and the inversion part (a linear inversion solver is possible). But for some real applications, a general (both "weak" and "strong") anisotropic medium should be considered. In such cases, one has to develop a ray tracing algorithm to handle with the general (including "strong") anisotropic medium and also to design a non-linear inversion solver for later tomography. Meanwhile, it is constructive to investigate how much the tomographic resolution can be improved by introducing the later arrivals. For this motivation, we incorporated our newly developed ray tracing algorithm (multistage irregular shortest-path method) for general anisotropic media with a non-linear inversion solver (a damped minimum norm, constrained least squares problem with a conjugate gradient approach) to formulate a non-linear inversion solver for anisotropic medium. This anisotropic traveltime inversion procedure is able to combine the later (reflected) arrival times. Both 2-D/3-D synthetic inversion experiments and comparison tests show that (1) the proposed anisotropic traveltime inversion scheme is able to recover the high contrast anomalies and (2) it is possible to improve the tomographic resolution by introducing the later (reflected) arrivals, but not as expected in the isotropic medium, because the different velocity (qP, qSV and qSH) sensitivities (or derivatives) respective to the different elastic parameters are not the same but are also dependent on the inclination angle.

  17. Periodic modulation in pulse arrival times from young pulsars: a renewed case for neutron star precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, M.; Hobbs, G.; Johnston, S.; Shannon, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In a search for periodic variation in the arrival times of pulses from 151 young, energetic pulsars, we have identified seven cases of modulation consistent with one or two harmonics of a single fundamental with time-scale 0.5-1.5 yr. We use simulations to show that these modulations are statistically significant and of high quality (sinusoidal) even when contaminated by the strong stochastic timing noise common to young pulsars. Although planetary companions could induce such modulation, the large implied masses and 2:1 mean motion resonances challenge such an explanation. Instead, the modulation is likely to be intrinsic to the pulsar, arising from quasi-periodic switching between stable magnetospheric states, and we propose that precession of the neutron star may regulate this switching.

  18. The effect of S-wave arrival times on the accuracy of hypocenter estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.S.; Shedlock, K.M.; Roecker, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the theoretical basis behind some of the widely accepted "rules of thumb' for obtaining accurate hypocenter estimates that pertain to the use of S phases and illustrate, in a variety of ways, why and when these "rules' are applicable. Most methods used to determine earthquake hypocenters are based on iterative, linearized, least-squares algorithms. We examine the influence of S-phase arrival time data on such algorithms by using the program HYPOINVERSE with synthetic datasets. We conclude that a correctly timed S phase recorded within about 1.4 focal depth's distance from the epicenter can be a powerful constraint on focal depth. Furthermore, we demonstrate that even a single incorrectly timed S phase can result in depth estimates and associated measures of uncertainty that are significantly incorrect. -from Authors

  19. Airborne Evaluation and Demonstration of a Time-Based Airborne Inter-Arrival Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Howell, Charles T.

    2005-01-01

    An airborne tool has been developed that allows an aircraft to obtain a precise inter-arrival time-based spacing interval from the preceding aircraft. The Advanced Terminal Area Approach Spacing (ATAAS) tool uses Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) data to compute speed commands for the ATAAS-equipped aircraft to obtain this inter-arrival spacing behind another aircraft. The tool was evaluated in an operational environment at the Chicago O'Hare International Airport and in the surrounding terminal area with three participating aircraft flying fixed route area navigation (RNAV) paths and vector scenarios. Both manual and autothrottle speed management were included in the scenarios to demonstrate the ability to use ATAAS with either method of speed management. The results on the overall delivery precision of the tool, based on a target spacing of 90 seconds, were a mean of 90.8 seconds with a standard deviation of 7.7 seconds. The results for the RNAV and vector cases were, respectively, M=89.3, SD=4.9 and M=91.7, SD=9.0.

  20. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  1. P wave azimuthal and radial anisotropy of the Hokkaido subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiongwei; Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Jiabiao; Ruan, Aiguo

    2016-04-01

    We present the first three-dimensional P wave radial anisotropy tomography of the Hokkaido subduction zone, as well as P wave azimuthal anisotropy and S wave tomography, which are determined by inverting 298,430 P wave and 233,934 S wave arrival times from 14,245 local earthquakes recorded by 344 seismic stations. Our results reveal significant velocity heterogeneity, seismic anisotropy, and upwelling flows beneath the study region. In the mantle wedge, prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exhibit trench-normal fast-velocity directions (FVDs) and a negative radial anisotropy (i.e., vertical velocity > horizontal velocity), which may reflect upwelling mantle flows. Fan-shaped FVDs are found at depths of 65-90 km, and a detailed 3-D mantle flow pattern is revealed, which may be caused by a combination of oblique subduction of the Pacific plate and collision of the Kuril arc with the Honshu arc beneath southern Hokkaido. The radial anisotropy changes at ~100 km depth, which may reflect variations in temperature and fluid conditions there. The subducting Pacific slab exhibits a positive radial anisotropy (i.e., horizontal velocity > vertical velocity), which may reflect the original fossil anisotropy when the Pacific plate formed at the mid-ocean ridge.

  2. Observability of Multiply Reflected P Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foundotos, Michel; Nolet, Guust

    2010-05-01

    In order to constrain the shallow structure of the Earth in global tomography, Love and Rayleigh waves are often used. However these waves are mostly sensitive to the S wave velocity structure. P-wave energy is either evanescent, or leaking away at every surface reflection that generates an S wave which travels much deeper into the mantle. For that reason, to study the shallow P velocity structure of the Earth, we need to study P-waves at regional distances if a good seismic station coverage is available. Otherwise we can use multiple P reflections at teleseismic distance when regional data are not available (as in the oceans for instance). The major aim of this work was first of all to ensure that these multiply reflected P waves can adequately be observed in real data and also to investigate how many reflections at the surface these reflected waves can still be seen and to investigate how strongly the amplitude of multiply reflected P diminishes because of energy loss into S waves. For this study we are comparing the synthetic predictions computed with a Spectral Element Method for a spherically symmetric earth (Nissen-Meyer et al, 2007) with observed data. Attention will be made on Synthetics with and without oceanic reflection points and compare these with observations. We used 300 events recorded (90000 seismograms) from the dense network of US ARRAY, which allows us to make a very large number of observations. Our study shows that three times reflected PPP waves are very well observed for epicentral distances > 60 degrees and for events with Mw > 5.5 , despite the ray-theoretical prediction that at certain distances almost all of their compressional energy is converted to shear waves. However, the four times reflected PPPP waves do not appear everywhere clearly. PPPP can be observed for epicentral distances > 90 degrees.

  3. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering. PMID:21125324

  4. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.; and others

    2014-08-15

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

  5. Three Dimensional P Wave Velocity Model for the Crust Containing Aftershocks of the Bhuj, India Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. A.; Vlahovic, G.; Bodin, P.; Horton, S.

    2001-12-01

    A three-dimensional P wave velocity model has been constructed for the crust in the vicinity of the Mw=7.7 January 26th Bhuj, India earthquake using aftershock data obtained by CERI away teams. Aftershocks were recorded by 8 portable, digital K2 seismographs (the MAEC/ISTAR network) and by a continuously recording Guralp CMG40TD broad-band seismometer. Station spacing is roughly 30 km. The network was in place for 18 days and recorded ground motions from about 2000 aftershocks located within about 100 km of all stations. The 3-D velocity model is based upon an initial subset of 461 earthquakes with 2848 P wave arrivals. The initial 1-D velocity model was determined using VELEST and the 3-D model was determined using the nonlinear travel time tomography method of Benz et al. [1996]. Block size was set at 2 by 2 by 2 km. A 45% reduction in RMS travel time residuals was obtained after 10 iterations holding hypocenters fixed. We imaged velocity anomalies in the range -2 to 4%. Low velocities were found in the upper 6 km and the anomalies follow surface features such as the Rann of Kutch. High velocity features were imaged at depth and are associated with the aftershock hypocenters. High crustal velocities are present at depths exceeding 20 km with the exception of the crust below the Rann of Kutch. The imaged velocity anomaly pattern does not change when different starting models are used and when hypocenters are relocated using P wave arrivals only. The analysis will be extended to an expanded data set of 941 aftershocks.

  6. Constrained Optimization of Average Arrival Time via a Probabilistic Approach to Transport Reliability.

    PubMed

    Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Dunbar, Michelle; Ghaderi, Hadi; Mokhtarian, Payam

    2015-01-01

    To achieve greater transit-time reduction and improvement in reliability of transport services, there is an increasing need to assist transport planners in understanding the value of punctuality; i.e. the potential improvements, not only to service quality and the consumer but also to the actual profitability of the service. In order for this to be achieved, it is important to understand the network-specific aspects that affect both the ability to decrease transit-time, and the associated cost-benefit of doing so. In this paper, we outline a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed changes to average transit-time, so as to determine the optimal choice of average arrival time subject to desired punctuality levels whilst simultaneously minimizing operational costs. We model the service transit-time variability using a truncated probability density function, and simultaneously compare the trade-off between potential gains and increased service costs, for several commonly employed cost-benefit functions of general form. We formulate this problem as a constrained optimization problem to determine the optimal choice of average transit time, so as to increase the level of service punctuality, whilst simultaneously ensuring a minimum level of cost-benefit to the service operator. PMID:25992902

  7. Constrained Optimization of Average Arrival Time via a Probabilistic Approach to Transport Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Dunbar, Michelle; Ghaderi, Hadi; Mokhtarian, Payam

    2015-01-01

    To achieve greater transit-time reduction and improvement in reliability of transport services, there is an increasing need to assist transport planners in understanding the value of punctuality; i.e. the potential improvements, not only to service quality and the consumer but also to the actual profitability of the service. In order for this to be achieved, it is important to understand the network-specific aspects that affect both the ability to decrease transit-time, and the associated cost-benefit of doing so. In this paper, we outline a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed changes to average transit-time, so as to determine the optimal choice of average arrival time subject to desired punctuality levels whilst simultaneously minimizing operational costs. We model the service transit-time variability using a truncated probability density function, and simultaneously compare the trade-off between potential gains and increased service costs, for several commonly employed cost-benefit functions of general form. We formulate this problem as a constrained optimization problem to determine the optimal choice of average transit time, so as to increase the level of service punctuality, whilst simultaneously ensuring a minimum level of cost-benefit to the service operator. PMID:25992902

  8. Crustal Structure of Northeastern Sicily, South Italy, From Tomographic Inversion of Local Earthquake Arrival-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, B.; Aloisi, M.; Barberi, G.; Neri, G.

    After integrating the databases of the local and national seismic networks relative to lithospheric seismicity that occurred in and around Northeastern Sicily bet ween 1978 and 2001, we selected 932 events for 3D local tomography of P- and S-wave velocity. A dataset of 10241 P and 5597 S arrival times was inverted for Vp, Vs and hypocenter distributions using the SIMULPS12 algorithm. Analysis of the Derivative Weight Sum and Spread Function detected a rather good level of constraint of velocity at nodes of a grid with horizontal and vertical spacing of 10 and 6 km respectively, spanning the upper 30 Km beneath the area including Central and Northeastern Sicily, Southern Calabria and the Southeasternmost Tyrrhenian Sea. Standard deviation of arrival-time residuals after 3D inversion was about 20% lower than obtained by locating the same earthquakes using the minimum 1D model. Four main spatial domains can be distinguished in the obtained velocity structure: i) a high-velocity domain corresponding to Tyrrhenian structural units; ii) low-velocity domain corresponding to Sicilian units; iii) a domain corresponding to the Calabrian Arc characterized by positive velocity anomalies at shallow depth (nodes in the range 0-12 Km) and by negative velocity ones below (18-30 Km); iv) positive anomalies at deep nodes (18-30 Km) and negative anomalies above, in the area including the Etna volcano and the Ionian coast of Sicily near the volcanic edifice. Velocity distributions were analyzed jointly with the geophysical and geological information available in the literature in order to improve our knowledge of the crustal structure in the study area. Furthermore, comparisons were made with the most recent regional geodynamic models and led us to state that the crustal features evidenced in the present investigation match well with the model assuming gravity- induced southeastward roll-back of an Ionian lithospheric slab subducting beneath the Tyrrhenian sea.

  9. On the Retrieval of Lightning Radio Sources from Time-of-Arrival Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the problem of retrieving three-dimensional lightning locations from radio frequency Time-Of-Arrival (TOA) measurements. Arbitrary antenna locations are considered. By judiciously differencing measurements that are related to the location of the antennas and their excitation times, the problem is converted from the initial spherical nonlinear form to a system of linear equations. In the linear formalism, the source location and time-of-occurrence is viewed geometrically as an intersection of hyperplanes in the four-dimensional Minkowski space (x,y,z,t). The linear equations are solved to obtain explicit analytic expressions for the location and time variables. Retrieval errors are not interpreted with conventional Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) arguments as discussed by Holmes and Reedy (1951), but with more recent inversion analyses considered by Twomey (1977). Measurement errors are propagated analytically so that the specific effect of these errors on the solution is clarified. The sensitivity of the solution on the number of antennas used, antenna network geometry, source position, and measurement differencing schemes are discussed in terms of the eigenvalues of the linear system.

  10. P-wave dispersion: What we know till now?

    PubMed Central

    Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2016-01-01

    P-wave dispersion is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different-surface ECG leads. It has been known that increased P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion reflect prolongation of intraatrial and interatrial conduction time and the inhomogeneous propagation of sinus impulses, which are well-known electrophysiologic characteristics in patients with atrial arrhythmias and especially paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Extensive clinical evaluation of P-wave dispersion has been performed in the assessment of the risk for atrial fibrillation in patients without apparent heart disease, in hypertensives, in patients with coronary artery disease, in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, in patients with congenital heart diseases, as well as in other groups of patients suffering from various cardiac or non-cardiac diseases. In this paper, we aimed to summarize the measurement methods, current use in different clinical situations, strengths and limitations of the of P-wave dispersion. PMID:27081484

  11. Ray-theoretical modeling of secondary microseism P-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farra, V.; Stutzmann, E.; Gualtieri, L.; Schimmel, M.; Ardhuin, F.

    2016-06-01

    Secondary microseism sources are pressure fluctuations close to the ocean surface. They generate acoustic P-waves that propagate in water down to the ocean bottom where they are partly reflected, and partly transmitted into the crust to continue their propagation through the Earth. We present the theory for computing the displacement power spectral density of secondary microseism P-waves recorded by receivers in the far field. In the frequency domain, the P-wave displacement can be modeled as the product of (1) the pressure source, (2) the source site effect that accounts for the constructive interference of multiply reflected P-waves in the ocean, (3) the propagation from the ocean bottom to the stations, (4) the receiver site effect. Secondary microseism P-waves have weak amplitudes, but they can be investigated by beamforming analysis. We validate our approach by analyzing the seismic signals generated by Typhoon Ioke (2006) and recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network. Back projecting the beam onto the ocean surface enables to follow the source motion. The observed beam centroid is in the vicinity of the pressure source derived from the ocean wave model WAVEWATCH IIIR. The pressure source is then used for modeling the beam and a good agreement is obtained between measured and modeled beam amplitude variation over time. This modeling approach can be used to invert P-wave noise data and retrieve the source intensity and lateral extent.

  12. Ray-theoretical modeling of secondary microseism P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farra, V.; Stutzmann, E.; Gualtieri, L.; Schimmel, M.; Ardhuin, F.

    2016-09-01

    Secondary microseism sources are pressure fluctuations close to the ocean surface. They generate acoustic P waves that propagate in water down to the ocean bottom where they are partly reflected and partly transmitted into the crust to continue their propagation through the Earth. We present the theory for computing the displacement power spectral density of secondary microseism P waves recorded by receivers in the far field. In the frequency domain, the P-wave displacement can be modeled as the product of (1) the pressure source, (2) the source site effect that accounts for the constructive interference of multiply reflected P waves in the ocean, (3) the propagation from the ocean bottom to the stations and (4) the receiver site effect. Secondary microseism P waves have weak amplitudes, but they can be investigated by beamforming analysis. We validate our approach by analysing the seismic signals generated by typhoon Ioke (2006) and recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network. Backprojecting the beam onto the ocean surface enables to follow the source motion. The observed beam centroid is in the vicinity of the pressure source derived from the ocean wave model WAVEWATCH IIIR. The pressure source is then used for modeling the beam and a good agreement is obtained between measured and modeled beam amplitude variation over time. This modeling approach can be used to invert P-wave noise data and retrieve the source intensity and lateral extent.

  13. Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude from the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noda, Shunta; Yamamoto, Shunroku; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple approach to measure earthquake magnitude M using the time difference (Top) between the body‐wave onset and the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude in an accelerogram. Measured in this manner, we find that Mw is proportional to 2logTop for earthquakes 5≤Mw≤7, which is the theoretical proportionality if Top is proportional to source dimension and stress drop is scale invariant. Using high‐frequency (>2  Hz) data, the root mean square (rms) residual between Mw and MTop(M estimated from Top) is approximately 0.5 magnitude units. The rms residuals of the high‐frequency data in passbands between 2 and 16 Hz are uniformly smaller than those obtained from the lower‐frequency data. Top depends weakly on epicentral distance, and this dependence can be ignored for distances <200  km. Retrospective application of this algorithm to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake produces a final magnitude estimate of M 9.0 at 120 s after the origin time. We conclude that Top of high‐frequency (>2  Hz) accelerograms has value in the context of earthquake early warning for extremely large events.

  14. The NANOGrav Nine-year Data Set: Noise Budget for Pulsar Arrival Times on Intraday Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P. B.; Dolch, T.; Ellis, J. A.; Ferdman, R. D.; Fonseca, E. F.; Gonzalez, M. E.; Jones, G.; Jones, M. L.; Levin, L.; Madison, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Nice, D. J.; Pennucci, T. T.; Ransom, S. M.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; Swiggum, J. K.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    The use of pulsars as astrophysical clocks for gravitational wave (GW) experiments demands the highest possible timing precision. Pulse times of arrival (TOAs) are limited by stochastic processes that occur in the pulsar itself, along the line of sight through the interstellar medium, and in the measurement process. On timescales of seconds to hours, the TOA variance exceeds that from template-fitting errors due to additive noise. We assess contributions to the total variance from two additional effects: amplitude and phase jitter intrinsic to single pulses and changes in the interstellar impulse response from scattering. The three effects have different dependencies on time, frequency, and pulse signal-to-noise ratio. We use data on 37 pulsars from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for GWs to assess the individual contributions to the overall intraday noise budget for each pulsar. We detect jitter in 22 pulsars and estimate the average value of rms jitter in our pulsars to be ∼ 1% of pulse phase. We examine how jitter evolves as a function of frequency and find evidence for evolution. Finally, we compare our measurements with previous noise parameter estimates and discuss methods to improve GW detection pipelines.

  15. Measurement of arrival time of particles in extensive air showers using TDC32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Christiansen, J.; Hayashi, Y.; Jain, A.; Mohanty, P. K.; Ravindran, K. C.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2013-04-01

    Arrival time of particles in an extensive air shower (EAS) is a key physical parameter to determine its direction. EAS direction is useful for studies of anisotropy and composition of cosmic rays, and search for multi-TeV γ-rays sources. Accurate timing may be used to search exotic phenomena such as production of new particles at extremely high energies available during early stages of development of EAS and also for detecting sub-relativistic hadrons in EAS. Time to digital converters (TDCs) are used to perform this task. Traditional TDCs operate in the START-STOP mode with limited dynamic range and single-hit capability. With the advent of high luminosity collider LHC, need for TDCs with large dynamic range, multi-hit capability and TRIGGERED mode of operation became necessary. A 32 channel TDC was designed for the GRAPES-3 experiment on a CAMAC platform around TDC32, an ASIC developed by micro-electronics group at CERN, Geneva. Four modules were operated in the GRAPES-3 experiment. Here, we present details of the circuit design and their performance over several years. The multi-hit feature of this device was used to study the time structure of particles in the EAS on time scale of ~1 μs. The distribution of time intervals in the multi-hit data shows an exponential profile with a time constant of ~370 ns. These delayed particles are likely to be neutrons produced in the EAS core that were recorded in the scintillator detectors following the relativistic EAS front.

  16. Priority effects of time of arrival of plant functional groups override sowing interval or density effects: a grassland experiment.

    PubMed

    von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Rascher, Uwe; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Plückers, Christine; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Temperton, Vicky M

    2014-01-01

    Priority effects occur when species that arrive first in a habitat significantly affect the establishment, growth, or reproduction of species arriving later and thus affect functioning of communities. However, we know little about how the timing of arrival of functionally different species may alter structure and function during assembly. Even less is known about how plant density might interact with initial assembly. In a greenhouse experiment legumes, grasses or forbs were sown a number of weeks before the other two plant functional types were sown (PFT) in combination with a sowing density treatment. Legumes, grasses or non-legume forbs were sown first at three different density levels followed by sowing of the remaining PFTs after three or six-weeks. We found that the order of arrival of different plant functional types had a much stronger influence on aboveground productivity than sowing density or interval between the sowing events. The sowing of legumes before the other PFTs produced the highest aboveground biomass. The larger sowing interval led to higher asymmetric competition, with highest dominance of the PFT sown first. It seems that legumes were better able to get a head-start and be productive before the later groups arrived, but that their traits allowed for better subsequent establishment of non-legume PFTs. Our study indicates that the manipulation of the order of arrival can create priority effects which favour functional groups of plants differently and thus induce different assembly routes and affect community composition and functioning. PMID:24497995

  17. Estimating permeability from quasi-static deformation: Temporal variations and arrival time inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Transient pressure variations within a reservoir can be treated as a propagating front and analyzed using an asymptotic formulation. From this perspective one can define a pressure 'arrival time' and formulate solutions along trajectories, in the manner of ray theory. We combine this methodology and a technique for mapping overburden deformation into reservoir volume change as a means to estimate reservoir flow properties, such as permeability. Given the entire 'travel time' or phase field, obtained from the deformation data, we can construct the trajectories directly, there-by linearizing the inverse problem. A numerical study indicates that, using this approach, we can infer large-scale variations in flow properties. In an application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) observations associated with a CO{sub 2} injection at the Krechba field, Algeria, we image pressure propagation to the northwest. An inversion for flow properties indicates a linear trend of high permeability. The high permeability correlates with a northwest trending fault on the flank of the anticline which defines the field.

  18. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a research and development effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar./Mars rovers and astronauts during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. U IATB impulse radio (UWB-IR) technology is exploited in the design and implementation of the prototype location and tracking system. A three-dimensional (3D) proximity tracking prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Time-Difference- Of-Arrival (TDOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. The TDOA tracking algorithm is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. Simulations show that the TDOA algorithm can achieve the fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA estimates for close-in tracking. Field tests demonstrated that this prototype UWB TDOA High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System is feasible for providing positioning-awareness information in a 3D space to a robotic control system. This 3D tracking system is developed for a robotic control system in a facility called "Moonyard" at Honeywell Defense & System in Arizona under a Space Act Agreement.

  19. Evaluation of Operational Procedures for Using a Time-Based Airborne Inter-arrival Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Abbott, Terence S.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2002-01-01

    An airborne tool has been developed based on the concept of an aircraft maintaining a time-based spacing interval from the preceding aircraft. The Advanced Terminal Area Approach Spacing (ATAAS) tool uses Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) aircraft state data to compute a speed command for the ATAAS-equipped aircraft to obtain a required time interval behind another aircraft. The tool and candidate operational procedures were tested in a high-fidelity, full mission simulator with active airline subject pilots flying an arrival scenario using three different modes for speed control. The objectives of this study were to validate the results of a prior Monte Carlo analysis of the ATAAS algorithm and to evaluate the concept from the standpoint of pilot acceptability and workload. Results showed that the aircraft was able to consistently achieve the target spacing interval within one second (the equivalent of approximately 220 ft at a final approach speed of 130 kt) when the ATAAS speed guidance was autothrottle-coupled, and a slightly greater (4-5 seconds), but consistent interval with the pilot-controlled speed modes. The subject pilots generally rated the workload level with the ATAAS procedure as similar to that with standard procedures, and also rated most aspects of the procedure high in terms of acceptability. Although pilots indicated that the head-down time was higher with ATAAS, the acceptability of head-down time was rated high. Oculometer data indicated slight changes in instrument scan patterns, but no significant change in the amount of time spent looking out the window between the ATAAS procedure versus standard procedures.

  20. Characterizing the nonlinear interaction of S- and P-waves in a rock sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallot, Thomas; Malcolm, Alison; Szabo, Thomas L.; Brown, Stephen; Burns, Daniel; Fehler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear elastic response of rocks is known to be caused by the rocks' microstructure, particularly cracks and fluids. This paper presents a method for characterizing the nonlinearity of rocks in a laboratory scale experiment with a unique configuration. This configuration has been designed to open up the possibility of using the nonlinear characterization of rocks as an imaging tool in the field. In our experiment, we study the nonlinear interaction of two traveling waves: a low-amplitude 500 kHz P-wave probe and a high-amplitude 50 kHz S-wave pump in a room-dry 15 × 15 × 3 cm slab of Berea sandstone. Changes in the arrival time of the P-wave probe as it passes through the perturbation created by the traveling S-wave pump were recorded. Waveforms were time gated to simulate a semi-infinite medium. The shear wave phase relative to the P-wave probe signal was varied with resultant changes in the P-wave probe arrival time of up to 100 ns, corresponding to a change in elastic properties of 0.2%. In order to estimate the strain in our sample, we also measured the particle velocity at the sample surface to scale a finite difference linear elastic simulation to estimate the complex strain field in the sample, on the order of 10-6, induced by the S-wave pump. We derived a fourth order elastic model to relate the changes in elasticity to the pump strain components. We recover quadratic and cubic nonlinear parameters: β ˜ = - 872 and δ ˜ = - 1.1 × 10 10 , respectively, at room-temperature and when particle motions of the pump and probe waves are aligned. Temperature fluctuations are correlated to changes in the recovered values of β ˜ and δ ˜ , and we find that the nonlinear parameter changes when the particle motions are orthogonal. No evidence of slow dynamics was seen in our measurements. The same experimental configuration, when applied to Lucite and aluminum, produced no measurable nonlinear effects. In summary, a method of selectively determining the

  1. Arrival time of solar eruptive CMEs associated with ICMEs of magnetic cloud and ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Syed Ibrahim, M.; Moon, Y.-J.; Kasro Lourdhina, K.; Dharanya, M.

    2015-05-01

    The Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) is an eruptive event in which magnetic plasma is ejected from the Sun into space through the solar corona. We considered a set of 51 Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) listed by Kim et al. (Solar Phys. 184:77, 2013) from Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW, Gopalswamy et al. in Astrophys. J. 710:1111, 2010). Among the 51 events, 22 events are classified as Magnetic Clouds (MC) and 29 events are classified as Ejecta (EJ) where the MC and EJ are subsets of ICMEs. We have analyzed the physical properties of CMEs and ICMEs associated with MC and EJ, and correlated them with the CME's transit time/arrival time from the Sun to the Earth. Main aims of the present study are to examine (a) dependence of transit time on the properties of CMEs and ICMEs, and (b) differences between MC and EJ. It is found that CME's initial speed decides the transit time which is in support of the known results in literature. Apart from this, some important results from the present study are: (i) transit time predicted using an empirical relation obtained in the present work is found comparable with the observations (correlation coefficient=0.70). (ii) The transit time of MC and EJ-associated CMEs ranges from 20 to 120 hours and IP acceleration lies between -10 m/s2 to 5 m/s2. (iii) There are certain differences between MC and EJ such as: (a) Ejecta takes slightly more time to travel and only 30 % of them are accelerated in the interplanetary medium. Whereas, MC takes less time to travel and nearly 50 % of them are accelerated, (b) The correlations of IP acceleration and speed with transit time are higher for MC than that of EJ, (c) A weak relationship between the deflection and transit time is found for MC, but it is absent in the case of EJ and (d) Only EJ-type CMEs have wider range of direction parameter and acceleration. Further, we checked the solar wind speed as another parameter has any influence on CME acceleration and it shows that there

  2. Modeling the direction-continuous time-of-arrival in head-related transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Ziegelwanger, Harald; Majdak, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) describe the filtering of the incoming sound by the torso, head, and pinna. As a consequence of the propagation path from the source to the ear, each HRTF contains a direction-dependent, broadband time-of-arrival (TOA). TOAs are usually estimated independently for each direction from HRTFs, a method prone to artifacts and limited by the spatial sampling. In this study, a continuous-direction TOA model combined with an outlier-removal algorithm is proposed. The model is based on a simplified geometric representation of the listener, and his/her arbitrary position within the HRTF measurement. The outlier-removal procedure uses the extreme studentized deviation test to remove implausible TOAs. The model was evaluated for numerically calculated HRTFs of sphere, torso, and pinna under various conditions. The accuracy of estimated parameters was within the resolution given by the sampling rate. Applied to acoustically measured HRTFs of 172 listeners, the estimated parameters were consistent with realistic listener geometry. The outlier removal further improved the goodness-of-fit, particularly for some problematic fits. The comparison with a simpler model that fixed the listener position to the center of the measurement geometry showed a clear advantage of listener position as an additional free model parameter. PMID:24606268

  3. Fault zone structure determined through the analysis of earthquake arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Michelini, A.

    1991-10-01

    This thesis develops and applies a technique for the simultaneous determination of P and S wave velocity models and hypocenters from a set of arrival times. The velocity models are parameterized in terms of cubic B-splines basis functions which permit the retrieval of smooth models that can be used directly for generation of synthetic seismograms using the ray method. In addition, this type of smoothing limits the rise of instabilities related to the poor resolving power of the data. V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratios calculated from P and S models display generally instabilities related to the different ray-coverages of compressional and shear waves. However, V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratios are important for correct identification of rock types and this study introduces a new methodology based on adding some coupling (i.e., proportionality) between P and S models which stabilizes the V{sub P}/V{sub S} models around some average preset value determined from the data. Tests of the technique with synthetic data show that this additional coupling regularizes effectively the resulting models.

  4. Design and Performance Evaluation on Ultra-Wideband Time-Of-Arrival 3D Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Dusl, John

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time--of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide and felt upset. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested in the Wireless Habitat Testbed which simulates the ISS module environment. In this presentation, we discuss the 3D TOA tracking algorithm and the performance evaluation based on different tracking baseline configurations. The simulation results show that two configurations of the tracking baseline are feasible. With 100 picoseconds standard deviation (STD) of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.2392 feet (about 7 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Twisted Rectangle while the average tracking error 0.9183 feet (about 28 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Slightly-Twisted Top Rectangle . The tracking accuracy can be further improved with the improvement of the STD of TOA estimates. With 10 picoseconds STD of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.0239 feet (less than 1 centimeter) can be achieved for configuration "Twisted Rectangle".

  5. Landscape-scale pest suppression is mediated by timing of predator arrival.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Alejandro C; Venables, William N; Schellhorn, Nancy A

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that biological control of agricultural pests is affected by the landscape context, although the mechanisms behind this pattern have received little attention. Ecological theory predicts that one key mechanism mediating successful pest suppression is early predator immigration to agricultural fields. However, the importance of this population process under different landscape contexts remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the relative importance of landscape context and timing of predator immigration on aphid suppression by manipulating exposure to predation in agroecosystems located across a gradient of landscape complexity in a subtropical horticultural region in Australia. Aphid suppression varied with landscape context, from populations escaping control to almost complete pest suppression. In general, we found higher aphid suppression when predators were allowed immediate and continuous access to aphids than when predators were delayed or excluded for a week, but responses varied in each landscape. Contrary to previous reports from temperate agricultural landscapes, aphid suppression was neutral or negatively associated with natural and seminatural vegetation, whereas aphid suppression was positively associated with landscapes with a higher proportion of alfalfa. When landscapes were classified according to their levels of complexity, we showed that early predation resulted in similar levels of pest suppression in simplified landscapes (i.e., with low proportions of alfalfa and habitat diversity) as late predation in complex landscapes (i.e., with high proportions of alfalfa and habitat diversity). Our data show that timing of predator arrival to agricultural fields is as important as landscape complexity for mediating pest control in agroecosystems. Furthermore, our results suggest that key distributions of suitable habitats that facilitate natural enemy movement can enhance biological control in simplified landscapes. PMID:26465046

  6. Influence and timing of arrival of murine neural crest on pancreatic beta cell development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Plank, Jennifer L; Mundell, Nathan A; Frist, Audrey Y; LeGrone, Alison W; Kim, Thomas; Musser, Melissa A; Walter, Teagan J; Labosky, Patricia A

    2011-01-15

    Interactions between cells from the ectoderm and mesoderm influence development of the endodermally-derived pancreas. While much is known about how mesoderm regulates pancreatic development, relatively little is understood about how and when the ectodermally-derived neural crest regulates pancreatic development and specifically, beta cell maturation. A previous study demonstrated that signals from the neural crest regulate beta cell proliferation and ultimately, beta cell mass. Here, we expand on that work to describe timing of neural crest arrival at the developing pancreatic bud and extend our knowledge of the non-cell autonomous role for neural crest derivatives in the process of beta cell maturation. We demonstrated that murine neural crest entered the pancreatic mesenchyme between the 26 and 27 somite stages (approximately 10.0 dpc) and became intermingled with pancreatic progenitors as the epithelium branched into the surrounding mesenchyme. Using a neural crest-specific deletion of the Forkhead transcription factor Foxd3, we ablated neural crest cells that migrate to the pancreatic primordium. Consistent with previous data, in the absence of Foxd3, and therefore the absence of neural crest cells, proliferation of insulin-expressing cells and insulin-positive area are increased. Analysis of endocrine cell gene expression in the absence of neural crest demonstrated that, although the number of insulin-expressing cells was increased, beta cell maturation was significantly impaired. Decreased MafA and Pdx1 expression illustrated the defect in beta cell maturation; we discovered that without neural crest, there was a reduction in the percentage of insulin-positive cells that co-expressed Glut2 and Pdx1 compared to controls. In addition, transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed decreased numbers of characteristic insulin granules and the presence of abnormal granules in insulin-expressing cells from mutant embryos. Together, these data demonstrate that

  7. Influence and timing of arrival of murine neural crest on pancreatic beta cell development and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Plank, Jennifer L.; Mundell, Nathan A.; Frist, Audrey Y.; LeGrone, Alison W.; Kim, Thomas; Musser, Melissa A.; Walter, Teagan J.; Labosky, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between cells from the ectoderm and mesoderm influence development of the endodermally-derived pancreas. While much is known about how mesoderm regulates pancreatic development, relatively little is understood about how and when the ectodermally-derived neural crest regulates pancreatic development and specifically, beta cell maturation. A previous study demonstrated that signals from the neural crest regulate beta cell proliferation and ultimately, beta cell mass. Here, we expand on that work to describe timing of neural crest arrival at the developing pancreatic bud and extend our knowledge of the non-cell autonomous role for neural crest derivatives in the process of beta cell maturation. We demonstrated that murine neural crest entered the pancreatic mesenchyme between the 26 and 27 somite stages (approximately 10.0 dpc) and became intermingled with pancreatic progenitors as the epithelium branched into the surrounding mesenchyme. Using a neural crest-specific deletion of the Forkhead transcription factor Foxd3, we ablated neural crest cells that migrate to the pancreatic primordium. Consistent with previous data, in the absence of Foxd3, and therefore the absence of neural crest cells, proliferation of Insulin-expressing cells and Insulin-positive area are increased. Analysis of endocrine cell gene expression in the absence of neural crest demonstrated that, although the number of Insulin-expressing cells was increased, beta cell maturation was significantly impaired. Decreased MafA and Pdx1 expression illustrated the defect in beta cell maturation; we discovered that without neural crest, there was a reduction in the percentage of Insulin-positive cells that co-expressed Glut2 and Pdx1 compared to controls. In addition, transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed decreased numbers of characteristic Insulin granules and the presence of abnormal granules in Insulin-expressing cells from mutant embryos. Together, these data demonstrate that

  8. `Inter-Arrival Time' Inspired Algorithm and its Application in Clustering and Molecular Phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolekar, Pandurang S.; Kale, Mohan M.; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila

    2010-10-01

    Bioinformatics, being multidisciplinary field, involves applications of various methods from allied areas of Science for data mining using computational approaches. Clustering and molecular phylogeny is one of the key areas in Bioinformatics, which help in study of classification and evolution of organisms. Molecular phylogeny algorithms can be divided into distance based and character based methods. But most of these methods are dependent on pre-alignment of sequences and become computationally intensive with increase in size of data and hence demand alternative efficient approaches. `Inter arrival time distribution' (IATD) is a popular concept in the theory of stochastic system modeling but its potential in molecular data analysis has not been fully explored. The present study reports application of IATD in Bioinformatics for clustering and molecular phylogeny. The proposed method provides IATDs of nucleotides in genomic sequences. The distance function based on statistical parameters of IATDs is proposed and distance matrix thus obtained is used for the purpose of clustering and molecular phylogeny. The method is applied on a dataset of 3' non-coding region sequences (NCR) of Dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3), subtype III, reported in 2008. The phylogram thus obtained revealed the geographical distribution of DENV-3 isolates. Sri Lankan DENV-3 isolates were further observed to be clustered in two sub-clades corresponding to pre and post Dengue hemorrhagic fever emergence groups. These results are consistent with those reported earlier, which are obtained using pre-aligned sequence data as an input. These findings encourage applications of the IATD based method in molecular phylogenetic analysis in particular and data mining in general.

  9. Effects of a Longer Detection Window in VHF Time-of-Arrival Lightning Detection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M.; Holle, R.; Demetriades, N.

    2003-12-01

    Lightning detection systems that operate by measuring the times of arrival (TOA) of short bursts of radiation at VHF can produce huge volumes of data. The first automated system of this kind, the NASA Kennedy Space Center LDAR network, is capable of producing one detection every 100 usec from each of seven sensors (Lennon and Maier, 1991), where each detection consists of the time and amplitude of the highest-amplitude peak observed within the 100 usec window. More modern systems have been shown to produce very detailed information with one detection every 10 usec (Rison et al., 2001). Operating such systems in real time, however, can become expensive because of the large data communications rates required. One solution to this problem is to use a longer detection window, say 500 usec. In principle, this has little or no effect on the flash detection efficiency because each flash typically produces a very large number of these VHF bursts (known as sources). By simply taking the largest-amplitude peak from every 500-usec interval instead of every 100-usec interval, we should detect the largest 20{%} of the sources that would have been detected using the 100-usec window. However, questions remain about the exact effect of a longer detection window on the source detection efficiency with distance from the network, its effects on how well flashes are represented in space, and how well the reduced information represents the parent thunderstorm. The latter issue is relevant for automated location and tracking of thunderstorm cells using data from VHF TOA lightning detection networks, as well as for understanding relationships between lightning and severe weather. References Lennon, C.L. and L.M. Maier, Lightning mapping system. Proceedings, Intl. Aerospace and Ground Conf. on Lightning and Static Elec., Cocoa Beach, Fla., NASA Conf. Pub. 3106, vol. II, pp. 89-1 - 89-10, 1991. Rison, W., P. Krehbiel, R. Thomas, T. Hamlin, J. Harlin, High time resolution lightning mapping

  10. The Development of a General Associative Learning Account of Skill Acquisition in a Relative Arrival-Time Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Neal, Andrew; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Current theory assumes that individuals only use information from the immediate environment to perform relative arrival-time judgment tasks. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the memory requirements of this task. The authors present an analysis of the inputs to the memory system and the processes that map those inputs onto outputs.…

  11. P-wave propagation heterogeneity and earthquake location in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piromallo, Claudia; Morelli, Andrea

    1998-10-01

    We analyse P-wave traveltimes for the Mediterranean area, using both teleseismic and regional arrivals for shallow earthquakes reported in the Bulletins of the International Seismological Centre. We model delays between pairs of 0.5° × 0.5° cells, obtaining a detailed representation of the P traveltime heterogeneities. Examination of these anomalies shows the clear presence of geographically coherent patterns-consistent with known geological features-due to significant structure in the upper mantle. We present a scheme, based on an empirical heterogeneity correction (EHC) to P-wave traveltimes, to improve earthquake location. This method provides similar benefits to those of a location procedure based on ray tracing in a 3-D model, but it is simpler and computationally more efficient. The definition of the traveltime heterogeneity model, being based on a statistical procedure, bypasses most of the critical points and possible instabilities involved in model inversion. EHC relocation, applied to Mediterranean earthquakes, allows one to predict about 70 per cent of the estimated signal due to heterogeneity and produces epicentral and origin time-shifts of, respectively, 4.22 km and 0.35 s (rms). From a synthetic experiment, in which we use the proposed algorithm to retrieve known source locations, we estimate that the rms improvement achieved by the EHC relocation over a simpler, standard, 1-D location is more than 20 per cent for both epicentral mislocation and origin time-shifts.

  12. The Great "Non-Event" of 7 January 2014: Challenges in CME Arrival Time and Geomagnetic Storm Strength Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, M. L.; Thompson, B. J.; Jian, L.; Evans, R. M.; Savani, N.; Odstrcil, D.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Richardson, I. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present a case study of the 7 January 2014 event in order to highlight current challenges in space weather forecasting of CME arrival time and geomagnetic storm strength. On 7 January 2014 an X1.2 flare and CME with a radial speed ~2400 km/s was observed from active region 11943. The flaring region was only ten degrees southwest of disk center with extensive dimming south of the active region and preliminary analysis indicated a fairly rapid arrival at Earth (~36 hours). Of the eleven forecasting groups world-wide who participated in CCMC's Space Weather Scoreboard (http://kauai.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/SWScoreBoard), nine predicted early arrivals and six predicted dramatic geomagnetic storm impacts (Kp predictions ranged from 6 to 9). However, the CME only had a glancing blow arrival at Earth - Kp did not rise above 3 and there was no geomagnetic storm. What happened? One idea is that the large coronal hole to the northeast of the active region could have deflected the CME. This coronal hole produced a high speed stream near Earth reaching an uncommon speed of 900 km/s four days after the observed CME arrival. However, no clear CME deflection was observed in the outer coronagraph fields of view (~5-20Rs) where CME measurements are derived to initiate models, therefore deflection seems unlikely. Another idea is the effect of the CME flux rope orientation with respect to Earth orbit. We show that using elliptical major and minor axis widths obtained by GCS fitting for the initial CME parameters in ENLIL would have improved the forecast to better reflect the observed glancing blow in-situ signature. We also explore the WSA-ENLIL+Cone simulations, the background solar wind solution, and compare with the observed CME arrival at Venus (from Venus Express) and Earth.

  13. Three dimensional P-wave velocity structure at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, P.; Valdes-Gonzales, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Popocatépetl Volcano is an active andesitic stratovolcano (5460m) of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt that has been erupting since December 1994. We used three-dimensional seismic tomography to detect variations in the P-wave velocity structure during three different volcanic cycles, which are separated by the two largest eruptions that occurred at Popocatépetl on June 30th, 1997 and January 22nd, 2001. The start of the first dataset is defined by the eruption in June 1996; the last dataset ends with the eruption in September 2003. The P-wave velocity structure of the volcano has been determined to 10 km depth below the summit using nearly 4000 P-arrival times from about 900 volcano tectonic events recorded on a local 10-station network. The Root Mean Square (RMS) of the arrival time residuals was reduced by 22% - 30% from the initial RMS of about 0.30 s, after running seven iterations of our tomography code. In the three eruption cycles, we observe velocity structures which complement the results of former studies, as well as image previously unrecognized velocity anomalies. We observe velocity changes of ~1km/s in certain areas before and after large eruptions. We compare the tomographic results with geologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations and interpret low velocity zones as fractured rock (SE-zone) or as thermally disturbed zones including hot rock and melt (below the crater region and north flank), from which unexpected future eruptions or flank collapses may occur. High velocity zones are interpreted as roofs of magma reservoirs, old dike systems or relicts of the ancient volcano. The observed changes in velocity anomalies before and after large eruptions, determined by four-dimensional tomography, indicate a change in the internal volcanic fluid-filled structures during volcanic eruptions and show the need for time-resolved geophysical techniques when investigating volcanic structures.

  14. Lower bounds on time of arrival estimation of pulse compression waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ivri, Israel

    1990-04-01

    The Weiss-Weinstein Lower Bound (WWLB), the Bellini-Tartara Lower Bound (BTLB), and the Kotelnikov inequality were applied to analysis of the attainable error in estimating the time of arrival (TOA) of a known (deterministic) signal embedded in additive Gaussian noise. The main advantage of the above bounds over the commonly used Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) is that they can be applied to analysis of the estimation error over a wide range of signal to noise ratios (SNR), including threshold effects and ambiguity phenomena. The results of the above analysis were applied to TOA estimation using linear FM (frequency modulation) and Barker-13, which are typical pulse compression waveforms used in radar systems. For each signal, the estimation errors were evaluated for sampling and estimation of a baseband signal and of a bandpass signal. For baseband signals, the SNR domain comprises three regions: the local error domain in which the mean standard error (MSE) is described by the CRLB or an alternative; a threshold effect region where the MSE increases sharply; and a noise-dominated region. In the case of bandpass signals, two distinct threshold phenomena divide the SNR domain into five distinct regions: a Cramer-Rao region in which the MSE converges to CRLB; a region of transition from ambiguous estimation to local error estimation; an ambiguity dominated region in which an estimate can be obtained by using the envelope of the received signal; a threshold effect region in which there is a sharp increase in the MSE; and a noise dominated region in which the signal observations are essentially useless to estimation. Closed form analytical expressions for the threshold points SNR as functions of signal bandwidth, center frequency, and a-priori parameter domain, are obtained. We also derive lower bounds on the probability of occurrence of large estimation errors in the system. Comparison with the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator (that is the matched filter) reveals that

  15. YO!-A Time-of-Arrival Receiver for Removal of Femtosecond Helicity-Correlated Beam Effects

    SciTech Connect

    John Musson; Trent Allison; Arne Freyberger; Joachim Kuhn; Brian Quinn

    2004-05-02

    The G0 parity violation experiment at Jefferson Lab is based on time-of-flight measurements, and is sensitive to timing effects between the two electron helicity states of the beam. Photon counters triggered by time-of-arrival at the target mandate that timing must be independent of delays associated with different orbits taken by the two helicity states. In addition, the standard 499 MHz beam structure is altered such that 1 of every 16 microbunches are filled, resulting in an arrival frequency of 31.1875 (31) MHz, and an average current of 40 {micro}A. Helicity correction involves identifying and tracking the 31 MHz subharmonic, applying a fast/fine phase correction, and finally producing a clean 31 MHz trigger and a 499 MHz clock train. These signals are phase-matched to the beam arrival at the target on the order of femtoseconds. The 10 kHz output bandwidth is sufficiently greater than the 30 Hz helicity flip settling time (500 {micro}s). This permits the system to correct each helicity bin for any orbit-induced timing inequalities. A sampling phase detection scheme is used in order to eliminate the unavoidable 2n/n phase shifts associated with frequency dividers. Conventional receiver architecture and DSP techniques are combined for maximum sensitivity, bandwidth, and flexibility. Results of bench tests, commissioning and production data will be presented.

  16. P wave anisotropic tomography of the Nankai subduction zone in Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Zhao, Dapeng

    2012-05-01

    The active subduction of the young Philippine Sea (PHS) plate and the old Pacific plate has resulted in significant seismic heterogeneity and anisotropy in Southwest (SW) Japan. In this work we determined a detailed 3-D P wave anisotropic tomography of the crust and upper mantle beneath SW Japan using ˜540,000 P wave arrival times from 5,249 local earthquakes recorded by 1095 stations. The PHS slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity (high-V) anomaly which exhibits considerable lateral variations. Significant low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are revealed above and below the PHS slab. The low-V anomalies above the PHS slab may reflect the upwelling flow in the mantle wedge and the PHS slab dehydration, and they form the source zone of the arc volcanoes in SW Japan. The low-V zones under the PHS slab may reflect the upwelling flow in the big mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle is complex. In Kyushu, the P wave fast velocity direction (FVD) is generally trench-normal in the mantle wedge under the back-arc, which is consistent with the corner flow driven by the PHS slab subduction. The FVD is trench-parallel in the subducting PHS slab under Kyushu. We think that the intraslab seismicity is a potential indicator to the slab anisotropy. That is, the PHS slab with seismicity has kept its original fossil anisotropy formed at the mid-ocean ridge, while the aseismic PHS slab has reproduced the anisotropy according to its current deformation.

  17. P wave tomography and anisotropy beneath Southeast Asia: Insight into mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhouchuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Wang, Liangshu

    2015-07-01

    Southeast Asia is surrounded by subduction zones resulting from the interactions of several lithospheric plates. Its evolution has been also influenced by active tectonics due to the Indo-Asian collision in the Cenozoic. In this study, we use a large number of arrival-time data of local and regional earthquakes to determine 3-D P wave tomography and azimuthal anisotropy in the mantle beneath SE Asia. High-velocity (high-V) anomalies representing the subducting slabs are clearly visible in the upper mantle and the mantle transition zone (MTZ). Low-velocity (low-V) zones with trench-normal anisotropy are revealed in the uppermost mantle, which indicate back-arc spreading or secondary mantle-wedge flow induced by the slab subduction. In contrast, trench-parallel anisotropy dominates in the deep upper mantle and reflects structures either in the subducting slab or in the upper mantle surrounding the slab. The trench-parallel anisotropy is also significant in the lower MTZ, which may contribute to shear wave splitting observations. A low-V body extending down to the lower mantle is visible under the Hainan volcano far away from the plate boundaries, suggesting that Hainan is a hot spot fed by a lower-mantle plume. The low-V body under Hainan is connected with low-V zones in the upper mantle under SE Tibet and Vietnam. Our P wave anisotropy results reflect significant mantle flow existing in the asthenosphere from SE Tibet to Hainan and further southwestward to Vietnam. The present study, especially the 3-D P wave anisotropy results, provides important new insight into mantle dynamics in SE Asia.

  18. Contrasting Subduction Modes with Slab Tearing beneath Eastern Himalaya: Evidence from Teleseismic P-wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, M.; Jiang, M.; Li, Z. H.; Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Chan, W. W. W.; Wang, Y.; Yu, C.; Lei, J.

    2014-12-01

    On the eastern margin of the Himalayan orogenic belt, the rapid uplift of the Namche Barwa metamorphic terrane and the significant bending of the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone occur. However, the formation mechanism and dynamics of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis is still debated. In order to better understand the deep structures beneath eastern Himalaya, we further deployed 35 broadband seismic stations (2010-2013) around the Namche Barwa Mountain, which is integrated with the existing Lehigh data sets of 45 stations (2003-2004). We totally selected 18,979 high-quality P-wave arrival times from 2,140 teleseismic events to image P-wave teleseismic tomography. The results demonstrate complex deep structures and significantly different subduction modes in the eastern Himalaya. In contrast to the steep subduction of the Indian lithosphere beneath the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, the Indian slab flatly subducted in the west, which might extend close to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then steeply sink and bend over. The contrasting subduction model results in the tearing and fragmentation of the Indian lithosphere in the transition zone between the flat and steep subduction. Consequently, the upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle may occur through the slab tear window, which might further lead to the rapid uplift of Namche Barwa and the formation of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. The lateral variation in subduction mode and slab tearing induced asthenospheric mantle upwelling is similar to that observed in the Hellenide and Anatolide domains of the Tethyan orogen.

  19. Depth variations of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy beneath Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Jiandong; Zhou, Bengang; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution model of P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath Mainland China and surrounding regions is determined using a large number of arrival-time data recorded by the China seismic network, the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and temporary seismic arrays deployed on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results provide important new insights into the subducted Indian plate and mantle dynamics in East Asia. Our tomographic images show that the northern limit of the subducting Indian plate has reached the Jinsha River suture in eastern Tibet. A striking variation of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy is revealed in the Indian lithosphere: the fast velocity direction (FVD) is NE-SW beneath the Indian continent, whereas the FVD is arc parallel beneath the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, which may reflect re-orientation of minerals due to lithospheric extension, in response to the India-Eurasia collision. There are multiple anisotropic layers with variable FVDs in some parts of the Tibetan Plateau, which may be the cause of the dominant null splitting measurements in these regions. A circular pattern of FVDs is revealed around the Philippine Sea slab beneath SE China, which reflects asthenospheric strain caused by toroidal mantle flow around the edge of the subducting slab. PMID:27432744

  20. Depth variations of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy beneath Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Jiandong; Zhou, Bengang; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution model of P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath Mainland China and surrounding regions is determined using a large number of arrival-time data recorded by the China seismic network, the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and temporary seismic arrays deployed on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results provide important new insights into the subducted Indian plate and mantle dynamics in East Asia. Our tomographic images show that the northern limit of the subducting Indian plate has reached the Jinsha River suture in eastern Tibet. A striking variation of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy is revealed in the Indian lithosphere: the fast velocity direction (FVD) is NE-SW beneath the Indian continent, whereas the FVD is arc parallel beneath the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, which may reflect re-orientation of minerals due to lithospheric extension, in response to the India-Eurasia collision. There are multiple anisotropic layers with variable FVDs in some parts of the Tibetan Plateau, which may be the cause of the dominant null splitting measurements in these regions. A circular pattern of FVDs is revealed around the Philippine Sea slab beneath SE China, which reflects asthenospheric strain caused by toroidal mantle flow around the edge of the subducting slab. PMID:27432744

  1. Depth variations of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy beneath Mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Jiandong; Zhou, Bengang; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution model of P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath Mainland China and surrounding regions is determined using a large number of arrival-time data recorded by the China seismic network, the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and temporary seismic arrays deployed on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results provide important new insights into the subducted Indian plate and mantle dynamics in East Asia. Our tomographic images show that the northern limit of the subducting Indian plate has reached the Jinsha River suture in eastern Tibet. A striking variation of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy is revealed in the Indian lithosphere: the fast velocity direction (FVD) is NE-SW beneath the Indian continent, whereas the FVD is arc parallel beneath the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, which may reflect re-orientation of minerals due to lithospheric extension, in response to the India-Eurasia collision. There are multiple anisotropic layers with variable FVDs in some parts of the Tibetan Plateau, which may be the cause of the dominant null splitting measurements in these regions. A circular pattern of FVDs is revealed around the Philippine Sea slab beneath SE China, which reflects asthenospheric strain caused by toroidal mantle flow around the edge of the subducting slab.

  2. Dual subduction tectonics and plate dynamics of central Japan shown by three-dimensional P-wave anisotropic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, Motoko; Miyake, Hiroe; Koketsu, Kazuki

    2015-07-01

    The central Japanese subduction zone is characterized by a complex tectonic setting affected by the dual subduction of oceanic plates and collisions between the island arcs. To better understand of the subduction system, we performed an anisotropic tomography analysis using P-wave arrival times from local earthquakes to determine the three-dimensional structure of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy in the overriding plate and the Pacific and Philippine Sea (PHS) slabs. The principal characteristics of anisotropy in the subducted and subducting plates are (1) in the overriding plate, the distribution pattern of fast direction of crustal anisotropy coincides with that of the strike of geological structure, (2) in the two oceanic plates, fast propagation directions of P-wave were sub-parallel to the directions of seafloor spreading. Additionally, our tomographic images demonstrate that (1) the bottom of the Median Tectonic Line, the longest fault zone in Japan, reaches to the lower crust, and seems to link to the source region of an inter-plate earthquake along the PHS slab, (2) the segmentation of the PHS slab - the Izu Islands arc, the Nishi-Shichito ridge, and the Shikoku basin - due to the formation history, is reflected in the regional variation of anisotropy. The tomographic study further implies that there might be a fragment of the Pacific slab suggested by a previous study beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area. The overall findings strongly indicate that seismic anisotropy analysis provide potentially useful information to understand a subduction zone.

  3. Arrival time pattern and waiting time distribution of patients in the emergency outpatient department of a tertiary level health care institution of North India

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Yogesh; Goel, Sonu; Singh, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emergency Department (ED) of tertiary health care institute in India is mostly overcrowded, over utilized and inappropriately staffed. The challenges of overcrowded EDs and ill-managed patient flow and admission processes result in excessively long waits for patients. Aim: The objective of the present study was to analyze the patient flow system by assessing the arrival and waiting time distribution of patients in an Emergency out Patient Department (EOPD). Materials and Methods: This short cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the EOPD of a Tertiary level health care Institution in North India in the month of May, 2011. The data was obtained from 591 patients, who were present in the EOPD during the month of May, 2011. The waiting time, inter arrival time between two consecutive patients were calculated in addition to the daily census data (discharge rate, admission rate and transfer out rates etc.) of the emergency. Results: Arrival time pattern of patients in the EOPD was highly stochastic with the peak arrival hours to be 9.00-12.00 h in which around 26.3% patients arrived in the EOPD. The primary waiting areas of patients included patients under observation (29.6%); waiting for routine diagnostic tests (16.4%) and waiting for discharge (14.6%). Around 71% patients were waiting due to reasons within emergency complex. Conclusion: The patient flow of the ED could only be addressed by multifaceted, multidisciplinary and hospital wide approach. PMID:25114424

  4. P-wave anisotropic velocity tomography beneath the Japan islands: Large-scale images and details in the Kanto district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, M.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Oda, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Japan islands arc is located in the convergence zone of the North American (NA), Amurian (AM), Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates, and its parts are exposed to various tectonic settings. For example, at the Kanto district in its central part, these four plates directly interact with each, so that disastrous future earthquakes are expected along the plate boundaries and within the inland areas. In order to understand this sort of complex tectonic setting, it is necessary to know the seismological structure in various perspectives. We investigate the seismic velocity structure beneath the Japan islands in view of P-wave anisotropy. We improved a hitherto-known P-wave tomography technique so that the 3-D structure of isotropic and anisotropic velocities and earthquake hypocenter locations are determined from P-wave arrival times of local earthquakes [Ishise and Oda, 2005]. In the tomography technique, P-wave anisotropy is assumed to hold hexagonal symmetry with horizontal symmetry axis. The P-wave arrival times used in this study are complied in the Japan University Network Earthquake Catalog. The results obtained are summarized as follows; (1) the upper crust anisotropy is governed by the present-day stress field arising from the interaction between the plates surrounding the Japan islands arc, (2) the mantle anisotropy is caused by the present-day mantle flow induced by slab subduction and continental plate motion, (3) the old PAC slab keeps its original slab anisotropy which was captured when the plate was formed, while the youngest part of the PHS slab has lost the original anisotropy during its subduction and has gained new anisotropy which is controlled by the present-day stress field. We also carried out a further study on high-resolution seismic tomography for understanding the specific characteristics of the Kanto district. We mostly focused on the elucidation of the dual subduction formed by the PHS and PAC slabs using seismological data

  5. Search for Coincidences in Time and Arrival Direction of Auger Data with Astrophysical Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-06-01

    The data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for coincidences between the arrival directions of high-energy cosmic rays and the positions in the sky of astrophysical transients. Special attention is directed towards gamma ray observations recorded by NASA's Swift mission, which have an angular resolution similar to that of the Auger surface detectors. In particular, we check our data for evidence of a signal associated with the giant flare that came from the soft gamma repeater 1806-20 on December 27, 2004.

  6. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of Damavand Volcano, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafanejad, A.; Shomali, H.

    2009-04-01

    Damavand volcano is the highest peak in the Middle East ( 5670 m ). It is a large intraplate composite cone representing an accumulation of more than 400 km3 of trachyandesite lavas and pyroclastic material overlying the active fold and-thrust belt of the Alborz Mountains,the range that fringes the southern Caspian Sea. It shows fumarolic activity near the summit but no evidence of eruption in the past 1000 yr. The target region, Damavand volcano, is a Quaternary age volcano laying about 65 km northeast of Tehran metropolitan, Iran. A data set of over 1200 earthquakes recorded on a local 19 station short-period network between 1996 and 2006 provided by the Iranian Seismological Centre (ISC) is used for inversion in a well constrained and worldwide adopted code (SIMULPS). A 3-D velocity model beneath Damavand volcano has been obtained through inversion of P-wave arrivals of local earthquakes. About 1200 seismic events distributed around this volcano from surface up to a depth of about 30 km have been used to infer the P-wave velocity structure. The seismic arrival times were directly inverted using a 1D velocity model optimally representing the background structure. We used different grid spacing that provided detailed images of the volcano in order to investigate whether or not the anomalies are resolved by the data or are artifacts of the inversion. The resolution analysis carefully performed on the model parameters allowed the determination of a more reliable final model that represented the best results for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. The final model revealed an anomalous structure with a high velocity anomaly located beneath the volcano and a low velocity anomaly dominated the shallower depths. The spatial pattern of 3D velocity anomalies resolved in the region appears to be correlated at surface with the distribution of seismicity and major tectonic units and faults.

  7. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  8. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM).

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission. PMID:26754955

  9. Predicting the Arrival Time of Coronal Mass Ejections with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell and Drag Force Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tong; Wang, Yikang; Wan, Linfeng; Cheng, Xin; Ding, Mingde; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Accurately predicting the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Earth based on remote images is of critical significance for the study of space weather. In this paper, we make a statistical study of 21 Earth-directed CMEs, specifically exploring the relationship between CME initial speeds and transit times. The initial speed of a CME is obtained by fitting the CME with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and is thus free of projection effects. We then use the drag force model to fit results of the transit time versus the initial speed. By adopting different drag regimes, i.e., the viscous, aerodynamics, and hybrid regimes, we get similar results, with a least mean estimation error of the hybrid model of 12.9 hr. CMEs with a propagation angle (the angle between the propagation direction and the Sun–Earth line) larger than their half-angular widths arrive at the Earth with an angular deviation caused by factors other than the radial solar wind drag. The drag force model cannot be reliably applied to such events. If we exclude these events in the sample, the prediction accuracy can be improved, i.e., the estimation error reduces to 6.8 hr. This work suggests that it is viable to predict the arrival time of CMEs to the Earth based on the initial parameters with fairly good accuracy. Thus, it provides a method of forecasting space weather 1–5 days following the occurrence of CMEs.

  10. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission. PMID:26754955

  11. 3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Crust and Relocation of Earthquakes in 21 the Lushan Source Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.

    2014-12-01

    The double difference seismic tomography method is applied to the absolute first arrival P wave arrival times and high quality relative P arrival times of the Lushan seismic sequence to determine the detailed crustal 3D P wave velocity structure and the hypocenter parameters in the Lushan seismic area. The results show that the Lushan mainshock locates at 30.28 N, 103.98 E, with the depth of 16.38 km. The leading edge of aftershock in the northeast of mainshock present a spade with a steep dip angle, the aftershocks' extended length is about 12 km. In the southwest of the Lushan mainshock, the leading edge of aftershock in low velocity zone slope gently, the aftershocks' extended length is about 23 km. The P wave velocity structure of the Lushan seismic area shows obviously lateral heterogeneity. The P wave velocity anomalies represent close relationship with topographic relief and geological structure. In Baoxing area the complex rocks correspond obvious high-velocity anomalies extending down to 15 km depth,while the Cenozoic rocks are correlated with low-velocity anomalies. Our high-resolution tomographic model not only displays the general features contained in the previous models, but also reveals some new features. An obvious high-velocity anomaly is visible in Daxing area. The high-velocity anomalies beneath Baoxing and Daxing connect each other in 10 km depth, which makes the contrast between high and low velocity anomalies more sharp. Above 20 km depth the velocity structure in southwest and northeast segment of the mainshock shows a big difference: low-velocity anomalies are dominated the southwest segment, while high-velocity anomalies rule the northeast segment. The Lushan mainshock locates at the leading edge of a low-velocity anomaly surrounded by the Baoxing and Daxing high-velocity anomalies. The Lushan aftershocks in southwest are distributed in low-velocity anomalies or the transition belt: the footwall represents low-velocity anomalies, while

  12. Using soft X-ray observations to help the prediction of flare related interplanetary shocks arrival times at the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.-L.; Qin, G.

    2012-04-01

    It is very important to predict the shock arrival times (SATs) at Earth for space weather practice. In this paper we use the energy of soft X-ray during solar flare events to help predict the SATs at Earth. We combine the soft X-ray energy and SAT prediction models previously developed by researchers to obtain two new methods. By testing the methods with the total of 585 solar flare events following the generation of a metric type II radio burst during the Solar Cycle 23 from September 1997 to December 2006, we find that the predictions of SATs at Earth could be improved by significantly increasing PODn, the proportion of events without shock detection that were correctly forecast. PODn represents a method's ability in forecasting the solar flare events without shocks arriving at the Earth, which is important for operational predictions.

  13. The NANOGrav Nine-year Data Set: Observations, Arrival Time Measurements, and Analysis of 37 Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The NANOGrav Collaboration; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Brazier, Adam; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney; Chatterjee, Shami; Christy, Brian; Cordes, James M.; Cornish, Neil; Crowter, Kathryn; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin A.; Ferdman, Robert D.; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Garver-Daniels, Nathan; Gonzalez, Marjorie E.; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Jones, Glenn; Jones, Megan L.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Koop, Michael; Lam, Michael T.; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Levin, Lina; Lommen, Andrea N.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Luo, Jing; Lynch, Ryan S.; Madison, Dustin; McLaughlin, Maura A.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Nice, David J.; Palliyaguru, Nipuni; Pennucci, Timothy T.; Ransom, Scott M.; Siemens, Xavier; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Stinebring, Daniel R.; Stovall, Kevin; Swiggum, Joseph K.; Vallisneri, Michele; van Haasteren, Rutger; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Weiwei

    2015-11-01

    We present high-precision timing observations spanning up to nine years for 37 millisecond pulsars monitored with the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project. We describe the observational and instrumental setups used to collect the data, and methodology applied for calculating pulse times of arrival; these include novel methods for measuring instrumental offsets and characterizing low signal-to-noise ratio timing results. The time of arrival data are fit to a physical timing model for each source, including terms that characterize time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-dependent pulse shape evolution. In conjunction with the timing model fit, we have performed a Bayesian analysis of a parameterized timing noise model for each source, and detect evidence for excess low-frequency, or “red,” timing noise in 10 of the pulsars. For 5 of these cases this is likely due to interstellar medium propagation effects rather than intrisic spin variations. Subsequent papers in this series will present further analysis of this data set aimed at detecting or limiting the presence of nanohertz-frequency gravitational wave signals.

  14. Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1987-03-10

    An apparatus is disclosed for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously. 3 figs.

  15. Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously.

  16. Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1983-10-18

    An apparatus for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously.

  17. High Resolution Telesesimic P-wave Back-Projection Imaging Using Variable Travel Time Corrections: Characterizing Sub-Events of the Great April 11th 2012 Indian Ocean Intraplate Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, K. B.; Koper, K. D.; Yue, H.; Lay, T.

    2012-12-01

    Two of the largest strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded occurred off the coast of northern Sumatra on April 11th 2012. The Mw 8.7 mainshock and Mw 8.2 aftershock occurred east of the NinetyEast Ridge in the Wharton Basin, a region of intraplate deformation with prominent fracture zones striking NNE-SSW. The relative lack of geodetic and local seismic data compared to other recent great earthquakes make teleseismic data especially important for understanding the rupture properties of these events. We performed short-period P-wave back-projection imaging using independent networks of stations in Europe and Japan. Preliminary images from the two networks showed similarly complex multi-event sources for the mainshock that indicate rupture occurred along both nodal planes of the gCMT solution, consistent with the locations of early aftershocks. Back-projection images of the Mw 8.2 aftershock showed a single, compact, bilateral rupture corresponding to the NNE-SSW nodal plane of the CMT solution [Yue et al., 2012]. Here we improve upon the resolution and accuracy of our initial back-projection images by estimating station specific travel time corrections that vary across the source region [e.g., Ishii et al., 2007]. These corrections are used to compensate for 3D variations in Earth structure that occur between the source region and the seismometers, and act to focus the array beams. We perform multi-channel cross-correlations of P waves recorded for 7 aftershocks that were (1) distributed broadly around the source region and (2) well-observed at seismometers in Europe. For each seismometer in the array, the 8 measured static corrections are smoothly interpolated over the entire source region with a Kriging method to form a travel time correction surface. These surfaces are then used with an otherwise conventional back-projection approach [Xu et al., 2009] to image the ruptures. Our new images are broadly consistent with our original results, indicating that the

  18. 3-D P Wave Velocity Structure of Marmara Region Using Local Earthquake Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Işık, S. E.; Gurbuz, C.

    2014-12-01

    The 3D P wave velocity model of upper and lower crust of the Marmara Region between 40.200- 41.200N and 26.500- 30.500E is obtained by tomographic inversion (Simulps) of 47034 P wave arrivals of local earthquakes recorded at 90 land stations between October 2009 and December 2012 and 30 OBO stations and 14162 shot arrivals recorded at 35 OBO stations (Seismarmara Survey, 2001). We first obtained a 1D minimum model with Velest code in order to obtain an initial model for 3D inversion with 648 well located earthquakes located within the study area. After several 3D inversion trials we decided to create a more adequate initial model for 3D inversion. Choosing the initial model we estimated the 3D P wave velocity model representing the whole region both for land and sea. The results are tested by making Checkerboard , Restoring Resolution and Characteristic Tests, and the reliable areas of the resulting model is defined in terms of RDE, DWS, SF and Hit count distributions. By taking cross sections from the resulting model we observed the vertical velocity change along profiles crossing both land and sea. All the profiles crossing the basins showed that the high velocities of lower crust make extensions towards the basin area which looks like the force that gives a shape to the basins. These extensions of lower crust towards the basins appeared with an average velocity of 6.3 km/s which might be the result of the deformation due the shearing in the region. It is also interpreted that the development of these high velocities coincide with the development of the basins. Thus, both the basins and the high velocity zones around them might be resulted from the entrance of the NAF into the Marmara Sea and at the same time a shear regime was dominated due to the resistance of the northern Marmara Region (Yılmaz, 2010). The seismicity is observed between 5 km and 15 km after the 3D location of the earthquakes. The locations of the earthquakes improved and the seismogenic zone

  19. P-wave velocity structure beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Kim, K.; Jin, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the tree-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula using teleseismic P waves. The data came from the seven land stations of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA) campaigned during 1997-1999, a permanent IRIS/GSN station (PMSA), and 3 seismic stations installed at scientific bases, Esperanza (ESPZ), Jubany (JUBA), and King Sejong (KSJ), in South Shetland Islands. All of the seismic stations are located in coast area, and the signal to noise ratios (SNR) are very low. The P-wave model was inverted from 95 earthquakes resulting in 347 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals. The inverted model shows a strong low velocity anmaly beneath the Bransfield Strait, and a fast anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands. The low velocity anomaly beneath the Bransfield might be due to a back arc extension, and the fast velocity anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands could indicates the cold subducted slab.

  20. Surface Sediment Effects on Teleseismic P Wave Ground Displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Nolet, G.; Dahlen, F. A.

    2001-12-01

    Large scatter in short-period body-wave amplitude measurements over short distances have been widely observed. "Station corrections" are essential when amplitude data are applied to determine event magnitude, and, occasionally, to explore deeper subsurface structures. In this paper, we investigated the effects of surface sediments on teleseismic P wave displacement amplitude assuming layered crust structures. Local scattering effects are ignored since we are interested in the teleseismic waves with dominant frequency well below 1 Hz. Generally, displacements are amplified as seismic waves propagate into a low-impedance sediment layer. As the wavefield interacts with a surface sediment layer, P wave reverberations de-amplify the ground displacement recorded by seismic sensors at the surface. The de-amplification effect is dependent on the period of the seismic wave. Numerical calculations show when the period of the seismic wave is much longer than P wave 2-way travel time in the surface sediment layer, it doesn't "feel" the existance of the sediment layer, which leaves amplitudes intact except for about a factor of 2 amplification effect caused by the free-surface. At shorter period, the amplification effect is approximately linearly-dependent on the period of seismic waves. When the period of seismic wave is short and within a couple of times of the P wave 2-way travel time in the sediment, the amplification effects varies greatly over a small range of seismic wave period. It indicates that surface displacement amplitude of high-frequency P wave could vary laterally up to an order of magnitude where P wave velocity in the surface weathering layer is low (less than few hundred meters per second) and lateral variations of the relative impedance are extremely large. A 7-layer 2x2 degree global crust model, {Crust2.0} (Laske et al) is used to estimate frequency-dependent station corrections in the continents and the stable period range of teleseismic P waves for

  1. Sex-Specific Arrival Times on the Breeding Grounds: Hybridizing Migratory Skuas Provide Empirical Support for the Role of Sex Ratios.

    PubMed

    Lisovski, Simeon; Fröhlich, Anne; von Tersch, Matthew; Klaassen, Marcel; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Ritz, Markus S

    2016-04-01

    In migratory animals, protandry (earlier arrival of males on the breeding grounds) prevails over protogyny (females preceding males). In theory, sex differences in timing of arrival should be driven by the operational sex ratio, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations. However, empirical support for this hypothesis is, to date, lacking. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed arrival data from three populations of the long-distance migratory south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki). These populations differed in their operational sex ratio caused by the unidirectional hybridization of male south polar skuas with female brown skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi). We found that arrival times were protandrous in allopatry, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations when breeding in sympatry. This unique observation is consistent with theoretical predictions that sex-specific arrival times should be influenced by sex ratio and that protogyny should be observed in populations with female-biased operational sex ratio. PMID:27028080

  2. Connecting speeds, directions and arrival times of 22 coronal mass ejections from the sun to 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Möstl, C.; Veronig, A. M.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Peinhart, V.; Amla, K.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Liu, Y. D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Vršnak, B.

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting the in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather and is of general interest for studying the interaction of CMEs with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a single heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, imaging the solar wind density from the Sun to 1 AU, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. We compare the predictions of speed and arrival time for 22 CMEs (in 2008-2012) to the corresponding interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) parameters at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). The list consists of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s{sup –1}). We track the CMEs to 34.9 ± 7.1 deg elongation from the Sun with J maps constructed using the SATPLOT tool, resulting in prediction lead times of –26.4 ± 15.3 hr. The geometrical models we use assume different CME front shapes (fixed-Φ, harmonic mean, self-similar expansion) and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant superiority in the predictive capability of any of the three methods. The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.3 hr (rms value of 10.9 hr). Speeds are consistent to within 284 ± 288 km s{sup –1}. Empirical corrections to the predictions enhance their performance for the arrival times to 6.1 ± 5.0 hr (rms value of 7.9 hr), and for the speeds to 53 ± 50 km s{sup –1}. These results are important for Solar Orbiter and a space weather mission positioned away from the Sun-Earth line.

  3. Connecting Speeds, Directions and Arrival Times of 22 Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möstl, C.; Amla, K.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Veronig, A. M.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Peinhart, V.; Davies, J. A.; Lugaz, N.; Liu, Y. D.; Farrugia, C. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Vršnak, B.; Harrison, R. A.; Galvin, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting the in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather and is of general interest for studying the interaction of CMEs with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a single heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, imaging the solar wind density from the Sun to 1 AU, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. We compare the predictions of speed and arrival time for 22 CMEs (in 2008-2012) to the corresponding interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) parameters at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). The list consists of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s-1). We track the CMEs to 34.9 ± 7.1 deg elongation from the Sun with J maps constructed using the SATPLOT tool, resulting in prediction lead times of -26.4 ± 15.3 hr. The geometrical models we use assume different CME front shapes (fixed-Φ, harmonic mean, self-similar expansion) and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant superiority in the predictive capability of any of the three methods. The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.3 hr (rms value of 10.9 hr). Speeds are consistent to within 284 ± 288 km s-1. Empirical corrections to the predictions enhance their performance for the arrival times to 6.1 ± 5.0 hr (rms value of 7.9 hr), and for the speeds to 53 ± 50 km s-1. These results are important for Solar Orbiter and a space weather mission positioned away from the Sun-Earth line.

  4. Connecting speeds, directions and arrival times of 22 coronal mass ejections from the Sun to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möstl, Christian; Amla, Keshav; Hall, Jeff R.; Liewer, Paulett C.; DeJong, Eric M.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Veronig, Astrid M.; Rollett, Tanja; Temmer, Manuela; Peinhart, Vanessa; Davies, Jackie A.; Lugaz, Noé; Liu, Ying; Farrugia, Charles J.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Vrsnak, Bojan; Harrison, Richard A.; Galvin, Antoinette B.

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather, and is of general interest for studying the interaction of the solar wind with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, which is able to image the solar wind density along the full Sun to 1 AU distance, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. Such an instrument is currently in operation on each of the two STEREO spacecraft. We compare the predictions for speed and arrival time for 22 different CME events (between 2008-2012), each observed remotely by one STEREO spacecraft, to the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) speed and arrival time observed at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). We use croissant modeling for STEREO/COR2, and with a single-spacecraft STEREO/HI instrument, we track each CME to 34.9 ± 7.1 degree elongation from the Sun with J-maps constructed with the SATPLOT tool. We then fit geometrical models to each track, assuming different CME front shapes (Fixed-Φ, Harmonic Mean, Self-Similar Expansion), and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant preference in the predictive capability for any of the three geometrical modeling methods used on the full event list, consisting of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s-1). The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.4 hours (rms value of 10.9h), and speeds are consistent within 284 ± 291 km s-1, including the geometric effects of CME apex or flank encounters. We derive new empirical corrections to the imaging results, enhancing the performance of the arrival time predictions to 6.1 ± 5.0 hours (rms value of 7.9h), and the speed predictions to 53 ± 50 km s-1, for this particular set of events. The prediction lead time is around 1 day (-26.4 ± 15.3h). CME directions given by

  5. Alignment of leading-edge and peak-picking time of arrival methods to obtain accurate source locations

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Fox, C.; and Vanderlinde, O.

    2009-08-01

    The location of a radiating source can be determined by time-tagging the arrival of the radiated signal at a network of spatially distributed sensors. The accuracy of this approach depends strongly on the particular time-tagging algorithm employed at each of the sensors. If different techniques are used across the network, then the time tags must be referenced to a common fiducial for maximum location accuracy. In this report we derive the time corrections needed to temporally align leading-edge, time-tagging techniques with peak-picking algorithms. We focus on broadband radio frequency (RF) sources, an ionospheric propagation channel, and narrowband receivers, but the final results can be generalized to apply to any source, propagation environment, and sensor. Our analytic results are checked against numerical simulations for a number of representative cases and agree with the specific leading-edge algorithm studied independently by Kim and Eng (1995) and Pongratz (2005 and 2007).

  6. A New Version of the Shock Propagation Model (SPM2) for Predicting the Arrival Time of Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    Forecasting the arrival time at the near Earth space of interplanetary (IP) shocks following the solar disturbances is one of the important ingredients of space weather prediction. Shock Propagation Model (SPM), based on the analytic solution of the blast wave theory, is one of the models to predict the shock arrival time (SAT). The input parameters of SPM include the initial shock speed, the duration time of the X-ray flare, and the background solar wind speed. Considering the fact that the measurement errors exist in the input parameters as well as the shortage of the theoretical model in real applications, a new version of SPM, called SPM2 is presented with the aim of overcome these shortages. Firstly, SPM is used to train the input data, and an empirical relationship is established to correct for the error in the initial shock speed (computed from the type II burst drafting speed). And the corrected shock speed is used is the SPM2 model. Secondly, a large number of data set during solar cycle 23 are adopted to train the model, and an additional acceleration/deceleration relation is added in SPM2. Thirdly, the propagating direction is introduced as one of the contributing factors to the shock's arrival at Earth, which overcomes the shortage of the isotropy of the blast wave theory in the practice of real prediction. Finally, SPM2 adopts an equivalent Mach number of the shock at 1 AU in order to judge whether or not the shock could reach the Earth. 584 flare-type II related shock events during Solar Cycle 23 are used to test the prediction capability of the SPM2 model. Several standard meteorological forecast skill scores of SPM2 are also computed. The corresponding success rates of SPM2 for both shock and non-shock events at Earth are above 60%, and the application of a x2 test demonstrates that the predictions of the model are statistically significant. As for the predicting accuracy in shock arrival time, the root-mean-square err of △T of SPM2 is less than

  7. Time of arrival of gravid Culex pipiens fatigans at an oviposition site, the oviposition cycle and the relationship between time of feeding and time of oviposition.

    PubMed

    de Meillon, B; Sebastian, A; Khan, Z H

    1967-01-01

    One of the most important activities in a female mosquito's life is the flight to the breeding place and the subsequent deposition of eggs. During this phase, motivated by endogenous and exogenous stimuli, the female is particularly exposed and susceptible to attack. It is therefore important to investigate these episodes in the gravid female's life.The work reported in this paper shows that gravid Culex pipiens fatigans females are easily trapped over breeding-water; there are two peaks in the arrival at a breeding site, one just after sunset and the other at sunrise. The oviposition cycle is biphasic, the two peaks coinciding, in calm weather, with the two arrival peaks; wind and rain cause marked disturbances in the oviposition cycle.The mean duration of the gonotrophic cycle depends on the time of feeding; this finding is of practical importance since the length of the cycle is often used to calculate the daily survival rate of adult mosquitos. It appears that oviposition is stimulated by a change in light: from light to dark for mosquitos ovipositing in the evening and from dark to light for those ovipositing in the morning.Apart from revealing some hitherto unknown behaviour patterns, the techniques evolved could also be used in the assessment of mosquito populations and hence the effects of control measures. PMID:4227196

  8. Position surveillance using one active ranging satellite and time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Frey, R. L.; Lewis, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Position surveillance using one active ranging/communication satellite and the time-of-arrival of signals from an independent satellite was shown to be feasible and practical. A towboat on the Mississippi River was equipped with a tone-code ranging transponder and a receiver tuned to the timing signals of the GOES satellite. A similar transponder was located at the office of the towing company. Tone-code ranging interrogations were transmitted from the General Electric Earth Station Laboratory through ATS-6 to the towboat and to the ground truth transponder office. Their automatic responses included digital transmissions of time-of-arrival measurements derived from the GOES signals. The Earth Station Laboratory determined ranges from the satellites to the towboat and computed position fixes. The ATS-6 lines-of-position were more precise than 0.1 NMi, 1 sigma, and the GOES lines-of-position were more precise than 1.6 NMi, 1 sigma. High quality voice communications were accomplished with the transponders using a nondirectional antenna on the towboat. The simple and effective surveillance technique merits further evaluation using operational maritime satellites.

  9. 3D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and relocation of earthquakes in the Lushan, China, source area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangwei; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Wenbo

    2016-04-01

    Many researchers have investigated the Lushan source area with geological and geophysical approaches since the 2013 Lushan, China, earthquake happened. Compared with the previous tomographic studies, we have used a much large data set and an updated tomographic method to determine a small scale three-dimensional P wave velocity structure with spatial resolution less than 5km, which plays the important role for understanding the deep structure and the genetic mechanism beneath the Lushan area. The double difference seismic tomography method is applied to 50,711 absolute first arrival P wave arrival times and 7,294,691 high quality relative P arrival times of 5,285 events of Lushan seismic sequence to simultaneously determine the detailed crustal 3D P wave velocity structure and the hypocenter parameters in the Lushan seismic area. This method takes account of the path anomaly biases explicitly by making full use of valuable information of seismic wave propagation jointly with absolute and relative arrival time data. Our results show that the Lushan mainshock locates at 30.28N, 103.98E, with the depth of 16.38km. The front edge of aftershock in the northeast of mainshock present a spade with a steep dip angle, the aftershocks' extended length is about 12km. In the southwest of Lushan mainshock, the front edge of aftershock in low velocity zone slope gently, the aftershocks' extended length is about 23km. Our high-resolution tomographic model not only displays the general features contained in the previous models, but also reveals some new features. The Tianquan, Shuangshi and Daguan line lies in the transition zone between high velocity anomalies to the southeast and low velocity anomalies to the northwest at the ground surface. An obvious high-velocity anomaly is visible in Daxing area. With the depth increasing, Baoxing high velocity anomaly extends to Lingguan, while the southeast of the Tianquan, Shuangshi and Daguan line still shows low velocity. The high

  10. Acousto-ultrasonic input-output characterization of unidirectional fiber composite plate by P waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Peter; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The single reflection problem for an incident P wave at a stress free plane boundary in a semi-infinite transversely isotropic medium whose isotropic plane is parallel to the plane boundary is analyzed. It is found that an obliquely incident P wave results in a reflected P wave and a reflected SV wave. The delay time for propagation between the transmitting and the receiving transducers is computed as if the P waves were propagating in an infinite half space. The displacements associated with the P waves in the plate and which may be detected by a noncontact NDE receiving transducer are approximated by an asymptotic solution for an infinite transversely isotropic medium subjected to a harmonic point load.

  11. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment. PMID:26861331

  12. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment. PMID:26861331

  13. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by Mars Observer, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laros, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Hurley, K.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1992 October 4 and 1993 August 1, concurrent coverage by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), Mars Observer (MO), and Ulysses spacecraft was obtained for 78 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the MO and Ulysses thresholds, nine were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to approximately 2 deg accuracy by the CGRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). We computed arrival-time error boxes with larger dimensions ranging from a few arcminutes to the diameters of the BATSE-only boxes and with smaller dimensions in the arcminute range. Three events are of particular interest: GB 930704 (BATSE 2428) has been described as a possible repeater. The arrival-time information is consistent with that hypothesis, but only just so. The GB 930706 (2431) box, at approximately 1 min x 4 min, is the only one this small obtained since Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) entered the Venusian atmosphere in 1992 October. Sensitive radio and optical observations of this location were made within 8 and 9 days of the burst, but no counterpart candidates were identified. GB 930801 (2477) is the first GRB that had its localization improved by taking into account BATSE Earth occultation.

  14. A one-particle time of arrival operator for a free relativistic spin- 0 charged particle in (1 + 1) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunao, Joseph; Galapon, Eric A.

    2015-02-01

    We construct a one-particle TOA operator T ˆ canonically conjugate with the Hamiltonian describing a free, charged, spin- 0, relativistic particle in one spatial dimension and show that it is maximally symmetric. We solve for its eigenfunctions and show that they form a complete and non-orthogonal set. Plotting the time evolution of their corresponding probability densities, it implies that the eigenfunctions become more localized at the origin at the time equal to their eigenvalues. That is, a particle being described by an eigenfunction of T ˆ is in a state of definite arrival time at the origin and at the corresponding eigenvalue. We also calculate the TOA probability distribution of a particle in some initial state.

  15. P-wave and surface wave survey for permafrost analysis in alpine regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godio, A.; Socco, L. V.; Garofalo, F.; Arato, A.; Théodule, A.

    2012-04-01

    of seismic data involved the tomographic interpretation of traveltime P-wave first arrivals by considering the continuous refraction of the ray-paths. Several surface-wave dispersion curves were extracted in f-k domain along the seismic line and then inverted through a laterally constrained inversion algorithm to obtain a pseudo-2D section of S-wave velocity. Georadar investigation (about 2 km of georadar lines in the first site) confirmed the presence both of fine and coarse sediments in the uppermost layer; the seismic data allowed the moraines to be characterized down to 20-25 meters of depth. At the elevation of 2700 m asl, we observed a general decrease of the P-wave traveltimes collected in November, when the near surface layer was in frozen condition, respect to the data acquired in June. The frozen layer is responsible of the inversion of P-wave velocity with depth; the higher velocity layer (frozen) cannot be detected in the tomographic interpretation of refraction tomographic of the P-wave arrivals. Compressional wave velocity ranges from 700 m/s on the uppermost part, to 2000-2500 m/s in the internal part of the sediments reaching values higher than 5000 m/s at depth about 20 m. The analysis of surface wave permitted to estimate a slight increase from summer to winter of the S-wave velocity, in the depth range between 0 to 5 m.

  16. The energy radiated by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake estimated from 10-minute P-wave windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rupture process of the Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake lasted for approximately 500 sec, nearly twice as long as the teleseismic time windows between the P and PP arrival times generally used to compute radiated energy. In order to measure the P waves radiated by the entire earthquake, we analyze records that extend from the P-wave to the S-wave arrival times from stations at distances ?? >60??. These 8- to 10-min windows contain the PP, PPP, and ScP arrivals, along with other multiply reflected phases. To gauge the effect of including these additional phases, we form the spectral ratio of the source spectrum estimated from extended windows (between TP and TS) to the source spectrum estimated from normal windows (between TP and TPP). The extended windows are analyzed as though they contained only the P-pP-sP wave group. We analyze four smaller earthquakes that occurred in the vicinity of the Mw 9.1 mainshock, with similar depths and focal mechanisms. These smaller events range in magnitude from an Mw 6.0 aftershock of 9 January 2005 to the Mw 8.6 Nias earthquake that occurred to the south of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 28 March 2005. We average the spectral ratios for these four events to obtain a frequency-dependent operator for the extended windows. We then correct the source spectrum estimated from the extended records of the 26 December 2004 mainshock to obtain a complete or corrected source spectrum for the entire rupture process (???600 sec) of the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Our estimate of the total seismic energy radiated by this earthquake is 1.4 ?? 1017 J. When we compare the corrected source spectrum for the entire earthquake to the source spectrum from the first ???250 sec of the rupture process (obtained from normal teleseismic windows), we find that the mainshock radiated much more seismic energy in the first half of the rupture process than in the second half, especially over the period range from 3 sec to 40 sec.

  17. On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times from extensive air showers: Application for Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Arsene, N.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2012-11-20

    In this paper we study the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray by observing the muon arrival times in ground detectors. We analyzed extensive air showers (EAS) induced by proton and iron nuclei with the same energy 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV simulated with CORSIKA, and analyzed the muon arrival times at ground measured by the infill array detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO). From the arrival times of the core and of the muons the atmospheric depth of muon generation locus is evaluated. The results suggest a potential mass discrimination on the basis of muon arrival times and of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production. An analysis of a larger set of CORSIKA simulations carried out for primary energies above 10{sup 18} eV is in progress.

  18. Improved frequency and time of arrival estimation methods in search and rescue system based on MEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mo; Li, Rui; Li, Jilin

    2007-11-01

    This paper deals with several key points including parameter estimation such as frequency of arrival (FOA), time of arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm and signal processing techniques in Medium-altitude Earth Orbit Local User Terminals (MEOLUT) based on Cospas-Sarsat Medium-altitude Earth Orbit Search and Rescue system (MEOSAR). Based on an analytical description of distress beacon, improved TOA and FOA estimation methods have been proposed. An improved FOA estimation method which integrates bi-FOA measurement, FFT method, Rife algorithm and Gaussian window is proposed to improve the accuracy of FOA estimation. In addition, TPD algorithm and signal correlation techniques are used to achieve a high performance of TOA estimation. Parameter estimation problems are solved by proposed FOA/TOA methods under quite poor Carrier-to-Noise (C/N0). A number of simulations are done to show the improvements. FOA and TOA estimation error are lower than 0.1Hz and 11μs respectively which is very high system requirement for MEOSAR system MEOLUT.

  19. Lightning First Pulses Used in the "Last" (Time-of-Arrival) and "Atlas" (Single Station) Total Lightning Mapping Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markson, Ralph; Ruhnke, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    The first RF pulse from "total lightning' discharges (cloud and ground flashes) has been used in different ways to locate the origin of flashes in two new types of lightning detection systems. The multisensor LASI time-of-arrival (TOA) system uses GPS timing of the first pulse. The ATLAS single sensor system uses the amplitude of the first pulse, which is invariant in magnitude and polarization for all lightning discharges, to determine distance from the sensor. It is significantly more accurate than past single sensor lightning mapping systems. The polarity of the first pulse generally identifies lightning type (IC or CG). Both systems utilize only the first pulse which makes signal processing much simpler than with previous lightning locating systems. Knowing the position where lightning begins (maximum electric fields, mixed phase hydrometeors and updrafts) is valuable for identifying convective cells producing the hazardous meteorological conditions caused by thunderstorms. It is also important for research studying thunderstorm electrification and associated microphysical problems.

  20. ESTIMATING THE ARRIVAL TIME OF EARTH-DIRECTED CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AT IN SITU SPACECRAFT USING COR AND HI OBSERVATIONS FROM STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Wageesh; Srivastava, Nandita

    2013-07-20

    Predicting the arrival time and transit speed of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Earth is critical to understanding the solar-terrestrial relationship. Even though STEREO observations now provide multiple views of CMEs in the heliosphere, the true speeds derived from stereoscopic reconstruction of SECCHI coronagraph data are not quite sufficient for accurate forecasting of the arrival time at Earth of a majority of CMEs. This uncertainty is due to many factors that change CME kinematics, such as the interaction of two or more CMEs or the interaction of CMEs with the pervading solar wind. In order to understand the propagation of CMEs, we have used the three-dimensional triangulation method on SECCHI coronagraph (COR2) images and geometric triangulation on the J-maps constructed from Heliospheric Imagers HI1 and HI2 data for eight Earth-directed CMEs observed during 2008-2010. Based on the reconstruction, and implementing the drag-based model for the distance where the CMEs could not be tracked unambiguously in the interplanetary (IP) medium, the arrival time of these CMEs have been estimated. These arrival times have also been compared with the actual arrival times as observed by in situ instruments. The analysis reveals the importance of heliospheric imaging for improved forecasting of the arrival time and direction of propagation of CMEs in the IP medium.

  1. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, William R.

    1989-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smelts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clear-water rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time.

  2. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1990-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smolts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time. 10 figs, 15 tabs.

  3. Practical and fast quantum random number generation based on photon arrival time relative to external reference

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2014-02-03

    We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.

  4. Deriving the orbital properties of pulsators in binary systems through their light arrival time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Simon J.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    2015-07-01

    We present the latest developments to the phase modulation method for finding binaries among pulsating stars. We demonstrate how the orbital elements of a pulsating binary star can be obtained analytically, that is, without converting time delays to radial velocities by numerical differentiation. Using the time delays directly offers greater precision, and allows the parameters of much smaller orbits to be derived. The method is applied to KIC 9651065, KIC 10990452 and KIC 8264492, and a set of the orbital parameters is obtained for each system. Radial velocity curves for these stars are deduced from the orbital elements thus obtained.

  5. Effect of method and timing of castration on newly arrived stocker cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of castration method and timing on the performance and health of newly received stocker cattle. Two hundred and seventy-one crossbred male calves (184 bulls, 87 steers; 210 ± 14.7 kg) were purchased at auction barns and shipped in three groups. ...

  6. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D.; Hutchinson, S.W.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests.

  7. Constraining the Size and Depth of a Shallow Crustal Magma Body at Newberry Volcano Using P-Wave Tomography and Finite-Difference Waveform Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beachly, M. W.; Hooft, E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Waite, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Imaging magmatic systems improves our understanding of magma ascent and storage in the crust and contributes to hazard assessment. Seismic tomography reveals crustal magma bodies as regions of low velocity; however the ability of delay-time tomography to detect small, low-velocity bodies is limited by wavefront healing. Alternatively, crustal magma chambers have been identified from secondary phases including P and S wave reflections and conversions. We use a combination of P-wave tomography and finite-difference waveform modeling to characterize a shallow crustal magma body at Newberry Volcano, central Oregon. Newberry's eruptions are silicic within the central caldera and mafic on its periphery suggesting a central silicic magma storage system. The system may still be active with a recent eruption ~1300 years ago and a drill hole temperature of 256° C at only 932 m depth. A low-velocity anomaly previously imaged at 3-5 km beneath the caldera indicates either a magma body or a fractured pluton. With the goal of detecting secondary arrivals from a magma chamber beneath Newberry Volcano, we deployed a line of densely-spaced (~300 m), three-component seismometers that recorded a shot of opportunity from the High Lava Plains Experiment in 2008. The data record a secondary P-wave arrival originating from beneath the caldera. In addition we combine travel-time data from our 2008 experiment with data collected in the 1980's by the USGS for a P-wave tomography inversion to image velocity structure to 6 km depth. The inversion includes 16 active sources, 322 receivers and 1007 P-wave first arrivals. The tomography results reveal a high-velocity, ring-like anomaly beneath the caldera ring faults to 2 km depth that surrounds a shallow low-velocity region. Beneath 2.5 km high-velocity anomalies are concentrated east and west of the caldera. A central low-velocity body lies below 3 km depth. Tomographic inversions of synthetic data suggest that the central low-velocity body

  8. A novel T wave cancellation method based on MAP estimation for P wave extraction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chang-An; Dai, Huhe

    2015-01-01

    P wave and T wave in human-body electrocardiogram (ECG) signals often fuse together when atrial premature contract (APC) occurs. P waves within the fused signals are valuable for the measurement of P wave parameters as well as diagnosis of supra-ventricular arrhythmias. However, the problem of extracting P wave from the fused signals is seldom addressed. In this study, a novel T wave cancellation method for P wave extraction based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation is proposed. In order to accurately cancel the T wave within the fused signal, T wave and the timing point of T wave peak are estimated simultaneously. The estimated timing point of T wave peak is used as alignment reference point for T wave subtraction. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperform the traditional T wave cancellation method in terms of both normalized mean square error and cross-correlation index. The results for real ECGs with APC demonstrate that the extracted P waves using the proposed method are more similar to the non-overlapping P waves in terms of morphology than the ones using the traditional T wave cancellation method. PMID:26405921

  9. A relativistic one-particle Time of Arrival operator for a free spin- 1 / 2 particle in (1 + 1) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunao, Joseph; Galapon, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    As a follow-up to a recent study in the spin-0 case (Bunao and Galapon, 2015), we construct a one-particle Time of Arrival (TOA) operator conjugate to a Hamiltonian describing a free relativistic spin- 1 / 2 particle in one spatial dimension. Upon transformation in a representation where the Hamiltonian is diagonal, it turns out that the constructed operator consists of an operator term T ˆ whose action is the same as in the spin-0 case, and another operator term Tˆ0 which commutes with the Hamiltonian but breaks invariance under parity inversion. If we must impose this symmetry on our TOA operator, then we can throw away Tˆ0 so that the TOA operator is just T ˆ .

  10. P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhtia, Anand

    2012-01-01

    A variational wave function incorporating short range correlations via Hylleraas type functions plus long-range polarization terms of the polarized orbital type but with smooth cut-off factors has been used to calculate P-wave phase shifts for electron-hydrogen scattering. This approach gives the direct r(exp -4) potential and a non-local optical potential which is definite. The resulting phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the convergence is much faster than those obtained without the modification of the target function. Final results will be presented at the conference.

  11. P wave attenuation structure below the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.; Hirata, N.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Lee, C.

    2010-12-01

    The material properties of the complex subduction zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan can be estimated by the seismic attenuation Q-1 of seismic waves observed at local seismic stations. The attenuation of seismic waves is represented by the t* attenuation operator that can be estimated by fitting the observed P wave amplitude spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 source model. The waveform data used in this study are recorded at the dense seismic array of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net). The station network is distributed on five lines with an average spacing of 3 km and in an area with a spacing of 5 km in the central part of Kanto plane. The MeSO-net stations are equipped with a three-component accelerometer at a bottom of a 20-m-deep borehole, signals from which are digitized at a sampling rate of 200 Hz with a dynamic range of 135 dB.The waveforms of 141 earthquakes observed at 226 stations were selected from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list from January 1st 2010 to August 4th 2010. Only high-quality amplitude spectra of earthquakes with M > 3 were used for the estimation of reliable attenuation parameters. The acceleration waveforms were integrated twice to yield the corresponding displacement vectors, applying a high pass filter to remove the effect of the low-frequency background noise. Taking into account that the majority of the events occurred at depth greater than 30 km a search window of 5 sec starting 1 sec before the P wave arrival was implemented for the creation of the dataset. The t* values were estimated from the amplitude spectra of approximately 33800 P wave waveforms conducting a fast Fourier transform analysis. The Q values for the Tokyo Metropolitan area estimate by this study range from 100 to 500 in the upper 30 km of the crust. A site effect on the attenuation near stations inside a densely populated area is also a possible reason for the large Q variations observed.

  12. Automated seismic event location by arrival time stacking: Applications to local and micro-seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Braun, T.; Philipp, J.; Dahm, T.

    2012-04-01

    Locating seismic events is one of the oldest problem in seismology. In microseismicity application, when the number of event is very large, it is not possible to locate earthquake manually and automated location procedures must be established. Automated seismic event location at different scales is very important in different application areas, including mining monitoring, reservoir geophysics and early warning systems. Location is needed to start rescue operations rapidly. Locating and mapping microearthquakes or acoustic emission sources in mining environments is important for monitoring of mines stability. Mapping fractures through microseimicity distribution inside hydrocarbon reservoirs is needed to find areas with an higher permeability and enhance oil production. In the last 20 years a large number of picking algorithm was developed in order to locate seismic events automatically. While P onsets can now be accurately picked using automatic routines, the automatic picking of later seismic phases (including S onset) is still problematic , thus limiting the location performance. In this work we present a picking free location method based on the use of the Short-Term-Average/Long-Term-Average (STA/LTA) traces at different stations as observed data. For different locations and origin times, observed STA/LTA are stacked along the travel time surface corresponding to the selected hypocentre. Iterating this procedure on a three-dimensional grid we retrieve a multidimensional matrix whose absolute maximum corresponds to the spatio-temporal coordinates of the seismic event. We tested our methodology on synthetic data, simulating different environments and network geometries. Finally, we apply our method to real datasets related to microseismic activity in mines and earthquake swarms in Italy. This work has been funded by the German BMBF "Geotechnologien" project MINE (BMBF03G0737A).

  13. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, Richard J.; Buettner, Edwin W.

    1986-02-01

    Hatcheries released 9.3 million chinook salmon and 6.3 million steelhead smolts and presmolts upriver from Lower Granite Reservoir for migration in spring, 1984. Peak passage of yearling chinook salmon occurred the third week in April at both Whitebird and Snake River traps. Passage of steelhead was still increasing when high water stopped trapping in mid-May. Average migration rate between release sites and Snake River (the head of Lower Granite Reservoir) was 13.2 miles/day and from that point on through the reservoir to the dam, 1.9 miles/day. Salmon River discharge, when considered along with other environmental factors, had the greatest effect on migration rate of smolts branded both at hatcheries and at the Whitebird trap and migrating to the head of Lower Granite Reservoir. Migration rate for steelhead released from Dworshak Hatchery and recaptured at the Clearwater trap was 34 miles/day. Survival rates to the Snake River trap of branded chinook salmon smolts released at Hells Canyon Dam, Rapid River, South Fork Salmon and Decker Flat were 52%, 65%, 68% and 35%, respectively. Classical descaling, where at least 40% of the scales are missing from at least two of five areas on the side of a smolt, ranged from 0 to 5.3% at hatcheries for chinook salmon and was less than 1% for steelhead. Scattered descaling, where at least 10% of scales are missing from at least one side of a fish, was always more extensive than was classical descaling, ranging from 2.5 times greater for Clearwater hatchery steelhead to 6.8 times greater for Clearwater wild steelhead. Mean total length of chinook salmon yearlings was the same at all the traps, i.e., 128 mm (117 mm fork length) +- 1 mm.

  14. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1987-09-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smolts during the 1986 spring outmigration at two migrant traps, one each on the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Average migration rates for freeze-branded chinook salmon smolts were 28.2 km per day and 22.1 km per day for steelhead trout smolts between release sites and the head of Lower Granite Reservoir. The yearling chinook salmon migration begins in earnest when Salmon River discharge makes a significant rise in early to mid-April. Most yearling chinook salmon pass into Lower Granite Reservoir in April followed by passage of steelhead trout in May. Chinook salmon smolt recapture data from the Snake River trap suggest a strong dependence of migration rate on quantity of Snake and Salmon River discharge, although no statistical correlation exists at this time. Daily and seasonal descaling rates were calculated for each species at each trap. Rates were highest for hatchery steelhead trout, intermediate for yearling chinook salmon, and lowest for wild steelhead trout. Descaling rates were generally higher in 1986 than those observed in 1984 and 1985. 4 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. One dimensional P wave velocity structure of the crust beneath west Java and accurate hypocentre locations from local earthquake inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Supardiyono; Santosa, Bagus Jaya

    2012-06-20

    A one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and station corrections for the West Java zone were computed by inverting P-wave arrival times recorded on a local seismic network of 14 stations. A total of 61 local events with a minimum of 6 P-phases, rms 0.56 s and a maximum gap of 299 Degree-Sign were selected. Comparison with previous earthquake locations shows an improvement for the relocated earthquakes. Tests were carried out to verify the robustness of inversion results in order to corroborate the conclusions drawn out from our reasearch. The obtained minimum 1-D velocity model can be used to improve routine earthquake locations and represents a further step toward more detailed seismotectonic studies in this area of West Java.

  16. Relating P-wave attenuation to permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, N.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A. . Dept. of Geophysics)

    1993-01-01

    To relate P-wave attenuation to permeability, the authors examine a three-dimensional (3-D) theoretical model of a cylindrical pore filled with viscous fluid and embedded in an infinite isotropic elastic medium. They calculate both attenuation and permeability as functions of the direction of wave propagation. Attenuation estimates are based on the squirt flow mechanism; permeability is calculated using the Kozeny-Carmen relation. They find that in the case when a plane P-wave propagates parallel to this orientation (Q[sup [minus]1][delta] = 90[degree]), attenuation is always higher than when a wave propagates parallel to this orientation (Q[sup [minus]1][delta] = 0[degree]). The ratio of these two attenuation values Q[sup [minus]1][delta] = 90[degree]/Q[sup [minus]1] = 0[degree] increases with an increasing pore radius and decreasing frequency and saturation. By changing permeability, varying the radius of the pore, they find that the permeability-attenuation relation is characterized by a peak that shifts toward lower permeabilities as frequency decreases. Therefore, the attenuation of a low-frequency wave decreases with increasing permeability. They observe a similar trend on relations between attenuation and permeability experimentally obtained on sandstone samples.

  17. Identifying seismic noise sources and their amplitude from P wave microseisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, Jennifer; Harmon, Nicholas; Srokosz, Meric

    2016-04-01

    Understanding sources of seismic noise is important for a range of applications including seismic imagery, time-lapse, and climate studies. For locating sources from seismic data, body waves offer an advantage over surface waves because they can reveal the distance to the source as well as direction. Studies have found that body waves do originate from regions predicted by models (Obrebski et al., 2013), where wave interaction intensity and site effect combine to produce the source (Ardhuin & Herbers, 2013). Here, we undertake a quantitative comparison between observed body wave microseisms and modelled sources- in terms of location, amplitude, and spectral shape- with the aim of understanding how well sources are observed and potentially what they reveal about the underlying ocean wavefield. We used seismic stations from the Southern California Seismic Network, and computed beamformer output as a function of time, frequency, slowness and azimuth. During winter months (October - mid March) the dominant arrivals at frequencies 0.18-0.22 Hz were P waves that originated from the North Pacific, whilst arrivals from the North Atlantic dominated at slightly lower frequencies of 0.16-0.18 Hz. Based on this, we chose to focus on P waves during winter, and back-projected the beamformer energy onto a global grid using P wave travel timetables (following Gerstoft et al., 2008). We modelled the seismic sources using Wavewatch III and site effect coefficients calculated following Ardhuin and Herbers (2013). We output the beamformer and the modelled sources on a 2° global grid averaged over 6 hour periods from September 2012 to September 2014, at seismic frequencies of 0.06 to 0.3 Hz. We then integrated the spectra over the full frequency range. Here we focus on results from the first winter in the North Pacific. Preliminary results indicate that the logarithm of the modelled source and the logarithm of the beamformer output are well described by a two-term exponential model

  18. Anomalous delays of teleseismic P waves in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iyer, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    TELESEISMIC P waves recorded by a short-period seismic network, comprising 12 stations, in Yellowstone National Park, show anomalous delays of 1-2 s in their travel times in the central region of the park relative to the surrounding area. To explain this phenomenon, I propose that a substantial body of low velocity material is present beneath the park, with horizontal dimensions of several tens of kilometres; it may be the magma chamber associated with the volcanism of Yellowstone (ref. 1, and G. P. Eaton et al., unpublished). ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  19. Landing together: How flocks arrive at a coherent action in time and space in the presence of perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdinandy, B.; Bhattacharya, K.; Ábel, D.; Vicsek, T.

    2012-02-01

    Collective motion is abundant in nature, producing a vast amount of phenomena which have been studied in recent years, including the landing of flocks of birds. We investigate the collective decision making scenario where a flock of birds decides the optimal time of landing in the absence of a global leader. We introduce a simple phenomenological model in the spirit of the statistical mechanics-based self-propelled particles (SPPs) approach to interpret this process. We expect that our model is applicable to a larger class of spatiotemporal decision making situations than just the landing of flocks (which process is used as a paradigmatic case). In the model birds are only influenced by observable variables, like position and velocity. Heterogeneity is introduced in the flock in terms of a depletion time after which a bird feels increasing bias to move towards the ground. Our model demonstrates a possible mechanism by which animals in a large group can arrive at an egalitarian decision about the time of switching from one activity to another in the absence of a leader. In particular, we show the existence of a paradoxical effect where noise enhances the coherence of the landing process.

  20. Holographic p-wave superconductor with disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areán, D.; Farahi, A.; Pando Zayas, L. A.; Salazar Landea, I.; Scardicchio, A.

    2015-07-01

    We implement the effects of disorder on a holographic p-wave superconductor by introducing a random chemical potential which defines the local energy of the charge carriers. Since there are various possibilities for the orientation of the vector order parameter, we explore the behavior of the condensate in the parallel and perpendicular directions to the introduced disorder. We clarify the nature of various branches representing competing solutions and construct the disordered phase diagram. We find that moderate disorder enhances superconductivity as determined by the value of the condensate. Though we mostly focus on uncorrelated noise, we also consider a disorder characterized by its spectral properties and study in detail its influence on the spectral properties of the condensate and charge density. We find fairly universal responses of the resulting power spectra characterized by linear functions of the disorder power spectrum.

  1. Simulation-based validation and arrival-time correction for Patlak analyses of Perfusion-CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredno, Jörg; Hom, Jason; Schneider, Thomas; Wintermark, Max

    2009-02-01

    Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) breakdown is a hypothesized mechanism for hemorrhagic transformation in acute stroke. The Patlak analysis of a Perfusion Computed Tomography (PCT) scan measures the BBB permeability, but the method yields higher estimates when applied to the first pass of the contrast bolus compared to a delayed phase. We present a numerical phantom that simulates vascular and parenchymal time-attenuation curves to determine the validity of permeability measurements obtained with different acquisition protocols. A network of tubes represents the major cerebral arteries ipsi- and contralateral to an ischemic event. These tubes branch off into smaller segments that represent capillary beds. Blood flow in the phantom is freely defined and simulated as non-Newtonian tubular flow. Diffusion of contrast in the vessels and permeation through vessel walls is part of the simulation. The phantom allows us to compare the results of a permeability measurement to the simulated vessel wall status. A Patlak analysis reliably detects areas with BBB breakdown for acquisitions of 240s duration, whereas results obtained from the first pass are biased in areas of reduced blood flow. Compensating for differences in contrast arrival times reduces this bias and gives good estimates of BBB permeability for PCT acquisitions of 90-150s duration.

  2. Mantle-Lid P Wave Attenuation in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Hong, T.

    2012-12-01

    The mantle-lid P wave, Pn, is the first arrival phase in regional distances. The Pn waves are widely analyzed for estimation of event sizes. Also, it is known that analysis of Pn waves is effective for discrimination of nuclear explosions from natural earthquakes. The attenuation of Pn waves provides us information on medium properties in mantle lid. It is crucial to understand the nature of Pn attenuation for correct estimation of event sizes from Pn amplitudes. We investigate the lateral variation of Pn attenuation in the mantle lid of the Korean Peninsula from vertical regional seismograms for events around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands. The number of events is 149, and the focal depths are less than 50 km. The seismic records with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 1.5 are analyzed. The number of stations is 121. The Pn quality factors are calculated using a two-station method in which ratios of Pn displacement spectra of stations on the same azimuths are used. The power-law frequency dependence term is estimated using a least-squares fitting for quality factors at frequencies from 0.37 Hz to 25 Hz. The number of station pairs is 3317. The average quality factor at 1 Hz is determined to be about 67, which is consistent with previous studies. We present the resultant Pn attenuation model, and discuss the correlations with geological and geophysical properties in the medium.

  3. Joint inversion of gravity and arrival time data from Parkfield: New constraints on structure and hypocenter locations near the SAFOD drill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roecker, S.; Thurber, C.; McPhee, D.

    2004-01-01

    Taking advantage of large datasets of both gravity and elastic wave arrival time observations available for the Parkfield, California region, we generated an image consistent with both types of data. Among a variety of strategies, the best result was obtained from a simultaneous inversion with a stability requirement that encouraged the perturbed model to remain close to a starting model consisting of a best fit to the arrival time data. The preferred model looks essentially the same as the best-fit arrival time model in areas where ray coverage is dense, with differences being greatest at shallow depths and near the edges of the model where ray paths are few. Earthquake locations change by no more than about 100 m, the general effect being migration of the seismic zone to the northeast, closer to the surface trace of the San Andreas Fault. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. P wave radial anisotropy tomography of the upper mantle beneath the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Huohua; Zhao, Dapeng

    2014-06-01

    present the first P wave radial anisotropy tomography of the crust and upper mantle beneath the North China Craton (NCC), determined using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events. Our results show a prominent high-velocity (high-V) anomaly down to ˜250 km depth beneath the Ordos block, a high-V anomaly in the mantle transition zone beneath the eastern NCC, and a low-velocity (low-V) anomaly down to ˜300 km depth beneath the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO). The Ordos block exhibits significant negative radial anisotropy (i.e., vertical Vp > horizontal Vp), suggesting that its cratonic lithosphere has kept the frozen-in anisotropy formed by vertical growth via high-degree melting mantle plume in the early Earth. Prominent low-V anomalies with positive radial anisotropy (i.e., horizontal Vp > vertical Vp) exist beneath the Qilian and Qaidam blocks down to ˜400 km depth, suggesting that the horizontal material flow resulting from the Tibetan Plateau is blocked by the Ordos thick lithosphere. Beneath the eastern NCC, high-V anomalies with negative radial anisotropy exist in the upper mantle, possibly reflecting sinking remains of the Archean cratonic lithosphere. A high-V anomaly with positive radial anisotropy is revealed in the mantle transition zone under the eastern NCC, which reflects the stagnant Pacific slab.

  5. Crustal structure of Nigeria and Southern Ghana, West Africa from P-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpan, Ofonime; Nyblade, Andrew; Okereke, Chiedu; Oden, Michael; Emry, Erica; Julià, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    We report new estimates of crustal thickness (Moho depth), Poisson's ratio and shear-wave velocities for eleven broadband seismological stations in Nigeria and Ghana. Data used for this study came from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° and with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5. P-wave receiver functions were modeled using the Moho Ps arrival times, H-k stacking, and joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The average crustal thickness of the stations in the Neoproterozoic basement complex of Nigeria is 36 km, and 23 km for the stations in the Cretaceous Benue Trough. The crustal structure of the Paleoproterozoic Birimian Terrain, and Neoproterozoic Dahomeyan Terrain and Togo Structural Unit in southern Ghana is similar, with an average Moho depth of 44 km. Poisson's ratios for all the stations range from 0.24 to 0.26, indicating a bulk felsic to intermediate crustal composition. The crustal structure of the basement complex in Nigeria is similar to the average crustal structure of Neoproterozoic terrains in other parts of Africa, but the two Neoproterozoic terrains in southern Ghana have a thicker crust with a thick mafic lower crust, ranging in thickness from 12 to 17 km. Both the thicker crust and thick mafic lower crustal section are consistent with many Precambrian suture zones, and thus we suggest that both features are relict from the collisional event during the formation of Gondwana.

  6. Reactivation and mantle dynamics of North China Craton: insight from P-wave anisotropy tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, You; Zhao, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    We determined the first 3-D P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath the North China Craton (NCC) using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events, which reveals depth-dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle down to 600 km depth. In the NCC western block, the fast velocity direction (FVD) varies from east-west in the southern part to northeast-southwest in the northern part, which may reflect either the interaction between the Yangtze block and NCC or fossil lithospheric fabrics in the craton. Under the NCC eastern block, a uniform northwest-southeast FVD is revealed in the lower part of the upper mantle (300-410 km depths) and the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depths), which may reflect horizontal and upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. The NCC central block exhibits a northeast-southwest FVD, consistent with the surface tectonic orientation there, suggesting that the cold and thick (>300 km) cratonic root of the NCC western block may obstruct the northwest-southeast trending mantle flow induced by the Pacific Plate subduction, resulting in a northeast-southwest trending mantle flow under the central block. Our present results indicate that the corner flow in the BMW associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific Plate is the main cause of NCC reactivation and mantle dynamics under East China.

  7. ARRIVAL TIME CALCULATION FOR INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH CIRCULAR FRONTS AND APPLICATION TO STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2009 FEBRUARY 13 ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Moestl, C.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Biernat, H. K.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Crothers, S.; Luhmann, J. G.; Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.

    2011-11-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is to study the feasibility of forecasting the direction, arrival time, and internal structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a vantage point outside the Sun-Earth line. Through a case study, we discuss the arrival time calculation of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) in the ecliptic plane using data from STEREO/SECCHI at large elongations from the Sun in combination with different geometric assumptions about the ICME front shape [fixed-{Phi} (FP): a point and harmonic mean (HM): a circle]. These forecasting techniques use single-spacecraft imaging data and are based on the assumption of constant velocity and direction. We show that for the slow (350 km s{sup -1}) ICME on 2009 February 13-18, observed at quadrature by the two STEREO spacecraft, the results for the arrival time given by the HM approximation are more accurate by 12 hr than those for FP in comparison to in situ observations of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters by STEREO/IMPACT/PLASTIC, and by 6 hr for the arrival time at Venus Express (MAG). We propose that the improvement is directly related to the ICME front shape being more accurately described by HM for an ICME with a low inclination of its symmetry axis to the ecliptic. In this case, the ICME has to be tracked to >30{sup 0} elongation to obtain arrival time errors < {+-} 5 hr. A newly derived formula for calculating arrival times with the HM method is also useful for a triangulation technique assuming the same geometry.

  8. Bolus arrival time and its effect on tissue characterization with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Gupta, Sandeep N; Shanbhag, Dattesh; Miller, James V; Kapur, Tina; Fennessy, Fiona M; Kikinis, Ron; Fedorov, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Matching the bolus arrival time (BAT) of the arterial input function (AIF) and tissue residue function (TRF) is necessary for accurate pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We investigated the sensitivity of volume transfer constant ([Formula: see text]) and extravascular extracellular volume fraction ([Formula: see text]) to BAT and compared the results of four automatic BAT measurement methods in characterization of prostate and breast cancers. Variation in delay between AIF and TRF resulted in a monotonous change trend of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] values. The results of automatic BAT estimators for clinical data were all comparable except for one BAT estimation method. Our results indicate that inaccuracies in BAT measurement can lead to variability among DCE-MRI PK model parameters, diminish the quality of model fit, and produce fewer valid voxels in a region of interest. Although the selection of the BAT method did not affect the direction of change in the treatment assessment cohort, we suggest that BAT measurement methods must be used consistently in the course of longitudinal studies to control measurement variability. PMID:26989759

  9. Evidence for a bimaterial interface along the Mudurnu segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from polarization analysis of P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, Fatih; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Bohnhoff, Marco

    2012-04-01

    We present results on imaging contrast of seismic velocities across the Mudurnu segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in northwestern Turkey with polarization analysis of early P waveforms generated by near-fault seismicity and recorded by near-fault stations. The analysis uses changes in motion polarity from fault-normal to source-receiver directions to identify early-arriving fault zone head waves on the slow side of the fault, and measure the arrival times of the head and direct P waves. The moveout between the head and direct waves with increasing source-receiver distance along the fault provides an estimate of the average contrast of seismic velocities across the fault. The results indicate that the average contrast of P wave velocities across the Mudurnu segment of the NAFZ is at least 6%, with the south block being the faster side. The findings provide a basis for deriving improved event locations, focal mechanisms and estimated shaking hazard associated with earthquakes on the fault. The analysis technique can be used in other fault zones monitored with sparse seismic instrumentation.

  10. Estimating Attenuation Coefficients and P-Wave Velocities of the Shallow San Jacinto Fault Zone from Betsy Gunshots Data Recorded by a Spatially Dense Array with 1108 Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozakin, Yaman; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-04-01

    We estimate values of P wave velocity and P attenuation coefficients (QP) for the subsurface material at the Sage Brush Flat site along the Clark branch of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. The data are generated by 33 Betsy gunshots and recorded by a spatially dense array of 1108 vertical component geophones deployed in a rectangular grid that is approximately 600 m x 600 m. We automatically pick the arrival times of the seismic body waves from each explosion arriving at stations within 200 m. These measurements are used to derive an average velocity map with velocity values ranging from 500 m/s to 1250 m/s. We estimate the energy of the early P waves by squaring the amplitudes in a short window relative to the automatic picks. These energies are fitted to a decay function representing the geometrical spreading and intrinsic attenuation. By separating the stations into spatial bins and calculating attenuation values for each by linear regression, we construct a QP values map. Most of the QP values are in 5-20 range, which is consistent with other studies of shallow fault zone regions.

  11. Estimates of velocity structure and source depth using multiple P waves from aftershocks of the 1987 Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills, California, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mori, J.

    1991-01-01

    Event record sections, which are constructed by plotting seismograms from many closely spaced earthquakes recorded on a few stations, show multiple free-surface reflections (PP, PPP, PPPP) of the P wave in the Imperial Valley. The relative timing of these arrivals is used to estimate the strength of the P-wave velocity gradient within the upper 5 km of the sediment layer. Consistent with previous studies, a velocity model with a value of 1.8 km/sec at the surface increasing linearly to 5.8 km/sec at a depth of 5.5 km fits the data well. The relative amplitudes of the P and PP arrivals are used to estimate the source depth for the aftershock distributions of the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills main shocks. Although the depth determination has large uncertainties, both the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills aftershock sequencs appear to have similar depth distribution in the range of 4 to 10 km. -Author

  12. Resolution for a local earthquake arrival time and ambient seismic noise tomography around the Eyjafjallajökull volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsdóttir, Á.; Gudmundsson, Ö.; Tryggvason, A.; Bödvarsson, R.; Brandsdóttir, B.; Vogfjörd; K.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2012-04-01

    The explosive summit eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano from 14 April to end of May 2010 was preceded by an effusive flank eruption of the volcano (at Fimmvörðuháls) March 20th - April 12th. These eruptions culminated 18 years of recurrent volcanic unrest in the area, with extensive seismicity and high deformation rates since beginning of January 2010. A national network of seismic stations in Iceland (the SIL network), operated by he Icelandic Meteorological Office, monitored the precursors and development of the eruptions, in real time. We analyse a seismic dataset available from SIL stations in the vicinity of the eruption area, as well as data from additional portable stations that were deployed during a period of unrest in 1999 and just before and during the eruptions in 2010. The SIL system detected and located 2328 events between early March and late May 2010 in the area around Eyjafjallajökull. Here we present a preliminary evaluation of resolution for a local earthquake arrival time tomography. Adding the portable stations to the pre-existing SIL data set is crucial in order to identify more seismic events and improve the data coverage for tomography. We also present a resolution analysis for Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography (ASNT) in the area. In this method ambient seismic noise, recorded at two seismic stations, is cross-correlated. This band-limited approximation of the Green's function between two stations is used to estimate surface wave velocities. The fundamental assumptions underlying this method is that the noise is constructed from a randomly distributed wavefield, but this may be violated by volcanic tremor during the eruptions. We evaluate the robustness of inter-station correlograms as a function of time during the unrest period as well as their frequency content for evaluation of depth resolution. The results can be compared to constraints on magma movements inside the volcano based on interpretation of crustal deformation and

  13. Seismicity, arrival time delays of the seismic phases and slowness characteristics study in Abu Dabbab area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sami, Mahmoud; Hassoup, Awad; Hosny, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gadelkarem A.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal variations of seismicity from the Abu Dabbab area, 25 km west of the Red Sea coast, are collected from the Egyptian national seismic network (ENSN), which has magnified the detection capability in that area to ML < 1 earthquakes. These data show a sequence of the micro earthquake swarm during 2003-2011. This area has experienced larger shocks up to M = 6 during the 20th century and its seismicity is concentrated in a narrow spatial volume. We analyze the digital waveform data of about 1000 seismograms, recorded by portable network of 10 vertical component seismographs that are employed in a temporary survey experiment in the Abu Dabbab area in 2004, and the results indicate: firstly, there are similar waveform seismograms, which are classified into three groups. In each group a master event is identified. Then, the arrival time delays of the P and S phases (Δtp and Δts, respectively) are measured between the master event and its slave events. Δtp and Δts range between -0.01 and 0.02 s, respectively. These values are used to relocate the studied events. Secondly, the slowness vector (Δs) in 3-dimensional pattern, which is estimated using the genetic algorithms, is found Δsx = 0.0153, Δsy = 0.00093 and Δsz = 0.2086 s/km in the three spatial coordinates (X, Y and Z), respectively. These analyses demonstrate the inhomogeneities within the upper crust of the study area. Also, Δs shows little dependence of lateral distances and reasonably high slowness along the depth extent, which is consistent with the seismic velocity structure variations.

  14. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices. PMID:27447469

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.10 Am I required to record...

  16. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES...

  17. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.10 Am I required to record...

  18. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.10 Am I required to record...

  19. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.10 Am I required to record...

  20. P-wave and S-wave Tomography for Characterizing an Impoundment Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, C. A.; Betterly, S. J.; Romero, S.

    2005-05-01

    A data set consisting of vertical and shear component seismic data was recorded on the crest of an impoundment dam. The data were recorded for the purpose of characterizing the integrity of the dam before transferal of the property to the public domain. Cone penetrometer results were also available for comparison. Four sets of 24 channels were used to record data from 3-component spiked geophones and vertical component data from gimbaled geophones in a parallel land streamer configuration. A sledge hammer with flat plate and spiked shear source was used for vertical, transverse, and inline source orientations. Left-right and front-back hits were used to generate the shear data. At each source location, five orientations of the source were used: vertical, transverse left-right, inline front-back. Thus the final data set consists of nine-component data. A spread consisted of 24 one meter spaced receiver locations. The source was moved through the stationary spread starting and ending two meters off the spread ends for 28 shots per spread. A total of three spreads were shot with spread move-up of one-half spread length. Data processing was done using a diving wave tomography approach and Rayfract software. The tomography approach uses first arrivals. First arrivals for the shear data were picked from differenced transverse shot gathers to remove compressional wave contamination. The transverse shear gathers were equalized before differencing. The resulting P-wave and S-wave velocity profiles were subsequently used to calculate a Poisson's ratio profile for the dam. The P-wave velocity profile shows zones of high velocity, approximately that of water, correlating with suspected zones of seepage. These zones occur at a depth of nine meters. Near the top of the P-wave profile, two low velocity anomalies and one higher velocity anomaly are apparent. No independent data exist to confirm the nature of these anomalies. The S-wave velocity profile does not exhibit the

  1. 3D P-wave velocity structure of the deep Galicia rifted margin: A first analysis of the Galicia 3D wide-angle seismic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakci, Gaye; Minshull, Timothy A.; Davy, Richard G.; Karplus, Marianne S.; Kaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Krabbenhoeft, Anne; Sawyer, Dale; Reston, Timothy J.; Shillington, Donna J.; Ranero, César R.

    2014-05-01

    Galicia 3D, a reflection-refraction and long offset seismic experiment was carried out from May through September 2013, at the Galicia rifted margin (in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain) as a collaboration between US, UK, German and Spanish groups. The 3D multichannel seismic acquisition conducted by R/V Marcus Langseth covered a 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2) zone where the main geological features are the Peridotite Ridge (PR), composed of serpentinized peridotite and thought be upper mantle exhumed to the seafloor during rifting, and the S reflector which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault overlain by fault bounded, rotated, continental crustal blocks. In the 3D box, two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. were fired alternately (in flip-flop configuration) every 37.5 m. All shots are recorded by 44 short period four component ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and 26 ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) deployed and recovered by R/V Poseidon, as well as four 6 km hydrophone streamers with 12.5 m channel spacing towed by R/V Marcus Langseth. We present the preliminary results of the first arrival time tomography study which is carried out with a subset of the wide-angle dataset, in order to generate a 3D P-wave velocity volume for the entire depth sampled by the reflection data. After the relocation of OBSs and OBHs, an automatic first-arrival time picking approach is applied to a subset of the dataset, which comprises more than 5.5 million source-receiver pairs. Then, the first-arrival times are checked visually, in 3-dimensions. The a priori model used for the first-arrival time tomography is built up using information from previous seismic surveys carried out at the Galicia margin (e.g. ISE, 1997). The FAST algorithm of Zelt and Barton (1998) is used for the first-arrival time inversion. The 3D P-wave velocity volume can be used in interpreting the reflection dataset, as a starting point for migration, to quantify the thinning of the crustal layers

  2. Crosswell seismic studies in gas hydrate-bearing sediments: P wave velocity and attenuation tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K.; Haberland, Ch.; Pratt, R. G.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M. H.; Mallik Working Group

    2003-04-01

    We present crosswell seismic data from the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program, an international research project on Gas Hydrates in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The program participants include 8 partners; The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), The Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Department of the Energy (USDOE), India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)/Gas Authority of India (GAIL) and the Chevron-BP-Burlington joint venture group. The crosswell seismic measurements were carried out by making use of two 1160 m deep observation wells (Mallik 3L-38 and 4L-38) both 45 m from and co-planar with the 1188 m deep production research well (5L-38). A high power piezo-ceramic source was used to generate sweeped signals with frequencies between 100 and 2000 Hz recorded with arrays of 8 hydrophones per depth level. A depth range between 800 and 1150 m was covered, with shot and receiver spacings of 0.75 m. High quality data could be collected during the survey which allow for application of a wide range of crosswell seismic methods. The initial data analysis included suppression of tube wave energy and picking of first arrivals. A damped least-squares algorithm was used to derive P-wave velocities from the travel time data. Next, t* values were derived from the decay of the amplitude spectra, which served as input parameters for a damped least-squares attenuation tomography. The initial results of the P-wave velocity and attenuation tomography reveal significant features reflecting the stratigraphic environment and allow for detection and eventually quantification of gas hydrate bearing sediments. A prominent correlation between P velocity and attenuation was found for the gas hydrate layers. This contradicts to the apparently more meaningful inverse correlation as it was determined for the gas hydrates at the Blake Ridge but supports the results from

  3. Development of empirical relationship between P wave initial slopes and epicentral distance for early warning in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S.; Sheen, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake early warning aims to rapidly provide the information of an earthquake to minimize earthquake damage. The location accuracy of an earthquake is crucial for the accurate estimation of the source property. While standard location procedure can take the advantages of using combined P-wave and S-wave information, early warning information should be given before arriving S-wave. Odaka et al. (2003) found that P-wave initial slopes decrease almost linearly with increasing epicentral distance and proposed a method for estimating epicentral distance from P-wave initial slope. The early warning system in the Japan Meteorological Agency uses this method for locating an earthquake when only one station triggers. For developing the empirical relationship for earthquake early warning in South Korea, we investigate the relationship from 585 local earthquakes with magnitude larger than 2.0 and 147 regional earthquakes over magnitude 6.0 that occurred in and around the Korean Peninsula from 2005 to 2015.

  4. P Wave Dispersion and Maximum P Wave Duration Are Associated with Renal Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiun-Chi; Wei, Shu-Yi; Chen, Szu-Chia; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hung, Chi-Chih; Su, Ho-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as a noninvasive tool to evaluate left atrial enlargement. This study was designed to assess whether P wave parameters were associated with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This longitudinal study enrolled 439 patients with CKD stages 3–5. Renal end points were defined as the commencement of dialysis or death. Change in renal function was measured using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected for heart rate, i.e., corrected P wave dispersion and corrected maximum P wave duration. The values of P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration were 88.8±21.7 ms and 153.3±21.7 ms, respectively. During the follow-up period (mean, 25.2 months), 95 patients (21.6%) started hemodialysis and 30 deaths (6.8%) were recorded. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that increased P wave dispersion [hazard ratio (HR), 1.020; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.009–1.032; P<0.001] and maximum P wave duration (HR, 1.013; 95% CI, 1.003–1.024; P = 0.012) were associated with progression to renal end points. Furthermore, increased P wave dispersion (unstandardized coefficient β = –0.016; P = 0.037) and maximum P wave duration (unstandardized coefficient β = –0.014; P = 0.040) were negatively associated with the eGFR slope. We demonstrated that increased P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration were associated with progression to the renal end points of dialysis or death and faster renal function decline in CKD patients. Screening CKD patients on the basis of P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration may help identify patients at high risk for worse renal outcomes. PMID:25006682

  5. Change in P wave morphology after convergent atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Suvash; Chen, On; Greene, Mary; John, Jinu Jacob; Greenberg, Yisachar; Yang, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Convergent atrial fibrillation ablation involves extensive epicardial as well as endocardial ablation of the left atrium. We examined whether it changes the morphology of the surface P wave. We reviewed electrocardiograms of 29 patients who underwent convergent ablation for atrial fibrillation. In leads V1, II and III, we measured P wave duration, area and amplitude before ablation, and at 1, 3 and 6 months from ablation. After ablation, there were no significant changes in P wave amplitude, area, or duration in leads II and III. There was a significant reduction in the area of the terminal negative deflection of the P wave in V1 from 0.38 mm(2) to 0.13 mm(2) (p = 0.03). There is also an acute increase in the amplitude and duration of the positive component of the P wave in V1 followed by a reduction in both by 6 months. Before ablation, 62.5% of the patients had biphasic P waves in V1. In 6 months, only 39.2% of them had biphasic P waves. Hybrid ablation causes a reduction of the terminal negative deflection of the P wave in V1 as well as temporal changes in the duration and amplitude of the positive component of the P wave in V1. This likely reflects the reduced electrical contribution of the posterior left atrium after ablation as well as anatomical and autonomic remodeling. Recognition of this altered sinus P wave morphology is useful in the diagnosis of atrial arrhythmias in this patient population. PMID:27485559

  6. P-wave tomography of the western United States: Insight into the Yellowstone hotspot and the Juan de Fuca slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, You; Zhao, Dapeng

    2012-06-01

    We used 190,947 high-quality P-wave arrival times from 8421 local earthquakes and 1,098,022 precise travel-time residuals from 6470 teleseismic events recorded by the EarthScope/USArray transportable array to determine a detailed three-dimensional P-wave velocity model of the crust and mantle down to 1000 km depth under the western United States (US). Our tomography revealed strong heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle under the western US. Prominent high-velocity anomalies are imaged beneath Idaho Batholith, central Colorado Plateau, Cascadian subduction zone, stable North American Craton, Transverse Ranges, and Southern Sierra Nevada. Prominent low-velocity anomalies are imaged at depths of 0-200 km beneath Snake River Plain, which may represent a small-scale convection beneath the western US. The low-velocity structure deviates variably from a narrow vertical plume conduit extending down to ˜1000 km depth, suggesting that the Yellowstone hotspot may have a lower-mantle origin. The Juan de Fuca slab is imaged as a dipping high-velocity anomaly under the western US. The slab geometry and its subducted depth vary in the north-south direction. In the southern parts the slab may have subducted down to >600 km depth. A "slab hole" is revealed beneath Oregon, which shows up as a low-velocity anomaly at depths of ˜100 to 300 km. The formation of the slab hole may be related to the Newberry magmatism. The removal of flat subducted Farallon slab may have triggered the vigorous magmatism in the Basin and Range and southern part of Rocky Mountains and also resulted in the uplift of the Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountains.

  7. Fast P-wave precursors in New Zealand: high velocity material associated with the subducted Hikurangi Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, H.; LeGood, M.; Stuart, G.; Reyners, M.; Eberhart-Phillips, D. E.; Gubbins, D.

    2015-08-01

    Seismic tomography has revealed very high P-wave velocities, over 8.5 km s-1, at shallow depths, 30-100 km, beneath New Zealand. Here we study fast, high-frequency arrivals at North and South Island stations that contain additional information about the crust and mantle structure. These arrivals, which are from earthquakes within or close to the land mass, have a characteristic high-frequency precursor followed by a lower frequency, larger amplitude, main phase. Precursors were seen on at least one station from 262 of 306 candidate events; the best-recorded 76 events were analysed for wave speed, frequency content and polarization. Time-distance plots are consistent with two phases travelling at 8.38 ± 0.03 and 6.93 ± 0.05 km s-1. The precursor has typical frequencies 4-9 Hz, the second arrival 2-4 Hz. Polarizations are off-azimuth by 30° and steeper than predicted by ray tracing through a smooth 3-D tomographic model. These results are explained by propagation through a dipping layer of order 10 km thick with seismic velocity around 8.5 km s-1; it is too thin to propagate frequencies below 4 Hz and waves refract from it at a steep, out-of-plane angle, explaining the anomalous polarization. Ray paths cover a region coinciding with the subducted Hikurangi Plateau; the fast layer is interpreted as the lowest section of the plateau that has transformed to eclogite, which has the same fast seismic velocity that we observe. Unlike the fast, eclogitic layers identified in subduction zones such as the Kermadecs, this layer is shallower, at 30 km, than the eclogite transformation; we therefore propose that it formed at the base of the thick plateau prior to subduction.

  8. Real-time forecasting of ICME shock arrivals at L1 during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch: 28 March  21 April 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Dryer, M.; Fry, C. D.; Deehr, C. S.; Smith, Z.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Kartalev, M. D.; Grigorov, K. G.

    2002-07-01

    The Sun was extremely active during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch of 2001. We chose this period between a solar flare on 28 March 2001 to a final shock arrival at Earth on 21 April 2001. The activity consisted of two presumed helmet-streamer blowouts, seven M-class flares, and nine X-class flares, the last of which was behind the west limb. We have been experimenting since February 1997 with real-time, end-to-end forecasting of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) shock arrival times. Since August 1998, these forecasts have been distributed in real-time by e-mail to a list of interested scientists and operational USAF and NOAA forecasters. They are made using three different solar wind models. We describe here the solar events observed during the April Fool’s 2001 epoch, along with the predicted and actual shock arrival times, and the ex post facto correction to the real-time coronal shock speed observations. It appears that the initial estimates of coronal shock speeds from Type II radio burst observations and coronal mass ejections were too high by as much as 30%. We conclude that a 3-dimensional coronal density model should be developed for application to observations of solar flares and their Type II radio burst observations.

  9. Analysis of the source scanning algorithm with a new P-wave picker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahradník, J.; Janský, J.; Plicka, V.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the location of earthquakes in near regional networks using complete seismic records. The method is based on the source scanning algorithm (SSA) of Kao and Shan (2004), but similarly to Grigoli et al. (2013), seismograms are substituted by a P-wave picker trace. The picker traces in a network are repeatedly stacked using grid of trial source positions, and hypocenter is identified with the point providing the best stack (the largest brightness). The first innovation of this paper is a new picker, measuring the ratio of the summed absolute values of seismogram in the right and left part of a moving time window, the RPA/LPA picker. The brightness maps based on this picker are clearer than those based on the STA/LTA picker. The second innovation is a simple theoretical model of the brightness maps. It makes it easy to identify how individual stations contribute to form the brightness spot. It is shown on synthetic tests that the performance of the method depends on focal mechanism, progressively improving from normal to reverse and strike-slip events. The method is successfully applied to four events of different mechanisms and depths, recorded at different ranges of epicentral distance by either broad-band sensors or accelerographs. The events have been located close to previously published epicenters. The brightness maps provide an estimate of the relative uncertainty of the (non-linear) location problem. The uncertainty estimate is also applicable without measured arrival times, "without earthquakes", thus useful when designing or upgrading seismic networks for better location performance.

  10. Crustal structure of China and surrounding regions from P wave traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youshun; ToksöZ, M. Nafi

    2006-03-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) P wave velocity model is developed for the crust and uppermost mantle of China and the surrounding area by applying the tomography method of Zhao et al. using 500,000 high-quality P wave first arrivals extracted from the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes (ABCE). This tomographic method can accommodate velocity discontinuities such as the Moho in addition to smooth velocity variations. The spatial resolution is 1° × 1° in the horizontal direction and 10 km in depth. The velocity images of the upper crust correspond well with the surface geologic features such as basins and the Tibetan Plateau. High-velocity anomalies are found in the lower crust beneath the Precambrian regions (Tarim Basin, Ordos Basin, Sichuan Basin, and western half of Songliao Basin). The highest-velocity anomaly is beneath the Sichuan Basin. High- and low-velocity anomalies imaged beneath the Bohai Gulf are associated with the presence of a major Cenozoic rift system. In the lower crust beneath the South China Block, P wave velocities are lower in the north than in the south. The Indochina Block shows low velocities both in the crust and in the uppermost mantle due to volcanism. The Pn velocities in the Tibet area are higher than those in other areas largely due to thicker crust. Tomographic model significantly reduces the traveltime residuals. Tests conducted by relocating large explosions and earthquakes validate the 3-D velocity model.

  11. Evidence for universal relations describing a gas with p-wave interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, S.; Luciuk, C.; Trotzky, S.; Yu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Shizhong; Thywissen, J. H.

    2016-05-01

    A remarkable set of universal relations is known to directly connect thermodynamic and microscopic properties of interacting Fermi gases. So far, these contact relations have been established only for interactions with s-wave symmetry, i.e., with zero relative angular momentum. We report measurements of two new physical quantities, the p-wave contacts, and present evidence that they encode the universal aspects of p-wave interactions through recently proposed relations. Our experiments use a spin-polarized ultracold Fermi gas of 40 K, in which s-wave interactions are suppressed, while p-wave interactions are enhanced near a Feshbach resonance. Using time-resolved spectroscopy and momentum distribution measurements, we study how correlations in the system develop after quenching the atoms into an interacting state. Combining quasi-steady-state measurements with new contact relations, we infer an attractive p-wave interaction energy as large as the Fermi energy. Our results reveal new ways to understand and characterize the properties of resonantly interacting p-wave quantum gases.

  12. Evidence for universal relations describing a gas with p-wave interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciuk, Christopher; Trotzky, Stefan; Smale, Scott; Yu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Shizhong; Thywissen, Joseph H.

    2016-06-01

    In dilute gases, a set of universal relations, known as the contact relations, directly connects thermodynamics and microscopic properties. So far, they have been established only for interactions with s-wave symmetry--that is, without relative angular momentum. Here we report measurements of two new physical quantities, the p-wave contacts, and, using recently proposed relations, present evidence that they encode the universal aspects of p-wave interactions. Our experiments use an ultracold Fermi gas of 40K, in which s-wave interactions are suppressed by polarizing the sample, whereas p-wave interactions are enhanced by working near a scattering resonance. Using time-resolved spectroscopy, we study how correlations in the system develop after quenching the atoms into an interacting state. By combining quasi-steady-state measurements with new contact relations, we infer an attractive p-wave interaction energy as large as half the Fermi energy. Our results reveal new ways to understand and characterize the properties of a resonant p-wave quantum gas.

  13. Arrival time distributions of electrons in air showers with primary energies above 10 (18)eV observed at 900m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakimoto, F.; Enoki, T.; Nishi, K.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Suga, K.

    1985-01-01

    Detection of air showers with primary energies above 10 to the 19th power eV with sufficient statistics is extremely important in an astrophysical aspect related to the Greisen cut off and the origin of such high energy cosmic rays. Recently, a method is proposed to observe such giant air showers by measuring the arrival time distributions of air-shower particles at large core distances with a mini array. Experiments to measure the arrival time distributions of muons were started in 1981 and those of electrons in early 1983 in the Akeno air-shower array (930 gcm cm squared atmospheric depth, 900m above sea level). During the time of observation, the detection area of the Akeno array was expanded from 1 sq km to sq km in 1982 and to 20 sq km in 1984. Now the arrival time distribution of electrons and muons can be measured for showers with primary energies above 1019eV at large core distances.

  14. Computer program modifications of Open-file report 82-1065; a comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction and arrival-time data using interactive computer methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackermann, Hans D.; Pankratz, Leroy W.; Dansereau, Danny A.

    1983-01-01

    The computer programs published in Open-File Report 82-1065, A comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction arrival-time data using interactive computer methods (Ackermann, Pankratz, and Dansereau, 1982), have been modified to run on a mini-computer. The new version uses approximately 1/10 of the memory of the initial version, is more efficient and gives the same results.

  15. P-wave tomography for 3-D radial and azimuthal anisotropy of Tohoku and Kyushu subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Zhao, Dapeng

    2013-06-01

    We determined high-resolution P-wave tomography for 3-D radial and azimuthal anisotropy of the Tohoku and Kyushu subduction zones using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data of local earthquakes recorded by the dense seismic network on the Japan Islands. Trench-normal P-wave fast-velocity directions (FVDs) are revealed in the backarc mantle wedge in both Tohoku and Kyushu, which are consistent with the model of slab-driven corner flow. Trench-parallel FVDs with amplitude <4 per cent appear in the forearc mantle wedge under Tohoku and Kyushu, suggesting the existence of B-type olivine fabric there. Trench-parallel FVDs are also visible in the mantle wedge under the volcanic front in Tohoku but not in Kyushu, suggesting that 3-D flow may exist in the mantle wedge under Tohoku and the 3-D flow is affected by the subduction rate of the oceanic plate. Negative radial anisotropy (i.e. vertical velocity being faster than horizontal velocity) is revealed in the low-velocity zones in the mantle wedge under the arc volcanoes in Tohoku and Kyushu as well as in the low-velocity zones below the Philippine Sea slab under Kyushu, which may reflect hot upwelling flows and transitions of olivine fabrics with the presence of water in the upper mantle. Trench-parallel FVDs and positive radial anisotropy (i.e. horizontal velocity being faster than vertical velocity) are revealed in the subducting Pacific slab under Tohoku and the Philippine Sea slab under Kyushu, suggesting that the slabs keep their frozen-in anisotropy formed at the mid-ocean ridge or that the slab anisotropy is induced by the lattice-preferred orientation of the B-type olivine.

  16. Neuronal network analysis based on arrival times of active-sleep specific inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in spinal cord motoneurons of the cat.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    2001-07-20

    The neuronal network responsible for motoneuron inhibition and loss of muscle tone during active (REM) sleep can be activated by the injection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into a circumscribed region of the brainstem reticular formation. In the present report, we studied the arrival times of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) observed in intracellular recordings from cat spinal cord motoneurons. These recordings were obtained during episodes of motor inhibition induced by carbachol or during motor inhibition associated with naturally occurring active sleep. When the observed IPSP arrival times were analyzed as a superposition of renewal processes occurring in a pool of pre-motor inhibitory interneurons, it was possible to estimate the following parameters: (1) the number of independent sources of the IPSPs; (2) the rate at which each source was bombarded with excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs); and (3) the number of EPSPs required to bring each source to threshold. From the data based upon the preceding parameters and the unusually large amplitudes of the active sleep-specific IPSPs, we suggest that each source is a cluster of synchronously discharging pre-motor inhibitory interneurons. The analysis of IPSP arrival times as a superposition of renewal processes, therefore, provides quantitative information regarding neuronal activity that is as far as two synapses upstream from the site of the recording electrode. Consequently, we suggest that a study of the temporal evolution of these parameters could provide a basis for dynamic analyses of this neuronal network and, in the future, for other neuronal networks as well. PMID:11457433

  17. Robust Bayesian hypocentre and uncertainty region estimation: the effect of heavy-tailed distributions and prior information in cases with poor, inconsistent and insufficient arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, J.

    2013-03-01

    We propose methods for robust Bayesian inference of the hypocentre in presence of poor, inconsistent and insufficient phase arrival times. The objectives are to increase the robustness, the accuracy and the precision by introducing heavy-tailed distributions and an informative prior distribution of the seismicity. The effects of the proposed distributions are studied under real measurement conditions in two underground mine networks and validated using 53 blasts with known hypocentres. To increase the robustness against poor, inconsistent or insufficient arrivals, a Gaussian Mixture Model is used as a hypocentre prior distribution to describe the seismically active areas, where the parameters are estimated based on previously located events in the region. The prior is truncated to constrain the solution to valid geometries, for example below the ground surface, excluding known cavities, voids and fractured zones. To reduce the sensitivity to outliers, different heavy-tailed distributions are evaluated to model the likelihood distribution of the arrivals given the hypocentre and the origin time. Among these distributions, the multivariate t-distribution is shown to produce the overall best performance, where the tail-mass adapts to the observed data. Hypocentre and uncertainty region estimates are based on simulations from the posterior distribution using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Velocity graphs (equivalent to traveltime graphs) are estimated using blasts from known locations, and applied to reduce the main uncertainties and thereby the final estimation error. To focus on the behaviour and the performance of the proposed distributions, a basic single-event Bayesian procedure is considered in this study for clarity. Estimation results are shown with different distributions, with and without prior distribution of seismicity, with wrong prior distribution, with and without error compensation, with and without error description, with insufficient arrival

  18. P-wave tomography of the Calabrian Arc region (South Italy) using a new 'a priori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Totaro, Cristina; Guerra, Ignazio; Neri, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    A recently published tomographic investigation of the Calabrian Arc, South Italy (Neri et al., SRL, 2009) has shown that the Ionian subducting slab appears in-depth continuous only beneath the central part of the Arc (southern Calabria), while it has already undergone detachment at the edges of the arcuate structure (northern Calabria and northeastern Sicily). Starting from this result we tried to better define the features of the slab by performing a new tomographic inversion of crust and upper lithosphere in the Calabrian Arc region. The starting velocity model was derived from the integration of a new crustal velocity model obtained applying the method proposed by Waldhauser et al. (GJI, 1998 and 2002) and a deep model used by Neri et al. (SRL, 2009). We merged these two models into an averaged regional one, ranging between the surface and 300km depth. Then we used it to perform a new P-wave tomographic inversion of shallow and deep earthquakes occurred between 1981 and 2008 in Southern Italy. We selected all the events with a minimum of 12P+S and 8 P+S readings for shallow and deep earthquakes respectively. The quality of the readings was, in the majority of cases, checked directly on the recordings. The final inversion dataset consists of 75141 P and 40118 S arrival times relative to 7050 earthquakes recorded at a total of 591 stations. All the data available from the national and local networks, including the CAT-SCAN and UniCal network, have been used for inversion. This new model reduced significantly the RMS parameter and allowed us to enlarge the inversion zone. The investigation, together with a detailed analysis of seismicity, allows us to propose an improved and more complete view of the subduction system with respect to the previous works, including Neri et al. (SRL, 2009).

  19. P wave crustal velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Lees, J.M.; Malone, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    We present results from a local earthquake tomographic imaging experiment in the greater Mount Rainier area. We inverted P wave arrival times from local earthquakes recorded at permanent and temporary Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network seismographs between 1980 and 1996. We used a method similar to that described by Lees and Crosson [1989], modified to incorporate the parameter separation method for decoupling the hypocenter and velocity problems. In the upper 7 km of the resulting model there is good correlation between velocity anomalies and surface geology. Many focal mechanisms within the St. Helens seismic zone have nodal planes parallel to the epicentral trend as well as to a north-south trending low-velocity trough, leading us to speculate that the trough represents a zone of structural weakness in which a moderate (M 6.5-7.0) earthquake could occur. In contrast, the western Rainier seismic zone does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns or focal mechanism fault planes, leading us to infer that it is less likely to experience a moderate earthquake. A ???10 km-wide low-velocity anomaly occurs 5 to 18 km beneath the summit of Mount Rainier, which we interpret to be a signal of a region composed of hot, fractured rock with possible small amounts of melt or fluid. No systematic velocity pattern is observed in association with the southern Washington Cascades conductor. A midcrustal anomaly parallels the Olympic-Wallowa lineament as well as several other geophysical trends, indicating that it may play an important role in regional tectonics. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Teleseismic P-wave tomography and mantle dynamics beneath Eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jianshe; Zhao, Dapeng

    2016-05-01

    We determined a new 3-D P-wave velocity model of the upper mantle beneath eastern Tibet using 112,613 high-quality arrival-time data collected from teleseismic seismograms recorded by a new portable seismic array in Yunnan and permanent networks in southwestern China. Our results provide new insights into the mantle structure and dynamics of eastern Tibet. High-velocity (high-V) anomalies are revealed down to 200 km depth under the Sichuan basin and the Ordos and Alashan blocks. Low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are imaged in the upper mantle under the Kunlun-Qilian and Qinling fold zones, and the Songpan-Ganzi, Qiangtang, Lhasa and Chuan-Dian diamond blocks, suggesting that eastward moving low-V materials are extruded to eastern China after the obstruction by the Sichuan basin, and the Ordos and Alashan blocks. Furthermore, the extent and thickness of these low-V anomalies are correlated with the surface topography, suggesting that the uplift of eastern Tibet could be partially related to these low-V materials having a higher temperature and strong positive buoyancy. In the mantle transition zone (MTZ), broad high-V anomalies are visible from the Burma arc northward to the Kunlun fault and eastward to the Xiaojiang fault, and they are connected upward with the Wadati-Benioff seismic zone. These results suggest that the subducted Indian slab has traveled horizontally for a long distance after it descended into the MTZ, and return corner flow and deep slab dehydration have contributed to forming the low-V anomalies in the big mantle wedge. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of the eastern Tibetan plateau.

  1. Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang

    2015-04-01

    We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang-Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similarly to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang-Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.

  2. Black Hole Window into p -Wave Dark Matter Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Jessie; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Fields, Brian D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to measure or constrain p -wave-suppressed cross sections for dark matter (DM) annihilations inside the steep density spikes induced by supermassive black holes. We demonstrate that the high DM densities, together with the increased velocity dispersion, within such spikes combine to make thermal p -wave annihilation cross sections potentially visible in γ -ray observations of the Galactic center (GC). The resulting DM signal is a bright central point source with emission originating from DM annihilations in the absence of a detectable spatially extended signal from the halo. We define two simple reference theories of DM with a thermal p -wave annihilation cross section and establish new limits on the combined particle and astrophysical parameter space of these models, demonstrating that Fermi Large Area Telescope is currently sensitive to thermal p -wave DM over a wide range of possible scenarios for the DM distribution in the GC.

  3. Black Hole Window into p-Wave Dark Matter Annihilation.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jessie; Shapiro, Stuart L; Fields, Brian D

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to measure or constrain p-wave-suppressed cross sections for dark matter (DM) annihilations inside the steep density spikes induced by supermassive black holes. We demonstrate that the high DM densities, together with the increased velocity dispersion, within such spikes combine to make thermal p-wave annihilation cross sections potentially visible in γ-ray observations of the Galactic center (GC). The resulting DM signal is a bright central point source with emission originating from DM annihilations in the absence of a detectable spatially extended signal from the halo. We define two simple reference theories of DM with a thermal p-wave annihilation cross section and establish new limits on the combined particle and astrophysical parameter space of these models, demonstrating that Fermi Large Area Telescope is currently sensitive to thermal p-wave DM over a wide range of possible scenarios for the DM distribution in the GC. PMID:26684108

  4. Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. K.; Matveenko, S. I.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry.

  5. Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, A. K.; Matveenko, S. I.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. PMID:27278711

  6. Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, A K; Matveenko, S I; Yudson, V I; Shlyapnikov, G V

    2016-01-01

    Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. PMID:27278711

  7. A scheme for a shot-to-shot, femtosecond-resolved pulse length and arrival time measurement of free electron laser x-ray pulses that overcomes the time jitter problem between the FEL and the laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juranić, P. N.; Stepanov, A.; Peier, P.; Hauri, C. P.; Ischebeck, R.; Schlott, V.; Radović, M.; Erny, C.; Ardana-Lamas, F.; Monoszlai, B.; Gorgisyan, I.; Patthey, L.; Abela, R.

    2014-03-01

    The recent entry of X-ray free electron lasers (FELs) to all fields of physics has created an enormous need, both from scientists and operators, for better characterization of the beam created by these facilities. Of particular interest is the measurement of the arrival time of the FEL pulse relative to a laser pump, for pump-probe experiments, and the measurement of the FEL pulse length. This article describes a scheme that corrects one of the major sources of uncertainty in these types of measurements, namely the jitter in the arrival time of the FEL relative to an experimental laser beam. The setup presented here uses a combination of THz streak cameras and a spectral encoding setup to reduce the effect of an FEL's jitter, leaving the pulse length as the only variable that can affect the accuracy of the pulse length and arrival time measurement. A discussion of underlying principles is also provided.

  8. Stereoscopic Study of the Kinematic Evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection and Its Driven Shock from the Sun to the Earth and the Prediction of Their Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R ⊙ and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R ⊙ combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  9. Stereoscopic study of the kinematic evolution of a coronal mass ejection and its driven shock from the sun to the earth and the prediction of their arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R {sub ☉} and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R {sub ☉} combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  10. Tomographic inversion of P-wave velocity and Q structures beneath the Kirishima volcanic complex, Southern Japan, based on finite difference calculations of complex traveltimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomatsu, T.; Kumagai, H.; Dawson, P.B.

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the P-wave velocity and attenuation structures beneath the Kirishima volcanic complex, southern Japan, by inverting the complex traveltimes (arrival times and pulse widths) of waveform data obtained during an active seismic experiment conducted in 1994. In this experiment, six 200-250 kg shots were recorded at 163 temporary seismic stations deployed on the volcanic complex. We use first-arrival times for the shots, which were hand-measured interactively. The waveform data are Fourier transformed into the frequency domain and analysed using a new method based on autoregressive modelling of complex decaying oscillations in the frequency domain to determine pulse widths for the first-arrival phases. A non-linear inversion method is used to invert 893 first-arrival times and 325 pulse widths to estimate the velocity and attenuation structures of the volcanic complex. Wavefronts for the inversion are calculated with a finite difference method based on the Eikonal equation, which is well suited to estimating the complex traveltimes for the structures of the Kirishima volcano complex, where large structural heterogeneities are expected. The attenuation structure is derived using ray paths derived from the velocity structure. We obtain 3-D velocity and attenuation structures down to 1.5 and 0.5 km below sea level, respectively. High-velocity pipe-like structures with correspondingly low attenuation are found under the summit craters. These pipe-like structures are interpreted as remnant conduits of solidified magma. No evidence of a shallow magma chamber is visible in the tomographic images.

  11. Understanding complex teleseismic wave propagation in the Sierra Nevada through vertical-component P-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, M. J.; Jones, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    Past seismic studies attempting to image the lithosphere underneath the Sierra Nevada and to constrain the geometry of the upper mantle Isabella anomaly, a high wave-speed body underneath the western foothills of the range, have observed complex behavior in teleseismic and regional waveforms recorded at stations within the range. Notably, a 1993 teleseismic mini-array recorded multipath P-wave arrivals, topographic reflections, and scattered energy ~25 km west of the Sierran crest. These effects suggest wave propagation through strongly heterogeneous lithosphere complicated by near-surface phenomena. Multipathing and other complex wave propagation are indicative of strong variations in wavespeed, which in turn reflect structural complexity important in understanding the genesis of the Isabella anomaly. However, determining the extent of such propagative behavior in and underneath the Sierra Nevada has not been studied. We investigate the behavior of teleseismic P-waves using vertical-component receiver functions in an effort to better understand the extent of complex waveforms as a first tool in better constraining the geographic region(s) where sufficiently complex lithospheric structure exists. We expect that the presence of sufficiently high velocity gradients should result in P-wave multipath arrivals from events that skirt the perimeter of the Isabella anomaly from certain backazimuths. We deconvolve regionally beamed vertical P-waveforms from individual vertical component P-waves. This effectively recovers variability in the P waveforms that is normally lost in typical single-station radial- and transverse-component receiver function analyses. Vertical P-wave beams are constructed using dbxcor, a waveform correlation algorithm developed by G. Pavlis. Seismic data for the northern and central Sierra Nevada are from the 2005-2007 Sierra Nevada Earthscope Project (SNEP) and further supplemented by many permanent and temporary stations including the Earthscope

  12. Hammering Yucca Flat, Part One: P-Wave Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, D. G.; Abbott, R. E.; Preston, L. A.; Hampshire, J. B., II

    2015-12-01

    Explosion-source phenomenology is best studied when competing signals (such as instrument, site, and propagation effects), are well understood. The second phase of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is moving from granite geology to alluvium geology at Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site. To improve subsurface characterization of Yucca Flat (and therefore better understand propagation and site effects), an active-source seismic survey was conducted using a novel 13,000-kg impulsive hammer source. The source points, spaced 200 m apart, covered a N-S transect spanning 18 km. Three component, 2-Hz geophones were used to record useable signals out to 10 km. We inverted for P-wave velocity by computing travel times using a finite-difference 3D eikonal solver, and then compared that to the picked travel times using a linearized iterative inversion scheme. Preliminary results from traditional reflection processing methods are also presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath the Baikal Rift Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, R. A.; Nyblade, A. A.; Boman, E. C.

    2001-12-01

    Over 100 p wave travel times from the 1500 km en echelon Baikal Rift system are used in this study.The events range 3 to 13 degrees from Talaya, Russia (TLY) along the axis of southwest northeast trending rift in East Siberia. A Herglotz Wiechert inversion of these events resolved a crust of 6.4 km/s and a gradient in the mantle starting at 35 km depth and 7.7 km/s down to 200 km depth and 8.2 km/s. This is compatible with Gao et al,1994 cross sectional structure which cuts the rift at about 400km from TLY. The Baikal Rift hosts the deepest lake and is the most seismically active rift in the world. It is one of the few continental rifts, it separates the Siberian craton and the Syan-Baikal mobile fold belt. Two events, the March 21 1999 magnitude 5.7 earthquake 638 km from TLY and the November 13th 1995 magnitude 5.9 earthquake 863 km from TLY were modeled for there PnL wave structure using the discrete wavenumber method and the Harvard CMT solutions with adjusted depths from p-pP times. The PnL signals match well. A genetic algorithm will used to perturb the velocity structure and compare to a selection of the events between 3 and 13 degrees many will require moment tensor solutions.

  14. P-wave and S-wave traveltime residuals in Caledonian and adjacent units of Northern Europe and Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejrani, Babak; Balling, Niels; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Kind, Rainer; Tilmann, Frederik; England, Richard; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2014-05-01

    This work combines P-wave and S-wave travel time residuals from in total 477 temporary and 56 permanent stations deployed across Caledonian and adjacent units in Northern Europe and Greenland (Tor, Gregersen et al. 2002; SVEKALAPKO, Sandoval et al., 2003; CALAS, Medhus et al, 2012a; MAGNUS, Weidle et al. 2010; SCANLIPS south, England & Ebbing 2012; SCANLIPS north, Hejrani et al. 2012; JULS Hejrani et al. 2013; plus permanent stations in the region). We picked data from 2002 to 2012 (1221 events) using a cross correlation technique on all waveforms recorded for each event. In this way we achieve maximum consistency of relative residuals over the whole region (Medhus et al. 2012b). On the European side 18362 P-wave travel time residuals was delivered. In East Greenland 1735 P-wave residuals were recovered at the Central Fjord array (13 stations) and 2294 residuals from the sparse GLISN-array (23 stations). Likewise, we picked a total of 6034 residuals of the SV phase (For the Tor and SVEKALAPKO projects we used data from Amaru et al. 2008). Relative residuals within the region are mainly due to sub-crustal uppermost mantle velocity anomalies. A dominant subvertical boundary was detected by Medhus et al. (2012), running along the Tornquist zone, east of the Oslo Graben and crossing under high topography of the southern Scandes. We delineated this boundary in more detail, tracking it towards the Atlantic margin north of Trondheim. Further north (Scanlips north), a similar subvertical upper mantle boundary seems to be present close to the coast, coinciding with the edge of the stretched crust. The North German Caledonides were probed by the new JULS (JUtland Lower Saxony) profile which closes the gap between Tor and CALAS arrays. Mantle structure found by the Tor project was confirmed, and modelling was extended to the eastern edge of the North Sea. References: Amaru, M. L., Spakman, W., Villaseñor, A., Sandoval, S., Kissling, E., 2008, A new absolute arrival time data

  15. Environmental and lunar cues are predictive of the timing of river entry and spawning-site arrival in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, P S; Scribner, K T; Crossman, J A; Ragavendran, A; Baker, E A; Davis, C; Smith, K K

    2012-07-01

    The associations were quantified between daily and interannual variation in the timing of a closed population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens migration and arrival at spawning sites with stream environmental and lunar covariates. Spawning data were gathered from 1262 fish in Black Lake, Michigan 2001 to 2008 and by video monitoring 2000 to 2002. Sex-specific variation in responses to external cues was also tested. Results showed that a greater number of individuals initiated migration from lake to riverine habitats at dawn and dusk relative to other times of the day. Current and lagged effects of water temperature and river discharge, and periods in the lunar cycle were important variables in models quantifying movements into the river and timing of adult arrival at spawning sites. Different suites of covariates were predictive of A. fulverscens responses during different periods of the spawning season. The timing of initiation of migration and spawning, and the importance of covariates to the timing of these events, did not differ between sexes. Stream flow and temperature covaried with other variables including day length and the lunar cycle. Anthropogenic disruption of relationships among variables may mean that environmental cues may no longer reliably convey information for Acipenseriformes and other migratory fishes. PMID:22747803

  16. Sub-fs electron bunch generation with sub-10-fs bunch arrival-time jitter via bunch slicing in a magnetic chicane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Assmann, R. W.; Dohlus, M.; Dorda, U.; Marchetti, B.

    2016-05-01

    The generation of ultrashort electron bunches with ultrasmall bunch arrival-time jitter is of vital importance for laser-plasma wakefield acceleration with external injection. We study the production of 100-MeV electron bunches with bunch durations of subfemtosecond (fs) and bunch arrival-time jitters of less than 10 fs, in an S-band photoinjector by using a weak magnetic chicane with a slit collimator. The beam dynamics inside the chicane is simulated by using two codes with different self-force models. The first code separates the self-force into a three-dimensional (3D) quasistatic space-charge model and a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) model, while the other one starts from the first principle with a so-called 3D sub-bunch method. The simulations indicate that the CSR effect dominates the horizontal emittance growth and the 1D CSR model underestimates the final bunch duration and emittance because of the very large transverse-to-longitudinal aspect ratio of the sub-fs bunch. Particularly, the CSR effect is also strongly affected by the vertical bunch size. Due to the coupling between the horizontal and longitudinal phase spaces, the bunch duration at the entrance of the last dipole magnet of the chicane is still significantly longer than that at the exit of the chicane, which considerably mitigates the impact of space charge and CSR effects on the beam quality. Exploiting this effect, a bunch charge of up to 4.8 pC in a sub-fs bunch could be simulated. In addition, we analytically and numerically investigate the impact of different jitter sources on the bunch arrival-time jitter downstream of the chicane, and define the tolerance budgets assuming realistic values of the stability of the linac for different bunch charges and compression schemes.

  17. Direct imaging of the coda of teleseismic P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Gary L.

    This paper reviews the theoretical background of existing techniques for direct imaging of the coda of teleseismic P waves. A unifying theme of all approaches is the Born series for elastic wave scattering. Inversion methods for one-dimensional structure commonly included multiply scattered waves while all existing two and three-dimensional implementations are limited by a single scattering approximation that defines a linear inverse problem in material property perturbations. The problem has an analytic inverse because the forward problem can be cast as a generalized Radon transform with line/surface integrals along single scatterer isochrons. The inverse Radon transform can then be applied to estimate scattering strength at a given point as a linear combination of all data that match a time and polarization constraint. I describe how backprojection, Kirchhoff approximations, and inverse scattering approaches are related to the fundamental scattering equations. I introduce a new concept called the exploding converter model that is a useful physical model for understanding imaging techniques and show how it is related to the Born integral equation. Finally, I discuss limitation on imaging imposed by deconvolution of the incident wavefield. I show that deconvolution is based on an incorrect assumption because it neglects a propagator term from the base of the imaging volume to the free surface. I give the correct form of the deconvolution operator and suggest it may be possible to improve deconvolution through application of downward continuation operators that enter in these equations.

  18. Direct Imaging of the Coda of Teleseismic P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, G. L.

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical background of existing techniques for direct imaging of the coda of teleseismic P waves. A unifying theme of all approaches is the Born series for elastic wave scattering. Inversion methods for one-dimensional structure commonly included multiply scattered waves while all existing two and three-dimensional implementations are limited by a single scattering approximation that defines a linear inverse problem in material property perturbations. The problem has an analytic inverse because the forward problem can be cast as a generalized Radon transform with line/surface integrals along single scatterer isocrons. The inverse Radon transform can then be applied to estimate scattering strength at a given point as a linear combination of all data that match a time and polarization constraint. I describe how backprojection, Kirchoff approximations, and inverse scattering approachs are related to the fundamental scattering equations. I introduce a new concept called the exploding converter model that is a useful physical model for understanding imaging techniques and show how it is related to the Born integral equation. Finally, I discuss limitation on imaging imposed by deconvolution of the incident wavefield. I show that deconvolution is based on an incorrect assumption because it neglects a propagator term from the base of the imaging volume to the free surface. I give the correct form of the deconvolution operator and suggest it may be possible to improve deconvolution through application of downward continuation operators that enter in these equations.

  19. [Evaluation of Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Low α-Fetoprotein by Arrival Time Parametric Imaging Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography with Sonazoid].

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Kazue; Watanabe, Manabu; Ikehara, Takashi; Matsukiyo, Yasushi; Kogame, Michio; Shinohara, Mie; Kikuchi, Yoshinori; Shinohara, Masao; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Sumino, Yasukiyo

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to determine the usefulness of arrival time parametric imaging (AtPI) using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS)with Sonazoid in the evaluation of early response to sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirteen ad- vanced HCC patients with low a / -fetoprotein (AFP) level (≤35 ng/mL) who received sorafenib for at least 4 weeks were enrolled in this study. CEUS was performed before and after treatment (2 weeks), and the images of the target lesion in the arterial phase were analyzed by AtPI. In the color mapping images obtained by AtPI, the mean arrival time of the contrast agent in the target lesion from the starting point (mean time: MT) was calculated. In each patient, differences between MT before and MT 2 weeks after treatment were compared. MT (+) and MT(-) groups were designated as such if the difference was 0 or greater(blood flow velocity of the lesion was reduced)and less than 0 sec(blood flow velocity of the lesion was increased), respectively. The overall survival was evaluated between the 2 groups. In the MT (+) group (7 patients) and MT (-) group (6 patients), the median survival times were 307 and 208 days, respectively, which was statistically significant. We suggest AtPI is useful for evaluating early response to sorafenib in advanced HCC patients with low AFP level. PMID:27067685

  20. The effect of the Earth's oblate spheroid shape on the accuracy of a time-of-arrival lightning ground strike locating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Paul W.; Bent, Rodney B.

    1991-01-01

    The algorithm used in previous technology time-of-arrival lightning mapping systems was based on the assumption that the earth is a perfect spheroid. These systems yield highly-accurate lightning locations, which is their major strength. However, extensive analysis of tower strike data has revealed occasionally significant (one to two kilometer) systematic offset errors which are not explained by the usual error sources. It was determined that these systematic errors reduce dramatically (in some cases) when the oblate shape of the earth is taken into account. The oblate spheroid correction algorithm and a case example is presented.

  1. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  2. A P-wave based, on-site method for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    Can we rapidly predict the potential damage of earthquakes by-passing the estimation of its location and magnitude? One possible approach is to predict the expected peak ground shaking at the site and the earthquake magnitude from the initial P-peak amplitude and characteristic period, respectively. The idea, first developed by Wu and Kanamori (2005), is to combine the two parameters for declaring the alert once the real-time measured quantities have passed pre-defined thresholds. Our proposed on-site early warning method generalized this approach, based on the analysis of strong motion data from modern accelerograph networks in Japan, Taiwan and Italy (Zollo et al., 2010). It is based on the real-time measurement of the period (τc) and peak displacement (Pd) parameters at one or more co-located stations at a given target site to be protected against the earthquake effects. By converting these real-time proxies in predicted values of Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) or instrumental intensity (IMM) and magnitude, an alert level is issued at the recording site based on a decisional table with four entries defined upon threshold values of the parameters Pd and Tc. The latter ones are set according to the error bounds estimated on the derived prediction equations. A near-source network of stations running the onsite method can provide the event location and transmit the information about the alert levels recorded at near-source stations to more distant sites, before the arrival of the most destructive phase. The network-based approach allows for the rapid and robust estimation of the Potential Damage Zone (PDZ), that is the area where most of earthquake damage is expected (Colombelli et al., 2012). A new strategy for a P-wave based, on-site earthquake early warning system has been developed and tested on Japanese strong motion data and under testing on Italian data. The key elements are the real-time, continuous measurement of three peak amplitude parameters and their

  3. Detection of the electrocardiogram P-wave using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anant, Kanwaldip S.; Dowla, Farid U.; Rodrigue, Garry H.

    1994-03-01

    Since wavelet analysis is an effective tool for analyzing transient signals, we studied its feature extraction and representation properties for events in electrocardiogram (EKG) data. Significant features of the EKG include the P-wave, the QRS complex, and the T-wave. For this paper the feature that we chose to focus on was the P-wave. Wavelet analysis was used as a preprocessor for a backpropagation neural network with conjugate gradient learning. The inputs to the neural network were the wavelet transforms of EKGs at a particular scale. The desired output was the location of the P-wave. The results were compared to results obtained without using the wavelet transform as a preprocessor.

  4. Detection of the electrocardiogram P-wave using wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anant, K.S.; Rodrigue, G.H. |; Dowla, F.U.

    1994-01-01

    Since wavelet analysis is an effective tool for analyzing transient signals, we studied its feature extraction and representation properties for events in electrocardiogram (EKG) data. Significant features of the EKG include the P-wave, the QRS complex, and the T-wave. For this paper the feature that we chose to focus on was the P-wave. Wavelet analysis was used as a pre-processor for a backpropagation neural network with conjugate gradient learning. The inputs to the neural network were the wavelet transforms of EKGs at a particular scale. The desired output was the location of the P-wave. The results were compared to results obtained without using the wavelet transform as a pre-processor.

  5. Supercurrent in a p-wave holographic superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Huabi; Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi

    2011-02-15

    The p-wave and p+ip-wave holographic superconductors with fixed DC supercurrent are studied by introducing a nonvanishing vector potential. We find that close to the critical temperature T{sub c} of zero current, the numerical results of both the p-wave model and the p+ip model are the same as those of Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory; for example, the critical current is j{sub c}{approx}(T{sub c}-T){sup 3/2} and the phase transition in the presence of a DC current is a first-order transition. Beside the similar results between both models, the p+ip superconductor shows isotropic behavior for the supercurrent, while the p-wave superconductor shows anisotropic behavior for the supercurrent.

  6. Predicting interplanetary shock arrivals at Earth, Mars, and Venus: A real-time modeling experiment following the solar flares of 5-14 December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Dryer, M.; Fry, C. D.; Smith, Z. K.; Intriligator, D. S.; Courtney, W. R.; Deehr, C. S.; Sun, W.; Kecskemety, K.; Kudela, K.; Balaz, J.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.

    2008-06-01

    A 3-D, kinematic, solar wind model (Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 (HAFv.2)) is used to predict interplanetary shock arrivals at Venus, Earth, and Mars during a sequence of significant solar events that occurred in the interval 5-14 December 2006. Mars and Venus were on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth during this period. The shocks from the first two east limb events (5 and 6 December) were predicted to interact to form a single disturbance before reaching Earth and Venus. A single shock was indeed recorded at Earth only about 3 h earlier than had been predicted. The composite shock was predicted by HAFv.2 to arrive at Venus on 8 December at ˜0500 UT. Solar energetic particles (SEPs) were detected in Venus Express Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms-4 data for some 3 d (from <0530 UT on 6 December), and an energetic storm particle (ESP) event signaled the arrival of a single shock wave at 0900 UT on 7 December. SEPs were correspondingly recorded at Mars. However, the eastern flank of the composite shock was predicted to decay to an MHD wave prior to reaching this location, and no shock signature was observed in the available data. The shocks generated in association with two flare events that occurred closer to the West Limb on 13 and 14 December were predicted by HAFv.2 to remain separate when they arrived at Earth but to combine thereafter before reaching Mars. Each was expected to decay to MHD waves before reaching Venus, which was at that time located behind the Sun. Separated shocks were observed to arrive at L1 (ACE) only 8 min earlier than and 5.3 h later than their predicted times. The western flank of the combined shocks was predicted to arrive at Mars early on 20 December 2006. An indication of the passage of this shock was provided by a signature of ion heating in Mars Express IMA (ion mass-resolving analyzer) data from <0424 UT on 20 December. The predictions of the HAFv.2 model for Earth were each well within the ±11 h. RMS error

  7. Comparison of the CME-associated shock arrival times at the earth using the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, S.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2012-12-01

    We have made a comparison of CME-associated shock arrival times at the earth based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone models using 29 halo CMEs from 2001 to 2002. These halo CMEs have cone model parameters from Michalek et al. (2007) as well as their associated interplanetary (IP) shocks. For this study we consider three different cone models (an asymmetric cone model, an ice-cream cone model and an elliptical cone model) to determine CME cone parameters (radial velocity, angular width and source location), which are used for input parameters of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the arrival times for the elliptical cone model is 10 hours, which is about 2 hours smaller than those of the other models. However, this value is still larger than that (8.7 hours) of an empirical model by Kim et al. (2007). We are investigating several possibilities on relatively large errors of the WSA-ENLIL cone model, which may be caused by CME-CME interaction, background solar wind speed, and/or CME density enhancement.

  8. Form analysis using digital signal processing reliably discriminates far-field R waves from P waves.

    PubMed

    Van Hemel, Norbert M; Wohlgemuth, Peter; Engbers, Jos G; Lawo, Thomas; Nebaznivy, Jan; Taborsky, Milos; Witte, Joachim; Boute, Wim; Munneke, Dave; Van Groeningen, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The correct detection of atrial arrhythmias by pacemakers is often limited by the presence of far-field R waves (FFRWs) in the atrial electrogram. Digital signal processing (DSP) of intracardiac signals is assumed to provide improved discrimination between P waves and FFRWs when compared to current methods. For this purpose, 100 bipolar and unipolar intracardiac atrial recordings from 31 patients were collected during pacemaker replacement and used for the off-line application of a novel DSP algorithm. Digital processing of the atrial intracardiac electrogram (IEGM) signals (8 bit, 800 samples/s) included filtering and calculation of the maximum amplitude and slope of the detected events. The form parameter was calculated, being the sum of the most negative value of the amplitude and that of the slope of the detected event. The algorithm collects form parameter data of P waves and FFRWs and composes histograms of these data. A sufficiently large gap between the FFRW and P wave histograms allows discrimination of these two signals based on form parameters. Three independent observers reviewed the reliability of classification with this algorithm. Sensitivity and specificity of FFRW detection were 99.63% and 100%, respectively, and no P waves were falsely classified. It can be concluded that this novel DSP algorithm shows excellent discrimination of FFRWs under off-line conditions and justify the implementation of this algorithm in future pacemakers for real-time discrimination between P waves and FFRWs. This method prevents false mode switching and allows correct and immediate intervention pacing for atrial tachyarrhythmias. PMID:15613124

  9. Reflection of P-Wave and Sv-Wave in a Generalized Two Temperature Thermoelastic Half-Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, S.; Lahiri, A.; Das, N. C.

    2014-11-01

    In this work the theory of two temperature generalized thermoelasticity has been used to investigate the problem of reflection of P-wave and SV-wave in a half space when the surface is i) thermally insulated or ii) isothermal. The ratios of the reflection coefficient to that of the incident coefficient for different cases are obtained for P-wave and SV-waves. The results for various cases for the conductive and dynamical temperature have been compared. The results arrived at in the absence of the thermal field (elastic case) have also been compared with those in the existing literature. Finally, the results for various cases have been analyzed and depicted in graphs.

  10. Laboratory monitoring of P-waves in partially saturated sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, J.; Bordes, C.; Brito, D.; Sénéchal, P.; Perroud, H.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic data depends on a variety of hydrogeological properties of the prospected porous media such as porosity, permeability and fluid saturation. We have performed a laboratory experiment in the kiloHertz range in order to analyze the role of partial saturation on direct propagating P-waves phase velocity and attenuation. The experiment consists of a sand-filled tank 107 cm x 34 cm x 35cm equipped with accelerometers and water capacitance probes. The P-waves seismic propagation is generated by hitting a steel ball on a granite plate on the one lateral side of the container. Several imbibition/drainage cycles are performed between the water residual saturation and the gas residual saturation. The laboratory seismic data are processed by two Continuous Wavelet Transforms using one real mother wavelet (Mexican hat) and one complex (Morlet) to recover velocity and attenuation as a function of frequency. Phase velocity of direct P-wave decreases with an increase of water content and is quite consistent with the low frequency limit of the Biot's theory both for imbibition and drainage. The interpretation of the P-waves attenuation needs to go beyond the macroscopic fluid flow of Biot's theory and to introduce a viscoelastic contribution linked to the grain to grain overall losses which are described by a constant Q-model. A strong hysteresis between imbibition and drainage is observed and explained by introducing an effective permeability depending on water and gas relative permeabilities (Van Genuchten model).

  11. Longitudinal development of muons in large air showers studies from the arrival time distributions measured at 900m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival time distributions of muons with energies above 1.0GeV and 0.5GeV have been measured in the Akeno air-shower array to study the longitudinal development of muons in air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 18th power ev. The average rise times of muons with energies above 1.0GeV at large core distances are consistent with those expected from very high multiplicity models and, on the contrary, with those expected from the low multiplicity models at small core distances. This implies that the longitudinal development at atmospheric depth smaller than 500 cm square is very fast and that at larger atmospheric depths is rather slow.

  12. Estimating the value of containment strategies in delaying the arrival time of an influenza pandemic: A case study of travel restriction and patient isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Tianyi; Li, Xiang

    2012-09-01

    With a simple phenomenological metapopulation model, which characterizes the invasion process of an influenza pandemic from a source to a subpopulation at risk, we compare the efficiency of inter- and intrapopulation interventions in delaying the arrival of an influenza pandemic. We take travel restriction and patient isolation as examples, since in reality they are typical control measures implemented at the inter- and intrapopulation levels, respectively. We find that the intrapopulation interventions, e.g., patient isolation, perform better than the interpopulation strategies such as travel restriction if the response time is small. However, intrapopulation strategies are sensitive to the increase of the response time, which might be inevitable due to socioeconomic reasons in practice and will largely discount the efficiency.

  13. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Marcus Alexander; Willis, Michael David; Covert, Timothy Todd

    2014-09-01

    The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as the more meaningful pressure time histories.

  14. Global P-wave tomography of mantle plumes and subducting slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    There are many volcanoes on the Earth which can be generally classified into 3 categories: island arc volcanoes, mid-ocean ridge volcanoes, and hotspot volcanoes. Hotspot volcanoes denote intraplate volcanoes like Hawaii, or anomalously large mid-ocean ridge volcanoes like Iceland. So far many researchers have studied the origin of hotspot volcanoes and have used mantle plume hypothesis to explain them. However, we still have little knowledge about mantle plumes yet. In this study, we determined a new model of whole mantle P-wave tomography to understand the origin of hotspot volcanoes. We used the global tomography method of Zhao (2001, 2004). A 3-D grid net was set up in the mantle, and velocity perturbations at every grid nodes were taken as unknown parameters. The iasp91 velocity model (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) was taken as the 1-D initial model. We selected 9106 earthquakes from the events occurred in the last forty years from the ISC catalog. About 1.6 million arrival-time data of five-type P phases (P, pP, PP, PcP, and Pdiff) were used to conduct the tomographic inversion. In our previous model (Zhao, 2004), the grid interval in the E-W direction is too small in the polar regions. In this study, in order to remedy this problem, we use a flexible-grid approach to make the lateral grid intervals in the polar regions nearly the same as the other portions of the mantle. As a result, the tomographic images in the polar regions are remarkably improved. Our new tomographic model shows huge low-velocity (low-V) zones in the entire mantle under Tahiti and Lake Victoria, which reflect the Pacific and African superplumes, being consistent with the previous studies. A clear low-V zone is revealed under Mt. Erebus volcano in Antarctica. Other major hotspots also exhibit significant low-V zones in the mantle under their surface locations. Beneath Bering Sea, we found that the Pacific slab is subducting from the Aleutian trench and it is stagnant in the mantle transition

  15. 3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Deep Galicia Rifted Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakci, Gaye; Minshull, Timothy; Davy, Richard; Sawyer, Dale; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Reston, Timothy; Shillington, Donna; Ranero, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    The combined wide-angle reflection-refraction and multi-channel seismic (MCS) experiment, Galicia 3D, was carried out in 2013 at the Galicia rifted margin in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain. The main geological features within the 64 by 20 km (1280 km²) 3D box investigated by the survey are the peridotite ridge (PR), the fault bounded, rotated basement blocks and the S reflector, which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault. 44 short period four-component ocean bottom seismometers and 28 ocean bottom hydrophones were deployed in the 3D box. 3D MCS profiles sampling the whole box were acquired with two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. fired alternately every 37.5 m. We present the results from 3D first-arrival time tomography that constrains the P-wave velocity in the 3D box, for the entire depth sampled by reflection data. Results are validated by synthetic tests and by the comparison with Galicia 3D MCS lines. The main outcomes are as follows: 1- The 3.5 km/s iso-velocity contour mimics the top of the acoustic basement observed on MCS profiles. Block bounding faults are imaged as velocity contrasts and basement blocks exhibit 3D topographic variations. 2- On the southern profiles, the top of the PR rises up to 5.5 km depth whereas, 20 km northward, its basement expression (at 6.5 km depth) nearly disappears. 3- The 6.5 km/s iso-velocity contour matches the topography of the S reflector where the latter is visible on MCS profiles. Within a depth interval of 0.6 km (in average), velocities beneath the S reflector increase from 6.5 km/s to 7 km/s, which would correspond to a decrease in the degree of serpentinization from ~45 % to ~30 % if these velocity variations are caused solely by variations in hydration. At the intersections between the block bounding normal faults and the S reflector, this decrease happens over a larger depth interval (> 1 km), suggesting that faults act as conduit for the water flow in the upper mantle.

  16. P-wave velocity structure offshore central Sumatra: implications for compressional and strike-slip faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karplus, M.; Henstock, T.; McNeill, L. C.; Vermeesch, P. M. T.; Barton, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Sunda subduction zone features significant along-strike structural variability including changes in accretionary prism and forearc morphology. Some of these changes have been linked to changes in megathrust faulting styles, and some have been linked to other thrust and strike-slip fault systems across this obliquely convergent margin (~54-58 mm/yr convergence rate, 40-45 mm/yr subduction rate). We examine these structural changes in detail across central Sumatra, from Siberut to Nias Island, offshore Indonesia. In this area the Investigator Fracture Zone and the Wharton Fossil Ridge, features with significant topography, are being subducted, which may affect sediment thickness variation and margin morphology. We present new seismic refraction P-wave velocity models using marine seismic data collected during Sonne cruise SO198 in 2008. The experiment geometry consisted of 57 ocean bottom seismometers, 23 land seismometers, and over 10,000 air gun shots recorded along ~1750 km of profiles. About 130,000 P-wave first arrival refractions were picked, and the picks were inverted using FAST (First Arrivals Refraction Tomography) 3-D to give a velocity model, best-resolved in the top 25 km. Moho depths, crustal composition, prism geometry, slab dip, and upper and lower plate structures provide insight into the past and present tectonic processes at this plate boundary. We specifically examine the relationships between velocity structure and faulting locations/ styles. These observations have implications for strain-partitioning along the boundary. The Mentawai Fault, located west of the forearc basin in parts of Central Sumatra, has been interpreted variably as a backthrust, strike-slip, and normal fault. We integrate existing data to evaluate these hypotheses. Regional megathrust earthquake ruptures indicate plate boundary segmentation in our study area. The offshore forearc west of Siberut is almost aseismic, reflecting the locked state of the plate interface, which

  17. Development of the county database: Estimates of exposure rates and times of arrival of fallout in the ORERP Phase-2 area

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, H.L. ); Anspaugh, L.R. )

    1991-12-01

    Estimates of exposure rates and fallout-arrival times have been made for each of 142 counties or county segments for 55 nuclear events producing significant deposition downwind from the Nevada Test Site. All sources of available data were examined to provide the best possible estimates for each event. The cumulative fallout deposited per unit area in each county based on these estimates is compared with estimates of cumulative deposition density based on analyses of contemporary and historical soil samples. The good agreement between the two sets of cumulative deposition estimates gives credence to the individual event estimates and suggests that no major sources of fission-product deposition were overlooked. This county database is being used as primary input data in a number of on-going dose-reconstruction studies.

  18. Position surveillance using one active ranging satellite and time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Frey, R. L.; Lewis, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A satellite-aided mobile communication service was tested for position surveillance, with an automatic responder circuit connected between the vehicle receiver and transmitter, and a receiver coded for signals from another satellite. Using the ATS-6 and GOES satellites, a tone-code ranging transponder was connected between the receiver and transmitter, and a 468 MHz receiver was connected to the responder unit for passive reception of the 100 bit per second timing and data signal. Results showed lines of position derived from the active ranging through ATS-6 to be accurate to approximately 0.1 nautical mile, while the NOAA-GOES signals were accurate to about 1.6 miles. The active ranging bandwidth was 2.44 kHz, and the integration time was 0.1 second, while the limitation on accuracy was the 100 Hz bandwidth. This technique of position surveillance was concluded to be feasible and simple to operate, providing needed, good quality communications to the inland waterways industry.

  19. Basement configuration of on-land Kutch basin from seismic refraction studies and modeling of first arrival travel time skips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, B. Rajendra; Venkateswarlu, N.; Prasad, A. S. S. S. R. S.; Murthy, A. S. N.; Sateesh, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Kutch basin is one of the three (Narmada, Cambay and Kutch) major marginal rift basins that are close to each other in mid-western part of the Indian subcontinent. The seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data were acquired and a first order velocity structure of the Kutch sedimentary basin along Jakhau-Mandvi, Mandvi-Mundra, Mundra-Adesar and Hamirpur-Halvad profiles is derived. The travel time skip phenomenon has been noticed in the travel time plots and record sections indicating presence of low velocity sediments. Derived two-dimensional velocity-depth models revealed a Mesozoic sedimentary sequence sandwiched between Trap and Limestone layers, in some of the profiles. Two thick low velocity layers (that corresponds early to late Mesozoic era) have been identified. These are dipping towards Mandvi along Jakhau-Mandvi profile. The early Mesozoic layer that is thinning towards southeast is completely missing in Mandvi-Mundra profile. It is also noticed that the early Mesozoic Bhuj formation exists in the northern parts of the Mundra-Adesar and Hamirpur-Halvad profiles, where it directly overlies the granitic basement. The derived velocity-depth model suggests that the basement is about 3 km deep near Jakhau and reaches a depth of about 6 km near Mandvi. The layered structure may correspond to the Tertiary, Trap, Late Mesozoic sediments and Mesozoic limestone. The velocity-depth model obtained in Kutch is very similar to earlier derived model for Jamnagar and Dwarka sub-basins of northwestern Saurashtra peninsula suggesting probable continuity/linkage between southern on-land Kutch and, across the Gulf of Kutch to Saurashtra peninunsula. We also conclude that the evolution of Kutch basin, as a peri-cratonic rift basin, is essentially controlled by the four (F1-F4) faults inferred from obvious abrupt changes in layer thickness/velocity along the seismic refraction profiles.

  20. P-wave residuals at stations in Nepal - Evidence for a high velocity region beneath the Karakorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, M. R.; Roecker, Steven W.; Molnar, Peter

    1991-01-01

    P-wave residuals recorded at stations in Nepal from events to the northwest and closer than about 20 deg are consistently earlier than those from other directions by about 2.5 sec. These early arrivals are associated with paths confined to the upper 300 km of the earth and suggest that cold material occupies the uppermost mantle beneath the Karakorum, northwest Himalaya, and western Kunlun. Thus, these data suggest that convective downwelling occurs more vigorously in this region than beneath the rest of the Himalaya, Tibet, and their surroundings.

  1. Acoustic Source Localization via Time Difference of Arrival Estimation for Distributed Sensor Networks Using Tera-Scale Optical Core Devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Imam, Neena; Barhen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    For real-time acoustic source localization applications, one of the primary challenges is the considerable growth in computational complexity associated with the emergence of ever larger, active or passive, distributed sensor networks. These sensors rely heavily on battery-operated system components to achieve highly functional automation in signal and information processing. In order to keep communication requirements minimal, it is desirable to perform as much processing on the receiver platforms as possible. However, the complexity of the calculations needed to achieve accurate source localization increases dramatically with the size of sensor arrays, resulting in substantial growth of computational requirements that cannot bemore » readily met with standard hardware. One option to meet this challenge builds upon the emergence of digital optical-core devices. The objective of this work was to explore the implementation of key building block algorithms used in underwater source localization on the optical-core digital processing platform recently introduced by Lenslet Inc. This demonstration of considerably faster signal processing capability should be of substantial significance to the design and innovation of future generations of distributed sensor networks.« less

  2. Mapping P-wave anisotropy of the Honshu arc from Japan Trench to the back-arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Zhao, Dapeng

    2010-10-01

    We determined a 3-D P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath the entire Honshu arc using about 448,000 high-quality P-wave arrival times from 18,335 local earthquakes that occurred beneath the Northeast (NE) Japan land area and the fore-arc area under the Pacific Ocean. Our results show that low-velocity (low-V) zones exist beneath the active arc volcanoes in the crust and in the central portion of the mantle wedge above the subducting Pacific slab. The low-V anomalies are related to the arc magmatism. Low-V zones are also revealed in the fore-arc area, which are probably caused by large volumes of water releasing upwards from dehydration of the subducting oceanic crust and sediments. The anisotropic amplitude in the upper crust is weaker than that in other portions under NE Japan. In the mantle wedge, the fast velocity direction (FVD) is generally trench-normal in back-arc area, which may reflect that the olivine a axis aligns with the transport direction induced by the slab-driven corner flow. The FVD becomes trench-parallel in the central portion of the fore-arc mantle wedge, which is possibly induced by the olivine of B-type fabric in the slab-driven corner flow. The FVD shows trench-parallel in the low-V zones in the fore-arc mantle wedge close to the upper boundary of the Pacific slab, which may reflect the B-type olivine fabric dominating in those areas, or it may be induced by the dextral shearing of the overlying crust. The trench-parallel FVD is also revealed beneath the volcanic front, indicating complex 3-D mantle flows in the mantle wedge. The FVD in the subducting Pacific slab is mostly trench-parallel, which may reflect one or more of the following possibilities: (1) the original fossil anisotropy of the Pacific plate formed at the mid-ocean ridge, (2) cracks within the slab, and (3) the olivine fabric transition due to the changes in water content, stress, and temperature.

  3. p-wave optical Feshbach resonances in {sup 171}Yb

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Krittika; Deutsch, Ivan; Reichenbach, Iris

    2010-12-15

    We study the use of an optical Feshbach resonance to modify the p-wave interaction between ultracold polarized {sup 171}Yb spin-1/2 fermions. A laser exciting two colliding atoms to the {sup 1}S{sub 0}+{sup 3}P{sub 1} channel can be detuned near a purely-long-range excited molecular bound state. Such an exotic molecule has an inner turning point far from the chemical binding region, and thus, three-body recombination in the Feshbach resonance will be highly suppressed in contrast to that typically seen in a ground-state p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance. We calculate the excited molecular bound-state spectrum using a multichannel integration of the Schroedinger equation, including an external perturbation by a magnetic field. From the multichannel wave functions, we calculate the Feshbach resonance properties, including the modification of the elastic p-wave scattering volume and inelastic spontaneous scattering rate. The use of magnetic fields and selection rules for polarized light yields a highly controllable system. We apply this control to propose a toy model for three-color superfluidity in an optical lattice for spin-polarized {sup 171}Yb, where the three colors correspond to the three spatial orbitals of the first excited p band. We calculate the conditions under which tunneling and on-site interactions are comparable, at which point quantum critical behavior is possible.

  4. INTEGRATING P-WAVE AND S-WAVE SEISMIC DATA TO IMPROVE CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Innocent J. Aluka

    2004-12-01

    The data used in this study were acquired by nine-component (9C) vertical seismic profile (VSP), using three orthogonal vector sources. The 9C vertical seismic profile is capable of generating P-wave mode and the fundamental S-wave mode (SH-SH and SV-SV) directly at the source station and permits the basic components of elastic wavefield (P, SH-SH and SV-SV) to be separated from one another for the purposes of imaging. Analysis and interpretations of data from the study area show that incident full-elastic seismic wavefield is capable of reflecting four different wave modes, P, SH , SV and C which can be utilized to fully understand the architecture and heterogeneities of geologic sequences. The conventional seismic stratigraphy utilizes only reflected P-wave modes. The notation SH mode is the same as SH-SH; SV mode means SV-SV and C mode which is a converted shear wave is a special SV mode and is the same as P-SV. These four wave modes image unique geologic stratigraphy and facies and at the same time reflect independent stratal surfaces because of the unique orientation of their particle-displacement vectors. As a result of the distinct orientation of individual mode.s particle-displacement vector, one mode may react to a critical subsurface sequence more than the other. It was also observed that P-wave and S-wave do not always reflect from the same stratal boundaries. At inline coordinate 2100 and crossline coordinates of 10,380, 10430, 10480 and 10,520 the P-wave stratigraphy shows coherency at time slice 796 m/s and C-wave stratigraphy shows coherency at time slice 1964 m/s at the same inline coordinate and crossline coordinates of 10,400 to 10470. At inline coordinate 2800 and crossline coordinate 10,650, P-wave stratigraphy shows coherency at time slice 792 m/s and C-wave stratigraphy shows coherency at time slice 1968 m/s. The utilization of full-elastic seismic wavefield needs to be maximized in oil and gas explorations in order to optimize the search for

  5. Velocity contrast across the 1944 rupture zone of the North Anatolian fault east of Ismetpasa from analysis of teleseismic arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozakin, Yaman; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Aktar, Mustafa; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Peng, Zhigang

    2012-04-01

    We use differences between arrival times of teleseismic events at sets of stations crossing the North Anatolian fault east of Ismetpasa, where shallow creep has been observed, to detect and quantify a contrast of seismic velocities across the fault. Waveform cross correlations are utilized to calculate phase delays of P waves with respect to expected teleseismic arrivals with incident angles corresponding to the generating events. Compiled delay times associated with 121 teleseismic events indicate about 4.3% average P wave velocity contrast across the fault over the top 36 km, with faster velocity on the north side. The estimated contrast is about 8.3% if the velocity contrast is limited to the top 18 km. The sense of velocity contrast is consistent with the overall tectonic setting and inference made for the examined fault section based on theoretical expectations for bimaterial ruptures and observed asymmetry of rock damage across the fault. Our data indicate lack of significant microseismicity near the fault, suggesting that creep in the area is limited to the depth section above the seismogenic zone.

  6. Models of the upper mantle beneath the central North Island, New Zealand, from speeds and anisotropy of subhorizontal P waves (Pn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, A. M.; Henderson, C. M.; Smith, E. G. C.

    2009-01-01

    The central North Island of New Zealand shows significant variations in Pn wave speeds over small distances, ranging from 8.5 ± 0.2 km/s to 7.4 ± 0.1 km/s over a distance of 150 km. A combination of national network seismometers, local volcanic seismic monitoring networks, and temporary deployments are used to collect arrival times from local events, during the period of 1990-2006. The data set consists of approximately 11,200 Pn observations from 3000 local earthquakes at 91 seismograph sites. We have created a method that allows us to model the predominant wavelength features of P wave speeds in the uppermost mantle, as well as estimating values of mantle anisotropy and irregularities in the crust beneath stations, using least squares collocation. The resulting model shows distinct variations in uppermost mantle Pn velocities. Velocities of less than 7.5 km/s are found beneath the back-arc extension region of the Central Volcanic Region, and under the Taranaki Volcanic Region, indicating the presence of water and partial melt. The region to the east shows extremely high velocities of 8.3-8.5 km/s, where the P waves are traveling within the subducting Pacific slab. Slightly lower than normal mantle velocities of 7.8-8.1 km/s are found in the western North Island, suggesting a soft mantle. Pn anisotropy estimates throughout the North Island show predominately trench-parallel fast directions, ceasing to nulls in the west. Anisotropy measurements indicate the strain history of the mantle. Null anisotropy measurements suggest an undisturbed mantle, suggesting that mantle beneath the western North Island is young.

  7. Estimating Seismic Moment From Broadband P-Waves for Tsunami Warnings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshorn, B. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), located in Ewa Beach, Oahu, Hawaii, is responsible for issuing local, regional, and distant tsunami warnings to Hawaii, and for issuing regional and distant tsunami warnings to the rest of the Pacific Basin, exclusive of the US West Coast. The PTWC must provide these tsunami warnings as soon as technologically possible, based entirely on estimates of a potentially tsunamigenic earthquake's source parameters. We calculate the broadband P-wave moment magnitude, Mwp, from the P or pP wave velocity seismograms [Tsuboi et al., 1995, 1999]. This method appears to work well for regional and teleseismic events [ Tsuboi et al (1999], Whitmore et al (2002), Hirshorn et al (2004) ]. Following Tsuboi, [1995], we consider the displacement record of the P-wave portion of the broadband seismograms as an approximate source time function and integrate this record to obtain the moment rate function, Mo(t), and the moment magnitude [Hanks and Kanamori, 1972] as a function of time, Mw(t). We present results for Mwp for local, regional, and teleseismic broad band recordings for earthquakes in the Mw 5 to 9.3 range. As large Hawaii events are rare, we tested this local case using other Pacific events in the magnitude 5.0 to 7.5 range recorded by nearby stations. Signals were excluded, however, if the epicentral distance was so small (generally less than 1 degree) that there was contamination by the S-wave too closely following the P-waves. Scatter plots of Mwp against the Harvard Mw for these events shows that Mwp does predict Mw well from seismograms recorded at local, regional, and teleseismic distances. For some complex earthquakes, eg. the Mw 8.4(HRV) Peru earthquake of June 21, 2001, Mwp underestimates Mw if the first moment release is not the largest. Our estimates of Mwp for the Mw 9.3 Summatra-Andaman Island's earthquake of December 26, 2004 and for the Mw 8.7 (HRV) Summatra event of March 28, 2005, were Mwp 8

  8. Crust and upper mantle P wave velocity structure beneath Valles caldera, New Mexico: Results from the Jemez teleseismic tomography experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, Lee K.; Fehler, Michael C.; Roberts, Peter M.; Baldridge, W. Scott; Stafford, Darrik G.; Lutter, William J.; Sessions, Robert

    1998-10-01

    New results are presented from the teleseismic component of the Jemez Tomography Experiment conducted across Valles caldera in northern New Mexico. We invert 4872 relative {ital P} wave arrival times recorded on 50 portable stations to determine velocity structure to depths of 40 km. The three principle features of our model for Valles caldera are: (1) near-surface low velocities of {minus}17{percent} beneath the Toledo embayment and the Valle Grande, (2) midcrustal low velocities of {minus}23{percent} in an ellipsoidal volume underneath the northwest quadrant of the caldera, and (3) a broad zone of low velocities ({minus}15{percent}) in the lower crust or upper mantle. Crust shallower than 20 km is generally fast to the northwest of the caldera and slow to the southeast. Near-surface low velocities are interpreted as thick deposits of Bandelier tuff and postcaldera volcaniclastic rocks. Lateral variation in the thickness of these deposits supports increased caldera collapse to the southeast, beneath the Valle Grande. We interpret the midcrustal low-velocity zone to contain a minimum melt fraction of 10{percent}. While we cannot rule out the possibility that this zone is the remnant 1.2 Ma Bandelier magma chamber, the eruption history and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks erupted in Valles caldera following the Bandelier tuff make it more likely that magma results from a new pulse of intrusion, indicating that melt flux into the upper crust beneath Valles caldera continues. The low-velocity zone near the crust-mantle boundary is consistent with either partial melt in the lower crust or mafic rocks without partial melt in the upper mantle. In either case, this low-velocity anomaly indicates that underplating by mantle-derived melts has occurred. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  9. Crustal structure beneath Long Valley caldera from modeling of teleseismic P wave polarizations and Ps converted waves

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, L.K.; Prothero, W.A. Jr.

    1994-04-10

    In this study, the authors present new constraints on the nature of the low-velocity zone beneath Long Valley caldera, based on the measured propagation directions of teleseismic P waves and on modeling of P to S converted waves. The low-velocity body is a large asymmetrical volume which deepens to the east, extending from depths of 7 to 30 km. It contains lower velocities than originally proposed by earlier teleseismic studies. In particular, there is a tabular feature between 7 and 11 km depth that has a reduction in velocity of about 30%. These low velocities imply a much greater percentage of melt in the crust beneath Long Valley caldera than previously estimated. Array analysis of large delayed arrivals identifies them to be Ps converted waves from the shoulders and roof of this tabular zone. These conversions bound the depth to the magma chamber roof to be within about 10 km of the surface. These results are consistent with elements from several other studies, and the authors present an integrated and improved model of crustal structure at Long Valley. The concordance of the deeper low-velocity zones with regional structural trends implies that the shallow low-velocity feature is a cupola on top of an asymmetric diapiric ridge rising up from the migmatized lower crust of the Basin and Range. The authors present two contrasting interpretations of the geometry of low-velocity zones in the crust: one implies a time-invariant magma chamber and conduit system for Long Valley caldera, the other implies an evolution of that system from a simple vertical regime to its current asymmetrical geometry. 37 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Regional P wave velocity structure of the Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramachandran, K.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first regional three-dimensional, P wave velocity model for the Northern Cascadia Subduction. Zone (SW British Columbia and NW Washington State) constructed through tomographic inversion of first-arrival traveltime data from active source experiments together with earthquake traveltime data recorded at permanent stations. The velocity model images the structure of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, megathrust, and the fore-arc crust and upper mantle. Beneath southern Vancouver Island the megathrust above the Juan de Fuca plate is characterized by a broad zone (25-35 km depth) having relatively low velocities of 6.4-6.6 km/s. This relative low velocity zone coincides with the location of most of the episodic tremors recently mapped beneath Vancouver Island, and its low velocity may also partially reflect the presence of trapped fluids and sheared lower crustal rocks. The rocks of the Olympic Subduction Complex are inferred to deform aseismically as evidenced by the lack of earthquakes withi the low-velocity rocks. The fore-arc upper mantle beneath the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound is characterized by velocities of 7.2-7.6 km/s. Such low velocities represent regional serpentinization of the upper fore-arc mantle and provide evidence for slab dewatering and densification. Tertiary sedimentary basins in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Lowland imaged by the velocity model lie above the inferred region of slab dewatering and densification and may therefore partly result from a higher rate of slab sinking. In contrast, sedimentary basins in the Strait of Juan de Fuca lie in a synclinal depression in the Crescent Terrane. The correlation of in-slab earthquake hypocenters M>4 with P wave velocities greater than 7.8 km/s at the hypocenters suggests that they originate near the oceanic Moho of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. p-Wave Cold Collisions in an Optical Lattice Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, N. D.; Sherman, J. A.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D.; Stecher, J. von; Rey, A. M.

    2011-09-02

    We study ultracold collisions in fermionic ytterbium by precisely measuring the energy shifts they impart on the atoms' internal clock states. Exploiting Fermi statistics, we uncover p-wave collisions, in both weakly and strongly interacting regimes. With the higher density afforded by two-dimensional lattice confinement, we demonstrate that strong interactions can lead to a novel suppression of this collision shift. In addition to reducing the systematic errors of lattice clocks, this work has application to quantum information and quantum simulation with alkaline-earth atoms.

  12. Endstates in multichannel spinless p-wave superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, M.-T.; Kells, G.; Duckheim, M.; Meidan, D.; Brouwer, P. W.

    2012-09-01

    Multimode spinless p-wave superconducting wires with a width W much smaller than the superconducting coherence length ξ are known to have multiple low-energy subgap states localized near the wire's ends. Here we compare the typical energies of such endstates for various terminations of the wire: A superconducting wire coupled to a normal-metal stub, a weakly disordered superconductor wire and a wire with smooth confinement. Depending on the termination, we find that the energies of the subgap states can be higher or lower than for the case of a rectangular wire with hard-wall boundaries.

  13. Anisotropic Fermi Superfluid via p-Wave Feshbach Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.-H.; Yip, S.-K.

    2005-08-12

    We investigate theoretically fermionic superfluidity induced by Feshbach resonance in the orbital p-wave channel and determine the general phase diagram. In contrast with superfluid {sup 3}He, due to the dipole interaction, the pairing is extremely anisotropic. When this dipole interaction is relatively strong, the pairing has symmetry k{sub z}. When it is relatively weak, it is of symmetry k{sub z}+i{beta}k{sub y} (up to a rotation about k{sub z}, here {beta}<1). A phase transition between these two states can occur under a change in the magnetic field or the density of the gas.

  14. P-wave contacts for two dimensional quatum gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yicai; Yu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Shizhong

    The s-wave contact has played an important role in our understanding of the strongly interacting Fermi gases. Recently, theoretical and experimental work has shown that two similar contacts exist for a p-wave interacting Fermi gas in three-dimensions. In this work, we extend the considerations to two dimensional spineless Fermi gas and derive exact results regarding the energy, momentum distributions and in particular, shifts of monopole frequency in a harmonic trap. Asymptotic formula for the frequency shift is given at high temperature via virial expansion and this can be checked by future experiments.

  15. Impact of Phase Transitions on P Wave Velocities

    SciTech Connect

    D Weidner; L Li

    2011-12-31

    In regions where a high pressure phase is in equilibrium with a low pressure phase, the bulk modulus defined by the P-V relationship is greatly reduced. Here we evaluate the effect of such transitions on the P wave velocity. A model, where cation diffusion is the rate limiting factor, is used to project laboratory data to the conditions of a seismic wave propagating in the two-phase region. We demonstrate that for the minimum expected effect there is a significant reduction of the seismic velocity, as large as 10% over a narrow depth range.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Larrea and its allies (Zygophyllaceae): reticulate evolution and the probable time of creosote bush arrival to North America.

    PubMed

    Lia, V V; Confalonieri, V A; Comas, C I; Hunziker, J H

    2001-11-01

    Nucleotide sequences of Rubisco Large Subunit (rbcL) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nrDNA were obtained for the five species of Larrea and one species each of Bulnesia (ITS only) and Plectrocarpa (rbcL only). Parsimony analyses were conducted, including sequences from seven genera of Zygophyllaceae reported by other authors-Kallstroemia, Zygophyllum, Augea, Fagonia, Pintoa, Guaiacum, and Porlieria. The main conclusions of the present study are (1) the Argentine endemic Plectrocarpa tetracantha belongs to the subfamily Larreoideae (New World Clade); (2) all three phylogenies obtained from rbcL, ITS, and combined data sets show a close relationship between the tetraploid L. cuneifolia (sect. Bifolium) and the diploid multifoliolate pair L. nitida-L. ameghinoi (sect. Larrea), which could result from a possible intersectional hybrid origin of the tetraploid; (3) L. divaricata (sect. Bifolium) and L. tridentata (sect. Bifolium) form a highly supported monophyletic group, which agrees with previous cytogenetic and molecular evidence; and (4) the rate of nucleotide substitution of rbcL was estimated based on geological and fossil records. Under the molecular clock hypothesis, nucleotide sequence divergence between L. divaricata and L. tridentata suggests a Late Neogene (8.4 to 4.2 mybp) time of arrival of the diploid ancestors of L. tridentata to North American deserts. PMID:11697924

  17. Skyrmion Flux Lattices in p,-wave Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich

    2007-03-01

    In p,-wave superconductors, topological excitations known as skyrmions are allowed, in addition to the usual vortices. In strongly type-II materials in an external magnetic field, a skyrmion flux lattice is expected to be energetically favored compared to a vortex flux lattice [1]. We analytically calculate the energy, magnetization curves (B(H)), and elasticity of skyrmion flux lattices in p,-wave superconductors near the lower critical field Hc1, and use these results with the Lindemann criterion to predict their melting curve [2]. In striking contrast to vortex flux lattices, which always melt at an external field H > Hc1, skyrmion flux lattices never melt near Hc1. This provides a simple and unambiguous test for the presence of skyrmions. In addition, the internal magnetic field distributions (which are measurable by muon spin rotation techniques [3]) of skyrmion and vortex lattices are very different. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, cond-mat/0607391 [3] J.E. Sonier, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, S4499 (2004)

  18. Memory of the Lake Rotorua catchment - time lag of the water in the catchment and delayed arrival of contaminants from past land use activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Daughney, Christopher J.; Stewart, Michael K.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2013-04-01

    , most of the water inflows into the lake are not yet fully representing the nitrate loading in their sub-catchments from current land use practises. These water inflows are still 'diluted' by pristine old water, but over time, the full amount of nitrate load will arrive at the lake. With the age distribution parameters, it is possible to predict the increase in nitrate load to the lake via the groundwater discharges. All sub-catchments have different mean transit times. The mean transit times are not necessarily correlated with observable hydrogeologic properties like hydraulic conductivity and catchment size. Without such age tracer data, it is therefore difficult to predict mean transit times (lag times, memory) of water transfer through catchments. References: Stewart, M.K., Morgenstern, U., McDonnell, J.J., Pfister, L. (2012). The 'hidden streamflow' challenge in catchment hydrology: A call to action for streamwater transit time analysis. Hydrol. Process. 26,2061-2066, Invited commentary. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9262 Morgenstern, U., Stewart, M.K., and Stenger, R. (2010) Dating of streamwater using tritium in a post nuclear bomb pulse world: continuous variation of mean transit time with streamflow, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, 14, 2289-2301

  19. Relationship between macro-fracture density, P-wave velocity, and permeability of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haichao; Pan, Jienan; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Haitao

    2015-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the quantitative relationship between macro-fracture density, P-wave velocity, porosity and permeability of different coal rank samples from mining areas in North China. The coal sample permeability shows an exponential growth with increasing fracture density. The relation between P-wave velocity and porosity is power function and P-wave velocity decreases with the increasing porosity. P-wave velocity linearly or nonlinearly decreases with the increase of fracture density in the selected coal samples (0.73-3.59% Ro). However, the overall trend is that P-wave velocity decreases with an increase in macro-fracture density. The permeability of coal samples linearly decreases with the increase of P-wave velocity. The quantitative relationship between P-wave velocity and permeability could provide reference for the further study of permeability predicting.

  20. Estimation of Radiated Seismic Energy from Teleseismic P Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, R.; Mori, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake radiated energy is a fundamental parameter for understanding source physics. Using teleseismic waveforms, we can estimate the radiated energy for a wide range of focal mechanisms and tectonic setting. We are especially interested in studying the apparent stress (rigidity multiplied by the ratio of radiated energy to seismic moment) of strike-slip earthquakes in the oceanic lithosphere, for which there are often high reported values (Choy and McGarr, 2002). Estimates of radiated energy from teleseismic P waves can be unstable, because take-off angles from the source are often close to nodes in the focal mechanisms, which can cause large variations in the estimated values of the apparent stress. In this study, we use only P waves for the teleseismic waveform, because of the strong attenuation of teleseismic S waves and interference with other phases. We use data recorded by teleseismic stations (epicentral distances of 30 to 90deg) recorded on the GSN network and focal mechanisms published by USGS and Global CMT Project. For the teleseismic waveforms, we need to account for the radiation pattern of the direct P and depth phase, pP and sP (Boatwright and Choy, 1986). For strike-slip events with where many data are close to nodes in the focal mechanisms, this is a large and often unstable correction. We use an improved method which takes into account a range of values for the strike, dip and rake angles. Also, we use station corrections determined from a selected set of well determined events. We show the result of estimated radiated seismic energy for 188 recent earthquakes (>Mw 7.0, since 2000 ). We discuss the differences of the radiated energy as a function of focal mechanisms, and oceanic/continental sources. Fig. Radiated seismic energy and correction for radiation pattern calculated using a range of focal mechanisms.

  1. Three-dimensional inversion of regional P and S arrival times in the East Aleutians and sources of subduction zone gravity highs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, Geoffrey A.

    1994-03-01

    Free-air gravity highs over forearcs represent a large fraction of the power in the Earth's anomalous field, yet their origin remains uncertain. Seismic velocities, as indicators of density, are estimated here as a means to compare the relative importance of upper plate sources for the gravity high with sources in the downgoing plate. P and S arrival times for local earthquakes, recorded by a seismic network in the eastern Aleutians, are inverted for three-dimensional velocity structure between the volcanic arc and the downgoing plate. A three-dimensional ray tracing scheme is used to invert the 7974 P and 6764 S arrivals for seismic velocities and hypocenters of 635 events. One-dimensional inversions show that station P residuals are systematically 0.25-0.5 s positive at stations 0-30 km north of the Aleutian volcanic arc, indicating slow material, while residuals at stations 10-30 km south of the arc are 0.1-0.25 s negative. Both features are explained in three-dimensional inversions by velocity variations at depths less than 25-35 km. Tests using a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional slab starting model show that below 100 km depth, velocities are poorly determined and trade off almost completely with hypocenters for earthquakes at these depths. The locations of forearc velocity highs, in the crust of the upper plate, correspond to the location of the gravity high between the trench and volcanic arc. Free-air anomalies, calculated from the three-dimensional velocity inversion result, match observed gravity for a linear density-velocity relationship between 0.1 and 0.3 (Mg m-3)/(km s-1), when a 50-km-thick slab is included with a density of 0.055±0.005 Mg m-3. Values outside these ranges do not match the observed gravity. The slab alone contributes one third to one half of the total 75-150 mGal amplitude of the gravity high but predicts a high that is much broader than is observed. The inclusion of upper-plate velocity anomalies predicts the correct width of

  2. Revealing the architecture of the upper boundary of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the northern tip of the Izu-Tanzawa Collision Zone, Central Japan, using later-phase of P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuri, Y.; Tsumura, N.

    2010-12-01

    In Izu-Tanzawa Collision Zone (ITCZ), Izu arc collides with Japan arc due to subduction of the Philippine Sea plate (PHP). Recent studies by Kikuchi (2008) and Arai et al. (2009) have revealed that the upper boundary of PHP has a complex geometry in this area. High seismicity near the top boundary of PHP is reported in the front (northern) edge of the ITCZ, which is the transition zone from collision to subduction of PHP, whereas an aseismic zone is located on the western part of the high seismicity region. This spatial variation of seismicity is probably related to the shape of PHP caused by the difference between collisional vs. subductive movements. To better correlate the spatial distribution of seismicity and the plate configuration, we attempt to find a discontinuous surface near the upper boundary of PHP using later phases of P waves. We used seismic-waveform data from the website of Hi-net seismic network. In the high seismicity region, clear later phases of P waves (X phases) are observed in vertical component seismograms recorded at the stations above the high seismicity region. The X phases arrive 0.5s to 2.0s after P arrivals. Time difference between P and X arrivals (X-P times) increases with distances between the plate boundary and the hypocenters. Similarly, X-P times increase as the distances from the northwestern edge of the high seismicity region to the hypocenters increase. These observations suggest two possibilities for the origin of the X phases: (1) a converted wave at the upper boundary of PHP or (2) a reflected wave from the edge of the high seismicity region. First we searched a suitable plane for which calculated X-P times can match the observed X-P times, by assuming the X phases are converted waves. We found that two converted planes located at different depths would best explain all observed X-P times simultaneously; the depth of the estimated plane in the western side of the high seismicity zone is deeper than that of the eastern side

  3. First high resolution P wave velocity structure beneath Tenerife Island, (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Yeguas, Araceli; Ivan, Koulakov; Ibañez Jesus, M.; Valenti, Sallarès.

    2010-05-01

    3D velocity structure distribution has been imaged for first time using high resolution traveltime seismic tomography of the active volcano of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). It is located in the Atlantic Ocean. In this island is situated the Teide stratovolcano (3718 m high) that is part of the Cañadas-Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. Las Cañadas is a caldera system more than 20 kilometers wide where at least four distinct caldera processes have been identified. Evidence for many explosive eruptions in the volcanic complex has been found; the last noticeable explosive eruption (sub-plinean) occurred at Montaña Blanca around 2000 years ago. During the last 300 years, six effusive eruptions have been reported, the last of which took place at Chinyero Volcano on 18 November 1909. In January 2007, a seismic active experiment was carried out as part of the TOM-TEIDEVS project. About 6850 air gun shots were fired on the sea and recorded on a dense local seismic land network consisting of 150 independent (three component) seismic stations. The good quality of the recorded data allowed identifying P-wave arrivals up to offsets of 30-40 km obtaining more than 63000 traveltimes used in the tomographic inversion. The images have been obtained using ATOM-3D code (Koulakov, 2009). This code uses ray bending algorithms in the ray tracing for the forward modelling and in the inversion step it uses gradient methods. The velocity models show a very heterogeneous upper crust that is usual in similar volcanic environment. The tomographic images points out the no-existence of a magmatic chamber near to the surface and below Pico Teide. The ancient Las Cañadas caldera borders are clearly imaged featuring relatively high seismic velocity. Moreover, we have found a big low velocity anomaly in the northwest dorsal of the island. The last eruption took place in 1909 in this area. Furthermore, in the southeast another low velocity anomaly has been imaged. Several resolution

  4. Association of hematological variables and castration status at the time of arrival at a research facility with the risk of bovine respiratory disease in beef calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between hematological parameters (CBC) and gender at stocker receiving facility arrival and the risk of subsequent clinical bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnosis, and (2) to determine and evaluate the accuracy of CBC parameter threshold...

  5. Improved P-wave Tomography of the Lowermost Mantle and Consequences for Mantle and Core Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalcic, H.; Young, M. K.; Muir, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The core mantle boundary (CMB) separates the liquid iron core from the slowly-convecting solid mantle. The ~300 km thick barrier above the boundary has proven to be far more than a simple dividing layer; rather it is a complex region with a range of proposed phenomena such as thermal and compositional heterogeneity, partial melting and anisotropy. Characterizing the heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle through seismic tomography will prove crucial to accurately understanding key geodynamical processes within our planet, not just in the mantle above, but also a possible "mapping" onto the inner core boundary (ICB) through a thermochemical convection in the outer core, which in turn might control the growth of the inner core (e.g. Aubert et al., 2008; Gubbins et al., 2011). Here we obtain high-resolution compressional wave (P-wave) velocity images and uncertainty estimates for the lowermost mantle using travel time data collected by waveform cross-correlation. Strikingly, independent datasets of seismic phases that "see" the lowermost mantle in a different way yield similar P-wave velocity distributions at lower harmonic degrees. We also consider the effect of CMB topography. The images obtained are void of explicit model parameterization and regularization (through transdimensional Bayesian tomography) and contain features on multiple spatial scales. Subsequent spectral analyses reveal a power of heterogeneity three times larger than previous estimates. The P-wave tomograms of the lowermost mantle contain the harmonic degree 2-structure, similar to tomographic images derived from S-wave data (e.g. Ritsema et al. 2011), but with additional higher harmonic degrees (notably, 3-7). In other words, the heterogeneity size is uniformly distributed between about 500 and 6000 km. Inter alia, the resulting heterogeneity spectrum provides a bridge between the long-wavelength features of most global models and the very short-scale dimensions of scatterers mapped in independent

  6. Crustal structure of Deception Island volcano from P wave seismic tomography: Tectonic and volcanic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, Daria; Barclay, Andrew; Almendros, Javier; IbañEz Godoy, Jesús M.; Wilcock, William S. D.; Ben-Zvi, Tami

    2009-06-01

    Deception Island (62°59'S, 60°41'W) is an active volcano located in the Bransfield Strait between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands. The island is composed of rocks that date from <0.75 Ma to historical eruptions (1842, 1967, 1969, and 1970), and nowadays most of its activity is represented by vigorous hydrothermal circulation, slight resurgence of the inner bay floor, and intense seismicity, with frequent volcano-tectonic and long-period events. In January 2005 an extensive seismic survey took place in and around the island to collect high-quality data for a high-resolution P wave velocity tomography study. A total of 95 land and 14 ocean bottom seismometers were deployed, and more than 6600 air gun shots were fired. As a result of this experiment, more than 70,000 travel time data were used to obtain the velocity model, which resolves strong P wave velocity contrasts down to 5 km depth. The joint interpretation of the Vp distribution together with the results of geological, geochemical, and other geophysical (magnetic and gravimetric) measurements allows us to map and interpret several volcanic features of the island and surroundings. The most striking feature is the low P wave velocity beneath the caldera floor which represents the seismic image of an extensive region of magma beneath a sediment-filled basin. Another low-velocity zone to the east of Deception Island corresponds to seafloor sedimentary deposits, while high velocities to the northwest are interpreted as the crystalline basement of the South Shetland Islands platform. In general, in the tomographic image we observe NE-SW and NW-SE distributions of velocity contrasts that are compatible with the regional tectonic directions and suggest that the volcanic evolution of Deception Island is strongly conditioned by the Bransfield Basin geodynamics.

  7. Time-of-Arrival Measurements of X-ray Emission Associated with Dart-Stepped Leader Steps in Natural and Rocket-and-Wire Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.; Uman, M. A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    Time-of-arrival (TOA) techniques were used to determine the three-dimensional locations and emission times of x-ray and dE/dt sources measured at ground level in association with dart-stepped leader steps in natural and rocket-and-wire triggered lightning discharges recorded during summer 2011 at Camp Blanding, FL. The measurement network consisted of ten flat plate dE/dt antennas approximately co-located with eight plastic and two Lanthanum Bromide scintillation detectors arrayed around the launching facility over an area of about 0.25 square kilometers. For two triggered lightning dart-stepped leaders, x-ray sources were emitted from locations separated by average distances of 22.7 m and 29 m, respectively, from the locations of the associated dE/dt pulse peaks. The x-ray sources occurred beneath the dE/dt sources in 88% of the cases. X-rays were emitted from 20 ns to 2.16 μs following the dE/dt pulse peaks, with average temporal separations of 150 ns and 290 ns, respectively, for the two triggered lightning events. For one natural lightning dart-stepped leader, x-ray sources were emitted an average total distance of 39.2 m from the associated dE/dt pulse peak, and occurred beneath the location of the dE/dt source in 86% of the cases. The x-rays were emitted from 10 ns to 1.76 μs following the dE/dt pulse peak with an average temporal separation of 280 ns. In each of the three events, the altitude displacement between the dE/dt and x-ray sources dominated the total separation, accounting for 90%, 63%, and 72%, respectively, of the total separation. X-ray sources were distributed randomly in the lateral directions about the lightning channel in each event. For the triggered lightning events, x-rays were located from 2.5-83.5 μs prior to the return stroke at altitudes ranging from 24-336 m. For the natural lightning event, x-rays were located from 40.4-222.3 μs prior to the return stroke at altitudes ranging from 99-394 m. Cumulatively, 67% of the located x

  8. Predicting the macroseismic intensity from early radiated P wave energy for on-site earthquake early warning in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondi, P.; Picozzi, M.; Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Mucciarelli, M.

    2015-10-01

    Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are potentially effective tools for risk mitigation in active seismic regions. The present study explores the possibility of predicting the macroseismic intensity within EEW timeframes using the squared velocity integral (IV2) measured on the early P wave signals, a proxy for the P wave radiated energy of earthquakes. This study shows that IV2 correlates better than the peak displacement measured on P waves with both the peak ground velocity and the Housner Intensity, with the latter being recognized by engineers as a reliable proxy for damage assessment. Therefore, using the strong motion recordings of the Italian Accelerometric Archive, a novel relationship between the parameter IV2 and the macroseismic intensity (IM) has been derived. The validity of this relationship has been assessed using the strong motion recordings of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Strong Motion Data and Osservatorio Sismico delle Strutture databases, as well as, in the case of the MW 6, 29 May 2012 Emilia earthquake (Italy), comparing the predicted intensities with the ones observed after a macroseismic survey. Our results indicate that P wave IV2 can become a key parameter for the design of on-site EEWS, capable of proving real-time predictions of the IM at target sites.

  9. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  10. Rupture history of the 1997 Cariaco, Venezuela, earthquake from teleseismic P waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.

    2000-01-01

    A two-step finite-fault waveform inversion scheme is applied to the broadband teleseismic P waves recorded for the strike-slip, Cariaco, Venezuela, earthquake of 9 July 1997 to recover the distribution of mainshock slip. The earthquake is first analyzed using a long narrow fault with a maximum rise time of 20 sec. This line-source analysis indicates that slip propagated to the west with a constant rupture velocity and a relatively short rise time. The results are then used to constrain a second inversion of the P waveforms using a 60-km by 20-km two-dimensional fault. The rupture shows a zone of large slip (1.3-m peak) near the hypocenter and a second, broader source extending updip and to the west at depths shallower than 5 km. The second source has a peak slip of 2.1 meters and accounts for most of the moment of 1.1 × 1026 dyne-cm (6.6 Mww) estimated from the P waves. The inferred rupture pattern is consistent with macroseismic effects observed in the epicentral area.

  11. Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Arrival Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Data in the Wavelet Domain Constrained by Sparsity Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Fang, H.; Yao, H.; Maceira, M.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, Zhang et al. (2014, Pure and Appiled Geophysics) have developed a joint inversion code incorporating body-wave arrival times and surface-wave dispersion data. The joint inversion code was based on the regional-scale version of the double-difference tomography algorithm tomoDD. The surface-wave inversion part uses the propagator matrix solver in the algorithm DISPER80 (Saito, 1988) for forward calculation of dispersion curves from layered velocity models and the related sensitivities. The application of the joint inversion code to the SAFOD site in central California shows that the fault structure is better imaged in the new model, which is able to fit both the body-wave and surface-wave observations adequately. Here we present a new joint inversion method that solves the model in the wavelet domain constrained by sparsity regularization. Compared to the previous method, it has the following advantages: (1) The method is both data- and model-adaptive. For the velocity model, it can be represented by different wavelet coefficients at different scales, which are generally sparse. By constraining the model wavelet coefficients to be sparse, the inversion in the wavelet domain can inherently adapt to the data distribution so that the model has higher spatial resolution in the good data coverage zone. Fang and Zhang (2014, Geophysical Journal International) have showed the superior performance of the wavelet-based double-difference seismic tomography method compared to the conventional method. (2) For the surface wave inversion, the joint inversion code takes advantage of the recent development of direct inversion of surface wave dispersion data for 3-D variations of shear wave velocity without the intermediate step of phase or group velocity maps (Fang et al., 2014, Geophysical Journal International). A fast marching method is used to compute, at each period, surface wave traveltimes and ray paths between sources and receivers. We will test the new joint

  12. Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Arrival Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Data for Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Structure Around SAFOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.; Maceira, M.; Roux, P.

    2013-12-01

    The crust around the San Andreas Fault Observatory at depth (SAFOD) has been the subject of many geophysical studies aimed at characterizing in detail the fault zone structure and elucidating the lithologies and physical properties of the surrounding rocks. Seismic methods in particular have revealed the complex two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the crustal volume around SAFOD and the strong velocity reduction in the fault damage zone. In this study we conduct a joint inversion using body-wave arrival times and surface-wave dispersion data to image the P-and S-wave velocity structure of the upper crust surrounding SAFOD. The two data types have complementary strengths - the body-wave data have good resolution at depth, albeit only where there are crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution and are not dependent on the earthquake source distribution because they are derived from ambient noise. The body-wave data are from local earthquakes and explosions, comprising the dataset analyzed by Zhang et al. (2009). The surface-wave data are for Love waves from ambient noise correlations, and are from Roux et al. (2011). The joint inversion code is based on the regional-scale version of the double-difference (DD) tomography algorithm tomoDD. The surface-wave inversion code that is integrated into the joint inversion algorithm is from Maceira and Ammon (2009). The propagator matrix solver in the algorithm DISPER80 (Saito, 1988) is used for the forward calculation of dispersion curves from layered velocity models. We examined how the structural models vary as we vary the relative weighting of the fit to the two data sets and in comparison to the previous separate inversion results. The joint inversion with the 'optimal' weighting shows more clearly the U-shaped local structure from the Buzzard Canyon Fault on the west side of SAF to the Gold Hill Fault on the east side.

  13. The influence of speed, cyclists' age, pedaling frequency, and observer age on observers' time to arrival judgments of approaching bicycles and e-bikes.

    PubMed

    Schleinitz, Katja; Petzoldt, Tibor; Krems, Josef F; Gehlert, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts. The goal of the two experiments presented in this paper was to examine the influence of speed and a variety of other factors on TTA estimation for conventional bicycles and for e-bikes. In both experiments, participants from two age groups (20-45 years old and 65 years or older) watched video sequences of bicycles approaching at different speeds (15-25km/h) and were asked to judge the TTA at the moment the video was stopped. The results of both experiments showed that an increase in bicycle approach speed resulted in longer TTA estimates (measured as the proportion of estimated TTA relative to actual TTA) for both bicycle types (ηp(2)Exp.1=.489, ηp(2)Exp.2=.705). Compared to younger observers, older observers provided shorter estimates throughout (Exp. I: MDiff=0.35, CI [0.197, 0.509], ηp(2)=.332, Exp. II: MDiff=0.50, CI [.317, 0.682], ηp(2)=.420). In Experiment I, TTA estimates for the conventional bicycle were significantly shorter than for the e-bike (MDiff=0.03, CI [.007, 0.044], ηp(2)=.154), as were the estimates for the elder cyclist compared to the younger one (MDiff=0.05, CI [.025, 0.066], ηp(2)=.323). We hypothesized that the cause for this effect might lie in the seemingly reduced pedaling effort for the e-bike as a result of the motor assistance it provides. Experiment II was able to show that a high pedaling

  14. Prediction of maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation by analysis of serial signal-averaged P waves.

    PubMed

    Stafford, P J; Kamalvand, K; Tan, K; Vincent, R; Sulke, N

    1998-07-01

    After cardioversion from atrial fibrillation (AF) many patients develop early recurrence of the arrhythmia. While these patients may be appropriate for immediate prophylaxis against AF recurrence their identification at the time of cardioversion is not possible. Since the signal-averaged P wave (SAPW) is abnormal in individuals with atrial arrhythmia, we assessed its utility for predicting early AF recurrence after cardioversion. Seventy-five cardioversions in 31 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 59 (range 28-79) years; 26 were male. Fifty-eight cardioversions were internal using low energy biphasic DC shocks delivered via electrodes placed in the right atrial appendage and coronary sinus. P wave specific signal averaging was performed at 3 and 24 hours after each cardioversion to estimate filtered P wave duration and energy from 20, 40, and 60 to 150 Hz. Follow-up was by regular clinic visits and transtelephonic ECG monitoring. Early recurrence of AF (prospectively defined as sinus rhythm duration < 1 week) occurred after 30 cardioversions. No differences were found in any P wave variable measured at 3 hours between these cardioversions and those that resulted in a longer duration of sinus rhythm. Paired 3- and 24-hour signal-averaged data were available in 47 cardioversions. There were significant falls in P wave energy from 3 to 24 hours after 31 cardioversions that resulted in sinus rhythm for > 1 week, (P40: 3 hours 11.2 [+/- 1.5] micro V2.s, 24 hours 8.6 [+/- 1.2] micro V2.s, P < 0.001), but not following the 16 after which AF returned within 1 week (P40: 3 hours 9.0 [+/- 1.2] micro V2.s, 24 hours 8.5 [+/- 1.2 micro V2.s, P = NS). A fall in P40 of > 25% had a positive predictive accuracy for maintenance of sinus rhythm of 87%; negative predictive accuracy was only 37%. Similar falls in P wave energy occurred after cardioversions that resulted in longer term (> 4 weeks) sinus rhythm, but not in those that did not. However, the predictive accuracy of a

  15. New insights on the structure of La Soufriere dome from joint inversion of P-wave velocity and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Marie-Lise; Coutant, Olivier; Beauducel, Francois

    2014-05-01

    One objective of the french project Domoscan (2009-2013) was to obtain better constraints on the geological structure of La Soufriere hydrothermal system, that is the dome inner structure but also its basement that has not yet been imaged, while it may play an essential role in potential flank destabilization. In this framework, we performed a 3D gravity and P-wave travel time joint inversion to obtain density and P-wave velocity images of La Soufriere hydrothermal system (Coutant et al., 2012). The joint inversion approach was proposed to overcome the lack of resolution of the two methods taken separately. In this study, the coupling between P-wave velocity and density relies on a relationship derived from laboratory measurements on 58 samples from La Soufriere and Mt Pelee deposits. The laboratory data cover a large range of porosity (1-73%) with P wave velocity ranging from 2 to 5.4 km/s and density from 1.5 to 2.8 g/cm3 in water saturated samples. The joint inversion results show that P wave velocity model benefits from density resolution at the volcano summit, while density resolution improves at depth. The improved images allow new insights on La Soufriere structures. As an example the resistive zones that have been so far only seen by electromagnetic surveys may not be due only to argilization but may also be explained by the presence of dense massive zones, that we interpret as andesite spines resulting from 3100 B.P. or 1530 A.D eruptions. These dense bodies may have implication on the stability of the edifice and then the destabilization risks at La Soufriere of Guadeloupe. This work also shows that laboratory studies on physical properties of volcanic rocks and their relationships can be useful in the interpretation of geophysical observations on structurally complex areas such as volcano or geothermal system.

  16. High resolution 3D P wave velocity structure beneath Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) based on tomographic inversion of active-source data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GarcíA-Yeguas, Araceli; Koulakov, Ivan; IbáñEz, Jesús M.; Rietbrock, A.

    2012-09-01

    We present a high resolution 3 dimensional (3D) P wave velocity model for Tenerife Island, Canaries, covering the top of Teide volcano (3,718 m a.s.l.) down to around 8 km below sea level (b.s.l). The tomographic inversion is based on a large data set of travel times obtained from a 3D active seismic experiment using offshore shots (air guns) recorded at more than 100 onshore seismic stations. The obtained seismic velocity structure is strongly heterogeneous with significant (up to 40%) lateral variations. The main volcanic structure of the Las Cañadas-Teide-Pico Viejo Complex (CTPVC) is characterized by a high P wave velocity body, similar to many other stratovolcanoes. The presence of different high P wave velocity regions inside the CTPVC may be related to the geological and volcanological evolution of the system. The presence of high P wave velocities at the center of the island is interpreted as evidence for a single central volcanic source for the formation of Tenerife. Furthermore, reduced P wave velocities are found in a small confined region in CTPVC and are more likely related to hydrothermal alteration, as indicated by the existence of fumaroles, than to the presence of a magma chamber beneath the system. In the external regions, surrounding CTPVC a few lower P wave velocity regions can be interpreted as fractured zones, hydrothermal alterations, porous materials and thick volcaniclastic deposits.

  17. Tunable ground states in helical p-wave Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qiang; Zhang, Kunhua; Yu, Dongyang; Chen, Chongju; Zhang, Yinhan; Jin, Biao

    2016-07-01

    We study new types of Josephson junctions composed of helical p-wave superconductors with {k}x\\hat{x}+/- {k}y\\hat{y} and {k}y\\hat{x}+/- {k}x\\hat{y}-pairing symmetries using quasi-classical Green’s functions with generalized Riccati parametrization. The junctions can host rich ground states: π phase, 0 + π phase, φ 0 phase and φ phase. The phase transition can be tuned by rotating the magnetization in the ferromagnetic interface. We present the phase diagrams in the parameter space formed by the orientation of the magnetization or by the magnitude of the interfacial potentials. The selection rules for the lowest order current which are responsible for the formation of the rich phases are summarized from the current-phase relations based on the numerical calculation. We construct a Ginzburg–Landau type of free energy for the junctions with d-vectors and the magnetization, which not only reveals the interaction forms of spin-triplet superconductivity and ferromagnetism, but can also directly lead to the selection rules. In addition, the energies of the Andreev bound states and the novel symmetries in the current-phase relations are also investigated. Our results are helpful both in the prediction of novel Josephson phases and in the design of quantum circuits.

  18. Effective p -wave interaction and topological superfluids in s -wave quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan

    2016-03-01

    p -wave interaction in cold atoms may give rise to exotic topological superfluids. However, the realization of p -wave interaction in a cold atom system is experimentally challenging. Here we propose a simple scheme to synthesize effective p -wave interaction in conventional s -wave interacting quantum gases. The key idea is to load atoms into a spin-dependent optical lattice potential. Using two concrete examples involving spin-1/2 fermions, we show how the original system can be mapped into a model describing spinless fermions with nearest-neighbor p -wave interaction, whose ground state can be a topological superfluid that supports Majorana fermions under proper conditions. Our proposal has the advantage that it does not require spin-orbit coupling or loading atoms onto higher orbitals, which is the key in earlier proposals to synthesize effective p -wave interaction in s -wave quantum gases, and may provide a completely new route for realizing p -wave topological superfluids.

  19. Crustal Structure in the area of the North American Mid-Continent Rift System from P-wave Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Stein, S. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mid-continent Geophysical Anomaly (MGA) represents the largest gravity anomaly in the North American continental interior, its strongest portion stretching from Iowa to Lake Superior, and is the direct result of 1.1 Ga deposition and uplift of volcanic rocks in the Mid-continent Rift System (MRS). The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) collected broadband seismic data around this prominent portion of the MGA for 2.5 years from 82 seismic stations, simultaneously with about 30 Transportable Array (TA) stations in the region. To image crustal structure around the MGA, we analyzed the P-wave trains of 119 teleseismic earthquakes at these stations using the time-domain iterative-deconvolution method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999), the waveform-fitting method of Van der Meijde et al. (2003), and the H-κ stacking method of Zhu and
Kanamori (2000). Our aim was to resolve intra-crustal layering and Moho characteristics. Despite considerable noise related to station installation constraints, we find that outside of the MGA, the Moho is sharp and relatively flat, both beneath the Archean Superior Province as well as beneath the Proterozoic terranes to its south. This Moho produces consistent P to S converted phases in the analyzed receiver functions. Receiver functions show much more complexity along the MGA, where P to S converted phases from the Moho are much weaker and more variable with azimuth and epicentral distance. Similar results have been found in Iowa by French et al. (2009). For many stations along the MGA, multiple weak S phases arrive around the time expected for the Moho-converted phase. In addition, strong P-to-S converted phases are observed from the base of shallow sedimentary layers. The base of the sedimentary layer is fairly shallow outside of the MGA, thickens near the flanks where gravity anomalies are low and shallows again in the center where the gravity peaks. We conclude that the Moho is not a strong feature of the MRS

  20. Time-quefrency analysis of overlapping similar microseismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, I describe a new technique to determine the interval between P-waves in similar, overlapping microseismic events. The similar microseismic events that occur with overlapping waveforms are called `proximate microseismic doublets' herein. Proximate microseismic doublets had been discarded in previous studies because we had not noticed their usefulness. Analysis of similar events can show relative locations of sources between them. Analysis of proximate microseismic doublets can provide more precise relative source locations because variation in the velocity structure has little influence on their relative travel times. It is necessary to measure the interval between the P-waves in the proximate microseismic doublets to determine their relative source locations. A `proximate microseismic doublet' is a pair of microseismic events in which the second event arrives before the attenuation of the first event. Cepstrum analysis can provide the interval even though the second event overlaps the first event. However, a cepstrum of a proximate microseismic doublet generally has two peaks, one representing the interval between the arrivals of the two P-waves, and the other representing the interval between the arrivals of the two S-waves. It is therefore difficult to determine the peak that represents the P-wave interval from the cepstrum alone. I used window functions in cepstrum analysis to isolate the first and second P-waves and to suppress the second S-wave. I change the length of the window function and calculate the cepstrum for each window length. The result is represented in a three-dimensional contour plot of length-quefrency-cepstrum data. The contour plot allows me to identify the cepstrum peak that represents the P-wave interval. The precise quefrency can be determined from a two-dimensional quefrency-cepstrum graph, provided that the length of the window is appropriately chosen. I have used both synthetic and field data to demonstrate that this

  1. Applications of detailed 3D P-wave velocity crustal model in Poland for local, regional and global seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2015-04-01

    The 3D P-wave seismic velocity model was obtained by combining data from multiple studies during past 50 years. Data sources included refraction seismology, reflection seismology, geological boreholes, vertical seismic profiling, magnetotellurics and gravimetry. Use of many data sources allowed creation of detailed 3D P-wave velocity model that reaches to depth of 60 km and includes 6-layers of sediments and 3-layers of the crust. Purpose of this study is to analyze how 3D model influences local (accuracy of location and source time estimation for local events), regional (identification of wide-angle seismic phases) and global (teleseismic tomography) seismic travel times. Additionally we compare results of forward seismic wave propagation with signals observed on short period and broadband stations. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  2. Accurate source location from P waves scattered by surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Shen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (> 100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P-coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example. The grid search method is combined with the 3D strain Green's tensor database type method to improve the search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solution. The strain Green's tensor is calculated by the 3D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are then obtained based on the least-square misfit between the 'observed' and predicted P and P-coda waves. A 95% confidence interval of the solution is also provided as a posterior error estimation. We find that the scattered waves are mainly due to topography in comparison with random velocity heterogeneity characterized by the von Kάrmάn-type power spectral density function. When only P wave data is used, the 'best' solution is offset from the real source location mostly in the vertical direction. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces its uncertainty. The solution remains robust with a range of random noises in data, un-modeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors that we tested.

  3. The correlations between the saturated and dry P-wave velocity of rocks.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, S

    2007-11-01

    Sometimes engineers need to estimate the wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity. An estimation equation embracing all rock classes will be useful for the rock engineers. To investigate the predictability of wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity, P-wave velocity measurements were performed on 41 different rock types, 11 of which were igneous, 15 of which were sedimentary and 15 of which was metamorphic. In addition to the dry- and wet-rock P-wave velocity measurements, the P-wave velocity changing as a function of saturation degree was studied. Moreover, dry-rock S-wave velocity measurements were conducted. The test results were modeled using Gassmann's and Wood's theory and it was seen that the measured data did not fit the theories. The unconformity is due to the fact that the theories are valid for high-porosity unconsolidated sediments at low frequencies. Gassmann's equation was modified for the rocks except high-porosity unconsolidated sediments. The dry- and wet-rock P-wave velocity values were evaluated using regression analysis. A strong linear correlation between the dry- and wet-rock P-wave velocities was found. Regression analyses were repeated for the rock classes and it was shown that correlation coefficients were increased. Concluding remark is that the derived equations can be used for the prediction of wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity. PMID:17624388

  4. Medically treated anorexia nervosa is associated with normal P wave parameters.

    PubMed

    Nussinovitch, Moshe; Gur, Eitan; Nussinovitch, Naomi; Kaminer, Keren; Volovitz, Benjamin; Nussinovitch, Udi

    2012-07-30

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an increasingly common medical condition. Some studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of atrial premature contractions and anatomical changes in AN patients. Our aim was to investigate P wave parameters and P wave dispersion, an electrocardiographic marker for supraventricular arrhythmias, and its effect on AN. The study group included 48 patients with AN, most hospitalized for a few weeks, and a matched control group. All participants underwent 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) under strict standards. P wave length and P wave dispersion in each patient were computed from a randomly selected beat and an averaged beat, constructed from 7 to 12 beats, included in a 10-s ECG. There were no statistically significant differences found between the groups for minimal, maximal, average P wave duration and P wave dispersion, calculated either from a random beat or averaged beats. In conclusion, medically treated AN patients who have gained weight have normal P wave parameters, and therefore do not appear to have an increased electrocardiographic risk for atrial fibrillation compared with healthy controls. Further studies are required to evaluate the influence of different disease stages, electrolyte imbalance and other medical complications on P wave parameters and risk for supraventricular arrhythmias in AN patients. PMID:22421068

  5. Chiral p -wave superconductivity in Sb(111) thin films close to Van Hove singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin-Qin; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Lin, Hsin; Yao, Dao-Xin; Tsai, Wei-Feng

    2016-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the development of unconventional superconductivity in the Sb(111) thin film when its Fermi level is tuned to near type-II Van Hove singularities (VHS), which locate at non-time-reversal invariant momenta. Via patch renormalization group analysis, we show that the leading instability is a chiral p +i p -wave superconducting order. The origin of such pairing relies on the hexagonal structure of the VHS and strong spin-orbit coupling, resulting in the anisotropy of the electron-electron scattering to provide an attractive channel. Our study hence suggests that superconducting Sb thin films originated from VHS physics may host Majorana zero modes in the magnetic vortices and provides another application perspective to such material.

  6. Magnetic-field effects on p-wave phase transition in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Jin, Yong-Yi; Lu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Si-Yu; Wang, Cui

    2014-07-01

    In the probe limit, we study the holographic p-wave phase transition in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity via numerical and analytical methods. Concretely, we study the influences of the external magnetic field on the Maxwell complex vector model in the five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole and soliton backgrounds, respectively. For the two backgrounds, the results show that the magnetic field enhances the superconductor phase transition in the case of the lowest Landau level, while the increasing Gauss-Bonnet parameter always hinders the vector condensate. Moreover, the Maxwell complex vector model is a generalization of the SU(2) Yang-Mills model all the time. In addition, the analytical results backup the numerical results. Furthermore, this model might provide a holographic realization for the QCD vacuum instability.

  7. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave

    PubMed Central

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-01-01

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications. PMID:26244284

  8. The LLNL-G3D global P-wave velocity model and the significance of the BayesLoc multiple-event location procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2011-12-01

    LLNL-G3D is a global-scale model of P-wave velocity designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The underlying goal of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. Previous versions of LLNL-G3D (versions 1 and 2) provide substantial improvements in event location accuracy via 3-D ray tracing. The latest models are based on ~2.7 million P and Pn arrivals that are re-processed using our global multi-event locator known as BayesLoc. Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability distribution across multiple-event location parameters, including hypocenters, travel time corrections, pick precision, and phase labels. Modeling the whole multiple-event system results in accurate locations and an internally consistent data set that is ideal for tomography. Our recently developed inversion approach (called Progressive Multi-level Tessellation Inversion or PMTI) captures regional trends and fine details where data warrant. Using PMTI, we model multiple heterogeneity scale lengths without defining parameter grids with variable densities based on some ad hoc criteria. LLNL-G3Dv3 (version 3) is produced with data generated with the BayesLoc procedure, recently modified to account for localized travel time trends via a multiple event clustering technique. We demonstrate the significance of BayesLoc processing, the impact on the resulting tomographic images, and the application of LLNL-G3D to seismic event location. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-491805.

  9. Estimation of Electro-Magnetic Signals Generated by Stress Changes before the Arrival of Seismic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to increase the efficiency of earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. Conventional EEW systems detect occurrence of earthquakes by means of detecting seismic P-waves; thus, they cannot make alert before P-waves reach the ground surface in principle. If we desires to break this limitation, we must observe other physical quantities including the electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational fields, variations of which propagate faster than elastic waves. The present study focuses on changes in the magnetic field generated by co-seismic stress changes in the Earth's crust. When magnetic minerals in the Earth's crust are subjected to mechanical forces, increments or decrements of magnetization appear. This is called the piezomagnetic effect. Significant changes in values of the geomagnetic field has frequently observed between before and after major earthquakes or volcanic ground deformation, which is considered to be generated by the piezomagnetic effect. The problem is, however, whether or not co-seismic changes in the stress field generates earlier signals, that is, changes in the magnetic field at observation sites which occur before arrival of seismic waves. To answer the question, a set of equations governing elastodynamics, electromagnetics, and the piezomagnetic effect, are solved for a whole space stuffed with a uniform physical properties. An impulsive double couple is assumed to represent the earthquake source mechanism. A set of solutions is derived in time-domain, and its features are investigated for several sets of parameters including electrical conductivity and seismic velocities. We can confirm that there are certain amount of changes in the EM field, even before arrival of seismic waves. EM signals before arrival of seismic waves (i.e. earlier EM signals) are relatively large in the case that the Earth's crust is conductive (> 0.01 S/m). However, the appearance of relatively large EM signal is not simultaneous to the rupture; instead, it is

  10. A new global model for P wave speed variations in Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang; van der Hilst, Robert D.; Engdahl, E. Robert; Burdick, Scott

    2008-05-01

    We document our tomographic method and present a new global model of three-dimensional (3-D) variations in mantle P wave velocity. The model is parameterized by means of rectangular cells in latitude, longitude, and radius, the size of which adapts to sampling density by short-period (1 Hz) data. The largest single data source is ISC/NEIC data reprocessed by Engdahl and coworkers, from which we use routinely picked, short-period P, Pg, Pn, pP, and pwP data (for earthquakes during the period 1964˜2007). To improve the resolution in the lowermost and uppermost mantle, we use differential times of core phases (PKPAB - PKPDF, PKPAB - PKPBC, Pdiff - PKPDF) and surface-reflected waves (PP-P). The low-frequency differential times (Pdiff, PP) are measured by waveform cross correlation. Approximate 3-D finite frequency kernels are used to integrate the long-period data (Pdiff, PP) and short-period (P, pP, PKP) data. This global data set is augmented with data from regional catalogs and temporary seismic arrays. A crust correction is implemented to mitigate crustal smearing into the upper mantle. We invert the data for 3-D variations in P wave speed and effects of hypocenter mislocation subject to norm and gradient regularization. Spatial resolution is ˜100 km in the best sampled upper mantle regions. Our model, which is available online and which will be updated periodically, reveals in unprecedented detail the rich variation in style of subduction of lithospheric slabs into the mantle. The images confirm the structural complexity of downwellings in the transition zone discussed in previous papers and show with more clarity the structure of slab fragments stagnant in the transition zone beneath east Asia. They also reveal low wave speed beneath major hot spots, such as Iceland, Afar, and Hawaii, but details of these structures are not well resolved by the data used.

  11. Global Tomography With Long Period P Waves In Resolution-matched Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montelli, R.; Nolet, G.; Dahlen, F. A.; Masters, G.; Hung, S.-H.

    Long period travel times, often measured using cross-correlation techniques, suffer from the effects of wavefront healing. Their sensitivity to Earth structure is markedly different from the sensitivity as predicted by asymptotic ray theory. We present the results of an inversion of delay times measured for P waves with a dominant period of 20 s, using the `banana-doughnut' kernels derived by Dahlen, Hung and Nolet (GJI, 2000). These kernels have significant small scale structure. Commonly applied proxies for resolution, such as ray density, are likely to be incorrect. For this reason we also developed a novel technique of model parameterization. In our study, we use Delaunay meshes to represent the velocity structure. To obtain a first order estimate of the resolving power as a function of location in the Earth, we compute the diagonal elements of the resolution matrix using the theory of Nolet, Montelli and Virieux (GJI, 1999) and use these to re-design the interpolation grid, either by construction or by minimization of an almost quadratic penalty function. For a smaller data set of some 40,000 P waves, the resolution is more homogeneous when we take the finite frequency effects into account, than when we compute the resolution using asymptotic ray theory. The resulting tomographic model shows more continuity of structures such as the Farallon plate when inverted with banana-doughnut kernels. We suspect that these differences will only become more pronounced when we expand the data set to include more data, so that we can use a finer parameteri- zation. We shall present the latest results of our inversions and discuss the improve- ments brought about in the imaging by incorporating the effects of finite frequency and resolution-guided parametrization.

  12. Pseudo 3-D P wave refraction seismic monitoring of permafrost in steep unstable bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, Michael; Draebing, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    permafrost in steep rock walls can cause hazardous rock creep and rock slope failure. Spatial and temporal patterns of permafrost degradation that operate at the scale of instability are complex and poorly understood. For the first time, we used P wave seismic refraction tomography (SRT) to monitor the degradation of permafrost in steep rock walls. A 2.5-D survey with five 80 m long parallel transects was installed across an unstable steep NE-SW facing crestline in the Matter Valley, Switzerland. P wave velocity was calibrated in the laboratory for water-saturated low-porosity paragneiss samples between 20°C and -5°C and increases significantly along and perpendicular to the cleavage by 0.55-0.66 km/s (10-13%) and 2.4-2.7 km/s (>100%), respectively, when freezing. Seismic refraction is, thus, technically feasible to detect permafrost in low-porosity rocks that constitute steep rock walls. Ray densities up to 100 and more delimit the boundary between unfrozen and frozen bedrock and facilitate accurate active layer positioning. SRT shows monthly (August and September 2006) and annual active layer dynamics (August 2006 and 2007) and reveals a contiguous permafrost body below the NE face with annual changes of active layer depth from 2 to 10 m. Large ice-filled fractures, lateral onfreezing of glacierets, and a persistent snow cornice cause previously unreported permafrost patterns close to the surface and along the crestline which correspond to active seasonal rock displacements up to several mm/a. SRT provides a geometrically highly resolved subsurface monitoring of active layer dynamics in steep permafrost rocks at the scale of instability.

  13. Seismic characterization of fracture orientation in the Austin Chalk using azimuthal P-wave AVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif Adulrahman

    The Austin Chalk is a naturally fractured reservoir. Horizontal drilling, to intersect more fractures, is the most efficient method to develop this reservoir. Information about the predominant fracture orientation in the subsurface is essential before horizontal drilling. This information may be provided by cores, well logs, outcrop, or seismic data. In this study, I apply the azimuthal P-wave AVO method suggested by Ruger and Tsvankin (1997) on 2-D P-wave seismic data in Gonzales County, Texas, in order to determine the fracture azimuth in the Austin Chalk. The data also include oil production from horizontal wells and various types of well logs from vertical wells in the study area. The raw seismic data was imaged through a processing sequence that preserved the relative changes of amplitudes with offset. The stacked sections of some seismic lines showed that the top of the Austin Chalk reflector is laterally inconsistent. This is interpreted as an indication of fractured zones in the subsurface. This interpretation was strengthened by well logs that indicated fracturing in nearby wells. The AVO gradient of every CDP in a seismic line was determined. The median AVO gradient of all the CDPs in a seismic line was chosen to represent the whole line. The median AVO gradients of the lines and their corresponding line azimuths were used repeatedly to solve the azimuthal AVO equation, of Ruger and Tsvankin (1997), for the fracture azimuth using a combination of three different lines every time. The resultant fracture-azimuth solutions clustered about two, nearly perpendicular, azimuths: N58E and S31E. To resolve the inherently ambiguous solutions, the results from the production and well log data were used. Since the production and well log data indicated the presence of NE-trending fractures, I chose the N58E direction as the fracture azimuth. This result agreed with the results of other studies in surrounding areas, using different methods, about the fracture azimuth

  14. Complex seismic amplitude inversion for P-wave and S-wave quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2015-07-01

    Stratum quality factors (P-wave and S-wave quality factors, Qp and Qs) have gradually been utilized in the study of physical state of crust and uppermost mantle, tectonic evolution, hydrogeololgy, gas hydrates, petroleum exploration, etc. Different opinions of the seismic attenuation mechanism result in various approaches to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Considering the viscoelasticity of the underground medium, the constitutive matrix of the Earth medium is written as the superposition of homogeneous background medium, elastic perturbation medium and viscoelastic perturbation medium. Under the hypothesis of Born integral and stationary phase approximation, the seismic reflectivity is initially raised in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Furthermore, incorporating the complex seismic traces with the seismic wavelets at different offsets, a two-step inversion approach is proposed to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. The AVO/AVA Bayesian inversion approach is suggested to estimate the P-wave modulus and S-wave modulus with the real component of the pre-stack seismic data initially. Taking the estimated P-wave and S-wave moduli as prior information, the P-wave and S-wave quality factors are further estimated with the imaginary component of the complex pre-stack seismic data, which is the quadrature of the original data. Finally, synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to estimate P-wave and S-wave quality factors stably and properly, and two field data examples demonstrate that the proposed approach may work as an efficient approach to fluid identification.

  15. Automatic identification of fault zone head waves and direct P waves and its application in the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zefeng; Peng, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    Fault zone head waves (FZHWs) are observed along major strike-slip faults and can provide high-resolution imaging of fault interface properties at seismogenic depth. In this paper, we present a new method to automatically detect FZHWs and pick direct P waves secondary arrivals (DWSAs). The algorithm identifies FZHWs by computing the amplitude ratios between the potential FZHWs and DSWAs. The polarities, polarizations and characteristic periods of FZHWs and DSWAs are then used to refine the picks or evaluate the pick quality. We apply the method to the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault where FZHWs have been identified before by manual picks. We compare results from automatically and manually picked arrivals and find general agreement between them. The obtained velocity contrast at Parkfield is generally 5-10 per cent near Middle Mountain while it decreases below 5 per cent near Gold Hill. We also find many FZHWs recorded by the stations within 1 km of the background seismicity (i.e. the Southwest Fracture Zone) that have not been reported before. These FZHWs could be generated within a relatively wide low velocity zone sandwiched between the fast Salinian block on the southwest side and the slow Franciscan Mélange on the northeast side. Station FROB on the southwest (fast) side also recorded a small portion of weak precursory signals before sharp P waves. However, the polarities of weak signals are consistent with the right-lateral strike-slip mechanisms, suggesting that they are unlikely genuine FZHW signals.

  16. Automatic identification of fault zone head waves and direct P waves and its application in the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zefeng; Peng, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    Fault zone head waves (FZHWs) are observed along major strike-slip faults, and can provide high-resolution imaging of fault interface properties at seismogenic depth. In this paper we present a new method to automatically detect FZHWs and pick direct P waves secondary arrivals (DWSAs). The algorithm identifies FZHWs by computing the amplitude ratios between the potential FZHWs and DSWAs. The polarities, polarizations and characteristic periods of FZHWs and DSWAs are then used to refine the picks or evaluate the pick quality. We apply the method to the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault where FZHWs have been identified before by manual picks. We compare results from automatically and manually picked arrivals and find general agreement between them. The obtained velocity contrast at Parkfield is generally 5%-10% near Middle Mountain while it decreases below 5% near Gold Hill. We also find many FZHWs recorded by the stations within 1 km of the background seismicity (i.e., the Southwest Fracture Zone) that have not been reported before. These FZHWs could be generated within a relatively wide low velocity zone sandwiched between the fast Salinian block on the southwest side and the slow Franciscan Mélange on the northeast side. Station FROB on the southwest (fast) side also recorded a small portion of weak precursory signals before sharp P waves. However, the polarities of weak signals are consistent with the right-lateral strike-slip mechanisms, suggesting that they are unlikely genuine FZHW signals.

  17. P-wave tomography of eastern North America: Evidence for mantle evolution from Archean to Phanerozoic, and modification during subsequent hot spot tectonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villemaire, M.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.

    2012-12-01

    The unique physical and chemical properties of cratonic lithosphere are thought to be key to its long-term survival and its resistance to pervasive modification by tectonic processes. Study of mantle structure in southeast Canada and the northeast US offers an excellent opportunity to address this issue because the region spans 3 billion years of Earth history, including Archean formation of the Superior craton and younger accretion of terranes to eastern Laurentia during the Proterozoic Grenville and Phanerozoic Appalachian orogenies. Trending NW-SE through each of these terranes is the track of the Great Meteor hot spot, which affected the region during the Mesozoic. Here we study mantle seismic velocity structure beneath this region of eastern North America using tomographic inversion of teleseismic P-wave relative arrival-times recorded by a large-aperture seismograph network. There are no large-scale systematic differences between Superior and Grenville mantle wave speed structure, which may suggest that tectonic stabilization of cratons occurred in a similar fashion during the Archean and Proterozoic. Cratonic lithosphere is largely thought to be resistant to modification by hot spot processes, in contrast to younger terranes where lithospheric erosion and significant magmatism are expected. Low velocities beneath the regions affected by the Great Meteor hot spot are broadest beneath the Paleozoic Appalachian terranes, indicating pervasive modification of the lithosphere during magmatism. The zone of modification narrows considerably into the Proterozoic Grenville province before disappearing completely in the Archean Superior craton, where the surface signature of Mesozoic magmatism is limited to kimberlite eruptions.

  18. Evidence for back scattering of near-podal seismic P'P' waves from the 150-220 km zone in Earth's upper mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Tkalcic, H; Flanagan, M P; Cormier, V F

    2005-07-15

    The deepest and most inaccessible parts of Earth's interior--the core and core-mantle boundary regions can be studied from compressional waves that turn in the core and are routinely observed following large earthquakes at epicentral distances between 145{sup o} and 180{sup o} (also called P', PKIKP or PKP waves). P'P' (PKPPKP) are P' waves that travel from a hypocenter through the Earth's core, reflect from the free surface and travel back through the core to a recording station on the surface. P'P' waves are sometimes accompanied by precursors, which were reported first in the 1960s as small-amplitude arrivals on seismograms at epicentral distances of about 50{sup o}-70{sup o}. Most prominent of these observed precursors were explained by P'P' waves generated by earthquakes or explosions that did not reach the Earth's surface but were reflected from the underside of first order velocity discontinuities at 410 and 660 km in the upper mantle mantle. Here we report the discovery of hitherto unobserved near-podal P'P' waves (at epicentral distance less than 10{sup o}) and very prominent precursors preceding the main energy by as much as 55 seconds. We interpret these precursors as a back scattered energy from undocumented structure in the upper mantle, in a zone between 150 and 220 km depth beneath Earth's surface. From these observations, we identify a frequency dependence of Q (attenuation quality factor) in the lithosphere that can be modeled by a flat relaxation spectrum below about 0.05-0.1 Hz and increasing with as the first power of frequency above this value, confirming pioneering work by B. Gutenberg.

  19. Engineering quantum magnetism in one-dimensional trapped Fermi gases with p -wave interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Guan, Xiwen; Cui, Xiaoling

    2016-05-01

    The highly controllable ultracold atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) trap provide a new platform for the ultimate simulation of quantum magnetism. In this regard, the Néel antiferromagnetism and the itinerant ferromagnetism are of central importance and great interest. Here we show that these magnetic orders can be achieved in the strongly interacting spin-1/2 trapped Fermi gases with additional p -wave interactions. In this strong-coupling limit, the 1D trapped Fermi gas exhibits an effective Heisenberg spin X X Z chain in the anisotropic p -wave scattering channels. For a particular p -wave attraction or repulsion within the same species of fermionic atoms, the system displays ferromagnetic domains with full spin segregation or the antiferromagnetic spin configuration in the ground state. Such engineered magnetisms are likely to be probed in a quasi-1D trapped Fermi gas of 40K atoms with very close s -wave and p -wave Feshbach resonances.

  20. Finite Frequency Measurements of Conventional and Core-diffracted P-waves (P and Pdiff)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, K.; Sigloch, K.; Stähler, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Core-diffracted waves are body waves that dive deep enough to sense the core, and by interaction with this wave guide become dispersive. They sample the core-mantle boundary and the lower third of the mantle extensively. In ray theoretical modeling, the deepest part of the ray starts to graze the core at around 97 degrees distance, but ray theory is a very poor approximation to propagation of core-diffracted waves. In reality, finite-frequency waves with their spatially extend sensitivity regions start to sense the core at significantly smaller distances already. The actual, non-ray-like sensitivities have been difficult to model, as have been the associated synthetic seismograms. Core-diffracted waves have therefore not been used in tomography, despite abundant observations of these phases on modern broadband seismograms. Hence current global body-wave tomographies illuminate the lower third of the mantle much less well than the upper and especially the middle third. This study aims for broadband, global waveform tomography that seamlessly incorporates core-diffracted phases alongside conventional, teleseismic waves as well as regional body-waves. Here, we investigate the properties of P-diffracted waves in terms of waveform characteristics and travel-time measurements as compared to teleseismic P-wave measured by the same methods. Travel time anomalies, the primary data for tomography, are measured by waveform cross-correlation of data with synthetics, where the synthetics are calculated from fully numerical wave propagation in a spherically symmetric background model. These same numerical tools will be used to calculate the associated sensitivity kernels for tomography (figure, top). Demonstrating the extent to which waveform modeling can fit real data, we assemble and discuss a global data set of 851,905 Pdiff and 2,368,452 P-wave multi-frequency cross-correlation travel times. Findings are summarized in the Pdiff travel time map (figure, bottom) in which most

  1. Synthetic p-wave interaction and topological superfluids in s-wave quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Han; Wang, Bin; Zheng, Zhen; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan

    2016-05-01

    P-wave interaction in cold atoms may give rise to exotic topological superfluids. However, realization of p-wave interaction in cold atom system is experimentally challenging. Here we propose a simple scheme to synthesize effective p-wave interaction in conventional s-wave interacting quantum gases. The key idea is to load atoms into spin-dependent optical lattice potential. Using two concrete examples involving spin-1/2 fermions, we show how the original system can be mapped into a model describing spinless fermions with nearest neighbor p-wave interaction, whose ground state can be a topological superfluid that supports Majorana fermions under proper conditions. Our proposal has the advantage that it does not require spin-orbit coupling or loading atoms onto higher orbitals, which is the key in earlier proposals to synthesize effective p-wave interaction in s-wave quantum gases, and may provide a completely new route for realizing p-wave topological superfluids.

  2. Increased P-wave dispersion a risk for atrial fibrillation in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Ertuğrul, İlker; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Karagöz, Tevfik; Kanbur, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that a prolonged P-wave dispersion is a risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate P-wave dispersion in adolescents with anorexia nervosa at diagnosis. We evaluated electrocardiographic findings, particularly the P-wave dispersion, at initial assessment in 47 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Comparison of P-wave dispersion between adolescents with anorexia nervosa and controls showed a statistically significant higher P-wave dispersion in patients with anorexia nervosa (72 ± 16.3 msec) when compared to the control group (43.8 ± 9.5 msec). Percent of body weight lost, lower body mass index, and higher weight loss rate in the patients with anorexia nervosa had no effect on P-wave dispersion. Due to the fact that anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate we believe that cardiac pathologies such as atrial fibrillation must also be considered in the medical evaluation. PMID:25985103

  3. Contact Tensor in a p-Wave Fermi Gas with Anisotropic Feshbach Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shuhei M.; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations have revealed that a Fermi gas with a p-wave Feshbach resonance has universal relations between the system's high-momentum behavior and thermodynamics. A new feature introduced by the p-wave interaction is anisotropy in the Feshbach resonances; three degenerate p-wave resonances split according to the magnetic quantum number of the closed-channel molecules | m | due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we investigate the consequences of the anisotropy. We show that the momentum distribution has a high-momentum asymptote nk ~k-2 ∑ m, m' = - 1 1 >Cm, m'Y1m * (\\kcirc)Y1m' (\\kcirc) , in which we introduce the p-wave contact tensor Cm ,m'. In contrast to the previous studies, it has nine components. We identify them as the number, angular momentum, and nematicity of the closed-channel molecules. We also discuss two examples, the anisotropic p-wave superfluid and a gas confined in a cigar-shaped trap, which exhibit a nematicity component in the p-wave contact tensor.

  4. Experimental study of the stress effect on attenuation of normally incident P-wave through coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Junjun; Wang, Enyuan; Chen, Liang; Li, Xuelong; Xu, Zhaoyong; Li, Guoai

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the stress effect on normally incident P-wave attenuation through coal specimens. Laboratory tests were carried out using a Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system, and a modified method was proposed to determine the quality factor (Q) of P-waves through coal specimens. Larger quality factor denotes less energy attenuated during P-wave propagating through coal. Experimental results indicate that the quality factor and stress (σ) within coal specimens are positively correlated. The P-wave propagation through coal specimens causes crack closure at the beginning of the coal fracture process in SHPB tests, an innovative model was thus proposed to describe the relationship between the crack closure length and the dynamic stress induced by P-wave. Finally, the stress effect on P-wave attenuation through coal was quantitatively represented by a power function Q = a(c-bσ)- 6, and the material constants a, b, and c were determined as 1.227, 1.314, and 0.005, respectively. The results obtained in this study would be helpful for engineers to estimate seismic energy attenuation and coal mass instability in coal mines.

  5. P-Wave Velocity Tomography from Local Earthquakes in Western Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Chávez, Juan A.; Escudero, Christian R.; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco J.; Bandy, William L.

    2015-11-01

    In western Mexico, the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North America plate has deformed and fragmented the overriding plate, forming several structural rifts and crustal blocks. To obtain a reliable subsurface image of the continental crust and uppermost mantle in this complex area, we used P-wave arrivals of local earthquakes along with the Fast Marching Method tomography technique. We followed an inversion scheme consisting of (1) the use of a high-quality earthquake catalog and corrected phase picks, (2) the selection of earthquakes using a maximum location error threshold, (3) the estimation of an improved 1-D reference velocity model, and (4) the use of checkerboard testing to determine the optimum configuration of the velocity nodes and inversion parameters. Surprisingly, the tomography results show a very simple δVp distribution that can be described as being controlled by geologic structures formed during two stages of the separation of the Rivera and Cocos plates. The earlier period represents the initial stages of the separation of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath western Mexico; the later period represents the more advanced stage of rifting where the Rivera and Cocos plates had separated sufficiently to allow melt to accumulate below the Colima Volcanic complex. During the earlier period (14 or 10-1.6 Ma), NE-SW-oriented structures/lineaments (such as the Southern Colima Rift) were formed as the two plates separated. During the second period (1.6 Ma to the present), the deformation is attributed to magma, generated within and above the tear zone between the Rivera and Cocos plates, rising beneath the region of the Colima Volcanic Complex. The rising magma fractured the overlying crust, forming a classic triple-rift junction geometry. This triple-rift system is confined to the mid- to lower crust perhaps indicating that this rifting process is still in an early stage. This fracturing, along with fluid circulation and associated

  6. Mariscope: Observing P Waves (and much more) Everywhere in the Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolet, G.; Hello, Y.; Bonnieux, S.; Sukhovich, A.; Simons, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The lack of stations on islands or the ocean bottom deprives seismic tomographers of almost 2/3 of the information potentially available for global seismic tomography. The "Mermaid", developed at Geoazur, is an underwater seismograph, based on a TWR Apex float. P wave signals are automatically identified and transmitted using the detection algorithm from Sukhovich et al. (GRL, 2011), GPS is used to locate the sensor at the time of transmission. We have studied the performance of Mermaids under different noise conditions in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean and most recently near the Galapagos islands and will show a selection of observations. In the Mediterranean, we regularly detect P waves at teleseismic distances of earthquakes with magnitude 6, occasionally below that. Local and regional earthquakes of much lower magnitude, such as a M 4.9 earthquake near Barcelonette (figure), yield seismograms with a high signal to noise ratio.In the much noisier environment of the Indian Ocean the threshold for useful seismograms is close to magnitude 6.5. Yet we were also able to record 235 low magnitude events when a Mermaid was close to a swarm near the Indian Ocean triple junction, with the lowest magnitude estimated to be 2.1; this sequence also enabled us to put an upper limit of about 250 m to the error in sensor location at the time of recording. Preliminary data from the Galapagos indicate low noise conditions similar to those in the Mediterranean, with good recordings of events in the magnitude 5 range.A new prototype of a spherical "MultiMermaid" is currently being tested. It allows for multidisciplinary observations (seismic and kHz acoustics, magnetic field, temperature, bathymetry) and will function about five years with lithium batteries. A global deployment of such instruments in a five-year program is affordable: project MariScope aims for at least 300 floating seismometers in the world's oceans. At the time of writing of this abstract, a proposal is being

  7. P wave velocity of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Vogfjord, Kristin S.; Langston, Charles A.

    1996-05-01

    P wave velocity structure of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Africa was investigated by forward modeling of Pnl waveforms from four moderate size earthquakes. The source-receiver path of one event crosses central Africa and lies outside the African superswell while the source-receiver paths for the other events cross Proterozoic lithosphere within southern Africa, inside the African superswell. Three observables (Pn waveshape, PL-Pn time, and Pn/PL amplitude ratio) from the Pnl waveform were used to constrain upper mantle velocity models in a grid search procedure. For central Africa, synthetic seismograms were computed for 5880 upper mantle models using the generalized ray method and wavenumber integration; synthetic seismograms for 216 models were computed for southern Africa. Successful models were taken as those whose synthetic seismograms had similar waveshapes to the observed waveforms, as well as PL-Pn times within 3 s of the observed times and Pn/PL amplitude ratios within 30% of the observed ratio. Successful models for central Africa yield a range of uppermost mantle velocity between 7.9 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 8.3 and 8.5 km s-1 at a depth of 200 km, and velocity gradients that are constant or slightly positive. For southern Africa, successful models yield uppermost mantle velocities between 8.1 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 7.9 and 8.4 km s-1 at a depth of 130 km, and velocity gradients between -0.001 and 0.001 s-1. Because velocity gradients are controlled strongly by structure at the bottoming depths for Pn waves, it is not easy to compare the velocity gradients obtained for central and southern Africa. For central Africa, Pn waves turn at depths of about 150-200 km, whereas for southern Africa they bottom at ˜100-150 km depth. With regard to the origin of the African superswell, our results do not have sufficient resolution to test hypotheses that invoke simple lithospheric reheating. However, our models are not

  8. P-Wave Velocity Structure beneath Eastern Eurasia from Finite Frequency Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.; Shen, Y.; Yang, X.

    2006-05-01

    Despite the recent extensive seismic studies, the detailed lithospheric structure and deep mantle dynamic processes beneath eastern Eurasia remain poorly constrained. In this study, we applied the Finite Frequency Seismic Tomography (FFST) method, which utilizes the 3D Fréchet sensitivity kernels of the travel times of finite frequency seismic waves to account for wavefront healing and off-ray scattering, to eastern Eurasia. Taking advantage of the broadband feature of seismic records, we measured P wave relative delays times by waveform cross-correlation in three frequency bands (0.03-0.1Hz, 0.1-0.5 Hz and 0.5 to 2.0 Hz), which were inverted jointly to constrain velocity heterogeneities with different distances from the central geometric rays. The effect of strong variations in crustal structure beneath this region on travel time data was removed by conducting a frequency dependent crustal correction. A comprehensive dataset, including waveforms from the publicly accessible sources and other seismic networks in the region, were collected for this study. Our preliminary results are consistent with the velocity models obtained in previous tomographic studies. A more complete dataset will further improve the resolution of the velocity structure beneath eastern Eurasia.

  9. Biphasic P wave in inferior leads and the development of atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hideki; Horie, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Background Anisotropic and slow conduction in the atrium underlie the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aimed to investigate the P wave characteristics associated with the development of AF in patients with a biphasic P wave in the inferior leads. Methods Digital analysis of retrospectively recorded 12-lead electrocardiograms was performed to select patients with a biphasic P wave (positive/negative) in lead II from a database of 114,334 patients. Characteristics of the P wave in the inferior leads associated with incidence of AF were determined. Receiver operating characteristic curves dichotomized P wave variables were measured in each lead. Results A total of 141 patients (77 men; mean age, 64±19 years) were enrolled in this study. Twenty-nine (20.6%) patients developed AF (AF group) vs. 112 (79.6%) who did not (non-AF group) during a follow-up period of 50±62 months. The amplitude of the initial P wave portion in lead II was significantly larger in the AF group when compared with the non-AF group (77.3±77.0 µV vs. 51.0±30.1 µV, p=0.003), while the amplitude of the terminal P wave portion in lead III was significantly decreased in the AF group when compared with the non-AF group (−70.6±41.3 µV vs. −89.1±38.1 µV, p=0.024). The duration of the initial P wave portion in lead III was significantly longer in the AF group when compared with the non-AF group (52.7±34.6 ms vs. 35.8±30.4 ms, p=0.011). Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards analysis confirmed that the increased duration of the initial P wave portion in lead III (≥71 ms) was independently associated with AF development (hazard ratio 2.90, 95% confidence interval 1.16–7.11, p=0.02). Conclusion The analyses of the biphasic P wave in the inferior leads suggest that the development of AF could be attributed to increased atrial slow conduction. PMID:26702318

  10. A model of seismic coda arrivals to suppress spurious events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, N.; Russell, S.

    2012-04-01

    We describe a model of coda arrivals which has been added to NET-VISA (Network processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis) our probabilistic generative model of seismic events, their transmission, and detection on a global seismic network. The scattered energy that follows a seismic phase arrival tends to deceive typical STA/LTA based arrival picking software into believing that a real seismic phase has been detected. These coda arrivals which tend to follow all seismic phases cause most network processing software including NET-VISA to believe that multiple events have taken place. It is not a simple matter of ignoring closely spaced arrivals since arrivals from multiple events can indeed overlap. The current practice in NET-VISA of pruning events within a small space-time neighborhood of a larger event works reasonably well, but it may mask real events produced in an after-shock sequence. Our new model allows any seismic arrival, even coda arrivals, to trigger a subsequent coda arrival. The probability of such a triggered arrival depends on the amplitude of the triggering arrival. Although real seismic phases are more likely to generate such coda arrivals. Real seismic phases also tend to generate coda arrivals with more strongly correlated parameters, for example azimuth and slowness. However, the SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of a coda arrival immediately following a phase arrival tends to be lower because of the nature of the SNR calculation. We have calibrated our model on historical statistics of such triggered arrivals and our inference accounts for them while searching for the best explanation of seismic events their association to the arrivals and the coda arrivals. We have tested our new model on one week of global seismic data spanning March 22, 2009 to March 29, 2009. Our model was trained on two and half months of data from April 5, 2009 to June 20, 2009. We use the LEB bulletin produced by the IDC (International Data Center) as the ground truth

  11. Evaluation of the P Wave Axis in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Rezzan Deniz; Bulut, Mustafa; Acar, Şencan; Izci, Servet; Fidan, Serdar; Yesin, Mahmut; Efe, Suleyman Cagan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: P wave axis is one of the most practical clinical tool for evaluation of cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the P wave axis in electrocardiogram (ECG), left atrial function and association between the disease activity score in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: Standard 12-lead surface ECGs were recorded by at a paper speed of 25 m/s and an amplifier gain of 10 mm/mV. The heart rate (HR), the duration of PR, QRS, QTd (dispersion), the axis of P wave were measured by ECG machine automatically. Results: The P wave axis was significantly increased in patients with SLE (49 ± 20 vs. 40 ± 18, P = 0.037) and the disease activity score was found positively correlated with P wave axis (r: 0.382, P = 0.011). The LA volume and the peak systolic strain of the left atrium (LA) were statistically different between the groups (P = 0.024 and P = 0.000). The parameters of the diastolic function; E/A and E/e’ were better in the control group than the patients with SLE (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3, P = 0.041 and 6.6 ± 2.8 vs. 5.4 ± 1.4, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusion: P wave axis was found significantly increased in patients with SLE and positively correlated with SELENA-SLEDAI score. As the risk score increases in patients with SLE, P wave axis changes which may predict the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26702344

  12. Scattering amplitude of ultracold atoms near the p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Peng; Naidon, Pascal; Ueda, Masahito

    2010-12-15

    Most of the current theories on the p-wave superfluid in cold atomic gases are based on the effective-range theory for the two-body scattering, where the low-energy p-wave scattering amplitude f{sub 1}(k) is given by f{sub 1}(k)=-1/[ik+1/(Vk{sup 2})+1/R]. Here k is the incident momentum, V and R are the k-independent scattering volume and effective range, respectively. However, due to the long-range nature of the van der Waals interaction between two colliding ultracold atoms, the p-wave scattering amplitude of the two atoms is not described by the effective-range theory [J. Math. Phys. 4, 54 (1963); Phys. Rev. A 58, 4222 (1998)]. In this paper we provide an explicit calculation for the p-wave scattering of two ultracold atoms near the p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance. We show that in this case the low-energy p-wave scattering amplitude f{sub 1}(k)=-1/[ik+1/(V{sup eff}k{sup 2})+1/(S{sup eff}k)+1/R{sup eff}] where V{sup eff}, S{sup eff}, and R{sup eff} are k-dependent parameters. Based on this result, we identify sufficient conditions for the effective-range theory to be a good approximation of the exact scattering amplitude. Using these conditions we show that the effective-range theory is a good approximation for the p-wave scattering in the ultracold gases of {sup 6}Li and {sup 40}K when the scattering volume is enhanced by the resonance.

  13. Eastern Termination of the Subducting African Lithosphere Beneath Anatolia Imaged by Teleseismic P-Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. B.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ozacar, A.; Schmandt, B.

    2009-12-01

    A variety of complex tectonic processes are active in Anatolia. Collision related plateau formation dominates the present lithospheric deformation toward the east and slab roll-back related back-arc extension takes place toward the west. The two zones are connected at the northern part of the region by strike-slip faulting along the right-lateral North Anatolian Fault. Recent seismological studies show that the Eastern Anatolian Plateau (EAP) is supported by hot asthenosphereric material that was emplaced beneath the plateau following the detachment of subducted Arabian lithosphere. The westward continuation of the deeper structure of Anatolia is less well constrained due to the lack of geophysical observations. In order to study how the deeper lithosphere and mantle structure evolves spatially from east to west, we used teleseismic P-wave tomography and data from several temporary and permanent seismic networks deployed in the region. A major part of the data comes from the North Anatolian Fault passive seismic experiment (NAF) that consists of 39 broadband seismic stations operated at the north central part of Anatolia between 2005 - 2008. We also used data collected from permanent seismic stations of the National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) and stations from the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE). Approximately 15,000 P-wave travel time residuals, measured in multiple frequency bands, are inverted using approximate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. Our tomographic model reveals a fast anomaly that corresponds to the subducted portion of the African lithosphere along the Cyprean Arc. This fast anomaly dips northward beneath central Anatolia with an angle of approximately 45 degrees. However, the anomaly disappears rather sharply east of 36 degree longitude. This eastern edge of the slab also marks the western boundary of the EAP and Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Beneath EAP our model reveals distributed slow anomalies down to 400 km and upper

  14. Segmented African Lithosphere Beneath Anatolia Imaged by Teleseismic P-Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, Cemal; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan; Ozacar, Atilla

    2010-05-01

    Anatolia, a part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, is shaped by a variety of complex tectonic processes that define the major tectonic provinces across which different deformation regimes exist. Collision related plateau formation dominates the present lithospheric deformation to the east and slab roll-back related back-arc extension takes place in the west. The two zones are connected at the northern part of the region by strike-slip faulting along the right-lateral North Anatolian Fault Zone. Recent seismological studies show that the Eastern Anatolian Plateau (EAP) is supported by hot asthenosphereric material that was emplaced beneath the plateau following the detachment of subducted Arabian lithosphere. The westward continuation of the deeper structure of Anatolia was previously less well constrained due to the lack of geophysical observations. In order to study the deeper lithosphere and mantle structure beneath Anatolia, we used teleseismic P-wave tomography and data from several temporary and permanent seismic networks deployed in the region. A major part of the data comes from the North Anatolian Fault passive seismic experiment (NAF) that consists of 39 broadband seismic stations operated at the north central part of Anatolia between 2005 and 2008. We also used data collected from permanent seismic stations of the National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) and stations from the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE). Approximately 34,000 P-wave travel time residuals, measured in multiple frequency bands, are inverted using approximate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. Our tomograms reveal a fast anomaly that corresponds to the subducted portion of the African lithosphere along the Cyprean Arc. This fast anomaly dips northward beneath central Anatolia with an angle of approximately 45 degrees. However, the anomaly disappears rather sharply to the east beneath the western margin of the EAP and to the west beneath the Isparta Angle. The western

  15. Eternal inflation with arrival terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the cosmological role of terminal vacua in the string theory landscape, and point out that existing work on this topic makes very strong assumptions about the properties of the terminal vacua. We explore the implications of relaxing these assumptions (by including "arrival" as well as "departure" terminals) and demonstrate that the results in earlier work are highly sensitive to their assumption of no arrival terminals. We use our discussion to make some general points about tuning and initial conditions in cosmology.

  16. Electronic properties of emergent topological defects in chiral p -wave superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.-F.; Becerra, V. Fernández; Covaci, L.; Milošević, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    Chiral p -wave superconductors in applied magnetic field can exhibit more complex topological defects than just conventional superconducting vortices, due to the two-component order parameter (OP) and the broken time-reversal symmetry. We investigate the electronic properties of those exotic states, some of which contain clusters of one-component vortices in chiral components of the OP and/or exhibit skyrmionic character in the relative OP space, all obtained as a self-consistent solution of the microscopic Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. We reveal the link between the local density of states (LDOS) of the novel topological states and the behavior of the chiral domain wall between the OP components, enabling direct identification of those states in scanning tunneling microscopy. For example, a skyrmion always contains a closed chiral domain wall, which is found to be mapped exactly by zero-bias peaks in LDOS. Moreover, the LDOS exhibits electron-hole asymmetry, which is different from the LDOS of conventional vortex states with same vorticity. Finally, we present the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the properties of a skyrmion, indicating that this topological defect can be surprisingly large in size, and can be pinned by an artificially indented nonsuperconducting closed path in the sample. These features are expected to facilitate the experimental observation of skyrmionic states, thereby enabling experimental verification of chirality in emerging superconducting materials.

  17. Fluid pressure arrival time tomography: Estimation and assessment in the presence of inequality constraints, with an application to a producing gas field at Krechba, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Rucci, A.; Vasco, D.W.; Novali, F.

    2010-04-01

    Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based upon these changes we estimate diffusive travel times associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage an approach based upon travel times, as opposed to one based upon the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. We apply the formulation to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly-spaced images of range change, we calculate the diffusive travel times associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints are incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30 to 40%.

  18. Chiral superfluidity with p-wave symmetry from an interacting s-wave atomic Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Wu, Biao; Liu, W Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Chiral p-wave superfluids are fascinating topological quantum states of matter that have been found in the liquid (3)He-A phase and arguably in the electronic Sr2RuO4 superconductor. They are fundamentally related to the fractional 5/2 quantum Hall state, which supports fractional exotic excitations. Past studies show that they require spin-triplet pairing of fermions by p-wave interaction. Here we report that a p-wave chiral superfluid state can arise from spin-singlet pairing for an s-wave interacting atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice. This p-wave state is conceptually distinct from all previous conventional p-wave states as it is for the centre-of-mass motion, instead of the relative motion. It leads to spontaneous generation of angular momentum, finite Chern numbers and topologically protected chiral fermionic zero modes bounded to domain walls, all occuring at a higher critical temperature in relative scales. Signature quantities are predicted for the cold atom experimental condition. PMID:25266996

  19. What Do s- and p-Wave Neutron Average Radiative Widths Reveal

    SciTech Connect

    Mughabghab, S.F.

    2010-04-30

    A first observation of two resonance-like structures at mass numbers 92 and 112 in the average capture widths of the p-wave neutron resonances relative to the s-wave component is interpreted in terms of a spin-orbit splitting of the 3p single-particle state into P{sub 3/2} and P{sub 1/2} components at the neutron separation energy. A third structure at about A = 124, which is not correlated with the 3p-wave neutron strength function, is possibly due to the Pygmy Dipole Resonance. Five significant results emerge from this investigation: (i) The strength of the spin-orbit potential of the optical-model is determined as 5.7 {+-} 0.5 MeV, (ii) Non-statistical effects dominate the p-wave neutron-capture in the mass region A = 85 - 130, (iii) The background magnitude of the p-wave average capture-width relative to that of the s-wave is determined as 0.50 {+-} 0.05, which is accounted for quantitatively in tenns of the generalized Fermi liquid model of Mughabghab and Dunford, (iv) The p-wave resonances arc partially decoupled from the giant-dipole resonance (GDR), and (v) Gamma-ray transitions, enhanced over the predictions of the GDR, are observed in the {sup 90}Zr - {sup 98}Mo and Sn-Ba regions.

  20. Comparison of interplanetary CME arrival times and solar wind parameters based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone types and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Soojeong; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Jae-Ok; Na, Hyeonock

    2014-09-01

    We have made a comparison between coronal mass ejection (CME)-associated shock propagations based on the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations. For this we use 28 full-halo CMEs, whose cone parameters are determined and their corresponding interplanetary shocks were observed at the Earth, from 2001 to 2002. We consider three different cone types (an asymmetric cone model, an ice cream cone model, and an elliptical cone model) to determine 3-D CME cone parameters (radial velocity, angular width, and source location), which are the input values of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error of the CME-associated shock travel times for the WSA-ENLIL model using the ice-cream cone model is 9.9 h, which is about 1 h smaller than those of the other models. We compare the peak values and profiles of solar wind parameters (speed and density) with in situ observations. We find that the root-mean-square errors of solar wind peak speed and density for the ice cream and asymmetric cone model are about 190 km/s and 24/cm3, respectively. We estimate the cross correlations between the models and observations within the time lag of ± 2 days from the shock travel time. The correlation coefficients between the solar wind speeds from the WSA-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations are approximately 0.7, which is larger than those of solar wind density (cc ˜0.6). Our preliminary investigations show that the ice cream cone model seems to be better than the other cone models in terms of the input parameters of the WSA-ENLIL model.

  1. Correcting for Blood Arrival Time in Global Mean Regression Enhances Functional Connectivity Analysis of Resting State fMRI-BOLD Signals

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Sinem B.; Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia M.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; deB Frederick, Blaise

    2016-01-01

    Resting state functional connectivity analysis is a widely used method for mapping intrinsic functional organization of the brain. Global signal regression (GSR) is commonly employed for removing systemic global variance from resting state BOLD-fMRI data; however, recent studies have demonstrated that GSR may introduce spurious negative correlations within and between functional networks, calling into question the meaning of anticorrelations reported between some networks. In the present study, we propose that global signal from resting state fMRI is composed primarily of systemic low frequency oscillations (sLFOs) that propagate with cerebral blood circulation throughout the brain. We introduce a novel systemic noise removal strategy for resting state fMRI data, “dynamic global signal regression” (dGSR), which applies a voxel-specific optimal time delay to the global signal prior to regression from voxel-wise time series. We test our hypothesis on two functional systems that are suggested to be intrinsically organized into anticorrelated networks: the default mode network (DMN) and task positive network (TPN). We evaluate the efficacy of dGSR and compare its performance with the conventional “static” global regression (sGSR) method in terms of (i) explaining systemic variance in the data and (ii) enhancing specificity and sensitivity of functional connectivity measures. dGSR increases the amount of BOLD signal variance being modeled and removed relative to sGSR while reducing spurious negative correlations introduced in reference regions by sGSR, and attenuating inflated positive connectivity measures. We conclude that incorporating time delay information for sLFOs into global noise removal strategies is of crucial importance for optimal noise removal from resting state functional connectivity maps. PMID:27445751

  2. Model input and output files for the simulation of time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Frenzel, Peter F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains listings of model input and output files for the simulation of the time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table from the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF), about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. This simulation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-developed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and Multimedia Exposure Assessment (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the production of leachate by a landfill and transport of landfill leachate to the water table. Model input data files used with and output files generated by the HELP and MULTIMED models are provided in ASCII format on a 3.5-inch 1.44-megabyte IBM-PC compatible floppy disk.

  3. Development of the county database: Estimates of exposure rates and times of arrival of fallout in the ORERP Phase-2 area. Comparison with cumulative deposition-density estimates based on analyses of retrospective and historical soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, H.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    Estimates of exposure rates and fallout-arrival times have been made for each of 142 counties or county segments for 55 nuclear events producing significant deposition downwind from the Nevada Test Site. All sources of available data were examined to provide the best possible estimates for each event. The cumulative fallout deposited per unit area in each county based on these estimates is compared with estimates of cumulative deposition density based on analyses of contemporary and historical soil samples. The good agreement between the two sets of cumulative deposition estimates gives credence to the individual event estimates and suggests that no major sources of fission-product deposition were overlooked. This county database is being used as primary input data in a number of on-going dose-reconstruction studies.

  4. P-Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Eastern Eurasia From Finite Frequency Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.; Shen, Y.; Yang, X.

    2005-12-01

    Eastern Eurasia is one of the most tectonically complex regions in the world. While the evolution history of continental lithosphere has been well recognized, the fine structure associated with the complicated deformation in this region is far from clear, and deep mantle processes that accompanied shallower lithosphere deformations are poorly understood. In order to improve the resolution of the velocity structure in the region, we applied the newly-developed Finite Frequency Seismic Tomography (FFST) method, which utilizes the 3D Frechet-Born sensitivity kernels of the travel times of finite frequency seismic waves to account for wavefront healing and off-ray scattering, to eastern Eurasia. In addition to the new technique, we obtained a comprehensive finite-frequency body wave travel time data set from cross-correlation of broadband waveforms. Datasets used in this study include waveforms from the publicly accessible sources (e.g. IRIS, GSN, PASSCAL, and IMS stations) and other seismic networks in the region such as the Japanese Broadband Seismograph Network (F-net), the Japanese International Seismic Network (JISNET), the Taiwan Broadband Seismic Network and China National Digital Seismic Network. Taking advantage of broadband waveforms, we measured relative delays times by waveform cross-correlation in three frequency bands between 0.03 to 2 Hz for P waves. The travel times in the three frequency bands were inverted jointly to take advantage of the `data fusion' made possible by the finite-frequency kernels and separately to understand the resolving power of each data set. Preliminary results are comparable to the velocity models obtained in previous tomographic studies.

  5. Electric car arrives - again

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.

    1997-03-01

    The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Universal Relations for a Fermi Gas Close to a p -Wave Interaction Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Thywissen, Joseph H.; Zhang, Shizhong

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the properties of a spinless Fermi gas close to a p -wave interaction resonance. We show that the effects of interaction near a p -wave resonance are captured by two contacts, which are related to the variation of energy with the p -wave scattering volume v and with the effective range R in two adiabatic theorems. Exact pressure and virial relations are derived. We show how the two contacts determine the leading and subleading asymptotic behavior of the momentum distribution (˜1 /k2 and ˜1 /k4) and how they can be measured experimentally by radio-frequency and photoassociation spectroscopies. Finally, we evaluate the two contacts at high temperature with a virial expansion.

  7. Converted-wave PS arrivals in tilted TI media: Analysis of ray-paths and amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Martinez, J.; Calderon-Macias, C.

    2005-05-01

    Converted-waves, i.e., downgoing P-waves that convert upon reflection to S-waves, excited by a compressional source and recorded by horizontal geophones provide a measure of media properties that relate to rock type and fluid saturation. Other uses that have arisen from measuring, analyzing and interpreting PS-waves, include improved structural imaging in formations with occurrence of gas and analysis of seismic anisotropy for estimating fracture density and orientation. Addressing anisotropy in the seismic processing flow is paramount due to the strong influence of this phenomenon in the wave path. Furthermore, analyses of both traveltimes and amplitudes that include anisotropic parameters provide a better picture of the subsurface. Anisotropy types used to describe common geologic scenarios include vertical and horizontal transversely isotropy (VTI and HTI, respectively). Presence of horizontal shale formations is a common cause of the VTI type, while a single vertical fracture system is a typical example of the HTI. Another degree of complexity is to consider a tilted symmetry axis corresponding to a formation with thin layers that are dipping, or the presence of non-vertical fractures. These media, described as tilted TI, have important observable effects on the converted-wave arrivals: i) asymmetry of the wave-path; ii) shear-wave splitting; and iii) non-zero amplitudes at zero offset. Based on numerical modeling, effects of the tilt in the simmetry axis on arrival times, travel path, and amplitudes of the converted waves are analyzed. Ultimate objectives of the work include quantifying these effects on converted-wave data processing, and investigating the reflected wavefield signature for retrieving tilt angle in situations where the stress field induces thin layering or fractures with a tilted symmetry axis.

  8. Acoustic Source Localization via Time Difference of Arrival Estimation for Distributed Sensor Networks using Tera-scale Optical-Core Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, Neena; Barhen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    For real-time acoustic source localization applications, one of the primary challenges is the considerable growth in computational complexity associated with the emergence of ever larger, active or passive, distributed sensor networks. These sensors rely heavily on battery-operated system components to achieve highly functional automation in signal and information processing. In order to keep communication requirements minimal, it is desirable to perform as much processing on the receiver platforms as possible. However, the complexity of the calculations needed to achieve accurate source localization increases dramatically with the size of sensor arrays, resulting in substantial growth of computational requirements that cannot be readily met with standard hardware. One option to meet this challenge builds upon the emergence of digital optical-core devices. The objective of this work was to explore the implementation of key building block algorithms used in underwater source localization on the optical-core digital processing platform recently introduced by Lenslet Inc. This demonstration of considerably faster signal processing capability should be of substantial significance to the design and innovation of future generations of distributed sensor networks.

  9. Factors Influencing Intracavitary Electrocardiographic P-Wave Changes during Central Venous Catheter Placement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guorong; Guo, Ling; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Min; Zhang, Jian; Qin, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude changes in the P-wave of intracavitary electrocardiography have been used to assess the tip placement of central venous catheters. The research assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this sign in comparison with standard radiographic techniques for tip location, focusing on factors influencing its clinical utility. Both intracavitary electrocardiography guided tip location and X-ray positioning were used to verify catheter tip locations in patients undergoing central venous catheter insertion. Intracavitary electrocardiograms from 1119 patients (of a total 1160 subjects) showed specific amplitude changes in the P-wave. As the results show, compared with X-ray positioning, the sensitivity of electrocardiography-guided tip location was 97.3%, with false negative rate of 2.7%; the specificity was 1, with false positive rate of zero. Univariate analyses indicated that features including age, gender, height, body weight, and heart rate have no statistically significant influence on P-wave amplitude changes (P > 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that catheter insertion routes (OR = 2.280, P = 0.003) and basal P-wave amplitude (OR = 0.553, P = 0.003) have statistically significant impacts on P-wave amplitude changes. As a reliable indicator of tip location, amplitude change in the P-wave has proved of good sensitivity and excellent specificity, and the minor, zero, false positive rate supports the clinical utility of this technique in early recognition of malpositioned tips. A better sensitivity was achieved in placement of centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs) than that of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). In clinical practice, a combination of intracavitary electrocardiography, ultrasonic inspection and the anthropometric measurement method would further improve the accuracy. PMID:25915758

  10. Teleseismic P wave spectra from USArray and implications for upper mantle attenuation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafferky, Samantha; Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-10-01

    Teleseismic P wave amplitude spectra from deep earthquakes recorded by USArray are inverted for maps of upper mantle Δt* for multiple frequency bands within 0.08-2 Hz. All frequency bands show high Δt* regions in the southwestern U.S., southern Rocky Mountains, and Appalachian margin. Low Δt* is more common across the cratonic interior. Inversions with narrower frequency bands yield similar patterns, but greater Δt* magnitudes. Even the two standard deviation Δt* magnitude for the widest band is ˜2-7 times greater than predicted by global QS tomography or an anelastic olivine thermal model, suggesting that much of the Δt* signal is nonthermal in origin. Nonthermal contributions are further indicated by only a moderate correlation between Δt* and P travel times. Some geographic variations, such as high Δt* in parts of the cratonic interior with high mantle velocities and low heat flow, demonstrate that the influence of temperature is regionally overwhelmed. Transverse spectra are used to investigate the importance of scattering because they would receive no P energy in the absence of 3-D heterogeneity or anisotropy. Transverse to vertical (T/Z) spectral ratios for stations with high Δt* are higher and exhibit steeper increases with frequency compared to T/Z spectra for low Δt* stations. The large magnitude of Δt* estimates and the T/Z spectra are consistent with major contributions to Δt* from scattering. A weak positive correlation between intrinsic attenuation and apparent attenuation due to scattering may contribute to Δt* magnitude and the moderate correlation of Δt* with travel times.

  11. Recording of anomalous shear energy in the teleseismic P-wave coda at Long Valley Caldera, California, on a small aperture array

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J.J.; Zandt, G. ); Steck, L.K.; Prothero, W.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1990-03-01

    Anomalous energy in the coda of teleseismic P-waves at Long Valley caldera has been suggested to be a P to S converted arrival, perhaps with the conversion occurring at the boundaries of magma bodies beneath the caldera. We have collected new data with a small-aperture, three-component array located in the northwestern quadrant of the caldera with the purpose of testing this hypothesis. An examination of three teleseismic events using array and particle motion techniques shows that converted P- to S-waves comprise a significant fraction of the early arriving anomalous energy. In volcanic areas such as Long Valley, the scattered energy could originate at a high velocity contrast feature such as magma body interface. In addition, later arriving energy was detected with slow phase velocity and is tentatively identified as body wave to surface wave scattering. Our interpretation is illustrated with waveforms of two earthquakes from the Kuril Islands and one in northern Peru. Our results show that a small-aperture, three-component array can be used to perform detailed analysis of the coda. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. New predictions for inclusive heavy-quarkonium P-wave decays.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Nora; Eiras, Dolors; Pineda, Antonio; Soto, Joan; Vairo, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    We show that some nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics color-octet matrix elements can be written in terms of (derivatives of) wave functions at the origin and of nonperturbative universal constants once the factorization between the soft and ultrasoft scales is achieved by using an effective field theory where only ultrasoft degrees of freedom are kept as dynamical entities. This allows us to derive a new set of relations between inclusive heavy-quarkonium P-wave decays into light hadrons with different principal quantum numbers and with different heavy flavors. In particular, we can estimate the ratios of the decay widths of bottomonium P-wave states from charmonium data. PMID:11800937

  13. Finite-momentum superfluidity and phase transitions in a p-wave resonant Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sungsoo; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2011-10-15

    We study a degenerate two-species gas of bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance as, for example, realized in a {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb mixture. We show that, in addition to a conventional atomic and a p-wave molecular spinor-1 superfluidity at large positive and negative detunings, respectively, the system generically exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluidity at intermediate detuning around the unitary point. We analyze the detailed nature of the corresponding phases and the associated quantum and thermal phase transitions.

  14. A Powerful Twin Arrives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    First Images from FORS2 at VLT KUEYEN on Paranal The first, major astronomical instrument to be installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was FORS1 ( FO cal R educer and S pectrograph) in September 1998. Immediately after being attached to the Cassegrain focus of the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU , it produced a series of spectacular images, cf. ESO PR 14/98. Many important observations have since been made with this outstanding facility. Now FORS2 , its powerful twin, has been installed at the second VLT Unit Telescope, KUEYEN . It is the fourth major instrument at the VLT after FORS1 , ISAAC and UVES.. The FORS2 Commissioning Team that is busy installing and testing this large and complex instrument reports that "First Light" was successfully achieved already on October 29, 1999, only two days after FORS2 was first mounted at the Cassegrain focus. Since then, various observation modes have been carefully tested, including normal and high-resolution imaging, echelle and multi-object spectroscopy, as well as fast photometry with millisecond time resolution. A number of fine images were obtained during this work, some of which are made available with the present Press Release. The FORS instruments ESO PR Photo 40a/99 ESO PR Photo 40a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 203k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 563kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1280 x 1103 pix - 666kb] Caption to PR Photo 40a/99: This digital photo shows the twin instruments, FORS2 at KUEYEN (in the foreground) and FORS1 at ANTU, seen in the background through the open ventilation doors in the two telescope enclosures. Although they look alike, the two instruments have specific functions, as described in the text. FORS1 and FORS2 are the products of one of the most thorough and advanced technological studies ever made of a ground-based astronomical instrument. They have been specifically designed to investigate the faintest and most remote objects in the universe. They are "multi-mode instruments" that

  15. Hybrid theory of P-wave electron-Li2+ elastic scattering and photoabsorption in two-electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    In previous papers [Bhatia, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.85.052708 85, 052708 (2012); Bhatia, Phys. Rev. A10.1103/PhysRevA.86.032709 86, 032709 (2012)] electron-hydrogen and electron-He+ P-wave scattering phase shifts were calculated using the hybrid theory. This method is extended to the singlet and triplet electron-Li2+ P-wave scattering in the elastic region, where the correlation functions are of Hylleraas type. The short-range and long-range correlations are included in the Schrödinger equation at the same time, by using a combination of a modified method of polarized orbitals and the optical potential formalism. Phase shifts are compared to those obtained by other methods. The present calculation requires very few correlation functions to obtain accurate results which are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts. The continuum functions obtained in this method are used to calculate photodetachment and photoionization cross sections of two-electron systems H-, He, and Li+. Cross sections of the metastable 1,3S states of He, and Li+ are also calculated. These cross sections are calculated in the elastic region and compared with previous calculations. Using these cross sections, the Maxwellian-averaged radiative-recombination rates at various electron temperatures are also calculated.

  16. Teleseismic P wave tomography of South Island, New Zealand upper mantle: Evidence of subduction of Pacific lithosphere since 45 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietlow, Daniel W.; Molnar, Peter H.; Sheehan, Anne F.

    2016-06-01

    A P wave speed tomogram produced from teleseismic travel time measurements made on and offshore the South Island of New Zealand shows a nearly vertical zone with wave speeds that are 4.5% higher than the background average reaching to depths of approximately 450 km under the northwestern region of the island. This structure is consistent with oblique west-southwest subduction of Pacific lithosphere since about 45 Ma, when subduction beneath the region began. The high-speed zone reaches about 200-300 km below the depths of the deepest intermediate-depth earthquakes (subcrustal to ~200 km) and therefore suggests that ~200-300 km of slab below them is required to produce sufficient weight to induce the intermediate-depth seismicity. In the southwestern South Island, high P wave speeds indicate subduction of the Australian plate at the Puysegur Trench to approximately 200 km depth. A band with speeds ~2-3.5% lower than the background average is found along the east coast of the South Island to depths of ~150-200 km and underlies Miocene or younger volcanism; these low speeds are consistent with thinned lithosphere. A core of high speeds under the Southern Alps associated with a convergent margin and mountain building imaged in previous investigations is not well resolved in this study. This could suggest that such high speeds are limited in both width and depth and not resolvable by our data.

  17. "Timing" of arrival and in-hospital mortality in a cohort of patients under anticoagulant therapy presenting to the emergency departments with cerebral hemorrhage: A multicenter chronobiological study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fabbian, Fabio; Manfredini, Roberto; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Gallerani, Massimo; Cavazza, Mario; Grifoni, Stefano; Fabbri, Andrea; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Imberti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Therapy with oral anticoagulants (OACs) is a risk factor for cerebral hemorrhage (CH). Although different studies have been undertaken to investigate the timing of the onset of major cardiovascular events, no data exist on temporal patterns of the onset of CH in subjects treated with OACs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the timing of CH in patients treated with OACs. All patients who developed CH under OACs therapy and admitted to 28 Italian Emergency Departments (EDs) between September 2011 and July 2013 were enrolled. Age, sex, time and location of the hemorrhagic lesion, type of the bleeding events (idiopathic or post-traumatic), anticoagulant therapy (warfarin or new oral anticoagulants - NOAs) and time of ED admission (i.e., hour, day, month and season) were recorded. Five hundred and seventeen patients (63.2% male aged 80 ± 7.9 yrs) with CH were involved. Warfarin was taken by 494 patients (95.6%), and NOAs by 23 (4.4%). In-hospital mortality (IHM) was recorded in 208 cases (40.2%). Cosinor analysis showed a peak of CH arrival between 12:00 and 14:00 h both in the whole population (PR 73.9%, p = 0.002) and the male subgroup (PR 65.2%, p = 0.009), whereas females showed an anticipated morning peak between 08:00 and 10:00 h (PR 65.7%, p = 0.008). A further analysis between idiopathic and post-traumatic CH confirmed the presence of a 24 h pattern with a peak between 12:00 and 14:00 h (PR 58.5%, p = 0.019) and between 08:00 and 10:00 h (PR80.1%, p < 0.001) for idiopathic events and post-traumatic hemorrhages, respectively. Moreover, a seasonal winter peak was identified for idiopathic forms (PR 74%, p = 0.035), and a summer peak for post-traumatic forms (PR 77%, p = 0.025). The present study suggests the presence of a temporal pattern of ED arrivals in CH patients treated with OACs. PMID:26852790

  18. Relationship of P-wave seismic attributes, azimuthal anisotropy, and commercial gas pay in 3-D P-wave multiazimuth data, Rulison field, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, H.B.; Campagna, D.; Simon, K.M.; Beckham, W.E.

    1999-08-01

    This case history is one of three field projects funded by the US Department of Energy a part of its ongoing research effort aimed to expand current levels of drilling and production efficiency in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The original states goal for the 3-D P-wave seismic survey was to evaluate and map fracture azimuth and relative fracture density throughout a naturally-fractured gas reservoir interval. At Rulison field, this interval is the Cretaceous Mesaverde, approximately 2,500 ft (760 m) of lenticular sands, silts, and shales. Three-dimensional full-azimuth P-wave data were acquired for the evaluation of azimuthal anisotropy and the relationship of the anisotropy to commercial pay in the target interval. The methodology is based on the evaluation of two restricted-azimuth orthogonal (source receiver azimuth) 3-D P-wave volumes aligned with the natural principal axes of the azimuthal anisotropy, as estimated from velocity analysis of multiazimuth prestack gathers. The Dix interval velocity, as well as the interval amplitude variation with offset (AVO) gradient, was calculated for both azimuths for the gas-saturated Mesaverde interval. The two seismic attributes best correlated with commercial gas pay (at a 21-well control set) were (1) values greater than 4% azimuthal variation in the interval velocity ratio (source-receiver azimuth N60E/N30W) of the target interval (the gas-saturated Mesaverde), and (2) the sum of the interval AVO gradients (N60E + N30W). The sum of the interval AVO gradients is an attribute sensitive to the presence of gas, but not diagnostic of an azimuthal variation in the amplitude. The two-azimuth interval velocity anisotropy mapped over the survey area suggests spatial variations in the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress field and the open (to flow) fracture system.

  19. Laboratory velocities and attenuation of p-waves in limestones during freeze-thaw cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Remy, J.M.; Bellanger, M.; Homand-Etienne, F. )

    1994-02-01

    The velocity and the attenuation of compressional P-waves, measured in the laboratory at ultrasonic frequencies during a series of freezing and thawing cycles, are used as a method for predicting frost damage in a bedded limestone. Pulse transmission and spectral ratio techniques are used to determine the P-wave velocities and the attenuation values relative to an aluminum reference samples with very low attenuation. Limestone samples were water saturated under vacuum conditions, jacketed with rubber sleeves, and immersed in an antifreeze bath (50 percent methanol solution). They were submitted to repeated 24-hour freezing and thawing cycles simulating natural environment conditions. During the freeze/thaw cycles, P-wave velocities and quality factor Q diminished rapidly in thawed rock samples, indicating modification of the pore space. Measurements of crack porosity were conducted by hydrostatic compression tests on cubic rock samples that had been submitted to these freeze/thaw cycles. These measurements are used as an index of crack formation. The hydrostatic compression tests confirmed the phases of rock damage that were shown by changes in the value of Q. Furthermore, comparison between Q values and crack porosity demonstrate that the variations of P-wave attenuation are caused by the creation of new cracks and not by the enlargement of pre-existing cracks.

  20. P-wave holographic superconductor/insulator phase transitions affected by dark matter sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatko, Marek; Wysokinski, Karol I.

    2016-03-01

    The holographic approach to building the p-wave superconductors results in three different models: the Maxwell-vector, the SU(2) Yang-Mills and the helical. In the probe limit approximation, we analytically examine the properties of the first two models in the theory with dark matter sector. It turns out that the effect of dark matter on the Maxwell-vector p-wave model is the same as on the s-wave superconductor studied earlier. For the non-Abelian model we study the phase transitions between p-wave holographic insulator/superconductor and metal/superconductor. Studies of marginally stable modes in the theory under consideration allow us to determine features of p-wave holographic droplet in a constant magnetic field. The dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on the coupling constant α to the dark matter sector is affected by the dark matter density ρD . For ρ D > ρ the transition temperature is a decreasing function of α. The critical chemical potential μ c for the quantum phase transition between insulator and metal depends on the chemical potential of dark matter μ D and for μ D = 0 is a decreasing function of α.

  1. Inversion of P-wave traveltimes from a VSP experiment in a homogeneous anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, Bohuslav; Psencik, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Determination of seismic anisotropy of rock environment plays an important role both in structural and exploration seismology. Knowledge of the orientation and strength of anisotropy has important geological implications as, e.g., estimation of the orientation of structural elements (layering, dikes, fissures) or of the orientation of the tectonic stress. The goal of this contribution is to test, first in a homogeneous model, the P-wave traveltime inversion based on weak-anisotropy approximation. In this approximation, traveltimes depend, approximately, on 15 P-wave weak-anisotropy (WA) parameters representing an alternative to the standard parameterization by a stiffness tensor. A typical VSP (vertical seismic profiling) configuration is considered, which guarantees relatively high angular illumination of a medium. As observed data, exact P-wave traveltimes generated in homogeneous orthorhombic media of arbitrary orientation, noise free or with added Gaussian noise are used. Results of the inversion are estimates of 15 P-wave WA parameters with corresponding resolution and covariance matrices. Properties of resolution matrices indicate quality of the measurement configuration. Properties of covariance matrices allow us to estimate the accuracy, with which individual WA parameters are determined. Results of a number of synthetic tests for varying source-receiver configurations, two velocity approximations, varying noise types/levels, etc. are presented.

  2. Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Koper, Keith D.; Sufri, Oner; Zhu, Lupei; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2009-04-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 was the most destructive Chinese earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan event. Tens of thousands of people were killed, hundreds of thousands were injured, and millions were left homeless. Here we infer the detailed rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P energy from several arrays of seismometers. This technique has only recently become feasible and is potentially faster than traditional finite-fault inversion of teleseismic body waves; therefore, it may reduce the notification time to emergency response agencies. Using the IRIS DMC, we collected 255 vertical component broadband P waves at 30-95° from the epicenter. We found that at periods of 5 s and greater, nearly all of these P waves were coherent enough to be used in a global array. We applied a simple down-sampling heuristic to define a global subarray of 70 stations that reduced the asymmetry and sidelobes of the array response function (ARF). We also considered three regional subarrays of seismometers in Alaska, Australia, and Europe that had apertures less than 30° and P waves that were coherent to periods as short as 1 s. Individual ARFs for these subarrays were skewed toward the subarrays; however, the linear sum of the regional subarray beams at 1 s produced a symmetric ARF, similar to that of the groomed global subarray at 5 s. For both configurations we obtained the same rupture direction, rupture length, and rupture time. We found that the Wenchuan earthquake had three distinct pulses of high beam power at 0, 23, and 57 s after the origin time, with the pulse at 23 s being highest, and that it ruptured unilaterally to the northeast for about 300 km and 110 s, with an average speed of 2.8 km/s. It is possible that similar results can be determined for future large dip-slip earthquakes within 20-30 min of the origin time using relatively sparse global networks of seismometers such as those the USGS uses to locate

  3. Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Koper, K.D.; Sufri, O.; Zhu, L.; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2009-01-01

    [1] The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 was the most destructive Chinese earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan event. Tens of thousands of people were killed, hundreds of thousands were injured, and millions were left homeless. Here we infer the detailed rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P energy from several arrays of seismometers. This technique has only recently become feasible and is potentially faster than traditional finite-fault inversion of teleseismic body waves; therefore, it may reduce the notification time to emergency response agencies. Using the IRIS DMC, we collected 255 vertical component broadband P waves at 30-95?? from the epicenter. We found that at periods of 5 s and greater, nearly all of these P waves were coherent enough to be used in a global array. We applied a simple down-sampling heuristic to define a global subarray of 70 stations that reduced the asymmetry and sidelobes of the array response function (ARF). We also considered three regional subarrays of seismometers in Alaska, Australia, and Europe that had apertures less than 30?? and P waves that were coherent to periods as short as 1 s. Individual ARFs for these subarrays were skewed toward the subarrays; however, the linear sum of the regional subarray beams at 1 s produced a symmetric ARF, similar to that of the groomed global subarray at 5 s. For both configurations we obtained the same rupture direction, rupture length, and rupture time. We found that the Wenchuan earthquake had three distinct pulses of high beam power at 0, 23, and 57 s after the origin time, with the pulse at 23 s being highest, and that it ruptured unilaterally to the northeast for about 300 km and 110 s, with an average speed of 2.8 km/s. It is possible that similar results can be determined for future large dip-slip earthquakes within 20-30 min of the origin time using relatively sparse global networks of seismometers such as those the USGS uses to locate

  4. Impact of hemodialysis on P-wave amplitude, duration, and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Drighil, Abdenasser; Madias, John E; El Mosalami, Hanane; El Badaoui, Nadia; Mouine, Bahija; Fadili, Wafae; Ramdani, Beenyouness; Bennis, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). P wave duration (PWdu) and P wave dispersion (PWdi) have been shown to be predictors of emerging AF in different clinical conditions. We sought to study the impact of HD on PWdu, PWdi, and P wave amplitude in a cohort of patients undergoing HD. Seventeen patients (8 men, 31+/-10 years) were studied. Echocardiography parameters, the sum of the amplitude of P waves in all 12 ECG leads (SP), mean PWdu, and PWdi, along with a host of other parameters (body weight, heart rate, electrolytes and hemoglobin/hematochrit) were measured 1/2h, before and after, HD. SP increased (11.8+/-3.9 vs 15.3+/-4.0 mm, p = 0.004), mean PWdu remained stable (82.7+/-11.1 vs 81.6+/-10.5 ms, p = 0.606), PWdi decreased (51.7+/-19.1 vs 41.7+/-19.1 ms, p = 0.03), and left atrial dimension decreased (37.96+/-3.90 vs 30.62+/-3.38 mm, p = 0.0001), after HD. The change in PWdi correlated with fluid removed by HD (r = -0.55, p = 0.022). Re-measurements of P-wave parameters in a random group of 11 of the 17 patients revealed augmented SP (p = 0.01), and stable mean PWdu (p = 0.36), and PWdi (p = 0.31), after HD. Fluid removed by HD leads to an increase in SP, a stable mean PWdu, and decrease (or stability on re-measurement in a subgroup of patients) in PWdi. Stability of PWdu may be due to the effects of augmentation of the P-wave amplitude and the reduction of the left atrial volume, cancelling each other. Variability of PWdi may stem from the occasional impossibility to measure PWdu (or measure it correctly) in minute P-waves in certain ECG leads, which in turn profoundly affects the PWdi. PMID:17538700

  5. Effect of a low-velocity sedimentary cover on the 3-D velocity models derived from inversion of local arrival times. An example from the New Madrid seismic zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, J. M.; Chiu, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    When applying seismic tomography to local arrival times from an area with a low-velocity sedimentary cover, the effect of the sediments on travel times should be taken into account. If that is not done, the resulting velocity model(s) cannot be assumed to be correct. This fairly obvious statement has been challenged recently by Powell et al. (JGR, 2010), who claimed that the sediments that cover the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ, central United States) can be ignored. This claim is examined here and shown to be incorrect. The NMSZ is covered by low-velocity, poorly consolidated sediments (Vp=1.8 km/s, Vs=3), which are underlain by Paleozoic rocks of much higher velocity. In the central NMSZ the sediment thickness varies between about 0.1 and 0.7 km. The JHD analysis of the data collected in that area by a portable network (PANDA) showed that the P- and S-wave station corrections spanned large ranges (0.35 and 0.63 s, respectively, Pujol et al., Eng. Geol., 1997). This study also showed that a Vp/Vs of 3 for the sediments would be too high if the lateral velocity variations were confined to the sedimentary cover. Here we generate synthetic traveltimes for a model with a sedimentary cover having variable depth (as determined from boreholes) underlain by the high-velocity layers in the 1-D model used for the JHD analysis. The synthetic data were generated for the station and event distributions corresponding to the Panda data. The tomographic inversion of the synthetic times produces spurious anomalies in Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs, from the surface to a depth of 10 km. In addition, the events are mislocated in depth, with errors between 0 and 1 km for most of them. These results should dispel the notion that the effect of the unconsolidated sediments can be ignored. On the other hand, the inversion of the actual Panda data results in velocity anomalies similar to the synthetic anomalies, although larger, which is consistent with the conclusions of Pujol et al. (1997

  6. P-wave Local Earthquake Tomography in the Central Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafanejad, A.; Hosein Shomali, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The Alborz Mountain ranges in the southern margin of the Caspian Sea, as a part of the Alpine- Himalayan orogenic belt is an arc of parallel synclines and anticlines. Among the major tectonic and geological features of the Alborz Mountains are the Damavand quaternary volcano, and active and seismic faults like the Mosha, and North Tehran faults. In this study, the first 3D P-wave velocity model of the upper crust in the Central Alborz Mountains is obtained using a local travel-time earthquake tomography method. A data set of 895 earthquakes recorded on a local 19 station short-period network between 1996 and 2006 provided by the Iranian Seismological Centre (ISC) is used in this inversion. The result of tomography shows considerable velocity anomalies in this region. These anomalies show remarkable features in the vicinity of the Mosha and North Tehran faults, as well as in the Damavand volcanic area. In depth of 15 kilometer a low velocity region is observed parallel to the above two mentioned faults. This can be caused by the crushed rocks along these two faults. In the place of splitting North Tehran fault from the Mosha fault, a very noticeable low velocity anomaly represents intense fracturing in rocks. In the Damavand volcanic area and in the northern side of the summit an anomalous high velocity body found to the depth of 20 kilometer. According to its considerable correlation with the position of the old Damavand cone, it is related to the older and crystallized magma chamber of the Damavand volcano. A low velocity anomaly exactly beneath the present cone to the depth of seven kilometer, with another low velocity anomaly in depth of 10 to 20 kilometer constitutes the present magma chamber of the Damavand volcano.

  7. Flame Arrival Measurement By Instrumented Spark Plug or Head Gasket

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-04-10

    PLUGBIN was developed to support Sandia technologies involving instrumented head gaskets and spark plugs for engine research and development. It acquires and processes measurements of flame arrival and pressure from a spark ignition. Flame arrival is determined from analog ionization-probe or visible-emission signals, and/or digitial signals from a dedicated flame arrival measurement processor. The pressure measurements are analyzed to determine the time of peak pressure and the time to burn 10 and 90 percent ofmore » the charge. Histograms are then calculated and displayed for each measurement.« less

  8. Type 2 Diabetes Induces Prolonged P-wave Duration without Left Atrial Enlargement.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Pan, Yilong; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged P-wave duration has been observed in diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible mechanisms. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was used. P-wave durations were obtained using surface electrocardiography and sizes of the left atrium were determined using echocardiography. Cardiac inward rectifier K(+) currents (Ik1), Na(+) currents (INa), and action potentials were recorded from isolated left atrial myocytes using patch clamp techniques. Left atrial tissue specimens were analyzed for total connexin-40 (Cx40) and connexin-43 (Cx43) expression levels on western-blots. Specimens were also analyzed for Cx40 and Cx43 distribution and interstitial fibrosis by immunofluorescent and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. The mean P-wave duration was longer in T2DM rats than in controls; however, the mean left atrial sizes of each group of rats were similar. The densities of Ik1 and INa were unchanged in T2DM rats compared to controls. The action potential duration was longer in T2DM rats, but there was no significant difference in resting membrane potential or action potential amplitude compared to controls. The expression level of Cx40 protein was significantly lower, but Cx43 was unaltered in T2DM rats. However, immunofluorescent labeling of Cx43 showed a significantly enhanced lateralization. Staining showed interstitial fibrosis was greater in T2DM atrial tissue. Prolonged P-wave duration is not dependent on the left atrial size in rats with T2DM. Dysregulation of Cx40 and Cx43 protein expression, as well as fibrosis, might partly account for the prolongation of P-wave duration in T2DM. PMID:27051235

  9. Type 2 Diabetes Induces Prolonged P-wave Duration without Left Atrial Enlargement

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged P-wave duration has been observed in diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible mechanisms. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was used. P-wave durations were obtained using surface electrocardiography and sizes of the left atrium were determined using echocardiography. Cardiac inward rectifier K+ currents (Ik1), Na+ currents (INa), and action potentials were recorded from isolated left atrial myocytes using patch clamp techniques. Left atrial tissue specimens were analyzed for total connexin-40 (Cx40) and connexin-43 (Cx43) expression levels on western-blots. Specimens were also analyzed for Cx40 and Cx43 distribution and interstitial fibrosis by immunofluorescent and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. The mean P-wave duration was longer in T2DM rats than in controls; however, the mean left atrial sizes of each group of rats were similar. The densities of Ik1 and INa were unchanged in T2DM rats compared to controls. The action potential duration was longer in T2DM rats, but there was no significant difference in resting membrane potential or action potential amplitude compared to controls. The expression level of Cx40 protein was significantly lower, but Cx43 was unaltered in T2DM rats. However, immunofluorescent labeling of Cx43 showed a significantly enhanced lateralization. Staining showed interstitial fibrosis was greater in T2DM atrial tissue. Prolonged P-wave duration is not dependent on the left atrial size in rats with T2DM. Dysregulation of Cx40 and Cx43 protein expression, as well as fibrosis, might partly account for the prolongation of P-wave duration in T2DM. PMID:27051235

  10. Anisotropic changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during deformation and fluid infiltration of granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanchits, S.A.; Lockner, D.A.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid infiltration and pore fluid pressure changes are known to have a significant effect on the occurrence of earthquakes. Yet, for most damaging earthquakes, with nucleation zones below a few kilometers depth, direct measurements of fluid pressure variations are not available. Instead, pore fluid pressures are inferred primarily from seismic-wave propagation characteristics such as Vp/Vs ratio, attenuation, and reflectivity contacts. We present laboratory measurements of changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during the injection of water into a granite sample as it was loaded to failure. A cylindrical sample of Westerly granite was deformed at constant confining and pore pressures of 50 and 1 MPa, respectively. Axial load was increased in discrete steps by controlling axial displacement. Anisotropic P-wave velocity and attenuation fields were determined during the experiment using an array of 13 piezoelectric transducers. At the final loading steps (86% and 95% of peak stress), both spatial and temporal changes in P-wave velocity and peak-to-peak amplitudes of P and S waves were observed. P-wave velocity anisotropy reached a maximum of 26%. Transient increases in attenuation of up to 483 dB/m were also observed and were associated with diffusion of water into the sample. We show that velocity and attenuation of P waves are sensitive to the process of opening of microcracks and the subsequent resaturation of these cracks as water diffuses in from the surrounding region. Symmetry of the orientation of newly formed microcracks results in anisotropic velocity and attenuation fields that systematically evolve in response to changes in stress and influx of water. With proper scaling, these measurements provide constraints on the magnitude and duration of velocity and attenuation transients that can be expected to accompany the nucleation of earthquakes in the Earth's crust.

  11. NASA's SOFIA Arrives in Christchurch, New Zealand, July 14, 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy airborne observatory arrived at Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, July 14 at 12:14 p.m. (New Zealand Standard Time) to investi...

  12. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone and simulated time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Peter F.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) is located about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. The landfill is built on the Hueco Bolson, a deposit that yields water to five public-supply wells within 1.1 miles of the landfill boundary on all sides. The bolson deposits consist of lenses and mixtures of sand, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. The unsaturated zone at the landfill is about 300 feet thick. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and the Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model for Evaluating the Land Disposal of Wastes (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the time of first arrival of landfill leachate at the water table. Site-specific data were collected for model input. At five sites on the landfill cover, hydraulic conductivity was measured by an in situ method; in addition, laboratory values were obtained for porosity, moisture content at field capacity, and moisture content at wilting point. Twenty-seven sediment samples were collected from two adjacent boreholes drilled near the southwest corner of the landfill. Of these, 23 samples were assumed to represent the unsaturated zone beneath the landfill. The core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for various characteristics required for the HELP and MULTIMED models: initial moisture content, dry bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention percentages at various suction values, total organic carbon, and pH. Parameters were calculated for the van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey equations that relate hydraulic conductivity to saturation. A reported recharge value of 0.008 inch per year was estimated on the basis of soil- water chloride concentration. The HELP model was implemented using input values that were based mostly on site-specific data or assumed in a conservative manner. Exceptions were the default values used for waste characteristics. Flow through the landfill was

  13. Queues with Dropping Functions and General Arrival Processes.

    PubMed

    Chydzinski, Andrzej; Mrozowski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    In a queueing system with the dropping function the arriving customer can be denied service (dropped) with the probability that is a function of the queue length at the time of arrival of this customer. The potential applicability of such mechanism is very wide due to the fact that by choosing the shape of this function one can easily manipulate several performance characteristics of the queueing system. In this paper we carry out analysis of the queueing system with the dropping function and a very general model of arrival process--the model which includes batch arrivals and the interarrival time autocorrelation, and allows for fitting the actual shape of the interarrival time distribution and its moments. For such a system we obtain formulas for the distribution of the queue length and the overall customer loss ratio. The analytical results are accompanied with numerical examples computed for several dropping functions. PMID:26943171

  14. Queues with Dropping Functions and General Arrival Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chydzinski, Andrzej; Mrozowski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    In a queueing system with the dropping function the arriving customer can be denied service (dropped) with the probability that is a function of the queue length at the time of arrival of this customer. The potential applicability of such mechanism is very wide due to the fact that by choosing the shape of this function one can easily manipulate several performance characteristics of the queueing system. In this paper we carry out analysis of the queueing system with the dropping function and a very general model of arrival process—the model which includes batch arrivals and the interarrival time autocorrelation, and allows for fitting the actual shape of the interarrival time distribution and its moments. For such a system we obtain formulas for the distribution of the queue length and the overall customer loss ratio. The analytical results are accompanied with numerical examples computed for several dropping functions. PMID:26943171

  15. Scheduling and Separating Departures Crossing Arrival Flows in Shared Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalley, Eric; Parke, Bonny K.; Lee, Paul; Omar, Faisal; Lee, Hwasoo; Beinert, Nancy; Kraut, Joshua M.; Palmer, Everett

    2013-01-01

    Flight efficiency and reduction of flight delays are among the primary goals of NextGen. In this paper, we propose a concept of shared airspace where departures fly across arrival flows, provided gaps are available in these flows. We have explored solutions to separate departures temporally from arrival traffic and pre-arranged procedures to support controllers' decisions. We conducted a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and assessed the efficiency and safety of 96 departures from the San Jose airport (SJC) climbing across the arrival airspace of the Oakland and San Francisco arrival flows. In our simulation, the SJC tower had a tool to schedule departures to fly across predicted gaps in the arrival flow. When departures were mistimed and separation could not be ensured, a safe but less efficient route was provided to the departures to fly under the arrival flows. A coordination using a point-out procedure allowed the arrival controller to control the SJC departures right after takeoff. We manipulated the accuracy of departure time (accurate vs. inaccurate) as well as which sector took control of the departures after takeoff (departure vs. arrival sector) in a 2x2 full factorial plan. Results show that coordination time decreased and climb efficiency increased when the arrival sector controlled the aircraft right after takeoff. Also, climb efficiency increased when the departure times were more accurate. Coordination was shown to be a critical component of tactical operations in shared airspace. Although workload, coordination, and safety were judged by controllers as acceptable in the simulation, it appears that in the field, controllers would need improved tools and coordination procedures to support this procedure.

  16. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by {ital Pioneer} {ital V}{ital enus} {ital Orbiter}, {ital Compton} {ital Gamma}-{ital Ray} {ital Observatory}, and {ital Ulysses}

    SciTech Connect

    Laros, J.G.; Hurley, K.C.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Briggs, M.S.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M.L.

    1998-10-01

    Between the {ital Compton} {ital Gamma} {ital Ray} {ital Observatory} ({ital CGRO}) launch in 1991 April and the {ital Pioneer} {ital V}{ital enus} {ital Orbiter} ({ital PVO}) demise in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by {ital CGRO}, {ital PVO}, and {ital Ulysses} was obtained for several hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the {ital PVO} and {ital Ulysses} thresholds, 37 were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to {approximately}2{degree} accuracy by the {ital CGRO} Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and three were also localized by COMPTEL. We computed arrival-time error boxes, whose larger dimensions range from about 2{prime} to several degrees and whose smaller dimensions are in the arcminute range. Twelve have areas less than 10 arcmin{sup 2}, and only four have areas greater than 1 deg{sup 2}. The area of the smallest box is 0.44 arcmin{sup 2}. We find that the overall BATSE localization accuracy for these events is consistent with the most recent stated uncertainties. This work indicates that the {ital ROSAT} soft X-ray source found within a preliminary IPN error box for GB920501 (Trig 1576) (Hurley et al.) is less likely to be the GRB counterpart than previously reported. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  17. Collaborative Arrival Planning: Data Sharing and User Preference Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard E.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Air traffic growth and air carrier economic pressures have motivated efforts to increase the flexibility of the air traffic management process and change the relationship between the air traffic control service provider and the system user. One of the most visible of these efforts is the U.S. government/industry "free flight" initiative, in which the service provider concentrates on safety and cross-airline fairness, and the user on their business objectives and operating preferences, including selecting their own path and speed in real-time. In the terminal arrival phase of flight, severe restrictions and rigid control are currently placed on system users, typically without regard for individual user operational preferences. Airborne delays applied to arriving aircraft into capacity constrained airports are imposed on a first-come, first-serve basis, and thus do not allow the system user to plan for or prioritize late arrivals, or to economically optimize their arrival sequence. A central tenant of the free-flight operating paradigm is collaboration between service providers and users in reaching air traffic management decisions. Such collaboration would be particularly beneficial to an airline's "hub" operation, where off-schedule arrival aircraft are a consistent problem, as they cause serious air-port ramp difficulties, rippling airline scheduling effects, and result in large economic inefficiencies. Greater collaboration can also lead to increased airport capacity and decrease the severity of over-capacity rush periods. In the NASA Collaborative Arrival Planning (CAP) project, both independent exchange of real-time data between the service provider and system user and collaborative decision support tools are addressed. Data exchange of real-time arrival scheduling, airspace management, and air carrier fleet data between the FAA service provider and an air carrier is being conducted and evaluated. Collaborative arrival decision support tools to allow intra

  18. Coupled ππ, KK¯ scattering in P-wave and the ρ resonance from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wilson, David J.; Briceño, Raúl A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.; Thomas, Christopher E.

    2015-11-02

    In this study, we determine elastic and coupled-channel amplitudes for isospin-1 meson-meson scattering inmore » $P$-wave, by calculating correlation functions using lattice QCD with light quark masses such that $$m_\\pi = 236$$ MeV in a cubic volume of $$\\sim (4 \\,\\mathrm{fm})^3$$. Variational analyses of large matrices of correlation functions computed using operator constructions resembling $$\\pi\\pi$$, $$K\\overline{K}$$ and $$q\\bar{q}$$, in several moving frames and several lattice irreducible representations, leads to discrete energy spectra from which scattering amplitudes are extracted. In the elastic $$\\pi\\pi$$ scattering region we obtain a detailed energy-dependence for the phase-shift, corresponding to a $$\\rho$$ resonance, and we extend the analysis into the coupled-channel $$K\\overline{K}$$ region for the first time, finding a small coupling between the channels.« less

  19. The rupture process and asperity distribution of three great earthquakes from long-period diffracted P-waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Kanamori, H.

    1983-01-01

    The variation of maximum earthquake size along the subduction zones has been interpreted as a variation in the seismic coupling ostensibly related to the mechanical conditions of the fault zone. Great differences are noted between the seismographs of the three great earthquakes whose rupture processes are presently considered: in the Kurile Islands (1963), The Rat Islands (1965) and Alaska (1964). On-scale long period P waves were recorded in all cases. Source time functions are deconvolved from the observed periods. It is concluded that maximum earthquake size is related to the asperity distribution on the fault. The subduction zones with the largest earthquakes have very large asperities, as in the Alaskan case, while the zones with the smaller great earthquakes, such as the Kurile Islands, have smaller scattered asperities.

  20. Problem-dependent 3-d Inversion of P-wave Arrivals From Local Events Recorded During The Svekalapko Deep Seismic Experiment In Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, E.; Hjelt, S.-E.; Yliniemi, J.; Korhonen, J.; Elo, S.; Svekalapko Seismic Tomography Working Group

    The SVEKALAPKO temporary seismic array was originally designed for studying the lithospheric structure beneath the southern Finland by means of teleseismic events. In addition, the high quality recordings of local seismic events (earthquakes and quarry blasts) registered by the SVEKALAPKO array contain a lot of information about the structure of the upper lithosphere beneath the southern Finland. However, the traditional local event tomography of SVEKALAPKO data cannot result in the ve- locity model valid for proper geological interpretation. The main reasons for this is the lack of the space resolution, which results in strong non-uniqueness of the to- mographic inversion. This problem can be treated by introducing various kinds of a-priori information into the inversion algorithm. The a-priori information available for the SVEKALAPKO study area includes not only the information from previous control source seismic experiments, but also potential fields data and petrophysical data. Usage of such a non-homogeneous a-priori information required a problem- dependent algorithm of seismic data inversion, which was developed on the base of non-probabilistic uncertainty measures. An example of this algorithm application to SVEKALAPKO local seismic event data is presented.

  1. The influence of rock anisotropy on elliptical-polarization state of inhomogenously refracted P-wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, Lin; Zhao, Jie; Han, YongLan; Li, GuoHui; Ding, PengFei; Zhao, MeiShan

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the anisotropy parameters on elliptical-polarization of the inhomogenously refracted P-wave induced at VTI-media interface. For this refracted P-wave, we have derived, the equations of the elliptical-polarization trajectory. Following the elliptical-polarization trajectory, we calculated the effects of the rock anisotropic-parameters on the polarization state, with a Poincaré-sphere-like representation, for several varying media parameters. It is noted that the size, shape and initial phase angle of the elliptical-polarization trajectory are all depending the anisotropy media, as well as on the incident-angle. We expect that the findings from this paper would be applied to practical applications of seismic exploration.

  2. Properties of skyrmions and multi-quanta vortices in chiral p-wave superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Garaud, Julien; Babaev, Egor

    2015-01-01

    Chiral p-wave superconducting state supports a rich spectrum of topological excitations different from those in conventional superconducting states. Besides domain walls separating different chiral states, chiral p-wave state supports both singular and coreless vortices also interpreted as skyrmions. Here, we present a numerical study of the energetic properties of isolated singular and coreless vortex states as functions of anisotropy and magnetic field penetration length. In a given chiral state, single quantum vortices with opposite winding have different energies and thus only one kind is energetically favoured. We find that with the appropriate sign of the phase winding, two-quanta (coreless) vortices are always energetically preferred over two isolated single quanta (singular) vortices. We also report solutions carrying more flux quanta. However those are typically more energetically expensive/metastable as compared to those carrying two flux quanta. PMID:26631985

  3. Determination of basic physical and mechanical properties of basaltic rocks from P-wave velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakuş, Askeri; Akatay, Mahmut

    2013-12-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of basaltic rocks used as main building material in historical buildings in Diyarbakir show great diversity depending on the place of origin. Especially, earthquake studies as well as restoration jobs and civil engineers and architects who work on building dynamics need to know basic material properties of basaltic rocks that are the main building material. In this study, the basalt samples obtained from 18 different locations of the Diyarbakir area were tested in order to estimate the main material properties of basalts used in historical buildings without collecting samples from them. Subsequently, statistical relationships between the nondestructive P-wave velocity and other properties of basalts were investigated. Consequently, highly correlated models (R2 = 0.717-0.890) were obtained between P-wave velocity and density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio.

  4. Attenuation of P-Waves by Wave-Induced Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Pride, S R; Berryman, J G

    2002-03-29

    Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in rocks are given and numerically-compared. The mechanisms are: (1) Biot loss, in which flow occurs at the scale of the wavelength between the peaks and troughs of a P wave; (2) squirt loss, in which flow occurs at the grain scale between microcracks the grains and the adjacent pores; and (3) mesoscopic loss, in which flow occurs at intermediate scales between the various lithological bodies that are present in an averaging volume of earth material. Each mechanism is of importance over different frequency bands. Typically, Biot loss is only important at the highest of ultrasonic frequencies (> 1 MHz), squirt-loss (when it occurs) is important in the range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz, while mesoscale loss dominates at the lower frequencies (<10 kHz) employed in seismology.

  5. Hyperfine structure of the S- and P-wave states of muonic deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, A. P.; Martynenko, G. A.; Sorokin, V. V.; Faustov, R. N.

    2016-03-01

    Corrections of order α5 and α6 to the hyperfine structure of the S- and P-wave states of muonic deuteriumwere calculated on the basis of the quasipotential approach in quantum electrodynamics. Relativistic corrections, vacuum-polarization and deuteron-structure effects, and recoil corrections were taken into account in this calculation. The resulting hyperfine-splitting values can be used in a comparison with experimental data obtained by the CREMA Collaboration.

  6. Variation of P-Wave Velocity before the Bear Valley, California, Earthquake of 24 February 1972.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R; Wesson, R L; Ellsworth, W L

    1974-06-21

    Residuals for P-wave traveltimes at a seismnograph station near Bear Valley, California, for small, precisely located local earthquakes at distances of 20 to 70 kilometers show a sharp increase of nearly 0.3 second about 2 months before a magnitude 5.0 earthquake that occurred within a few kilometers of the station. This indicates that velocity changes observed elsewhere premonitory to earthquakes, possibly related to dilatancy, occur along the central section of the San Andreas fault system. PMID:17784227

  7. Input-output characterization of fiber reinforced composites by P waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renneisen, John D.; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Input-output characterization of fiber composites is studied theoretically by tracing P waves in the media. A new path motion to aid in the tracing of P and the reflection generated SV wave paths in the continuum plate is developed. A theoretical output voltage from the receiving transducer is calculated for a tone burst. The study enhances the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the nondestructive evaluation of fiber composites which can be modeled as transversely isotropic media.

  8. Minimizing makespan on parallel machines with batch arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tsui-Ping; Liao, Ching-Jong; Lin, Chien-Hung

    2012-04-01

    Most studies in the scheduling literature assume that jobs arrive at time zero, while some studies assume that jobs arrive individually at non-zero times. However, both assumptions may not be valid in practice because jobs usually arrive in batches. In this article, a scheduling model for an identical parallel machine problem with batch arrivals is formulated. Because of the NP-hardness of the problem, a heuristic based on a simplified version of lexicographical search is proposed. To verify the heuristic, two lower bounding schemes are developed, where one lower bound is tight, and the list scheduling heuristic is compared. Extensive computational experiments demonstrate that the proposed heuristic is quite efficient in obtaining near optimal solution with an average error of less than 1.58%. The percentage improvement (from the lower bound) of the heuristic solution on the solution by the list scheduling is as large as 31.68.

  9. p -wave annihilating dark matter from a decaying predecessor and the Galactic Center excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Jeremie; Cline, James M.; Cornell, Jonathan M.

    2016-07-01

    Dark matter (DM) annihilations have been widely studied as a possible explanation of excess gamma rays from the Galactic Center seen by Fermi/LAT. However most such models are in conflict with constraints from dwarf spheroidals. Motivated by this tension, we show that p -wave annihilating dark matter can easily accommodate both sets of observations due to the lower DM velocity dispersion in dwarf galaxies. Explaining the DM relic abundance is then challenging. We outline a scenario in which the usual thermal abundance is obtained through s -wave annihilations of a metastable particle, that eventually decays into the p -wave annihilating DM of the present epoch. The couplings and lifetime of the decaying particle are constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and direct detection, but significant regions of parameter space are viable. A sufficiently large p -wave cross section can be found by annihilation into light mediators, that also give rise to Sommerfeld enhancement. A prediction of the scenario is enhanced annihilations in galaxy clusters.

  10. Majorana modes and p-wave superfluids for fermionic atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, A.; Lang, N.; Kraus, C. V.; Möller, G.; Huber, S. D.; Büchler, H. P.

    2014-07-01

    The quest for realization of non-Abelian phases of matter, driven by their possible use in fault-tolerant topological quantum computing, has been spearheaded by recent developments in p-wave superconductors. The chiral px+ipy-wave superconductor in two-dimensions exhibiting Majorana modes provides the simplest phase supporting non-Abelian quasiparticles and can be seen as the blueprint of fractional topological order. Alternatively, Kitaev’s Majorana wire has emerged as an ideal toy model to understand Majorana modes. Here we present a way to make the transition from Kitaev's Majorana wires to two-dimensional p-wave superconductors in a system with cold atomic gases in an optical lattice. The main idea is based on an approach to generate p-wave interactions by coupling orbital degrees of freedom with strong s-wave interactions. We demonstrate how this design can induce Majorana modes at edge dislocations in the optical lattice, and we provide an experimentally feasible protocol for the observation of the non-Abelian statistics.

  11. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Roberts, K. O.; Tiesinga, E.; Wade, A. C. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.

    2016-07-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic 40K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for 40K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance.

  12. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Roberts, K O; Tiesinga, E; Wade, A C J; Blakie, P B; Deb, A B; Kjærgaard, N

    2016-01-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic (40)K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for (40)K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance. PMID:27396294

  13. P-wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath Hawaii from traveltime tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilmann, F.J.; Benz, H.M.; Priestley, K.F.; Okubo, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the P-wave velocity structure beneath the island of Hawaii using P-wave residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismic network. The station geometry and distribution of events makes it possible to image the velocity structure between ~ 40 and 100 km depth with a lateral resolution of ~ 15 km and a vertical resolution of ~ 30 km. For depths between 40 and 80 km, P-wave velocities are up to 5 per cent slower in a broad elongated region trending SE-NW that underlies the island between the two lines defined by the volcanic loci. No direct correlation between the magnitude of the lithospheric anomaly and the current level of volcanic activity is apparent, but the slow region is broadened at ~ 19.8??N and narrow beneath Kilauea. In the case of the occanic lithosphere beneath Hawaii, slow seismic velocities are likely to be related to magma transport from the top of the melting zone at the base of the lithosphere to the surface. Thermal modelling shows that the broad elongated low-velocity zone cannot be explained in terms of conductive heating by one primary conduit per volcano but that more complicated melt pathways must exist.

  14. Spectral modulation effect in teleseismic P-waves from DPRK nuclear tests recorded at different azimuths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Yefim; Kim, So Gu; Hofstetter, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Two underground nuclear explosions conducted by North Korea in 2009 and 2013 were recorded by the Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced coherent minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the spectra of teleseismic P-waves. For a ground-truth explosion with a shallow source depth (relatively to an earthquake), this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of the interference between the down-going P-wave and the pP phase reflected from the Earth's surface. A similar effect was observed at ISN stations for the Pakistan nuclear explosion at a different frequency 1.7 Hz indicating a source and not site-effect. Similar spectral minima with about the same frequency were observed in teleseismic P-waves of all three North Korea explosions (including the 2006 test) recorded at network stations and arrays in Kazakhstan (KURK), Norway (NORESS, ARCESS), Australia (Alice Springs, Warramunga) and Canada (Yellowknife), covering a broad azimuthal range. Data of the 2013 test at Warramunga array showed harmonic spectral modulation with several minima, evidencing a clear interference effect. These observations support the above-mentioned interpretation. Based on the null frequency dependency on the near-surface acoustic velocity and the source depth, the depth of the North Korea tests was estimated as ~2 km (different from the value ~1 km reported by USGS for the third test). This unusual depth estimation needs an additional validation based on more stations and verification by other methods.

  15. Multifrequency measurements of core-diffracted P waves (Pdiff) for global waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Kasra; Sigloch, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The lower third of the mantle is sampled extensively by body waves that diffract around the earth's core (Pdiff and Sdiff phases), which could deliver highly resolved tomographic images of this poorly understood region. But core-diffracted waves-especially Pdiff waves-are not often used in tomography because they are difficult to model adequately. Our aim is to make core-diffracted body waves usable for global waveform tomography, across their entire frequency range. Here we present the data processing part of this effort. A method is demonstrated that routinely calculates finite-frequency traveltimes of Pdiff waves by cross-correlating large quantities of waveform data with synthetic seismograms, in frequency passbands ranging from 30.0 to 2.7 s dominant period. Green's functions for 1857 earthquakes, typically comprising thousands of seismograms, are calculated by theoretically exact wave propagation through a spherically symmetric earth model, up to 1 Hz dominant period. Out of 418 226 candidates, 165 651 (39.6 per cent) source-receiver pairs yielded at least one successful passband measurement of a Pdiff traveltime anomaly, for a total of 479 559 traveltimes in the eight passbands considered. Measurements of teleseismic P waves yielded 448 178 usable source-receiver paths from 613 057 candidates (73.1 per cent success rate), for a total of 2 306 755 usable teleseismic dT in eight passbands. Observed and predicted characteristics of Pdiff traveltimes are discussed and compared to teleseismic P for this very large data set. Pdiff measurements are noise-limited due to severe wave attenuation with epicentral distance and frequency. Measurement success drops from 40-60 per cent at 80° distance, to 5-10 per cent at 140°. Frequency has a 2-3 times stronger influence on measurement success for Pdiff than for P. The fewest usable dT measurements are obtained in the microseismic noise band, whereas the fewest usable teleseismic P measurements occur at the highest

  16. Finite-difference modelling to evaluate seismic P-wave and shear-wave field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burschil, T.; Beilecke, T.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution reflection seismic methods are an established non-destructive tool for engineering tasks. In the near surface, shear-wave reflection seismic measurements usually offer a higher spatial resolution in the same effective signal frequency spectrum than P-wave data, but data quality varies more strongly. To discuss the causes of these differences, we investigated a P-wave and a SH-wave seismic reflection profile measured at the same location on the island of Föhr, Germany and applied seismic reflection processing to the field data as well as finite-difference modelling of the seismic wave field. The simulations calculated were adapted to the acquisition field geometry, comprising 2 m receiver distance (1 m for SH wave) and 4 m shot distance along the 1.5 km long P-wave and 800 m long SH-wave profiles. A Ricker wavelet and the use of absorbing frames were first-order model parameters. The petrophysical parameters to populate the structural models down to 400 m depth were taken from borehole data, VSP (vertical seismic profile) measurements and cross-plot relations. The simulation of the P-wave wave-field was based on interpretation of the P-wave depth section that included a priori information from boreholes and airborne electromagnetics. Velocities for 14 layers in the model were derived from the analysis of five nearby VSPs (vP =1600-2300 m s-1). Synthetic shot data were compared with the field data and seismic sections were created. Major features like direct wave and reflections are imaged. We reproduce the mayor reflectors in the depth section of the field data, e.g. a prominent till layer and several deep reflectors. The SH-wave model was adapted accordingly but only led to minor correlation with the field data and produced a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, we suggest to consider for future simulations additional features like intrinsic damping, thin layering, or a near-surface weathering layer. These may lead to a better understanding of

  17. Finite difference modelling to evaluate seismic P wave and shear wave field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burschil, T.; Beilecke, T.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2014-08-01

    High-resolution reflection seismic methods are an established non-destructive tool for engineering tasks. In the near surface, shear wave reflection seismic measurements usually offer a higher spatial resolution in the same effective signal frequency spectrum than P wave data, but data quality varies more strongly. To discuss the causes of these differences, we investigated a P wave and a SH wave reflection seismic profile measured at the same location on Föhr island, and applied reflection seismic processing to the field data as well as finite difference modelling of the seismic wavefield (SOFI FD-code). The simulations calculated were adapted to the acquisition field geometry, comprising 2 m receiver distance and 4 m shot distance along the 1.5 km long P wave and 800 m long SH wave profiles. A Ricker-Wavelet and the use of absorbing frames were first order model parameters. The petrophysical parameters to populate the structural models down to 400 m depth are taken from borehole data, VSP measurements and cross-plot relations. The first simulation of the P wave wavefield was based on a simplified hydrogeological model of the survey location containing six lithostratigraphic units. Single shot data were compared and seismic sections created. Major features like direct wave, refracted waves and reflections are imaged, but the reflectors describing a prominent till layer at ca. 80 m depth was missing. Therefore, the P wave input model was refined and 16 units assigned. These define a laterally more variable velocity model (vP = 1600-2300 m s-1) leading to a much better reproduction of the field data. The SH wave model was adapted accordingly but only led to minor correlation with the field data and produced a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, we suggest to consider for future simulations additional features like intrinsic damping, thin layering, or a near surface weathering layer. These may lead to a better understanding of key parameters determining the

  18. Estimating Controller Intervention Probabilities for Optimized Profile Descent Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; Erzberger, Heinz; Huynh, Phu V.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of arrival traffic at Dallas/Fort-Worth and Denver airports were conducted to evaluate incorporating scheduling and separation constraints into advisories that define continuous descent approaches. The goal was to reduce the number of controller interventions required to ensure flights maintain minimum separation distances of 5 nmi horizontally and 1000 ft vertically. It was shown that simply incorporating arrival meter fix crossing-time constraints into the advisory generation could eliminate over half of the all predicted separation violations and more than 80% of the predicted violations between two arrival flights. Predicted separation violations between arrivals and non-arrivals were 32% of all predicted separation violations at Denver and 41% at Dallas/Fort-Worth. A probabilistic analysis of meter fix crossing-time errors is included which shows that some controller interventions will still be required even when the predicted crossing-times of the advisories are set to add a 1 or 2 nmi buffer above the minimum in-trail separation of 5 nmi. The 2 nmi buffer was shown to increase average flight delays by up to 30 sec when compared to the 1 nmi buffer, but it only resulted in a maximum decrease in average arrival throughput of one flight per hour.

  19. The Evolution of P-wave Velocity in Fault Gouge: Initial Results for Samples from the SAFOD Volume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, M. W.; Tobin, H. J.; Marone, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present initial results from a new technique for observing the evolution of elastic properties in sheared fault zone materials via acoustic wave velocity. The relationship between the mechanical strength of fault gouge and acoustic velocity during active deformation has important implications not only for a physical understanding of elasticity in deforming granular media, but also for the interpretation of the seismic velocity at the field scale. Experiments are conducted at atmospheric temperature and saturation state in a double-direct-shear testing apparatus, with normal stress stepped from 1 to 19 MPa to interrogate behavior during compaction, and sheared at a rate of 10 microns/second to observe changes in velocity with increasing strain. Tests are divided between those involving continuous shear to a displacement of 22.5 mm, and those with intervals of 3.75 mm shear separated by unloading and reloading sequences in normal stress. Velocity is measured by time-of-flight between two piezoelectric P-wave transducers set into the sample configuration on either side of the shearing layers. Samples tested include common laboratory standards for simulated fault gouge and field samples taken from representative localities in the 3D rock volume containing the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth experiment in Parkfield, California. The velocities of sand and clay end-member gouges are observed to behave differently under shear, and mixtures of quartz sand and montmorillonite behave differently from both end-member materials. Initial results suggest that particle sorting exerts a strong influence on both the absolute velocity and the evolution of velocity in response to increasing shear strain where the elastic properties of the grains are similar. We also observe a first-order relationship between the coefficient of friction and P-wave velocity that appears to be related to grain reorganization at the onset of shear following initial compaction.

  20. Investigation on relationship between epicentral distance and growth curve of initial P-wave propagating in local heterogeneous media for earthquake early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kyosuke; Tsuno, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    In the earthquake early warning (EEW) system, the epicenter location and magnitude of earthquakes are estimated using the amplitude growth rate of initial P-waves. It has been empirically pointed out that the growth rate becomes smaller as epicentral distance becomes far regardless of the magnitude of earthquakes. So, the epicentral distance can be estimated from the growth rate using this empirical relationship. However, the growth rates calculated from different earthquakes at the same epicentral distance mark considerably different values from each other. Sometimes the growth rates of earthquakes having the same epicentral distance vary by 104 times. Qualitatively, it has been considered that the gap in the growth rates is due to differences in the local heterogeneities that the P-waves propagate through. In this study, we demonstrate theoretically how local heterogeneities in the subsurface disturb the relationship between the growth rate and the epicentral distance. Firstly, we calculate seismic scattered waves in a heterogeneous medium. First-ordered PP, PS, SP, and SS scatterings are considered. The correlation distance of the heterogeneities and fractional fluctuation of elastic parameters control the heterogeneous conditions for the calculation. From the synthesized waves, the growth rate of the initial P-wave is obtained. As a result, we find that a parameter (in this study, correlation distance) controlling heterogeneities plays a key role in the magnitude of the fluctuation of the growth rate. Then, we calculate the regional correlation distances in Japan that can account for the fluctuation of the growth rate of real earthquakes from 1997 to 2011 observed by K-NET and KiK-net. As a result, the spatial distribution of the correlation distance shows locality. So, it is revealed that the growth rates fluctuate according to the locality. When this local fluctuation is taken into account, the accuracy of the estimation of epicentral distances from initial P-waves

  1. BCVEGPY2.0: An upgraded version of the generator BCVEGPY with the addition of hadroproduction of the P-wave B states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2006-02-01

    hadronic production of (cb¯)-quarkonium in S-wave and P-wave states via the mechanism of gluon-gluon fusion are given by the 'complete calculation' approach of the leading order QCD. The contributions from the other mechanisms for P-wave production which are small comparatively are not included. Typical running time: Generally speaking, it depends on which option is used to drive PYTHIA when generating the B events. Typically, for the hadronic production of the S-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium, if the PYTHIA parameter IDWTUP = 1, then it takes about 20 hours on a 1.8 GHz Intel P4-processor machine to generate 1000 events; however if IDWTUP = 3, to generate 10 6 events, it takes only about 40 minutes. For the hadronic production of the P-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium, the necessary time will be almost two times longer than the S-wave quarkonium production.

  2. P wave duration and risk of longitudinal atrial fibrillation in persons ≥ 60 years old (from the Framingham Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Magnani, Jared W; Johnson, Victor M; Sullivan, Lisa M; Gorodeski, Eiran Z; Schnabel, Renate B; Lubitz, Steven A; Levy, Daniel; Ellinor, Patrick T; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2011-03-15

    Long-term risk prediction is a priority for the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF). P wave indices are electrocardiographic measurements describing atrial conduction. The role of P wave indices in the prospective determination of AF and mortality risk has had limited assessment. We quantified by digital caliper the P wave indices of maximum duration and dispersion in 1,550 Framingham Heart Study participants ≥ 60 years old (58% women) from single-channel electrocardiograms recorded from 1968 through 1971. We examined the association of selected P wave indices and long-term outcomes using Cox proportional hazards regression incorporating age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension, significant murmur, heart failure, and PR interval. Over a median follow-up of 15.8 years (range 0 to 38.7), 359 participants developed AF and 1,525 died. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) per SD increase in maximum P wave duration were 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90 to 1.47, p = 0.27) for AF and 1.02 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.08, p = 0.18) for mortality. The upper 5% of P wave maximum duration had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 2.51 (95% CI 1.13 to 5.57, p = 0.024) for AF and an HR of 1.11 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.40, p = 0.20) for mortality. We found no significant associations between P wave dispersion with incidence of AF or mortality. In conclusion, maximum P wave duration at the upper fifth percentile was associated with long-term AF risk in an elderly community-based cohort. P wave duration is an electrocardiographic endophenotype for AF. PMID:21255761

  3. P wave velocity of the uppermost mantle of the Rio Grande rift region of North Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, J.N.; Jaksha, L.H.

    1981-08-10

    A network of seismograph stations has operated in north-central New Mexico since 1975. The network is approximtely 200 by 300 km in size and encompasses the Rio Grande rift there. Several seismic refraction experiments have been reported in the literature for the region of the network and adjacent areas. Because all of the seismic refraction lines are unreversed, P/sub n/ velocities reported were mainly of the inverse travel time slope for the direction of the corresponding line. The values of the inverse slope for those studies range from 7.6 to 8.2 km/s. The purpose of our study is to estimate the P wave velocity of the uppermost mantle by using the time term method. First, we timed the P/sub n/ waves of strong signals from five explosions and eight shallow earthquakes recorded by the network. The main data set, which contains 87 time-distance pairs, was processed by using the time term method. The P/sub n/ velocity estimated by this method is 8.0 +- 0.1 km/s. To corroborate this estimate, we then processed 10 subsets of the main data set in the same way. Almost allof the solutions show velocities 7.9--8.1 km/s, in agreement with the velocity determined for the main data set. The station time terms of the main data set also are substantied, and they suggest that the base of the crust dips northward by a few degrees in the region of the survey. The smallest value reported by other investigators for the inverse slope (7.6 km/s) appears to be related to the dip. The normal P wave velocity of the uppermost mantle of north-central New Mexico places restrictions on thermal models of the rift. For instance, the results exlude the likelihood of a wide zone of asthenosphere at the base of the crust beneath the rift, but they do not exclude a narrow such zone.

  4. Arrival time parametric imaging of the hemodynamic balance changes between the hepatic artery and the portal vein during deep inspiration, using Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasonography: A case of Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Noritaka; Takayama, Ryuji; Matsukiyo, Yasushi; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Kobayashi, Kojiro; Mukozu, Takanori; Nakano, Shigeru; Ikehara, Takashi; Nagai, Hidenari; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Sumino, Yasukiyo

    2013-07-01

    This case report concerns a 40-year-old male who had previously been treated for an esophageal varix rupture, at the age of 30 years. The medical examination at that time revealed occlusion of the inferior vena cava in the proximity of the liver, leading to the diagnosis of the patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome. The progress of the patient was therefore monitored in an outpatient clinic. The patient had no history of drinking or smoking, but had suffered an epileptic seizure in 2004. The patient's family history revealed nothing of note. In February 2012, color Doppler ultrasonography (US) revealed a change in the blood flow in the right portal vein branch, from hepatopetal to hepatofugal, during deep inspiration. Arrival time parametric imaging (At-PI), using Sonazoid-enhanced US, was subsequently performed to examine the deep respiration-induced changes observed in the hepatic parenchymal perfusion. US images captured during deep inspiration demonstrated hepatic parenchymal perfusion predominantly in red, indicating that the major blood supply was the hepatic artery. During deep expiration, the portal venous blood flow remained hepatopetal, and hepatic parenchymal perfusion was displayed predominantly in yellow, indicating that the portal vein was the major source of the blood flow. The original diagnostic imaging results were reproduced one month subsequently by an identical procedure. At-PI enabled an investigation into the changes that were induced in the hepatic parenchymal perfusion by a compensatory mechanism involving the hepatic artery. These changes occurred in response to a reduction in the portal venous blood flow, as is observed in the arterialization of hepatic blood flow that is correlated with the progression of chronic hepatitis C. It has been established that the peribiliary capillary plexus is important in the regulation of hepatic arterial blood flow. However, this case demonstrated that the peribiliary capillary plexus also regulates acute

  5. P wave morphology in guiding the ablation strategy of focal atrial tachycardias and atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin M S; Fynn, Simon P

    2015-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias arise preferentially from specific locations within the atria. Careful analysis of the P wave can provide useful information about the chamber and likely site of origin within that chamber. Macro-reentrant atrial flutter also tends to occur over a limited number of potential circuits. In this case, the ECG usually gives a guide to the chamber of origin, but unless it shows a specific morphology it is less useful in delineating the circuit involved. Nonetheless, prior knowledge of the likely chamber of origin helps to plan the ablation strategy. PMID:25308814

  6. P Wave Morphology in Guiding the Ablation Strategy of Focal Atrial Tachycardias and Atrial Flutter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin M. S; Fynn, Simon P

    2015-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias arise preferentially from specific locations within the atria. Careful analysis of the P wave can provide useful information about the chamber and likely site of origin within that chamber. Macro-reentrant atrial flutter also tends to occur over a limited number of potential circuits. In this case, the ECG usually gives a guide to the chamber of origin, but unless it shows a specific morphology it is less useful in delineating the circuit involved. Nonetheless, prior knowledge of the likely chamber of origin helps to plan the ablation strategy. PMID:25308814

  7. A Split of Direction of Propagation and Attenuation of P Waves in the Po Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, R.; Tento, A.; Marcellini, A.

    2013-12-01

    On July 17, 2011 a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred in the PO valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te (Mantova). The station is situated on deep quaternary sediments: the uppermost layers are mainly composed of clay and silty clay with interbedded sands; the Robertson index is 1.4P wave particle motion, that appears rather difficult to explain if we assume the homogeneity of the P waves (that means attenuation is scalar). Note that the degree of nonlinearity is very low given that the maximum strain can be roughly estimated as 10-5 on the basis of maximum ground velocity of the P wave train considered and the Vp. On the contrary we show that P wave particle motion can be fully (and easily) described by a Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic model (HILV). HILV, as in the 2009 Borcherdt formulation adopted here, allows two different directions of propagation and attenuation; in other words attenuation becomes a vector that is not necessarily parallel to the propagation vector. The results evidence that the incidence angle and the inhomogeneity angle (it is the angle between propagation and attenuation vectors and it is closely related to Q factor) are in good agreement with the geological conditions of the site. Finally, we observed that these results are very similar to the ones obtained when we analyzed two explosions recorded by a seismic station in Milano, also situated in the Po valley at some 140 km from Mantova (Marcellini & Tento, 2011). Borcherdt, R.D. (2009) 'Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media', Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 305 pp. Marcellini, A. and A. Tento (2011) ' Explosive Sources Prove the Validity of Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic Models', BSSA, Vol. 101, No. 4, pp. 1576-1583.

  8. STS-93: Chandra Crew Arrival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility, which had been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The mission was launched at 12:31 on July 23, 1999 onboard the space shuttle Columbia. The mission was led by Commander Eileen Collins. The crew was Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This videotape shows the astronauts arrival at Kennedy Space Center a week before the launch. Each of the astronauts gives brief remarks, beginning with Eileen Collins, the first woman to command a space mission.

  9. Detection of Mantle and Core P- Arrivals, and Analysis of T-waves, Recorded on Ocean Sound-Channel Hydrophones Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (10°-35°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R.; Haxel, J.; Matsumoto, H.; Fowler, M.; Fox, C.; Smith, D.; Bohnenstiehl, D.; Tolstoy, M.

    2002-12-01

    In February 1999, a consortium of U.S. investigators (NSF and NOAA) began long-term monitoring of Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) seismicity between 15°N and 35°N. The experiment uses six NOAA/PMEL autonomous hydrophones moored within the SOFAR channel on the MAR flanks. The hydrophones record the hydroacoustic tertiary phase or T-wave of oceanic earthquakes from throughout the Atlantic basin. The low attenuation properties of the SOFAR channel allow for a reduction in the detection threshold (cutoff Magnitude) of MAR earthquakes from Mc=4.7 of the land-based seismic networks to Mc=3.0 with the hydrophones (Bohnenstiehl et al., 2002). The improved detection capability of the hydrophones allows for a better view of the overall spatio-temporal patterns in MAR earthquakes (Smith et al., 2002). To assess the waveform analysis capability of the hydrophones we present a preliminary examination of P- and T-wave arrivals recorded from 84 regional MAR and teleseismic earthquakes. The hydrophones (8 bit resolution) detect upper mantle Pn arrivals from regional MAR earthquakes at epicentral distances of 374-1771 km and from events as small as mb=3.6. The T-waves of regional MAR events are also clearly recorded although the signals are significantly clipped when earthquakes are <400 km distant or mb>5. A surprising result of the waveform analysis was the identification of P- arrivals from earthquakes outside the Atlantic Ocean basin. The hydrophones detected P-waves from global earthquakes with magnitudes from 5.8 to 8.3 at epicentral distances ranging from 29.6° to 167.2°. Examination of travel times suggests these teleseismic P-waves comprise the entire suite of body-wave arrivals from direct mantle P- to outer and inner core reflected/refracted phases. These global P- amplitudes also exhibit the typical solid-earth wavefield phenomena of a P- shadow zone and caustic at a Δ=142°. There is an apparent 2-second delay in expected {\\ P-} arrival times at the hydrophones

  10. Improvement of Epicentral Direction Estimation by P-wave Polarization Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Mitsutaka

    2016-04-01

    Polarization analysis has been used to analyze the polarization characteristics of waves and developed in various spheres, for example, electromagnetics, optics, and seismology. As for seismology, polarization analysis is used to discriminate seismic phases or to enhance specific phase (e.g., Flinn, 1965)[1], by taking advantage of the difference in polarization characteristics of seismic phases. In earthquake early warning, polarization analysis is used to estimate the epicentral direction using single station, based on the polarization direction of P-wave portion in seismic records (e.g., Smart and Sproules(1981) [2], Noda et al.,(2012) [3]). Therefore, improvement of the Estimation of Epicentral Direction by Polarization Analysis (EEDPA) directly leads to enhance the accuracy and promptness of earthquake early warning. In this study, the author tried to improve EEDPA by using seismic records of events occurred around Japan from 2003 to 2013. The author selected the events that satisfy following conditions. MJMA larger than 6.5 (JMA: Japan Meteorological Agency). Seismic records are available at least 3 stations within 300km in epicentral distance. Seismic records obtained at stations with no information on seismometer orientation were excluded, so that precise and quantitative evaluation of accuracy of EEDPA becomes possible. In the analysis, polarization has calculated by Vidale(1986) [4] that extended the method proposed by Montalbetti and Kanasewich(1970)[5] to use analytical signal. As a result of the analysis, the author found that accuracy of EEDPA improves by about 15% if velocity records, not displacement records, are used contrary to the author's expectation. Use of velocity records enables reduction of CPU time in integration of seismic records and improvement in promptness of EEDPA, although this analysis is still rough and further scrutiny is essential. At this moment, the author used seismic records that obtained by simply integrating acceleration

  11. Electron transport in p-wave superconductor-normal metal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keles, Ahmet; Andreev, Anton; Spivak, Boris

    2014-03-01

    We study low temperature electron transport in p-wave superconductor-insulator-normal metal junctions. In diffusive metals the p-wave component of the order parameter decays exponentially at distances larger than the mean free path l. At the superconductor-normal metal boundary, due to spin-orbit interaction, there is a triplet to singlet conversion of the superconducting order parameter. The singlet component survives at distances much larger than l from the boundary. It is this component that controls the low temperature resistance of the junctions. As a result, the resistance of the system strongly depends on the angle between the insulating boundary and the d-vector characterizing the spin structure of the triplet superconducting order parameter. We also analyze the spatial dependence of the electric potential in the presence of the current, and show that the electric field is suppressed in the insulating boundary as well as in the normal metal at distances of order of the coherence length away from the boundary. This is very different from the case of the normal metal-insulator-normal metal junctions, where the voltage drop takes place predominantly at the insulator. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy through the grant DE-FG02-07ER46452.

  12. Electron transport in p-wave superconductor-normal metal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keles, A.; Andreev, A. V.; Spivak, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We study low-temperature electron transport in p-wave superconductor-insulator-normal metal junctions. In diffusive metals, the p-wave component of the order parameter is strongly suppressed at distances greater than the mean free path l. At the superconductor-normal metal boundary, due to spin-orbit interaction, there is a triplet to singlet conversion of the superconducting order parameter. The singlet component survives at distances much larger than l from the boundary. It is this component that controls the low-temperature resistance of the junctions. As a result, the resistance of the system strongly depends on the angle between the insulating boundary and the d vector characterizing the spin structure of the triplet superconducting order parameter. We also analyze the spatial dependence of the electric potential in the presence of the current and show that the electric field is suppressed in the insulating boundary as well as in the normal metal at distances of order of the coherence length away from the boundary. This is very different from the case of the normal metal-insulator-normal metal junctions, where the voltage drop takes place predominantly at the insulator.

  13. Seismic effects of incident P waves on an embedded foundation in poroelastic half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cai, Yuan-qiang; Ding, Guang-ya; Wang, Li-zhong

    2012-03-01

    Dynamic vibrations of a circular rigid foundation, which is embedded in poroelastic soil and subjected to incident P waves, are studied by semi-analytical methods in this present work. The motion of the soil is governed by Biot's dynamic poroelastic theory. A set of potentials are introduced to represent the incident waves, and the scattering waves caused by the foundation are considered based on the decomposition of the total wave field in soil. The soil along the vertical side of the foundation is assumed to be composed of series of infinitesimally thin poroelastic layers, while the soil under the foundation base is regarded as the poroelastic half-space and to be independent of the overlying soil. The interaction problem is solved by Hankel transforms. Then, combining the boundary conditions along the contact surface between the soil and the foundation and the dynamic equilibrium equation of the foundation, expressions of the vertical and rocking vibration amplitudes of the embedded foundation excited by the incident P waves are acquired. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the influences of embedded depth, foundation mass, pore water in the soil and incident angle on the vibrations of the foundation.

  14. High-resolution 3-D P-wave tomographic imaging of the shallow magmatic system of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, D.; Aster, R. C.; Barclay, A. H.; Chaput, J. A.; Kyle, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Erebus volcano (Ross Island), the most active volcano in Antarctica, is characterized by a persistent phonolitic lava lake at its summit and a wide range of seismic signals associated with its underlying long-lived magmatic system. The magmatic structure in a 3 by 3 km area around the summit has been imaged using high-quality data from a seismic tomographic experiment carried out during the 2008-2009 austral field season (Zandomeneghi et al., 2010). An array of 78 short period, 14 broadband, and 4 permanent Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory seismic stations and a program of 12 shots were used to model the velocity structure in the uppermost kilometer over the volcano conduit. P-wave travel times were inverted for the 3-D velocity structure using the shortest-time ray tracing (50-m grid spacing) and LSQR inversion (100-m node spacing) of a tomography code (Toomey et al., 1994) that allows for the inclusion of topography. Regularization is controlled by damping and smoothing weights and smoothing lengths, and addresses complications that are inherent in a strongly heterogeneous medium featuring rough topography and a dense parameterization and distribution of receivers/sources. The tomography reveals a composite distribution of very high and low P-wave velocity anomalies (i.e., exceeding 20% in some regions), indicating a complex sub-lava-lake magmatic geometry immediately beneath the summit region and in surrounding areas, as well as the presence of significant high velocity shallow regions. The strongest and broadest low velocity zone is located W-NW of the crater rim, indicating the presence of an off-axis shallow magma body. This feature spatially corresponds to the inferred centroid source of VLP signals associated with Strombolian eruptions and lava lake refill (Aster et al., 2008). Other resolved structures correlate with the Side Crater and with lineaments of ice cave thermal anomalies extending NE and SW of the rim. High velocities in the summit area possibly

  15. NASA Dual Precipitation Radar Arrives at Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) built by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core Observatory arrived on Friday, Marc...

  16. Finite frequency P-wave traveltime measurements on ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones in the western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekhmistrenko, Maria; Sigloch, Karin; Hosseini, Kasra; Barruol, Guilhem

    2016-04-01

    From 2011 to 2014, the RHUM-RUM project (Reunion Hotspot Upper Mantle - Reunions Unterer Mantel) instrumented a 2000x2000km2 area of Indian Ocean seafloor, islands and Madagascar with broadband seismometers and hydrophones. The central component was a 13-month deployment of 57 German and French Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) in 2300-5600 m depth. This was supplemented by 2-3 year deployments of 37 island stations on Reunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, the southern Seychelles, the Iles Eparses and southern Madagascar. Two partner projects contributed another 30+ stations on Madagascar. Our ultimate objective is multifrequency waveform tomography of the entire mantle column beneath the Reunion hotspot. Ideally we would use all passbands that efficiently transmit body waves but this meets practical limits in the noise characteristics of ocean-bottom recordings in particular. Here we present the preliminary data set of frequency-dependent P-wave traveltime measurements on seismometers and hydrophones, obtained by cross-correlation of observed with predicted waveforms. The latter are synthesized from fully numerical Green's functions and carefully estimated, broadband source time functions. More than 200 teleseismic events during the 13-month long deployment yielded usable P-waveform measurements. We present our methods and discuss data yield and quality of ocean-bottom versus land seismometers, and of OBS versus broadband hydrophones. Above and below the microseismic noise band, data yields are higher than within it, especially for OBS. The 48 German OBS, equipped with Guralp 60 s sensors, were afflicted by relatively high self-noise compared to the 9 French instruments equipped with Nanometrics Trillium 240 s sensors. The HighTechInc (model HTI-01 and HTI-04-PCA/ULF) hydrophones (100 s corner period) functioned particularly reliably but their waveforms are relatively more challenging to model due to reverberations in the water column. We obtain ~15000 combined cross

  17. Prediction of building limestone physical and mechanical properties by means of ultrasonic P-wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Concu, Giovanna; De Nicolo, Barbara; Valdes, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic P-wave velocity as a feature for predicting some physical and mechanical properties that describe the behavior of local building limestone. To this end, both ultrasonic testing and compressive tests were carried out on several limestone specimens and statistical correlation between ultrasonic velocity and density, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity was studied. The effectiveness of ultrasonic velocity was evaluated by regression, with the aim of observing the coefficient of determination r(2) between ultrasonic velocity and the aforementioned parameters, and the mathematical expressions of the correlations were found and discussed. The strong relations that were established between ultrasonic velocity and limestone properties indicate that these parameters can be reasonably estimated by means of this nondestructive parameter. This may be of great value in a preliminary phase of the diagnosis and inspection of stone masonry conditions, especially when the possibility of sampling material cores is reduced. PMID:24511286

  18. Color octet contribution in exclusive P-wave charmonium decay into octet and decuplet baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S. M. H.

    2000-06-01

    In the last years, the need for the color octet state in inclusive P-wave charmonium decay has been firmly established. However, the implications of this in the corresponding exclusive reactions have not been fully recognized. We argue for the necessity of the color octet in P- and higher-wave quarkonium decay. Using a set of phenomenologically constructed baryon wave functions, we consider the χ_J decay into an octet and decuplet baryon antibaryon pair. By doing so, we subject the wave functions to a test of applicability. We show that the color singlet component alone is insufficient to account for the experim