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Sample records for p53 dependent apoptosis

  1. P53 dependent and independent apoptosis induced by lidamycin in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihui; Jiang, Jianming; Cheng, Chunlei; Yang, Ajing; He, Qiyang; Li, Diandong; Wang, Zhen

    2007-06-01

    Enediyne compound is one class of antibiotics with very potent anti-cancer activity. However, the role of p53 in enediyne antibiotic-induced cell killing remains elusive. Here we reported the involvement of p53 signaling pathway in apoptosis induction by lidamycin (LDM), a member of the enediyne antibiotic family. We found that LDM at low drug concentration of 10 nmol/L induces apoptotic cell death much more effectively in human colorectal cancer cells with wild type p53 than those with mutant or deleted p53. p53 is functionally activated as an early event in response to low dose LDM that precedes the significant apoptosis induction. The primarily activation of mitochondria as well as the activation of p53 transcriptional targets such as Puma, Bad and Bax in HCT116 p53 wild type cells further demonstrates the key role of p53 in mediating the compound-induced apoptosis. This is further supported by the observation that the absence of Bax or Puma decreases apoptosis dramatically while Bcl-2 overexpression confers partially resistance after drug treatment. Activation of p53 signaling pathway leads to activation of caspases and caspases inhibitor VAD-fmk completely blocks low dose LDM induced apoptosis through the inhibition of mitochondria pathway. In contrast, LDM at higher concentration causes rapid apoptosis through more direct DNA damaging mechanism that is independent of activation of p53 and caspases and cannot be blocked by caspase inhibitor. Taken together, LDM induces apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner when given at low doses, but in a p53-independent manner when given at high doses. This dosage-dependent regimen can be applied to cancer clinic based upon the p53 status of cancer patients. PMID:17534142

  2. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jennifer L.; Grundmann, Oliver; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine{sup 18}) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo.

  3. p53-dependent apoptosis contributes to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mei; Wei, Li; Guan, Xie; Li, Lianbing; Liu, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used extensively in many personal care and consumer products, resulting in widespread non-occupational human exposure through multiple routes and media. DEHP has various deleterious effects including hepatotoxicity. p53 protein is a central sensor in cell apoptosis. In order to clarify the roles of p53 in DEHP-induced hepatotoxicity, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed daily with DEHP by gavage for 30 days; BRL cells (rat liver cell line) were treated with DEHP for 24 h after pretreatment with NAC or small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results indicated that after exposure to DEHP, hepatic histological changes such as hepatocyte edema, vacuolation and hepatic sinusoidal dilation, and increased apoptosis index were observed. In the liver, DEHP induced oxidative stress and DNA damage, which activated p53 in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with NAC significantly reduced ROS level and p53 expression in BRL cells. The suppressed Mdm2 also contributed to p53 accumulation. Activated p53 mediated hepatocyte apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, inhibiting anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and inducing pro-apoptotic Bax, cytochrome c and caspases. In p53-silenced BRL cells, hepatocyte apoptosis mediated by p53 was attenuated. PCNA protein level was upregulated after p53 gene silencing. However, the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway did not exhibit activated signs in DEHP-caused hepatotoxicity. Taken together, DEHP-caused oxidative stress and Mdm2 downregulation contribute to p53 activation. The p53-dependent apoptotic pathway plays critical and indispensable roles in DEHP-induced hepatotoxicity, while the Fas/FasL pathway does not involve in this molecular event. PMID:26549752

  4. Cadmium Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P.; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J.; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl2 and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl2 concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis. PMID:22448262

  5. Novel small molecule induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Eun; Min, Yong Ki; Ha, Jae Du; Kim, Bum Tae; Lee, Woo Ghil . E-mail: bigguy@krict.re.kr

    2007-07-06

    Using high-throughput screening with small-molecule libraries, we identified a compound, KCG165 [(2-(3-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethoxy)-1,10b-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c] quinazolin-5(6H)-one)], which strongly activated p53-mediated transcriptional activity. KCG165-induced phosphorylations of p53 at Ser{sup 6}, Ser{sup 15}, and Ser{sup 20}, which are all key residues involved in the activation and stabilization of p53. Consistent with these findings, KCG165 increased level of p53 protein and led to the accumulation of transcriptionally active p53 in the nucleus with the increased occupancy of p53 in the endogenous promoter region of its downstream target gene, p21{sup WAF1/CIP}. Notably, KCG165-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, we suggested topoisomerase II as the molecular target of KCG165. Together, these results indicate that KCG165 may have potential applications as an antitumor agent.

  6. Viral Single-Strand DNA Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Matthew L.; Fagan, B. Matthew; Dumitru, Raluca; Bower, Jacquelyn J.; Yadav, Swati; Porteus, Matthew H.; Pevny, Larysa H.; Samulski, R. Jude

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication. PMID:22114676

  7. Developmental regulation of p53-dependent radiation-induced thymocyte apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gentil Dit Maurin, A; Lemercier, C; Collin-Faure, V; Marche, P N; Jouvin-Marche, E; Candéias, S M

    2015-01-01

    The production of T cell receptor αβ+ (TCRαβ+) T lymphocytes in the thymus is a tightly regulated process that can be monitored by the regulated expression of several surface molecules, including CD4, CD8, cKit, CD25 and the TCR itself, after TCR genes have been assembled from discrete V, D (for TCR-β) and J gene segments by a site-directed genetic recombination. Thymocyte differentiation is the result of a delicate balance between cell death and survival: developing thymocytes die unless they receive a positive signal to proceed to the next stage. This equilibrium is altered in response to various physiological or physical stresses such as ionizing radiation, which induces a massive p53-dependent apoptosis of CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocytes. Interestingly, these cells are actively rearranging their TCR-α chain genes. To unravel an eventual link between V(D)J recombination activity and thymocyte radio-sensitivity, we analysed the dynamics of thymocyte apoptosis and regeneration following exposure of wild-type and p53-deficient mice to different doses of γ-radiation. p53-dependent radio-sensitivity was already found to be high in immature CD4−CD8− (double-negative, DN) cKit+CD25+ thymocytes, where TCR-β gene rearrangement is initiated. However, TCR-αβ−CD8+ immature single-positive thymocytes, an actively cycling intermediate population between the DN and DP stages, are the most radio-sensitive cells in the thymus, even though their apoptosis is only partially p53-dependent. Within the DP population, TCR-αβ+ thymocytes that completed TCR-α gene recombination are more radio-resistant than their TCR-αβ− progenitors. Finally, we found no correlation between p53 activation and thymocyte sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis. PMID:24635132

  8. TEL/ETV6 induces apoptosis in 32D cells through p53-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagata, Tetsuya; Maki, Kazuhiro; Waga, Kazuo; Mitani, Kinuko . E-mail: kinukom-tky@umin.ac.jp

    2006-08-25

    TEL is an ETS family transcription factor that is critical for maintaining hematopoietic stem cells in adult bone marrow. To investigate the roles of TEL in myeloid proliferation and differentiation, we introduced TEL cDNA into mouse myeloid 32Dcl3 cells. Overexpression of TEL repressed interleukin-3-dependent proliferation through blocking cell cycle progression. Also, the presence of TEL triggered apoptosis through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway on exposure to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. We found an increase in p53 protein and its DNA binding in the TEL-overexpressing cells. Forced expression of TEL stimulated transcription via the p53-responsive element and increased the expression of cellular target genes for p53 such as cell cycle regulator p21 and apoptosis inducer Puma. Consistently, induction of apoptosis was delayed by pifithrin-{alpha} treatment and completely blocked by increased expression of Bcl-2 in the TEL-overexpressing cells. These data collectively suggest that TEL exerts a tumor suppressive function through augmenting the p53 pathway and facilitates normal development of myelopoiesis.

  9. p14(ARF) Prevents Proliferation of Aneuploid Cells by Inducing p53-Dependent Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Lorena; Barra, Viviana; Lentini, Laura; Spatafora, Sergio; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Weakening the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint by reduced expression of its components induces chromosome instability and aneuploidy that are hallmarks of cancer cells. The tumor suppressor p14(ARF) is overexpressed in response to oncogenic stimuli to stabilize p53 halting cell progression. Previously, we found that lack or reduced expression of p14(ARF) is involved in the maintenance of aneuploid cells in primary human cells, suggesting that it could be part of a pathway controlling their proliferation. To investigate this aspect further, p14(ARF) was ectopically expressed in HCT116 cells after depletion of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint MAD2 protein that was used as a trigger for aneuploidy. p14(ARF) Re-expression reduced the number of aneuploid cells in MAD2 post-transcriptionally silenced cells. Also aberrant mitoses, frequently displayed in MAD2-depleted cells, were decreased when p14(ARF) was expressed at the same time. In addition, p14(ARF) ectopic expression in MAD2-depleted cells induced apoptosis associated with increased p53 protein levels. Conversely, p14(ARF) ectopic expression did not induce apoptosis in HCT116 p53KO cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the tumor suppressor p14(ARF) may have an important role in counteracting proliferation of aneuploid cells by activating p53-dependent apoptosis. PMID:25752701

  10. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate-induced apoptosis through the ATM- and p53-dependent intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Schweikl, Helmut; Petzel, Christine; Bolay, Carola; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Krifka, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Resin monomers of dental composites like 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) disturb cell functions including responses of the innate immune system, mineralization and differentiation of dental pulp-derived cells, or induce cell death via apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis is related to the availability of the antioxidant glutathione, although a detailed understanding of the signaling pathways is still unknown. The present study provides insight into the causal relationship between oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage, and the specific signaling pathway leading to HEMA-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. The differential expression of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in HEMA-exposed cells indicated oxidative stress, which was associated with the cleavage of pro-caspase 3 as a critical apoptosis executioner. A 2-fold increase in the amount of mitochondrial superoxide anions after a 24 h exposure to HEMA (6-8 mM) was paralleled by a considerable decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Additionally, expression of proteins critical for the signaling of apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway was detected. Transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms of p53-regulated apoptosis were activated, and p53 was translocated from the cytosol to mitochondria. HEMA-induced transcriptional activity of p53 was indicated by increased levels of PUMA localized to mitochondria as a potent inducer of apoptosis. The expression of Bcl-xL and Bax suggested that cells responded to stress caused by HEMA via the activation of a complicated and antagonistic machinery of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. A HEMA-induced and oxidative stress-sensitive delay of the cell cycle, indicating a DNA damage response, occurred independent of the influence of KU55399, a potent inhibitor of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) activity. However, ATM, a protein kinase which

  11. SMC3 knockdown triggers genomic instability and p53-dependent apoptosis in human and zebrafish cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghiselli, Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    Background The structural maintenance of chromosome 3 (SMC3) protein is a constituent of a number of nuclear multimeric protein complexes that are involved in DNA recombination and repair in addition to chromosomal segregation. Overexpression of SMC3 activates a tumorigenic cascade through which mammalian cells acquire a transformed phenotype. This has led us to examine in depth how SMC3 level affects cell growth and genomic stability. In this paper the effect of SMC3 knockdown has been investigated. Results Mammalian cells that are SMC3 deficient fail to expand in a clonal population. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanism, experiments were conducted in zebrafish embryos in which cell competence to undergo apoptosis is acquired at specific stages of development and affects tissue morphogenesis. Zebrafish Smc3 is 95% identical to the human protein, is maternally contributed, and is expressed ubiquitously at all developmental stages. Antisense-mediated loss of Smc3 function leads to increased apoptosis in Smc3 expressing cells of the developing tail and notocord causing morphological malformations. The apoptosis and the ensuing phenotype can be suppressed by injection of a p53-specific MO that blocks the generation of endogenous p53 protein. Results in human cells constitutively lacking p53 or BAX, confirmed that a p53-dependent pathway mediates apoptosis in SMC3-deficient cells. A population of aneuploid cells accumulated in zebrafish embryos following Smc3-knockdown whereas in human cells the transient downregulation of SMC3 level lead to the generation of cells with amplified centrosome number. Conclusion Smc3 is required for normal embryonic development. Its deficiency affects the morphogenesis of tissues with high mitotic index by triggering an apoptotic cascade involving p53 and the downstream p53 target gene bax. Cells with low SMC3 level display centrosome abnormalities that can lead to or are the consequence of dysfunctional mitosis and

  12. Molecular mechanisms of nutlin-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma: evidence for p53-transcription-dependent and -independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Saha, Manujendra N; Jiang, Hua; Chang, Hong

    2010-09-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy in which p53 is rarely mutated. Thus, activation of the p53 pathway by a small molecule inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 interaction, nutlin, in MM cells retaining wild type p53 is an attractive therapeutic strategy. Recently we reported that nutlin plus velcade (a proteasome inhibitor) displayed a synergistic response in MM. However, the mechanism of the p53-mediated apoptosis in MM has not been fully understood. Our data show that nutlin-induced apoptosis correlated with reduction in cell viability, upregulation of p53, p21 and MDM2 protein levels with a simultaneous increase in pro-apoptotic targets PUMA, Bax and Bak and downregulation of anti-apoptotic targets Bcl2 and survivin and activation of caspase in MM cells harboring wild type p53. Nutlin-induced apoptosis was inhibited when activation of caspase was blocked by the caspase inhibitor. Nutlin caused mitochondrial translocation of p53 where it binds with Bcl2, leading to cytochrome C release. Moreover, blocking the transcriptional arm of p53 by the p53-specific transcriptional inhibitor, pifithrin-α, not only inhibited nutlin-induced upregulation of p53-transcriptional targets but also augmented apoptosis in MM cells, suggesting an association of transcription-independent pathway of apoptosis. However, inhibitor of mitochondrial translocation of p53, PFT-μ, did not prevent nutlin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the p53 transcription-dependent pathway was also operational in nutlin-induced apoptosis in MM. Our study provides the evidence that nutlin-induced apoptosis in MM cells is mediated by transcription-dependent and -independent pathways and supports further clinical evaluation of nutlin as a novel therapeutic agent in MM. PMID:20595817

  13. The induction of polyploidy or apoptosis by the Aurora A kinase inhibitor MK8745 is p53-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Alan L; Schwartz, Gary K

    2012-01-01

    Aurora kinases are mitotic serine/threonine protein kinases and are attractive novel targets for anticancer therapy. Many small-molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases are currently undergoing clinical trials. Aurora A kinase is essential for successful mitotic transition. MK8745 is a novel and selective small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora A kinase. MK8745 induced apoptotic cell death in a p53-dependent manner when tested in vitro in cell lines of multiple lineages. Cells expressing wild-type p53 showed a short delay in mitosis followed by cytokinesis, resulting in 2N cells along with apoptosis. However, cells lacking or with mutant p53 resulted in a prolonged arrest in mitosis followed by endoreduplication and polyploidy. Cytokinesis was completely inhibited in p53-deficient cells, as observed by the absence of 2N cell population. The induction of apoptosis in p53-proficient cells was associated with activation of caspase 3 and release of cytochrome c but was independent of p21. Exposure of p53 wild-type cells to MK8745 resulted in the induction of p53 phosphorylation (ser15) and an increase in p53 protein expression. p53-dependent apoptosis by MK8745 was further confirmed in HCT 116 p53−/− cells transfected with wild-type p53. Transient knockdown of Aurora A by specific siRNA recapitulated these p53-dependent effects, with greater percent induction of apoptosis in p53 wild-type cells. In conclusion, our studies show p53 as a determining factor for induction of apoptosis vs. polyploidy upon inhibition of Aurora A. PMID:22293494

  14. Sodium orthovanadate inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akinori; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Suzuki, Norio; Aoki, Shin; Ito, Azusa; Nanao, Tomohisa; Ohya, Soichiro; Yoshino, Minako; Zhu, Jin; Enomoto, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Funatsu, Osamu; Hosoi, Yoshio; Ikekita, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Sodium orthovanadate (vanadate) inhibits the DNA-binding activity of p53, but its precise effects on p53 function have not been examined. Here, we show that vanadate exerts a potent antiapoptotic activity through both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms relative to other p53 inhibitors, including pifithrin (PFT) alpha. We compared the effects of vanadate to PFTalpha and PFTmicro, an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Vanadate suppressed p53-associated apoptotic events at the mitochondria, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the conformational change of Bax and Bak, the mitochondrial translocation of p53, and the interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. Similarly, vanadate suppressed the apoptosis-inducing activity of a mitochondrially targeted temperature-sensitive p53 in stable transfectants of SaOS-2 cells. In radioprotection assays, which rely on p53, vanadate completely protected mice from a sublethal dose of 8 Gy and partially from a lethal dose of 12 Gy. Together, our findings indicated that vanadate effectively suppresses p53-mediated apoptosis by both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways, and suggested that both pathways must be inhibited to completely block p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20048077

  15. Dysfunctional telomeres induce p53-dependent and independent apoptosis to compromise cellular proliferation and inhibit tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Xinwei; Flores, Elsa R; Yu, Jian; Chang, Sandy

    2016-08-01

    Aging is associated with progressive telomere shortening, resulting in the formation of dysfunctional telomeres that compromise tissue proliferation. However, dysfunctional telomeres can limit tumorigenesis by activating p53-dependent cellular senescence and apoptosis. While activation of both senescence and apoptosis is required for repress tumor formation, it is not clear which pathway is the major tumor suppressive pathway in vivo. In this study, we generated Eμ-myc; Pot1b(∆/∆) mouse to directly compare tumor formation under conditions in which either p53-dependent apoptosis or senescence is activated by telomeres devoid of the shelterin component Pot1b. We found that activation of p53-dependent apoptosis plays a more critical role in suppressing lymphoma formation than p53-dependent senescence. In addition, we found that telomeres in Pot1b(∆/∆) ; p53(-/-) mice activate an ATR-Chk1-dependent DNA damage response to initiate a robust p53-independent, p73-dependent apoptotic pathway that limited stem cell proliferation but suppressed B-cell lymphomagenesis. Our results demonstrate that in mouse models, both p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis are important to suppressing tumor formation. PMID:27113195

  16. Cytoplasmic CUL9/PARC ubiquitin ligase is a tumor suppressor and promotes p53-dependent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xin-Hai; Bai, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Smith, Matthew D.; Whitewolf, Gabrielle; Jin, Ran; Xiong, Yue

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of cell stresses, including DNA damage, signal to p53 through post-translational modification of p53. The cytoplasmic functions of p53 are emerging as an important constituent of p53’s role in tumor suppression. Here we report that deletion of the Cul9 (formerly Parc) gene, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds to p53 and localizes in the cytoplasm, resulted in spontaneous tumor development, accelerated Eμ-Myc-induced lymphomagenesis and rendered mice susceptible to carcinogenesis. Cul9-p53 double mutant mice exhibited indistinguishable tumor phenotypes as p53 single mutant mice, indicating that the function of Cul9 in tumor suppression is largely mediated by p53. Deletion of Cul9 had no significant effect on cell cycle progression, but attenuated DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Ectopic expression of wild-type CUL9, but not a point mutant CUL9 deficient in p53 binding, promotes apoptosis. These results demonstrate CUL9 as a potential p53 activating E3 ligase in the cytoplasm. PMID:21487039

  17. Leukocyte Elastase Induces Lung Epithelial Apoptosis via a PAR-1–, NF-κB–, and p53-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Yamashita, Cory; Zemans, Rachel L.; Briones, Natalie; Van Linden, Annemie; Downey, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Leukocyte elastase induces apoptosis of lung epithelial cells via alterations in mitochondrial permeability, but the signaling pathways regulating this response remain uncertain. Here we investigated the involvement of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), the transcription factor NF-κB, and the protooncogene p53 in this pathway. Elastase-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells correlated temporally with activation of NF-κB, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of p53, increased p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression, and mitochondrial translocation of Bax resulting in enhanced permeability. Elastase-induced apoptosis was also prevented by pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-κB and p53 and by short interfering RNA knockdown of PAR-1, p53, or PUMA. These inhibitors prevented elastase-induced PUMA expression, mitochondrial translocation of Bax, increased mitochondrial permeability, and attenuated apoptosis. NF-κB inhibitors also reduced p53 phosphorylation. We conclude that elastase-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells is mediated by a PAR-1–triggered pathway involving activation of NF-κB and p53, and a PUMA- and Bax-dependent increase in mitochondrial permeability leading to activation of distal caspases. Further, p53 contributes to elastase-induced apoptosis by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:19307610

  18. Pivotal roles of p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways in manganese-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunhua; Ma, Xa; Shi, Shangshi; Zhao, Jianya; Nie, Xiaoke; Han, Jingling; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Junkang

    2014-12-15

    Chronic exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) has been known to lead to neuronal loss and a clinical syndrome resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). p53 plays an integral role in the development of various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of p53 in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits remains obscure. In the present study, we showed that p53 was critically involved in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat striatum through both transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses revealed that p53 was remarkably upregulated in the striatum of rats following Mn exposure. Coincidentally, increased level of cleaved PARP, a hallmark of apoptosis, was observed. Furthermore, using nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells as a neuronal cell model, we showed that Mn exposure decreased cell viability and induced apparent apoptosis. Importantly, p53 was progressively upregulated, and accumulated in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic p53 had a remarkable distribution in mitochondria, suggesting an involvement of p53 mitochondrial translocation in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis. In addition, Mn-induced impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) could be partially rescued by pretreatment with inhibitors of p53 transcriptional activity and p53 mitochondrial translocation, Pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and Pifithrin-μ (PFT-μ), respectively. Moreover, blockage of p53 activities with PFT-α and PFT-μ significantly attenuated Mn-induced reactive oxidative stress (ROS) generation and mitochondrial H₂O₂ production. Finally, we observed that pretreatment with PFT-α and PFT-μ ameliorated Mn-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Collectively, these findings implicate that p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways may play crucial roles in the regulation of Mn-induced neuronal death. PMID:25448048

  19. Low Dose Radiation Hypersensitivity is Caused by p53-dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Enns, L; Bogen, K; Wizniak, J; Murtha, A; Weinfeld, M

    2004-04-08

    Exposure to environmental radiation and the application of new clinical modalities, such as radioimmunotherapy, have heightened the need to understand cellular responses to low dose and low-dose rate ionizing radiation. Many tumor cell lines have been observed to exhibit a hypersensitivity to radiation doses below 50 cGy, which manifests as a significant deviation from the clonogenic survival response predicted by a linear-quadratic fit to higher doses. However, the underlying processes for this phenomenon remain unclear. Using a gel microdrop/flow cytometry assay to monitor single cell proliferation at early times post irradiation, we examined the response of human A549 lung carcinoma, T98G glioma and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines exposed to gamma radiation doses from 0 to 200 cGy delivered at 0.18 and 22 cGy/min. The A549 and T98G cells, but not MCF7 cells, showed the marked hypersensitivity at doses <50 cGy. To further characterize the low-dose hypersensitivity, we examined the influence of low-dose radiation on cell cycle status and apoptosis by assays for active caspase-3 and phosphatidylserine translocation (annexin-V binding). We observed that caspase-3 activation and annexin-V binding mirrored the proliferation curves for the cell lines. Furthermore, the low-dose hypersensitivity and annexin-V binding to irradiated A549 and T98G cells were eliminated by treating the cells with pifithrin, an inhibitor of p53. When p53-inactive cell lines (2800T skin fibroblasts and HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells) were examined for similar patterns, we found that there was no HRS and apoptosis was not detectable by annexin-V or caspase-3 assays. Our data therefore suggest that low-dose hypersensitivity is associated with p53-dependent apoptosis.

  20. Zinc deficiency induces apoptosis via mitochondrial p53- and caspase-dependent pathways in human neuronal precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S; Gower-Winter, Shannon D; Morgan, Thomas J; Bishop, Brian; Levenson, Cathy W

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent increases in the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein BAX leading to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as demonstrated by a 25% decrease in JC-1 red:green fluorescence ratio. Disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity was accompanied by efflux of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 24h of zinc deficiency. Measurement of caspase cleavage, mRNA, and treatment with caspase inhibitors revealed the involvement of caspases 2, 3, 6, and 7 in zinc deficiency-mediated apoptosis. Down-stream targets of caspase activation, including the nuclear structure protein lamin and polyADP ribose polymerase (PARP), which participates in DNA repair, were also cleaved. Transfection with a dominant-negative p53 construct and use of the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-μ, established that these alterations were largely dependent on p53. Together these data identify a cascade of events involving mitochondrial p53 as well as p53-dependent caspase-mediated mechanisms leading to apoptosis during zinc deficiency. PMID:25467851

  1. Pivotal roles of p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways in manganese-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Chunhua; Ma, Xa; Shi, Shangshi; Zhao, Jianya; Nie, Xiaoke; Han, Jingling; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Junkang

    2014-12-15

    Chronic exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) has been known to lead to neuronal loss and a clinical syndrome resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). p53 plays an integral role in the development of various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of p53 in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits remains obscure. In the present study, we showed that p53 was critically involved in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat striatum through both transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses revealed that p53 was remarkably upregulated in the striatum of rats following Mn exposure. Coincidentally, increased level of cleaved PARP, a hallmark of apoptosis, was observed. Furthermore, using nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells as a neuronal cell model, we showed that Mn exposure decreased cell viability and induced apparent apoptosis. Importantly, p53 was progressively upregulated, and accumulated in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic p53 had a remarkable distribution in mitochondria, suggesting an involvement of p53 mitochondrial translocation in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis. In addition, Mn-induced impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) could be partially rescued by pretreatment with inhibitors of p53 transcriptional activity and p53 mitochondrial translocation, Pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and Pifithrin-μ (PFT-μ), respectively. Moreover, blockage of p53 activities with PFT-α and PFT-μ significantly attenuated Mn-induced reactive oxidative stress (ROS) generation and mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Finally, we observed that pretreatment with PFT-α and PFT-μ ameliorated Mn-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Collectively, these findings implicate that p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways may play crucial roles in the regulation of Mn-induced neuronal death. - Highlights: • p53 is robustly

  2. Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M; Leibowitz, Brian J; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G; Dunn, James C Y; Martin, Martin G; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically. PMID:25858503

  3. Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M.; Leibowitz, Brian J.; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G.; Dunn, James C. Y.; Martin, Martin G.; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically. PMID:25858503

  4. Ser46 phosphorylation and prolyl-isomerase Pin1-mediated isomerization of p53 are key events in p53-dependent apoptosis induced by mutant huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Grison, Alice; Mantovani, Fiamma; Comel, Anna; Agostoni, Elena; Gustincich, Stefano; Persichetti, Francesca; Del Sal, Giannino

    2011-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for huntingtin protein. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which mutant huntingtin (mHtt) may trigger striatal neurodegeneration, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Furthermore, mHtt induces DNA damage and activates a stress response. In this context, p53 plays a crucial role in mediating mHtt toxic effects. Here we have dissected the pathway of p53 activation by mHtt in human neuronal cells and in HD mice, with the aim of highlighting critical nodes that may be pharmacologically manipulated for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate that expression of mHtt causes increased phosphorylation of p53 on Ser46, leading to its interaction with phosphorylation-dependent prolyl isomerase Pin1 and consequent dissociation from the apoptosis inhibitor iASPP, thereby inducing the expression of apoptotic target genes. Inhibition of Ser46 phosphorylation by targeting homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), PKCδ, or ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase, as well as inhibition of the prolyl isomerase Pin1, prevents mHtt-dependent apoptosis of neuronal cells. These results provide a rationale for the use of small-molecule inhibitors of stress-responsive protein kinases and Pin1 as a potential therapeutic strategy for HD treatment. PMID:22011578

  5. Lack of functional p53 renders DENSpm-induced autophagy and apoptosis in time dependent manner in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Arisan, Elif Damla; Obakan, Pınar; Palavan-Unsal, Narçin

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs), such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are alkyl-amines that are essential for cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and cancer progression in eukaryotic cells. A designed PA analogue; DENSpm, induces cell cycle arrest, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in melanoma, breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer cells. Although the mechanism by which DENSpm induces apoptosis has been examined, the effect of DENSpm on autophagy has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, our objective was to determine the role of p53 in the DENSpm-induced autophagy/apoptotic regulation in a time-dependent manner in colon cancer cells. Exposure of HCT 116 colon cancer cells to DENSpm decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, the p53 mutant, SW480, and deficient HCT 116 p53(-/-) cells were more resistant to DENSpm treatment compared to HCT 116 p53(+/+) cells. The resistant profile caused by p53 defect also caused a cell type-specific response to PA pool depletion and SSAT overexpression. In addition to PA depletion, DENSpm induced apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-mediated pathway in a caspase-dependent manner regardless of p53 expression in colon cancer cells. Concomitantly, we determined that DENSpm also affected autophagy in HCT 116 p53(+/+), SW480 and HCT 116 p53(-/-) colon cancer cells for different periods of exposure to DENSpm. Therefore, this study revealed that effect of DENSpm on cell death differs due to p53 protein expression profile. In addition, DENSpm-induced autophagy may be critical in drug resistance in colon cancer cells. PMID:25311224

  6. RNF12 promotes p53-dependent cell growth suppression and apoptosis by targeting MDM2 for destruction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Wang, Chenji; Jin, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Jiantao; Zhang, Enceng; Yang, Xianmei; Wang, Dejie; Huang, Haojie; Yu, Long; Zhang, Pingzhao

    2016-05-28

    The oncoprotein MDM2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets tumor suppressor p53 for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, restraining the potent activity of p53 and enabling cell survival and proliferation. Dysregulation of MDM2-p53 axis was frequently observed in human cancers. Originally, it is proposed that MDM2 degradation was mainly achieved by destructive self-ubiquitination. However, recent study suggests that MDM2 may be targeted for degradation by an external E3 ubiquitin ligase(s) under physiological levels. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF12 as an MDM2-interacting protein through yeast two hybrid methods. We demonstrated that RNF12 targets MDM2 for ubiquitination and proteasomal-dependent degradation, which is independent of MDM2's self-ubiquitination activity. Accordingly, RNF12 elevates p53 protein level by abrogating MDM2-mediated p53 degradation and ubiquitination. Finally, we showed that RNF12 regulates cell growth suppression and DNA damage-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Taken together, we establish RNF12 as a novel positive regulator of p53 pathway and an external E3 ubiquitin ligase for MDM2 destruction. These data shed light on the potential roles of RNF12 in MDM2-p53 axis and tumor suppression. PMID:26926424

  7. Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondrial p53- and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S.; Gower-Winter, Shannon D.; Morgan, Thomas J., Jr.; Bishop, Brian; Levenson, Cathy W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent…

  8. Aciculatin Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis via MDM2 Depletion in Human Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chin-Yu; Tsai, An-Chi; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Chang, Li-Hsun; Sun, Hui-Lung; Chang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Aciculatin, a natural compound extracted from the medicinal herb Chrysopogon aciculatus, shows potent anti-cancer potency. This study is the first to prove that aciculatin induces cell death in human cancer cells and HCT116 mouse xenografts due to G1 arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The primary reason for cell cycle arrest and cell death was p53 accumulation followed by increased p21 level, dephosphorylation of Rb protein, PUMA expression, and induction of apoptotic signals such as cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. We demonstrated that p53 allele-null (−/−) (p53-KO) HCT116 cells were more resistant to aciculatin than cells with wild-type p53 (+/+). The same result was achieved by knocking down p53 with siRNA in p53 wild-type cells, indicating that p53 plays a crucial role in aciculatin-induced apoptosis. Although DNA damage is the most common event leading to p53 activation, we found only weak evidence of DNA damage after aciculatin treatment. Interestingly, the aciculatin-induced downregulation of MDM2, an important negative regulator of p53, contributed to p53 accumulation. The anti-cancer activity and importance of p53 after aciculatin treatment were also confirmed in the HCT116 xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that aciculatin treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inhibition of MDM2 expression, thereby inducing p53 accumulation without significant DNA damage and genome toxicity. PMID:22912688

  9. The absence of Prep1 causes p53-dependent apoptosis of mouse pluripotent epiblast cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Diaz, Luis C; Laurent, Audrey; Girasoli, Sara; Turco, Margherita; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Jenkins, Nancy A; Fiorenza, Maria Teresa; Copeland, Neal G; Blasi, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Disruption of mouse Prep1, which codes for a homeodomain transcription factor, leads to embryonic lethality during post-implantation stages. Prep1(-/-) embryos stop developing after implantation and before anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) formation. In Prep1(-/-) embryos at E6.5 (onset of gastrulation), the AVE is absent and the proliferating extra-embryonic ectoderm and epiblast, marked by Bmp4 and Oct4, respectively, are reduced in size. At E.7.5, Prep1(-/-) embryos are small and very delayed, showing no evidence of primitive streak or of differentiated embryonic lineages. Bmp4 is expressed residually, while the reduced number of Oct4-positive cells is constant up to E8.5. At E6.5, Prep1(-/-) embryos retain a normal mitotic index but show a major increase in cleaved caspase 3 and TUNEL staining, indicating apoptosis. Therefore, the mouse embryo requires Prep1 when undergoing maximal expansion in cell number. Indeed, the phenotype is partially rescued in a p53(-/-), but not in a p16(-/-), background. Apoptosis is probably due to DNA damage as Atm downregulation exacerbates the phenotype. Despite this early lethal phenotype, Prep1 is not essential for ES cell establishment. A differential embryonic expression pattern underscores the unique function of Prep1 within the Meis-Prep family. PMID:20826531

  10. Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro by inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Soo A; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Intra-articular injection of local anesthetics (LAs) is a common procedure for therapeutic purposes. However, LAs have been found toxic to articular cartilage, and hyaluronan may attenuate this toxicity. In this study we investigated whether hyaluronan attenuated lidocaine-induced chondrotoxicity, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and newly isolated murine chondrocytes were incubated in culture medium containing hyaluronan and/or lidocaine for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with DAPI staining, caspase 3/7 activity assay and flow cytometry. Cell cycle distributions, ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined using flow cytometry. The expression of p53 and p53-regulated gene products was measured with Western blotting. Results: Lidocaine (0.005%−0.03%) dose-dependently decreased the viability of SW1353 cells. This local anesthetic (0.015%, 0.025%) induced apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest and loss of ΔΨm, and markedly increased ROS production in SW1353 cells. Hyaluronan (50−800 μg/mL) alone did not affect the cell viability, but co-treatment with hyaluronan (200 μg/mL) significantly attenuated lidocaine-induced apoptosis and other abnormalities in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with lidocaine and hyaluronan significantly decreased the levels of p53 and its transcription targets Bax and p21 in SW1353 cells, although treatment with lidocaine alone did not significantly change these proteins. Similar results were obtained in ex vivo cultured murine chondrocytes. Conclusion: Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro through inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27041463

  11. Bcl6a function is required during optic cup formation to prevent p53-dependent apoptosis and colobomata

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwoon; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Gross, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in BCOR (Bcl6 corepressor) are found in patients with oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome, a congenital disorder affecting visual system development, and loss-of-function studies in zebrafish and Xenopus demonstrate a role for Bcor during normal optic cup development in preventing colobomata. The mechanism whereby BCOR functions during eye development to prevent colobomata is not known, but in other contexts it serves as a transcriptional corepressor that potentiates transcriptional repression by B cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6). Here, we have explored the function of the zebrafish ortholog of Bcl6, Bcl6a, during eye development, and our results demonstrate that Bcl6a, like Bcor, is required to prevent colobomata during optic cup formation. Our data demonstrate that Bcl6a acts downstream of Vax1 and Vax2, known regulators of ventral optic cup formation and choroid fissure closure, and that bcl6a is a direct target of Vax2. Together, this regulatory network functions to repress p53 expression and thereby suppress apoptosis in the developing optic cup. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that Bcl6a functions cooperatively with Bcor, Rnf2 and Hdac1 in a common gene regulatory network that acts to repress p53 and prevent colobomata. Together, these data support a model in which p53-dependent apoptosis needs to be tightly regulated for normal optic cup formation and that Bcl6a, Bcor, Rnf2 and Hdac1 activities mediate this regulation. PMID:23669349

  12. Lysosomal destabilization in p53-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xi-Ming; Li, Wei; Dalen, Helge; Lotem, Joseph; Kama, Rachel; Sachs, Leo; Brunk, Ulf T.

    2002-01-01

    The tumor suppressor wild-type p53 can induce apoptosis. M1-t-p53 myeloid leukemic cells have a temperature-sensitive p53 protein that changes its conformation to wild-type p53 after transfer from 37°C to 32°C. We have now found that these cells showed an early lysosomal rupture after transfer to 32°C. Mitochondrial damage, including decreased membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, and the appearance of apoptotic cells occurred later. Lysosomal rupture, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis were all inhibited by the cytokine IL-6. Some other compounds can also inhibit apoptosis induced by p53. The protease inhibitor N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone inhibited the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin inhibited only cytochrome c release, and the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole inhibited only the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast to IL-6, these other compounds that inhibited some of the later occurring mitochondrial damage did not inhibit the earlier p53-induced lysosomal damage. The results indicate that apoptosis is induced by p53 through a lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway that is initiated by lysosomal destabilization, and that this pathway can be dissected by using different apoptosis inhibitors. These findings on the induction of p53-induced lysosomal destabilization can also help to formulate new therapies for diseases with apoptotic disorders. PMID:11959917

  13. Calcarea carbonica induces apoptosis in cancer cells in p53-dependent manner via an immuno-modulatory circuit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complementary medicines, including homeopathy, are used by many patients with cancer, usually alongside with conventional treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms underneath the anti-cancer effect, if any, of these medicines have still remained unexplored. To this end we attempted to evaluate the efficacy of calcarea carbonica, a homeopathic medicine, as an anti-cancer agent and to delineate the detail molecular mechanism(s) underlying calcerea carbonica-induced tumor regression. Methods To investigate and delineate the underlying mechanisms of calcarea carbonica-induced tumor regression, Trypan blue dye-exclusion test, flow cytometric, Western blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR techniques were employed. Further, siRNA transfections and inhibitor studies were used to validate the involvement of p53 pathway in calcarea carbonica-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Results Interestingly, although calcarea carbonica administration to Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC)- and Sarcoma-180 (S-180)-bearing Swiss albino mice resulted in 30-35% tumor cell apoptosis, it failed to induce any significant cell death in ex vivo conditions. These results prompted us to examine whether calcarea carbonica employs the immuno-modulatory circuit in asserting its anti-tumor effects. Calcarea carbonica prevented tumor-induced loss of effector T cell repertoire, reversed type-2 cytokine bias and attenuated tumor-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation in tumor-bearing host. To confirm the role of immune system in calcarea carbonica-induced cancer cell death, a battery of cancer cells were co-cultured with calcarea carbonica-primed T cells. Our results indicated a "two-step" mechanism of the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by calcarea carbonica i.e., (1) activation of the immune system of the host; and (2) induction of cancer cell apoptosis via immuno-modulatory circuit in p53-dependent manner by down-regulating Bcl-2:Bax ratio. Bax up-regulation resulted in

  14. The p53-dependent radioadaptive response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    We already reported that conditioning exposures at low doses, or at low dose-rates, lowered radiation-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cultured cells in vitro and in the spleens of mice in vivo. In this study, the aim was to characterize the p53-dependent radioadaptive response at the molecular level. We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 containing cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53-null. Cellular radiation sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. The accumulation of p53, Hdm2, and iNOS was analyzed with Western blotting. The quantification of chromosomal aberrations was estimated by scoring dicentrics per cell. In wtp53 cells, it was demonstrated that the lack of p53 accumulation was coupled with the activation of Hdm2 after low dose irradiation (0.02 Gy). Although NO radicals were only minimally induced in wtp53 cells irradiated with a challenging irradiation (6 Gy) alone, NO radicals were seen to increase about 2-4 fold after challenging irradiation following a priming irradiation (0.02 Gy). Under similar irradiation conditions with a priming and challenging irradiation in wtp53 cells, induction of radioresistance and a depression of chromosomal aberrations were observed only in the absence of Pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor), RITA or Nutlin-3 (p53-Hdm2 interaction inhibitors), aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor) and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). On the other hand, in p53 dysfunctional cells, a radioadaptive response was not observed in the presence or absence of those inhibitors. Moreover, radioresistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with ISDN (an NO generating agent) alone. These findings suggest that NO radicals are an initiator of the radioadaptive response acting through the activation of Hdm2 and the depression of p53 accumulations.

  15. Chromium oxide nanoparticle-induced genotoxicity and p53-dependent apoptosis in human lung alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Violet Aileen; Jain, Abhishek Kumar; Gupta, Govind Sharan; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-10-01

    Chromium oxide (Cr2 O3 ) nanoparticles (NPs) are being increasingly used as a catalyst for aromatic compound manufacture, abrading agents and as pigments (e.g., Viridian). Owing to increased applications, it is important to study the biological effects of Cr2 O3 NPs on human health. The lung is one of the main exposure routes to nanomaterials; therefore, the present study was designed to determine the genotoxic and apoptotic effect of Cr2 O3 NPs in human lung epithelial cells (A549). The study also elucidated the molecular mechanism of its toxicity. Cr2 O3 NPs led to DNA damage, which was deduced by comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The damage could be mediated by the increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Further, the oxygen species led to a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in the ratio of BAX/Bcl-2 leading to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by Cr2 O3 NPs, which ultimately leads to cell death. Hence, there is a need of regulations to be imposed in NP usage. The study provided insight into the caspase-dependent mechanistic pathway of apoptosis. PMID:26086747

  16. Eriocalyxin B induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through caspase- and p53-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lin; Yue, Grace G.L.; Lau, Clara B.S.; Sun, Handong; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung; Han, Quanbin; Leung, Po Sing

    2012-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect early and responds poorly to chemotherapy. A breakthrough in the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Eriocalyxin B (EriB), isolated from the Isodon eriocalyx plant, is an ent-kaurane diterpenoid with promise as a broad-spectrum anti-cancer agent. The anti-leukemic activity of EriB, including the underlying mechanisms involved, has been particularly well documented. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time EriB's potent cytotoxicity against four pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely PANC-1, SW1990, CAPAN-1, and CAPAN-2. The effects were comparable to that of the chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CAM), but with much lower toxicity against normal human liver WRL68 cells. EriB's cytoxicity against CAPAN-2 cells was found to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, the p53 pathway was found to be activated by EriB in these cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that EriB inhibited the growth of human pancreatic tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects. These results suggest that EriB should be considered a candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. -- Highlights: ► We study Eriocalyxin B (EriB)'s cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cancer cell lines. ► EriB inhibits cell proliferation via mediation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. ► The effects are involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis and p53 pathway. ► In vivo study also shows EriB inhibits the growth of human pancreatic tumor. ► EriB can be a good candidate for chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

  17. Neuropeptide Y protects kidney against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by regulating p53-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namoh; Min, Woo-Kie; Park, Min Hee; Lee, Jong Kil; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug for treating various types of cancers. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its negative effect on normal tissues, particularly nephrotoxicity. Various mechanisms such as DNA adduct formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are involved in the adverse effect induced by cisplatin treatment. Several studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in neuroprotection as well as restoration of bone marrow dysfunction from chemotherapy induced nerve injury. However, the role of NPY in chemotherapy- induced nephrotoxicity has not been studied. Here, we show that NPY rescues renal dysfunction by reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity through Y1 receptor, suggesting that NPY can protect kidney against cisplatin nephrotoxicity as a possible useful agent to prevent and treat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 288-292]. PMID:26728272

  18. Volatile Oil of Acori Graminei Rhizoma-Induced Apoptosis and Autophagy are dependent on p53 Status in Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Jiang, Zhuyun; Ma, Hui; Ning, Ling; Chen, Hongdan; Li, Li; Qi, Hongyi

    2016-01-01

    Acori Graminei Rhizoma is well known for the beneficial effects on CNS disorders in traditional medicine. Though it is frequently prescribed in formulations for brain tumors, the anti-glioma effect has not been examined. We used volatile oil of Acori Graminei Rhizoma (VOA) and human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells in this study. We found that VOA exhibited greater growth suppression in p53 wild-type cells than p53 mutant cells and very low effect on fibroblasts and human glial HEB cells. Apoptosis was triggered by VOA with a caspase-dependent way in p53 wild-type A172 cells, while a caspase-independent way in p53 mutant U251 cells. Meanwhile, both A172 and U251 cells treated by VOA displayed autophagic features. Furthermore, p53 decrease was observed along with VOA-induced apoptosis and autophagy in A172 cells. VOA-induced autophagy was mediated through a p53/AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in A172 cells, while an mTOR-independent signaling pathway in U251 cells. Finally, blockage of autophagy potentiated the proapoptotic effect in both A172 and U251 cells, indicating a protective role of autophagy in VOA-induced cell death. Together, VOA exhibited anti-tumor activity in human GBM cells and induced apoptotic cell death and protective autophagy, which is cell type specific and dependent on p53 status. PMID:26892186

  19. Regulation of p53-dependent apoptosis, transcriptional repression, and cell transformation by phosphorylation of the 55-kilodalton E1B protein of human adenovirus type 5.

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, J G; Branton, P E

    1997-01-01

    The adenovirus type 5 55-kDa E1B protein (E1B-55kDa) cooperates with E1A gene products to induce cell transformation. E1A proteins stimulate DNA synthesis and cell proliferation; however, they also cause rapid cell death by p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. It is believed that the role of the E1B-55kDa protein in transformation is to protect against p53-dependent apoptosis by binding to and inactivating p53. It has been shown previously that the 55-kDa polypeptide abrogates p53-mediated transactivation and that mutants defective in p53 binding are unable to cooperate with E1A in transformation. We have previously mapped phosphorylation sites near the carboxy terminus of the E1B-55kDa protein at Ser-490 and Ser-491, which lie within casein kinase II consensus sequences. Conversion of these sites to alanine residues greatly reduced transforming activity, and although the mutant 55-kDa protein was found to interact with p53 at normal levels, it was somewhat defective for suppression of p53 transactivation activity. We now report that a nearby residue, Thr-495, also appears to be phosphorylated. We demonstrate directly that the wild-type 55-kDa protein is able to block E1A-induced p53-dependent apoptosis, whereas cells infected by mutant pm490/1/5A, which contains alanine residues at all three phosphorylation sites, exhibited extensive DNA fragmentation and classic apoptotic cell death. The E1B-55kDa product has been shown to exhibit intrinsic transcriptional repression activity when localized to promoters, such as by fusion with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, even in the absence of p53. Such repression activity was totally absent with mutant pm490/1/5A. These data suggested that inhibition of p53-dependent apoptosis may depend on the transcriptional repression function of the 55-kDa protein, which appears to be regulated be phosphorylation at the carboxy terminus. PMID:9094635

  20. Astemizole-Histamine induces Beclin-1-independent autophagy by targeting p53-dependent crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jakhar, Rekha; Paul, Souren; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis and autophagy are genetically regulated, evolutionarily conserved processes that can jointly seal cancer cell fates, and numerous death stimuli are capable of activating either pathway. Although crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is quite complex and sometimes contradictory, it remains a key factor determining the outcomes of death-related pathologies such as cancer. In the present study, exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to HIS and the H1 receptor antagonist AST both alone and together with HIS (AST-HIS) led to generation of intracellular ROS, which induced massive cellular vacuolization through dilation of the ER and mitochondria. Consequently, apoptosis by Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation were triggered. In addition, AST-HIS caused ER stress-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, with surprisingly no changes in Beclin-1 expression. Non-canonical autophagy was induced via p53 phosphorylation, which increased p53-p62 interactions to enhance Beclin-1-independent autophagy as evidenced by immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation. In the absence of Beclin-1, enhanced autophagy further activated apoptosis through caspase induction. In conclusion, these findings indicate that AST-HIS-induced apoptosis and autophagy can be regulated by ROS-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:26739061

  1. Oridonin induces apoptosis in SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells via p53- and caspase-dependent induction of p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Bu, He-Qi; Liu, Dian-Lei; Wei, Wei-Tian; Chen, Liang; Huang, Hai; Li, Ye; Cui, Jun-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Oridonin, an active component isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activity and the mechanisms of action of oridonin in pancreatic cancer. Oridonin treatment significantly induced apoptotic cell death in SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cell apoptosis was markedly inhibited by PFT α (pifithrin α), a p53-specific inhibitor, which was applied to evaluate the function of p53, showing that p53 was responsible for the cytotoxity of oridonin. Moreover, oridonin increased the expression of p-p53 with a concomitant increase in p21 in the SW1990 cells. Following treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), the cytotoxity of oridonin was not influenced by JNK (SP600125) and ERK (PD98059), but these effects were opposite to the cytotoxity of oridonin observed with SP203580 treatment. These findings confirmed that orodonin-induced apoptosis was p38-dependent, but JNK- and ERK-independent. Furthermore, the activation of the p38 kinase promoted the activation of p53 and its downstream target p21, and further caused caspase-9 and -3 activation, as demonstrated by evidence showing that the p38 inhibitor SB203580 not only blocked the phosphorylation of p38 but also reduced the activation of p53, p21 and caspase-9 and -3. Collectively, these results suggest that p53-dependent and caspase-dependent induction of p38 MAPK directly participates in apoptosis induced by oridonin. PMID:24297112

  2. Ethanol extract of paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (PSE) induced AGS human gastric cancer cell apoptosis via fas-dependent apoptosis and MDM2-p53 pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (PSE), also known as Moutan Cortex, has been widely used in Asia to treat various diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which PSE exerts its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities are well known, but its anti-cancer activity is not yet well understood. Here, we present evidence demonstrating that PSE can be used as a potent anti-cancer agent to treat gastric cancer. Methods The effects of the ethanol extract of PSE on cell proliferation were determined using an MTT (1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan) assay. Cell cytotoxicity induced by the PSE extact is measured using an LDH leakage assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle and to measure the subG0/G1 apoptotic cell fraction. Apoptosis induced by the PSE extact is also examined using a DNA fragmentation assay. Western blot analysis is used to measure the levels of apoptotic proteins such as Fas receptor, caspase-8, caspase-3, PARP, Bax, Bcl-2, MDM2, and p53. Results This study demonstrated that treating AGS cells with the PSE extact significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The PSE extract also induced apoptosis in AGS cells, as measured by flow cytometry and a DNA fragmentation assay. We found that the PSE extract induced apoptosis via the extrinsic Fas-mediated apoptosis pathway, which was concurrent with the activation of caspases, including caspase-8 and caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. The MDM2-p53 pathway also played a role in the apoptosis of AGS cells that was induced by the PSE extract. Conclusions These results clearly demonstrate that the PSE extact displays growth-suppressive activity and induces apoptosis in AGS cells. Our data suggest that the PSE extact might be a potential anti-cancer agent for gastric cancer. PMID:22963678

  3. 5-Fluorouracil-induced RNA stress engages a TRAIL-DISC-dependent apoptosis axis facilitated by p53

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Birce; Bracht, Ethiene V.; Reijnders, Dorin; Safarikova, Barbora; Jelinkova, Iva; Grandien, Alf; Vaculova, Alena Hyrslova; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Olsson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in targeted therapeutics, administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) remains a common clinical strategy for post-surgical treatment of solid tumors. Although it has been proposed that RNA metabolism is disturbed by 5-FU treatment, the key cytotoxic response is believed to be enzymatic inhibition of thymidylate synthase resulting in nucleotide pool disproportions. An operating p53 tumor suppressor signaling network is in many cases essential for the efficiency of chemotherapy, and malfunctions within this system remain a clinical obstacle. Since the fate of chemotherapy-insensitive tumor cells is rarely described, we performed a comparative analysis of 5-FU toxicity in p53-deficient cells and conclude that p53 acts as a facilitator rather than a gatekeeper of cell death. Although p53 can act as a regulator of several cellular stress responses, no rerouting of cell death mode was observed in absence of the tumor suppressor. Thus, the final death outcome of 5-FU-treated p53−/− cells is demonstrated to be caspase-dependent, but due to a slow pace, accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species contributes to necrotic characteristics. The oligomerization status of the p53 target gene DR5 is determined as a significant limiting factor for the initiation of caspase activity in an intracellular TRAIL-dependent manner. Using several experimental approaches, we further conclude that RNA- rather than DNA-related stress follows by caspase activation irrespectively of p53 status. A distinct 5-FU-induced stress mechanism is thereby functionally connected to a successive and discrete cell death signaling pathway. Finally, we provide evidence that silencing of PARP-1 function may be an approach to specifically target p53-deficient cells in 5-FU combinatorial treatment strategies. Together, our results disclose details of impaired cell death signaling engaged as a consequence of 5-FU chemotherapy. Obtained data will contribute to the comprehension of

  4. p53-Dependent apoptosis induced in human bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells by PM(2.5) sampled from air in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Liang, Guiqiang; Qin, Huiyan; Peng, Xiaowu; Huang, Jiongli; Li, Qin; Qing, Li; Zhang, Li'e; Chen, Li; Ye, Li; Niu, Piye; Zou, Yunfeng

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. In this study, human bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells were exposed to different concentrations (16-128 µg/ml) of PM(2.5) for 24 h to investigate the apoptosis induced by PM(2.5). The results showed that PM(2.5) exposure significantly induced apoptosis, DNA strand breaks, and oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner in 16-HBE cells. The expression of p53 and p73 increased significantly along with the dose of PM(2.5) in 16-HBE cells, whereas the expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1) decreased; the expression of mdm2 increased and then decreased, but not significantly. Taken together, these observations indicate that PM(2.5) may lead to oxidative damage and induce apoptosis through the p53-dependent pathway in 16-HBE cells. p53-Dependent apoptosis mediated by DNA strand breaks may be an important mechanism of PM(2.5)-induced apoptosis in 16-HBE cells. PMID:25133668

  5. An anthraquinone derivative from Luffa acutangula induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 through p53-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Vanajothi, Ramar; Srinivasan, Pappu

    2016-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative activity of 1,8-dihydroxy-4-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (DHMA) isolated from the Luffa acutangula against human non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460). Induction of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined through fluorescence microscopic technique. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting analysis was carried out to detect the expression of pro-apoptotic (p53, p21, caspase-3, Bax, GADD45A, and ATM) and anti-apoptotic (NF-κB) proteins in NCI-H460 cell line. In silico studies also performed to predict the binding mechanism of DHMA with MDM2-p53 protein. The DHMA inhibited the cell viability of NCI-H460 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of about 50 µg/ml. It significantly reduced cell viability correlated with induction of apoptosis, which was associated with ROS generation. The apoptotic cell death was further confirmed through dual staining and DNA fragmentation assay. DHMA significantly increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein such as p53, p21, Bax, and caspase-3 but downregulated the expression of NF-κB in NCI-H460 cell line. In silico studies demonstrate that DHMA formed hydrogen bond interaction with key residues Trp26, Phe55 and Lys24 by which it disrupt the binding of p53 with MDM2 receptor. These findings suggested that DHMA induces apoptosis in NCI-H460 via a p53-dependent pathway. This the first study on cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing activity of DHMA from L. acutangula against NCI-H460 cell line. Therefore, DHMA has therapeutic potential for lung cancer treatment. PMID:26585176

  6. Induction of p53-independent apoptosis by a novel synthetic hexahydrocannabinol analog is mediated via Sp1-dependent NSAID-activated gene-1 in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Dinesh; Babu, Dinesh; Park, Min-A; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, Yong-Rok; Kim, Jeong Min; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2010-07-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) has received greater attention as a novel molecular target for anti-cancer therapeutics in recent years. We identified a novel synthetic hexahydrocannabinol analog, LYR-8 [(1-((9S)-1-hydroxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-6a,7,8,9,10,10a-hexahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-2-yl)ethanone)], as a potent NAG-1 and apoptosis inducer in a panel of human cancer cells. LYR-8 did not possess any affinity for cannabinoid receptor CB(1) or CB(2), which eliminates the concern about potential psychoactive side effects. LYR-8 dramatically induced NAG-1 expression and apoptosis in HCT116 (wild-type p53) and HT29 (mutant p53) colon cancer cells. The NAG-1 expression by LYR-8 was not blocked by pifithrin-alpha, a specific p53 inhibitor, which was different from doxorubicin that induced p53-dependent NAG-1 transcriptional activity. The induction of NAG-1 promoter activity by LYR-8 was strongly correlated with increased Sp1 activation as noted in various luc-promoter activities. Furthermore, pretreatment with the specific Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A completely reversed the LYR-8-induced NAG-1 expression in both HCT116 and HT29 cells. Knockdown of NAG-1 using siRNA significantly reversed LYR-8-induced cell death in both wild-type and mutant p53-expressing colon cancer cells. Furthermore, sensitization with NAG-1 inducer sulindac sulfide synergized LYR-8-induced cell death in both colon cancer cells. These results suggest that induction of NAG-1 via Sp1 activation is a promising therapeutic approach in cancer treatment, and that a novel compound like LYR-8 could be a potent chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancers including p53-mutated cancer. PMID:20230799

  7. A new semisynthetic 1-O-acetyl-6-O-lauroylbritannilactone induces apoptosis of human laryngocarcinoma cells through p53-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang-Yang; Tang, Jiang-Jiang; Gao, Rong-Fang; Guo, Xin; Lei, Ming; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2016-09-01

    Initiation of apoptosis is an important event for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. Naturally derived products had drawn growing attention as lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery. ABL-L, a semisynthetic analogue of natural sesquiterpenoid 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) isolated from Inula britannica, showed stronger suppression against three solid tumor cell lines with 4-10 fold improvement than ABL. However, its molecular mechanism of cell death induction has still not been determined. The present study evaluated the anticancer efficacy of ABL-L and its biological activities mechanism on human laryngocarcinoma cells HEp-2 in vitro. We found that ABL-L-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was associated with an increase in G1-phase arrest. Typical apoptotic morphological and biochemical features were also observed in treated cells. Furthermore, the levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, pro-caspase 3/8/9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP decreased, and the level of pro-apoptotic Bax increased. Involvement of the caspase-mediated apoptosis was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. In addition, ABL-L induced a tumor suppressor p53 and its target genes expression p21, fas, noxa and puma. The results of p53 knockdown suggest that caspase-mediated apoptosis induced by ABL-L was in p53-dependent pathway on HEp-2 cells. Our data indicate that the cytotoxicity of the novel semisynthetic analogue ABL-L involved G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a p53-dependent, caspase-mediated pathway on human laryngocarcinoma cells. PMID:27262408

  8. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wang, Yen-Ting; Kao, Jun-Kai; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Husan-Wen; Chang, Chuan-Hsun; Liang, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Jau-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2013-02-15

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ► Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ► Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ► Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ► p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ► Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

  9. Epothilones Suppress Neointimal Thickening in the Rat Carotid Balloon-Injury Model by Inducing Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis through p53-Dependent Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Jung, Jae Chul; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule stabilizing agents (MTSA) are known to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Epothilones (EPOs), non-taxane MTSA, have been found to be effective in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation by cell cycle arrest. However, effect of EPOs on apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs as a possible way to reduce neointimal formation and its action mechanism related to VSMC viability has not been suited yet. Thus, the purposes of the present study was to investigate whether EPOs are able to inhibit neointimal formation by inducing apoptosis within the region of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery, as well as underlying action mechanism. Treatment of EPO-B and EPO-D significantly induced apoptotic cell death and mitotic catastrophe in hyper-proliferated VSMCs, resulting in cell growth inhibition. Further, EPOs significantly suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis by activation of p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-3. We further demonstrated that the local treatment of carotid arteries with EPOs potently inhibited neointimal lesion formation by induction of apoptosis in rat carotid injury model. Our findings demonstrate a potent anti-neointimal hyperplasia property of EPOs by inducing p53-depedent apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs. PMID:27218463

  10. Over-expression of C/EBP-{alpha} induces apoptosis in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells depending on p53 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xueqing; Huang Guangcun; Mei Shuang; Qian Jin; Ji Juling; Zhang Jinsheng

    2009-03-06

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. In our previous studies, CCAAT enhancer binding protein-{alpha} (C/EBP-{alpha}) has been shown to be involved in the activation of HSCs and to have a repression effect on hepatic fibrosis in vivo. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that the infection of adenovirus vector expressing C/EBP-{alpha} gene (Ad-C/EBP-{alpha}) could induce HSCs apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by Annexin V/PI staining, caspase-3 activation assay, and flow cytometry. Also, over-expression of C/EBP-{alpha} resulted in the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) and P53, while P53 expression was regulated by PPAR-{gamma}. In addition, Fas, FasL, DR4, DR5, and TRAIL were studied. The results indicated that the death receptor pathway was mainly involved and regulated by PPAR-{gamma} and p53 in the process of apoptosis triggered by C/EBP-{alpha} in HSCs.

  11. Wild-type and mutated presenilins 2 trigger p53-dependent apoptosis and down-regulate presenilin 1 expression in HEK293 human cells and in murine neurons.

    PubMed

    Alves da Costa, Cristine; Paitel, Erwan; Mattson, Mark P; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam; Ancolio, Karine; Checler, Frédéric; Mattson, Marc P

    2002-03-19

    Presenilins 1 and 2 are two homologous proteins that, when mutated, account for most early onset Alzheimer's disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that, among various functions, presenilins could modulate cell apoptotic responses. Here we establish that the overexpression of presenilin 2 (PS2) and its mutated form Asn-141-Ile-PS2 alters the viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells as established by combined trypan blue exclusion, sodium 3'-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic acid hydrate assay, and propidium iodide incorporation FACS analyses. The two parent proteins increase the acetyl-DEVD-al-sensitive caspase-3-like activity in both HEK293 cells and Telencephalon specific murine neurons, modulate Bax and bcl-2 expressions, and enhance cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol. We show that overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 increases p53-like immunoreactivity and transcriptional activity. We also establish that wild-type- and mutated PS2-induced caspase activation is reduced by p53 antisense approach and by pifithrin-alpha, a chemical inhibitor of p53. Furthermore, mouse fibroblasts in which the PS2 gene has been knocked out exhibited strongly reduced p53-transcriptional activity. Finally, we establish that the overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 is accompanied by a drastic reduction of endogenous presenilin 1 (PS1) expression. Interestingly, pifithrin-alpha diminished endogenous PS2 immunoreactivity, whereas the inhibitor increases PS1 expression. Altogether, our data demonstrate that wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease-linked PS2 trigger apoptosis and down-regulate PS1 expression through p53-dependent mechanisms. PMID:11904448

  12. Cr(VI) induces mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated p53 activation in JB6 Cl41 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Hitron, J. Andrew; Wang Xin; Chang Qingshan; Pan Jingju; Zhang Zhuo; Liu Jiankang; Wang Shuxia; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi Xianglin

    2010-06-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known to cause serious toxic and carcinogenic effects. Cr(VI) exposure can lead to a severe damage to the skin, but the mechanisms involved in the Cr(VI)-mediated toxicity in the skin are unclear. The present study examined whether Cr(VI) induces cell death by apoptosis or necrosis using mouse skin epidermal cell line, JB6 Cl41 cells. We also investigated the cellular mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced cell death. This study showed that Cr(VI) induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by the appearance of cell shrinkage, the migration of cells into the sub-G1 phase, the increase of Annexin V positively stained cells, and the formation of nuclear DNA ladders. Cr(VI) treatment resulted in the increases of mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspases activation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and fluorescence analysis revealed that Cr(VI) increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical in dose-dependent manner. Blockage of p53 by si-RNA transfection suppressed mitochondrial changes of Bcl-2 family composition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase activation and PARP cleavage, leading to the inhibition of Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis. Further, catalase treatment prevented p53 phosphorylation stimulated by Cr(VI) with the concomitant inhibition of caspase activation. These results suggest that Cr(VI) induced a mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis in skin epidermal cells through activation of p53, which are mainly mediated by reactive oxidants generated by the chemical.

  13. MicroRNA-7 Compromises p53 Protein-dependent Apoptosis by Controlling the Expression of the Chromatin Remodeling Factor SMARCD1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chun-Fu; Lin, Shu-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ting; Wu, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-22

    We previously demonstrated that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) up-regulated miR-7 to promote tumor growth during lung cancer oncogenesis. Several lines of evidence have suggested that alterations in chromatin remodeling components contribute to cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we identified SMARCD1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 1) as a novel target gene of miR-7. miR-7 expression reduced SMARCD1 protein expression in lung cancer cell lines. We used luciferase reporters carrying wild type or mutated 3'UTR of SMARCD1 and found that miR-7 blocked SMARCD1 expression by binding to two seed regions in the 3'UTR of SMARCD1 and down-regulated SMARCD1 mRNA expression. Additionally, upon chemotherapy drug treatment, miR-7 down-regulated p53-dependent apoptosis-related gene BAX (BCL2-associated X protein) and p21 expression by interfering with the interaction between SMARCD1 and p53, thereby reducing caspase3 cleavage and the downstream apoptosis cascades. We found that although SMARCD1 sensitized lung cancer cells to chemotherapy drug-induced apoptosis, miR-7 enhanced the drug resistance potential of lung cancer cells against chemotherapy drugs. SMARCD1 was down-regulated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, and SMARCD1 and miR-7 expression levels were negatively correlated in clinical samples. Our investigation into the involvement of the EGFR-regulated microRNA pathway in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex suggests that EGFR-mediated miR-7 suppresses the coupling of the chromatin remodeling factor SMARCD1 with p53, resulting in increased chemo-resistance of lung cancer cells. PMID:26542803

  14. Low Levels of p53 Protein and Chromatin Silencing of p53 Target Genes Repress Apoptosis in Drosophila Endocycling Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingqing; Mehrotra, Sonam; Ng, Wei Lun; Calvi, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is an important response to genotoxic stress that prevents oncogenesis. It is known that tissues can differ in their apoptotic response, but molecular mechanisms are little understood. Here, we show that Drosophila polyploid endocycling cells (G/S cycle) repress the apoptotic response to DNA damage through at least two mechanisms. First, the expression of all the Drosophila p53 protein isoforms is strongly repressed at a post-transcriptional step. Second, p53-regulated pro-apoptotic genes are epigenetically silenced in endocycling cells, preventing activation of a paused RNA Pol II by p53-dependent or p53-independent pathways. Over-expression of the p53A isoform did not activate this paused RNA Pol II complex in endocycling cells, but over-expression of the p53B isoform with a longer transactivation domain did, suggesting that dampened p53B protein levels are crucial for apoptotic repression. We also find that the p53A protein isoform is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in endocycling cells. In mitotic cycling cells, p53A was the only isoform expressed to detectable levels, and its mRNA and protein levels increased after irradiation, but there was no evidence for an increase in protein stability. However, our data suggest that p53A protein stability is regulated in unirradiated cells, which likely ensures that apoptosis does not occur in the absence of stress. Without irradiation, both p53A protein and a paused RNA pol II were pre-bound to the promoters of pro-apoptotic genes, preparing mitotic cycling cells for a rapid apoptotic response to genotoxic stress. Together, our results define molecular mechanisms by which different cells in development modulate their apoptotic response, with broader significance for the survival of normal and cancer polyploid cells in mammals. PMID:25211335

  15. Cardiac deficiency of single cytochrome oxidase assembly factor scox induces p53-dependent apoptosis in a Drosophila cardiomyopathy model

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Morentin, Leticia; Martínez, Lidia; Piloto, Sarah; Yang, Hua; Schon, Eric A.; Garesse, Rafael; Bodmer, Rolf; Ocorr, Karen; Cervera, Margarita; Arredondo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The heart is a muscle with high energy demands. Hence, most patients with mitochondrial disease produced by defects in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system are susceptible to cardiac involvement. The presentation of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy includes hypertrophic, dilated and left ventricular noncompaction, but the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac impairment are unknown. One of the most frequent OXPHOS defects in humans frequently associated with cardiomyopathy is cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency caused by mutations in COX assembly factors such as Sco1 and Sco2. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the cardiomyopathy associated with Sco deficiency, we have heart specifically interfered scox expression, the single Drosophila Sco orthologue. Cardiac-specific knockdown of scox reduces fly lifespan, and it severely compromises heart function and structure, producing dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyocytes with low levels of scox have a significant reduction in COX activity and they undergo a metabolic switch from OXPHOS to glycolysis, mimicking the clinical features found in patients harbouring Sco mutations. The major cardiac defects observed are produced by a significant increase in apoptosis, which is dp53-dependent. Genetic and molecular evidence strongly suggest that dp53 is directly involved in the development of the cardiomyopathy induced by scox deficiency. Remarkably, apoptosis is enhanced in the muscle and liver of Sco2 knock-out mice, clearly suggesting that cell death is a key feature of the COX deficiencies produced by mutations in Sco genes in humans. PMID:25792727

  16. Long non-coding RNA ZFAS1 interacts with CDK1 and is involved in p53-dependent cell cycle control and apoptosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thorenoor, Nithyananda; Faltejskova-Vychytilova, Petra; Hombach, Sonja; Mlcochova, Jitka; Kretz, Markus; Svoboda, Marek; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    We determined expression of 83 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and identified ZFAS1 to be significantly up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. In cohort of 119 CRC patients we observed that 111 cases displayed at least two-times higher expression of ZFAS1 in CRC compared to paired normal colorectal tissue (P < 0.0001). By use of CRC cell lines (HCT116+/+, HCT116−/− and DLD-1) we showed, that ZFAS1 silencing decreases proliferation through G1-arrest of cell cycle, and also tumorigenicity of CRC cells. We identified Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) as interacting partner of ZFAS1 by pull-down experiment and RNA immunoprecipitation. Further, we have predicted by bioinformatics approach ZFAS1 to sponge miR-590-3p, which was proved to target CDK1. Levels of CDK1 were not affected by ZFAS1 silencing, but cyclin B1 was decreased in both cell lines. We observed significant increase in p53 levels and PARP cleavage in CRC cell lines after ZFAS1 silencing indicating increase in apoptosis. Our data suggest that ZFAS1 may function as oncogene in CRC by two main actions: (i) via destabilization of p53 and through (ii) interaction with CDK1/cyclin B1 complex leading to cell cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis. However, molecular mechanisms behind these interactions have to be further clarified. PMID:26506418

  17. Combined treatment with vitamin C and sulindac synergistically induces p53- and ROS-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Eun-Yeung; Shin, Yu Jin; Hwang, Ih-Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Seung-Mi; Moon, Jai-Hee; Shin, Jae-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee; Hur, Dae Young; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Hong, Seung-Woo; Lee, Won Keun; Lee, Wang-Jae

    2016-09-01

    Sulindac has anti-neoplastic properties against colorectal cancers; however, its use as a chemopreventive agent has been limited due to toxicity and efficacy concerns. Combinatorial treatment of colorectal cancers has been attempted to maximize anti-cancer efficacy with minimal side effects by administrating NSAIDs in combination with other inhibitory compounds or drugs such as l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is known to exhibit cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells at high concentrations. In this study, we evaluated a combinatorial strategy utilizing sulindac and vitamin C. The death of HCT116 cells upon combination therapy occurred via a p53-mediated mechanism. The combination therapeutic resistance developed in isogenic p53 null HCT116 cells and siRNA-mediated p53 knockdown HCT116 cells, but the exogenous expression of p53 in p53 null isogenic cells resulted in the induction of cell death. In addition, we investigated an increased level of intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species), which was preceded by p53 activation. The expression level of PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis), but not Bim, was significantly increased in HCT116 cells in response to the combination treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that combination therapy with sulindac and vitamin C could be a novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategy for p53 wild type colon cancers. PMID:27339904

  18. Hypoxia-induced p53 modulates both apoptosis and radiosensitivity via AKT

    PubMed Central

    Leszczynska, Katarzyna B.; Foskolou, Iosifina P.; Abraham, Aswin G.; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Tellier, Céline; Haider, Syed; Span, Paul N.; O’Neill, Eric E.; Buffa, Francesca M.; Hammond, Ester M.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of hypoxia-induced apoptosis in tumors harboring p53 mutations has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy; however, the transcriptional targets that mediate hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis is reliant on the DNA-binding and transactivation domains of p53 but not on the acetylation sites K120 and K164, which, in contrast, are essential for DNA damage–induced, p53-dependent apoptosis. Evaluation of hypoxia-induced transcripts in multiple cell lines identified a group of genes that are hypoxia-inducible proapoptotic targets of p53, including inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5D), pleckstrin domain–containing A3 (PHLDA3), sulfatase 2 (SULF2), B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2), cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2), and KN motif and ankyrin repeat domains 3 (KANK3). These targets were also regulated by p53 in human cancers, including breast, brain, colorectal, kidney, bladder, and melanoma cancers. Downregulation of these hypoxia-inducible targets associated with poor prognosis, suggesting that hypoxia-induced apoptosis contributes to p53-mediated tumor suppression and treatment response. Induction of p53 targets, PHLDA3, and a specific INPP5D transcript mediated apoptosis in response to hypoxia through AKT inhibition. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of AKT led to apoptosis in the hypoxic regions of p53-deficient tumors and consequently increased radiosensitivity. Together, these results identify mediators of hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis and suggest AKT inhibition may improve radiotherapy response in p53-deficient tumors. PMID:25961455

  19. AS-2, a novel inhibitor of p53-dependent apoptosis, prevents apoptotic mitochondrial dysfunction in a transcription-independent manner and protects mice from a lethal dose of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akinori; Ariyasu, Shinya; Wang, Bing; Asanuma, Tetsuo; Onoda, Takayoshi; Sawa, Akiko; Tanaka, Kaoru; Takahashi, Ippei; Togami, Shotaro; Nenoi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Toshiya; Aoki, Shin

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study, we reported that some tetradentate zinc(II) chelators inhibit p53 through the denaturation of its zinc-requiring structure but a chelator, Bispicen, a potent inhibitor of in vitro apoptosis, failed to show any efficient radioprotective effect against irradiated mice because the toxicity of the chelator to mice. The unsuitability of using tetradentate chelators as radioprotectors prompted us to undertake a more extensive search for p53-inhibiting agents that are weaker zinc(II) chelators and therefore less toxic. Here, we show that an 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis through a transcription-independent mechanism. A mechanistic study using cells with different p53 characteristics revealed that the suppressive effect of AS-2 on apoptosis is specifically mediated through p53. In addition, AS-2 was less effective in preventing p53-mediated transcription-dependent events than pifithrin-μ (PFTμ), an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Fluorescence visualization of the extranuclear distribution of AS-2 also supports that it is ineffective on the transcription-dependent pathway. Further investigations revealed that AS-2 suppressed mitochondrial apoptotic events, such as the mitochondrial release of intermembrane proteins and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, although AS-2 resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial translocation of p53 as opposed to the decrease of cytosolic p53, and did not affect the apoptotic interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. AS-2 also protected mice that had been exposed to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation. Our findings indicate that some types of bidentate 8HQ chelators could serve as radioprotectors with no substantial toxicity in vivo. PMID:25026551

  20. Activation of p53-dependent responses in tumor cells treated with a PARC-interacting peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali, Roberta; Cesi, Vincenzo; Tanno, Barbara; Ferrari-Amorotti, Giovanna; Dominici, Carlo; Calabretta, Bruno; Raschella, Giuseppe

    2008-04-04

    We tested the activity of a p53 carboxy-terminal peptide containing the PARC-interacting region in cancer cells with wild type cytoplasmic p53. Peptide delivery was achieved by fusing it to the TAT transduction domain (TAT-p53-C-ter peptide). In a two-hybrid assay, the tetramerization domain (TD) of p53 was necessary and sufficient to bind PARC. The TAT-p53-C-ter peptide disrupted the PARC-p53 complex. Peptide treatment caused p53 nuclear relocation, p53-dependent changes in gene expression and enhancement of etoposide-induced apoptosis. These studies suggest that PARC-interacting peptides are promising candidates for the enhancement of p53-dependent apoptosis in tumors with wt cytoplasmic p53.

  1. Activation of p53-dependent responses in tumor cells treated with a PARC-interacting peptide.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Roberta; Cesi, Vincenzo; Tanno, Barbara; Ferrari-Amorotti, Giovanna; Dominici, Carlo; Calabretta, Bruno; Raschellà, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    We tested the activity of a p53 carboxy-terminal peptide containing the PARC-interacting region in cancer cells with wild type cytoplasmic p53. Peptide delivery was achieved by fusing it to the TAT transduction domain (TAT-p53-C-ter peptide). In a two-hybrid assay, the tetramerization domain (TD) of p53 was necessary and sufficient to bind PARC. The TAT-p53-C-ter peptide disrupted the PARC-p53 complex. Peptide treatment caused p53 nuclear relocation, p53-dependent changes in gene expression and enhancement of etoposide-induced apoptosis. These studies suggest that PARC-interacting peptides are promising candidates for the enhancement of p53-dependent apoptosis in tumors with wt cytoplasmic p53. PMID:18230339

  2. AS-2, a novel inhibitor of p53-dependent apoptosis, prevents apoptotic mitochondrial dysfunction in a transcription-independent manner and protects mice from a lethal dose of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Akinori; Ariyasu, Shinya; Wang, Bing; Asanuma, Tetsuo; Onoda, Takayoshi; Sawa, Akiko; Tanaka, Kaoru; Takahashi, Ippei; Togami, Shotaro; Nenoi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Toshiya; Aoki, Shin

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • A bidentate HQ derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis by DNA damage. • AS-2 does not significantly affect nuclear p53 response. • UV-excited blue emission of AS-2 clearly showed its extranuclear localization. • AS-2 prevents mitochondrial dysfunction despite the increase of mitochondrial p53. • AS-2 protects mice from a radiation dose that causes lethal hematopoietic syndrome. - Abstract: In a previous study, we reported that some tetradentate zinc(II) chelators inhibit p53 through the denaturation of its zinc-requiring structure but a chelator, Bispicen, a potent inhibitor of in vitro apoptosis, failed to show any efficient radioprotective effect against irradiated mice because the toxicity of the chelator to mice. The unsuitability of using tetradentate chelators as radioprotectors prompted us to undertake a more extensive search for p53-inhibiting agents that are weaker zinc(II) chelators and therefore less toxic. Here, we show that an 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis through a transcription-independent mechanism. A mechanistic study using cells with different p53 characteristics revealed that the suppressive effect of AS-2 on apoptosis is specifically mediated through p53. In addition, AS-2 was less effective in preventing p53-mediated transcription-dependent events than pifithrin-μ (PFTμ), an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Fluorescence visualization of the extranuclear distribution of AS-2 also supports that it is ineffective on the transcription-dependent pathway. Further investigations revealed that AS-2 suppressed mitochondrial apoptotic events, such as the mitochondrial release of intermembrane proteins and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, although AS-2 resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial translocation of p53 as opposed to the decrease of cytosolic p53, and did not affect the apoptotic interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. AS-2 also

  3. Antihepatocellular Carcinoma Potential of Tetramethylpyrazine Induces Cell Cycle Modulation and Mitochondrial-Dependent Apoptosis: Regulation of p53 Signaling Pathway in HepG2 Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lei; Yan, Xiaojing; Chen, Weiping; Gao, Jing; Qian, Lei; Qiu, Shuang

    2016-06-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) was originally isolated from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Ligusticum chuanxiong In the present study, TMP exhibits potent antitumor activities in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. Hence, this study aims to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of TMP on HepG2 and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Analyses using Cell Counting Kit-8 and real-time cell analyzer indicated that TMP significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation. We also observed that TMP induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint and apoptosis, using flow cytometry and high-content screening. Furthermore, our results predicted that TMP could directly decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), increase the release of cytochrome c, and increase caspase activation, indicating that mitochondrial pathway apoptosis could be the mechanism for TMP within HepG2 cells. Moreover, TMP altered expression of p53 and the Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio, which revealed that TMP induced cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in HepG2 cells in vitro. These studies provided mechanistic insights into the antitumor properties of TMP, which may be explored as a potential option for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27179035

  4. The tissue dependent interactions between p53 and Bcl-2 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongshen; Xu, Zhixiang; Li, Bin

    2015-01-01

    To further investigate the role of p53 in apoptosis in vivo and the interaction between p53 and Bcl-2 in the regulation of cellular apoptosis in vivo, we depleted p53 in Bcl-2-null mice. We found that the interaction between p53 and Bcl-2 are tissue dependent. Specifically, loss of p53 in Bcl-2−/− mice inhibits apoptotic induction in spleen and subsequently inhibits the Bcl-2-null-induced spleen atrophy. Furthermore, p53 deficiency overcomes loss of melanocyte stem cell (MSC)-induced apoptosis and subsequently prevents hair graying in Bcl-2- null mice. In addition, p53 deletion partly inhibits apoptosis in hair follicle keratinocytes, leading to the alleviation of hair growth delay in Bcl-2-null mice. However, p53 absence in Bcl-2-null mice cannot restore other defects in Bcl-2-null mice, including retardation of growth, short ears and polycystic kidney disease. PMID:26452131

  5. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  6. Zinc Induces Apoptosis of Human Melanoma Cells, Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species, p53 and FAS Ligand.

    PubMed

    Provinciali, Mauro; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Bartozzi, Beatrice; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro effect of zinc on the apoptosis of human melanoma cells, by studying the zinc-dependent modulation of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of p53 and FAS ligand proteins. We showed that zinc concentrations ranging from 33.7 μM to 75 μM Zn(2+) induced apoptosis in the human melanoma cell line WM 266-4. This apoptosis was associated with an increased production of intracellular ROS, and of p53 and FAS ligand protein. Treatment of tumor cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was able to prevent Zn(2+)-induced apoptosis, as well as the increase of p53 and FAS ligand protein induced by zinc. Zinc induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by increasing ROS and this effect may be mediated by the ROS-dependent induction of p53 and FAS/FAS ligand. PMID:26408691

  7. Nitric oxide evoked p53-accumulation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Brüne, Bernhard; Schneiderhan, Nicole

    2003-04-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 accumulates under conditions of cellular stress and affects cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. This has been exemplified for endogenously produced or exogenously supplied nitric oxide (NO) and thus accounts at least in part for cell destructive signaling qualities of this bioactive molecule and/or derived reactive nitrogen species. However, detailed mechanisms of toxicity and pathways of cell demise remain to be elucidated. Establishing that NO-treatment left the ubiquitination and the p53-Mdm2 interaction intact may point to an impaired nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling to account for p53 stabilization. This was verified by heterokaryon analysis. We conclude that attenuated nuclear export contributes to stabilization and activation of p53 under the influence of NO. PMID:12628747

  8. Neem oil limonoids induces p53-independent apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pragya; Yadav, Neelu; Lella, Ravi; Schneider, Andrea; Jones, Anthony; Marlowe, Timothy; Lovett, Gabrielle; O'Loughlin, Kieran; Minderman, Hans; Gogada, Raghu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2012-11-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9, whereas caspase-8 was also activated late during neem-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cancer cells with pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD inhibited activities of both initiator caspases (e.g., caspase-8 and -9) and executioner caspase-3. Neem induced the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of both caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis. p21 deficiency caused an increase in caspase activities at lower doses of neem, whereas p53 deficiency did not modulate neem-induced caspase activation. Additionally, neem treatment resulted in the accumulation of LC3-II in cancer cells, suggesting the involvement of autophagy in neem-induced cancer cell death. Low doses of autophagy inhibitors (i.e., 3-methyladenine and LY294002) did not prevent accumulation of neem-induced LC3-II in cancer cells. Silencing of ATG5 or Beclin-1 further enhanced neem-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or autophagy inhibitors increased neem-induced caspase-3 activation and inhibition of caspases enhanced neem-induced autophagy. Together, for the first time, we demonstrate that neem induces caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis, and autophagy in cancer cells. PMID:22915764

  9. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer cells is dependent on Bax- and Bak-induction pathway and synergistically activated by BH3-mimetic ABT-263 in p53 wild-type and mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Nakajima, Wataru; Seike, Masahiro; Gemma, Akihiko; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-29

    Cisplatin is a highly effective anticancer drug for treatment of various tumors including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and is especially useful in cases nonresponsive to molecular-targeted drugs. Accumulating evidence has shown that cisplatin activates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway, but it also induces apoptosis in p53-mutated cancer cells. Here we demonstrated that DNA-damage inducible proapoptotic BH3 (Bcl-2 homology region 3)-only Bcl-2 family members, Noxa, Puma, Bim and Bid, are not involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human NSCLC cell lines. In contrast, the expression of proapoptotic multidomain Bcl-2-family members, Bak and Bax, was induced by cisplatin in p53-dependent and -independent manners, respectively. Moreover, in wild-type p53-expressing cells, cisplatin mainly used the Bak-dependent apoptotic pathway, but this apoptotic pathway shifted to the Bax-dependent pathway by loss-of-function of p53. Furthermore, both Bak- and Bax-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, Bcl-XL knockdown, but not by Mcl-1 knockdown. From this result, we tested the effect of ABT-263 (Navitoclax), the specific inhibitor of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, but not Mcl-1, and found that ABT-263 synergistically enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells in the presence or absence of p53. These results indicate a novel regulatory system in cisplatin-induced NSCLC cell apoptosis, and a candidate efficient combination chemotherapy method against lung cancers. PMID:26996126

  10. Knockdown of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptosis of H1299 cells via ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Yim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Song, Jie-Young; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk; Park, In-Chul; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. • ROS generation enhances NF-κB activity, which acts as an upstream signal in the c-Myc/Noxa apoptotic pathway. - Abstract: We previously identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistant biomarker in p53 wild-type A549 cells and found that p53-dependent induction of the PUMA pathway was a critical event in regulating the radioresistant phenotype. Here, we found that HRP-3 knockdown regulates the radioresistance of p53-null H1299 cells through a distinctly different molecular mechanism. HRP-3 depletion was sufficient to cause apoptosis of H1299 cells by generating substantial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. Subsequent, ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation stimulated expression of c-Myc and Noxa proteins, thereby inducing the apoptotic machinery. Our results thus extend the range of targets for the development of new drugs to treat both p53 wild-type or p53-null radioresistant lung cancer cells.

  11. [Bcl-2 inhibits p53-induced apoptosis after genotoxic damage by inhibitors of nuclear import of p53].

    PubMed

    Beham, A; Schumacher, G; McDonnell, T J; Marin, M C; Jauch, K W

    1998-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene p53 in overexpressed in 50% of colorectal carcinomas and is an interesting target for gene therapeutic approaches. Furthermore the protooncogen bcl-2 is known to inhibit p53 induced apoptosis and is expressed in some colorectal carcinomas. In this study mechanism of bcl-2 cell death inhibition after p53 induction were evaluated. The human colon carcinoma cell line RKO posses wild-type p53 and also expresses bcl-2 protein. RKO cells were treated with liposomal bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides (AS), control oligonucleotides (CO) and empty liposomes (EL) resulting in decreased bcl-2 expression. After induction of p53 with gamma-irradiation p53 protein expression was induced in AS, CO and EL pretreated cells. Microscopy and immunoblotting was used to characterize subcellular localization of p53 protein. Further p53 subcellular localisation was examined after p53 transfer of wt p53 cDNA in three bcl-2 expressing cell lines. Most of the p53 protein remained localized in the cytosol and apoptosis was decreased in bcl-2 expressing cells assessed by flow cytometric analysis (Ao). Our data suggests that bcl-2 is able to modulate transmembrane trafficking of p53. This resulted in inhibition of cell death implicating that bcl-2 function is involved in regulation of transmembrane gradients. PMID:14518224

  12. Gene expression profiling analysis reveals arsenic-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells through differential gene pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xiaozhong Robinson, Joshua F.; Gribble, Elizabeth; Hong, Sung Woo; Sidhu, Jaspreet S.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2008-12-15

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known environmental toxicant and carcinogen as well as an effective chemotherapeutic agent. The underlying mechanism of this dual capability, however, is not fully understood. Tumor suppressor gene p53, a pivotal cell cycle checkpoint signaling protein, has been hypothesized to play a possible role in mediating As-induced toxicity and therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we found that arsenite (As{sup 3+}) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in both p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). There was, however, a distinction between genotypes in the apoptotic response, with a more prominent induction of caspase-3 in the p53{sup -/-} cells than in the p53{sup +/+} cells. To examine this difference further, a systems-based genomic analysis was conducted comparing the critical molecular mechanisms between the p53 genotypes in response to As{sup 3+}. A significant alteration in the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway was found in both genotypes. In p53{sup +/+} MEFs, As{sup 3+} induced p53-dependent gene expression alterations in DNA damage and cell cycle regulation genes. However, in the p53{sup -/-} MEFs, As{sup 3+} induced a significant up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (Noxa) and down-regulation of genes in immune modulation. Our findings demonstrate that As-induced cell death occurs through a p53-independent pathway in p53 deficient cells while apoptosis induction occurs through p53-dependent pathway in normal tissue. This difference in the mechanism of apoptotic responses between the genotypes provides important information regarding the apparent dichotomy of arsenic's dual mechanisms, and potentially leads to further advancement of its utility as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  13. Gene expression profiling analysis reveals arsenic-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells through differential gene pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhong; Robinson, Joshua F.; Gribble, Elizabeth; Hong, Sung Woo; Sidhu, Jaspreet S; Faustman, Elaine M

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known environmental toxicant and carcinogen as well as an effective chemotherapeutic agent. The underlying mechanism of this dual capability, however, is not fully understood. Tumor suppressor gene p53, a pivotal cell cycle checkpoint signaling protein, has been hypothesized to play a possible role in mediating As-induced toxicity and therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we found that arsenite (As3+) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in both p53+/+ and p53−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). There was, however, a distinction between genotypes in the apoptotic response, with a more prominent induction of caspase-3 in the p53−/− cells than in the p53+/+ cells. To examine this difference further, a systems-based genomic analysis was conducted comparing the critical molecular mechanisms between the p53 genotypes in response to As3+. A significant alteration in the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway were found in both genotypes. In p53+/+ MEFs, As3+ induced p53-dependent gene expression alterations in DNA damage and cell cycle regulation genes. However, in the p53−/− MEFs, As3+ induced a significant up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (Noxa) and down-regulation of genes in immune modulation. Our findings demonstrate that As-induced cell death occurs through a p53-independent pathway in p53 deficient cells while apoptosis induction occurs through p53-dependent pathway in normal tissue. This difference in the mechanism of apoptotic responses between the genotypes provides important information regarding the apparent dichotomy of arsenic’s dual mechanisms, and potentially leads to further advancement of its utility as a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:18929588

  14. Marijuana smoke condensate induces p53-mediated apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Jung, Mi Hyun; Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Since the largely abused worldwide used of marijuana, there have been many ongoing debates regarding the adverse health effects of marijuana smoking. Marijuana smoking was recently proved to cause pulmonary toxicity by inducing genotoxic effects or generating reactive oxygen species. Because p53, a tumor suppressor gene, has an important pathophysiologic role in the regulation of lung epithelial cell DNA damage responses, we hypothesized that p53 may be involved in the oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by marijuana smoking. First, we confirmed that marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) induces oxidative stress in BEAS-2B cells. We observed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was increased by MSC in the DCFH-DA assay. Also, antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase) activity and their mRNA expressions were up-regulated by MSC. Second, we investigated p53 involvement in the MSC-induced apoptotic pathway in BEAS-2B cells. The results showed that MSC increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation as markers of apoptosis. In addition, the mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bax) were increased by MSC and phospho-p53, along with the increase of Bax protein expression by MSC. Apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression were partially blocked by an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation (pifithrin-α). The results indicate that p53 plays a role in MSC-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that MSC partially induces p53-mediated apoptosis through ROS generation in human lung epithelial cells and this may have broader implications for our understanding of pulmonary diseases. PMID:23665932

  15. Silver nanoparticles defeat p53-positive and p53-negative osteosarcoma cells by triggering mitochondrial stress and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Dávid; Igaz, Nóra; Keskeny, Csilla; Bélteky, Péter; Tóth, Tímea; Gáspár, Renáta; Madarász, Dániel; Rázga, Zsolt; Kónya, Zoltán; Boros, Imre M.; Kiricsi, Mónika

    2016-01-01

    Loss of function of the tumour suppressor p53 observed frequently in human cancers challenges the drug-induced apoptotic elimination of cancer cells from the body. This phenomenon is a major concern and provides much of the impetus for current attempts to develop a new generation of anticancer drugs capable of provoking apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. Since silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) possess unique cytotoxic features, we examined, whether their activity could be exploited to kill tumour suppressor-deficient cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AgNPs on osteosarcoma cells of different p53 genetic backgrounds. As particle diameters might influence the molecular mechanisms leading to AgNP-induced cell death we applied 5 nm and 35 nm sized citrate-coated AgNPs. We found that both sized AgNPs targeted mitochondria and induced apoptosis in wild-type p53-containing U2Os and p53-deficient Saos-2 cells. According to our findings AgNPs are able to kill osteosarcoma cells independently from their actual p53 status and induce p53-independent cancer cell apoptosis. This feature renders AgNPs attractive candidates for novel chemotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27291325

  16. Silver nanoparticles defeat p53-positive and p53-negative osteosarcoma cells by triggering mitochondrial stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Dávid; Igaz, Nóra; Keskeny, Csilla; Bélteky, Péter; Tóth, Tímea; Gáspár, Renáta; Madarász, Dániel; Rázga, Zsolt; Kónya, Zoltán; Boros, Imre M; Kiricsi, Mónika

    2016-01-01

    Loss of function of the tumour suppressor p53 observed frequently in human cancers challenges the drug-induced apoptotic elimination of cancer cells from the body. This phenomenon is a major concern and provides much of the impetus for current attempts to develop a new generation of anticancer drugs capable of provoking apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. Since silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) possess unique cytotoxic features, we examined, whether their activity could be exploited to kill tumour suppressor-deficient cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AgNPs on osteosarcoma cells of different p53 genetic backgrounds. As particle diameters might influence the molecular mechanisms leading to AgNP-induced cell death we applied 5 nm and 35 nm sized citrate-coated AgNPs. We found that both sized AgNPs targeted mitochondria and induced apoptosis in wild-type p53-containing U2Os and p53-deficient Saos-2 cells. According to our findings AgNPs are able to kill osteosarcoma cells independently from their actual p53 status and induce p53-independent cancer cell apoptosis. This feature renders AgNPs attractive candidates for novel chemotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27291325

  17. Structural proteins of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus antagonize p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, P; Konrad, A; Jochmann, R; Lausen, B; Holz, P; Naschberger, E; Neipel, F; Britzen-Laurent, N; Stürzl, M

    2015-01-29

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a central regulatory molecule of apoptosis and is commonly mutated in tumors. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-related malignancies express wild-type p53. Accordingly, KSHV encodes proteins that counteract the cell death-inducing effects of p53. Here, the effects of all KSHV genes on the p53 signaling pathway were systematically analyzed using the reversely transfected cell microarray technology. With this approach we detected eight KSHV-encoded genes with potent p53 inhibiting activity in addition to the previously described inhibitory effects of KSHV genes ORF50, K10 and K10.5. Interestingly, the three most potent newly identified inhibitors were KSHV structural proteins, namely ORF22 (glycoprotein H), ORF25 (major capsid protein) and ORF64 (tegument protein). Validation of these results with a classical transfection approach showed that these proteins inhibited p53 signaling in a dose-dependent manner and that this effect could be reversed by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the respective viral gene. All three genes inhibited p53-mediated apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3 treatment in non-infected and KSHV-infected cells. Addressing putative mechanisms, we could show that these proteins could also inhibit the transactivation of the promoters of apoptotic mediators of p53 such as BAX and PIG3. Altogether, we demonstrate for the first time that structural proteins of KSHV can counteract p53-induced apoptosis. These proteins are expressed in the late lytic phase of the viral life cycle and are incorporated into the KSHV virion. Accordingly, these genes may inhibit cell death in the productive and in the early entrance phase of KSHV infection. PMID:24469037

  18. Direct induction of apoptosis using an optimal mitochondrially targeted p53.

    PubMed

    Mossalam, Mohanad; Matissek, Karina J; Okal, Abood; Constance, Jonathan E; Lim, Carol S

    2012-05-01

    Targeting the tumor suppressor p53 to the mitochondria triggers a rapid apoptotic response as efficiently as transcription-dependent p53. (1, 2) p53 forms a complex with the antiapoptotic Bcl-XL, which leads to Bak and Bax oligomerization resulting in apoptosis via mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. (3, 4) Although p53 performs its main role in the mitochondrial outer membrane, it also interacts with different proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix. (5, 6) To further investigate mitochondrial activity of p53, EGFP-p53 was fused to different mitochondrial targeting signals (MTSs) directing it to the mitochondrial outer membrane ("XL-MTS" from Bcl-XL; "TOM-MTS" from TOM20), the inner membrane ("CCO-MTS" from cytochrome c oxidase), or matrix ("OTC-MTS" from ornithine transcarbamylase). Fluorescence microscopy and a p53 reporter dual luciferase assay demonstrated that fusing MTSs to p53 increased mitochondrial localization and nuclear exclusion depending on which MTS was used. To examine if the MTSs initiate mitochondrial damage, we fused each individual MTS to EGFP (a nontoxic protein) as negative controls. We performed caspase-9, TUNEL, annexin-V, and 7-AAD apoptosis assays on T47D breast cancer cells transfected with mitochondrial constructs. Except for EGFP-XL, apoptotic potential was observed in all MTS-EGFP-p53 and MTS-EGFP constructs. In addition, EGFP-p53-XL showed the greatest significant increase in programmed cell death compared to its nontoxic MTS control (EGFP-XL). The apoptotic mechanism for each construct was further investigated using pifithrin-α (an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity), pifithrin-μ (a small molecule that reduces binding of p53 to Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL), and overexpressing the antiapoptotic Bcl-XL. Unlike the MTSs from TOM, CCO, and OTC, which showed different apoptotic mechanisms, we conclude that p53 fused to the MTS from Bcl-XL performs its apoptotic potential exclusively through the p53/Bcl

  19. DIRECT INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS USING AN OPTIMAL MITOCHONDRIALLY TARGETED P53

    PubMed Central

    Mossalam, Mohanad; Matissek, Karina J.; Okal, Abood; Constance, Jonathan E.; Lim, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting the tumor suppressor p53 to the mitochondria triggers a rapid apoptotic response as efficiently as transcription-dependent p53.1, 2 p53 forms a complex with the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL, which leads to Bak and Bax oligomerization resulting in apoptosis via mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization.3, 4 Although p53 performs its main role in the mitochondrial outer membrane it also interacts with different proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix.5, 6 To further investigate mitochondrial activity of p53, EGFP-p53 was fused to different mitochondrial targeting signals (MTSs) directing it to the mitochondrial outer membrane (“XL-MTS” from Bcl-XL; “TOM-MTS” from TOM20), the inner membrane (“CCO-MTS” from cytochrome c oxidase) or matrix (“OTC-MTS” from ornithine transcarbamylase). Fluorescence microscopy and a p53 reporter dual luciferase assay demonstrated that fusing MTSs to p53 increased mitochondrial localization and nuclear exclusion depending on which MTS was used. To examine if the MTSs initiate mitochondrial damage, we fused each individual MTS to EGFP (a non-toxic protein) as negative controls. We performed caspase-9, TUNEL, Annexin-V, and 7-AAD apoptosis assays on T47D breast cancer cells transfected with mitochondrial constructs. Except for EGFP-XL, apoptotic potential was observed in all MTS-EGFP-p53 and MTS-EGFP constructs. In addition, EGFP-p53-XL showed the greatest significant increase in programmed cell death compared to its non-toxic MTS control (EGFP-XL). The apoptotic mechanism for each construct was further investigated using pifithrin-α (an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity), pifithrin-μ (a small molecule that reduces binding of p53 to Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL), and over-expressing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL. Unlike the MTSs from TOM, CCO, and OTC, which showed different apoptotic mechanisms, we conclude that p53 fused to the MTS from Bcl-XL performs its apoptotic potential exclusively through p53/Bcl

  20. Repression of the antiapoptotic molecule galectin-3 by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2-activated p53 is required for p53-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cecchinelli, Barbara; Lavra, Luca; Rinaldo, Cinzia; Iacovelli, Stefano; Gurtner, Aymone; Gasbarri, Alessandra; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Del Prete, Fabrizio; Trovato, Maria; Piaggio, Giulia; Bartolazzi, Armando; Soddu, Silvia; Sciacchitano, Salvatore

    2006-06-01

    Galectin 3 (Gal-3), a member of the beta-galactoside binding lectin family, exhibits antiapoptotic functions, and its aberrant expression is involved in various aspects of tumor progression. Here we show that p53-induced apoptosis is associated with transcriptional repression of Gal-3. Previously, it has been reported that phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 is important for transcription of proapoptotic genes and induction of apoptosis and that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is specifically involved in these functions. We show that HIPK2 cooperates with p53 in Gal-3 repression and that this cooperation requires HIPK2 kinase activity. Gene-specific RNA interference demonstrates that HIPK2 is essential for repression of Gal-3 upon induction of p53-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, expression of a nonrepressible Gal-3 prevents HIPK2- and p53-induced apoptosis. These results reveal a new apoptotic pathway induced by HIPK2-activated p53 and requiring repression of the antiapoptotic factor Gal-3. PMID:16738336

  1. Hypoxia downregulates p53 but induces apoptosis and enhances expression of BAD in cultures of human syncytiotrophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baosheng; Longtine, Mark S; Sadovsky, Yoel; Nelson, D Michael

    2010-11-01

    Hypoxia is commonly assigned a role in the placental dysfunction characteristic of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We previously showed that hypoxia upregulates p53 and enhances apoptosis in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts. Here we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia also induces apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts by upregulation of p53. Primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts that had differentiated into syncytiotrophoblasts by 52 h were exposed for ≤24 h to 20% or <1% oxygen in the presence or absence of staurosporine or the p53 modulators nutlin-3, pifithrin-α, and pifithrin-μ. Proteins were detected by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence. Compared with 20% oxygen, exposure of syncytiotrophoblasts to <1% oxygen upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and rapidly downregulated p53. Activity of p53 in hypoxic syncytiotrophoblasts was reduced by the higher expression of the negative p53 regulator MDMX and by the reduction of phosphorylation of p53 at Ser(392), which reduces p53 activity. Conversely, staurosporine, a kinase inhibitor, and nutlin-3, a drug that enhances p53 expression, both raised p53 levels and increased the rate of apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts compared with vehicle controls. Immunofluorescence staining showed p53 immunolocalized to both cytoplasm and nuclei of nutlin-3-exposed syncytiotrophoblasts. The hypoxia-induced apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts correlated with enhanced expression of the proapoptotic BAD and a reduced level of antiapoptotic BAD phosphorylated on Ser(112). We surmise that cell death induced by extreme hypoxia in syncytiotrophoblasts follows a non-p53-dependent pathway, unlike that of a nonhypoxic stimulus and unlike hypoxic cytotrophoblasts. We speculate that downregulation of p53 activity in response to hypoxia reduces or eliminates the apoptosis transduced by the p53 pathway in syncytiotrophoblasts, thereby limiting cell death and maintaining the integrity of this

  2. Hypoxia downregulates p53 but induces apoptosis and enhances expression of BAD in cultures of human syncytiotrophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baosheng; Longtine, Mark S.; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia is commonly assigned a role in the placental dysfunction characteristic of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We previously showed that hypoxia upregulates p53 and enhances apoptosis in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts. Here we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia also induces apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts by upregulation of p53. Primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts that had differentiated into syncytiotrophoblasts by 52 h were exposed for ≤24 h to 20% or <1% oxygen in the presence or absence of staurosporine or the p53 modulators nutlin-3, pifithrin-α, and pifithrin-μ. Proteins were detected by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence. Compared with 20% oxygen, exposure of syncytiotrophoblasts to <1% oxygen upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and rapidly downregulated p53. Activity of p53 in hypoxic syncytiotrophoblasts was reduced by the higher expression of the negative p53 regulator MDMX and by the reduction of phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392, which reduces p53 activity. Conversely, staurosporine, a kinase inhibitor, and nutlin-3, a drug that enhances p53 expression, both raised p53 levels and increased the rate of apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts compared with vehicle controls. Immunofluorescence staining showed p53 immunolocalized to both cytoplasm and nuclei of nutlin-3-exposed syncytiotrophoblasts. The hypoxia-induced apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts correlated with enhanced expression of the proapoptotic BAD and a reduced level of antiapoptotic BAD phosphorylated on Ser112. We surmise that cell death induced by extreme hypoxia in syncytiotrophoblasts follows a non-p53-dependent pathway, unlike that of a nonhypoxic stimulus and unlike hypoxic cytotrophoblasts. We speculate that downregulation of p53 activity in response to hypoxia reduces or eliminates the apoptosis transduced by the p53 pathway in syncytiotrophoblasts, thereby limiting cell death and maintaining the integrity of this critical

  3. Induction of p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis by exportin-1 (XPO1) inhibition in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mariko; Ishizawa, Jo; Ruvolo, Vivian; Dilip, Archana; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; McDonnell, Timothy J; Neelapu, Sattva S; Kwak, Larry W; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael; Tabe, Yoko; Yokoo, Masako; Kimura, Shinya; Andreeff, Michael; Kojima, Kensuke

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear transporter exportin-1 (XPO1) is highly expressed in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells, and is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of this disease. XPO1-selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in MCL cells. Given that p53 is a cargo protein of XPO1, we sought to determine the significance of p53 activation through XPO1 inhibition in SINE-induced apoptosis of MCL cells. We investigated the prognostic impact of XPO1 expression in MCL cells using Oncomine analysis. The significance of p53 mutational/functional status on sensitivity to XPO1 inhibition in cell models and primary MCL samples, and the functional role of p53-mediated apoptosis signaling, were also examined. Increased XPO1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in MCL patients. The XPO1 inhibitor KPT-185 induced apoptosis in MCL cells through p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and p53 status was a critical determinant of its apoptosis induction. The KPT-185-induced, p53-mediated apoptosis in the MCL cells occurred in a transcription-dependent manner. Exportin-1 appears to influence patient survival in MCL, and the SINE XPO1 antagonist KPT-185 effectively activates p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis, which would provide a novel strategy for the therapy of MCL. PMID:24766216

  4. Integrated high-throughput analysis identifies Sp1 as a crucial determinant of p53-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, H; Zhang, Y; Ströse, A; Tedesco, D; Gurova, K; Selivanova, G

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of p53 tumor suppressor function is a promising therapeutic strategy to combat cancer. However, the biological outcomes of p53 activation, ranging from the promotion of growth arrest to the induction of cell death, are hard to predict, which limits the clinical application of p53-based therapies. In the present study, we performed an integrated analysis of genome-wide short hairpin RNA screen and gene expression data and uncovered a previously unrecognized role of Sp1 as a central modulator of the transcriptional response induced by p53 that leads to robust induction of apoptosis. Sp1 is indispensable for the pro-apoptotic transcriptional repression by p53, but not for the induction of pro-apoptotic genes. Furthermore, the p53-dependent pro-apoptotic transcriptional repression required the co-binding of Sp1 to p53 target genes. Our results also highlight that Sp1 shares with p53 a common regulator, MDM2, which targets Sp1 for proteasomal degradation. This uncovers a new mechanism of the tight control of apoptosis in cells. Our study advances the understanding of the molecular basis of p53-mediated apoptosis and implicates Sp1 as one of its key modulators. We found that small molecules reactivating p53 can differentially modulate Sp1, thus providing insights into how to manipulate p53 response in a controlled way. PMID:24971482

  5. p53 is required for metformin-induced growth inhibition, senescence and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Puyu; Zhao, Ming; Parris, Amanda B; Feng, Xiaoshan; Yang, Xiaohe

    2015-09-01

    The p53 tumor repressor gene is commonly mutated in human cancers. The tumor inhibitory effect of metformin on p53-mutated breast cancer cells remains unclear. Data from the present study demonstrated that p53 knockdown or mutation has a negative effect on metformin or phenformin-induced growth inhibition, senescence and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We also found that p53 reactivating agent nutlin-3α and CP/31398 promoted metformin-induced growth inhibition, senescence and apoptosis in MCF-7 (wt p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mt p53) cells, respectively. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with metformin or phenformin induced increase in p53 protein levels and the transcription of its downstream target genes, Bax and p21, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrated that AMPK-mTOR signaling played a role in metformin-induced p53 up-regulation. The present study showed that p53 is required for metformin or phenformin-induced growth inhibition, senescence and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. The combination of metformin with p53 reactivating agents, like nutlin-3α and CP/31398, is a promising strategy for improving metformin-mediated anti-cancer therapy, especially for tumors with p53 mutations. PMID:26225749

  6. Methylsulfonylmethane Induces p53 Independent Apoptosis in HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karabay, Arzu Zeynep; Koc, Asli; Ozkan, Tulin; Hekmatshoar, Yalda; Sunguroglu, Asuman; Aktan, Fugen; Buyukbingol, Zeliha

    2016-01-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organic sulfur-containing compound which has been used as a dietary supplement for osteoarthritis. MSM has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as exhibit apoptotic or anti-apoptotic effects depending on the cell type or activating stimuli. However, there are still a lot of unknowns about the mechanisms of actions of MSM. In this study, MSM was tested on colon cancer cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometric analysis revealed that MSM inhibited cell viability and increased apoptotic markers in both HCT-116 p53 +/+ and HCT-116 p53 −/− colon cancer cells. Increased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fragmentation and caspase-3 activity by MSM also supported these findings. MSM also modulated the expression of various apoptosis-related genes and proteins. Moreover, MSM was found to increase c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylation in both cell lines, dose-dependently. In conclusion, our results show for the first time that MSM induces apoptosis in HCT-116 colon cancer cells regardless of their p53 status. Since p53 is defective in >50% of tumors, the ability of MSM to induce apoptosis independently of p53 may offer an advantage in anti-tumor therapy. Moreover, the remarkable effect of MSM on Bim, an apoptotic protein, also suggests its potential use as a novel chemotherapeutic agent for Bim-targeted anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27428957

  7. Significance of p53 dynamics in regulating apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation, and polypharmacological strategies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Bhatt, Divesh; Oltvai, Zoltán N.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Bahar, Ivet

    2014-01-01

    Developing pharmacological strategies for controlling ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death is important for both mitigating radiation damage and alleviating the side effects of anti-cancer radiotherapy manifested in surrounding tissue morbidity. Exposure to IR often triggers the onset of p53-dependent apoptotic pathways. Here we build a stochastic model of p53 induced apoptosis comprised of coupled modules of nuclear p53 activation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and cytosolic caspase activation that also takes into account cellular heterogeneity. Our simulations show that the strength of p53 transcriptional activity and its coupling (or timing with respect) to mitochondrial pore opening are major determinants of cell fate: for systems where apoptosis is elicited via a p53-transcription-independent mechanism, direct activation of Bax by p53 becomes critical to IR-induced-damage initiation. We further show that immediate administration of PUMA inhibitors following IR exposure effectively suppresses excessive cell death, provided that there is a strong caspase/Bid feedback loop; however, the efficacy of the treatment diminishes with increasing delay in treatment implementation. In contrast, the combined inhibition of Bid and Bax elicits an anti-apoptotic response that is effective over a range of time delays. PMID:25175563

  8. Fluoxetine protects against IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis via downregulation of p53.

    PubMed

    Shan, Han; Bian, Yaqi; Shu, Zhaoma; Zhang, Linxia; Zhu, Jialei; Ding, Jianhua; Lu, Ming; Xiao, Ming; Hu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of neurological diseases including stroke, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. In the present study, we addressed the molecular events in fluoxetine against ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute neuronal injury and inflammation-induced neuronal apoptosis. We showed that treatment of fluoxetine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) with twice injections at 1 h and 12 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) respectively alleviated neurological deficits and neuronal apoptosis in a mouse ischemic stroke model, accompanied by inhibiting interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Bax and p53 expression and upregulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 level. We next mimicked neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke with IL-1β in primary cultured cortical neurons and found that pretreatment with fluoxetine (1 μM) prevented IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis and upregulation of p53 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p53 overexpression in N2a cell line abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of fluoxetine, indicating that p53 downregulation is required for the protective role of fluoxetine in IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis. Fluoxetine downregulating p53 expression could be mimicked by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38, but blocked by anisomycin, a p38 activator. Collectively, our findings have revealed that fluoxetine protects against IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis via p38-p53 dependent pathway, which give us an insight into the potential of fluoxetine in terms of opening up novel therapeutic avenues for neurological diseases including stroke. PMID:26976669

  9. S-benzyl-cysteine-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent caspase cascade through the p53 pathway in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Jun; Meng, Lin-Yi; Shen, Yang; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Liu, Hong-Rui

    2013-01-01

    S-benzyl-cysteine (SBC) is a structural analog of S-allylcysteine (SAC), which is one of the major water- soluble compounds in aged garlic extract. In this study, anticancer activities and the underlying mechanisms of SBC action were investigated and compared these with those of SAC using human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. SBC significantly suppressed the survival rate of SGC-7901 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the inhibitory activities of SBC were stronger than those of SAC. Flow cytometry revealed that SBC induced G2-phase arrest and apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. SBC-treatment dramatically induced the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and enhanced the enzymatic activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 whilst hardly affecting caspase-8 activity. Furthermore, Western blotting indicated that SBC-induced apoptosis was accompanied by up-regulation of the expression of p53, Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Taken together, this study suggested that SBC exerts cytotoxic activity involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis through p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. PMID:24377536

  10. A Chromatin-Focused siRNA Screen for Regulators of p53-Dependent Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sammons, Morgan A.; Zhu, Jiajun; Berger, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    The protein product of the Homo sapiens TP53 gene is a transcription factor (p53) that regulates the expression of genes critical for the response to DNA damage and tumor suppression, including genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, DNA repair, metabolism, and a number of other tumorigenesis-related pathways. Differential transcriptional regulation of these genes is believed to alter the balance between two p53-dependent cell fates: cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. A number of previously identified p53 cofactors covalently modify and alter the function of both the p53 protein and histone proteins. Both gain- and loss-of-function mutations in chromatin modifiers have been strongly implicated in cancer development; thus, we sought to identify novel chromatin regulatory proteins that affect p53-dependent transcription and the balance between the expression of pro-cell cycle arrest and proapoptotic genes. We utilized an siRNA library designed against predicted chromatin regulatory proteins, and identified known and novel chromatin-related factors that affect both global p53-dependent transcription and gene-specific regulators of p53 transcriptional activation. The results from this screen will serve as a comprehensive resource for those interested in further characterizing chromatin and epigenetic factors that regulate p53 transcription. PMID:27334938

  11. A Chromatin-Focused siRNA Screen for Regulators of p53-Dependent Transcription.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Morgan A; Zhu, Jiajun; Berger, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    The protein product of the Homo sapiens TP53 gene is a transcription factor (p53) that regulates the expression of genes critical for the response to DNA damage and tumor suppression, including genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, DNA repair, metabolism, and a number of other tumorigenesis-related pathways. Differential transcriptional regulation of these genes is believed to alter the balance between two p53-dependent cell fates: cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. A number of previously identified p53 cofactors covalently modify and alter the function of both the p53 protein and histone proteins. Both gain- and loss-of-function mutations in chromatin modifiers have been strongly implicated in cancer development; thus, we sought to identify novel chromatin regulatory proteins that affect p53-dependent transcription and the balance between the expression of pro-cell cycle arrest and proapoptotic genes. We utilized an siRNA library designed against predicted chromatin regulatory proteins, and identified known and novel chromatin-related factors that affect both global p53-dependent transcription and gene-specific regulators of p53 transcriptional activation. The results from this screen will serve as a comprehensive resource for those interested in further characterizing chromatin and epigenetic factors that regulate p53 transcription. PMID:27334938

  12. Neocarzinostatin induces an effective p53-dependent response in human papillomavirus-positive cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Adriana; Reyes, Elba; Ocadiz, Rodolfo; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Moreno, Martha; Monroy, Alberto; Gariglio, Patricio

    2003-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 viral oncoprotein plays an important role during cervical carcinogenesis. This oncoprotein binds the tumor suppressor protein p53, leading to its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Therefore, it is generally assumed that in HPV-positive cancer cells p53 function is completely abolished. Nevertheless, recent findings suggest that p53 activity can be recovered in cells expressing endogenous E6 protein. To investigate whether p53-dependent functions controlling genome integrity, cell proliferation, and apoptosis can be reactivated in cervical cancer cells, we examined the capacity of HeLa, INBL, CaSki, C33A, and ViBo cell lines to respond to neocarzinostatin (NCS), a natural product which induces single- and double-strand breaks in DNA. We found that NCS treatment inhibits cellular proliferation through G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. This effect was preceded by nuclear accumulation of p53 protein and by an increase of p21 transcripts. Although apoptosis was blocked in ViBo cells (HPV-negative), nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active p53 and inhibition of cell proliferation are observed after NCS treatment. These results suggest that HPV-positive cervical cancer cells are capable of responding efficiently to DNA damage provoked by NCS treatment through a p53-dependent pathway in spite of the presence of E6 protein. PMID:12750435

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Quinone Metabolite Promotes p53-Dependent DNA Damage Checkpoint Activation, S-Phase Cycle Arrest and Extrinsic Apoptosis in Human Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiufang; Li, Lingrui; Shi, Qiong; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Fu, Juanli; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-11-16

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants. The toxic behavior and mechanism of PCBs individuals and congeners have been extensively investigated. However, there is only limited information on their metabolites. Our previous studies have shown that a synthetic PCB metabolite, PCB29-pQ, causes oxidative damage with the evidence of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mitochondrial-derived intrinsic apoptosis. Here, we investigate the effects of PCB29-pQ on DNA damage checkpoint activation, cell cycle arrest, and death receptor-related extrinsic apoptosis in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Our results illustrate that PCB29-pQ increases the S-phase cell population by down-regulating cyclins A/D1/E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK 2/4/6), and cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A) and up-regulating p21/p27 protein expressions. PCB29-pQ also induces apoptosis via the up-regulation of Fas/FasL and the activation of caspase 8/3. Moreover, p53 plays a pivotal role in PCB29-pQ-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the activation of ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 checkpoints. Cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death were attenuated by the pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, these results demonstrate that PCB29-pQ induces oxidative stress and promotes p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation, S-phase cycle arrest, and extrinsic apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:26451628

  14. Che-1 modulates the decision between cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by its binding to p53

    PubMed Central

    Desantis, A; Bruno, T; Catena, V; De Nicola, F; Goeman, F; Iezzi, S; Sorino, C; Gentileschi, M P; Germoni, S; Monteleone, V; Pellegrino, M; Kann, M; De Meo, P D; Pallocca, M; Höpker, K; Moretti, F; Mattei, E; Reinhardt, H C; Floridi, A; Passananti, C; Benzing, T; Blandino, G; Fanciulli, M

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is mainly involved in the transcriptional regulation of a large number of growth-arrest- and apoptosis-related genes. However, a clear understanding of which factor/s influences the choice between these two opposing p53-dependent outcomes remains largely elusive. We have previously described that in response to DNA damage, the RNA polymerase II-binding protein Che-1/AATF transcriptionally activates p53. Here, we show that Che-1 binds directly to p53. This interaction essentially occurs in the first hours of DNA damage, whereas it is lost when cells undergo apoptosis in response to posttranscriptional modifications. Moreover, Che-1 sits in a ternary complex with p53 and the oncosuppressor Brca1. Accordingly, our analysis of genome-wide chromatin occupancy by p53 revealed that p53/Che1 interaction results in preferential transactivation of growth arrest p53 target genes over its pro-apoptotic target genes. Notably, exposure of Che-1+/− mice to ionizing radiations resulted in enhanced apoptosis of thymocytes, compared with WT mice. These results confirm Che-1 as an important regulator of p53 activity and suggest Che-1 to be a promising yet attractive drug target for cancer therapy. PMID:25996291

  15. Cyclosporine A Suppressed Glucose Oxidase Induced P53 Mitochondrial Translocation and Hepatic Cell Apoptosis through Blocking Mitochondrial Permeability Transition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaodi; Liu, Jiangzheng; Wang, Xin; Li, Shuang; Liu, Rui; Liao, Nai; Zhang, Tao; Hai, Chunxu

    2016-01-01

    P53 is known as a transcription factor to control apoptotic cell death through regulating a series of target genes in nucleus. There is accumulating evidences show that p53 can directly induce cell apoptosis through transcription independent way at mitochondria. However, the mechanism by which p53 translocation into mitochondria in response to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, glucose oxidase (GOX) was used to induce ROS generation in HepG2 cells and liver tissues of mice. The results showed that p53 was stabilized and translocated to mitochondria in a time and dose dependent manner after GOX exposure. Interestingly, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, cyclosporine A (CsA) was able to effectively reduce GOX mediated mitochondrial p53 distribution without influencing on the expression of p53 target genes including Bcl-2 and Bax. These indicated that CsA could just block p53 entering into mitochondria, but not affect p53-dependent transcription. Meanwhile, CsA failed to inhibit the ROS generation induced by GOX, which indicated that CsA had no antioxidant function. Moreover, GOX induced typical apoptosis characteristics including, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of Bax and release of cytochrome C in mitochondria, accompanied with activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These processions were suppressed after pretreatment with CsA and pifithrin-μ (PFT-μ, a specific inhibitor of p53 mitochondrial translocation). In vivo, CsA was able to attenuate p53 mitochondrial distribution and protect mice liver against from GOX mediated apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these suggested that CsA could suppress ROS-mediated p53 mitochondrial distribution and cell apoptosis depended on its inhibition effect to mitochondrial permeability transition. It might be used to rescue the hepatic cell apoptosis in the patients with acute liver injury. PMID:26884717

  16. Cyclosporine A Suppressed Glucose Oxidase Induced P53 Mitochondrial Translocation and Hepatic Cell Apoptosis through Blocking Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaodi; Liu, Jiangzheng; Wang, Xin; Li, Shuang; Liu, Rui; Liao, Nai; Zhang, Tao; Hai, Chunxu

    2016-01-01

    P53 is known as a transcription factor to control apoptotic cell death through regulating a series of target genes in nucleus. There is accumulating evidences show that p53 can directly induce cell apoptosis through transcription independent way at mitochondria. However, the mechanism by which p53 translocation into mitochondria in response to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, glucose oxidase (GOX) was used to induce ROS generation in HepG2 cells and liver tissues of mice. The results showed that p53 was stabilized and translocated to mitochondria in a time and dose dependent manner after GOX exposure. Interestingly, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, cyclosporine A (CsA) was able to effectively reduce GOX mediated mitochondrial p53 distribution without influencing on the expression of p53 target genes including Bcl-2 and Bax. These indicated that CsA could just block p53 entering into mitochondria, but not affect p53-dependent transcription. Meanwhile, CsA failed to inhibit the ROS generation induced by GOX, which indicated that CsA had no antioxidant function. Moreover, GOX induced typical apoptosis characteristics including, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of Bax and release of cytochrome C in mitochondria, accompanied with activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These processions were suppressed after pretreatment with CsA and pifithrin-μ (PFT-μ, a specific inhibitor of p53 mitochondrial translocation). In vivo, CsA was able to attenuate p53 mitochondrial distribution and protect mice liver against from GOX mediated apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these suggested that CsA could suppress ROS-mediated p53 mitochondrial distribution and cell apoptosis depended on its inhibition effect to mitochondrial permeability transition. It might be used to rescue the hepatic cell apoptosis in the patients with acute liver injury. PMID:26884717

  17. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through N-acetyl-l-leucine-modified polyethylenimine-mediated p53 gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Liu; Li, Quanshun

    2015-11-01

    Herein, N-acetyl-L-leucine-modified polyethylenimine was successfully constructed through the EDC/NHS-mediated coupling reaction and employed as vectors to accomplish p53 gene delivery using HeLa (p53wt) and PC-3 cells (p53null) as models. Compared with PEI25K, the derivatives exhibited lower cytotoxicity, protein adsorption and hemolytic activity, together with satisfactory pDNA condensation capability and gene transfection efficiency. After p53 transfection, MTT analysis confirmed that the cell proliferation was inhibited. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the derivative-mediated p53 delivery could induce stronger early apoptosis than PEI25K and Lipofectamine(2000). Further, PC-3 cells showed higher sensitivity to the exogenous p53 transfection than HeLa cells. The mechanism for inducing apoptosis was determined to be up-regulation of p53 expression at both mRNA and protein levels using RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Expression level and activity analysis of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and mitochondrial membrane potential measurement revealed that p53 transfection mediated by these derivatives facilitated early apoptosis of tumor cells via a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. Thus, the derivatives showed potential as biocompatible carriers for realizing effective tumor gene therapy. PMID:26322477

  18. A novel dithiocarbamate derivative induces cell apoptosis through p53-dependent intrinsic pathway and suppresses the expression of the E6 oncogene of human papillomavirus 18 in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Qi, Hongxue; Li, Xiaobo; Hou, Xueling; Lu, Xueying; Xiao, Xiangwen

    2015-06-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) exhibit a broad spectrum of antitumor activities, however, their molecular mechanisms of antitumor have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have synthesized a series of novel dithiocarbamate derivatives. These DTCs were examined for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. In this study, one of dithiocarbamate (DTC1) with higher potential for HeLa cells was chosen to investigate molecular mechanisms for its anti-tumor activities. DTC1 could inhibit proliferation, and highly induce apoptosis in HeLa cells by activating caspase-3, -6 and -9; moreover, activities of caspase-3, -6 and -9 were inhibited by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Furthermore, DTC1 decreased the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased expression of cytosol cytochrome c, Bak, Bax and p53 in a time-dependent manner but had no effect on the level of Rb. It was shown that DTC1 induced HeLa cells apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway as tested by the wild type p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α. Additionally, the relative expression of E6 and E7 were evaluated in HPV18-positive (HeLa cells) by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results firstly demonstrated that DTC1 suppressed both expression of E6 mRNA and E6 oncoprotein, but had no effect on the expression of E7 mRNA and protein in HPV18. Our results suggested that DTC1 may serve as novel chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cervical cancer and potential anti-HPV virus candidates that merit further studies. PMID:25772545

  19. The novel tryptamine derivative JNJ-26854165 induces wild-type p53- and E2F1-mediated apoptosis in acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kensuke; Burks, Jared K.; Arts, Janine; Andreeff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Development of small-molecule activators of p53 is currently focused on malignancies containing a wild-type p53 genotype, which is present in most leukemias. JNJ-26854165 is one of such p53-activating agents, but its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the effects of JNJ-26854165 in acute leukemias. JNJ-26854165 treatment induced p53-mediated apoptosis in acute leukemia cells with wild-type p53, in which p53 rapidly drives transcription-independent apoptosis followed by activation of a transcription-dependent pathway. JNJ-26854165 accelerated the proteasome-mediated degradation of p21, and antagonized the transcriptional induction of p21 by p53. Interestingly, JNJ-26854165 induced S-phase delay and upregulated E2F1 expression in p53 mutant cells, resulting in apoptosis preferentially of S-phase cells. E2F1 knockdown blocked apoptosis induced by JNJ-26854165 in p53 mutant cells. Apoptotic activity of JNJ-26854165 against primary acute leukemia cells was maintained in leukemia/stroma cocultures, unlike doxorubicin, which has reduced cytrotoxicity in coculture systems. JNJ-26854165 synergizes with AraC or doxorubicin to induce p53-mediated apoptosis. Our data suggest that JNJ-26854165 may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of acute leukemias. The presence of p53-independent apoptotic activity in addition to p53-mediated apoptosis induction, if operational in vivo, may prevent the selection of p53 mutant subclones during therapy. PMID:20736344

  20. Effect of Thymoquinone on P53 Gene Expression and Consequence Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Mehdi Nikbakht; Mehdiabady, Ebrahim Momeni; Iranpour, Farhad Golshan; Bahramian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa has been a nutritional flavoring factor and natural treatment for many ailments for so many years in medical science. Earlier studies have been reported that thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound of its seed, contains anticancer properties. Previous studies have shown that TQ induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells but it is unclear the role of P53 in the apoptotic pathway. Hereby, this study reports the potency of TQ on expression of tumor suppressor gene P53 and apoptosis induction in breast cancer cell line Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). Methods: MCF-7 cell line was cultured and treated with TQ, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was carried out for evaluating the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values after 24 h of treatment. The percentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to estimate the messenger RNA expression of P53 in MCF-7 cell line at different times. Results: The IC50 value for the TQ in MCF-7 cells was 25 μM that determined using MTT assay. The flow cytometry and real-time PCR results showed that TQ could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, and the P53 gene expression was dramatically up-regulated by ascending time, respectively. Hence, there was significant difference in 48 and 72 h. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that TQ could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through up-regulation of P53 expression in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) by time-dependent manner. PMID:27141285

  1. Cucurbitacin E Induces G(2)/M Phase Arrest through STAT3/p53/p21 Signaling and Provokes Apoptosis via Fas/CD95 and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways in Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Wen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chiou, Shang-Ming; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Pai, Shu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Ho, Wai-Jane; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbitacin E, a tetracyclic triterpenes compound extracted from cucurbitaceous plants, has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cucurbitacin E promotes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in T24 cells and further to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of cucurbitacin E on T24 cell's growth and accompanied morphological changes were examined by MTT assay and a phase-contrast microscope. DNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) and annexin V/PI staining were determined by flow cytometry. The protein levels were measured by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that cucurbitacin E-induced G(2)/M arrest was associated with a marked increase in the levels of p53, p21 and a decrease in phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cyclin B. Cucurbitacin E-triggered apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of Fas/CD95, truncated BID (t-BID) and a loss of ΔΨ(m), resulting in the releases of cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and sequential activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Our findings provided the first evidence that STAT3/p53/p21 signaling, Fas/CD95 and mitochondria-dependent pathways play critical roles in cucurbitacin E-induced G(2)/M phase arrest and apoptosis of T24 cells. PMID:22272214

  2. Cucurbitacin E Induces G2/M Phase Arrest through STAT3/p53/p21 Signaling and Provokes Apoptosis via Fas/CD95 and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways in Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Wen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chiou, Shang-Ming; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Pai, Shu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Ho, Wai-Jane; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbitacin E, a tetracyclic triterpenes compound extracted from cucurbitaceous plants, has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cucurbitacin E promotes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in T24 cells and further to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of cucurbitacin E on T24 cell's growth and accompanied morphological changes were examined by MTT assay and a phase-contrast microscope. DNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and annexin V/PI staining were determined by flow cytometry. The protein levels were measured by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M arrest was associated with a marked increase in the levels of p53, p21 and a decrease in phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cyclin B. Cucurbitacin E-triggered apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of Fas/CD95, truncated BID (t-BID) and a loss of ΔΨm, resulting in the releases of cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and sequential activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Our findings provided the first evidence that STAT3/p53/p21 signaling, Fas/CD95 and mitochondria-dependent pathways play critical roles in cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of T24 cells. PMID:22272214

  3. Coxsackievirus B5 induced apoptosis of HeLa cells: Effects on p53 and SUMO

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Rogerio; Guerra-Sa, Renata; Arruda, Eurico

    2010-01-20

    Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), a human enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, is a frequent cause of acute and chronic human diseases. The pathogenesis of enteroviral infections is not completely understood, and the fate of the CVB5-infected cell has a pivotal role in this process. We have investigated the CVB5-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and found that it happens by the intrinsic pathway by a mechanism dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, associated with nuclear aggregation of p53. Striking redistribution of both SUMO and UBC9 was noted at 4 h post-infection, simultaneously with a reduction in the levels of the ubiquitin-ligase HDM2. Taken together, these results suggest that CVB5 infection of HeLa cells elicit the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by MDM2 degradation and p53 activation, destabilizing protein sumoylation, by a mechanism that is dependent on a functional ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  4. GAMT, a p53-Inducible Modulator of Apoptosis, Is Critical for the Adaptive Response to Nutrient Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Takao; Brown-Endres, Lauren; Chu, Kiki; Ongusaha, Pat P.; Ohtsuka, Takao; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Aaronson, Stuart A.; Lee, Sam W.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The p53 tumor suppressor protein has a well-established role in cell fate decision-making processes. However, recent discoveries indicate that p53 has a non-tumor-suppressive role. Here, we identify GAMT (guanidinoacetate methyltransferase), an enzyme involved in creatine synthesis, as a p53 target gene and a key downstream effector of adaptive response to nutrient stress. We show that GAMT is not only involved in p53-dependent apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress but is important for apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation. Additionally, p53→GAMT up-regulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO) induced by glucose starvation, utilizing this pathway as an alternate ATP-generating energy source. These results highlight that p53-dependent regulation of GAMT allows cells to maintain energy levels sufficient to undergo apoptosis or survival under conditions of nutrient stress. p53→GAMT pathway represents a new link between cellular stress responses and processes of creatine synthesis and FAO, demonstrating a further role of p53 in cellular metabolism. PMID:19917247

  5. Threshold Level of p53 Required for the Induction of Apoptosis in X-Irradiated MOLT-4 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Hisako . E-mail: nakano@rinshoken.or.jp; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Kunio

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the threshold level for the initiation of apoptosis by studying the quantitative aspect of p53 response to DNA damage in individual cells, to better understand the process in X-ray-induced p53-dependent apoptosis. Methods and Materials: Time-sequential changes in p53 protein level were obtained for X-irradiated MOLT-4 cells using flow cytometry and analyzed. Results: The changes in the cellular frequency distribution pattern of p53 content could be divided into two parts at a certain p53 level. The p53 vs. side-scatter in flow cytometry showed the sequential changes of p53 increase followed by an increase in cell death. On the basis of these results we determined a threshold level of p53 for the initiation of apoptosis. The level was estimated to be (1.08 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup 5} molecules per cell, which was approximately threefold higher than the mean content of control cells. The minimum times for p53 level to reach this threshold level were independent of X-ray dose and 1.4-1.6 h. The times for the signal transduction from the p53 accumulation to disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and cell death were 1.6, 2.1, and 2.8 h, respectively. Conclusions: The threshold level of p53 for the initiation of apoptosis and the time sequence in the course of apoptotic events were determined in X-irradiated MOLT-4 cells.

  6. p53 mediated apoptosis in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by inhibition of FANCD2 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Peng; Sun, Yifu; Zheng, Changjun; Hou, Tingting; Kang, Mingyang; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between osteosarcoma (OS) and Fanconi anemia (FA) related pathways and the molecular mechanisms. Methods: siRNA for Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 (FANCD2) was constructed and transfected into the osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 cells. Expression of TP53INP1, p53, p21, caspase-9, and caspase-3 mRNA in MG-63 cells were examined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the protein levels were also determined by western blot. Results: After silence of the FANCD2 gene in MG-63 cells, cell proliferation was inhibited, cell cycle was arrested and cell apoptosis was induced. The apoptosis was mediated by the p53 signaling pathway. After FANCD2 expression was inhibited, TP53INP1 gene expression was up-regulated, phosphorylation of p53 was promoted and the p21 protein was activated, leading to cell cycle arrested in G1, finally resulted in caspase-dependent cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Inhibition of FANCD2 gene expression can induce apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, which indicated that FANCD2 played an important role in the development of osteosarcoma and it might be a potential target for treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:26379910

  7. In several cell types tumour suppressor p53 induces apoptosis largely via Puma but Noxa can contribute.

    PubMed

    Michalak, E M; Villunger, A; Adams, J M; Strasser, A

    2008-06-01

    The ability of p53 to induce apoptosis in cells with damaged DNA is thought to contribute greatly to its tumour suppressor function. P53 has been proposed to induce apoptosis via numerous transcriptional targets or even by direct cytoplasmic action. Two transcriptional targets shown to mediate its apoptotic role in several cell types encode Noxa and Puma, BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family. To test if their functions in p53-dependent apoptosis overlap, we generated mice lacking both. These mice develop normally and no tumours have yet arisen. In embryonic fibroblasts, the absence of both Noxa and Puma prevented induction of apoptosis by etoposide. Moreover, following whole body gamma-irradiation, the loss of both proteins protected thymocytes better than loss of Puma alone. Indeed, their combined deficiency protected thymocytes as strongly as loss of p53 itself. These results indicate that, at least in fibroblasts and thymocytes, p53-induced apoptosis proceeds principally via Noxa and Puma, with Puma having the predominant role in diverse cell types. The absence of tumours in the mice suggests that tumour suppression by p53 requires functions in addition to induction of apoptosis. PMID:18259198

  8. Identification of novel radiation-induced p53-dependent transcripts extensively regulated during mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Quintens, Roel; Verreet, Tine; Janssen, Ann; Neefs, Mieke; Leysen, Liselotte; Michaux, Arlette; Verslegers, Mieke; Samari, Nada; Pani, Giuseppe; Verheyde, Joris; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a potent activator of the tumor suppressor gene p53, which itself regulates the transcription of genes involved in canonical pathways such as the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis as well as other biological processes like metabolism, autophagy, differentiation and development. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis on gene expression data from different in vivo and in vitro experiments to identify a signature of early radiation-responsive genes which were predicted to be predominantly regulated by p53. Moreover, we found that several genes expressed different transcript isoforms after irradiation in a p53-dependent manner. Among this gene signature, we identified novel p53 targets, some of which have not yet been functionally characterized. Surprisingly, in contrast to genes from the canonical p53-regulated pathways, our gene signature was found to be highly enriched during embryonic and post-natal brain development and during in vitro neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we could show that for a number of genes, radiation-responsive transcript variants were upregulated during development and differentiation, while radiation non-responsive variants were not. This suggests that radiation exposure of the developing brain and immature cortical neurons results in the p53-mediated activation of a neuronal differentiation program. Overall, our results further increase the knowledge of the radiation-induced p53 network of the embryonic brain and provide more evidence concerning the importance of p53 and its transcriptional targets during mouse brain development. PMID:25681390

  9. Sequence-dependent sliding kinetics of p53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Jason; Tafvizi, Anahita; Huang, Fang; Uspal, William; Doyle, Patrick; Fersht, Alan; Mirny, Leonid; van Oijen, Antoine

    2012-02-01

    Theoretical work has long proposed that one-dimensional sliding along DNA while simultaneously reading its sequence can accelerate transcription factors' (TFs) search for their target sites. More recently, functional sliding has been shown to require TFs to possess at least two DNA-binding modes. The tumor suppressor p53 has been directly observed to slide on DNA, and structural and single-molecule studies have provided evidence for a two-mode model for the protein. If the model is in fact applicable to p53, then the requirement that TFs read while they slide implies that p53's mobility on DNA should be affected by non-cognate sites and thus that its diffusivity should be generally sequence-dependent. Here we confirm this prediction with single-molecule microscopy measurements of p53's local diffusivity on non-cognate DNA. We show how a two-mode model accurately predicts the variation in local diffusivity while a single-mode model does not. Our work provides evidence that p53's sliding is indeed functional and suggests that the timing and efficiency of its activating and repressing transcription can depend on its non-cognate binding properties and its ability to change between multiple modes of binding, in addition to the much better-studied effects of cognate-site binding.

  10. Decrease of mitochondrial p53 during late apoptosis is linked to its dephosphorylation on serine 20

    PubMed Central

    Castrogiovanni, Cédric; Vandaudenard, Marie; Waterschoot, Béranger; De Backer, Olivier; Dumont, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Following a genotoxic stress, the tumor suppressor p53 translocates to mitochondria to take part in direct induction of apoptosis, via interaction with BCL-2 family members such as BAK and BAX. We determined the kinetics of the mitochondrial translocation of p53 in HCT-116 and PA-1 cells exposed to different genotoxic stresses (doxorubicin, camptothecin, UVB). This analysis revealed an early escalation in the amount of mitochondrial p53, followed by a peak amount and a decrease of mitochondrial p53 at later time points. We show that the serine 20 phosphorylated form of p53 is present at the mitochondria and that the decrease of p53 mitochondrial level during late apoptosis correlates with a decrease of Ser-20 phosphorylation. Moreover, the S20A p53 mutant translocates well to mitochondria after a genotoxic stress but its mitochondrial localization is very low during late apoptosis when compared to wt p53. The S20A mutant also appears to be compromised for interaction with BAK. We propose here that the level of serine 20 phosphorylation is influential on p53 mitochondrial localization during late apoptosis. Additionally, we report the presence of a new ≃45 kDa caspase-cleaved fragment of p53 in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of apoptotic cells. PMID:26252178

  11. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway. PMID:24981574

  12. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway. PMID:24981574

  13. Irofulven induces replication-dependent CHK2 activation related to p53 status1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yutian; Wiltshire, Timothy; Senft, Jamie; Reed, Eddie; Wang, Weixin

    2007-01-01

    CHK2 and p53 are frequently mutated in human cancers. CHK2 is known to phosphorylate and stabilize p53. CHK2 has also been implicated in DNA repair and apoptosis induction. However, whether p53 affects CHK2 activation and whether CHK2 activation modulates chemosensitivity are unclear. In this study, we found that in response to the DNA damage agent, irofulven, CHK2 activation, rather than its expression, is inversely correlated to p53 status. Irofulven inhibits DNA replication and induces chromosome aberrations (breaks and radials) and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Pretreatment of cells with the DNA polymerase inhibitor, aphidicolin, resulted in reduction of irofulven-induced CHK2 activation and foci formation, indicating that CHK2 activation by irofulven is replication-dependent. Furthermore, by using ovarian cancer cell lines expressing dominant-negative CHK2 and CHK2-knockout HCT116 cells, we found that CHK2 activation contributes to the control of S and G2/M cell cycle arrests, but not chemosensitivity to irofulven. Overall, this study demonstrates that in response to irofulven-induced DNA damage, the activation of CHK2 is dependent on DNA replication and related to p53 status. By controlling cell cycle arrest and DNA replication, p53 affects CHK2 activation. CHK2 activation contributes to cell cycle arrest, but not chemosensitivity. PMID:17118344

  14. Chk2 regulates transcription-independent p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Chen; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Motoyama, Noboru . E-mail: motoyama@nils.go.jp

    2005-07-29

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in the induction of apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. The protein kinase Chk2 is an important regulator of p53 function in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Cells derived from Chk2-deficient mice are resistant to the induction of apoptosis by IR, and this resistance has been thought to be a result of the defective transcriptional activation of p53 target genes. It was recently shown, however, that p53 itself and histone H1.2 translocate to mitochondria and thereby induces apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner in response to IR. We have now examined whether Chk2 also regulates the transcription-independent induction of apoptosis by p53 and histone H1.2. The reduced ability of IR to induce p53 stabilization in Chk2-deficient thymocytes was associated with a marked impairment of p53 and histone H1 translocation to mitochondria. These results suggest that Chk2 regulates the transcription-independent mechanism of p53-mediated apoptosis by inducing stabilization of p53 in response to IR.

  15. The influence of SV40 immortalization of human fibroblasts on p53-dependent radiation responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohli, M.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    The simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (SV40 Tag) has been ascribed many functions critical to viral propagation, including binding to the mammalian tumor suppressor p53. Recent studies have demonstrated that SV40-transformed murine cells have functional p53. The status of p53 in SV40-immortalized human cells, however, has not been characterized. We have found that in response to ionizing radiation, p53-dependent p21 transactivation activity is present, albeit reduced, in SV40-immortalized cells and that this activity can be further reduced with either dominant negative p53 expression or higher SV40 Tag expression. Furthermore, overexpression of p53 in SV40-immortalized ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells restores p53-dependent p21 induction to typical A-T levels. All SV40-immortalized cell lines exhibited an absence of G1 arrest. Moreover, all SV40-immortalized cell lines exhibited increased apoptosis relative to primary cells in response to ionizing radiation, suggesting that SV40 immortalization results in a unique phenotype with regard to DNA damage responses. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. PUMA Binding Induces Partial Unfolding within BCL-xL to Disrupt p53 Binding and Promote Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Follis, Ariele Viacava; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Fisher, John C.; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Grace, Christy R.; Nourse, Amanda; Baran, Katherine; Ou, Li; Min, Lie; White, Stephen W.; Green, Douglas R.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Following DNA damage, nuclear p53 induces the expression of PUMA, a BH3-only protein that binds and inhibits the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire, including BCL-xL. PUMA, unique amongst BH3-only proteins, disrupts the interaction between cytosolic p53 and BCL-xL, allowing p53 to promote apoptosis via direct activation of the BCL-2 effector molecules, BAX and BAK. Structural investigations using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography revealed that PUMA binding induced partial unfolding of two α-helices within BCL-xL. Wild-type PUMA or a PUMA mutant incapable of causing binding-induced unfolding of BCL-xL equivalently inhibited the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire to sensitize for death receptor (DR)-activated apoptosis, but only wild-type PUMA promoted p53-dependent, DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that PUMA-induced partial unfolding of BCL-xL disrupts interactions between cytosolic p53 and BCL-xL, releasing the bound p53 to initiate apoptosis. We propose that regulated unfolding of BCL-xL provides a mechanism to promote PUMA-dependent signaling within the apoptotic pathways. PMID:23340338

  17. Absence of a p53 allele delays nitrogen mustard-induced early apoptosis and inflammation of murine skin

    PubMed Central

    Inturi, Swetha; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K.; Roy, Srirupa; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Bifunctional alkylating agent sulfur mustard (SM) and its analog nitrogen mustard (NM) cause DNA damage leading to cell death, and potentially activating inflammation. Transcription factor p53 plays a critical role in DNA damage by regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Earlier studies by our laboratory demonstrated phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and an increase in total p53 in epidermal cells both in vitro and in vivo following NM exposure. To elucidate the role of p53 in NM-induced skin toxicity, we employed SKH-1 hairless mice harboring wild type (WT) or heterozygous p53 (p53+/−). Exposure to NM (3.2 mg) caused a more profound increase in epidermal thickness and apoptotic cell death in WT relative to p53+/− mice at 24 h. However, by 72 h after exposure, there was a comparable increase in NM-induced epidermal cell death in both WT and p53+/− mice. Myeloperoxidase activity data showed that neutrophil infiltration was strongly enhanced in NM-exposed WT mice at 24 h persisting through 72 h of exposure. Conversely, robust NM-induced neutrophil infiltration (comparable to WT mice) was seen only at 72 h after exposure in p53+/− mice. Similarly, NM-exposure strongly induced macrophage and mast cell infiltration in WT, but not p53+/− mice. Together, these data indicate that early apoptosis and inflammation induced by NM in mouse skin are p53-dependent. Thus, targeting this pathway could be a novel strategy for developing countermeasures against vesicants-induced skin injury. PMID:23845566

  18. p53 mediates cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells: inhibitory effects of macrophage migration inhibitor factor.

    PubMed

    Damico, Rachel; Simms, Tiffany; Kim, Bo S; Tekeste, Zenar; Amankwan, Henry; Damarla, Mahendra; Hassoun, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is the most common cause of emphysema, a debilitating pulmonary disease histopathologically characterized by the irreversible destruction of lung architecture. Mounting evidence links enhanced endothelial apoptosis causally to the development of emphysema. However, the molecular determinants of human endothelial cell apoptosis and survival in response to CS are not fully defined. Such determinants could represent clinically relevant targets for intervention. We show here that CS extract (CSE) triggers the death of human pulmonary macrovascular endothelial cells (HPAECs) through a caspase 9-dependent apoptotic pathway. Exposure to CSE results in the increased expression of p53 in HPAECs. Using the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α (PFT-α), and RNA interference (RNAi) directed at p53, we demonstrate that p53 function and expression are required for CSE-mediated apoptosis. The expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an antiapoptotic cytokine produced by HPAECs, also increases in response to CSE exposure. The addition of recombinant human MIF prevents cell death from exposure to CSE. Further, the suppression of MIF or its receptor/binding partner, Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (Jab-1), with RNAi enhances the sensitivity of human pulmonary endothelial cells to CSE via a p53-dependent (PFT-α-inhibitable) pathway. Finally, we demonstrate that MIF is a negative regulator of p53 expression in response to CSE, placing MIF upstream of p53 as an antagonist of CSE-induced apoptosis. We conclude that MIF can protect human vascular endothelium from the toxic effects of CSE via the antagonism of p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20448056

  19. 2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation Impairs Learning and Spatial Memory via Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress Induced p53-Dependent/Independent Hippocampal Apoptosis: Molecular Basis and Underlying Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Saba; Banerjee, Somanshu; Singh, Surya Pal; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-12-01

    A close association between microwave (MW) radiation exposure and neurobehavioral disorders has been postulated but the direct effects of MW radiation on central nervous system still remains contradictory. This study was performed to understand the effect of short (15 days) and long-term (30 and 60 days) low-level MW radiation exposure on hippocampus with special reference to spatial learning and memory and its underlying mechanism in Swiss strain male mice, Mus musculus. Twelve-weeks old mice were exposed to 2.45 GHz MW radiation (continuous-wave [CW] with overall average power density of 0.0248 mW/cm(2) and overall average whole body specific absorption rate value of 0.0146 W/Kg) for 2 h/day over a period of 15, 30, and 60 days). Spatial learning and memory was monitored by Morris Water Maze. We have checked the alterations in hippocampal oxidative/nitrosative stress, neuronal morphology, and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), inactive executioner Caspase- (pro-Caspase-3), and uncleaved Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in the hippocampal subfield neuronal and nonneuronal cells (DG, CA1, CA2, and CA3). We observed that, short-term as well as long-term 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure increases the oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to enhanced apoptosis in hippocampal subfield neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Present findings also suggest that learning and spatial memory deficit which increases with the increased duration of MW exposure (15 < 30 < 60 days) is correlated with a decrease in hippocampal subfield neuronal arborization and dendritic spines. These findings led us to conclude that exposure to CW MW radiation leads to oxidative/nitrosative stress induced p53-dependent/independent activation of hippocampal neuronal and nonneuronal apoptosis associated with spatial memory loss. PMID:26396154

  20. Cellular Oxidative Stress and the Control of Apoptosis by Wild-Type p53, Cytotoxic Compounds, and Cytokines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotem, Joseph; Peled-Kamar, Mira; Groner, Yoram; Sachs, Leo

    1996-08-01

    Apoptosis induced by wild-type p53 or cytotoxic compounds in myeloid leukemic cells can be inhibited by the cytokines interleukin 6, interleukin 3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interferon γ and by antioxidants. The antioxidants and cytokines showed a cooperative protective effect against induction of apoptosis. Cells with a higher sensitivity to induction of apoptosis and required a higher cytokine concentration to inhibit apoptosis. Decreasing the intrinsic oxidative stress in cells by antioxidants thus inhibited apoptosis, whereas increasing this intrinsic stress by adding H2O2 enhanced apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis by wild-type p53 was not preceded by increased peroxide production or lipid peroxidation and the protective effect of cytokines was not associated with a decrease in these properties. The results indicate that the intrinsic degree of oxidative stress can regulate cell susceptibility to wild-type p53-dependent and p53-independent induction of apoptosis and the ability of cytokines to protect cells against apoptosis.

  1. The p53 Codon 72 Pro/Pro Genotype Identifies Poor-Prognosis Neuroblastoma Patients: Correlation with Reduced Apoptosis and Enhanced Senescence by the p53-72P Isoform12

    PubMed Central

    Cattelani, Sara; Ferrari-Amorotti, Giovanna; Galavotti, Sara; Defferrari, Raffaella; Tanno, Barbara; Cialfi, Samantha; Vergalli, Jenny; Fragliasso, Valentina; Guerzoni, Clara; Manzotti, Gloria; Soliera, Angela Rachele; Menin, Chiara; Bertorelle, Roberta; McDowell, Heather P; Inserra, Alessandro; Belli, Maria Luisa; Varesio, Luigi; Tweddle, Deborah; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Altavista, Pierluigi; Dominici, Carlo; Raschellà, Giuseppe; Calabretta, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The p53 gene is rarely mutated in neuroblastoma, but codon 72 polymorphism that modulates its proapoptotic activity might influence cancer risk and clinical outcome. We investigated whether this polymorphism affects neuroblastoma risk and disease outcome and assessed the biologic effects of the p53-72R and p53-72P isoforms in p53-null cells. Comparison of 288 healthy subjects and 286 neuroblastoma patients revealed that the p53-72 polymorphism had no significant impact on the risk of developing neuroblastoma; however, patients with the Pro/Pro genotype had a shorter survival than those with the Arg/Arg or the Arg/Pro genotypes even in the stage 3 and 4 subgroup without MYCN amplification. By Cox regression analysis, the p53 Pro/Pro genotype seems to be an independent marker of poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 2.74; 95% confidence interval = 1.14–6.55, P = .014) together with clinical stage, MYCN status, and age at diagnosis. In vitro, p53-72P was less effective than p53-72R in inducing apoptosis and inhibiting survival of p53-null LAN-1 cells treated with etoposide, topotecan, or ionizing radiation but not taxol. By contrast, p53-72P was more effective in promoting p21-dependent accelerated senescence, alone or in the presence of etoposide. Thus, the p53-72 Pro/Pro genotype might be a marker of poor outcome independent of MYCN amplification, possibly improving risk stratification. Moreover, the lower apoptosis and the enhanced accelerated senescence by the p53-72P isoform in response to DNA damage suggest that patients with neuroblastoma with the p53-72 Pro/Pro genotype may benefit from therapeutic protocols that do not rely only on cytotoxic drugs that function, in part, through p53 activation. PMID:22904680

  2. 4-Hydroxynonenal induces p53-mediated apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abha; Sharma, Rajendra; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Vatsyayan, Rit; Pearce, Virginia; Jeyabal, Prince V.S.; Zimniak, Piotr; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C.

    2009-01-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) has been suggested to be involved in stress-induced signaling for apoptosis. In present studies, we have examined the effects of 4-HNE on the intrinsic apoptotic pathway associated with p53 in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE and ARPE-19) cells. Our results show that 4-HNE causes induction, phosphorylation, and nuclear accumulation of p53 which is accompanied with down regulation of MDM2, activation of the pro-apoptotic p53 target genes viz. p21 and Bax, JNK, caspase3, and onset of apoptosis in treated RPE cells. Reduced expression of p53 by an efficient silencing of the p53 gene resulted in a significant resistance of these cells to 4-HNE-induced cell death. The effects of 4-HNE on the expression and functions of p53 are blocked in GSTA4-4 over expressing cells indicating that 4-HNE-induced, p53-mediated signaling for apoptosis is regulated by GSTs. Our results also show that the induction of p53 in tissues of mGsta4 (-/-) mice correlate with elevated levels of 4-HNE due to its impaired metabolism. Together, these studies suggest that 4-HNE is involved in p53-mediated signaling in in vitro cell cultures as well as in vivo that can be regulated by GSTs. PMID:18930016

  3. Selective induction of apoptosis through the FADD/caspase-8 pathway by a p53 c-terminal peptide in human pre-malignant and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Mao, Yuehua; Rosal, Ramon V; Dinnen, Richard D; Williams, Ann C; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W; Fine, Robert L

    2005-05-20

    A p53 C-terminal peptide (aa 361-382, p53p), fused at its C-terminus to the minimal carrier peptide of antennapedia (17 aa, Ant; p53p-Ant), induced rapid apoptosis in human cancer cells, via activation of the Fas pathway. We examined p53p-Ant mechanism of action, toxicity in various human normal, non-malignant, pre-malignant and malignant cancer cells and investigated its biophysical characteristics. p53p-Ant selectively induced cell death in only pre-malignant or malignant cells in a p53-dependent manner and was not toxic to normal and non-malignant cells. p53p-Ant was more toxic to the mutant p53 than wild-type p53 phenotype in H1299 lung cancer cells stably expressing human temperature-sensitive p53 mutant 143Ala. Surface plasmon resonance (BIACORE) analysis demonstrated that this peptide had higher binding affinity to mutant p53 as compared to wild-type p53. p53p-Ant induced-cell death had the classical morphological characteristics of apoptosis and had no features of necrosis. The mechanism of cell death by p53p-Ant was through the FADD/caspase-8-dependent pathway without the involvement of the TRAIL pathway, Bcl-2 family and cell cycle changes. Blocking Fas with antibody did not alter the peptide's effect, suggesting that Fas itself did not interact with the peptide. Transfection with a dominant-negative FADD with a deleted N-terminus inhibited p53p-Ant-induced apoptosis. Its mechanism of action is related to the FADD-induced pathway without restoration of other p53 functions. p53p-Ant is a novel anticancer agent with unique selectivity for human cancer cells and could be useful as a prototype for the development of new anti-cancer agents. PMID:15645452

  4. Activation of p53 with Ilimaquinone and Ethylsmenoquinone, Marine Sponge Metabolites, Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Chung, Kyu Jin; Hwang, In Hyun; Gwak, Jungsuk; Park, Seoyoung; Ju, Bong Gun; Yun, Eunju; Kim, Dong-Eun; Chung, Young-Hwa; Na, MinKyun; Song, Gyu-Yong; Oh, Sangtaek

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor, p53, plays an essential role in the cellular response to stress through regulating the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we used a cell-based reporter system for the detection of p53 response transcription to identify the marine sponge metabolites, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone, as activators of the p53 pathway. We demonstrated that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone efficiently stabilize the p53 protein through promotion of p53 phosphorylation at Ser15 in both HCT116 and RKO colon cancer cells. Moreover, both compounds upregulate the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1, a p53-dependent gene, and suppress proliferation of colon cancer cells. In addition, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase-3 cleavage and the population of cells that positively stained with Annexin V-FITC, both of which are typical biochemical markers of apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy was elicited by both compounds, as indicated by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta formations and LC3-II turnover in HCT116 cells. Our findings suggest that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone exert their anti-cancer activity by activation of the p53 pathway and may have significant potential as chemo-preventive and therapeutic agents for human colon cancer. PMID:25603347

  5. Effects of p53 on aldosterone-induced mesangial cell apoptosis in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    SHI, HUIMIN; ZHANG, AIQING; HE, YANFANG; YANG, MIN; GAN, WEIHUA

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone (ALD) is a well-known hormone, which may initiate renal injury by inducing mesangial cell (MC) injury in chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of p53 on ALD-induced MC apoptosis and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. For the in vivo studies, rats were randomly assigned to receive normal saline or ALD for 4 weeks. The ratio of MC apoptosis was analysed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. In addition, the expression level and localisation of p53, a well-known cell apoptosis-associated key protein, were detected by immunofluorescence. For the in vitro studies, rat MCs were incubated in medium containing either buffer (control) or ALD (10−6 M) for 24 h. The cell apoptosis ratio was assessed by flow cytometry, and the expression level of p53 was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. In order to confirm the role of p53 in ALD-regulated cell apoptosis, a rescue experiment was performed using targeted small interfering (si)RNA to downregulate the expression of p53. The ALD-treated rats exhibited greater numbers of TUNEL-positive MCs and higher expression levels of p53 when compared with the control group. Furthermore, the ratio of MC apoptosis and the p53 expression level were significantly increased following ALD exposure, compared with the control group. Additionally, in the rescue experiment, the effects of ALD on MC were blocked by downregulating the expression level of p53 in MCs. The present study hypothesized that ALD may directly contribute to the occurrence of MC apoptosis via p53, which may participate in ALD-induced renal injury. PMID:27109859

  6. Effects of p53 on aldosterone-induced mesangial cell apoptosis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huimin; Zhang, Aiqing; He, Yanfang; Yang, Min; Gan, Weihua

    2016-06-01

    Aldosterone (ALD) is a well‑known hormone, which may initiate renal injury by inducing mesangial cell (MC) injury in chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of p53 on ALD‑induced MC apoptosis and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. For the in vivo studies, rats were randomly assigned to receive normal saline or ALD for 4 weeks. The ratio of MC apoptosis was analysed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. In addition, the expression level and localisation of p53, a well-known cell apoptosis-associated key protein, were detected by immunofluorescence. For the in vitro studies, rat MCs were incubated in medium containing either buffer (control) or ALD (10‑6 M) for 24 h. The cell apoptosis ratio was assessed by flow cytometry, and the expression level of p53 was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. In order to confirm the role of p53 in ALD‑regulated cell apoptosis, a rescue experiment was performed using targeted small interfering (si)RNA to downregulate the expression of p53. The ALD‑treated rats exhibited greater numbers of TUNEL‑positive MCs and higher expression levels of p53 when compared with the control group. Furthermore, the ratio of MC apoptosis and the p53 expression level were significantly increased following ALD exposure, compared with the control group. Additionally, in the rescue experiment, the effects of ALD on MC were blocked by downregulating the expression level of p53 in MCs. The present study hypothesized that ALD may directly contribute to the occurrence of MC apoptosis via p53, which may participate in ALD-induced renal injury. PMID:27109859

  7. ETS2 overexpression in transgenic models and in Down syndrome predisposes to apoptosis via the p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wolvetang, E J; Wilson, T J; Sanij, E; Busciglio, J; Hatzistavrou, T; Seth, A; Hertzog, P J; Kola, I

    2003-02-01

    ETS2 is a transcription factor encoded by a gene on human chromosome 21 and alterations in its expression have been implicated in the pathophysiological features of Down syndrome (DS). This study demonstrates that overexpression of ETS2 results in apoptosis. This is shown in a number of circumstances, including ETS2-overexpressing transgenic mice and cell lines and in cells from subjects with DS. Indeed we report for the first time that the ETS2 overexpression transgenic mouse develops a smaller thymus and lymphocyte abnormalities similar to that observed in DS. In all circumstances of ETS2 overexpression, the increased apoptosis correlated with increased p53 and alterations in downstream factors in the p53 pathway. In the human HeLa cancer cell line, transfection with functional p53 enables ETS2 overexpression to induce apoptosis. Furthermore, crossing the ETS2 transgenic mice with p53(-/-) mice genetically rescued the thymic apoptosis phenotype. Therefore, we conclude that overexpression of human chromosome 21-encoded ETS2 induces apoptosis that is dependent on p53. These results have important consequences for understanding DS and oncogenesis and may provide new insights into therapeutic interventions. PMID:12554679

  8. p53 causes butein-mediated apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    WOO, SANG-MI; CHOI, YOUN KYNUG; KIM, AH JEONG; CHO, SUNG-GOOK; KO, SEONG-GYU

    2016-01-01

    Progression of chronic myeloid leukemia, marked by the oncogenic Bcr-Abl mutation, is tightly associated with an alteration of the p53 pathway. It is known that butein extracted from various plants represses cancer growth. Although the anticancer effects of butein are widely accepted, the mechanisms by which butein induces apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that butein-induced apoptosis was mediated by p53. KBM5 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells expressing wild-type p53 were more sensitive to butein compared with p53-null K562 CML cells in terms of apoptotic cell death. In addition, butein arrested KBM5 cells at S-phase and altered the expression levels of certain cyclins and the p53-downstream targets, MDM2 and p21. In addition, while butein reduced the protein expression of MDM2 in the KBM5 and K562 cells, it resulted in proteasome-independent MDM2 degradation in p53-expressing KBM5 cells, however, not in p53-null K562 cells. Therefore, the present study suggested that p53 causes the butein-mediated apoptosis of leukemic cells. PMID:26676515

  9. Transduction of Recombinant M3-p53-R12 Protein Enhances Human Leukemia Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tsung Chi; Zhao, Guan- Hao; Chen, Yao Yun; Chien, Chia-Ying; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lin, Kwang Hui; Chen, Shen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in initiating cell cycle arrest and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that p53 is either mutated or defective in approximately 50% of human cancers; therefore restoring normal p53 activity in cancer cells might be an effective anticancer therapeutic approach. Herein, we designed a chimeric p53 protein flanked with the MyoD N-terminal transcriptional activation domain (amino acids 1-62, called M3) and a poly-arginine (R12) cell penetrating signal in its N-and C-termini respectively. This chimeric protein, M3-p53-R12, can be expressed in E. coli and purified using immobilized metal ion chromatography followed by serial refolding dialysis. The purified M3-p53-R12 protein retains DNA-binding activity and gains of cell penetrating ability. Using MTT assay, we demonstrated that M3-p53-R12 inhibited the growth of K562, Jurkat as well as HL-60 leukemia cells carrying mutant p53 genes. Results from FACS analysis also demonstrated that transduction of M3-p53-R12 protein induced cell cycle arrest of these leukemia cells. Of special note, M3-p53-R12 has no apoptotic effect on normal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and leukocytes, highlighting its differential effects on normal and tumor cells. To sum up, our results reveal that purified recombinant M3-p53-R12 protein has functions of suppressing the leukemia cell lines' proliferation and launching cell apoptosis, suggesting the feasibility of using M3-p53-R12 protein as an anticancer drug. In the future we will test whether this chimeric protein can preferentially trigger the death of malignant cancer cells without affecting normal cells in animals carrying endogenous or xenographic tumors. PMID:27390612

  10. Bax is upregulated by p53 signal pathway in the SPE B-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ting; Chang, Chia-Wen

    2010-10-01

    We identify integrin α(v)β(3) and Fas as receptors for the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B), and G308S (SPE B mutant, glycine at residue 308 is changed to serine), which interacts with Fas only, in our previous study. Here, we explore the signal pathways that regulate proapoptotic protein expression after SPE B stimulation. We find that both SPE B and G308S can stimulate the serine phosphorylation of p53, and p53 phosphorylation is inhibited by the anti-Fas antibody but not by anti-α(V)β(3) antibody. p38 inhibitor and siRNA decrease the activation and translocation of p53 into the nucleus, which executes its transcription activity. These results indicate that after SPE B treatment, p53 is activated and p38 is the upstream of p53. p38 siRNA also decreases the binding of p53 to the bax promoter and interferes with the association of p53 and STAT1. p53, p38, and STAT1 siRNAs downregulate SPE B-induced Bax expression. This shows that SPE B activates the bax promoter via p38/p53 signal pathways through the Fas receptor, and that STAT1 acts as a coactivator of p53. In addition, p38 and p53 siRNAs inhibit SPE B-induced apoptosis. This is consistent with the findings that SPE B upregulates Bax expression through p38/p53 signal pathways that enhance cell apoptosis. PMID:20567883

  11. Upregulation of Acetylcholinesterase Mediated by p53 Contributes to Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaolei; Zhang, Changsong; Chen, Yichen; Zhou, Tianbao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) could be induced during apoptosis in various cell types. And reduced AChE expression either by siRNA could prevent apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the AChE regulation are largely unknown in human breast cancer cell. Material and methods: MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated by cisplatin in the absence or presence of p53 siRNA. Results: In this study, the regulation of AChE expression during apoptosis induced by cisplatin, a current used anticancer drug, was investigated in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to cisplatin resulted in apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the upregulated AChE and p53 were also observed during apoptosis. Silencing interfering RNA directed against p53 blocked the expression of AChE. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggested that AChE expression could be upregulated by the activation of p53 during apoptosis induced by cisplatin in MCF-7 cells. PMID:25553088

  12. Autophagy induced by p53-reactivating molecules protects pancreatic cancer cells from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Claudia; Menegazzi, Marta; Padroni, Chiara; Dando, Ilaria; Dalla Pozza, Elisa; Gregorelli, Alex; Costanzo, Chiara; Palmieri, Marta; Donadelli, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    TP53 mutations compromising p53 transcriptional function occur in more than 50 % of human cancers, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and render cancer cells more resistant to conventional therapy. In the last few years, many efforts have been addressed to identify p53-reactivating molecules able to restore the wild-type transcriptionally competent conformation of the mutated proteins. Here, we show that two of these compounds, CP-31398 and RITA, induce cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, and autophagy by activating p53/DNA binding and p53 phosphorylation (Ser15), without affecting the total p53 amount. These effects occur in both wild-type and mutant p53 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, whereas they are much less pronounced in normal human primary fibroblasts. Furthermore, CP-31398 and RITA regulate the axis SESN1-2/AMPK/mTOR by inducing AMPK phosphorylation on Thr172, which has a crucial role in the autophagic response. The protective role of autophagy in cell growth inhibition by CP-31398 and RITA is supported by the finding that the AMPK inhibitor compound C or the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine or 3-methyladenine sensitize both pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines to the apoptotic response induced by p53-reactivating molecules. Our results demonstrate for the first time a survival role for autophagy induced by p53-reactivating molecules, supporting the development of an anti-cancer therapy based on autophagy inhibition associated to p53 activation. PMID:23238993

  13. Non-dioxin-like PCBs interact with benzo[a]pyrene-induced p53-responses and inhibit apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Anati, Lauy Hoegberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2010-12-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants often co-existing in contaminated environments. However, there are few studies on the effects of co-exposure, in particular on effects of pure NDL-PCB congeners and PAHs. We have evaluated the effects of some highly purified NDL-PCBs and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) on BP-induced Raf, Erk, Mdm2, p53 signaling and on BP-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. PCBs (1 {mu}M) were added to HepG2 cells 1 h prior to BP and the incubation was stopped at 24 h. Employing Western blotting we found that NDL-PCBs (28, 101 and 153) amplified the BP-induced inactivating phosphorylation of Raf (pRaf Ser 259) and decreased levels of pErk Tyr 204. This treatment also resulted in the attenuation of BP-induced Mdm2 phosphorylation at Ser166 and amplification of the p53 Ser15 response. These effects were associated with an unexpected inhibition of BP-induced apoptosis. A dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB 126) was used as reference and gave results that were predictable from previous studies, i.e. it attenuated BP-induced p53 response and apoptosis. In an effort to explain why the NDL-PCB-induced amplification of the p53 response was associated with a decreased apoptotic response we analyzed FoxO3a, which may translocate p53 to the cytoplasm. We found that NDL-PCBs reduced the level of phosphorylated FoxO3a at Thr32. This phosphorylation promotes a cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO3a and p53 and our data suggest that NDL-PCBs may inhibit BP-induced apoptosis by preventing a FoxO3a-dependent translocation of p53 to the cytoplasm.

  14. P53-dependent upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase-2: role in doxorubicin-induced growth arrest

    PubMed Central

    Shamseddine, A A; Clarke, C J; Carroll, B; Airola, M V; Mohammed, S; Rella, A; Obeid, L M; Hannun, Y A

    2015-01-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) is a ceramide-generating enzyme that has been implicated in growth arrest, apoptosis and exosome secretion. Although previous studies have reported transcriptional upregulation of nSMase2 in response to daunorubicin, through Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, the role of the DNA damage pathway in regulating nSMase2 remains unclear. In this study, we show that doxorubicin induces a dose-dependent induction of nSMase2 mRNA and protein with concomitant increases in nSMase activity and ceramide levels. Upregulation of nSMase2 was dependent on ATR, Chk1 and p53, thus placing it downstream of the DNA damage pathway. Moreover, overexpression of p53 was sufficient to transcriptionally induce nSMase2, without the need for DNA damage. DNA-binding mutants as well as acetylation mutants of p53 were unable to induce nSMase2, suggesting a role of nSMase2 in growth arrest. Moreover, knockdown of nSMase2 prevented doxorubicin-induced growth arrest. Finally, p53-induced nSMase2 upregulation appears to occur via a novel transcription start site upstream of exon 3. These results identify nSMase2 as a novel p53 target gene, regulated by the DNA damage pathway to induce cell growth arrest. PMID:26512957

  15. Active Akt and functional p53 modulate apoptosis in Abelson virus-transformed pre-B cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Li; Unnikrishnan, Indira; Raghavan, Anuradha; Parmar, Kalindi; Rosenberg, Naomi

    2004-02-01

    Suppression of apoptosis is an important feature of the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) transformation process. During multistep transformation, Ab-MLV-infected pre-B cells undergo p53-dependent apoptosis during the crisis phase of transformation. Even once cells are fully transformed, an active v-Abl protein tyrosine kinase is required to suppress apoptosis because cells transformed by temperature-sensitive (ts) kinase mutants undergo rapid apoptosis after a shift to the nonpermissive temperature. However, inactivation of the v-Abl protein by a temperature shift interrupts signals transmitted via multiple pathways, making it difficult to identify those that are critically important for the suppression of apoptosis. To begin to dissect these pathways, we tested the ability of an SH2 domain Ab-MLV mutant, P120/R273K, to rescue aspects of the ts phenotype of pre-B cells transformed by the conditional kinase domain mutant. The P120/R273K mutant suppressed apoptosis at the nonpermissive temperature, a phenotype correlated with its ability to activate Akt. Apoptosis also was suppressed at the nonpermissive temperature by constitutively active Akt and in p53-null pre-B cells transformed with the ts kinase domain mutant. These data indicate that an intact Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is not critical for apoptosis suppression and suggest that signals transmitted through Akt and p53 play an important role in the response. PMID:14747529

  16. The transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program is a major contributor to nutlin-induced apoptosis in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Vaseva, Angelina V; Marchenko, Natalia D; Moll, Ute M

    2009-06-01

    Strategies to induce p53 activation in tumors that retain wild-type p53 are promising for cancer therapy. Nutlin is a potent and selective pharmacological MDM2 inhibitor that competitively binds to its p53-binding pocket, thereby leading to non-genotoxic p53 stabilization and activation of growth arrest and apoptosis pathways. Nutlin-induced apoptosis is thought to occur via p53's transcriptional program. Here we report that the transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program plays an important role in Nutlin-induced p53-mediated tumor cell death. Aside from nuclear stabilization, Nutlin causes cytoplasmic p53 accumulation and translocation to mitochondria. Monoubiquitinated p53, originating from a distinct cytoplasmic pool, is the preferred p53 species that translocates to mitochondria in response to stress. Nutlin does not interfere with MDM2's ability to monoubiquitinate p53, due to the fact that MDM2-p53 complexes are only partially disrupted and that Nutlin-stabilized MDM2 retains its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Nutlin-induced mitochondrial p53 translocation is rapid and associated with cytochrome C release that precedes induction of p53 target genes. Specific inhibition of mitochondrial p53 translocation by Pifithrin mu reduces the apoptotic Nutlin response by 2.5-fold, underlining the significance of p53's mitochondrial program in Nutlin-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, blocking the transcriptional arm of p53, either via alpha-Amanitin or the p53-specific transcriptional inhibitor Pifithrin alpha, not only fails to inhibit, but greatly potentiates Nutlin-induced apoptosis. In sum, the direct mitochondrial program is a major mechanism in Nutlin-induced p53-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, at least in some tumors the transcriptional p53 activities in net balance not only are dispensable for the apoptotic Nutlin response, but appear to actively block its therapeutic effect. PMID:19411846

  17. The transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program is a major contributor to nutlin-induced apoptosis in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaseva, Angelina V.; Marchenko, Natalia D.; Moll, Ute M.

    2010-01-01

    Strategies to induce p53 activation in tumors that retain wild-type p53 are promising for cancer therapy. Nutlin is a potent and selective pharmacological MDM2 inhibitor that competitively binds to its p53-binding pocket, thereby leading to non-genotoxic p53 stabilization and activation of growth arrest and apoptosis pathways. Nutlin-induced apoptosis is thought to occur via p53’s transcriptional program. Here we report that the transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program plays an important role in Nutlin-induced p53-mediated tumor cell death. Aside from nuclear stabilization, Nutlin causes cytoplasmic p53 accumulation and translocation to mitochondria. Monoubiquitinated p53, originating from a distinct cytoplasmic pool, is the preferred p53 species that translocates to mitochondria in response to stress. Nutlin does not interfere with MDM2’s ability to monoubiquitinate p53, due to the fact that MDM2-p53 complexes are only partially disrupted and that Nutlin-stabilized MDM2 retains its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Nutlin-induced mitochondrial p53 translocation is rapid and associated with cytochrome C release that precedes induction of p53 target genes. Specific inhibition of mitochondrial p53 translocation by Pifithrin μ reduces the apoptotic Nutlin response by 2.5-fold, underlining the significance of p53’s mitochondrial program in Nutlin-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, blocking the transcriptional arm of p53, either via α-Amanitin or the p53-specific transcriptional inhibitor Pifithrin α, not only fails to inhibit, but greatly potentiates Nutlin-induced apoptosis. In sum, the direct mitochondrial program is a major mechanism in Nutlin-induced p53-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, at least in some tumors the transcriptional p53 activities in net balance not only are dispensable for the apoptotic Nutlin response, but appear to actively block its therapeutic effect. PMID:19411846

  18. Amphipathic silica nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity through oxidative stress mediated and p53 dependent apoptosis pathway in human liver cell line HL-7702 and rat liver cell line BRL-3A.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Daiying; Duan, Zhenfang; Jia, Yuanyuan; Chu, Tianxue; He, Qiong; Yuan, Juan; Dai, Wei; Li, Zengqiang; Xing, Liguo; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanism of amphipathic silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) exposure to human normal liver HL-7702 cells and rat normal liver BRL-3A cells. Prior to the cellular studies, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and X ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize SiO2 NPs, which proved the amorphous nature of SiO2 NPs with TEM diameter of 19.8±2.7nm. Further studies proved that exposure to SiO2 NPs dose-dependently induced cytotoxicity as revealed by cell counting kit (CCK-8) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, with more severe cytotoxicity in HL-7702 cells than BRL-3A cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) assays showed elevated oxidative stress in both cells. Morphological studies by microscopic observation, Hochest 33258 and AO/EB staining indicated significant apoptotic changes after the cells being exposed to SiO2 NPs. Further studies by western blot indicated that SiO2 NPs exposure to both cells up-regulated p53, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression and down-regulated Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels. Activated caspase-3 activity detected by colorimetric assay kit and caspase-3/7 activity detected by fluorescent real-time detection kit were significantly increased by SiO2 NPs exposure. In addition, antioxidant vitamin C significantly attenuated SiO2 NPs-induced caspase-3 activation, which indicated that SiO2 NPs-induced oxidative stress was involved in the process of HL-7702 and BRL-3A cell apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggested that SiO2 NPs-induced cytotoxicity in HL-7702 and BRL-3A cells was through oxidative stress mediated and p53, caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 dependent pathway and HL-7702 cells were more sensitive to SiO2 NPs-induced cytotoxicity than BRL-3A cells. PMID:27187187

  19. {sub p}53-Dependent Adaptive Responses in Human Cells Exposed to Space Radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Su Xiaoming; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: It has been reported that priming irradiation or conditioning irradiation with a low dose of X-rays in the range of 0.02-0.1 Gy induces a p53-dependent adaptive response in mammalian cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of space radiations on the adaptive response. Methods and Materials: Two human lymphoblastoid cell lines were used; one cell line bears a wild-type p53 (wtp53) gene, and another cell line bears a mutated p53 (mp53) gene. The cells were frozen during transportation on the space shuttle and while in orbit in the International Space Station freezer for 133 days between November 15, 2008 and March 29, 2009. After the frozen samples were returned to Earth, the cells were cultured for 6 h and then exposed to a challenging X-ray-irradiation (2 Gy). Cellular sensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored using dye-exclusion assays, Hoechst33342 staining assays, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In cells exposed to space radiations, adaptive responses such as the induction of radioresistance and the depression of radiation-induced apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in wtp53 cells but not in mp53 cells. Conclusion: These results have confirmed the hypothesis that p53-dependent adaptive responses are apparently induced by space radiations within a specific range of low doses. The cells exhibited this effect owing to space radiations exposure, even though the doses in space were very low.

  20. 3-MCPD 1-Palmitate Induced Tubular Cell Apoptosis In Vivo via JNK/p53 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Huang, Guoren; Wang, Thomas T Y; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) are a group of processing induced food contaminants with nephrotoxicity but the molecular mechanism(s) remains unclear. This study investigated whether and how the JNK/p53 pathway may play a role in the nephrotoxic effect of 3-MCPD esters using 3-MCPD 1-palmitate (MPE) as a probe compound in Sprague Dawley rats. Microarray analysis of the kidney from the Sprague Dawley rats treated with MPE, using Gene Ontology categories and KEGG pathways, revealed that MPE altered mRNA expressions of the genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK and ERK), p53, and apoptotic signal transduction pathways. The changes in the mRNA expressions were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses and were consistent with the induction of tubular cell apoptosis as determined by histopathological, TUNEL, and immunohistochemistry analyses in the kidneys of the Sprague Dawley rats. Additionally, p53 knockout attenuated the apoptosis, and the apoptosis-related protein bax expression and cleaved caspase-3 activation induced by MPE in the p53 knockout C57BL/6 mice, whereas JNK inhibitor SP600125 but not ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited MPE-induced apoptosis, supporting the conclusion that JNK/p53 might play a critical role in the tubular cell apoptosis induced by MPE and other 3-MCPD fatty acid esters. PMID:27008853

  1. Roscovitine up-regulates p53 protein and induces apoptosis in human HeLaS(3) cervix carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wesierska-Gadek, Józefa; Wandl, Stefanie; Kramer, Matthias P; Pickem, Christian; Krystof, Vladimir; Hajek, Susanne B

    2008-12-01

    Exposure of human HeLaS(3) cervix carcinoma cells to high doses of conventional cytostatic drugs, e.g. cisplatin (CP) strongly inhibits their proliferation. However, most cytostatic agents are genotoxic and may generate a secondary malignancy. Therefore, therapeutic strategy using alternative, not cytotoxic drugs would be beneficial. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by pharmacological inhibitors became recently a promising therapeutic option. Roscovitine (ROSC), a selective CDK inhibitor, efficiently targets human malignant cells. ROSC induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ROSC also activates p53 protein. Activation of p53 tumor suppressor protein is essential for induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Considering the fact that in HeLaS(3) cells wt p53 is inactivated by the action of HPV-encoded E6 oncoprotein, we addressed the question whether ROSC would be able to reactivate p53 protein in them. Their exposure to ROSC for 24 h induced cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M and reduced the number of viable cells. Unlike CP, ROSC in the used doses did not induce DNA damage and was not directly cytotoxic. Despite lack of detectable DNA lesions, ROSC activated wt p53 protein. The increase of p53 levels was attributable to the ROSC-mediated protein stabilization. Further analyses revealed that ROSC induced site-specific phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser46. After longer exposure, ROSC induced apoptosis in HeLaS(3) cells. These results indicate that therapy of HeLaS(3) cells by ROSC could offer an advantage over that by CP due to its increased selectivity and markedly reduced risk of generation of a secondary cancer. PMID:18846503

  2. Hypoxia-activated apoptosis of cardiac myocytes requires reoxygenation or a pH shift and is independent of p53

    PubMed Central

    Bishopric, Nanette H.; Discher, Daryl J.; Kaiser, Shari; Hernandez, Olga; Sato, Barbara; Zang, Jie; Webster, Keith A.

    1999-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion activate cardiac myocyte apoptosis, which may be an important feature in the progression of ischemic heart disease. The relative contributions of ischemia and reperfusion to apoptotic signal transduction have not been established. We report here that severe chronic hypoxia alone does not cause apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in culture. When rapidly contracting cardiac myocytes were exposed to chronic hypoxia, apoptosis occurred only when there was a decrease in extracellular pH ([pH]o). Apoptosis did not occur when [pH]o was neutralized. Addition of acidic medium from hypoxic cultures or exogenous lactic acid stimulated apoptosis in aerobic myocytes. Hypoxia-acidosis–mediated cell death was independent of p53: equivalent apoptosis occurred in cardiac myocytes isolated from wild-type and p53 knockout mice, and hypoxia caused no detectable change in p53 abundance or p53-dependent transcription. Reoxygenation of hypoxic cardiac myocytes induced apoptosis in 25–30% of the cells and was also independent of p53 by the same criteria. Finally, equivalent levels of apoptosis, as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, were induced by ischemia-reperfusion, but not by ischemia alone, of Langendorff-perfused hearts from wild-type and p53 knockout mice. We conclude that acidosis, reoxygenation, and reperfusion, but not hypoxia (or ischemia) alone, are strong stimuli for programmed cell death that is substantially independent of p53. J. Clin. Invest. 104:239–252 (1999). PMID:10430605

  3. p53 Mediates Colistin-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis in PC-12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Xie, Daoyuan; Chen, Xueping; Hughes, Maria L R; Jiang, Guozheng; Lu, Ziyin; Xia, Chunli; Li, Li; Wang, Jinli; Xu, Wei; Sun, Yuan; Li, Rui; Wang, Rui; Qian, Feng; Li, Jian; Li, Jichang

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of colistin-induced neurotoxicity is still unknown. Our recent study (L. Zhang, Y. H. Zhao, W. J. Ding, G. Z. Jiang, Z. Y. Lu, L. Li, J. L. Wang, J. Li, and J. C. Li, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:2189-2197, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.04092-14; H. Jiang, J. C. Li, T. Zhou, C. H. Wang, H. Zhang, and H. Wang, Int J Mol Med 33:1298-1304, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.1684) indicates that colistin induces autophagy and apoptosis in rat adrenal medulla PC-12 cells, and there is interplay between both cellular events. As an important cellular stress sensor, phosphoprotein p53 can trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and regulate autophagy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the p53 pathway in colistin-induced neurotoxicity in PC-12 cells. Specifically, cells were treated with colistin (125 μg/ml) in the absence and presence of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α (PFT-α; 20 nM), for 12 h and 24 h, and the typical hallmarks of autophagy and apoptosis were examined by fluorescence/immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. The results indicate that colistin had a stimulatory effect on the expression levels of the target genes and proteins involved in autophagy and apoptosis, including LC3-II/I, p53, DRAM (damage-regulated autophagy modulator), PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), Bax, p-AMPK (activated form of AMP-activated protein kinase), and caspase-3. In contrast, colistin appeared to have an inhibitory effect on the expression of p-mTOR (activated form of mammalian target of rapamycin), which is another target protein in autophagy. Importantly, analysis of the levels of p53 in the cells treated with colistin revealed an increase in nuclear p53 at 12 h and cytoplasmic p53 at 24 h. Pretreatment of colistin-treated cells with PFT-α inhibited autophagy and promoted colistin-induced apoptosis. This is the first study to demonstrate that colistin

  4. Adenovirus type 5 early region 4 is responsible for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Marcellus, R C; Teodoro, J G; Wu, T; Brough, D E; Ketner, G; Shore, G C; Branton, P E

    1996-01-01

    In the absence of E1B, the 289- and 243-residue E1A products of human adenovirus type 5 induce p53-dependent apoptosis. However, our group has shown recently that the 289-residue E1A protein is also able to induce apoptosis by a p53-independent mechanism (J. G. Teodoro, G. C. Shore, and P. E. Branton, Oncogene 11:467-474, 1995). Preliminary results suggested that p53-independent cell death required expression of one or more additional adenovirus early gene products. Here we show that both the E1B 19-kDa protein and cellular Bcl-2 inhibit or significantly delay p53-independent apoptosis. Neither early region E2 or E3 appeared to be necessary for such cell death. Analysis of a series of E1A mutants indicated that mutations in the transactivation domain and other regions of E1A correlated with E1A-mediated transactivation of E4 gene expression. Furthermore, p53-deficient human SAOS-2 cells infected with a mutant which expresses E1B but none of the E4 gene products remained viable for considerably longer times than those infected with wild-type adenovirus type 5. In addition, an adenovirus vector lacking both E1 and E4 was unable to induce DNA degradation and cell killing in E1A-expressing cell lines. These data showed that an E4 product is essential for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis. PMID:8709247

  5. TGEV nucleocapsid protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through activation of p53 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Li; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Xu, Xingang; Tong, Dewen

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • TGEV N protein reduces cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. • TGEV N protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating p53 signaling. • TGEV N protein plays important roles in TGEV-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. - Abstract: Our previous studies showed that TGEV infection could induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of p53 signaling in cultured host cells. However, it is unclear which viral gene causes these effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGEV nucleocapsid (N) protein on PK-15 cells. We found that TGEV N protein suppressed cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis. Characterization of various cellular proteins that are involved in regulating cell cycle progression demonstrated that the expression of N gene resulted in an accumulation of p53 and p21, which suppressed cyclin B1, cdc2 and cdk2 expression. Moreover, the expression of TGEV N gene promoted translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which in turn caused the release of cytochrome c, followed by activation of caspase-3, resulting in cell apoptosis in the transfected PK-15 cells following cell cycle arrest. Further studies showed that p53 inhibitor attenuated TGEV N protein induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and apoptosis through reversing the expression changes of cdc2, cdk2 and cyclin B1 and the translocation changes of Bax and cytochrome c induced by TGEV N protein. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TGEV N protein might play an important role in TGEV infection-induced p53 activation and cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis occurrence.

  6. Acetylation of the p53 DNA binding domain regulates apoptosis induction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Stephen M.; Mellert, Hestia S.; Holbert, Marc A.; Li, Keqin; Marmorstein, Ronen; Lane, William S.; McMahon, Steven B.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability of p53 to induce apoptosis plays an important role in tumor suppression. Here we describe a previously unknown post-translational modification of the DNA-binding domain of p53. This modification, acetylation of lysine 120, occurs rapidly after DNA damage and is catalyzed by the MYST family acetyltransferases hMOF and TIP60. Mutation of lysine 120 to arginine, as occurs in human cancer, debilitates K120 acetylation and diminishes p53-mediated apoptosis without affecting cell-cycle arrest. The K120R mutation selectively blocks the transcription of pro-apoptotic target genes such as BAX and PUMA while the non-apoptotic targets p21 and hMDM2 remain unaffected. Consistent with this, depletion of hMOF and/or TIP60 inhibits the ability of p53 to activate BAX and PUMA transcription. Furthermore, the acetyl-lysine 120 form of p53 specifically accumulates at pro-apoptotic target genes. These data suggest that K120 acetylation may help distinguish the cell cycle arrest and apoptotic functions of p53. PMID:17189187

  7. p53 mutations and human papillomavirus DNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma: correlation with apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, J. Y.; Cho, N. P.; Kong, G.; Lee, J. D.; Yoon, K.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-two oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) were analysed for p53 mutations and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to examine the prevalency of these factors and correlation with apoptotic index (AI; number of apoptotic cells per 100 tumour cells) of the tumour tissue. In polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Southern blot analysis, HPV DNAs were detected from 22 out of 42 SCCs (52%) with predominance of HPV-16 (68%). p53 mutations in exons 5-8, screened by nested PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, were observed in 16 of 42 tumours (38%). The state of the p53 gene did not show any correlation with HPV infection. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) method was used for detection of apoptotic cells. The mean AI was 2.35, ranging from 0.31 to 6.63. SCCs associated with p53 mutation had significantly lower AI than those without p53 mutation (P < 0.01), whereas no difference in AI was found between SCCs with and without HPV infection. The results of this study confirmed that HPV infection and/or p53 mutations are implicated, but are not mutually exclusive events, in carcinogenesis of oral SCC and also showed that decrease in apoptosis is more closely related to p53 mutation than HPV infection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9703282

  8. Ligand-dependent interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor with p53 enhances their degradation by Hdm2

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sagar; Wasylyk, Bohdan

    2001-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the tumor supressor p53 mediate different stress responses. We have studied the mechanism of their mutual inhibition in normal endothelial cells (HUVEC) in response to hypoxia, a physiological stress, and mitomycin C, which damages DNA. Dexamethasone (Dex) stimulates the degradation of endogenous GR and p53 by the proteasome pathway in HUVEC under hypoxia and mitomycin C treatments, and also in hepatoma cells (HepG2) under normoxia. Dex inhibits the functions of p53 (apoptosis, Bax, and p21WAF1/CIP1 expression) and GR (PEPCK and G-6-Pase expression). Endogenous p53 and GR form a ligand-dependent trimeric complex with Hdm2 in the cytoplasm. Disruption of the p53–HDM2 interaction prevents Dex-induced ubiquitylation of GR and p53. The ubiquitylation of GR requires p53, the interaction of p53 with Hdm2, and E3 ligase activity of Hdm2. These results provide a mechanistic basis for GR and p53 acting as opposing forces in the decision between cell death and survival. PMID:11562347

  9. Anticancer Activity of γ-Bisabolene in Human Neuroblastoma Cells via Induction of p53-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yu-Jen; Hua, Chun-Hung; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Wang, Ching-Ying; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Huang, Su-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    γ-Bisabolene has demonstrated antiproliferative activities against several human cancer cell lines. This study first discloses the antiproliferative and apoptosis induction activities of γ-bisabolene to human neuroblastoma TE671 cells. A CC50 value of γ-bisabolene was 8.2 μM to TE671 cells. Cell cycle analysis with PI staining showed γ-bisabolene elevating the sub-G1 fractions in a time-dependent manner. In addition, annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed γ-bisabolene significantly triggering early (annexin-V positive/PI negative) and late (annexin-V positive/PI positive) apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. γ-Bisabolene induced caspase 3/8/9 activation, intracellular ROS increase, and mitochondrial membrane potential decrease in apoptosis of human neuro-blastoma cells. Moreover, γ-bisabolene increased p53 phosphorylation and up-regulated p53-mediated apoptotic genes Bim and PUMA, as well as decreased the mRNA and protein levels of CK2α. Notably, the results indicated the involvement of CK2α-p53 pathways in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of human neuroblastoma cells treated with γ-bisabolene. This study elucidated the apoptosis induction pathways of γ-bisabolene-treated neuroblastoma cells, in which could be useful for developing anti-neuroblastoma drugs. PMID:27164076

  10. ATF4 induction through an atypical integrated stress response to ONC201 triggers p53-independent apoptosis in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, Jo; Kojima, Kensuke; Chachad, Dhruv; Ruvolo, Peter; Ruvolo, Vivian; Jacamo, Rodrigo O.; Borthakur, Gautam; Mu, Hong; Zeng, Zhihong; Tabe, Yoko; Allen, Joshua E.; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Lee, Hans C.; Orlowski, Robert; Sarbassov, Dos D.; Lorenzi, Philip L.; Huang, Xuelin; Neelapu, Sattva S.; McDonnell, Timothy; Miranda, Roberto N.; Wang, Michael; Kantarjian, Hagop; Konopleva, Marina; Davis, R. Eric.; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The clinical challenge posed by p53 abnormalities in hematological malignancies requires therapeutic strategies other than standard genotoxic chemotherapies. ONC201 is a first-in-class small molecule that activates p53-independent apoptosis, has a benign safety profile, and is in early clinical trials. We found that ONC201 caused p53-independent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cell lines and in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples from patients; these included samples from patients with genetic abnormalities associated with poor prognosis or cells that had developed resistance to the nongenotoxic agents ibrutinib and bortezomib. Moreover, ONC201 caused apoptosis in stem and progenitor AML cells and abrogated the engraftment of leukemic stem cells in mice while sparing normal bone marrow cells. ONC201 caused changes in gene expression similar to those caused by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and integrated stress responses (ISRs), which increase the translation of the transcription factor ATF4 through an increase in the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. However, unlike the UPR and ISR, the increase in ATF4 abundance in ONC201-treated hematopoietic cells promoted apoptosis and did not depend on increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. ONC201 also inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, likely through ATF4-mediated induction of the mTORC1 inhibitor DDIT4. Overexpression of BCL-2 protected against ONC201-induced apoptosis, and the combination of ONC201 and the BCL-2 antagonist ABT-199 synergistically increased apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that by inducing an atypical ISR and p53-independent apoptosis, ONC201 has clinical potential in hematological malignancies. PMID:26884599

  11. ATF4 induction through an atypical integrated stress response to ONC201 triggers p53-independent apoptosis in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Jo; Kojima, Kensuke; Chachad, Dhruv; Ruvolo, Peter; Ruvolo, Vivian; Jacamo, Rodrigo O; Borthakur, Gautam; Mu, Hong; Zeng, Zhihong; Tabe, Yoko; Allen, Joshua E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Lee, Hans C; Orlowski, Robert; Sarbassov, Dos D; Lorenzi, Philip L; Huang, Xuelin; Neelapu, Sattva S; McDonnell, Timothy; Miranda, Roberto N; Wang, Michael; Kantarjian, Hagop; Konopleva, Marina; Davis, R Eric; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-02-16

    The clinical challenge posed by p53 abnormalities in hematological malignancies requires therapeutic strategies other than standard genotoxic chemotherapies. ONC201 is a first-in-class small molecule that activates p53-independent apoptosis, has a benign safety profile, and is in early clinical trials. We found that ONC201 caused p53-independent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cell lines and in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples from patients; these included samples from patients with genetic abnormalities associated with poor prognosis or cells that had developed resistance to the nongenotoxic agents ibrutinib and bortezomib. Moreover, ONC201 caused apoptosis in stem and progenitor AML cells and abrogated the engraftment of leukemic stem cells in mice while sparing normal bone marrow cells. ONC201 caused changes in gene expression similar to those caused by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and integrated stress responses (ISRs), which increase the translation of the transcription factor ATF4 through an increase in the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. However, unlike the UPR and ISR, the increase in ATF4 abundance in ONC201-treated hematopoietic cells promoted apoptosis and did not depend on increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. ONC201 also inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, likely through ATF4-mediated induction of the mTORC1 inhibitor DDIT4. Overexpression of BCL-2 protected against ONC201-induced apoptosis, and the combination of ONC201 and the BCL-2 antagonist ABT-199 synergistically increased apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that by inducing an atypical ISR and p53-independent apoptosis, ONC201 has clinical potential in hematological malignancies. PMID:26884599

  12. Apoptosis and morphological alterations after UVA irradiation in red blood cells of p53 deficient Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Sayed, Alla El-Din Hamid; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Morphological alterations in red blood cells were described as hematological bioindicators of UVA exposure to investigate the sensitivity to UVA in wild type Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and a p53 deficient mutant. The fewer abnormal red blood cells were observed in the p53 mutant fish under the control conditions. After exposure to different doses of UVA radiation (15min, 30min and 60min/day for 3days), cellular and nuclear alterations in red blood cells were analyzed in the UVA exposed fish compared with non-exposed controls and those alterations included acanthocytes, cell membrane lysis, swollen cells, teardrop-like cell, hemolyzed cells and sickle cells. Those alterations were increased after the UVA exposure both in wild type and the p53 deficient fish. Moreover, apoptosis analyzed by acridine orange assay showed increased number of apoptosis in red blood cells at the higher UVA exposure dose. No micronuclei but nuclear abnormalities as eccentric nucleus, nuclear budding, deformed nucleus, and bilobed nucleus were observed in each group. These results suggested that UVA exposure induced both p53 dependent and independent apoptosis and morphological alterations in red blood cells but less sensitive to UVA than Wild type in medaka fish. PMID:27203565

  13. Effect of Mir-122 on Human Cholangiocarcinoma Proliferation, Invasion, and Apoptosis Through P53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuiping; Zhang, Jinmei; Cao, Xiangang; Yang, Qian; Xia, Dequan

    2016-01-01

    Background Bile duct carcinoma is a common digestive tract tumor with high morbidity and mortality. As a kind of important non-coding RNA, microRNA (miR) plays an important role in post-transcriptional regulation. MiR-122 is the most abundant miR in the liver. Multiple studies have shown that miR-122 level is reduced in a variety of liver tumors and can be used as a specific marker for liver injury. P53 is a classic tumor suppressor gene that can induce tumor cell apoptosis through various pathways. Whether miR-122 affects p53 in bile duct carcinoma still needs investigation. Material/Methods miR inhibitor or mimics was transfected to bile duct carcinoma cells to evaluate its function on proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and p53 expression. Results MiR-122 overexpression reduced cell invasion and migration ability, and inhibited cell apoptosis and p53 expression. Inhibiting miR-122 caused the opposite results. Conclusions Upregulating miR-122 can suppress bile duct carcinoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. MiR-122 could be used as a target for bile duct carcinoma treatment, which provides a new strategy for cholangiocarcinoma patients. PMID:27472451

  14. PIM1 destabilization activates a p53-dependent response to ribosomal stress in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Vinay; Caldarola, Sara; Aria, Valentina; Monteleone, Valentina; Fuoco, Claudia; Gargioli, Cesare; Cannata, Stefano; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2016-04-26

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis triggers a stress response (ribosomal stress) that can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. Signaling pathways activated by ribosomal stress are specifically involved in the pathological mechanism of a group of disorders defined as ribosomopathies. However, more generally, the quality control of ribosome synthesis is part of the regulatory circuits that control cell metabolism. A number of studies identified tumor suppressor p53 as a central player in ribosomal stress. We have previously reported that the kinase PIM1 plays a role as a sensor for ribosome deficiency. In this report we address the relationship between PIM1 and p53 in cancer cell lines after depletion of a ribosomal protein. We identified a novel signaling pathway that includes the kinase AKT and the ubiquitin ligase MDM2. In fact, our results indicate that the lower level of PIM1, induced by ribosomal stress, causes inactivation of AKT, inhibition of MDM2 and a consequent p53 stabilization. Therefore, we propose that activation of p53 in response to ribosomal stress, is dependent on the pathway PIM1-AKT-MDM2. In addition, we report evidence that PIM1 level may be relevant to assess the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs that induce ribosomal stress. PMID:26993775

  15. The p53 tumor suppressor protein protects against chemotherapeutic stress and apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Parasido, Erika; Tricoli, Lucas; Sivakumar, Angiela; Mikhaiel, John P.; Yenugonda, Venkata; Rodriguez, Olga C.; Karam, Sana D.; Rood, Brian R.; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Albanese, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor and remains incurable in about a third of patients. Currently, survivors carry a significant burden of late treatment effects. The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a crucial role in influencing cell survival in response to cellular stress and while the p53 pathway is considered a key determinant of anti-tumor responses in many tumors, its role in cell survival in MB is much less well defined. Herein, we report that the experimental drug VMY-1-103 acts through induction of a partial DNA damage-like response as well induction of non-survival autophagy. Surprisingly, the genetic or chemical silencing of p53 significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of both VMY and the DNA damaging drug, doxorubicin. The inhibition of p53 in the presence of VMY revealed increased late stage apoptosis, increased DNA fragmentation and increased expression of genes involved in apoptosis, including CAPN12 and TRPM8, p63, p73, BIK, EndoG, CIDEB, P27Kip1 and P21cip1. These data provide the groundwork for additional studies on VMY as a therapeutic drug and support further investigations into the intriguing possibility that targeting p53 function may be an effective means of enhancing clinical outcomes in MB. PMID:26540407

  16. Hepatic IGFBP1 is a prosurvival factor that binds to BAK, protects the liver from apoptosis, and antagonizes the proapoptotic actions of p53 at mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Leu, J. I-Ju; George, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    Liver is generally refractory to apoptosis induced by the p53 tumor suppressor protein, but the molecular basis remains poorly understood. Here we show that p53 transcriptional activation leads to enhanced expression of hepatic IGFBP1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1). Exhibiting a previously unanticipated role, a portion of intracellular IGFBP1 protein localizes to mitochondria where it binds to the proapoptotic protein BAK and hinders BAK activation and apoptosis induction. Interestingly, in many cells and tissues p53 also has a direct apoptotic function at mitochondria that includes BAK binding and activation. When IGFBP1 is in a complex with BAK, formation of a proapoptotic p53/BAK complex and apoptosis induction are impaired, both in cultured cells and in liver. In contrast, livers of IGFBP1-deficient mice exhibit spontaneous apoptosis that is accompanied by p53 mitochondrial accumulation and evidence of BAK oligomerization. These data support the importance of BAK as a mediator of p53’s mitochondrial function. The results also identify IGFBP1 as a negative regulator of the BAK-dependent pathway of apoptosis, whose expression integrates the transcriptional and mitochondrial functions of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. PMID:18056423

  17. Dihydromyricetin promotes hepatocellular carcinoma regression via a p53 activation-dependent mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Liu, Jie; Liu, Bin; Xia, Juan; Chen, Nianping; Chen, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Chen; Lu, Caijie; Li, Mingyi; Zhu, Runzhi

    2014-04-01

    The development of antitumor chemotherapy drugs remains a key goal for oncologists, and natural products provide a vast resource for anti-cancer drug discovery. In the current study, we found that the flavonoid dihydromyricetin (DHM) exhibited antitumor activity against liver cancer cells, including primary cells obtained from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In contrast, DHM was not cytotoxic to immortalized normal liver cells. Furthermore, DHM treatment resulted in the growth inhibition and remission of xenotransplanted tumors in nude mice. Our results further demonstrated that this antitumor activity was caused by the activation of the p53-dependent apoptosis pathway via p53 phosphorylation at serine (15Ser). Moreover, our results showed that DHM plays a dual role in the induction of cell death when administered in combination with cisplatin, a common clinical drug that kills primary hepatoma cells but not normal liver cells.

  18. Benzo(a)pyrene Induced p53 Mediated Male Germ Cell Apoptosis: Synergistic Protective Effects of Curcumin and Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Bhaswati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Ghosh, Debidas; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Parimal C.; Jana, Kuladip

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental toxicant that induces male germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin and resveratrol are phytochemicals with cytoprotective and anti-oxidative properties. At the same time resveratrol is also a natural Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) antagonist. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted the synergistic protective effect of curcumin and resveratrol against B(a)P induced p53 mediated germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol significantly prevented B(a)P induced decrease in sperm cell count and motility, as well as increased serum testosterone level. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment actively protected B(a)P induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, and Apaf1. B(a)P induced testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 (Cytochrome P4501A1) expression. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ

  19. Benzo(a)pyrene Induced p53 Mediated Male Germ Cell Apoptosis: Synergistic Protective Effects of Curcumin and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Bhaswati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Ghosh, Debidas; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Parimal C; Jana, Kuladip

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental toxicant that induces male germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin and resveratrol are phytochemicals with cytoprotective and anti-oxidative properties. At the same time resveratrol is also a natural Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) antagonist. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted the synergistic protective effect of curcumin and resveratrol against B(a)P induced p53 mediated germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol significantly prevented B(a)P induced decrease in sperm cell count and motility, as well as increased serum testosterone level. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment actively protected B(a)P induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, and Apaf1. B(a)P induced testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 (Cytochrome P4501A1) expression. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ

  20. The growth-inhibitory function of p53 is separable from transactivation, apoptosis and suppression of transformation by E1a and Ras.

    PubMed

    Hansen, R S; Braithwaite, A W

    1996-09-01

    p53 is known to suppress oncogenic cell transformation, inhibit cell growth, induce apoptosis and activate and repress gene transcription. To investigate the relationships between these functions, we have examined various mutant forms of p53 for their abilities to perform each activity. This study has shown that growth inhibition is not a prerequisite for apoptotic cell death as these two functions are separate and alternative activities of p53. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the ability of p53 to suppress transformation (by adenovirus E1a and activated Ras) correlates with its ability to induce apoptosis and not with its ability to inhibit cell growth. Although p53 is thought to inhibit growth through the transactivation of p21WAFI, our study has demonstrated that transcriptional activation and repression are neither sufficient nor necessary for growth inhibition. This indicates that p53 has more than one mechanism for inhibiting cell growth and that another type of biochemical function must be involved. Furthermore, we have shown that transcriptional activation and repression may each be necessary, and the combination of these activities may even be sufficient, for p53-dependent apoptosis. In summary, our results have provided new information about the cellular and biochemical mechanisms through which p53 acts as a tumor suppressor. PMID:8806689

  1. Modulation of p53-mediated transcriptional repression and apoptosis by the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, P; Chiou, S K; Rao, L; White, E

    1995-01-01

    BRK cell lines that stably express adenovirus E1A and a murine temperature-sensitive p53 undergo apoptosis when p53 assumes the wild-type conformation. Expression of the E1B 19,000-molecular-weight (19K) protein rescues cells from this p53-mediated apoptosis and diverts cells to a growth-arrested state. As p53 likely functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating transcription, the ability of the E1B 19K protein to regulate p53-mediated transactivation and transcriptional repression was investigated. In promoter-reporter assays the E1B 19K did not block p53-mediated transactivation but did alleviate p53-mediated transcriptional repression. E1B 19K expression permitted efficient transcriptional activation of the p21/WAF-1/cip-1 mRNA by p53, consistent with maintenance of the growth arrest function of p53. The E1B 19K protein is thereby unique among DNA virus-transforming proteins that target p53 for inactivation in that it selectively modulates the transcriptional properties of p53. The E1B 19K protein also rescued cells from apoptosis induced by inhibitors of transcription and protein synthesis. This suggests that cell death may result from the inhibition of expression of survival factors which function to maintain cell viability. p53 may induce apoptosis through generalized transcriptional repression. In turn, the E1B 19K protein may prevent p53-mediated apoptosis by alleviating p53-mediated transcriptional repression. PMID:7823921

  2. Zbtb1 Safeguards Genome Integrity and Prevents p53-Mediated Apoptosis in Proliferating Lymphoid Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xin; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Xianyu; Kovalovsky, Damian

    2016-08-15

    Expression of the transcription factor Zbtb1 is required for normal lymphoid development. We report in the present study that Zbtb1 maintains genome integrity in immune progenitors, without which cells undergo increased DNA damage and p53-mediated apoptosis during replication and differentiation. Increased DNA damage in Zbtb1-mutant (ScanT) progenitors was due to increased sensitivity to replication stress, which was a consequence of inefficient activation of the S-phase checkpoint response. Increased p53-mediated apoptosis affected not only lymphoid but also myeloid development in competitive bone marrow chimeras, and prevention of apoptosis by transgenic Bcl2 expression and p53 deficiency rescued lymphoid as well as myeloid development from Zbtb1-mutant progenitors. Interestingly, however, protection from apoptosis rescued only the early stages of T cell development, and thymocytes remained arrested at the double-negative 3 developmental stage, indicating a strict requirement of Zbtb1 at later T cell developmental stages. Collectively, these results indicate that Zbtb1 prevents DNA damage in replicating immune progenitors, allowing the generation of B cells, T cells, and myeloid cells. PMID:27402700

  3. HIF-1α antagonizes p53-mediated apoptosis by triggering HIPK2 degradation

    PubMed Central

    Nardinocchi, Lavinia; Puca, Rosa; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Many human diseases are characterized by the development of tissue hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor that regulates fundamental cellular processes in response to changes in oxygen concentration, such as angiogenesis, survival, and alterations in metabolism. The levels of HIF-1α subunit are increased in most solid tumors not only by low oxygen but also by growth factors and oncogenes and correlate with patient prognosis and treatment failure. The link between HIF-1α and apoptosis, a major determinant of cancer progression and treatment outcome, is poorly understood. Here we show that HIF-1α protects against drug-induced apoptosis by antagonizing the function of the tumor suppressor p53. HIF-1α upregulation induced proteasomal degradation of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2), the p53 apoptotic activator. Inhibition of HIF-1α by siRNA, HIF-1α-dominant negative or by zinc re-established the HIPK2 levels and the p53-mediated chemosensitivity in tumor cells. Our findings identify a novel circuitry between HIF-1α and p53, and provide a paradigm for HIPK2 dictating cell response to antitumor therapies. PMID:21248371

  4. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy. PMID:25656653

  5. HSP25 down-regulation enhanced p53 acetylation by dissociation of SIRT1 from p53 in doxorubicin-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Qu, Shunlin; Wei, Xing; Feng, Yansheng; Zhu, Honglin; Deng, Jia; Wang, Kangkai; Liu, Ke; Liu, Meidong; Zhang, Huali; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2016-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles in cellular stress resistance. Previous reports had already suggested that HSP27 played multiple roles in preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Although HSP25 might have biological functions similar to its human homolog HSP27, the mechanism of HSP25 is still unclear in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. To investigate HSP25 biological function on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, flow cytometry was employed to analyze cell apoptosis in over-expressing HSP25 H9c2 cells in presence of doxorubicin. Unexpectedly, the H9c2 cells of over-expressing HSP25 have no protective effect on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, no detectable interactions were detected by coimmunoprecipitation between HSP25 and cytochrome c, and HSP25 over-expression failed in preventing cytochrome c release induced by doxorubicin. However, down-regulation of endogenous HSP25 by a specific small hairpin RNA aggravates apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Subsequent studies found that HSP25, but not HSP90, HSP70, and HSP20, interacted with SIRT1. Knockdown of HSP25 decreased the interaction between SIRT1 and p53, leading to increased p53 acetylation on K379, up-regulated pro-apoptotic Bax protein expression, induced cytochrome c release, and triggered caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation. These findings indicated a novel mechanism by which HSP25 regulated p53 acetylation through dissociation of SIRT1 from p53 in doxorubicin-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis. PMID:26515559

  6. Decitabine and SAHA-Induced Apoptosis Is Accompanied by Survivin Downregulation and Potentiated by ATRA in p53-Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brodská, Barbora; Otevřelová, Petra; Holoubek, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    While p53-dependent apoptosis is triggered by combination of methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine (DAC) and histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in leukemic cell line CML-T1, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as well as survivin and Bcl-2 deregulation participated in DAC + SAHA-induced apoptosis in p53-deficient HL-60 cell line. Moreover, decrease of survivin expression level is accompanied by its delocalization from centromere-related position in mitotic cells suggesting that both antiapoptotic and cell cycle regulation roles of survivin are affected by DAC + SAHA action. Addition of subtoxic concentration of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) increases the efficiency of DAC + SAHA combination on viability, apoptosis induction, and ROS generation in HL-60 cells but has no effect in CML-T1 cell line. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors showed no damage induced by DAC + SAHA + ATRA combination. Therefore, combination of ATRA with DAC and SAHA represents promising tool for therapy of leukemic disease with nonfunctional p53 signalization. PMID:25140197

  7. p53 activation by Ni(II) is a HIF-1α independent response causing caspases 9/3-mediated apoptosis in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Victor C.; Morse, Jessica L.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2013-06-15

    Hypoxia mimic nickel(II) is a human respiratory carcinogen with a suspected epigenetic mode of action. We examined whether Ni(II) elicits a toxicologically significant activation of the tumor suppressor p53, which is typically associated with genotoxic responses. We found that treatments of H460 human lung epithelial cells with NiCl{sub 2} caused activating phosphorylation at p53-Ser15, accumulation of p53 protein and depletion of its inhibitor MDM4 (HDMX). Confirming the activation of p53, its knockdown suppressed the ability of Ni(II) to upregulate MDM2 and p21 (CDKN1A). Unlike DNA damage, induction of GADD45A by Ni(II) was p53-independent. Ni(II) also increased p53-Ser15 phosphorylation and p21 expression in normal human lung fibroblasts. Although Ni(II)-induced stabilization of HIF-1α occurred earlier, it had no effect on p53 accumulation and Ser15 phosphorylation. Ni(II)-treated H460 cells showed no evidence of necrosis and their apoptosis and clonogenic death were suppressed by p53 knockdown. The apoptotic role of p53 involved a transcription-dependent program triggering the initiator caspase 9 and its downstream executioner caspase 3. Two most prominently upregulated proapoptotic genes by Ni(II) were PUMA and NOXA but only PUMA induction required p53. Knockdown of p53 also led to derepression of antiapoptotic MCL1 in Ni(II)-treated cells. Overall, our results indicate that p53 plays a major role in apoptotic death of human lung cells by Ni(II). Chronic exposure to Ni(II) may promote selection of resistant cells with inactivated p53, providing an explanation for the origin of p53 mutations by this epigenetic carcinogen. - Highlights: • Ni(II) is a strong activator of the transcription factor p53. • Apoptosis is a principal form of death by Ni(II) in human lung epithelial cells. • Ni(II)-activated p53 triggers caspases 9/3-mediated apoptotic program. • NOXA and PUMA are two main proapoptotic genes induced by Ni(II). • HIF-1α and p53 are independent

  8. Tanshinone I induces human colorectal cancer cell apoptosis: The potential roles of Aurora A-p53 and survivin-mediated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingjie; Wang, Chen; Wang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and a leading cause of cancer death. Despite decades of intensive investigations, effective interventional options are still limited and patient prognosis remains poor. Tanshinone I, an active compound from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been shown to inhibit cell growth of leukemia, lung, and breast cancers. However, whether and how Tanshinone I exerts similar effects on CRC needs to be elucidated. Tanshinone I induced CRC cell apoptosis was characterized and the roles of Aurora A-p53 and survivin-mediated pathways were analyzed in different CRC cell lines. Tanshinone I markedly inhibited CRC cell growth and induced apoptosis in CRC cells with functional p53 protein. Interestingly, Tanshinone I did not exert as much inhibitory effect on normal colon epithelial cells or CRC cells with mutant p53, indicating relative selectivity toward colorectal cancer cells with full presence of p53. In tse cells with wild-type p53, data showed that Tanshinone I mediated Aurora A inhibition results in p53 upregulation, which is required for cell apoptosis. In CRC cells with mutant p53 protein (not able to localize to the nucleus), however, Aurora A knockdown failed to induce CRC cell apoptosis. Instead, data showed that protein level of survivin decreased following Tanshinone I treatment. These observations were further substantiated by the pivotal role of survivin in Tanshinone I mediated apoptosis in CRC cells with p53 mutant. Tanshinone I, a novel natural compound, exerts significant inhibitory effect on CRC cell growth via a mechanism involving either Aurora A-p53 axis or survivin-involving mechanism depending on different intrinsic characteristics of tumor cells. PMID:27279458

  9. Stress-dependent nucleolin mobilization mediated by p53-nucleolin complex formation.

    PubMed

    Daniely, Yaron; Dimitrova, Diana D; Borowiec, James A

    2002-08-01

    We recently discovered that heat shock causes nucleolin to relocalize from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, whereupon it binds replication protein A and inhibits DNA replication initiation. We report that nucleolin mobilization also occurs following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) and treatment with camptothecin. Mobilization was selective in that another nucleolar marker, upstream binding factor, did not relocalize in response to IR. Nucleolin relocalization was dependent on p53 and stress, the latter initially stimulating nucleolin-p53 complex formation. Nucleolin relocalization and complex formation in vivo were independent of p53 transactivation but required the p53 C-terminal regulatory domain. Nucleolin and p53 also interact directly in vitro, with a similar requirement for p53 domains. These data indicate a novel p53-dependent mechanism in which cell stress mobilizes nucleolin for transient replication inhibition and DNA repair. PMID:12138209

  10. NSC-87877 inhibits DUSP26 function in neuroblastoma resulting in p53-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Ma, I T; Patel, R H; Shang, X; Chen, Z; Zhao, Y; Cheng, J; Fan, Y; Rojas, Y; Barbieri, E; Chen, Z; Yu, Y; Jin, J; Kim, E S; Shohet, J M; Vasudevan, S A; Yang, J

    2015-01-01

    Dual specificity protein phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) is overexpressed in high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) and contributes to chemoresistance by inhibiting p53 function. In vitro, DUSP26 has also been shown to effectively inhibit p38 MAP kinase. We hypothesize that inhibiting DUSP26 will result in decreased NB cell growth in a p53 and/or p38-mediated manner. NSC-87877 (8-hydroxy-7-[(6-sulfo-2-naphthyl)azo]-5-quinolinesulfonic acid), a novel DUSP26 small molecule inhibitor, shows effective growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in NB cell lines. NB cell lines treated with small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting DUSP26 also exhibit a proliferation defect both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of NB cell lines with NSC-87877 results in increased p53 phosphorylation (Ser37 and Ser46) and activation, increased activation of downstream p38 effector proteins (heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2)) and poly ADP ribose polymerase/caspase-3 cleavage. The cytotoxicity resulting from DUSP26 inhibition is partially reversed by knocking down p53 expression with shRNA and also by inhibiting p38 activity with SB203580 (4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]pyridine). In an intrarenal mouse model of NB, NSC-87877 treatment results in decreased tumor growth and increased p53 and p38 activity. Together, these results suggest that DUSP26 inhibition with NSC-87877 is an effective strategy to induce NB cell cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo through activation of the p53 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) tumor-suppressor pathways. PMID:26247726

  11. p53-dependent SIRT6 expression protects Aβ42-induced DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun Sun; Choi, Hyunjung; Song, Hyundong; Hwang, Yu Jin; Kim, Ahbin; Ryu, Hoon; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and age-related neurodegenerative disease. Elucidating the cellular changes that occur during ageing is an important step towards understanding the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. SIRT6 is a member of the mammalian sirtuin family of anti-aging genes. However, the relationship between SIRT6 and AD has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report that SIRT6 protein expression levels are reduced in the brains of both the 5XFAD AD mouse model and AD patients. Aβ42, a major component of senile plaques, decreases SIRT6 expression, and Aβ42-induced DNA damage is prevented by the overexpression of SIRT6 in HT22 mouse hippocampal neurons. Also, there is a strong negative correlation between Aβ42-induced DNA damage and p53 levels, a protein involved in DNA repair and apoptosis. In addition, upregulation of p53 protein by Nutlin-3 prevents SIRT6 reduction and DNA damage induced by Aβ42. Taken together, this study reveals that p53-dependent SIRT6 expression protects cells from Aβ42-induced DNA damage, making SIRT6 a promising new therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. PMID:27156849

  12. Mechanisms of Cytotoxic Lymphocyte-Mediated Apoptosis and Relationship with the Tumor Suppressor p53.

    PubMed

    Thiery, Jerome; Safta, Thouraya Ben; Ziani, Linda; Chouaib, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells are key effector cells in the immune response against intracellular infection and transformed cells. These killer cells induce multiple programs of cell death to achieve their function of eliminating their targets. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the signaling pathways involved in target cells apoptosis triggered by the cytotoxic effector cells. We also discuss the role of an important player in the field of apoptosis, the well-known p53 tumor suppressor, in the modulation of cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated cell death. PMID:27279042

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells by regulation of the MDM2–p53 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuhai; Wu, Boyi; Chen, Binwei; Shi, Qunwei; Guo, Jianhong; Fan, Ziwen; Huang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been reported to induce tumor cell growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of one histone deacetylase inhibitor – sodium butyrate (SB) – on osteosarcoma (OS) cell proliferation and apoptosis and also the molecular mechanisms by which SB exerts regulatory effects on OS cells. U2OS and MG63 cells were treated with SB at various concentrations. Then, cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry assays, respectively; the expression of Ki67, Bax, Bcl-2, MDM2, and p53 proteins was determined by using Western blot assay. The results showed that SB suppressed proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and promoted apoptosis of OS cells. In addition, SB enhanced p53 expression and decreased MDM2 expression, indicating that SB can regulate MDM2–p53 feedback loop. p53 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis, whereas MDM2 promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis, which indicated that functional effect of SB on OS cell lines at least in part depended on the MDM2–p53 signaling. We also explored the effect of SB on OS cells in vivo and found that SB suppressed the growth of OS cells with no noticeable effect on activity and body weight of mice in vivo. These findings will offer new clues for OS development and progression and offer SB as a potent targeted agent for OS treatment. PMID:27445491

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells by regulation of the MDM2-p53 signaling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuhai; Wu, Boyi; Chen, Binwei; Shi, Qunwei; Guo, Jianhong; Fan, Ziwen; Huang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been reported to induce tumor cell growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of one histone deacetylase inhibitor - sodium butyrate (SB) - on osteosarcoma (OS) cell proliferation and apoptosis and also the molecular mechanisms by which SB exerts regulatory effects on OS cells. U2OS and MG63 cells were treated with SB at various concentrations. Then, cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry assays, respectively; the expression of Ki67, Bax, Bcl-2, MDM2, and p53 proteins was determined by using Western blot assay. The results showed that SB suppressed proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and promoted apoptosis of OS cells. In addition, SB enhanced p53 expression and decreased MDM2 expression, indicating that SB can regulate MDM2-p53 feedback loop. p53 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis, whereas MDM2 promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis, which indicated that functional effect of SB on OS cell lines at least in part depended on the MDM2-p53 signaling. We also explored the effect of SB on OS cells in vivo and found that SB suppressed the growth of OS cells with no noticeable effect on activity and body weight of mice in vivo. These findings will offer new clues for OS development and progression and offer SB as a potent targeted agent for OS treatment. PMID:27445491

  15. Berberine induces mitochondrial apoptosis of EBV-transformed B cells through p53-mediated regulation of XAF1 and GADD45α.

    PubMed

    Park, Ga Bin; Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Daejin; Kim, Yeong Seok; Yoon, Sung Ho; Hur, Dae Young

    2016-07-01

    Berberine exhibits antiproliferative or cytotoxic effects against various cancers. ROS and wild-type p53 play a critical role in berberine-induced cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the correlation between XAF1 and functional p53 in EBV-transformed B cells or cancerous B cells after treatment with berberine. Berberine decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway in EBV-transformed B cells and cancerous B cells, but not in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Activated p53 and its downstream targets XAF1 and GADD45α interacted with PUMA, Bax, and Bim in mitochondria after treatment with berberine. Blocking phosphorylation of p38/JNK MAPK and treatment with PFT-α, a selective p53 inhibitor, effectively prevented apoptosis and the upregulation of phosphorylated p53, XAF1, and GADD45α. NAC, a ROS scavenger, also suppressed berberine-induced mitochondria disruption and the whole apoptotic process via restoration of p53-related proteins and proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Taken together, our results suggest that ROS generation might be a predisposing event in berberine-induced mitochondrial apoptosis in EBV-transformed B cells through the upregulation of XAF1 and GADD45α expression by MAPK and functional p53. PMID:27121748

  16. Improving survival by exploiting tumor dependence on stabilized mutant p53 for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, EM; Yallowitz, AR; Li, D; Xu, S; Schulz, R; Proia, DA; Lozano, G; Dobbelstein, M; Moll, UM

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Missense mutations in p53 generate aberrant proteins with abrogated tumor suppressor functions that can also acquire oncogenic gain-of-functions (GOF) that promote malignant progression, invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance1–5. Mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins undergo massive constitutive stabilization specifically in tumors, which is the key requisite for GOF6–8. Although currently 11 million patients worldwide live with tumors expressing highly stabilized mutp53, it is unknown whether mutp53 is a therapeutic target in vivo. Here we use a novel mutp53 mouse model expressing an inactivatible R248Q hotspot mutation (floxQ) to show that tumors depend on sustained mutp53 expression. Upon Tamoxifen-induced mutp53 ablation, allo-transplanted and autochthonous tumors curb their growth, thus extending animal survival by 37%, and advanced tumors undergo apoptosis and tumor regression or stagnation. The HSP90/HDAC6 chaperone machinery, which is significantly upregulated in cancer compared to normal tissues, is a major determinant of mutp53 stabilization9–12. We show that long-term HSP90 inhibition significantly extends the survival of mutp53 Q/−2 and H/H (R172H allele3) mice by 59% and 48%, respectively, but not their respective p53−/− littermates. This mutp53-dependent drug effect occurs in H/H mice treated with 17DMAG+SAHA and in H/H and Q/− mice treated with the potent Hsp90 inhibitor ganetespib. Notably, drug activity correlates with induction of mutp53 degradation, tumor apoptosis and prevention of T-lymphomagenesis. These proof-of-principle data identify mutp53 as an actionable cancer-specific drug target. PMID:26009011

  17. A human papillomavirus type 18 E6/E7 transgene sensitizes mouse lens cells to human wild-type p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Williams-Simons, L; Westphal, H

    1997-06-26

    We have studied the concerted action of factors that influence the balance between cell proliferation and cell death in the developing lens of transgenic mice. We show that a human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) E6/E7 transgene that predominantly expresses the viral E7 gene product triggers apoptosis in a dose dependent manner, and causes retardation of lens growth or microphakia. E7 is known to inactivate pRB, the product of the retinoblastoma gene, and to enhance the action of p53. Our earlier work had demonstrated that over-expression of p53 itself can cause apoptosis of lens cells, and that a mutant p53 allele can interfere with this process. In the present study, we examined lenses that simultaneously express different constellations of the HPV18 E6/E7, wild-type and mutant human p53, and wild-type human pRB transgenes. We observed that lens cells expressing the HPV18 transgene are more sensitive to wild-type human p53 action than normal lens cells. As a result, there is severe microphakia in lenses that express both the HPV18 and the wild-type p53 transgenes. By contrast, apoptosis was reduced in lenses that co-expressed the HPV18 and either the pRB or the mutant p53 transgene. We conclude that levels of wild-type p53 are critical, and that any excess of p53 or suppression of pRB can cause cell death. Our results encourage attempts to counteract the deleterious action of human papillomaviruses in cervical cancer by a combination of measures that decrease cell proliferation and enhance apoptosis. PMID:9223662

  18. Liriodenine induces the apoptosis of human laryngocarcinoma cells via the upregulation of p53 expression

    PubMed Central

    LI, LIANG; XU, YING; WANG, BINQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Laryngocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive cancers that affects the head and neck region. The survival rate of patients with laryngocarcinoma is low due to late metastases and the resistance of the disease to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Liriodenine, an alkaloid extracted from a number of plant species, has demonstrated antitumor effects on multiple types of cancer. However, the effects of liriodenine upon laryngocarcinoma, and the underlying mechanisms, are yet to be elucidated. The present study therefore investigated the potential antitumor effects of liriodenine on HEp-2 human laryngocarcinoma cells in vitro and HEp-2-implanted nude mice in vivo. Liriodenine induced significant apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration in the HEp-2 cells. Furthermore, the rate of tumor growth in the HEp-2-implanted nude mice was inhibited by the administration of liriodenine. The potential mechanism underlying the antitumor effects of liriodenine may result from an upregulative effect upon p53 expression, which ultimately induces cellular apoptosis. By contrast, the downregulation of p53 significantly reduced the antitumor effects of liriodenine. Together, these results suggest that liriodenine exhibits potent antitumor activities in laryngocarcinoma HEp-2 cells, in vitro and in vivo, via the upregulation of p53 expression. Liriodenine may therefore be a potential therapy for the treatment of laryngocarcinoma. PMID:25663867

  19. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection.

  20. Ginsenoside Rh2 induces apoptosis and paraptosis-like cell death in colorectal cancer cells through activation of p53.

    PubMed

    Li, Binghui; Zhao, Jiong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Searle, Jennifer; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su; Du, Wei

    2011-02-28

    Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components in American ginseng, a commonly used herb. In this study, we showed that the ginsenoside Rh2 exhibited significantly more potent cell death activity than the ginsenoside Rg3 in HCT116 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Cell death induced by Rh2 is mediated in part by the caspase-dependent apoptosis and in part by the caspase-independent paraptosis, a type of cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Treatment of cells with Rh2 activated the p53 pathway and significantly increased the levels of the pro-apoptotic regulator, Bax, while decreasing the levels of anti-apoptosis regulator Bcl-2. Removal of p53 significantly blocked Rh2-induced cell death as well as vacuole formation, suggesting that both types of cell death induced by Rh2 are mediated by p53 activity. Furthermore, we show that Rh2 increased ROS levels and activated the NF-κB survival pathway. Blockage of ROS by NAC or catalase inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling and enhanced Rh2-induced cell death, suggesting that the anti-cancer effect of Rh2 can be enhanced by antioxidants. PMID:21194832

  1. Catalase protects HepG2 cells from apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents by accelerating the degradation of p53.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jingxiang; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2003-02-14

    Oxidants such as H(2)O(2) play a role in the toxicity of certain DNA-damaging agents, a process that often involves the tumor suppressor p53. H(2)O(2) is rapidly degraded by catalase, which protects cells against oxidant injury. To study the effect of catalase on apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents, HepG2 cells were infected with adenovirus containing the cDNA of catalase (Ad-Cat). Forty-eight hours after infection, catalase protein and activity was increased 7-10-fold compared with control cells infected with Ad-LacZ. After treatment with Vp16 or mitomycin C, control cells underwent apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner; however, overexpression of catalase inhibited this apoptosis. Basal levels as well as Vp16- or mitomycin C-stimulated levels of p53 and p21 protein were decreased in the catalase-overexpressing cells as compared with control cells; however, p53 mRNA levels were not decreased by catalase. There was no difference in p53 protein synthesis between catalase-overexpressing cells and control cells. However, pulse-chase experiments indicated that p53 protein degradation was enhanced in the catalase-overexpressing cells. Proteasome inhibitors but not calpeptin prevented the catalase-mediated decrease of p53 content. Whereas Vp16 increased, catalase overexpression decreased the phosphorylation of p53. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid did not prevent the catalase-mediated down-regulation of p53 or phosphorylated p53. These results demonstrate that catalase protects HepG2 cells from apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents in association with decreasing p53 phosphorylation; the latter may lead to an acceleration in the degradation of p53 protein by the proteasome complex. This suggests that the level of catalase may play a critical role in cell-induced resistance to the effects of anti-cancer drugs which up-regulate p53. PMID:12468545

  2. Chrysin induces cell apoptosis via activation of the p53/Bcl-2/caspase-9 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, QINGYU; MA, SHENG; LIU, BIN; LIU, JIE; ZHU, RUNZHI; LI, MINGYI

    2016-01-01

    Chrysin is a major active ingredient of flavonoids, known to exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer. However, the anticancer role of chrysin against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In order to evaluate the effects of chrysin on cell viability and apoptosis in human HCC, HepG2 and QGY7701 cells were used in the present study. Cell viability was monitored using an MTT assay. In addition, an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide kit was used for the labeling of the apoptotic cells, which were then measured using flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to examine the protein expression of p53, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), caspases-3 and −9, and cleaved-caspases-3 and −9. The results of the present study revealed that chrysin suppressed the cell viability of HepG2 and QGY7701 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, chrysin induced significant apoptosis in HepG2 and QGY7701 cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that chrysin treatment increased the expression of proapoptotic proteins, including p53, Bax, Bad and Bak, while it decreased the protein level of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. It was also demonstrated that chrysin induced apoptosis in the HCC cells by regulating the p53/Bcl-2/caspase-9 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that chrysin may be a potential candidate agent for the induction of cell apoptosis in human HCC. PMID:27347080

  3. p53 dependent Nestin regulation links tumor suppression to cellular plasticity in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; Xue, Wen; Calvisi, Diego F; Evert, Matthias; Michurina, Tatyana V; Dow, Lukas E; Banito, Ana; Katz, Sarah F; Kastenhuber, Edward R; Weissmueller, Susann; Huang, Chun-Hao; Lechel, Andre; Andersen, Jesper B; Capper, David; Zender, Lars; Longerich, Thomas; Enikolopov, Grigori; Lowe, Scott W

    2014-01-01

    Summary The p53 tumor suppressor coordinates a series of anti-proliferative responses that restrict the expansion of malignant cells and, as a consequence, p53 is lost or mutated in the majority of human cancers. Here, we show that p53 restricts expression of the stem and progenitor cell-associated protein nestin in an Sp1/3 transcription factor-dependent manner and that nestin is required for tumor initiation in vivo. Moreover, loss of p53 facilitates dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes into nestin-positive progenitor-like cells, which are poised to differentiate into hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) or cholangiocarcinomas (CCs) in response to lineage-specific mutations that target Wnt and Notch signaling, respectively. Many human HCCs and CCs show elevated nestin expression, which correlates with p53 loss of function and is associated with decreased patient survival. Therefore, transcriptional repression of Nestin by p53 restricts cellular plasticity and tumorigenesis in liver cancer. PMID:25083869

  4. p53-dependent Nestin regulation links tumor suppression to cellular plasticity in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; Xue, Wen; Calvisi, Diego F; Evert, Matthias; Michurina, Tatyana V; Dow, Lukas E; Banito, Ana; Katz, Sarah F; Kastenhuber, Edward R; Weissmueller, Susann; Huang, Chun-Hao; Lechel, Andre; Andersen, Jesper B; Capper, David; Zender, Lars; Longerich, Thomas; Enikolopov, Grigori; Lowe, Scott W

    2014-07-31

    The p53 tumor suppressor coordinates a series of antiproliferative responses that restrict the expansion of malignant cells, and as a consequence, p53 is lost or mutated in the majority of human cancers. Here, we show that p53 restricts expression of the stem and progenitor-cell-associated protein nestin in an Sp1/3 transcription-factor-dependent manner and that Nestin is required for tumor initiation in vivo. Moreover, loss of p53 facilitates dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes into nestin-positive progenitor-like cells, which are poised to differentiate into hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) or cholangiocarcinomas (CCs) in response to lineage-specific mutations that target Wnt and Notch signaling, respectively. Many human HCCs and CCs show elevated nestin expression, which correlates with p53 loss of function and is associated with decreased patient survival. Therefore, transcriptional repression of Nestin by p53 restricts cellular plasticity and tumorigenesis in liver cancer. PMID:25083869

  5. Silibilin-induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by modulating p53, p21, Bak and Bcl-XL pathways.

    PubMed

    Pirouzpanah, Mohammad Bagher; Sabzichi, Mehdi; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Chavoshi, Hadi; Samadi, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays herbal-derived medicines are attracting attention as new sources of drugs with few side effects. Silibinin is a flavonoid compound with chemotheraputic effects on different cancers such as examples in the prostate, lung, colon and breast. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of silibinin on MCF7 breast cancer cells were investigated. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and the impact of silibinin on the expression of pivotal genes including Bak, P53, P21, BRCA1, BCL-X1 and ATM was analyzed. Treatment for 24h had a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth (p<0.05) with dose- and time- dependent induction of apoptosis (p<0.05). In addition, there were significant increases in BRCA1, ATM, Bak and Bcl-XL gene expression at the mRNA level with different concentrations of silibinin for 24 or 48 h (p<0.05). Taken together, the results suggest that silibinin inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of MCF-7 cells by down-regulating Bak, P53, P21, BRCA1, BCL-Xl and thus may be considered as an effective adjuvant drug to produce a better chemopreventive response for the cancer therapy. PMID:25773855

  6. PRIMA-1, a mutant p53 reactivator, induces apoptosis and enhances chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Izetti, Patricia; Hautefeuille, Agnes; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Giacomazzi, Juliana; Alemar, Bárbara; Lenz, Guido; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Osvaldt, Alessandro Bersch; Hainaut, Pierre; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    TP53 mutation is a common event in many cancers, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, where it occurs in 50-70 % of cases. In an effort to reactivate mutant p53 protein, several new drugs are being developed, including PRIMA-1 and PRIMA-1(Met)/APR-246 (p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis). PRIMA-1 has been shown to induce apoptosis in tumor cells by reactivating p53 mutants, but its effect in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. Here we investigated the effects of PRIMA-1 on cell viability, cell cycle and expression of p53-regulated proteins in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 (mutant TP53), and CAPAN-2 (wild-type TP53) pancreatic cell lines. Treatment with PRIMA-1 selectively induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in p53 mutant cells compared to CAPAN-2 cells. The growth suppressive effect of PRIMA-1 was markedly reduced in p53 mutant cell lines transfected with p53 siRNA, supporting the role of mutant p53 in PRIMA-1 induced cell death. Moreover, treatment with the thiol group donor N-acetylcysteine completely blocked PRIMA-1-induced apoptosis and reinforced the hypothesis that thiol modifications are important for PRIMA-1 biological activity. In combination treatments, PRIMA-1 enhanced the anti-tumor activity of several chemotherapic drugs against pancreatic cancer cells and also exhibited a pronounced synergistic effect in association with the Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. Taken together, our data indicate that PRIMA-1 induces apoptosis in p53 mutant pancreatic cancer cells by promoting the re-activation of p53 and inducing proapoptotic signaling pathways, providing in vitro evidence for a potential therapeutic approach in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24838627

  7. Kaempferol induces ATM/p53-mediated death receptor and mitochondrial apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiu-Fang; Yang, Jai-Sing; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Chen, Chun; Chen, Fu-An

    2016-05-01

    Kaempferol is a member of the flavonoid compounds found in vegetables and fruits. It is shown to exhibit biological impact and anticancer activity, but no report exists on the angiogenic effect of kaempferol and induction of cell apoptosis in vitro. In this study, we investigated the role of kaempferol on anti-angiogenic property and the apoptotic mechanism of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results demonstrated that kaempferol decreased HUVEC viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Kaempferol also induced morphological changes and sub-G1 phase cell population (apoptotic cells). Kaempferol triggered apoptosis of HUVECs as detecting by DNA fragmentation, comet assay and immunofluorescent staining for activated caspase-3. The caspase signals, including caspase-8, -9 and -3, were time-dependently activated in HUVECs after kaempferol exposure. Furthermore, pre-treatment with a specific inhibitor of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-FMK) significantly reduced the activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3, indicating that extrinsic pathway is a major signaling pathway in kaempferol-treated HUVECs. Importantly, kaempferol promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) evaluated using flow cytometric assay in HUVECs. We further investigated the upstream extrinsic pathway and showed that kaempferol stimulated death receptor signals [Fas/CD95, death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5] through increasing the levels of phosphorylated p53 and phosphorylated ATM pathways in HUVECs, which can be individually confirmed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ATM specific inhibitor (caffeine) and p53 siRNA. Based on these results, kaempferol-induced HUVEC apoptosis was involved in an ROS-mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. Kaempferol might possess therapeutic effects on cancer treatment in anti-vascular targeting. PMID:26984266

  8. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection. PMID:25499817

  9. Cell Context Dependent p53 Genome-Wide Binding Patterns and Enrichment at Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Botcheva, Krassimira; McCorkle, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 ability to elicit stress specific and cell type specific responses is well recognized, but how that specificity is established remains to be defined. Whether upon activation p53 binds to its genomic targets in a cell type and stress type dependent manner is still an open question. Here we show that the p53 binding to the human genome is selective and cell context-dependent. We mapped the genomic binding sites for the endogenous wild type p53 protein in the human cancer cell line HCT116 and compared them to those we previously determined in the normal cell line IMR90. We report distinct p53 genome-wide binding landscapes in two different cell lines, analyzed under the same treatment and experimental conditions, using the same ChIP-seq approach. This is evidence for cell context dependent p53 genomic binding. The observed differences affect the p53 binding sites distribution with respect to major genomic and epigenomic elements (promoter regions, CpG islands and repeats). We correlated the high-confidence p53 ChIP-seq peaks positions with the annotated human repeats (UCSC Human Genome Browser) and observed both common and cell line specific trends. In HCT116, the p53 binding was specifically enriched at LINE repeats, compared to IMR90 cells. The p53 genome-wide binding patterns in HCT116 and IMR90 likely reflect the different epigenetic landscapes in these two cell lines, resulting from cancer-associated changes (accumulated in HCT116) superimposed on tissue specific differences (HCT116 has epithelial, while IMR90 has mesenchymal origin). Our data support the model for p53 binding to the human genome in a highly selective manner, mobilizing distinct sets of genes, contributing to distinct pathways. PMID:25415302

  10. Cell Context Dependent p53 Genome-Wide Binding Patterns and Enrichment at Repeats

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Botcheva, Krassimira; McCorkle, Sean R.

    2014-11-21

    The p53 ability to elicit stress specific and cell type specific responses is well recognized, but how that specificity is established remains to be defined. Whether upon activation p53 binds to its genomic targets in a cell type and stress type dependent manner is still an open question. Here we show that the p53 binding to the human genome is selective and cell context-dependent. We mapped the genomic binding sites for the endogenous wild type p53 protein in the human cancer cell line HCT116 and compared them to those we previously determined in the normal cell line IMR90. We reportmore » distinct p53 genome-wide binding landscapes in two different cell lines, analyzed under the same treatment and experimental conditions, using the same ChIP-seq approach. This is evidence for cell context dependent p53 genomic binding. The observed differences affect the p53 binding sites distribution with respect to major genomic and epigenomic elements (promoter regions, CpG islands and repeats). We correlated the high-confidence p53 ChIP-seq peaks positions with the annotated human repeats (UCSC Human Genome Browser) and observed both common and cell line specific trends. In HCT116, the p53 binding was specifically enriched at LINE repeats, compared to IMR90 cells. The p53 genome-wide binding patterns in HCT116 and IMR90 likely reflect the different epigenetic landscapes in these two cell lines, resulting from cancer-associated changes (accumulated in HCT116) superimposed on tissue specific differences (HCT116 has epithelial, while IMR90 has mesenchymal origin). In conclusion, our data support the model for p53 binding to the human genome in a highly selective manner, mobilizing distinct sets of genes, contributing to distinct pathways.« less

  11. Cell Context Dependent p53 Genome-Wide Binding Patterns and Enrichment at Repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Botcheva, Krassimira; McCorkle, Sean R.

    2014-11-21

    The p53 ability to elicit stress specific and cell type specific responses is well recognized, but how that specificity is established remains to be defined. Whether upon activation p53 binds to its genomic targets in a cell type and stress type dependent manner is still an open question. Here we show that the p53 binding to the human genome is selective and cell context-dependent. We mapped the genomic binding sites for the endogenous wild type p53 protein in the human cancer cell line HCT116 and compared them to those we previously determined in the normal cell line IMR90. We report distinct p53 genome-wide binding landscapes in two different cell lines, analyzed under the same treatment and experimental conditions, using the same ChIP-seq approach. This is evidence for cell context dependent p53 genomic binding. The observed differences affect the p53 binding sites distribution with respect to major genomic and epigenomic elements (promoter regions, CpG islands and repeats). We correlated the high-confidence p53 ChIP-seq peaks positions with the annotated human repeats (UCSC Human Genome Browser) and observed both common and cell line specific trends. In HCT116, the p53 binding was specifically enriched at LINE repeats, compared to IMR90 cells. The p53 genome-wide binding patterns in HCT116 and IMR90 likely reflect the different epigenetic landscapes in these two cell lines, resulting from cancer-associated changes (accumulated in HCT116) superimposed on tissue specific differences (HCT116 has epithelial, while IMR90 has mesenchymal origin). In conclusion, our data support the model for p53 binding to the human genome in a highly selective manner, mobilizing distinct sets of genes, contributing to distinct pathways.

  12. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells via activation of both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangtao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Qin, Qizhi; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Hongyan; Xiong, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is one of the main metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The evidence shows that DEHP may exert its toxic effects primarily via MEHP, which is 10-fold more potent than its parent compound in toxicity in vitro. MEHP-induced apoptosis is mediated by either p53-dependent or -independent pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. In this study, immortalized normal human liver cell line L02 was chosen, as an in vitro model of nonmalignant liver, to elucidate the role of p53 in MEHP-induced apoptosis. The cells were treated with MEHP (6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, and 100.00 μM) for 24 and 36 h, then small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to specifically silence p53 gene of L02 cells. The results indicated that MEHP caused oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in L02 cells were associated with the p53 signaling pathway. Further study found that MEHP (50.00 and 100.00 μM) induced apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells, along with the up-regulations of Fas and FasL proteins as well as increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 activities. Additionally, both FasL inhibitor (AF-016) and Caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp- fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) could prevent the cell apoptosis induced by MEHP. The findings suggested that MEHP-induced apoptosis in L02 cells involving a Caspases-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway and/or death receptor pathway. p53 was not absolutely necessary for MEHP-induced L02 cell apoptosis. PMID:24706461

  13. Borax-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves p53, Bcl-2, and Bax.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Yuan, F J; Zhou, W B; Wu, L; Chen, L; Wang, J J; Zhang, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Borax, a boron compound and a salt of boric acid, is known to inhibit the growth of tumor cells. HepG2 cells have been shown to be clearly susceptible to the anti-proliferative effects of borax. However, the specific mechanisms regulating this effect are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the pathways underlying the growth inhibition induced by borax in HepG2 cells. The effects of borax on HepG2 cell viability were characterized using MTT. Apoptosis was also verified by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. JC-1 dye and western blotting techniques were used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential and p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Relevant mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Borax inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. The apoptotic process triggered by borax involved the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2, which was confirmed by a change in the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results elucidate a borax-induced apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells that involves the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2. PMID:27420953

  14. Mutant p53-R273H mediates cancer cell survival and anoikis resistance through AKT-dependent suppression of BCL2-modifying factor (BMF)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, B S; Tiong, K H; Choo, H L; Fei-Lei Chung, F; Hii, L-W; Tan, S H; Yap, I KS; Pani, S; Khor, N TW; Wong, S F; Rosli, R; Cheong, S-K; Leong, C-O

    2015-01-01

    p53 is the most frequently mutated tumor-suppressor gene in human cancers. Unlike other tumor-suppressor genes, p53 mutations mainly occur as missense mutations within the DNA-binding domain, leading to the expression of full-length mutant p53 protein. Mutant p53 proteins not only lose their tumor-suppressor function, but may also gain new oncogenic functions and promote tumorigenesis. Here, we showed that silencing of endogenous p53-R273H contact mutant, but not p53-R175H conformational mutant, reduced AKT phosphorylation, induced BCL2-modifying factor (BMF) expression, sensitized BIM dissociation from BCL-XL and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. Importantly, cancer cells harboring endogenous p53-R273H mutant were also found to be inherently resistant to anoikis and lack BMF induction following culture in suspension. Underlying these activities is the ability of p53-R273H mutant to suppress BMF expression that is dependent on constitutively active PI3K/AKT signaling. Collectively, these findings suggest that p53-R273H can specifically drive AKT signaling and suppress BMF expression, resulting in enhanced cell survivability and anoikis resistance. These findings open the possibility that blocking of PI3K/AKT will have therapeutic benefit in mutant p53-R273H expressing cancers. PMID:26181206

  15. The energy blockers bromopyruvate and lonidamine lead GL15 glioblastoma cells to death by different p53-dependent routes.

    PubMed

    Davidescu, Magdalena; Macchioni, Lara; Scaramozzino, Gaetano; Cristina Marchetti, Maria; Migliorati, Graziella; Vitale, Rita; Corcelli, Angela; Roberti, Rita; Castigli, Emilia; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of tumor cells relies on aerobic glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidation. This difference between normal and cancer cells provides a biochemical basis for new therapeutic strategies aimed to block the energy power plants of cells. The effects produced by the energy blockers bromopyruvate (3BP) and lonidamine (LND) and the underlying biochemical mechanisms were investigated in GL15 glioblastoma cells. 3BP exerts early effects compared to LND, even though both drugs lead cells to death but by different routes. A dramatic decrease of ATP levels occurred after 1 hour treatment with 3BP, followed by cytochrome c and hexokinase II degradation, and by the decrease of both LC3I/LC3II ratio and p62, markers of an autophagic flux. In addition, Akt(Ser(473)) and p53(Ser(15)/Ser(315)) dephosphorylation occurred. In LND treatment, sustained ATP cellular levels were maintained up to 40 hours. The autophagic response of cells was overcome by apoptosis that was preceded by phosphatidylinositol disappearance and pAkt decrease. This last event favored p53 translocation to mitochondria triggering a p53-dependent apoptotic route, as observed at 48 and 72 hours. Adversely, in 3BP treatment, phospho-p53 dephosphorylation targeted p53 to MDM2-dependent proteolysis, thus channeling cells to irreversible autophagy. PMID:26387611

  16. The energy blockers bromopyruvate and lonidamine lead GL15 glioblastoma cells to death by different p53-dependent routes

    PubMed Central

    Davidescu, Magdalena; Macchioni, Lara; Scaramozzino, Gaetano; Cristina Marchetti, Maria; Migliorati, Graziella; Vitale, Rita; Corcelli, Angela; Roberti, Rita; Castigli, Emilia; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of tumor cells relies on aerobic glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidation. This difference between normal and cancer cells provides a biochemical basis for new therapeutic strategies aimed to block the energy power plants of cells. The effects produced by the energy blockers bromopyruvate (3BP) and lonidamine (LND) and the underlying biochemical mechanisms were investigated in GL15 glioblastoma cells. 3BP exerts early effects compared to LND, even though both drugs lead cells to death but by different routes. A dramatic decrease of ATP levels occurred after 1 hour treatment with 3BP, followed by cytochrome c and hexokinase II degradation, and by the decrease of both LC3I/LC3II ratio and p62, markers of an autophagic flux. In addition, Akt(Ser473) and p53(Ser15/Ser315) dephosphorylation occurred. In LND treatment, sustained ATP cellular levels were maintained up to 40 hours. The autophagic response of cells was overcome by apoptosis that was preceded by phosphatidylinositol disappearance and pAkt decrease. This last event favored p53 translocation to mitochondria triggering a p53-dependent apoptotic route, as observed at 48 and 72 hours. Adversely, in 3BP treatment, phospho-p53 dephosphorylation targeted p53 to MDM2-dependent proteolysis, thus channeling cells to irreversible autophagy. PMID:26387611

  17. Ursolic Acid, a Pentacyclin Triterpene, Potentiates TRAIL-induced Apoptosis through p53-independent Up-regulation of Death Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R.; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of the molecular targets of traditional medicine and its chemical footprints can validate the use of such medicine. In the present report, we investigated the effect of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in rosemary and holy basil, on apoptosis induced by TRAIL. We found that UA potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. In addition, UA also sensitized TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to the cytokine. When we investigated the mechanism, we found that UA down-regulated cell survival proteins and induced the cell surface expression of both TRAIL receptors, death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and -5). Induction of receptors by UA occurred independently of cell type. Gene silencing of either receptor by small interfering RNA reduced the apoptosis induced by UA and the effect of TRAIL. In addition, UA also decreased the expression of decoy receptor 2 (DcR2) but not DcR1. Induction of DRs was independent of p53 because UA induced DR4 and DR5 in HCT116 p53−/− cells. Induction of DRs, however, was dependent on JNK because UA induced JNK, and its pharmacologic inhibition abolished the induction of the receptors. The down-regulation of survival proteins and up-regulation of the DRs required reactive oxygen species (ROS) because UA induced ROS, and its quenching abolished the effect of the terpene. Also, potentiation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by UA was significantly reduced by both ROS quenchers and JNK inhibitor. In addition, UA was also found to induce the expression of DRs, down-regulate cell survival proteins, and activate JNK in orthotopically implanted human colorectal cancer in a nude mouse model. Overall, our results showed that UA potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of ROS and JNK-mediated up-regulation of DRs and down-regulation of DcR2 and cell survival proteins. PMID:21156789

  18. Phosphorylation of Tip60 by GSK-3 determines the induction of PUMA and apoptosis by p53

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Céline; Wissler, Manuela; Brauns-Schubert, Prisca; Wang, Shang-Jui; Tang, Yi; Sigloch, Florian C.; Mellert, Hestia; Brandenburg, Martin; Lindner, Silke E.; Breit, Bernhard; Green, Douglas R.; McMahon, Steven B.; Borner, Christoph; Gu, Wei; Maurer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Summary Activation of p53 by DNA damage results in either cell cycle arrest, allowing DNA repair and cell survival, or induction of apoptosis. As these opposite outcomes are both mediated by p53 stabilization, additional mechanisms to determine this decision must exist. Here we show that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is required for the p53-mediated induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3 only-protein PUMA, an essential mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 protected from cell death induced by DNA damage and promoted increased long-term cell survival. We demonstrate that GSK-3 phosphorylates serine 86 of the p53-acetyltransferase Tip60. A Tip60S86A mutant was less active to induce p53 K120 acetylation, Histone 4 acetylation and expression of PUMA. Our data suggest that GSK-3 mediated Tip60S86-phosphorylation provides a link between PI3K signaling and the choice for or against apoptosis induction by p53. PMID:21658600

  19. Inhibitory role of cAMP on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in pre-B ALL cells through dephosphorylation of p53 serine residues.

    PubMed

    Safa, Majid; Kazemi, Ahmad; Zand, Hamid; Azarkeivan, Azita; Zaker, Farhad; Hayat, Parisa

    2010-02-01

    Exposure of cells to chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, a DNA-damaging agent, induces an increase in the levels and activity of the wild-type p53 protein. Less well appreciated was the effect of cAMP levels on posttranslational modifications of p53 in response to doxorubicin. Here we show that elevation of cAMP in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia NALM-6 cells significantly attenuated phosphorylation state of p53 at Ser6, Ser9, Ser15, Ser20, Ser37, Ser46 and Ser392 upon exposure to doxorubicin. Increased cAMP levels also shifted the ratio of the death promoter to death repressor genes via alteration of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that activation of cAMP-signaling system may repress p53-dependent apoptosis in malignant cells exposed to doxorubicin. PMID:19882354

  20. Prostaglandin EP2 receptor signaling protects human trabecular meshwork cells from apoptosis induced by ER stress through down-regulation of p53.

    PubMed

    Kalouche, Georges; Boucher, Céline; Coste, Annick; Debussche, Laurent; Orsini, Cécile; Baudouin, Christophe; Debeir, Thomas; Vigé, Xavier; Rostène, William

    2016-09-01

    E-prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2) agonists are currently under clinical development as hypotensive agents for the treatment of ocular hypertension. However, the effects of EP2 receptor agonists on trabecular meshwork (TM) alterations leading to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are still unknown. Here, we evaluated whether EP2 receptor activation exhibits protective functions on TM cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We show that the EP2 receptor agonist butaprost protects TM cell death mediated by the ER stress inducer tunicamycin through a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent mechanism, but independent of the classical cAMP sensors, protein kinase A and exchange proteins activated by cAMP. The ER stress-induced intrinsic apoptosis inhibited by the EP2 receptor agonist was correlated with a decreased accumulation of the cellular stress sensor p53. In addition, p53 down-regulation was associated with inhibition of its transcriptional activity, which led to decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). The stabilization of p53 by nutlin-3a abolished butaprost-mediated cell death protection. In conclusion, we showed that EP2 receptor activation protects against ER stress-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis through down-regulation of p53. The specific inhibition of this pathway could reduce TM alterations observed in POAG patients. PMID:27321910

  1. Sirt 1 activator inhibits the AGE-induced apoptosis and p53 acetylation in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Changyong; Lin, Nan; Liu, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by nonenzymatic glycation reactions are extremely accumulated in the diabetic vascular cells, neurons, and glia, and are confirmed to play important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus -induced cardiovascular complications. Sirt 1, known as mammalian sirtuin, has been recognized to regulate insulin secretion and protect cells against oxidative stress, which is promoted by the accumulated AGEs in cardiovascular cells. In the present study, we treated human endothelial Eahy926 cells with AGEs, and determined the apoptosis induction, caspase activation, the Sirt 1 activity, the expression and acetylation of p53. Then we manipulated Sirt 1 activity with a Sirt 1 activator, Resveratrol (RSV), and a Sirt 1 inhibitor, sirtinol, in the AGE-BSA-treated Eahy926 cells, and then re-evaluated the apoptosis induction, caspase activation, the expression and acetylation of p53. Results demonstrated that AGEs induced apoptosis in the human endothelial Eahy926 cells, by promoting the cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 9/3. Also, the AGE-BSA treatment promoted the total p53 level and acetylated (Ac) p53, but reduced the Sirt 1 level and activity. On the other hand, the Sirt 1 inhibitor/activator not only deteriorated/ameliorated the promotion to p53 level and Ac p53, but also aggravated/inhibited the AGE-induced apoptosis and the promotion to apoptosis-associated signaling molecules. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the apoptosis promotion by AGEs in endothelial Eahy926 cells, by regulating the Sirt 1 activity and p53 signaling, it also implies the protective role of Sirt 1 activator against the AGE-induced apoptosis. PMID:26354378

  2. Apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma and in liver cell dysplasia is correlated with p53 protein immunoreactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, M; Zimmermann, A

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) of different types and grades and in liver cell dysplasia, and to test whether the apoptotic rate is correlated with the p53 protein status. METHODS: 37 HCC and 66 six liver samples with liver cell dysplasia were analysed for apoptosis using in situ DNA end labelling (ISEL), and for p53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. In HCCs, proliferative activity was quantitatively assessed using proliferating cell nuclear antigen labelling. RESULTS: The apoptotic index in HCC as based on ISEL ranged from 0.1 to 13.5 per 1000 cells analysed and was not related to type or grade. No nuclear staining was observed in multinuclear tumour cells. There was a significant correlation between the apoptotic rate and both the proliferative activity and p53 protein reactivity. In liver samples containing p53 protein positive liver cell dysplasia cells, there was a significantly higher apoptotic rate of these cells. CONCLUSIONS: Apoptosis is detectable in HCC, and is not related to type and grade. There is a highly significant positive correlation between the apoptotic rate in HCC and both the proliferative activity and p53 protein expression. A similar phenomenon occurs for putative cancer precursors. The findings support the role of p53 in regulating apoptosis in preneoplastic and neoplastic liver lesions. Images PMID:9215122

  3. Data for a proteomic analysis of p53-independent induction of apoptosis by bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Yerlikaya, Azmi; Okur, Emrah; Tarık Baykal, Ahmet; Acılan, Ceyda; Boyacı, İhsan; Ulukaya, Engin

    2014-12-01

    This data article contains data related to the research article entitled, "A proteomic analysis of p53-independent induction of apoptosis by bortezomib in 4T1 breast cancer cell line" by Yerlikaya et al. [1]. The research article presented 2-DE and nLC-MS/MS based proteomic analysis of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib-induced changes in the expression of cellular proteins. The report showed that GRP78 and TCEB2 were over-expressed in response to treatment with bortezomib for 24 h. In addition, the report demonstrated that Hsp70, the 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 and sequestosome 1 were increased at least 2 fold in p53-deficient 4T1 cells. The data here show for the first time the increased expressions of Card10, Dffb, Traf3 and Trp53bp2 in response to inhibition of the 26S proteasome. The information presented here also shows that both Traf1 and Xiap (a member of IAPs) are also downregulated simultaneously upon proteasomal inhibition. The increases in the level of Card10 and Trp53bp2 proteins were verified by Western blot analysis in response to varying concentrations of bortezomib for 24 h. PMID:26217687

  4. A Temperature Sensitive Variant of p53 Drives p53-Dependent MicroRNA Expression without Evidence of Widespread Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Cabrita, Miguel A.; Vanzyl, Erin J.; Hamill, Jeff D.; Pan, Elysia; Marcellus, Kristen A.; Tolls, Victoria J.; Alonzi, Rhea C.; Pastic, Alyssa; Rambo, Teeghan M. E.; Sayed, Hadil; McKay, Bruce C.

    2016-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor is a transcription factor that can regulate the expression of numerous genes including many encoding proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs). The predominant outcomes of a typical p53 response are the initiation of apoptotic cascades and the activation of cell cycle checkpoints. HT29-tsp53 cells express a temperature sensitive variant of p53 and in the absence of exogenous DNA damage, these cells preferentially undergo G1 phase cell cycle arrest at the permissive temperature that correlates with increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. Recent evidence also suggests that a variety of miRNAs can induce G1 arrest by inhibiting the expression of proteins like CDK4 and CDK6. Here we used oligonucleotide microarrays to identify p53-regulated miRNAs that are induced in these cells undergoing G1 arrest. At the permissive temperature, the expression of several miRNAs was increased through a combination of either transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. In particular, miR-34a-5p, miR-143-3p and miR-145-5p were strongly induced and they reached levels comparable to that of reference miRNAs (miR-191 and miR-103). Importantly, miR-34a-5p and miR-145-5p are known to silence the Cdk4 and/or Cdk6 G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). Surprisingly, there was no p53-dependent decrease in the expression of either of these G1 cdks. To search for other potential targets of p53-regulated miRNAs, p53-downregulated mRNAs were identified through parallel microarray analysis of mRNA expression. Once again, there was no clear effect of p53 on the repression of mRNAs under these conditions despite a remarkable increase in p53-induced mRNA expression. Therefore, despite a strong p53 transcriptional response, there was no clear evidence that p53-responsive miRNA contributed to gene silencing. Taken together, the changes in cell cycle distribution in this cell line at the permissive temperature is likely attributable to transcriptional

  5. Cordycepin induces apoptosis of C6 glioma cells through the adenosine 2A receptor-p53-caspase-7-PARP pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Shih-Hung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Syu, Jhih-Pu; Liao, Chih-Chen; Wu, Ya-Chieh

    2014-06-01

    Cordycepin, 3'-deoxyadenosine from Cordyceps sinensis, has been shown to exert anti-tumor effects in several cancer cell lines. This study investigated the effect of cordycepin on a rat glioma cell line. Cordycepin caused apoptosis in C6 glioma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but did not affect the survival of primary cultured rat astrocytes. Cordycepin increased the total protein levels of p53 and phosphorylated p53 in the C6 cells. Levels of cleaved caspase-7 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), but not cleaved caspase-3, were also increased after cordycepin treatment. Specific inhibitors for p53 and caspases abrogated cordycepin-induced caspase-7 and PARP cleavage, and prevented cordycepin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of p53 blocked cordycepin-induced cleavage of caspase-7 and PARP. Both adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist and small interference RNA (siRNA) knockdown of A2AR blocked cordycepin-induced apoptosis, p53 activation, and caspase-7 and PARP cleavage. These may provide a new strategy of cordycepin for glioma therapy in the future. PMID:24704558

  6. Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Preferentially Induces Apoptosis in p53-Mutated Cancer Cells by Activating ROS Stress-Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yonghao; Ha, Chang Seung; Hwang, Seok Won; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Lee, Kyo-Won; Song, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) is an ionized gas at room temperature and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy that acts by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is imperative to determine its selectivity and standardize the components and composition of NTAPP. Here, we designed an NTAPP-generating apparatus combined with a He gas feeding system and demonstrated its high selectivity toward p53-mutated cancer cells. We first determined the proper conditions for NTAPP exposure to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The apoptotic effect of NTAPP was greater for p53-mutated cancer cells; artificial p53 expression in p53-negative HT29 cells decreased the pro-apoptotic effect of NTAPP. We also examined extra- and intracellular ROS levels in NTAPP-treated cells to deduce the mechanism of NTAPP action. While NTAPP-mediated increases in extracellular nitric oxide (NO) did not affect cell viability, intracellular ROS increased under NTAPP exposure and induced apoptotic cell death. This effect was dose-dependently reduced following treatment with ROS scavengers. NTAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of NTAPP as a potent cancer therapy. Collectively, these results strongly support the potential of NTAPP as a selective anticancer treatment, especially for p53-mutated cancer cells. PMID:24759730

  7. Revisiting DNA damage repair, p53-mediated apoptosis and cisplatin sensitivity in germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Francesca; Feldman, Darren R; Barchi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), ie, seminomas and nonseminomas, account for 1% to 3% of all neoplasms in men. They are the most common cancer in young white males and are unique in their responsiveness to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. For this reason, TGCTs are considered a model for curative disease. However, up to now, the molecular mechanisms behind this exceptional responsiveness to DNA-damaging agents have remained unclear. A hypersensitive apoptotic response, as well as a reduction in the proficiency to repair cisplatin-induced DNA damage might account for this behavior. In this review, building on recent findings of p53-induced apoptosis and DNA-repair mechanisms in TGCTs, we will discuss the molecular bases that drive tumor sensitivity to cisplatin, emphasizing the new therapeutic approaches proposed to eventually constrain tumor recurrence, and target TGCTs which are unresponsive to standard therapies. PMID:23784838

  8. MicroRNA-214 Promotes Apoptosis in Canine Hemangiosarcoma by Targeting the COP1-p53 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Heishima, Kazuki; Mori, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Sugito, Nobuhiko; Murakami, Mami; Yamada, Nami; Akao, Yukihiro; Maruo, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-214 regulates both angiogenic function in endothelial cells and apoptosis in various cancers. However, the regulation and function of miR-214 is unclear in canine hemangiosarcoma, which is a spontaneous model of human angiosarcoma. The expression and functional roles of miR-214 in canine hemangiosarcoma were presently explored by performing miRNA TaqMan qRT-PCR and transfecting cells with synthetic microRNA. Here, we report that miR-214 was significantly down-regulated in the cell lines used and in clinical samples of canine hemangiosarcoma. Restoration of miR-214 expression reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines through transcriptional activation of p53-regulated genes although miR-214 had a slight effect of growth inhibition on normal endothelial cells. We identified COP1, which is a critical negative regulator of p53, as a novel direct target of miR-214. COP1 was overexpressed and the specific COP1 knockdown induced apoptosis through transcriptional activation of p53-regulated genes as well as did miR-214-transfection in HSA cell lines. Furthermore, p53 knockdown abolished the miR-214-COP1-mediated apoptosis; thus, miR-214 and COP1 regulated apoptosis through controlling p53 in HSA. In conclusion, miR-214 functioned as a tumor suppressor in canine hemangiosarcoma by inducing apoptosis through recovering the function of p53. miR-214 down-regulation and COP1 overexpression is likely to contribute to tumorigenesis of HSA. Therefore, targeting miR-214-COP1-p53 axis would possibly be a novel effective strategy for treatment of canine hemangiosarcoma and capable of being applied to the development of novel therapeutics for human angiosarcoma. PMID:26335793

  9. MicroRNA-214 Promotes Apoptosis in Canine Hemangiosarcoma by Targeting the COP1-p53 Axis.

    PubMed

    Heishima, Kazuki; Mori, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Sugito, Nobuhiko; Murakami, Mami; Yamada, Nami; Akao, Yukihiro; Maruo, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-214 regulates both angiogenic function in endothelial cells and apoptosis in various cancers. However, the regulation and function of miR-214 is unclear in canine hemangiosarcoma, which is a spontaneous model of human angiosarcoma. The expression and functional roles of miR-214 in canine hemangiosarcoma were presently explored by performing miRNA TaqMan qRT-PCR and transfecting cells with synthetic microRNA. Here, we report that miR-214 was significantly down-regulated in the cell lines used and in clinical samples of canine hemangiosarcoma. Restoration of miR-214 expression reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines through transcriptional activation of p53-regulated genes although miR-214 had a slight effect of growth inhibition on normal endothelial cells. We identified COP1, which is a critical negative regulator of p53, as a novel direct target of miR-214. COP1 was overexpressed and the specific COP1 knockdown induced apoptosis through transcriptional activation of p53-regulated genes as well as did miR-214-transfection in HSA cell lines. Furthermore, p53 knockdown abolished the miR-214-COP1-mediated apoptosis; thus, miR-214 and COP1 regulated apoptosis through controlling p53 in HSA. In conclusion, miR-214 functioned as a tumor suppressor in canine hemangiosarcoma by inducing apoptosis through recovering the function of p53. miR-214 down-regulation and COP1 overexpression is likely to contribute to tumorigenesis of HSA. Therefore, targeting miR-214-COP1-p53 axis would possibly be a novel effective strategy for treatment of canine hemangiosarcoma and capable of being applied to the development of novel therapeutics for human angiosarcoma. PMID:26335793

  10. Gradual reduction in rRNA transcription triggers p53 acetylation and apoptosis via MYBBP1A

    PubMed Central

    Kumazawa, Takuya; Nishimura, Kazuho; Katagiri, Naohiro; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Hayashi, Yuki; Kimura, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus, whose primary function is ribosome biogenesis, plays an essential role in p53 activation. Ribosome biogenesis is inhibited in response to cellular stress and several nucleolar proteins translocate from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, where they activate p53. In this study, we analysed precisely how impaired ribosome biogenesis regulates the activation of p53 by depleting nucleolar factors involved in rRNA transcription or rRNA processing. Nucleolar RNA content decreased when rRNA transcription was inhibited. In parallel with the reduced levels of nucleolar RNA content, the nucleolar protein Myb-binding protein 1 A (MYBBP1A) translocated to the nucleoplasm and increased p53 acetylation. The acetylated p53 enhanced p21 and BAX expression and induced apoptosis. In contrast, when rRNA processing was inhibited, MYBBP1A remained in the nucleolus and nonacetylated p53 accumulated, causing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by inducing p21 but not BAX. We propose that the nucleolus functions as a stress sensor to modulate p53 protein levels and its acetylation status, determining cell fate between cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating MYBBP1A translocation. PMID:26044764

  11. Targeting GRP75 Improves HSP90 Inhibitor Efficacy by Enhancing p53-Mediated Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Liu, Xiaoyu; E, Qiukai; Gao, Peiye; Ye, Xiaofei; Liu, Wen; Zuo, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors are potential drugs for cancer therapy. The inhibition of HSP90 on cancer cell growth largely through degrading client proteins, like Akt and p53, therefore, triggering cancer cell apoptosis. Here, we show that the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG can induce the expression of GRP75, a member of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, which, in turn, attenuates the anti-growth effect of HSP90 inhibition on cancer cells. Additionally, 17-AAG enhanced binding of GRP75 and p53, resulting in the retention of p53 in the cytoplasm. Blocking GRP75 with its inhibitor MKT-077 potentiated the anti-tumor effects of 17-AAG by disrupting the formation of GRP75-p53 complexes, thereby facilitating translocation of p53 into the nuclei and leading to the induction of apoptosis-related genes. Finally, dual inhibition of HSP90 and GRP75 was found to significantly inhibit tumor growth in a liver cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, the GRP75 inhibitor MKT-077 enhances 17-AAG-induced apoptosis in HCCs and increases p53-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Dual targeting of GRP75 and HSP90 may be a useful strategy for the treatment of HCCs. PMID:24465691

  12. MDM2-regulated degradation of HIPK2 prevents p53Ser46 phosphorylation and DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Cinzia; Prodosmo, Andrea; Mancini, Francesca; Iacovelli, Stefano; Sacchi, Ada; Moretti, Fabiola; Soddu, Silvia

    2007-03-01

    In response to DNA damage, p53 induces either cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis by differential transcription of several target genes and through transcription-independent apoptotic functions. p53 phosphorylation at Ser46 by HIPK2 is one determinant of the outcome because it takes place only upon severe, nonrepairable DNA damage that irreversibly drives cells to apoptosis. Here, we show that p53 represses its proapoptotic activator HIPK2 via MDM2-mediated degradation, whereas a degradation-resistant HIPK2 mutant has increased apoptotic activity. Upon cytostatic, nonsevere DNA damage, inhibition of HIPK2 degradation is sufficient to induce p53Ser46 phosphorylation and apoptosis, converting growth-arresting stimuli to apoptotic ones. These findings establish HIPK2 as an MDM2 target and support a model in which, upon nonsevere DNA damage, p53 represses its own phosphorylation at Ser46 due to HIPK2 degradation, supporting the notion that the cell-cycle-arresting functions of p53 include active inhibition of the apoptotic ones. PMID:17349959

  13. The suppressor of cytokine signaling SOCS1 promotes apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells via p53 signaling in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaopeng; Shan, Xiaohang; Qian, Ji; Ji, Qianqian; Wang, Liang; Wang, Xiaotong; Li, Manhua; Ding, Haifang; Liu, Qingqing; Chen, Lingling; Zhang, Dongmei; Ni, Runzhou

    2016-08-01

    The suppressor of cytokine signaling SOCS1 is a member of the cytokine signaling pathway inhibitor family, which is induced by the IFN-γ induced JAK signaling pathway. The expression of SOCS1 has been found to increase in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, but the role of SOCS1 in intestinal epithelium is unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether SOCS1 has a role in the death of intestinal epithelial cells and intestinal injury. The results showed that the expression of SOCS1 increased in CD patients, and the expression of SOCS1, p-p53 and PUMA increased in the mouse TNBS induced colitis model. Using IFN-γ treated HT-29 cells as an apoptotic model of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, we confirmed that SOCS1 promoted apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells by activating p53. In HT-29 cells which were treated with IFN-γ, the interaction between p53 and SOCS1 and phosphorylation of p53 were significantly higher than untreated cells. When knocking SOCS1 down by using SOCS1 siRNA, phosphorylation of p53 and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells which was induced by IFN-γ were significantly inhibited. In summary, our findings suggest that SOCS1 may promote apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells at least partly through mediating p53 signaling. PMID:27236107

  14. An Aqueous Extract of Fagonia cretica Induces DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells via FOXO3a and p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Matt; Carmichael, Amtul R.; Griffiths, Helen R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants have proved to be an important source of anti-cancer drugs. Here we have investigated the cytotoxic action of an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica, used widely as a herbal tea-based treatment for breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Using flow cytometric analysis of cells labeled with cyclin A, annexin V and propidium iodide, we describe a time and dose-dependent arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis following extract treatment in MCF-7 (WT-p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mutant-p53) human breast cancer cell lines with a markedly reduced effect on primary human mammary epithelial cells. Analysis of p53 protein expression and of its downstream transcription targets, p21 and BAX, revealed a p53 associated growth arrest within 5 hours of extract treatment and apoptosis within 24 hours. DNA double strand breaks measured as γ-H2AX were detected early in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. However, loss of cell viability was only partly due to a p53-driven response; as MDA-MB-231 and p53-knockdown MCF-7 cells both underwent cell cycle arrest and death following extract treatment. p53-independent growth arrest and cytotoxicity following DNA damage has been previously ascribed to FOXO3a expression. Here, in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, FOXO3a expression was increased significantly within 3 hours of extract treatment and FOXO3 siRNA reduced the extract-induced loss of cell viability in both cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate for the first time that an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via p53-dependent and independent mechanisms, with activation of the DNA damage response. We also show that FOXO3a is required for activity in the absence of p53. Our findings indicate that Fagonia cretica aqueous extract contains potential anti-cancer agents acting either singly or in combination against breast cancer cell proliferation via DNA damage-induced FOXO3a and p53

  15. Nucleolin maintains embryonic stem cell self-renewal by suppression of p53 protein-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Acong; Shi, Guilai; Zhou, Chenlin; Lu, Rui; Li, Hui; Sun, Lei; Jin, Ying

    2011-12-16

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can undergo unlimited self-renewal and retain pluripotent developmental potential. The unique characteristics of ESCs, including a distinct transcriptional network, a poised epigenetic state, and a specific cell cycle profile, distinguish them from somatic cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these special properties of ESCs are not fully understood. Here, we report that nucleolin, a nucleolar protein highly expressed in undifferentiated ESCs, plays an essential role for the maintenance of ESC self-renewal. When nucleolin is knocked down by specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA), ESCs display dramatically reduced cell proliferation rate, increased cell apoptosis, and G(1) phase accumulation. Down-regulation of nucleolin also leads to evident ESC differentiation as well as decreased self-renewal ability. Interestingly, expression of pluripotency markers (Oct4 and Nanog) is unaltered in these differentiated cells. Mechanistically, depletion of nucleolin up-regulates the p53 protein level and activates the p53-dependent pathway, at least in part, via increasing p53 protein stability. Silencing of p53 rescues G(1) phase accumulation and apoptosis caused by nucleolin deficiency entirely, although it partially blocks abnormal differentiation in nucleolin-depleted ESCs. It is noteworthy that knocking down nucleolin in NIH3T3 cells affected cell survival and proliferation in a much milder way, despite the comparable silencing efficiency obtained in ESCs and NIH3T3 cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that nucleolin is a critical regulator of ESC self-renewal and that suppression of the p53-dependent pathway is the major molecular mechanism underlying functions of nucleolin in ESCs. PMID:22013067

  16. Pathologies Associated with the p53 Response

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Andrei V.; Komarova, Elena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although p53 is a major cancer preventive factor, under certain extreme stress conditions it may induce severe pathologies. Analyses of animal models indicate that p53 is largely responsible for the toxicity of ionizing radiation or DNA damaging drugs contributing to hematopoietic component of acute radiation syndrome and largely determining severe adverse effects of cancer treatment. p53-mediated damage is strictly tissue specific and occurs in tissues prone to p53-dependent apoptosis (e.g., hematopoietic system and hair follicles); on the contrary, p53 can serve as a survival factor in tissues that respond to p53 activation by cell cycle arrest (e.g., endothelium of small intestine). There are multiple experimental indications that p53 contributes to pathogenicity of acute ischemic diseases. Temporary reversible suppression of p53 by small molecules can be an effective and safe approach to reduce severity of p53-associated pathologies. PMID:20595398

  17. Novel p53-dependent anticancer strategy by targeting iron signaling and BNIP3L-induced mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wilfinger, Nastasia; Austin, Shane; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Berger, Walter; Reipert, Siegfried; Praschberger, Monika; Paur, Jakob; Trondl, Robert; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Nowikovsky, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies BNIP3L as the key regulator of p53-dependent cell death mechanism in colon cancer cells targeted by the novel gallium based anticancer drug, KP46. KP46 specifically accumulated into mitochondria where it caused p53-dependent morphological and functional damage impairing mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics. Furthermore, competing with iron for cellular uptake, KP46 lowered the intracellular labile iron pools and intracellular heme. Accordingly, p53 accumulated in the nucleus where it activated its transcriptional target BNIP3L, a BH3 only domain protein with functions in apoptosis and mitophagy. Upregulated BNIP3L sensitized the mitochondrial permeability transition and strongly induced PARKIN-mediated mitochondrial clearance and cellular vacuolization. Downregulation of BNIP3L entirely rescued cell viability caused by exposure of KP46 for 24 hours, confirming that early induced cell death was regulated by BNIP3L. Altogether, targeting BNIP3L in wild-type p53 colon cancer cells is a novel anticancer strategy activating iron depletion signaling and the mitophagy-related cell death pathway. PMID:26517689

  18. Nuclear translocation of annexin 1 following oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion induces apoptosis by regulating Bid expression via p53 binding.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Zhao, Yin; Xia, Qian; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Baoming; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Previous data have suggested that the nuclear translocation of annexin 1 (ANXA1) is involved in neuronal apoptosis after ischemic stroke. As the mechanism and function of ANXA1 nuclear migration remain unclear, it is important to clarify how ANXA1 performs its role as an apoptosis 'regulator' in the nucleus. Here we report that importazole (IPZ), an importin β (Impβ)-specific inhibitor, decreased ANXA1 nuclear accumulation and reduced the rate of neuronal death induced by nuclear ANXA1 migration after oxygen-glucose deprivation-reoxygenation (OGD/R). Notably, ANXA1 interacted with the Bid (BH3-interacting-domain death agonist) promoter directly; however; this interaction could be partially blocked by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Accordingly, ANXA1 was shown to interact with p53 in the nucleus and this interaction was enhanced following OGD/R. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANXA1 was involved in the regulation of p53-mediated transcriptional activation after OGD/R. Consistent with this finding, the nuclear translocation of ANXA1 after OGD/R upregulated the expression of Bid, which was impeded by IPZ, ANXA1 shRNA, or PFT-α. Finally, cell-survival testing demonstrated that silencing ANXA1 could improve the rate of cell survival and decrease the expression of both cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. These data suggested that Impβ-dependent nuclear ANXA1 migration participates in the OGD/R-dependent induction of neuronal apoptosis. ANXA1 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 transcriptional activity, which in turn regulates Bid expression. Silencing ANXA1 decreases the expression of Bid and suppresses caspase-3 pathway activation, thus improving cell survival after OGD/R. This study provides a novel mechanism whereby ANXA1 regulates apoptosis, suggesting the potential for a previously unidentified treatment strategy in minimizing apoptosis after OGD/R. PMID:27584794

  19. Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee; Lee, Su-Jae; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yim, Ji-Hye; Um, Hong-Duck; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotype of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.

  20. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis sensitizes drug-resistant U251 glioblastoma stem cells to temozolomide through enhanced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    MIAO, WANG; LIU, XIAODONG; WANG, HONGQIN; FAN, YIMIN; LIAN, SHIZHONG; YANG, XIN; WANG, XINXING; GUO, GENG; LI, QICHAO; WANG, SIFEI

    2015-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy has been observed to prolong overall survival rate and temozolomide (TMZ), a promising chemotherapeutic agent for treating glioblastoma (GBM), possesses the most effective clinical activity at present, although drug resistance limits its clinical outcome. Growing evidence supports the concept that initial and recurrent GBM may derive from glioblastoma stem cells, which may be responsible for drug resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a TMZ-resistant GBM cell line, U251R, was developed and subsequently divided into two subpopulations according to the CD133 immunophenotype. No significant difference was identified in the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) between CD133+ U251R cells and CD133− U251R cells, whereas the CD133+ cell population was more resistant to TMZ-induced growth inhibition and cell death. TMZ achieves its cytotoxic effect by inducing DNA lesions and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is an essential mediator of DNA damage-induced apoptosis independently of p53 status. Therefore, whether PUMA effectively enhances growth suppression and induces apoptosis when combined with TMZ was investigated. Consequently, it was found that adenoviruses expressing wild-type-PUMA not only lead to the apoptosis of CD133+ U251R cells alone, but also significantly increase their sensitivity toward TMZ by elevating the Bcl-2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma-2 ratio without alterations in MGMT expression. Therefore, PUMA may be a suitable target for intervention to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TMZ. PMID:25625235

  1. Apoptosis Therapy in Cancer: The First Single-molecule Co-activating p53 and the Translocator Protein in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Simona; Taliani, Sabrina; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Giacomelli, Chiara; Costa, Barbara; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Leonardo; La Pietra, Valeria; Barresi, Elisabetta; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Limatola, Antonio; Lamberti, Anna; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Da Settimo, Federico; Martini, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    In the complex scenario of cancer, treatment with compounds targeting multiple cell pathways has been emerging. In Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), p53 and Translocator Protein (TSPO), both acting as apoptosis inducers, represent two attractive intracellular targets. On this basis, novel indolylglyoxylyldipeptides, rationally designed to activate TSPO and p53, were synthesized and biologically characterized. The new compounds were able to bind TSPO and to reactivate p53 functionality, through the dissociation from its physiological inhibitor, murine double minute 2 (MDM2). In GBM cells, the new molecules caused Δψm dissipation and inhibition of cell viability. These effects resulted significantly higher with respect to those elicited by the single target reference standards applied alone, and coherent with the synergism resulting from the simultaneous activation of TSPO and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that TSPO/MDM2 dual-target ligands could represent a new attractive multi-modal opportunity for anti-cancer strategy in GBM. PMID:24756113

  2. Karyopherin α2 induces apoptosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cells through the p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Yu, Lei; Li, Chun-Ming; Li, Ying; Jia, Bao-Lin; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Tumor onset and progression are associated with dysfunction of the nuclear transport machinery at the level of import and export receptors. However, the role of Karyopherin α2 (KPNA2) in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remains unknown. We assessed the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of TSCC CAL-27 cells using wound healing, Transwell and MTT assays, western blotting, electron microscopy and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining following knockdown of KPNA2. The results revealed the antiproliferative, proapoptotic and anti-migratory effects of KPNA2 silencing on the TSCC CAL-27 cells. Moreover, the knockdown of KPNA2 proved to be accompanied by the upregulation of active caspase-3, cytochrome c, Bax, Bad and decreased expression of Bcl-2, p-Bad and XIAP. KPNA2 activated the caspase-dependent pathway in the CAL-27 cells with upregulation of p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p16INK4a. Thus, the present study demonstrated that p53/p21Cip1/Waf1/p16INK4a may be an important pathway involved in the function of KPNA2 in TSCC CAL-27 cells. PMID:27109484

  3. p53-dependent expression of CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitkin, Nikita A.; Hook, Christina D.; Schwartz, Anton M.; Biswas, Subir; Kochetkov, Dmitry V.; Muratova, Alisa M.; Afanasyeva, Marina A.; Kravchenko, Julia E.; Bhattacharyya, Arindam; Kuprash, Dmitry V.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated expression of chemokine receptors in tumors has been reported in many instances and is related to a number of survival advantages for tumor cells including abnormal activation of prosurvival intracellular pathways. In this work we demonstrated an inverse correlation between expression levels of p53 tumor suppressor and CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Lentiviral transduction of MCF-7 cells with p53 shRNA led to elevated CXCR5 at both mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of CXCR5 in p53-knockdown MCF-7 cells was also increased as shown by activation of target gene expression and chemotaxis in response to B-lymphocyte chemoattractant CXCL13. Using deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the cxcr5 gene promoter and enhancer elements, we demonstrated that p53 appears to act upon cxcr5 promoter indirectly, by repressing the activity of NFκB transcription factors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter gene analysis, we further demonstrated that p65/RelA was able to bind the cxcr5 promoter in p53-dependent manner and to directly transactivate it when overexpressed. Through the described mechanism, elevated CXCR5 expression may contribute to abnormal cell survival and migration in breast tumors that lack functional p53. PMID:25786345

  4. Increased p53 and decreased p21 accompany apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Gabriela; Linden, Rafael; Giangrande, Angela; Allodi, Silvana

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, leading the cell to apoptosis by the p53 pathway. This study evaluated some molecular markers of the apoptosis pathway induced by UVA, UVB and UVA+ UVB (Solar Simulator, SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) by immunoblotting the content of proteins p53, p21, phosphorylated AKT, BDNF, GDNF, activated caspase-3 (C3) and phosphohistone H3 (PH3); and by immunohistochemical tests of the cells labeled for PH3 and C3. After the fifth day of exposure, UVB radiation and SIM increased the protein content of p53, increasing the content of AKT and, somehow, blocking p21, increasing the content of activated caspase-3, which led the cells to apoptosis. The signs of death affected the increase in neurotrophins, such as BDNF and GDNF, stimulating the apoptotic cascade of events. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting showed that apoptosis was present in the brains of all UV groups, while the number of mitotic cells in the same groups decreased. In conclusion, environmental doses of UV can cause apoptosis by increasing p53 and decreasing p21, revealing an UV-damage pathway for U. cordatus. PMID:26807499

  5. Potential therapeutic role of Tridham in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line through induction of p53 independent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths reported worldwide. The incidence is higher in Asia and Africa, where there is greater endemic prevalence of hepatitis B and C. The devastating outcome of cancer can be minimized only by the use of potent therapeutic agents. Tridham (TD) has been acknowledged since olden days for its wide spectrum of biological properties and was used by traditional practitioners of Siddha and other indigenous systems of medicine. The present study aims at investigating the mechanistic action of TD by assessing the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh7). Methods Cell viability and apoptosis assay using MTT analysis and trypan blue staining, DAPI staining, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were determined in Huh7 cells. Results Viability studies of TD treated Huh7 cells showed an inhibition in cell growth in time and dose dependent manner. Chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies, which are structural changes characteristic of apoptosis, were found following TD treatment of Huh7 cells. DAPI staining and agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed the induction of apoptosis by TD. Cell cycle analysis of Huh7 cells treated with TD exhibited a marked accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle in a dose dependent manner. Immunofluorescent staining for Ki-67 showed a higher level of expression in untreated cells as compared to TD treated cells. We observed a significant loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol in TD treated cells. Down regulation of Bcl-2, up regulation of Bax and Bad as well as activation of caspases-3 and 9 were also observed. The p53 gene expression was found to be unaltered in TD treated cells

  6. Induction of p53, p21 and apoptosis by silencing the NF90/NF45 complex in human papilloma virus-transformed cervical carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Shamanna, Raghavendra A.; Hoque, Mainul; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    The heterodimeric nuclear factor 90/nuclear factor 45 complex (NF90/NF45) binds nucleic acids and is a multifunctional regulator of gene expression. Here we report that depletion of NF90/NF45 restores the expression of the p53 and p21 proteins in cervical carcinoma cells infected with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV). Knockdown of either NF90 or NF45 by RNA interference led to greatly elevated levels of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV-derived HeLa and SiHa cells, but not in other cancerous or normal cell lines. In HeLa cells, p21 mRNA increased concomitantly but the level of p53 mRNA was unaffected. RNA interference directed against p53 prevented the induction of both proteins. These results indicated that the up-regulation of p21 is due to p53-dependent transcription, whereas p53 is regulated post-transcriptionally. Proteasome-mediated turnover of p53 is accelerated by the HPV E6 and cellular E6AP proteins. We therefore examined the hypothesis that this pathway is regulated by NF90/NF45. Indeed, depletion of NF90 attenuated the expression of E6 RNA and inhibited transcription from the HPV early promoter, revealing a new role for NF90/NF45 in HPV gene expression. The transcription inhibition was largely independent of the reduction of P-TEFb levels caused by NF90 depletion. Consistent with p53 derepression, NF90/NF45-depleted HeLa cells displayed elevated PARP cleavage and susceptibility to camptothecin-induced apoptosis. We conclude that high-risk strains of HPV utilize the cellular NF90/NF45 complex for viral E6 expression in infected cervical carcinoma cell lines. Interference with NF90/NF45 function could assist in controlling cervical carcinoma. PMID:23208500

  7. A Zebrafish Model of 5q-Syndrome Using CRISPR/Cas9 Targeting RPS14 Reveals a p53-Independent and p53-Dependent Mechanism of Erythroid Failure.

    PubMed

    Ear, Jason; Hsueh, Jessica; Nguyen, Melinda; Zhang, QingHua; Sung, Victoria; Chopra, Rajesh; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Lin, Shuo

    2016-05-20

    5q-syndrome is a distinct form of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) where a deletion on chromosome 5 is the underlying cause. MDS is characterized by bone marrow failures, including macrocytic anemia. Genetic mapping and studies using various models support the notion that ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14) is the candidate gene for the erythroid failure. Targeted disruption of RPS14 causes an increase in p53 activity and p53-mediated apoptosis, similar to what is observed with other ribosomal proteins. However, due to the higher risk for cancer development in patients with ribosome deficiency, targeting the p53 pathway is not a viable treatment option. To better understand the pathology of RPS14 deficiency in 5q-deletion, we generated a zebrafish model harboring a mutation in the RPS14 gene. This model mirrors the anemic phenotype seen in 5q-syndrome. Moreover, the anemia is due to a late-stage erythropoietic defect, where the erythropoietic defect is initially p53-independent and then becomes p53-dependent. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of this model to test various pharmacological agents, such as RAP-011, L-leucine, and dexamethasone in order to identify molecules that can reverse the anemic phenotype. PMID:27216296

  8. MDM2 Inhibition Sensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells to Androgen Ablation and Radiotherapy in a p53-Dependent Manner12

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Felix Y.; Zhang, Yu; Kothari, Vishal; Evans, Joseph R.; Jackson, William C.; Chen, Wei; Johnson, Skyler B.; Luczak, Connor; Wang, Shaomeng; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Increased murine double minute 2 (MDM2) expression, independent of p53 status, is associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for men with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. We assessed MI-219, a small molecule inhibitor of MDM2 with improved pharmacokinetics over nutlin-3, for sensitization of prostate cancer cells to radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy, a standard treatment option for men with high-risk prostate cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of MDM2 inhibition by MI-219 was assessed in vitro and in vivo with mouse xenograft models across multiple prostate cancer cell lines containing varying p53 functional status. RESULTS: MDM2 inhibition by MI-219 resulted in dose- and time-dependent p53 activation and decreased clonogenic cell survival after radiation in a p53-dependent manner. Mechanistically, radiosensitization following inhibition of MDM2 was largely the result of p53-dependent increases in apoptosis and DNA damage as evidenced by Annexin V flow cytometry and γ-H2AX foci immunofluorescence. Similarly, treatment with MI-219 enhanced response to antiandrogen therapy via a p53-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death. Lastly, triple therapy with radiation, androgen deprivation therapy, and MI-219 decreased xenograft tumor growth compared with any single- or double-agent treatment. CONCLUSION: MDM2 inhibition with MI-219 results in p53-dependent sensitization of prostate cancer cells to radiation, antiandrogen therapy, and the combination. These findings support MDM2 small molecule inhibitor therapy as a therapy intensification strategy to improve clinical outcomes in high-risk localized prostate cancer. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: The combination of radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy is a standard treatment option for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Despite improvements in outcomes when androgen deprivation therapy is added to radiation, men with high-risk prostate cancer have significant risk for

  9. Allele Specific p53 Mutant Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Vazquez, Alexei; Levine, Arnold J.; Carpizo, Darren R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Rescuing the function of mutant p53 protein is an attractive cancer therapeutic strategy. Using the NCI anticancer drug screen data, we identified two compounds from the thiosemicarbazone family that manifest increased growth inhibitory activity in mutant p53 cells, particularly for the p53R175 mutant. Mechanistic studies reveal that NSC319726 restores WT structure and function to the p53R175 mutant. This compound kills p53R172H knock-in mice with extensive apoptosis and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in a 175-allele specific mutant p53 dependent manner. This activity depends upon the zinc ion chelating properties of the compound as well as redox changes. These data identify NSC319726 as a p53R175 mutant reactivator and as a lead compound for p53 targeted drug development. PMID:22624712

  10. Mortalin–p53 interaction in cancer cells is stress dependent and constitutes a selective target for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, W-J; Lee, N P; Kaul, S C; Lan, F; Poon, R T P; Wadhwa, R; Luk, J M

    2011-01-01

    Stress protein mortalin is a multifunctional protein and is highly expressed in cancers. It has been shown to interact with tumor suppressor protein-p53 (both wild and mutant types) and inactivates its transcriptional activation and apoptotic functions in cancer cells. In the present study, we found that, unlike most of the cancer cells, HepG2 hepatoma lacked mortalin–p53 interaction. We demonstrate that the mortalin–p53 interaction exists in cancer cells that are either physiologically stressed (frequently associated with p53 mutations) or treated with stress-inducing chemicals. Targeting mortalin–p53 interaction with either mortalin small hairpin RNA or a chemical or peptide inhibitor could induce p53-mediated tumor cell-specific apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma; p53-null hepatoma or normal hepatocytes remain unaffected. PMID:21233847

  11. The extract of Hibiscus syriacus inducing apoptosis by activating p53 and AIF in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yeung-Leung; Lee, Shih-Chun; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Huang, Hsin-Chieh; Chang, Wen-Liang

    2008-01-01

    Natural products including plants, microorganisms and marine life provide rich resources for anticancer drug discovery. The root bark of Hibiscus syriacus has been used as an antipyretic, anthelmintic and antifungal agent in Asia. The antiproliferative effects of H. syriacus on human lung cancer cells were evaluated with bio-assays. The apoptotic activity was detected by Hoechst 33342 DNA staining and annexin V staining. The expression of caspases, p53, apoptosis induced factor (AIF), Bcl-2 and Bax were evaluated with Western blotting. The in vivo anticancer activity was evaluated using A549-xenograft model. The acetone extract of H. syriacus (HS-AE) exhibited a better cytotoxic effect on lung cancer cells than its methanol extract (HS-ME) or water extract (HS-WE). The IC(50) values of HS-AE on A549 (adenocarcinoma), H209 (squamous cell carcinoma) or H661 (large cell carcinoma) lung cancer cells ranged from 14 to 22 microg/ml after 48 hours of treatment. After 48 hours of exposure, HS-AE (15 microg/ml) induced A549 cell apoptosis to 48 +/- 3.6% of the control. Using Western blotting, HS-AE appears to suppress the expression of p53 and AIF. The results of the in vivo study showed that HS-AE suppresses growth in A549 subcutaneous xenograft tumors. These results indicate that HS-AE exerts significant and dose-dependent antiproliferative effects on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which prompts us to further evaluate and elucidate the bioactive component(s) of H. syriacus. PMID:18306460

  12. Central role of mitochondria and p53 in PUVA-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes cell line NCTC-2544

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, Giampietro Fortunato, Elena; Cecconet, Laura; Del Giudice, Laura; Dall'Acqua, Francesco; Basso, Giuseppe

    2008-02-15

    Despite strong evidence concerning the high efficiency of PUVA therapy (psoralen plus UVA light), its mechanism of action has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we have evaluated in a cell line of human keratinocytes (NCTC-2544) the effects of two linear psoralen derivatives, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), that are widely used in PUVA therapy and two angular derivatives, Angelicin (ANG) and 4,6,4'-trymetyl angelicin (TMA). All derivatives photoinduce cellular death, TMA being the most active compound. The cell cycle analysis showed that the four derivatives induce, 24 h after irradiation, a cell cycle arrest in G1 phase later followed by massive apoptosis. The G1 arrest is correlated to an increase in the expression of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1}, a protein associated with the cell cycle block and apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of NCTC-2544 resulted in p53 activation by 5-MOP, 8-MOP, and ANG but not TMA and its phosphorylation at serine-15. The levels of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} paralleled p53 protein staining pattern suggesting that p53 activation correlated with p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} induction. Simultaneous to p53 activation, psoralens induced mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, as well as caspase-3 and -9 activation. Thus these results strongly indicate the necessity of p53 activation and the induction of the apoptotic machinery downstream of mitochondria.

  13. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, HepG2, Mediated by Upregulation of p53 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud I. M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; El-Gaaly, Gehan A.; Sultan, Ahmed S.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and most current therapies are of limited efficacy. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant with antitumor activity, although the mechanisms of its activity remain unclear. Herein, a crude methanol extract was prepared from Fenugreek seeds (FCE) and its anticancer mechanism was evaluated, using HepG2 cell line. Growth-inhibitory effect and apoptosis induction of HepG2 cells were evidenced by MTT assay, cell morphology alteration, apoptosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity, and expression of p53, proapoptotic protein, Bax, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after (100∼500 μg/mL) FCE treatment for 48 h. Furthermore, FCE was analyzed by Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Our results revealed that FCE treatment for 48 h showed a cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction in a dose-dependent manner that was mediated by upregulation of p53, Bax, PCNA, and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells. GC-MS analysis of FCE showed the presence of fourteen bioactive compounds such as Terpenoids and Flavonoids, including two main constituents with anticancer activity, Squalene and Naringenin (27.71% and 24.05%), respectively. Our data introduced FCE as a promising nontoxic herbal with therapeutic potential to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through p53, Bax, and PCNA upregulation in caspase-3 dependent manner. PMID:26557712

  14. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, HepG2, Mediated by Upregulation of p53 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mahmoud I M; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; El-Gaaly, Gehan A; Sultan, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and most current therapies are of limited efficacy. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant with antitumor activity, although the mechanisms of its activity remain unclear. Herein, a crude methanol extract was prepared from Fenugreek seeds (FCE) and its anticancer mechanism was evaluated, using HepG2 cell line. Growth-inhibitory effect and apoptosis induction of HepG2 cells were evidenced by MTT assay, cell morphology alteration, apoptosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity, and expression of p53, proapoptotic protein, Bax, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after (100 ∼ 500 μg/mL) FCE treatment for 48 h. Furthermore, FCE was analyzed by Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Our results revealed that FCE treatment for 48 h showed a cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction in a dose-dependent manner that was mediated by upregulation of p53, Bax, PCNA, and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells. GC-MS analysis of FCE showed the presence of fourteen bioactive compounds such as Terpenoids and Flavonoids, including two main constituents with anticancer activity, Squalene and Naringenin (27.71% and 24.05%), respectively. Our data introduced FCE as a promising nontoxic herbal with therapeutic potential to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through p53, Bax, and PCNA upregulation in caspase-3 dependent manner. PMID:26557712

  15. Stress-dependent Daxx-CHIP interaction suppresses the p53 apoptotic program.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Holly; Charles, Peter C; Hilliard, Eleanor G; Qian, Shu-Bing; Min, Jin-Na; Portbury, Andrea; Cyr, Douglas M; Patterson, Cam

    2009-07-31

    Our previous studies have implicated CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) as a co-chaperone/ubiquitin ligase whose activities yield protection against stress-induced apoptotic events. In this report, we demonstrate a stress-dependent interaction between CHIP and Daxx (death domain-associated protein). This interaction interferes with the stress-dependent association of HIPK2 with Daxx, blocking phosphorylation of serine 46 in p53 and inhibiting the p53-dependent apoptotic program. Microarray analysis confirmed suppression of the p53-dependent transcriptional portrait in CHIP(+/+) but not in CHIP(-/-) heat shocked mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The interaction between CHIP and Daxx results in ubiquitination of Daxx, which is then partitioned to an insoluble compartment of the cell. In vitro ubiquitination of Daxx by CHIP revealed that ubiquitin chain formation utilizes non-canonical lysine linkages associated with resistance to proteasomal degradation. The ubiquitination of Daxx by CHIP utilizes lysines 630 and 631 and competes with the sumoylation machinery of the cell at these residues. These studies implicate CHIP as a stress-dependent regulator of Daxx that counters the pro-apoptotic influence of Daxx in the cell. By abrogating p53-dependent apoptotic pathways and by ubiquitination competitive with Daxx sumoylation, CHIP integrates the proteotoxic stress response of the cell with cell cycle pathways that influence cell survival. PMID:19465479

  16. Thioredoxin reductase is required for the inactivation of tumor suppressor p53 and for apoptosis induced by endogenous electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Pamela B; Edes, Kornelia; Nelson, Chad C; Parsawar, Krishna; Fitzpatrick, F A; Moos, Philip J

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that the covalent modification of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) by both endogenous and exogenous electrophiles results in disruption of the conformation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Here we report that the loss of normal cellular TrxR enzymatic activity by electrophilic modification or deletion of the C-terminal catalytic selenocysteine residue has functional consequences that are distinct from those resulting from depletion of TrxR protein in human RKO colon cancer cells. A thorough kinetic analysis was performed on purified TrxR in order to characterize the mechanism of its inhibition by electrophiles. Furthermore, electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the alkylation of TrxR by lipid electrophiles and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry identified the C-terminus as one target for alkylation. Then the consequences of TrxR modification by electrophiles on p53 conformation, transactivation and apoptosis were compared and contrasted with the effects of depletion of TrxR protein by treatment of cells with small interfering RNA directed against TrxR1. We found that cells depleted of TrxR were actually less sensitive to electrophile-induced disruption of p53 conformation and apoptosis than were cells expressing normal levels of TrxR. When RKO cells depleted of wild-type TrxR were transfected with C-terminal mutants of TrxR lacking the catalytic selenocysteine, p53 was found to be conformationally deranged, similar to cells treated with electrophiles. These results lead us to conclude that C-terminal modification of TrxR is both necessary and sufficient for the disruption of p53 and for the induction of apoptosis. Endogenous lipid electrophiles have been our primary focus; however, metabolic activation of hormones can generate endogenous mutagens, and we demonstrate that estrone-quinone attenuates p53 function in human MCF7 cells. PMID:16777982

  17. Loss of p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis promotes genomic instability and premature aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongyuan; Liu, Xiangyu; Jiang, Le; Manfredi, James; Zha, Shan; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis are well accepted as major tumor suppression mechanisms, the loss of these functions does not directly lead to tumorigenesis, suggesting that the precise roles of these canonical activities of p53 need to be redefined. Here, we report that the cells derived from the mutant mice expressing p533KR, an acetylation-defective mutant that fails to induce cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis, exhibit high levels of aneuploidy upon DNA damage. Moreover, the embryonic lethality caused by the deficiency of XRCC4, a key DNA double strand break repair factor, can be fully rescued in the p533KR/3KR background. Notably, despite high levels of genomic instability, p533KR/3KRXRCC4−/− mice, unlike p53−/− XRCC4−/− mice, are not succumbed to pro-B-cell lymphomas. Nevertheless, p533KR/3KR XRCC4−/− mice display aging-like phenotypes including testicular atrophy, kyphosis, and premature death. Further analyses demonstrate that SLC7A11 is downregulated and that p53-mediated ferroptosis is significantly induced in spleens and testis of p533KR/3KRXRCC4−/− mice. These results demonstrate that the direct role of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis is to control genomic stability in vivo. Our study not only validates the importance of ferroptosis in p53-mediated tumor suppression in vivo but also reveals that the combination of genomic instability and activation of ferroptosis may promote aging-associated phenotypes. PMID:26943586

  18. The synergistic effect of combination temozolomide and chloroquine treatment is dependent on autophagy formation and p53 status in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Na-Hyeon; Yi, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Hong-Sug; Hong, Sung Hee; Hong, Yong-Kil; Joe, Young Ae

    2015-05-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used for the treatment of glioblastoma. The late autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) inhibits glioblastoma tumors in a p53-independent and p53-dependent manner. We addressed a possible beneficial effect of combination treatment with TMZ and CQ by examining the molecular and cellular mechanism of co-treatment. Combination treatment of U87 cell (wild type p53) with TMZ and CQ synergistically reduced cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis, with increased sub-G1 hypodiploid cells and caspase activation. This effect was abolished by a pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. TMZ induced autophagy, and the addition of CQ further increased autophagic vacuoles. Inhibition of early stages of autophagy by Beclin 1 knockdown and 3-methyladenine pretreatment prevented the enhanced effect of the combination treatment. The combination treatment also upregulated p53 and phospho-p53 levels, whereas p53 knockdown or overexpression of mutant p53 abolished the combination effect. In contrast, combination therapy had no enhanced effect on U373 cell (mutant p53) proliferation and apoptosis within 3 d, although TMZ induced autophagy and co-treatment with CQ increased autophagic vacuole accumulation. However, long term combination treatment for 9-10 d effectively decreased clonal and cellular growth with increased G2-M arrest. This effect was also abolished by Beclin 1 knockdown. Our data support the beneficial effect of combination treatment with TMZ and CQ in glioma via differential autophagy-associated mechanisms, depending on p53 status. PMID:25681668

  19. Granzyme B-activated p53 interacts with Bcl-2 to promote cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ben Safta, Thouraya; Ziani, Linda; Favre, Loetitia; Lamendour, Lucille; Gros, Gwendoline; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia; Martinvalet, Denis; Chouaib, Salem; Thiery, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Granzyme B (GzmB) plays a major role in CTLs and NK cell-mediated elimination of virus-infected cells and tumors. Human GzmB preferentially induces target cell apoptosis by cleaving the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bid, which, together with Bax, induces mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. We previously showed that GzmB also induces a rapid accumulation of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 within target cells, which seems to be involved in GzmB-induced apoptosis. In this article, we show that GzmB-activated p53 accumulates on target cell mitochondria and interacts with Bcl-2. This interaction prevents Bcl-2 inhibitory effect on both Bax and GzmB-truncated Bid, and promotes GzmB-induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Consequently, blocking p53-Bcl-2 interaction decreases GzmB-induced Bax activation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and subsequent effector caspases activation leading to a decreased sensitivity of target cells to both GzmB and CTL/NK-mediated cell death. Together, our results define p53 as a new important player in the GzmB apoptotic signaling pathway and in CTL/NK-induced apoptosis. PMID:25404359

  20. Wee1 inhibition potentiates Wip1-dependent p53-negative tumor cell death during chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Clausse, V; Goloudina, A R; Uyanik, B; Kochetkova, E Y; Richaud, S; Fedorova, O A; Hammann, A; Bardou, M; Barlev, N A; Garrido, C; Demidov, O N

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of p53 found in more than half of human cancers is often associated with increased tumor resistance to anti-cancer therapy. We have previously shown that overexpression of the phosphatase Wip1 in p53-negative tumors sensitizes them to chemotherapeutic agents, while protecting normal tissues from the side effects of anti-cancer treatment. In this study, we decided to search for kinases that prevent Wip1-mediated sensitization of cancer cells, thereby interfering with efficacy of genotoxic anti-cancer drugs. To this end, we performed a flow cytometry-based screening in order to identify kinases that regulated the levels of γH2AX, which were used as readout. Another criterion of the screen was increased sensitivity of p53-negative tumor cells to cisplatin (CDDP) in a Wip1-dependent manner. We have found that a treatment with a low dose (75 nM) of MK-1775, a recently described specific chemical inhibitor of Wee1, decreases CDDP-induced H2AX phosphorylation in p53-negative cells and enhances the Wip1-sensitization of p53-negative tumors. We were able to reduce CDDP effective concentration by 40% with a combination of Wip1 overexpression and Wee1 kinase inhibition. We have observed that Wee1 inhibition potentiates Wip1-dependent tumor sensitization effect by reducing levels of Hipk2 kinase, a negative regulator of Wip1 pathway. In addition, during CDDP treatment, the combination of Wee1 inhibition and Wip1 overexpression has a mild but significant protective effect in normal cells and tissues. Our results indicate that inhibition of the negative regulators of Wip1 pathway, Wee1 and Hipk2, in p53-negative tumors could potentiate efficiency of chemotherapeutic agents without concomitant increase of cytotoxicity in normal tissues. The development and clinical use of Wee1 and Hipk1 kinase chemical inhibitors might be a promising strategy to improve anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27077811

  1. Wee1 inhibition potentiates Wip1-dependent p53-negative tumor cell death during chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Clausse, V; Goloudina, A R; Uyanik, B; Kochetkova, E Y; Richaud, S; Fedorova, O A; Hammann, A; Bardou, M; Barlev, N A; Garrido, C; Demidov, O N

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of p53 found in more than half of human cancers is often associated with increased tumor resistance to anti-cancer therapy. We have previously shown that overexpression of the phosphatase Wip1 in p53-negative tumors sensitizes them to chemotherapeutic agents, while protecting normal tissues from the side effects of anti-cancer treatment. In this study, we decided to search for kinases that prevent Wip1-mediated sensitization of cancer cells, thereby interfering with efficacy of genotoxic anti-cancer drugs. To this end, we performed a flow cytometry-based screening in order to identify kinases that regulated the levels of γH2AX, which were used as readout. Another criterion of the screen was increased sensitivity of p53-negative tumor cells to cisplatin (CDDP) in a Wip1-dependent manner. We have found that a treatment with a low dose (75 nM) of MK-1775, a recently described specific chemical inhibitor of Wee1, decreases CDDP-induced H2AX phosphorylation in p53-negative cells and enhances the Wip1-sensitization of p53-negative tumors. We were able to reduce CDDP effective concentration by 40% with a combination of Wip1 overexpression and Wee1 kinase inhibition. We have observed that Wee1 inhibition potentiates Wip1-dependent tumor sensitization effect by reducing levels of Hipk2 kinase, a negative regulator of Wip1 pathway. In addition, during CDDP treatment, the combination of Wee1 inhibition and Wip1 overexpression has a mild but significant protective effect in normal cells and tissues. Our results indicate that inhibition of the negative regulators of Wip1 pathway, Wee1 and Hipk2, in p53-negative tumors could potentiate efficiency of chemotherapeutic agents without concomitant increase of cytotoxicity in normal tissues. The development and clinical use of Wee1 and Hipk1 kinase chemical inhibitors might be a promising strategy to improve anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27077811

  2. Assessment of apoptosis in relation to proliferation and mutational status of p53 gene in head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Mundle, S; Kotelnikov, V; Wood, N; Coon, J; Horvath, E; Taylor, S; Lafollette, S; Caldarelli, D; Hutchinson, J; Panje, W; Preisler, H; Raza, A

    1996-06-01

    The present studies were undertaken to determine the incidence of apoptosis in plastic embedded head and neck (HN) tumor biopsies (n=31) using in situ end labeling (ISEL) of fragmented DNA. The extent of spontaneous apoptosis in untreated tumors was correlated with histological grade, percent S-phase cells (Labeling Index, LI) and with the mutational status of p53 gene in these tumors. Additionally, the in vivo effects of chemo- and/or radiotherapy on apoptosis were evaluated in seven patients. In the majority of tumors studied (25/31) spontaneous apoptosis was virtually undetectable or was very low (1-15% positively labeled cells). Only 6 tumors showed intermediate to high apoptosis (>15% positively labeled cells). High apoptosis was more frequent in poorly differentiated tumors (similar to 50%), as compared to well and moderately differentiated tumors. The median LI for 31 tumors studied was 20.2%. The mean LI for moderately differentiated tumors (23.7+/-1.7%) was significantly higher than that in well differentiated (15.1+/-2.1%, p=0.005) and was comparable in poorly differentiated tumors (24.5%). Cytotoxic therapy significantly increased the degree of apoptosis in 5/7 specimens studied (p=0.03). Double labeling of 5 of these tumors before and after the therapy, combining ISEL with detection of IUdR/BrdU, showed compartmentalized apoptosis and proliferation with virtually no double labeled cells in any specimen. Interestingly, tumors with a mutated p53 gene (n=6) showed intermediate to high degree of pretherapy, baseline apoptosis in contrast to low or undetectable levels of apoptosis in tumors bearing wild-type p53 (n=13, p=0.034). It appears that low levels of apoptosis and high proliferation may be characteristic of HN tumors. The spontaneous apoptosis in HN tumors seems unrelated to mutations in the p53 gene. Moreover, our data also show that despite overall increase in apoptosis induced by cytotoxic therapy, some proliferating tumor cells escaped the

  3. p53 independent G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis induced by a novel retinoid in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Z M; Dawson, M I; Li, X S; Rishi, A K; Sheikh, M S; Han, Q X; Ordonez, J V; Shroot, B; Fontana, J A

    1995-08-01

    The biological activity of a novel synthetic retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (AHPN) was investigated in human breast carcinoma (HBC) cells. Although capable of selective binding to the RAR gamma nuclear receptor, AHPN inhibited the growth of a number of HBC cell lines via RAR- or RXR-independent pathways. AHPN also inhibited the growth of the human leukemia cell line HL-60R which does not possess functional RARs. RA significantly inhibited AP-1 mediated gene activation in MCF-7 cells while AHPN displayed no such anti-AP-1 activity. Retinoids normally are cytostatic in their inhibition of breast carcinoma growth and permit cell proliferation upon their removal, wher as AHPN induced G0/G1 arrest within 6h followed by apoptosis. In MCF-7 cells that harbor wild type p53, AHPN-induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis was accompanied by p53-independent regulation of WAF1/CIP1 as well as bax mRNA levels while bcl-2 mRNA levels were decreased. In MDA-MB-231 cells which possess a mutant p53, AHPN-mediated G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis was also associated with a concomitant up regulation of WAF1/CIP1 mRNA while these cells did not express bax or bcl-2 messages. Thus AHPN represents a novel retinoid that induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis via a unique pathway which appears to involve activation of known downstream effectors of p53 in a p53-independent manner. PMID:7630633

  4. Crocetin exploits p53-induced death domain (PIDD) and FAS-associated death domain (FADD) proteins to induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ray, Pallab; Guha, Deblina; Chakraborty, Juni; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Adhikary, Arghya; Chakraborty, Samik; Das, Tanya; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 preserves the genomic integrity by restricting anomaly at the gene level. The hotspots for mutation in half of all colon cancers reside in p53. Hence, in a p53-mutated cellular milieu targeting cancer cells may be achievable by targeting the paralogue(s) of p53. Here we have shown the effectiveness of crocetin, a dietary component, in inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells with varying p53 status. In wild-type p53-expressing cancer cells, p53 in one hand transactivates BAX and in parallel up-regulates p53-induced death domain protein (PIDD) that in turn cleaves and activates BID through caspase-2. Both BAX and t-BID converge at mitochondria to alter the transmembrane potential thereby leading to caspase-9 and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, in functional p53-impaired cells, this phytochemical exploits p53-paralogue p73, which up-regulates FAS to cleave BID through FAS-FADD-caspase-8-pathway. These findings not only underline the phenomenon of functional switch-over from p53 to p73 in p53-impaired condition, but also validate p73 as a promising and potential target for cancer therapy in absence of functional p53. PMID:27622714

  5. Rpl22 loss impairs the development of B lymphocytes by activating a p53-dependent checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Fahl, Shawn P.; Harris, Bryan; Coffey, Francis; Wiest, David L.

    2014-01-01

    While ribosomal proteins facilitate the ribosome’s core function of translation, emerging evidence suggests that some ribosomal proteins are also capable of performing tissue restricted functions either from within specialized ribosomes or from outside of the ribosome. In particular, we have previously demonstrated that germline ablation of the gene encoding ribosomal protein Rpl22 causes a selective and p53 dependent arrest of αβ T cell progenitors at the β-selection checkpoint. We have now identified a crucial role for Rpl22 during early B cell development. Germline ablation of Rpl22 results in a reduction in the absolute number of B-lineage progenitors in the bone marrow beginning at the pro-B cell stage. Although Rpl22-deficient proB cells are hyporesponsive to IL-7, a key cytokine required for early B cell development, the arrest of B cell development does not result from disrupted IL-7 signaling. Instead, p53 induction appears to be responsible for the developmental defects, as Rpl22-deficiency causes increased expression of p53 and activation of downstream p53 target genes and p53-deficiency rescues the defect in B cell development in Rpl22-deficient mice. Interestingly, the requirement for Rpl22 in the B cell lineage appears to be developmentally restricted, since Rpl22-deficient splenic B cells proliferate normally in response to antigen receptor and toll receptor stimuli and undergo normal class switch recombination. These results indicate that Rpl22 performs a critical, developmentally restricted role in supporting early B cell development by preventing p53-induction. PMID:25416806

  6. The enhancing effect of genistein on apoptosis induced by trichostatin A in lung cancer cells with wild type p53 genes is associated with upregulation of histone acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Chin; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Pei-Ru; Liu, Shang-Yu; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2016-02-01

    Genistein has been shown to enhance the antitumor activity of trichostatin A (TSA) in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. However, whether the combined treatment exerts the same effect in other lung cancer cells is unclear. In the present study we first compared the enhancing effect of genistein on the antitumor effect of TSA in ABC-1, NCI-H460 (H460) and A549 cells. Second, we investigated whether the effects of genistein are associated with increased histone/non-histone protein acetylation. We found that the enhancing effect of genistein on cell-growth-arrest in ABC-1 cells (p53 mutant) was less than in A549 and H460 cells. Genistein enhanced TSA induced apoptosis in A549 and H460 cells rather than in ABC-1 cells. After silencing p53 expression in A549 and H460 cells, the enhancing effect of genistein was diminished. In addition, genistein increased TSA-induced histone H3/H4 acetylation in A549 and H460 cells. Genistein also increased p53 acetylation in H460 cells. The inhibitor of acetyltransferase, anacardic acid, diminished the enhancing effect of genistein on all TSA-induced histone/p53 acetylation and apoptosis. Genistein in combination with TSA increased the expression of p300 protein, an acetyltransferase, in A549 and NCI-H460 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that genistein also enhanced the antitumor effect of genistein in A549-tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the enhancing effects of genistein on TSA-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells were p53-dependent and were associated with histone/non-histone protein acetylation. PMID:26768552

  7. An Amphiphilic Peptide Induces Apoptosis Through the miR29b-p53 Pathway in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kang, Igojo; Hyun, Soonsil; Yu, Jaehoon; Shin, Chanseok

    2016-01-01

    Peptides have been in the limelight, as therapeutic agents for cancer treatment through various applications due to their high target selectivity and exceptional ability to penetrate the cell membrane. Recent studies have revealed that synthesized peptides bind to hairpin structures of RNA that affect their activities such as changing the efficacy of microRNA maturation. MicroRNA-mediated p53 activation by the microRNA-29 (miR29) family is one of the most important regulatory pathways in cancer therapeutics. By targeting the suppressors of p53, a tumor suppressor protein, miR29 induces apoptosis of cancer cells through p53 stabilization. Here, we identify a novel synthesized amphiphilic peptide, LK-L1C/K6W/L8C, which enhances expression of miR29b and promotes p53 activity. In the presence of LK-L1C/K6W/L8C, pre-miR29b preferentially forms a complex with the Dicer protein through interaction of LK-L1C/K6W/L8C with the terminal loop region of pre-miR29b, leading to an increase in Dicer processing. Furthermore, LK-L1C/K6W/L8C stimulates apoptosis by improving p53 stability in miR29-inducible HeLa and MCF7 cells. Collectively, our study shows that a peptide can directly influence the miR29b-mediated p53 activation pathway in cancer cells. Therefore, our findings provide the basis for a new, potentially promising peptide-based drug for cancer therapy. PMID:27377134

  8. The nucleoprotein of influenza A virus induces p53 signaling and apoptosis via attenuation of host ubiquitin ligase RNF43

    PubMed Central

    Nailwal, H; Sharma, S; Mayank, A K; Lal, S K

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between influenza virus and host factors to support the viral life cycle is well documented. Influenza A virus (IAV) proteins interact with an array of cellular proteins and hijack host pathways which are at the helm of cellular responses to facilitate virus invasion. The multifaceted nature of the ubiquitination pathway for protein regulation makes it a vulnerable target of many viruses including IAV. To this end we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for cellular ubiquitin ligases important for influenza virus replication. We identified host protein, RING finger protein 43 (RNF43), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a novel interactor of nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV and an essential partner to induce NP-driven p53-mediated apoptosis in IAV-infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV leads to attenuation of RNF43 transcripts and hence its respective protein levels in the cellular milieu whereas in RNF43 depleted cells, viral replication was escalated several folds. Moreover, RNF43 polyubiquitinates p53 which further leads to its destabilization resulting in a decrease in induction of the p53 apoptotic pathway, a hitherto unknown process targeted by NP for p53 stabilization and accumulation. Collectively, these results conclude that NP targets RNF43 to modulate p53 ubiquitination levels and hence causes p53 stabilization which is conducive to an enhanced apoptosis level in the host cells. In conclusion, our study unravels a novel strategy adopted by IAV for utilizing the much conserved ubiquitin proteasomal pathway. PMID:25996295

  9. Leptin reduces apoptosis triggered by high temperature in human placental villous explants: The role of the p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Toro, Ayelén R; Vilarino-Garcia, Teresa; Guadix, Pilar; Maymó, Julieta L; Dueñas, José L; Varone, Cecilia L; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2016-06-01

    Maternal fever is common during pregnancy and has for many years been suspected to harm the developing fetus. Whether increased maternal temperature produces exaggerated apoptosis in trophoblast cells remains unclear. Since p53 is a critical regulator of apoptosis we hypothesized that increased temperature in placenta produces abnormal expression of proteins in the p53 pathway and finally caspase-3 activation. Moreover, leptin, produced by placenta, is known to promote the proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. Thus, we aimed to study the possible role of leptin preventing apoptosis triggered by high temperature, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Fresh placental tissue was collected from normal pregnancies. Explants of placental villi were exposed to 37 °C, 40 °C and 42 °C during 3 h in the presence or absence of 10 nM leptin in DMEM-F12 medium. Western blotting and qRT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression of p53 and downstream effector, P53AIP1, Mdm2, p21, BAX and BCL-2 as well as the activated cleaved form of caspase-3 and the fragment of cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) cleaved at Asp396 (neoepitope M30). Phosphorylation of the Ser 46 residue on p53, the expression of P53AIP1, Mdm2, p21, as well as caspase-3 and CK-18 were significantly increased in explants at 40 °C and 42 °C. Conversely, these effects were significantly attenuated by leptin 10 nM at both 40 °C and 42 °C. The BCL2/BAX ratio was also significantly decreased in explants at 40 °C and 42 °C compared with explants incubated at 37 °C, which was prevented by leptin stimulation. These data illustrate the potential role of leptin for reducing apoptosis in trophoblast explants, including trophoblastic cells, triggered by high temperature, by preventing the activation of p53 signaling. PMID:27238720

  10. Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.F.; Gurule, D.M.; Carpenter, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth.