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Sample records for p70 s6 kinase

  1. Structural Basis of Human p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase-1 Regulation by Activation Loop Phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Tomoko; Byrne, Noel; Diehl, Ronald E.; Funabashi, Kaoru; Hall, Dawn L.; Ikuta, Mari; Patel, Sangita B.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Smith, Robert F.; Takahashi, Ikuko; Zugay-Murphy, Joan; Iwasawa, Yoshikazu; Lumb, Kevin J.; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Sharma, Sujata

    2010-03-04

    p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) is a downstream effector of the mTOR signaling pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell-cycle progression, and glucose homeostasis. Multiple phosphorylation events within the catalytic, autoinhibitory, and hydrophobic motif domains contribute to the regulation of p70S6K. We report the crystal structures of the kinase domain of p70S6K1 bound to staurosporine in both the unphosphorylated state and in the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-phosphorylated state in which Thr-252 of the activation loop is phosphorylated. Unphosphorylated p70S6K1 exists in two crystal forms, one in which the p70S6K1 kinase domain exists as a monomer and the other as a domain-swapped dimer. The crystal structure of the partially activated kinase domain that is phosphorylated within the activation loop reveals conformational ordering of the activation loop that is consistent with a role in activation. The structures offer insights into the structural basis of the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-induced activation of p70S6K and provide a platform for the rational structure-guided design of specific p70S6K inhibitors.

  2. p70 S6 kinase in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and directed migration of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ip, C K M; Cheung, A N Y; Ngan, H Y S; Wong, A S T

    2011-05-26

    Ovarian cancer is highly metastatic with a poor prognosis. The serine/threonine kinase, p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6K)), which is a downstream effector of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, is frequently activated in ovarian cancer. Here, we show that p70(S6K) is a critical regulator of the actin cytoskeleton in the acquisition of the metastatic phenotype. This regulation is through two important activities: p70(S6K) acts as an actin filament cross-linking protein and as a Rho family GTPase-activating protein. Ectopic expression of constitutively active p70(S6K) in ovarian cancer cells induced a marked reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and promoted directional cell migration. Using cosedimentation and differential sedimentation assays, p70(S6K) was found to directly bind to and cross-link actin filaments. Immunofluorescence studies showed p70(S6K) colocalized with cytochalasin D-sensitive actin at the leading edge of motile cells. The p70(S6K) did not affect the kinetics of spontaneous actin polymerization, but could stabilize actin filaments by the inhibition of cofilin-induced actin depolymerization. In addition, we showed that p70(S6K) stimulated the rapid activation of both Rac1 and Cdc42, and their downstream effector p21-activated kinase (PAK1), but not RhoA. Depletion of p70(S6K) expression or inhibition of its activity resulted in significant inhibition of actin cytoskeleton reorganization and reduced migration, with a concomitant reduction in Rac1, Cdc42 and PAK1 activation, confirming that the effect was p70(S6K) specific. Similarly, the actin cytoskeleton reorganization/migratory phenotype could be reversed by expression of dominant negative Rac1 and Cdc42, or inhibition of PAK1. These results reveal a new direction for understanding the oncogenic roles of p70(S6K) in tumor progression. PMID:21258406

  3. Vascular tumors have increased p70 S6-kinase activation and are inhibited by topical rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Du, Wa; Gerald, Damien; Perruzzi, Carole A; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Enayati, Ladan; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Edmonds, Joseph; Hochman, Marcelo L; Lev, Dina C; Phung, Thuy L

    2013-10-01

    Vascular tumors are endothelial cell neoplasms whose cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to tumor formation, are poorly understood, and current therapies have limited efficacy with significant side effects. We have investigated mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in benign and malignant vascular tumors, and the effects of mTOR kinase inhibitor as a potential therapy for these lesions. Human vascular tumors (infantile hemangioma and angiosarcoma) were analyzed by immunohistochemical stains and western blot for the phosphorylation of p70 S6-kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6), which are activated downstream of mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1). To assess the function of S6K, tumor cells with genetic knockdown of S6K were analyzed for cell proliferation and migration. The effects of topical rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, on mTORC1 and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) activities, as well as on tumor growth and migration, were determined. Vascular tumors showed increased activation of S6K and S6. Genetic knockdown of S6K resulted in reduced tumor cell proliferation and migration. Rapamycin fully inhibited mTORC1 and partially inhibited mTORC2 activities, including the phosphorylation of Akt (serine 473) and PKC?, in vascular tumor cells. Rapamycin significantly reduced vascular tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. As a potential localized therapy for cutaneous vascular tumors, topically applied rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth with limited systemic drug absorption. These findings reveal the importance of mTOR signaling pathways in benign and malignant vascular tumors. The mTOR pathway is an important therapeutic target in vascular tumors, and topical mTOR inhibitors may provide an alternative and well-tolerated therapy for the treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. PMID:23938603

  4. Cloning and expression of two human p70 S6 kinase polypeptides differing only at their amino termini

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, J.R.; Banerjee, P.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Price, D.J.; Avruch, J. ); Coffer, P.J.; Woodgett, J.R. )

    1991-11-01

    Two classes of human cDNA encoding the insulin/mitogen-activated p70 S6 kinase have been isolated; the two classes differ only in the 5{prime} region, such that the longer polypeptide consists of 525 amino acids, of which the last 502 longer residues are identical in sequence to the entire polypeptide encoded by the second cDNA. Both p70 S6 kinase polypeptides predicted by these cDNAs are present in p70 S6 kinase purified from rat liver, and each is thus expressed in vivo. Moreover, both polypeptides are expressed from a single mRNA transcribed from the (longer) p70 S6 kinase {alpha}I cDNA through the utilization of different translational start sites. Transient expression of p70 {alpha}I and {alpha}II S6 kinase cDNA in COA cells results in a 2.5- to 4-fold increase in overall S6 kinase activity. Transfection with the {alpha}II cDNA yields only the smaller set of bands, while transfection with the {alpha}I cDNA generates both sets of bands. Mutation of Met-24 in the {alpha}I cDNA to Leu or Thr suppresses synthesis of the {alpha}II polypeptides. Only the p70 {alpha}I and {alpha}II polypeptides of slowest mobility on SDS-PAGE comigrate with the 70-and 90-kDa proteins observed in purified rat liver S6 kinase. The recombinant p70 S6 kinase undergoes multiple phosphorylation and partial activation in COS cells. Acquisition of S6 protein kinase catalytic function, however, is apparently restricted to the most extensively phosphorylated recombinant polypeptides.

  5. p70 S6 Kinase Is Regulated by Protein Kinase C? and Participates in a Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Regulated Signalling Complex

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Angela; Martin, Kathleen A.; Toker, Alex; Blenis, John

    1999-01-01

    p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) is an important regulator of cell proliferation. Its activation by growth factor requires phosphorylation by various inputs on multiple sites. Data accumulated thus far support a model whereby p70S6K activation requires sequential phosphorylations at proline-directed residues in the putative autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate domain, as well as threonine 389. Threonine 229, a site in the catalytic loop is phosphorylated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1). Experimental evidence suggests that p70S6K activation requires a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)-dependent signal(s). However, the intermediates between PI3-K and p70S6K remain unclear. Here, we have identified PI3-K-regulated atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKC? as an upstream regulator of p70S6K. In coexpression experiments, we found that a kinase-inactive PKC? mutant antagonized activation of p70S6K by epidermal growth factor, PDK-1, and activated Cdc42 and PI3-K. While overexpression of a constitutively active PKC? mutant (myristoylated PKC? [myr-PKC?]) only modestly activated p70S6K, this mutant cooperated with PDK-1 activation of p70S6K. PDK-1-induced activation of a C-terminal truncation mutant of p70S6K was also enhanced by myr-PKC?. Moreover, we have found that p70S6K can associate with both PDK-1 and PKC? in vivo in a growth factor-independent manner, while PDK-1 and PKC? can also associate with each other, suggesting the existence of a multimeric PI3-K signalling complex. This work provides evidence for a link between a phorbol ester-insensitive PKC isoform and p70S6K. The existence of a PI3-K-dependent signalling complex may enable efficient activation of p70S6K in cells. PMID:10082559

  6. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle hypertrophy: roles of glycogen synthase kinase-3? and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huan; Hershenson, Marc B.; Lei, Jing; Anyanwu, Anuli C.; Pinsky, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased medial arterial thickness is a structural change in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The role of smooth muscle hypertrophy in this process has not been well studied. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), and endothelin (ET)-1 have been implicated in PAH pathogenesis. We examined the effect of these mediators on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, and contractile function, as well on the roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), two proteins involved in translational control, in this process. Unlike epidermal growth factor, BMP-4, TGF-?1, 5-HT, and ET-1 each increased smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, fractional cell shortening, and GSK-3? phosphorylation. GSK-3? inhibition by lithium or SB-216763 increased cell size, protein synthesis, and contractile protein expression. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable GSK-3? mutant blocked BMP-4-, TGF-?1-, 5-HT-, and ET-1-induced cell size enlargement, suggesting that GSK-3? phosphorylation is required and sufficient for cellular hypertrophy. However, BMP-4, TGF-?1, 5-HT, and ET-1 stimulation was accompanied by an increase in serum response factor transcriptional activation but not eIF2 phosphorylation, suggesting that GSK-3?-mediated hypertrophy occurs via transcriptional, not translational, control. Finally, BMP-4, TGF-?1, 5-HT, and ET-1 treatment induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and ribosomal protein S6, and siRNAs against p70S6K and S6 blocked the hypertrophic response. We conclude that mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH induce pulmonary arterial smooth muscle hypertrophy. Identification of the signaling pathways regulating vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy may define new therapeutic targets for PAH. PMID:20190034

  7. Regulation of elongation factor 2 kinase by p90(RSK1) and p70 S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, W; Williams, M; Terada, N; Alessi, D R; Proud, C G

    2001-08-15

    Elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2k) phosphorylates and inactivates eEF2. Insulin induces dephosphorylation of eEF2 and inactivation of eEF2 kinase, and these effects are blocked by rapamycin, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR. However, the signalling mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Regulation of eEF2 phosphorylation and eEF2k activity is lost in cells in which phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) has been genetically knocked out. This is not due to loss of mTOR function since phosphorylation of another target of mTOR, initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, is not defective. PDK1 is required for activation of members of the AGC kinase family; we show that two such kinases, p70 S6 kinase (regulated via mTOR) and p90(RSK1) (activated by Erk), phosphorylate eEF2k at a conserved serine and inhibit its activity. In response to insulin-like growth factor 1, which activates p70 S6 kinase but not Erk, regulation of eEF2 is blocked by rapamycin. In contrast, regulation of eEF2 by stimuli that activate Erk is insensitive to rapamycin, but blocked by inhibitors of MEK/Erk signalling, consistent with the involvement of p90(RSK1). PMID:11500364

  8. p70S6K is regulated by focal adhesion kinase and is required for Src-selective autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sandilands, Emma; Schoenherr, Christina; Frame, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is required for optimal signalling to the Akt-p70S6K-S6 pathway in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. Specifically, in SCCs that are genetically deficient for FAK, there is reduced phosphorylation of Akt, p70S6K and S6, and signalling to Akt-p70S6K-S6 is more sensitive to inhibition by multiple agents that suppress the pathway. By contrast, mTOR is unaffected. Indeed, pharmacological agents that inhibit the Akt-p70S6K-S6 pathway, and PDK1 that lies upstream of Akt, also impair the autophagic targeting of activated c-Src (p-Src) in FAK deficient cells. This is associated with loss of a complex between p-Src and the autophagy protein LC3, a biochemical surrogate of impaired Src-selective autophagy. In keeping with a vital role for p70S6K, inhibition by a selective inhibitor and specific siRNA also impaired Src-selective autophagy. Finally, components of the PDK1-Akt-p70S6K signalling pathway were co-located with p-Src at autophagosomes, and Src and p70S6K co-exist in the same biochemical complex. We therefore deduce that the FAK-regulated signalling module PDK1-Akt-p70S6K that controls Src's intracellular trafficking operates at Src-containing autophagosomes. PMID:26071201

  9. p70 ribosomal S6 kinase regulates subpleural fibrosis following transforming growth factor-? expression in the lung.

    PubMed

    Madala, Satish K; Thomas, George; Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Davidson, Cynthia; Schmidt, Stephanie; Schehr, Angelica; Hardie, William D

    2016-01-15

    The p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) is a downstream substrate that is phosphorylated and activated by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex and regulates multiple cellular processes associated with fibrogenesis. Recent studies demonstrate that aberrant mTORC1-S6K signaling contributes to various pathological conditions, but a direct role in pulmonary fibroproliferation has not been established. Increased phosphorylation of the S6K pathway is detected immediately following transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) expression in a transgenic model of progressive lung fibrosis. To test the hypothesis that the S6K directly regulates pulmonary fibroproliferative disease we determined the cellular sites of S6K phosphorylation during the induction of fibrosis in the TGF-? model and tested the efficacy of specific pharmacological inhibition of the S6K pathway to prevent and reverse fibrotic disease. Following TGF-? expression increased phosphorylation of the S6K was detected in the airway and alveolar epithelium and the mesenchyme of advanced subpleural fibrotic regions. Specific inhibition of the S6K with the small molecule inhibitor LY-2584702 decreased TGF-? and platelet-derived growth factor-?-induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts in vitro. Administration of S6K inhibitors to TGF-? mice prevented the development of extensive subpleural fibrosis and alterations in lung mechanics, and attenuated the increase in total lung hydroxyproline. S6K inhibition after fibrosis was established attenuated the progression of subpleural fibrosis. Together these studies demonstrate targeting the S6K pathway selectively modifies the progression of pulmonary fibrosis in the subpleural compartment of the lung. PMID:26566903

  10. Effects of electroacupuncture on the expression of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia?

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanzhen; Wang, Xuan; Ye, Xiaobao; Gao, Changhua; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying electroacupuncture therapy for vascular dementia through electroacupuncture at the acupoints of Baihui (DU20), Dazhui (DU14), and bilateral Shenshu (BL23) in a rat model of vascular dementia produced by bilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Morris water maze test showed that electroacupuncture improved the learning ability of vascular dementia rats. Western blot assay revealed that the expression of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 in vascular dementia rats was significantly increased after electroacupuncture, compared with the model group that was not treated with acupuncture. The average escape latency was also shortened after electroacupuncture, and escape strategies in the spatial probe test improved from edge and random searches, to linear and trending swim pathways. The experimental findings indicate that electroacupuncture improves learning and memory ability by up-regulating expression of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 in the hippocampus of vascular dementia rats. PMID:25767501

  11. Inhibition of p70 S6 Kinase (S6K1) Activity by A77 1726 and Its Effect on Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Progress12

    PubMed Central

    Doscas, Michelle E.; Williamson, Ashley J.; Usha, Lydia; Bogachkov, Yedida; Rao, Geetha S.; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yimin; Ruby, Carl; Kaufman, Howard; Zhou, Jingsong; Williams, James W.; Li, Yi; Xu, Xiulong

    2014-01-01

    Leflunomide is a novel immunomodulatory drug prescribed for treating rheumatoid arthritis. It inhibits the activity of protein tyrosine kinases and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis pathway. Here, we report that A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, inhibited the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and two other substrates of S6K1, insulin receptor substrate-1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 2, in an A375 melanoma cell line. A77 1726 increased the phosphorylation of AKT, p70 S6 (S6K1), ERK1/2, and MEK through the feedback activation of the IGF-1 receptormediated signaling pathway. Invitro kinase assay revealed that leflunomide and A77 1726 inhibited S6K1 activity with IC50 values of approximately 55 and 80 ?M, respectively. Exogenous uridine partially blocked A77 1726induced inhibition of A375 cell proliferation. S6K1 knockdown led to the inhibition of A375 cell proliferation but did not potentiate the antiproliferative effect of A77 1726. A77 1726 stimulated bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in A375 cells but arrested the cell cycle in the S phase, which was reversed by addition of exogenous uridine or by MAP kinase pathway inhibitors but not by rapamycin and LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor). These observations suggest that A77 1726 accelerates cell cycle entry into the S phase through MAP kinase activation and that pyrimidine nucleotide depletion halts the completion of the cell cycle. Our study identified a novel molecular target of A77 1726 and showed that the inhibition of S6K1 activity was in part responsible for its antiproliferative activity. Our study also provides a novel mechanistic insight into A77 1726induced cell cycle arrest in the S phase. PMID:25379019

  12. Genetic removal of p70 S6 kinase 1 corrects molecular, synaptic, and behavioral phenotypes in fragile X syndrome mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Aditi; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Alvarez-Dieppa, Amanda C; Murphy, Jaclyn P; Pierre, Philippe; Klann, Eric

    2012-10-18

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited cause of autism and intellectual disability. Aberrant synaptic translation has been implicated in the etiology of FXS, but most lines of research on therapeutic strategies have targeted protein synthesis indirectly, far upstream of the translation machinery. We sought to perturb p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a key translation initiation and elongation regulator, in FXS model mice. We found that genetic reduction of S6K1 prevented elevated phosphorylation of translational control molecules, exaggerated protein synthesis, enhanced mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD), weight gain, and macro-orchidism in FXS model mice. In addition, S6K1 deletion prevented immature dendritic spine morphology and multiple behavioral phenotypes, including social interaction deficits, impaired novel object recognition, and behavioral inflexibility. Our results support the model that dysregulated protein synthesis is the key causal factor in FXS and that restoration of normal translation can stabilize peripheral and neurological function in FXS. PMID:23083736

  13. Absence of ?-sarcoglycan alters the response of p70S6 kinase to mechanical perturbation in murine skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) is located at the sarcolemma of muscle fibers, providing structural integrity. Mutations in and loss of DGC proteins cause a spectrum of muscular dystrophies. When only the sarcoglycan subcomplex is absent, muscles display severe myofiber degeneration, but little susceptibility to contractile damage, suggesting that disease occurs not by structural deficits but through aberrant signaling, namely, loss of normal mechanotransduction signaling through the sarcoglycan complex. We extended our previous studies on mechanosensitive, ?-sarcoglycan-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation, to determine whether additional pathways are altered with the loss of ?-sarcoglycan. Methods We examined mechanotransduction in the presence and absence of ?-sarcoglycan, using C2C12 myotubes, and primary cultures and isolated muscles from C57Bl/6 (C57) and ?-sarcoglycan-null (?-SG-/-) mice. All were subjected to cyclic passive stretch. Signaling protein phosphorylation was determined by immunoblotting of lysates from stretched and non-stretched samples. Calcium dependence was assessed by maintaining muscles in calcium-free or tetracaine-supplemented Ringers solution. Dependence on mTOR was determined by stretching isolated muscles in the presence or absence of rapamycin. Results C2C12 myotube stretch caused a robust increase in P-p70S6K, but decreased P-FAK and P-ERK2. Neither Akt nor ERK1 were responsive to passive stretch. Similar but non-significant trends were observed in C57 primary cultures in response to stretch, and ?-SG-/- cultures displayed no p70S6K response. In contrast, in isolated muscles, p70S6K was mechanically responsive. Basal p70S6K activation was elevated in muscles of ?-SG-/- mice, in a calcium-independent manner. p70S6K activation increased with stretch in both C57 and ?-SG-/- isolated muscles, and was sustained in ?-SG-/- muscles, unlike the transient response in C57 muscles. Rapamycin treatment blocked all of p70S6K activation in stretched C57 muscles, and reduced downstream S6RP phosphorylation. However, even though rapamycin treatment decreased p70S6K activation in stretched ?-SG-/- muscles, S6RP phosphorylation remained elevated. Conclusions p70S6K is an important component of ?-sarcoglycan-dependent mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle. Our results suggest that loss of ?-sarcoglycan uncouples the response of p70S6K to stretch and implies that ?-sarcoglycan is important for inactivation of this pathway. Overall, we assert that altered load-sensing mechanisms exist in muscular dystrophies where the sarcoglycans are absent. PMID:25024843

  14. Identification of a Dual Inhibitor of Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase1 (S6K1) Pathways.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sanguine; Lim, Semi; Mun, Ji Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Ramadhar, Timothy R; Farrand, Lee; Shin, Seung Ho; Thimmegowda, N R; Lee, Hyong Joo; Frank, David A; Clardy, Jon; Lee, Sam W; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-25

    Bioactive phytochemicals can suppress the growth of malignant cells, and investigation of the mechanisms responsible can assist in the identification of novel therapeutic strategies for cancer therapy. Ginger has been reported to exhibit potent anti-cancer effects, although previous reports have often focused on a narrow range of specific compounds. Through a direct comparison of various ginger compounds, we determined that gingerenone A selectively kills cancer cells while exhibiting minimal toxicity toward normal cells. Kinase array screening revealed JAK2 and S6K1 as the molecular targets primarily responsible for gingerenone A-induced cancer cell death. The effect of gingerenone A was strongly associated with relative phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and S6K1, and administration of gingerenone A significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. More importantly, the combined inhibition of JAK2 and S6K1 by commercial inhibitors selectively induced apoptosis in cancer cells, whereas treatment with either agent alone did not. These findings provide rationale for dual targeting of JAK2 and S6K1 in cancer for a combinatorial therapeutic approach. PMID:26242912

  15. Effect of insulin-like growth factor II on protecting myoblast cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis through p70 S6 kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaolin; Helman, Lee J

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II) is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and has both mitogenic and antiapoptotic activity. Although the mechanisms of IGF-II-induced proliferation have been well studied, the mechanisms underlying its survival signaling have been less well characterized. In this report, we investigated the role of IGF-II on cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We found that IGF-II overexpression was associated with an increase in p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70 S6K). Cisplatin treatment of C2C12 mouse myoblasts led to cell death associated with an inhibition of p70 S6K activity. Endogenous or exogenous IGF-II addition to C2C12 cells caused protection to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. This protection was associated in both cases with an increase in p70 S6K basal activity as well as resistance to cisplatin-induced decreased activity. Blockade of p70 S6K activation by rapamycin abrogated the IGF-II-mediated protection of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of IGF-II-overexpressing Rh30 and CTR rhabdomyosarcoma cells with rapamycin restored sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. These data together suggest that IGF-II-associated protection to cisplatin-induced apoptosis is mediated through an activation of the p70 S6K pathway. Thus, inhibition of the p70 S6 pathway may enhance chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in the treatment of IGF-II-overexpressing tumors. PMID:12192598

  16. Adiponectin Impairs Chicken Preadipocytes Differentiation through p38 MAPK/ATF-2 and TOR/p70 S6 Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Gan, Lu; Chen, Di; Sun, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted exclusively by adipocytes that plays an important role in the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the ability of adiponectin to stimulate chicken preadipocyte differentiation and its effect on cellular signaling pathways associated with adipocyte differentiation. Data showed that over-expression of adiponectin inhibited adipocyte differentiation and the expression of adipogenic marker gene, while activated the expression of lipolytic marker gene. Meanwhile, adiponectin led to activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)/activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) signaling pathway and down-regulation of target of rapamycin (TOR)/p70 S6 Kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, the activation of p38 MAPK/ATF-2 signaling pathway was blocked by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB253580, whereas adiponectin had a synergistic effect on the suppression of TOR/p70 S6 Kinase signaling pathway with the TOR inhibitor rapamycin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the ability of adiponectin to inhibit chicken preadipocyte differentiation, which depends on the p38 MAPK/ATF-2 and TOR/p70 S6 Kinase pathways. PMID:24194895

  17. EGF-induced activation of Akt results in mTOR-dependent p70S6 kinase phosphorylation and inhibition of HC11 cell lactogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Galbaugh, Traci; Cerrito, Maria Grazia; Jose, Cynthia C; Cutler, Mary Lou

    2006-01-01

    Background HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells differentiate in response to lactogenic hormone resulting in expression of milk proteins including ?-casein. Previous studies have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) blocks differentiation not only through activation of the Ras/Mek/Erk pathway but also implicated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) signaling. The current study analyzes the mechanism of the PI-3-kinase pathway in an EGF-induced block of HC11 lactogenic differentiation. Results HC11 and HC11-luci cells, which contain luciferase gene under the control of a ?-casein promotor, were treated with specific chemical inhibitors of signal transduction pathways or transiently infected/transfected with vectors encoding dominant negative-Akt (DN-Akt) or conditionally active-Akt (CA-Akt). The expression of CA-Akt inhibited lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells, and the infection with DN-Akt adenovirus enhanced ?-casein transcription and rescued ?-casein promotor-regulated luciferase activity in the presence of EGF. Treatment of cells with Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, blocked the effects of EGF on ?-casein promotor driven luciferase activity as effectively as PI-3-kinase inhibitors. While expression of CA-Akt caused a constitutive activation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) in HC11 cells, the inhibition of either PI-3-kinase or mTOR abolished the activation of p70S6K by EGF. The activation of p70S6K by insulin or EGF resulted in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6), elongation initiation factor 4E (elF4E) and 4E binding protein1 (4E-BP1). But lower levels of PI-3-K and mTOR inhibitors were required to block insulin-induced phosphorylation of RPS6 than EGF-induced phosphorylation, and insulin-induced phosphorylation of elF4E and 4E-BP1 was not completely mTOR dependent suggesting some diversity of signaling for EGF and insulin. In HC11 cells undergoing lactogenic differentiation the phosphorylation of p70S6K completely diminished by 12 hours, and this was partly attributable to dexamethasone, a component of lactogenic hormone mix. However, p70S6K phosphorylation persisted in the presence of lactogenic hormone and EGF, but the activation could be blocked by a PI-3-kinase inhibitor. Conclusion PI-3-kinase signaling contributes to the EGF block of lactogenic differentiation via Akt and p70S6K. The EGF-induced activation of PI-3-kinase-Akt-mTOR regulates phosphorylation of molecules including ribosomal protein S6, eIF4E and 4E-BP1 that influence translational control in HC11 cells undergoing lactogenic differentiation. PMID:16984645

  18. Myocardial protection by insulin at reperfusion requires early administration and is mediated via Akt and p70s6 kinase cell-survival signaling.

    PubMed

    Jonassen, A K; Sack, M N; Mjs, O D; Yellon, D M

    2001-12-01

    The "metabolic cocktail" comprising glucose-insulin-potassium administrated at reperfusion reduces infarct size in the in vivo rat heart. We propose that insulin is the major component mediating this protection and acts via Akt prosurvival signaling. This hypothesis was studied in isolated perfused rat hearts (measuring infarct size to area of risk [%]) subjected to 35 minutes regional myocardial ischemia and 2 hours reperfusion. Insulin administered at the onset of reperfusion attenuated infarct size by >/=45% versus control hearts (P<0.001). Insulin-mediated cardioprotection was found to be independent of the presence of glucose at reperfusion. Moreover, the cell survival benefit of insulin is temporally dependent, in that insulin administration from the onset of reperfusion and maintained for either 15 minutes or for the duration of reperfusion reduced infarct size. In contrast, protection was abrogated if insulin administration was delayed until 15 minutes into reperfusion. Pharmacological inhibition of both upstream and downstream signals in the Akt prosurvival pathway abolished the cardioprotective effects of insulin. Here coadministration of insulin with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lavendustin A, the phosphatidylinositol3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor wortmannin, and mTOR/p70s6 kinase inhibitor rapamycin abolished cardioprotection. Steady-state levels of activated/phosphorylated Akt correlated with insulin administration. Finally, downstream prosurvival targets of Akt including p70s6 kinase and BAD were modulated by insulin. In conclusion, insulin administration at reperfusion reduces myocardial infarction, is dependent on early administration during reperfusion, and is mediated via Akt and p70s6 kinase dependent signaling pathway. Moreover, BAD is maintained in its inert phosphorylated state in response to insulin therapy. PMID:11739285

  19. A regulatory role for cAMP in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase-mediated DNA synthesis in platelet-derived-growth-factor-stimulated bovine airway smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, P H; Belham, C M; al-Hafidh, J; Chilvers, E R; Peacock, A J; Gould, G W; Plevin, R

    1996-01-01

    In bovine airway smooth-muscle cells platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and endothelin (Et-1) stimulate sustained and comparable activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) but display very different mitogenic efficacies, with PDGF inducing 50 times more DNA synthesis than Et-1. To examine additional signalling pathways which may be involved in this response, we investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns 3-kinase)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k) in mediating PDGF- and Et-1-induced mitogenesis, and whether inhibition of this pathway may underly the ability of cAMP to inhibit cell proliferation. PDGF stimulated an increase in PtdIns 3-kinase activity and a sustained 15-fold increase in p70s6k activity that was abolished by both wortmannin and rapamycin. Et-1, however, stimulated only a 2-fold increase in p70s6k activity that was rapamycin-sensitive but wortmannin-insensitive. DNA synthesis stimulated by PDGF (50-fold) and Et-1 (2-fold) followed a similar pattern of inhibition. Pretreatment with phorbol ester did not affect p70s6k activation in response to PDGF. Raising intracellular cAMP levels using forskolin, however, resulted in a marked time-dependent inhibition of p70s6k activity, a decrease in the tyrosine phosphorylation of the PtdIns 3-kinase p85 subunit and reduced PtdIns 3-kinase activity. Forskolin also inhibited PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. These results suggest that PtdIns 3-kinase-dependent activation of p70s6k may determine mitogenic efficacy of agonists that generate comparable MAP kinase signals. Negative regulation of PtdIns 3-kinase by cAMP may play an important role in the inhibition of airway smooth-muscle cell proliferation. PMID:8836145

  20. A first-in-human phase I trial of LY2780301, a dual p70 S6 kinase and Akt Inhibitor, in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Azaro, Analia; Rodon, Jordi; Calles, Antonio; Braa, Irene; Hidalgo, Manuel; Lopez-Casas, Pedro P; Munoz, Manuel; Westwood, Paul; Miller, Joel; Moser, Brian A; Ohnmacht, Ute; Bumgardner, William; Benhadji, Karim A; Calvo, Emiliano

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this phase I study of LY2780301, a dual p70 S6 kinase and Akt inhibitor, was to determine the recommended phase II dose as a single agent in patients with advanced cancer. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic analyses, and co-clinical analyses in Avatar models. Eligible patients received total daily doses of LY2780301 100-500 mg, given orally as a single dose or divided into 2 doses for 28-day cycles. Dose escalation followed 3 + 3 design. The primary pharmacodynamic endpoint was inhibition of S6 assessed by skin and tumor biopsy. Thirty-two patients were treated. Common toxicities possibly related to treatment included constipation (19 %), fatigue (13 %), nausea (9 %), and diarrhea (9 %). Grade 3/4 toxicities potentially related to treatment were anemia (n = 2), increased alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) (n = 1), and increased gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (n = 1). One patient experienced best overall response of prolonged stable disease for 6 cycles. Plasma exposures of LY2780301 exceeded predicted efficacious exposures, but were not dose proportional. Among patients receiving 500 mg daily >50 % exhibited reduced S6 in skin biopsies at Day 8 of treatment, but the effect was not maintained. Plasma concentrations of LY2780301 and/or its metabolites were not correlated with S6 expression in the epidermis. There was minimal antitumor activity against the model, CRC 019. Avatar models showed minimal pharmacodynamic effects consistent with the observed antitumor effects. This study suggests a dose of LY2780301 500 mg QD for future studies. PMID:25902900

  1. P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Shi, Zhumei; Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} P70S6K1 regulates VEGF expression; {yields} P70S6K1 induces transcriptional activation through HIF-1{alpha} binding site; {yields} P70S6K1 regulates HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression; {yields} P70S6K1 mediates tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression. -- Abstract: The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN-negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1{alpha} binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

  2. Prostaglandin F2alpha represses IGF-I-stimulated IRS1/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT signaling in the corpus luteum: role of ERK and P70 ribosomal S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Arvisais, Edward; Hou, Xiaoying; Wyatt, Todd A; Shirasuna, Koumei; Bollwein, Heinrich; Miyamoto, Akio; Hansen, Thomas R; Rueda, Bo R; Davis, John S

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about the early intracellular events that contribute to corpus luteum regression. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in the corpus luteum in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of midluteal-phase cows with a luteolytic dose of PGF2alpha resulted in a rapid increase in ERK and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K1) signaling and a rapid suppression of Akt phosphorylation in luteal tissue. In vitro treatment of primary cultures of luteal cells with PGF2alpha also resulted in an increase in ERK and mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling and a diminished capacity of IGF-I to stimulate PI3K, Akt, and protein kinase C zeta activation. Accounting for the reductions in PI3K and Akt activation observed in response to PGF2alpha treatment, we found that PGF2alpha promoted the phosphorylation of serine residues (307, 612, 636) in the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) peptide sequence in vivo and in vitro. Serine phosphorylation of IRS1 was associated with reduced formation of IGF-I-stimulated IRS1/PI3Kp85 complexes. Furthermore, treatment with inhibitors of the MAPK kinase 1/ERK or mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling pathways prevented PGF2alpha-induced serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and abrogated the inhibitory actions of PGF2alpha on Akt activation. Taken together, these experiments provide compelling evidence that PGF2alpha treatment stimulates IRS1 serine phosphorylation, which may contribute to a diminished capacity to respond to IGF-I. It seems likely that the rapid changes in phosphorylation events are among the early events that mediate PGF2alpha-induced corpus luteum regression. PMID:20160123

  3. PF-4708671 Activates AMPK Independently of p70S6K1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Vainer, Gilad W.; Saada, Ann; Kania-Almog, Juliane; Amartely, Adir; Bar-Tana, Jacob; Hertz, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (P70S6K1) is activated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1) and regulates proliferation, growth, and metabolism. PF-4708671 is a novel, cell-permeable, has been proposed to be a highly specific inhibitor of p70S6K1. It is used in micromolar concentration range to dissect signaling pathways downstream of mTORC1 and to study the function of p70S6K1. Here we show that PF-4708671 induces AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and activation in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) independently of p70S6K1, due to specific inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I. PMID:25202971

  4. A hexane fraction of guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) induces anticancer activity by suppressing AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including β-eudesmol (11.98%), α-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), α-patchoulene (3.76%), β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), α-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:22280146

  5. A Hexane Fraction of Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) Induces Anticancer Activity by Suppressing AKT/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin/Ribosomal p70 S6 Kinase in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including ?-eudesmol (11.98%), ?-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), ?-patchoulene (3.76%), ?-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), ?-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:22280146

  6. The p70S6K Specific Inhibitor PF-4708671 Impedes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Xian-Ming; Li, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background As a serine/threonine protein kinase, p70S6K plays an important role in tumor cells. Evidence has revealed overexpression of p70S6K and phosphorylated p70S6K (p-p70S6K) in various tumor tissues, with these proteins identified as independent prognostic markers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we explored the role of the p70S6K specific inhibitor PF-4708671 in NSCLC. Methods Three NSCLC cell lines (A549, SK-MES-1, and NCI-H460) were treated with PF-4708671 at five different concentrations, including 0.1μM, 0.3μM, 1μM, 3μM and 10μM, and protein levels were determined by Western-blot. Then, PF-4708671’s effects were assessed both in vitro (cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and invasion) and in vivo. Results The expression levels of p-p70S6K and the downstream effector S6 were significantly reduced by PF-4708671. Diametrically opposite, the downstream protein levels of BAD, Caspase3 and ERK had increased after treatment with PF-4708671. In addition, PF-4708671 drastically inhibited cell proliferation and invasion ability in A549, SK-MES-1 and NCI-H460 cells in vitro, causing cell cycle arrest in G0-G1 phase. Limited effects of PF-4708671 were observed on apoptosis in the three NSCLC cell lines assessed. Importantly, PF-4708671 could inhibit tumorigenesis in nude mice in vivo. Conclusion These findings demonstrated that the p70S6K specific inhibitor PF-4708671 has inhibitory effects on NSCLC tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, P70S6K should be considered a new potential therapeutic target, and PF-470867 may be used as targeted drug for cancer treatment. PMID:26771549

  7. Resistance to Selumetinib (AZD6244) in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines is Mediated by p70S6K and RPS6 Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Silvina; Tristante, Elena; Saceda, Miguel; Carbonell, Pablo; Mayor-Lpez, Leticia; Carballo-Santana, Mar; Carrasco-Garca, Estefana; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Garca-Morales, Pilar; Carballo, Fernando; Ferragut, Jos A.; Martnez-Lacaci, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a MEK1/2 inhibitor that has gained interest as an anti-tumour agent. We have determined the degree of sensitivity/resistance to Selumetinib in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines using cell proliferation and soft agar assays. Sensitive cell lines underwent G1 arrest, whereas Selumetinib had no effect on the cell cycle of resistant cells. Some of the resistant cell lines showed high levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of serum. Selumetinib inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and RSK and had no effect on AKT phosphorylation in both sensitive and resistant cells. Furthermore, mutations in KRAS, BRAF, or PIK3CA were not clearly associated with Selumetinib resistance. Surprisingly, Selumetinib was able to inhibit phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in sensitive cell lines. However, p70S6K and RPS6 phosphorylation remained unaffected or even increased in resistant cells. Moreover, in some of the resistant cell lines p70S6K and RPS6 were phosphorylated in the absence of serum. Interestingly, colorectal primary cultures derived from tumours excised to patients exhibited the same behaviour than established cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of p70S6K using the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, the specific mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin and the specific p70S6K inhibitor PF-4708671 potentiated Selumetinib effects in resistant cells. In addition, biological inhibition of p70S6K using siRNA rendered responsiveness to Selumetinib in resistant cell lines. Furthermore, combination of p70S6K silencing and PF-47086714 was even more effective. We can conclude that p70S6K and its downstream target RPS6 are potential biomarkers of resistance to Selumetinib in colorectal cancer. PMID:25379021

  8. Glyceollin, a novel regulator of mTOR/p70S6 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bratton, Melyssa R; Martin, Elizabeth C; Elliott, Steven; Rhodes, Lyndsay V; Collins-Burow, Bridgette M; McLachlan, John A; Wiese, Thomas E; Boue, Stephen M; Burow, Matthew E

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 70% of breast cancer tumors utilize estrogen receptor (ER) signaling to maintain tumorigenesis and targeting of the estrogen receptor is a common method of treatment for these tumor types. However, ER-positive (+) breast cancers often acquire drug resistant or altered ER activity in response to anti-estrogens. Here we demonstrate glyceollin, an activated soy compound, has anti-estrogen effects in breast cancers. We demonstrate through estrogen response element luciferase and phosphorylation-ER mutants that the effects of glyceollin arise from mechanisms distinct from conventional endocrine therapies. We show that glyceollin suppresses estrogen response element activity; however, it does not affect ER-alpha (?) phosphorylation levels. Additionally we show that glyceollin suppresses the phosphorylation of proteins known to crosstalk with ER signaling, specifically we demonstrate an inhibition of ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70 kDa (p70S6) phosphorylation following glyceollin treatment. Our data suggests a mechanism for glyceollin inhibition of ER? through the induced suppression of p70S6 and demonstrates novel mechanisms for ER inhibition. PMID:25771071

  9. Roles of oxidative stress and the ERK1/2, PTEN and p70S6K signaling pathways in arsenite-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2015-12-15

    Studies show that arsenite induces oxidative stress and modifies cellular function via phosphorylation of proteins and inhibition of DNA repair enzymes. Autophagy, which has multiple physiological and pathological roles in cellular function, is initiated by oxidative stress and is regulated by the signaling pathways of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and extracellular signaling-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) that play important roles in oncogenesis. However, the effects of arsenite-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and on expression of related proteins are not fully understood. This study found that cells treated with sodium arsenite had reduced 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) and increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 in SV-40 immortalized human uroepithelial (SV-HUC-1) cells. Arsenite also increased the number of autophagosomes and increased levels of the autophagy markers Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B. Reactive oxygen species scavenger decreased arsenite-induced autophagy in SV-HUC-1 cells. Our previous work showed that arsenite induced phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study further showed that arsenite decreased phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) levels and increased phospho-p70S6 kinase (p-p70S6K) in SV-HUC-1 cells. However, both kinase inhibitor U0126 and the DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor 5-aza-deoxycytidine abolished the effect of arsenite on expressions of PTEN and p-p70S6K. These results show that autophagy induced by arsenite exposure is mediated by oxidative stress, which regulates activation of the PTEN, p70S6K and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Thus, this study clarifies the role of autophagy in arsenite-induced urothelial carcinogenesis. PMID:26432159

  10. D-Glucosamine inhibits proliferation of human cancer cells through inhibition of p70S6K

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Hyun-Ji; Lee, Jason S.; Song, Dae-Kyu; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Suh, Seong-Il; Park, Jong-Wook; Suh, Min-Ho; Baek, Won-Ki . E-mail: wonki@dsmc.or.kr

    2007-09-07

    Although D-glucosamine has been reported as an inhibitor of tumor growth both in vivo and in vitro, the mechanism for the anticancer effect of D-glucosamine is still unclear. Since there are several reports suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits protein synthesis, we examined whether D-glucosamine affects p70S6 K activity, an important signaling molecule involved in protein translation. In the present study, we found D-glucosamine inhibited the activity of p70S6K and the proliferation of DU145 prostate cancer cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. D-Glucosamine decreased phosphorylation of p70S6K, and its downstream substrates RPS6, and eIF-4B, but not mTOR and 4EBP1 in DU145 cells, suggesting that D-glucosamine induced inhibition of p70S6K is not through the inhibition of mTOR. In addition, D-glucosamine enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR. These findings suggest that D-glucosamine can inhibit growth of cancer cells through dephosphorylation of p70S6K.

  11. mTOR/P70S6K promotes spermatogonia proliferation and spermatogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Shen, Lianju; Chen, Xuemei; Ding, Yubin; He, Junlin; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing

    2016-02-01

    Spermatogenesis is a critical process for maintaining male fertility. Sustained spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal and differentiation ensures constant spermatogenesis, and several signalling pathways regulate this process. An increasing number of studies have suggested that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway plays an important role in spermatogenesis; however, the mechanism remains unknown. Our study showed that mTOR was positively related with spermatogenesis by detecting mTOR expression and the expression of its target p70s6k, rps6 and 4e-bp1 at different developmental stages. Phosphorylated p70s6k, rps6 and 4ebp1 levels were independently and gradually down-regulated with age. Subsequently, we showed in vivo and in vitro that, upon mTOR inactivation by rapamycin, the number of sperm significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and spermatogonia proliferation was blocked. Phosphorylated p70s6k and rps6 levels were down-regulated, but the levels of phosphorylated 4e-bp1 did not change. Spermatogonia were treated with the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and p70s6k, rps6 and 4ebp1 phosphorylation overtly decreased. Therefore, we suggest that mTOR plays an important role in spermatogenesis by regulating p70s6k activation and that 4e-bp1 is either directly or indirectly regulated by PI3K. PMID:26706460

  12. Mechanical stimuli of skeletal muscle: implications on mTOR/p70s6k and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Nelo Eidy; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2008-02-01

    The skeletal muscle is a tissue with adaptive properties which are essential to the survival of many species. When mechanically stimulated it is liable to undergo remodeling, namely, changes in its mass/volume resulting mainly from myofibrillar protein accumulation. The mTOR pathway (mammalian target of rapamycin) via its effector p70s6k (ribosomal protein kinase S6) has been reported to be of importance to the control of skeletal muscle mass, particularly under mechanical stimulation. However, not all mechanical stimuli are capable of activating this pathway, and among those who are, there are differences in the activation magnitude. Likewise, not all skeletal muscle fibers respond to the same extent to mechanical stimulation. Such evidences suggest specific mechanical stimuli through appropriate cellular signaling to be responsible for the final physiological response, namely, the accumulation of myofibrillar protein. Lately, after the mTOR signaling pathway has been acknowledged as of importance for remodeling, the interest for the mechanical/chemical mediators capable of activating it has increased. Apart from the already known MGF (mechano growth factor), some other mediators such as phosphatidic acid (PA) have been identified. This review article comprises and discusses relevant information on the mechano-chemical transduction of the pathway mTOR, with special emphasis on the muscle protein synthesis. PMID:17940791

  13. Insulin-Like Growth Factor IMediated Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Is Characterized by Increased mTOR-p70S6K Signaling without Increased Akt Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yao-Hua; Godard, Michael; Li, Yangxin; Richmond, Scott R.; Rosenthal, Nadia; Delafontaine, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an anabolic hormone that is known to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, the signaling pathways mediating IGF-I's hypertrophic effect in vivo are unknown. Method The phosphorylation of 46 proteins was investigated by Kinetworks proteomic analysis in the gastrocnemius muscle of transgenic mice overexpressing IGF-I myosin light chain/muscle specific IGF-I (MLC/mIgf-I) and wild-type littermates. Results In the hypertrophic muscle of MLC/mIgf-I mice, we observed increased phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1; 53% increase), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; 112% increase), and p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) (254% increase) but no significant change in Akt phosphorylation (4% decrease). Furthermore, we found reduced phosphorylation of MAP kinase kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2) (60% decrease) and of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 3 and 6 (MKK3/6) (50% decrease) in muscle from transgenic mice, suggesting that the hypertrophic and mitogenic effects of IGF-I are mediated via distinct signaling pathways in skeletal muscle and that inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway may be required for the IGF-Iinduced hypertrophic effect. Single-fiber analysis revealed a trend toward a higher percentage of the fast twitch fibers (IIb and IIx) in the transgenic mice. Conclusion Persistent overexpression of IGF-I in mice skeletal muscle results in hypertrophy, which is likely mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K pathway, potentially via an Akt-independent signaling pathway. PMID:15921033

  14. PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway Is Involved in Aβ25-35-Induced Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengnuo; Zhang, Bei; Luan, Ping; Gu, Beibei; Wan, Qing; Huang, Xiaoyun; Liao, Wang; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Disruption or deregulation of the autophagy system has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ plays an important role in this autophagic system. In many cases, autophagy is regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K) signaling pathway. However, whether this signaling pathway is involved in Aβ-induced autophagy in neuronal cells is not known. Here, we studied whether Aβ25-35 induces autophagy in HT22 cells and C57 mice and investigated whether PI3K is involved in the autophagy induction. We found that Aβ25-35 inhibited HT22 cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aβ25-35 induced autophagosome formation, the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), and the suppression of the mTOR pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Aβ25-35 impaired the learning abilities of C57 mice. Our study suggests that Aβ25-35 induces autophagy and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K pathway is involved in the process, which improves our understanding of the pathogenesis of AD and provides an additional model for AD research. PMID:26583091

  15. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  16. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Richard L; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-10-28

    Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1. PMID:21971544

  17. AKT/mTOR substrate P70S6K is frequently phosphorylated in gallbladder cancer tissue and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Pamela; Garcia, Patricia; Sandoval, Alejandra; Buchegger, Kurt; Weber, Helga; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor and a public health problem in some parts of the world. It is characterized by a poor prognosis and its resistance to radio and chemotherapy. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is activated in about 50% of human malignancies, and its role in gallbladder carcinoma has previously been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the phosphorylation status of the mTOR substrate p70S6K in preneoplastic and neoplastic gallbladder tissues and evaluated the effect of three mTOR inhibitors on cell growth and migration in gallbladder carcinoma cell lines. Methods Immunohistochemical staining of phospho-p70S6K was analyzed in 181 gallbladder carcinoma cases, classified according to lesion type as dysplasia, early carcinoma, or advanced carcinoma. Protein expression of AKT/mTOR members was also evaluated in eight gallbladder carcinoma cell lines by Western blot analysis. We selected two gallbladder carcinoma cell lines (G415 and TGBC-2TKB) to evaluate the effect of rapamycin, RAD001, and AZD8055 on cell viability, cell migration, and protein expression. Results Our results showed that phospho-p70S6K is highly expressed in dysplasia (66.7%, 12/18), early cancer (84.6%, 22/26), and advanced cancer (88.3%, 121/137). No statistical correlation was observed between phospho-p70S6K status and any clinical or pathological features, including age, gender, ethnicity, wall infiltration level, or histological differentiation (P < 0.05). In vitro treatment with rapamycin, RAD001, and AZD8055 reduced cell growth, cell migration, and phospho-p70S6K expression significantly in G-415 and TGBC-2TKB cancer cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings confirm the upregulation of this signaling pathway in gallbladder carcinoma and provide a rationale for the potential use of mTOR inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for human gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:24124380

  18. Quercetin Inhibits Angiogenesis Mediated Human Prostate Tumor Growth by Targeting VEGFR- 2 Regulated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Zhuo; Ding, Songze; Wang, Lei; Hitron, Andrew; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Xu, Mei; Chen, Gang; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a crucial step in the growth and metastasis of cancers, since it enables the growing tumor to receive oxygen and nutrients. Cancer prevention using natural products has become an integral part of cancer control. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of quercetin using ex vivo, in vivo and in vitro models. Rat aortic ring assay showed that quercetin at non-toxic concentrations significantly inhibited microvessel sprouting and exhibited a significant inhibition in the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are key events in the process of angiogenesis. Most importantly, quercetin treatment inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis as revealed by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and matrigel plug assay. Western blot analysis showed that quercetin suppressed VEGF induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and their downstream protein kinases AKT, mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase in HUVECs. Quercetin (20 mg/kg/d) significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model, indicating that quercetin inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. Furthermore, quercetin reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, mTOR and P70S6K expressions. Collectively the findings in the present study suggest that quercetin inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis by targeting VEGF-R2 regulated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway, and could be used as a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:23094058

  19. Sulforaphane induces apoptosis in adipocytes via Akt/p70s6k1/Bad inhibition and ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Anjun; Shen, Yingzhuo; Wang, Anshi; Chen, Shiyong; Zhang, Huiqin; Chen, Fen; Chen, Zhongming; Wei, Hua; Zou, Zuquan; Shan, Yujuan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate isolated from cruciferous vegetables, possesses anti-oxidant and anti-cancer bioactivities. Moreover, SFN exerts its pro-apoptotic effects in some cancer lines. However, the effects and mechanisms of SFN on the regulation of apoptosis of adipocytes are still unknown. In this study, we found that SFN induced significant apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and markedly decreased the cellular lipid content. Western blot demonstrated that SFN-induced apoptosis was mediated via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway based on increased cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP), release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, and activation of caspase-3, as well as decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, SFN markedly decreased phosphorylation of Akt and downstream proteins, p70s6k1 and Bad, and increased phosphorylation of ERK. Therefore, our findings clarified that SFN could induce 3T3-L1 adipocyte apoptosis via down-regulation of the Akt/p70s6k1/Bad pathway and up-regulation of the ERK pathway, suggesting SFN may be a promising agent for the treatment or prevention of obesity. PMID:26296464

  20. Increased p70s6k phosphorylation during intake of a protein-carbohydrate drink following resistance exercise in the fasted state.

    PubMed

    Deldicque, Louise; De Bock, Katrien; Maris, Michael; Ramaekers, Monique; Nielens, Henri; Francaux, Marc; Hespel, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at comparing the responses of myogenic regulatory factors and signaling pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis after a resistance training session performed in either the fasted or fed state. According to a randomized crossover study design, six young male subjects participated in two experimental sessions separated by 3 weeks. In each session, they performed a standardized resistance training. After the sessions, they received during a 4-h recovery period 6 ml/kg b.w. h of a solution containing carbohydrates (50 g/l), protein hydrolysate (33 g/l), and leucine (16.6 g/l). On one occasion, the resistance exercise session was performed after the intake of a carbohydrate-rich breakfast (B), whereas in the other session they remained fasted (F). Needle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were obtained before (Rest), and 1 h (+1h) and 4 h (+4h) after exercise. Myogenin, MRF4, and MyoD1 mRNA contents were determined by RT-PCR. Phosphorylation of PKB (protein kinase B), GSK3, p70(s6k) (p70 ribosomal S6 kinase), eIF2B, eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2), ERK1/2, and p38 was measured via western blotting. Compared with F, the pre-exercise phosphorylation states of PKB and p70(s6k) were higher in B, whereas those of eIF2B and eEF2 were lower. During recovery, the phosphorylation state of p70(s6k) was lower in B than in F (p = 0.02). There were no differences in basal mRNA contents between B and F. However, compared with F at +1h, MyoD1 and MRF4 mRNA contents were lower in B (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that prior fasting may stimulate the intramyocellular anabolic response to ingestion of a carbohydrate/protein/leucine mixture following a heavy resistance training session. PMID:20187284

  1. Apelin-13 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Liu, Wei; Feng, Fen; Li, Xin; He, Lu; Lv, Deguan; Qin, Xuping; Li, Lifang; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2015-12-01

    Apelin is highly expressed in rat left ventricular hypertrophy Sprague Dawley rat models, and it plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular system. The aim this study was to clarify whether apelin-13 promotes hypertrophy in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes and to investigate its underlying mechanism. The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed by measuring the diameter, volume, and protein content of H9c2 cells. The activation of autophagy was evaluated by observing the morphology of autophagosomes by transmission electron microscopy, observing the subcellular localization of LC3 by light microscopy, and detecting the membrane-associated form of LC3 by western blot analysis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway was identified and the proteins expression was detected using western blot analysis. The results revealed that apelin-13 increased the diameter, volume, and protein content of H9c2 cells and promoted the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, and p70S6K. Apelin-13 activated the PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K pathway. PI3K inhibitor LY294002, Akt inhibitor 1701-1, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the increase of the cell diameter, volume, protein content induced by apelin-13. Apelin-13 increased the autophagosomes and up-regulated the expressions of beclin 1 and LC3-II/I both transiently and stably. The autophagy inhibitor 3MA ameliorated the increase of cell diameter, volume, and protein content that were induced by apelin-13. These results suggested that apelin-13 promotes H9c2 rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy. PMID:26607438

  2. Inhibition of mammalian S6 kinase by resveratrol suppresses autophagy.

    PubMed

    Armour, Sean M; Baur, Joseph A; Hsieh, Sherry N; Land-Bracha, Abigail; Thomas, Sheila M; Sinclair, David A

    2009-06-01

    Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that promotes health and disease resistance in rodent models, and extends lifespan in lower organisms. A major challenge is to understand the biological processes and molecular pathways by which resveratrol induces these beneficial effects. Autophagy is a critical process by which cells turn over damaged components and maintain bioenergetic requirements. Disruption of the normal balance between pro- and anti-autophagic signals is linked to cancer, liver disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that resveratrol attenuates autophagy in response to nutrient limitation or rapamycin in multiple cell lines through a pathway independent of a known target, SIRT1. In a large-scalein vitro kinase screen we identified p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) as a target of resveratrol. Blocking S6K1 activity by expression of a dominant-negative mutant or RNA interference is sufficient to disrupt autophagy to a similar extent as resveratrol. Furthermore, co-administration of resveratrol with S6K1 knockdown does not produce an additive effect. These data indicate that S6K1 is important for the full induction of autophagy in mammals and raise the possibility that some of the beneficial effects of resveratrol are due to modulation of S6K1 activity. PMID:20157535

  3. Temporal changes in ERK phosphorylation are harmonious with 4E-BP1, but not p70S6K, during clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy in the rat gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Koichiro; Higashi, Seiichiro; Natsume, Midori; Kawahata, Keiko; Nakazato, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is required for clenbuterol (CB)-dependent fast-type myofibril enlargement; however, its contribution to translation control is unclear. ERK mediates translational regulation through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation and (or) mTORC1-independent pathways. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ERK in translational control during CB-induced muscular hypertrophy by measuring time-dependent changes in the phosphorylation statuses of ERK, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K; an indicator of mTORC1 activity), 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), and other related signaling molecules in rat gastrocnemius muscles. Five-day administration of CB induced phenotypes associated with muscular hypertrophy (significant increases in wet weight and isometric ankle flexion torque in the gastrocnemius muscle), but was not accompanied by elevated ERK or p70S6K phosphorylation. One-day administration of CB caused significant increases in the phosphorylation of ERK, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1. In contrast, 3-day administration of CB caused significant increases in the phosphorylation of ERK and 4E-BP1, but not p70S6K. In addition, positive correlations were observed between ERK and 4E-BP1 on days 1 and 3, whereas a correlation between ERK and p70S6K was only observed on day 1. eEF2 phosphorylation was unchanged on both days 1 and 3. These findings suggest that ERK accelerates the initiation of translation, but does not support the involvement of ERK in translational elongation. Furthermore, ERK may play a major role in promoting translational initiation by mediating the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, and may contribute to the initial activation of mTORC1 during CB administration. PMID:24941107

  4. Akt-RSK-S6-kinase Signaling Networks Activated by Oncogenic Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Albrecht; Li, Yu; Guo, Ailan; Villn, Judit; Wang, Yi; MacNeill, Joan; Kornhauser, Jon; Sprott, Kam; Zhou, Jing; Possemato, Anthony; Ren, Jian Min; Hornbeck, Peter; Cantley, Lewis C.; Gygi, Steven P.; Rush, John; Comb, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) activate pathways mediated by serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinases such as the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)-Akt pathway, the Ras-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-RSK pathway, and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-p70 S6 pathway that control important aspects of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. The Akt, RSK, and p70 S6 family of protein kinases transmit signals by phosphorylating substrates on a RxRxxS/T motif. Here, we developed a large-scale proteomic approach to identify over 200 substrates of this kinase family in cancer cell lines driven by the c-Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), or platelet-derived growth factor receptor a (PDGFR?) RTKs. We identified a subset of proteins with RxRxxS/T sites for which phosphorylation was decreased by RTKIs as well as by inhibitors of the PI3K, mTOR, and MAPK pathways and determined the effects of siRNA directed against these substrates on cell viability. We found that phosphorylation of the protein chaperone SGTA (small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha) at Ser305 is essential for PDGFR? stabilization and cell survival in PDGFR?-dependent cancer cells. Our approach provides a new view of RTK and Akt-RSK-S6 kinase signaling, revealing many previously unidentified Akt-RSK-S6 kinase substrates that merit further consideration as targets for combination therapy with RTKIs. PMID:20736484

  5. The NO-modified HIV protease inhibitor as a valuable drug for hematological malignancies: Role of p70S6K.

    PubMed

    Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Mojic, Marija; Bulatovic, Mirna; Radojkovic, Milica; Kuzmanovic, Milos; Ristic, Slobodan; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Miljkovic, Djordje; Cavalli, Eugenio; Libra, Massimo; Fagone, Paolo; McCubrey, James; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Mijatovic, Sanja

    2015-10-01

    Covalent attachment of NO to the first approved HIV protease inhibitor Saquinavir (Saq-NO) expands the therapeutic potential of the original drug. Apart from retained antiviral activity, the modified drug exerts strong antitumor effects and lower toxicity. In the present study, we have evaluated the sensitivity of different hematological malignancies to Saq-NO. Saq-NO efficiently diminished the viability of Jurkat, Raji, HL-60 and K562 cells. While Jurkat and Raji cells (established from pediatric patients) displayed abrogated proliferative potential, HL-60 and K652 cells (originated from adults) exposed to Saq-NO treatment underwent caspase dependent apoptosis. In addition, similar sensitivity to Saq-NO was observed in mononuclear blood cells obtained from pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Western blot analysis indicated p70S6 kinase as a possible intracellular target of Saq-NO action. Moreover, the addition of a NO moiety to Lopinavir resulted in improved antitumor potential as compared to the parental compound, suggesting that NO-derived HIV protease inhibitors are a potential new source of anticancer drugs with unique mode of action. PMID:26220866

  6. Metformin Increases Sensitivity of Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Gemcitabine by Reducing CD133+ Cell Populations and Suppressing ERK/P70S6K Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Xinqun; Chu, Hongpeng; Yang, Xuan; Meng, Yuanpu; Shi, Pengfei; Gou, Shanmiao

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains dismal, with little advance in chemotherapy because of its high frequency of chemoresistance. Metformin is widely used to treat type II diabetes, and was shown recently to inhibit pancreatic cancer stem cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated the role of metformin in chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, and its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms. Metformin increases sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. The mechanism involves, at least in part, the inhibition of CD133+ cells proliferation and suppression of P70S6K signaling activation via inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. Studies of primary tumor samples revealed a relationship between P70S6K signaling activation and the malignancy of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of clinical data revealed a trend of the benefit of metformin for pancreatic cancer patients with diabetes. The results suggested that metformin has a potential clinical use in overcoming chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26391180

  7. Carnosine Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells by Retarding Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenwei; Miao, Lei; Wu, Xin; Liu, Guangze; Peng, Yuting; Xin, Xiaoming; Jiao, Binghua; Kong, Xiangping

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine), described as an enigmatic peptide for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially antiproliferation properties, has been demonstrated to play an anti-tumorigenic role in certain types of cancer. However, its function in human gastric carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, the effect of carnosine on cell proliferation and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in the cultured human gastric carcinoma cells. The mTOR signaling axis molecules were analyzed in carnosine treated cells. The results showed that treatment with carnosine led to proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, apoptosis increase, and inhibition of mTOR signaling activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, suggesting that proliferation inhibition of carnosine in human gastric carcinoma was through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and carnosine would be a mimic of rapamycin. PMID:24799956

  8. Elevated IGF-II mRNA and phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and p70(S6k) in muscle showing clenbuterol-induced anabolism.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, A A; Delday, M I; Steven, J; Maltin, C A

    2001-10-01

    Muscle wasting affects large numbers of people, but few therapeutic approaches exist to treat and/or reverse this condition. The beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol produces a muscle-specific protein anabolism in both normal and catabolic muscle and has been used to limit muscle wasting in humans. Because clenbuterol appears to interact with or mimic innervation, its effect on the expression of the neurotrophic agents insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II and H19 and their putative pathways was examined in normal rat plantaris muscle. The results showed that the well-documented early effects of clenbuterol on protein metabolism were preceded by elevated levels of IGF-II and H19 transcripts together with increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) and p70(S6k). By 3 days, transcript levels for IGF-II and H19 and 4E-BP1 and p70(S6k) phosphorylation had returned to control values. These novel findings indicate that clenbuterol-induced muscle anabolism is potentially mediated, at least in part, by an IGF-II-induced activation of 4E-BP1 and p70(S6k). PMID:11551843

  9. Fibrin supports human fetal islet-epithelial cell differentiation via p70(s6k) and promotes vascular formation during transplantation.

    PubMed

    Riopel, Matthew; Li, Jinming; Trinder, Mark; Fellows, George F; Wang, Rennian

    2015-08-01

    The human fetal pancreas expresses a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) binding receptors known as integrins. A provisional ECM protein found in blood clots that can bind to integrin receptors and promote β cell function and survival is fibrin. However, its role in support of human fetal pancreatic cells is unknown. We investigated how fibrin promotes human fetal pancreatic cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Human fetal pancreata were collected from 15 to 21 weeks of gestation and collagenase digested. Cells were then plated on tissue-culture polystyrene, or with 2D or 3D fibrin gels up to 2 weeks, or subcutaneously transplanted in 3D fibrin gels. The human fetal pancreas contained rich ECM proteins and expressed integrin αVβ3. Fibrin-cultured human fetal pancreatic cells had significantly increased expression of PDX-1, glucagon, insulin, and VEGF-A, along with increased integrin αVβ3 and phosphorylated FAK and p70(s6k). Fibrin-cultured cells treated with rapamycin, the mTOR pathway inhibitor, had significantly decreased phospho-p70(s6k) and PDX-1 expression. Transplanting fibrin-mixed cells into nude mice improved vascularization compared with collagen controls. These results suggest that fibrin supports islet cell differentiation via p70(s6k) and promotes vascularization in human fetal islet-epithelial clusters in vivo. PMID:26006020

  10. MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer and modulates cell growth and invasion by targeting p70S6K1 and MUC1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huijuan; Xiao, ZhengHua; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer. •MiR-145 targets p70S6K1 and MUC1. •p70S6K1 and MUC1 are involved in miR-145 mediated tumor cell growth and cell invasion, respectively. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Previous studies have shown that miR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer; however, the roles of miR-145 in ovarian cancer growth and invasion have not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that miR-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as in serum samples of ovarian cancer, compared to healthy ovarian tissues, cell lines and serum samples. Functional studies suggest that miR-145 overexpression leads to the inhibition of colony formation, cell proliferation, cell growth viability and invasion, and the induction of cell apoptosis. In accordance with the effect of miR-145 on cell growth, miR-145 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. MiR-145 is found to negatively regulate P70S6K1 and MUC1 protein levels by directly targeting their 3′UTRs. Importantly, the overexpression of p70S6K1 and MUC1 can restore the cell colony formation and invasion abilities that are reduced by miR-145, respectively. MiR-145 expression is increased after 5-aza-CdR treatment, and 5-aza-CdR treatment results in the same phenotype as the effect of miR-145 overexpression. Our study suggests that miR-145 modulates ovarian cancer growth and invasion by suppressing p70S6K1 and MUC1, functioning as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, our data imply that miR-145 has potential as a miRNA-based therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  11. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1β. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1α protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1α through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1α expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1α protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  12. MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer and modulates cell growth and invasion by targeting p70S6K1 and MUC1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huijuan; Xiao, Zhenghua; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2013-11-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Previous studies have shown that miR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer; however, the roles of miR-145 in ovarian cancer growth and invasion have not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that miR-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as in serum samples of ovarian cancer, compared to healthy ovarian tissues, cell lines and serum samples. Functional studies suggest that miR-145 overexpression leads to the inhibition of colony formation, cell proliferation, cell growth viability and invasion, and the induction of cell apoptosis. In accordance with the effect of miR-145 on cell growth, miR-145 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. MiR-145 is found to negatively regulate P70S6K1 and MUC1 protein levels by directly targeting their 3'UTRs. Importantly, the overexpression of p70S6K1 and MUC1 can restore the cell colony formation and invasion abilities that are reduced by miR-145, respectively. MiR-145 expression is increased after 5-aza-CdR treatment, and 5-aza-CdR treatment results in the same phenotype as the effect of miR-145 overexpression. Our study suggests that miR-145 modulates ovarian cancer growth and invasion by suppressing p70S6K1 and MUC1, functioning as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, our data imply that miR-145 has potential as a miRNA-based therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:24157791

  13. MiR-497 decreases cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells by targeting mTOR/P70S6K1

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhen; OuYang, Jun; Kong, Fanfei; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Wan, Xiaoping; Chen, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer is not clearly understood. In the present investigation, we found that the expression levels of miR-497 were reduced in chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cells and tumor tissues due to hypermethylation of miR-497 promoter. Low miR-497 expression levels were associated with chemo-resistant phonotype of ovarian cancer. By analyzing the expression levels of miR-497, mTOR and p70S6K1 in a clinical gene-expression array dataset, we found that mTOR and p70S6K1, two proteins correlated to chemotherapy-resistance in multiple types of human cancers, were inversely correlated with miR-497 levels in ovarian cancer tissues. By using an orthotopic ovarian tumor model and a Tet-On inducible miR-497 expression system, our results demonstrated that overexpression of miR-497 sensitizes the resistant ovarian tumor to cisplatin treatment. Therefore, we suggest that miR-497 might be used as a therapeutic supplement to increase ovarian cancer treatment response to cisplatin. PMID:26238185

  14. Berberine regulates proliferation, collagen synthesis and cytokine secretion of cardiac fibroblasts via AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Fen; Chen, Manhua; Yu, Bo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Guizhong; Gui, Feng; Liu, Zhenxing; Bai, Xiangyan; Chen, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The traditional Chinese medicinal berberine has long been used to treat cardiovascular diseases; however, the mechanism underlying its effects remains unclear. Here, this study would to investigate the effects of berberine on proliferation, collagen synthesis and cytokine secretion of cardiac fibroblasts. Methods: We assessed proliferation, collagen synthesis and cytokine secretion in cardiac fibroblasts subjected to angiotensin II (Ang II) subsequent to the consumption of berberine or a control treatment. And then we detected the role of AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in berberine treatment of cardiac fibroblasts. Results: In the present study, the cellular behaviors of cardiac fibroblasts induced by Ang II were significantly activated including proliferation, transformation into myofibroblasts and collagen synthesis. Additionally, the ability of cytokine secretion was enhanced obviously. It was demonstrated that treatment of cardiac fibroblasts with berberine resulted in deceased proliferation, and attenuated fibroblast ?-smooth muscle actin expression and collagen synthesis. And the protein secretion of TGF?1 was inhibited; however, the protein secretion of IL-10 was increased in cardiac fibroblasts with berberine treatment. Mechanistically, the phosphorylation level of AMPK was increased; and the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and p70S6K were decreased in berberine treatment group. Conclusion: These results illustrated that the protective effects of berberine on cellular behaviors of cardiac fibroblasts were at least in part due to activate AMPK signaling pathway and downregulate mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. Berberine might become a new strategy for treating cardiac fibrosis in the future. PMID:26722438

  15. Myricetin induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells through Akt/p70S6K/bad signaling and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Shi-Yong; Tang, Lin; Shen, Ying-Zhuo; Luo, Lin; Xu, Chen-Wei; Liu, Qiong; Li, Duo

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which myricetin induces apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Myricetin caused the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, myricetin triggered translocation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax to the mitochondria, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bad in the mitochondria. The present study also showed that myricetin promoted the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol followed by an increase in the proteolytic activation of caspase-3 and the concomitant degradation of PARP protein. Additionally, western blot analysis showed that the Akt/p70s6k1 pathway was inhibited in myricetin-treated HepG2 cells, accordingly the phosphorylation of Bad at Ser136 was downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate that myricetin induced apoptosis in HepG2 cell through mitochondria apoptotic pathway and Akt/p70s6k1/Bad signaling. Present results provide new information on the possible mechanisms for the anti-cancer activity of myricetin. PMID:23438827

  16. Dose‐dependent increases in p70S6K phosphorylation and intramuscular branched‐chain amino acids in older men following resistance exercise and protein intake

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Randall F.; Markworth, James F.; Figueiredo, Vandre C.; Della Gatta, Paul A.; Petersen, Aaron C.; Mitchell, Cameron J.; Cameron‐Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Resistance exercise and whey protein supplementation are effective strategies to activate muscle cell anabolic signaling and ultimately promote increases in muscle mass and strength. In the current study, 46 healthy older men aged 60–75 (69.0 ± 0.55 years, 85.9 ± 1.8 kg, 176.8 ± 1.0 cm) performed a single bout of unaccustomed lower body resistance exercise immediately followed by ingestion of a noncaloric placebo beverage or supplement containing 10, 20, 30, or 40 g of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Intramuscular amino acid levels in muscle biopsy samples were measured by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC‐MS) at baseline (before exercise and WPC supplementation) plus at 2 h and 4 h post exercise. Additionally, the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation at Thr389 in muscle biopsy homogenates was assessed by western blot. Resistance exercise alone reduced intramuscular branch chain amino acid (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) content. Supplementation with increasing doses of whey protein prevented this fall in muscle BCAAs during postexercise recovery and larger doses (30 g and 40 g) significantly augmented postexercise muscle BCAA content above that observed following placebo ingestion. Additionally, the fold change in the phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389) at 2 h post exercise was correlated with the dose of whey protein consumed (r = 0.51, P < 001) and was found to be significantly correlated with intramuscular leucine content (r = 0.32, P = 0.026). Intramuscular BCAAs, and leucine in particular, appear to be important regulators of anabolic signaling in aged human muscle during postexercise recovery via reversal of exercise‐induced declines in intramuscular BCAAs. PMID:25107987

  17. Regulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases by ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mong-Lien; Panasyuk, Ganna; Gwalter, Jodie; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Fenton, Tim; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan

    2008-05-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is a key player in the regulation of cell growth and energy metabolism via the mTOR and PI3K signalling pathways. The activity and subcellular localization of S6K are regulated by multiple S/T phosphorylations in response to diverse extracellular stimuli. Downregulation of S6K signalling occurs through the action of S/T phosphatases (PP2A and PP1) and tumor suppressors (TSC1/2 and PTEN). We report here that, in addition to phosphorylation, S6Ks are ubiquitinated in cells. The pattern of ubiquitination and the effect of proteasomal inhibitors on the steady-state level of transiently overexpressed and endogenous S6Ks point to proteasome-mediated degradation of ubiquitinated S6Ks. Furthermore, we found that the site(s) of ubiquitination are located in the kinase domain and that the N- and C-terminal regulatory regions modulate the efficiency of S6K ubiquitination. This study suggests that S6K signalling also could be regulated through the proteasome-mediated turnover of S6Ks. PMID:18280803

  18. Metabolic Control by S6 Kinases Depends on Dietary Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Castaeda, Tamara R.; Abplanalp, William; Um, Sung Hee; Pfluger, Paul T.; Schrott, Brigitte; Brown, Kimberly; Grant, Erin; Carnevalli, Larissa; Benoit, Stephen C.; Morgan, Donald A.; Gilham, Dean; Hui, David Y.; Rahmouni, Kamal; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Tschp, Matthias H.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted deletion of S6 kinase (S6K) 1 in mice leads to higher energy expenditure and improved glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we analyze the potential role of dietary lipids in regulating the mTORC1/S6K system. Analysis of S6K phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro showed that dietary lipids activate S6K, and this effect is not dependent upon amino acids. Comparison of male mice lacking S6K1 and 2 (S6K-dko) with wt controls showed that S6K-dko mice are protected against obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high-fat diet. S6K-dko mice fed a high-fat diet had increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance, lower fat mass gain, and changes in markers of lipid metabolism. Importantly, however, these metabolic phenotypes were dependent upon dietary lipids, with no such effects observed in S6K-dko mice fed a fat-free diet. These changes appear to be mediated via modulation of cellular metabolism in skeletal muscle, as shown by the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that the metabolic functions of S6K in vivo play a key role as a molecular interface connecting dietary lipids to the endogenous control of energy metabolism. PMID:22412899

  19. Collaboration of geldanamycin-activated P70S6K and Hsp70 against beta-amyloid-induced hippocampal apoptosis: an approach to long-term memory and learning.

    PubMed

    Zare, Nayereh; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2015-03-01

    One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in senile plaques. Aβ-induced oxidative stress is believed to be responsible for degeneration and apoptosis of neurons and consequent cognitive and memory deficits. Here, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) against amyloid pathogenesis in adult male Wistar rats. GA or vehicle was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricles of rats 24 h before injection of Aβ (1-42) in CA1 area of hippocampus. The learning and memory of the rats were assessed 7 days after injection of Aβ using passive avoidance (PA) task. As potential contributing factors in Aβ-induced memory decline, we evaluated apoptotic markers and also used terminal-transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique to detect apoptosis in the hippocampus of Aβ-injected rats. Our behavioral data suggest that GA pretreatment can significantly suppress memory deficits in Aβ-injected rats. There was also not only a marked increase in Hsp70 level but also upregulated 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in the hippocampus of GA-treated groups with a reduction in apoptotic factors including caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and TUNEL-positive cells as well. Thus, we conclude that GA exerts its protective effects against Aβ (1-42) toxicity and memory deficits, at least in part, by upregulating of Hsp70 and P70S6K. PMID:25576151

  20. The mTORC1 signaling repressors REDD1/2 are rapidly induced and activation of p70S6K1 by leucine is defective in skeletal muscle of an immobilized rat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Andrew R; Kimball, Scot R; Dennis, Michael D; Schilder, Rudolf J; Jefferson, Leonard S

    2013-01-15

    Limb immobilization, limb suspension, and bed rest cause substantial loss of skeletal muscle mass, a phenomenon termed disuse atrophy. To acquire new knowledge that will assist in the development of therapeutic strategies for minimizing disuse atrophy, the present study was undertaken with the aim of identifying molecular mechanisms that mediate control of protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral hindlimb immobilization for 1, 2, 3, or 7 days or served as nonimmobilized controls. Following an overnight fast, rats received either saline or L-leucine by oral gavage as a nutrient stimulus. Hindlimb skeletal muscles were extracted 30 min postgavage and analyzed for the rate of protein synthesis, mRNA expression, phosphorylation state of key proteins in the mTORC1 signaling pathway, and mTORC1 signaling repressors. In the basal state, mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis were repressed within 24 h in the soleus of an immobilized compared with a nonimmobilized hindlimb. These responses were accompanied by a concomitant induction in expression of the mTORC1 repressors regulated in development and DNA damage responses (REDD) 1/2. The nutrient stimulus produced an elevation of similar magnitude in mTORC1 signaling in both the immobilized and nonimmobilized muscle. In contrast, phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1) on Thr(229) and Thr(389) in response to the nutrient stimulus was severely blunted. Phosphorylation of Thr(229) by PDK1 is a prerequisite for phosphorylation of Thr(389) by mTORC1, suggesting that signaling through PDK1 is impaired in response to immobilization. In conclusion, the results show an immobilization-induced attenuation of mTORC1 signaling mediated by induction of REDD1/2 and defective p70S6K1 phosphorylation. PMID:23193052

  1. Secalonic Acid-D Represses HIF1?/VEGF-Mediated Angiogenesis by Regulating the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling Cascade.

    PubMed

    Guru, Santosh Kumar; Pathania, Anup Singh; Kumar, Suresh; Ramesh, Deshidi; Kumar, Manjeet; Rana, Satiander; Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz; Sharma, P R; Chandan, B K; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, J P; Shah, Bhahwal Ali; Tasduq, Sheikh Abdullah; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Faruk, Abdul; Saxena, A K; Vishwakarma, R A; Bhushan, Shashi

    2015-07-15

    Tumor angiogenesis is a validated target for therapeutic intervention, but agents that are more disease selective are needed. Here, we report the isolation of secalonic acid-D (SAD), a mycotoxin from a novel source that exhibits potent antiangiogenic antitumor activity. SAD inhibited multiple HIF1?/VEGF-arbitrated angiogenesis dynamics as scored in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells and human MCF-7 breast tumor xenografts. Similarly, SAD suppressed VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from rat aortic ring and blood vessel formation in the Matrigel plug assay in C57/BL6J mice. Under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, SAD inhibited cell survival through the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, with attendant effects on key proangiogenesis factors, including HIF1?, VEGFR, and MMP-2/MMP-9. These effects were reversed by cotreatment with the Akt inhibitors perifosine and GSK69069 or by the addition of neutralizing VEGF antibodies. The apoptotic properties of SAD were determined to be both extrinsic and intrinsic in nature, whereas the cell-cycle inhibitory effects were mediated by altering the level of key G1-S transition-phase proteins. In experimental mouse models of breast cancer, SAD dosing produced no apparent toxicities (either orally or intraperitoneal) at levels that yielded antitumor effects. Taken together, our findings offered a preclinical validation and mechanistic definition of the antiangiogenic activity of a novel mycotoxin, with potential application as a cancer-selective therapeutic agent. PMID:25977334

  2. Immunomodulatory Protein from Ganoderma microsporum Induces Pro-Death Autophagy through Akt-mTOR-p70S6K Pathway Inhibition in Multidrug Resistant Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ling-Yen; Hu, Ming-E; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Hsin, I-Lun; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Tsai, Kan-Jen; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance in cancer therapy is an unfavorable prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Elevation of intracellular calcium level in multidrug resistant (MDR) sublines leads to sensitization of MDR sublines to cell death. We demonstrated that a fungal protein from Ganoderma microsporum, GMI, elevates the intracellular calcium level and reduces the growth of MDR subline via autophagy and apoptosis, regardless of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression, in mice xenograft tumors. In addition, we examined the roles of autophagy in the death of MDR A549 lung cancer sublines by GMI, thapsigargin (TG) and tunicamycin (TM) in vitro. Cytotoxicity of TG was inhibited by overexpressed P-gp. However, TM-induced death of MDR sublines was independent of P-gp level. Combinations of TG and TM with either docetaxel or vincristine showed no additional cytotoxic effects on MDR sublines. TG- and TM-mediated apoptosis of MDR sublines was demonstrated on Annexin-V assay and Western blot and repressed by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK). Treatment of MDR sublines with TG and TM also augmented autophagy with accumulation of LC3-II proteins, breakdown of p62 and formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs). Inhibition of ATG5 by shRNA silencing significantly reduced autophagy and cell death but not apoptosis following TG or TM treatment. GMI treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt/S473 and p70S6K/T389. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK was not associated with GMI-induced autophagy. We conclude that autophagy plays a pro-death role in acquired MDR and upregulation of autophagy by GMI via Akt/mTOR inhibition provides a potential strategy for overcoming MDR in the treatment of lung cancers. PMID:25946033

  3. Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates S6 phosphorylation and induced activation of S6 protein kinase in rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, C.; Okabayashi, Y.; Williams, J.

    1987-05-01

    CCK and insulin stimulate pancreatic protein synthesis at a post transcriptional step. To better understand this regulation the authors evaluated the phosphorylation state of ribosomal protein S6 and the presence of a specific S6 protein kinase in pancreatic acini from diabetic rats. Both CCK and insulin increased S6 phosphorylation by up to 400% in intact TSP-labelled acini. The phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate also stimulated both protein synthesis and S6 phosphorlyation suggesting a role for protein kinase C in mediating the effect of CCK. By contrast, the CaS ionophore ionomycin had no effect on either parameter. Recently, insulin has been shown to activate a unique S6 kinase in various cells. To test for its presence, cytosolic extracts were prepared from acini stimulated with CCK and insulin by homogenization in US -glycerophosphate buffer and assayed for the kinase using el-TSP ATP and rat pancreatic ribosomes followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. CCK and insulin both increased S6 kinase activity which required neither CaS or phospholipid. The dose response for CCk was similar to S6 phosphorlyation in the intact acini. TPA did not stimulate the S6 kinase. Thus, CCK may induce S6 phosphorylation both via C kinase and by activation of a unique S6 kinase.

  4. Broussonetia kazinoki modulates the expression of VEGFR-2 and MMP-2 through the inhibition of ERK, Akt and p70S6K?dependent signaling pathways: Its implication in endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tubular formation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Rak; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Ahn, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Hye-Jin; In, Jae Kyung; Lee, Sang-Jin; Bae, Gyu-Un; Kim, Yong Kee; Oh, Joa Sub; Seo, Dong-Wan

    2014-10-01

    Broussonetia kazinoki (BK) has been used as a traditional medicine to improve vision, as well as for inflammatory and infectious diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanism of the ethanolic extract of BK on cell proliferation, migration and tubular formation in vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. BK treatment inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation through the downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins including cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins. Moreover, BK treatment suppressed cell migration and tubular formation in response to VEGF-A. These anti-angiogenic activities of BK were associated with the inactivation of mitogenic signaling pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt and p70S6K, and the subsequent downregulation of VEGFR-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Taken together, these findings suggest further evaluation and development of BK as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of angiogenesis-related diseases including cancer. PMID:25109823

  5. S6 kinase signaling: tamoxifen response and prognostic indication in two breast cancer cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bostner, Josefine; Karlsson, Elin; Eding, Cecilia Bivik; Perez-Tenorio, Gizeh; Franzn, Hanna; Konstantinell, Aelita; Fornander, Tommy; Nordenskjld, Bo; Stl, Olle

    2015-06-01

    Detection of signals in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) pathways may be a future clinical tool for the prediction of adjuvant treatment response in primary breast cancer. Using immunohistological staining, we investigated the value of the mTOR targets p70-S6 kinase (S6K) 1 and 2 as biomarkers for tamoxifen benefit in two independent clinical trials comparing adjuvant tamoxifen with no tamoxifen or 5 years versus 2 years of tamoxifen treatment. In addition, the prognostic value of the S6Ks was evaluated. We found that S6K1 correlated with proliferation, HER2 status, and cytoplasmic AKT activity, whereas high protein expression levels of S6K2 and phosphorylated (p) S6K were more common in ER-positive, and low-proliferative tumors with pAKT-s473 localized to the nucelus. Nuclear accumulation of S6K1 was indicative of a reduced tamoxifen effect (hazard ratio (HR): 1.07, 95% CI: 0.53-2.81, P=0.84), compared with a significant benefit from tamoxifen treatment in patients without tumor S6K1 nuclear accumulation (HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.29-0.62, P<0.00001). Also S6K1 and S6K2 activation, indicated by pS6K-t389 expression, was associated with low benefit from tamoxifen (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.50-1.87, P=0.92). In addition, high protein expression of S6K1, independent of localization, predicted worse prognosis in a multivariate analysis, P=0.00041 (cytoplasm), P=0.016 (nucleus). In conclusion, the mTOR-activated kinases S6K1 and S6K2 interfere with proliferation and response to tamoxifen. Monitoring their activity and intracellular localization may provide biomarkers for breast cancer treatment, allowing the identification of a group of patients less likely to benefit from tamoxifen and thus in need of an alternative or additional targeted treatment. PMID:25972244

  6. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 signaling in prefrontal cortex controls depressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Jason M; Maldonado-Avils, Jaime G; Lepack, Ashley E; DiLeone, Ralph J; Duman, Ronald S

    2015-05-12

    Current treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) have a time lag and are ineffective for a large number of patients. Development of novel pharmacological therapies requires a comprehensive understanding of the molecular events that contribute to MDD pathophysiology. Recent evidence points toward aberrant activity of synaptic proteins as a critical contributing factor. In the present studies, we used viral-mediated gene transfer to target a key mediator of activity-dependent synaptic protein synthesis downstream of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) known as p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Targeted delivery of two mutants of S6K1, constitutively active or dominant-negative, to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats allowed control of the mTORC1/S6K1 translational pathway. Our results demonstrate that increased expression of S6K1 in the mPFC produces antidepressant effects in the forced swim test without altering locomotor activity. Moreover, expression of active S6K1 in the mPFC blocked the anhedonia caused by chronic stress, resulting in a state of stress resilience. This antidepressant response was associated with increased neuronal complexity caused by enhanced S6K1 activity. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative S6K1 in the mPFC resulted in prodepressive behavior in the forced swim test and was sufficient to cause anhedonia in the absence of chronic stress exposure. Together, these data demonstrate a critical role for S6K1 activity in depressive behaviors, and suggest that pathways downstream of mTORC1 may underlie the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD. PMID:25918363

  7. Protein Kinase C Phosphorylates Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase ?II and Regulates Its Subcellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Valovka, Taras; Verdier, Frederique; Cramer, Rainer; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Fenton, Timothy; Rebholz, Heike; Wang, Mong-Lien; Gzhegotsky, Miechyslav; Lutsyk, Alexander; Matsuka, Genadiy; Filonenko, Valeriy; Wang, Lijun; Proud, Christopher G.; Parker, Peter J.; Gout, Ivan T.

    2003-01-01

    The ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) belongs to the AGC family of Ser/Thr kinases and is known to be involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. There are two forms of S6K, termed S6K? and S6K?, which have cytoplasmic and nuclear splice variants. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling has been recently proposed for S6K?, based on the use of the nuclear export inhibitor, leptomycin B. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating subcellular localization of S6Ks in response to mitogenic stimuli remain to be elucidated. Here we present data on the in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation of S6K?, but not S6K?, by protein kinase C (PKC). The site of phosphorylation was identified as S486, which is located within the C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Mutational analysis and the use of phosphospecific antibodies provided evidence that PKC-mediated phosphorylation at S486 does not affect S6K activity but eliminates the function of its nuclear localization signal and causes retention of an activated form of the kinase in the cytoplasm. Taken together, this study uncovers a novel mechanism for the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of S6K?II by PKC-mediated phosphorylation. PMID:12529391

  8. The discovery of potent ribosomal S6 kinase inhibitors by high-throughput screening and structure-guided drug design.

    PubMed

    Couty, Sylvain; Westwood, Isaac M; Kalusa, Andrew; Cano, Celine; Travers, Jon; Boxall, Kathy; Chow, Chiau Ling; Burns, Sam; Schmitt, Jessica; Pickard, Lisa; Barillari, Caterina; McAndrew, P Craig; Clarke, Paul A; Linardopoulos, Spiros; Griffin, Roger J; Aherne, G Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I; Workman, Paul; Jones, Keith; van Montfort, Rob L M

    2013-10-01

    The ribosomal P70 S6 kinases play a crucial role in PI3K/mTOR regulated signalling pathways and are therefore potential targets for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes and cancer. In this study we describe the identification of three series of chemically distinct S6K1 inhibitors. In addition, we report a novel PKA-S6K1 chimeric protein with five mutations in or near its ATP-binding site, which was used to determine the binding mode of two of the three inhibitor series, and provided a robust system to aid the optimisation of the oxadiazole-substituted benzimidazole inhibitor series. We show that the resulting oxadiazole-substituted aza-benzimidazole is a potent and ligand efficient S6 kinase inhibitor, which blocks the phosphorylation of RPS6 at Ser235/236 in TSC negative HCV29 human bladder cancer cells by inhibiting S6 kinase activity and thus provides a useful tool compound to investigate the function of S6 kinases. PMID:24072592

  9. Autophagy is involved in regulating influenza A virus RNA and protein synthesis associated with both modulation of Hsp90 induction and mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ge; Zhong, Meigong; Guo, Chaowan; Komatsu, Masaaki; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yifei; Kitazato, Kaio

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection triggers autophagosome formation, but inhibits the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. However, the role of autophagy in IAV replication is still largely unclarified. In this study, we aim to reveal the role of autophagy in IAV replication and the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation. By using autophagy-deficient (Atg7(-/-)) MEFs, we demonstrated that autophagy deficiency significantly reduced the levels of viral proteins, mRNA and genomic RNAs (vRNAs) without affecting viral entry. We further found that autophagy deficiency lead to a transient increase in phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream targets including 4E-BP1 and S6 at a very early stage of IAV infection, and markedly suppressed p70S6K phosphorylation at the late stage of IAV infection. Furthermore, autophagy deficiency resulted in impairment of Hsp90 induction in response to IAV infection. These results indicate that IAV regulates autophagy to benefit the accumulation of viral elements (synthesis of viral proteins and genomic RNA) during IAV replication. This regulation is associated with modulation of Hsp90 induction and mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. Our results provide important evidence for the role of autophagy in IAV replication and the mechanisms underlying the regulation. PMID:26794463

  10. Silencing of angiotensin II type-1 receptor inhibits high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells via inactivation of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Quanyou; Hou, Fangli

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF), which is one of hallmark pathological feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Angiotensin II via its type-1 receptor AT1R is involved in the development of TIF. The purpose of our study was aimed to investigate the effect of silencing of AT1R on EMT and elucidate the possible mechanism underling these effects. EMT was induced by high glucose (HG) in human proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2 cells. The mRNA levels of AT1R were determined. The expression of AT1R was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). After transfection with siAT1R, cell viability and expression levels of epithelial cell marker (epithelial (E)-cadherin), mesenchymal cell marker (alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA)), four transcriptional factors (snail, slug, twist, and ZEB-1) were determined, as well as the roles of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6K signaling pathway. The levels of AT1R were significantly higher after exposure to HG (P<0.05). Transfection with siAT1R had no effect on cell viability, but reversed HG-induced EMT by up-regulation of E-cadherin expression and decrease of ?-SMA, snail, and twist levels. MTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway was highly activated in HK-2 cells cultured under HG, but was inhibited by transfection with siAT1R. Our results suggest that silencing of AT1R inhibits EMT induced by HG in HK-2 cells via inactivation of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. Silencing of AT1R might be a new strategy to treat DN. PMID:26626074

  11. Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C activity is required for alpha1-adrenergic-receptor-mediated regulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases in adult cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Rolfe, Mark; Proud, Christopher G

    2003-01-01

    The alpha(1)-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (PE), exerts hypertrophic effects in the myocardium and activates protein synthesis. Both Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C (PKC, PKCalpha) and Ca(2+)-independent PKC isoforms (PKCdelta and epsilon ) are detectably expressed in adult rat cardiomyocytes. Stimulation of the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor by PE results in activation of Ca(2+)-independent PKCs, as demonstrated by translocation of the delta and epsilon isoenzymes from cytosol to membrane fractions. PE also induces activation of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (S6K1 and 2) in adult cardiomyocytes. We have studied the role of Ca(2+)-independent PKCs in the regulation of S6K activity by PE. Activation of S6K1/2 by PE was blocked by the broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM) I, whereas Gö6976, a compound that only inhibits Ca(2+)-dependent PKCs, did not inhibit S6K activation. Rottlerin, which selectively inhibits PKCdelta, also prevented PE-induced S6K activation. The isoform-specific PKC inhibitors had similar effects on the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1, a translation repressor that, like the S6Ks, lies downstream of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Infection of cells with adenoviruses encoding dominant-negative PKCdelta or epsilon inhibited the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by PE, and also inhibited the activation and/or phosphorylation of S6Ks 1 and 2. The PE-induced activation of protein synthesis was abolished by BIM I and markedly attenuated by rottlerin. Our data thus suggest that Ca(2+)-independent PKC isoforms play an important role in coupling the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor to mTOR signalling and protein synthesis in adult cardiomyocytes. PMID:12720544

  12. Minocycline attenuates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression correlated with modulation of p53 and AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway in ovarian cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Ataie-Kachoie, Parvin; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Bahrami-B, Farnaz; Badar, Samina; Morris, David L

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is the key cellular survival protein under hypoxia, and is associated with tumor progression and angiogenesis. We have recently shown the inhibitory effects of minocycline on ovarian tumor growth correlated with attenuation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and herein report a companion laboratory study to test if these effects were the result of HIF-1α inhibition. In vitro, human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (A2780, OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3) were utilized to examine the effect of minocycline on HIF-1 and its upstream pathway components to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action of minocycline. Mice harboring OVCAR-3 xenografts were treated with minocycline to assess the in vivo efficacy of minocycline in the context of HIF-1. Minocycline negatively regulated HIF-1α protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner and induced its degradation by a mechanism that is independent of prolyl-hydroxylation. The inhibition of HIF-1α was found to be associated with up-regulation of endogenous p53, a tumor suppressor with confirmed role in HIF-1α degradation. Further studies demonstrated that the effect of minocycline was not restricted to proteasomal degradation and that it also caused down-regulation of HIF-1α translation by suppressing the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. Minocycline treatment of mice bearing established ovarian tumors, led to suppression of HIF-1α accompanied by up-regulation of p53 protein levels and inactivation of AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway. These data reveal the therapeutic potential of minocycline in ovarian cancer as an agent that targets the pro-oncogenic factor HIF-1α through multiple mechanisms. PMID:25973298

  13. Phenformin Induces Cell Cycle Change, Apoptosis, and Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition and Regulates the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Ren, Lidong; Liu, Chenghao; Xia, Tiansong; Zha, Xiaoming; Wang, Shui

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a world-wide challenge, and additional anti-cancer therapies are still urgently needed. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the potent anti-tumor effect of biguanides, among which phenformin was reported to potentially be a more active anti-cancer agent than metformin. However, little attention has been given to the role of phenformin in breast cancer. In this study, we reveal the role of phenformin in cell death of the MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 breast cancer cell lines. The respective IC50 values of phenformin in MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 cells were 1.1840.045 mM, 0.6650.007 mM, 2.3470.010 mM and 1.8850.015 mM (mean standard error). Phenformin induced cell cycle change and apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK pathways. Interestingly, phenformin induced MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition) and decreased the migration rate in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, our results suggest that phenformin inhibits breast cancer cell metastasis after intracardiac injection into nude mice. Taken together, our study further confirms the potential benefit of phenformin in breast cancer treatment and provides novel mechanistic insight into its anti-cancer activity in breast cancer. PMID:26114294

  14. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Hyun . E-mail: ihpark@uiuc.edu; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-09-10

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector.

  15. Drosophila S6 Kinase Like Inhibits Neuromuscular Junction Growth by Downregulating the BMP Receptor Thickveins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoli; Wu, Yingga; Du, Li; Li, Wenhua; Xiong, Ying; Yao, Aiyu; Wang, Qifu; Zhang, Yong Q.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic connections must be precisely controlled to ensure proper neural circuit formation. In Drosophila melanogaster, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) promotes growth of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by binding and activating the BMP ligand receptors wishful thinking (Wit) and thickveins (Tkv) expressed in motor neurons. We report here that an evolutionally conserved, previously uncharacterized member of the S6 kinase (S6K) family S6K like (S6KL) acts as a negative regulator of BMP signaling. S6KL null mutants were viable and fertile but exhibited more satellite boutons, fewer and larger synaptic vesicles, larger spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potential (mEJP) amplitudes, and reduced synaptic endocytosis at the NMJ terminals. Reducing the gene dose by half of tkv in S6KL mutant background reversed the NMJ overgrowth phenotype. The NMJ phenotypes of S6KL mutants were accompanied by an elevated level of Tkv protein and phosphorylated Mad, an effector of the BMP signaling pathway, in the nervous system. In addition, Tkv physically interacted with S6KL in cultured S2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of S6KL enhanced Tkv expression, while S6KL overexpression downregulated Tkv in cultured S2 cells. This latter effect was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Our results together demonstrate for the first time that S6KL regulates synaptic development and function by facilitating proteasomal degradation of the BMP receptor Tkv. PMID:25748449

  16. Development of monoclonal antibodies specific to ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Savinska, Lilia; Skorokhod, Oleksandr; Klipa, Olga; Gout, Ivan; Filonenko, Valeriy

    2012-08-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the family of AGC kinases, which includes PKB/Akt, PKC, PDK1, and SGK1. Mammalian cells express two isoforms of S6K, termed S6K1 and S6K2. Each of these has nuclear and cytoplasmic spicing variants, which originate from different initiation start codons. Nuclear isoforms of S6K1 and S6K2 are slightly longer, as they possess additional sequences at the N-terminus with nuclear localization signals. Biochemical and genetic studies implicated S6Ks in the regulation of cell size, growth, and energy metabolism. Deregulation of S6K signaling has been linked to various human pathologies, making them excellent targets for drug discovery. The aim of this study was to produce monoclonal antibodies directed at the N-terminal regulatory region of S6K2, which shows very low homology to S6K1 or other members of the AGC family. To achieve this goal, two S6K2 fragments covering 1-64aa and 14-64aa N-terminal sequences were expressed in bacteria as GST/6His fusion proteins. Affinity purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens for immunization, hybridoma screening, and analysis of generated clones. We produced a panel of S6K2-specific antibodies, which recognized recombinant S6K2 proteins in ELISA and Western blot analysis. Further analysis of selected clones revealed that three clones, termed B1, B2, and B4, specifically recognized not only recombinant, but also endogenous S6K2 in Western blot analysis of HEK293 cell lysates. Specificity of B2 clone has been confirmed in additional commonly used immunoassays, including immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry. These properties make B2 MAb particularly valuable for elucidating signal transduction pathways involving S6K2 signaling under physiological conditions and in human pathologies. PMID:22894784

  17. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Savinska, Lilia; Skorokhod, Oleksandr; Klipa, Olga; Gout, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the family of AGC kinases, which includes PKB/Akt, PKC, PDK1, and SGK1. Mammalian cells express two isoforms of S6K, termed S6K1 and S6K2. Each of these has nuclear and cytoplasmic spicing variants, which originate from different initiation start codons. Nuclear isoforms of S6K1 and S6K2 are slightly longer, as they possess additional sequences at the N-terminus with nuclear localization signals. Biochemical and genetic studies implicated S6Ks in the regulation of cell size, growth, and energy metabolism. Deregulation of S6K signaling has been linked to various human pathologies, making them excellent targets for drug discovery. The aim of this study was to produce monoclonal antibodies directed at the N-terminal regulatory region of S6K2, which shows very low homology to S6K1 or other members of the AGC family. To achieve this goal, two S6K2 fragments covering 164aa and 1464aa N-terminal sequences were expressed in bacteria as GST/6His fusion proteins. Affinity purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens for immunization, hybridoma screening, and analysis of generated clones. We produced a panel of S6K2-specific antibodies, which recognized recombinant S6K2 proteins in ELISA and Western blot analysis. Further analysis of selected clones revealed that three clones, termed B1, B2, and B4, specifically recognized not only recombinant, but also endogenous S6K2 in Western blot analysis of HEK293 cell lysates. Specificity of B2 clone has been confirmed in additional commonly used immunoassays, including immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry. These properties make B2 MAb particularly valuable for elucidating signal transduction pathways involving S6K2 signaling under physiological conditions and in human pathologies. PMID:22894784

  18. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 interacts with and is ubiquitinated by ubiquitin ligase ROC1.

    PubMed

    Panasyuk, Ganna; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan

    2008-05-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is involved in the regulation of cell growth and cellular metabolism. The activation of S6K in response to diverse extracellular stimuli is mediated by multiple phosphorylations coordinated by the mTOR and PI3K signaling pathways. We have recently found that both forms of S6K are modified by ubiquitination. Following these findings, we demonstrate here for the first time that S6K1 associates specifically with ubiquitin ligase ROC1 in vitro and in vivo. The interaction was initially identified in the yeast two-hybrid screening and further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Furthermore, the overexpression of ROC1 leads to an increase in S6K1 ubiquitination. Consistent with this observation, we showed that the steady-state level of S6K1 is regulated by ROC1, since downregulation of ROC1 by specific siRNA promotes stabilization of S6K1 protein. The results suggest the involvement of ROC1 in S6K1 ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. PMID:18279656

  19. An ShRNA Based Genetic Screen Identified Sesn2 as a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Lung Cancer via Suppression of Akt-mTOR-p70S6K Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Liu, Jiawei; Fan, Fangfang; Li, Yilan; Ning, Xuelian; Sun, Yue; Dai, Shaochun; Liu, Baogang; Gao, Min; Fu, Songbin; Zhou, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is emerging rapidly as the leading death cause in Chinese cancer patients. The causal factors for Chinese lung cancer development remain largely unclear. Here we employed an shRNA library-based loss-of-function screen in a genome-wide and unbiased manner to interrogate potential tumor suppressor candidates in the immortalized human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Methods/Results Soft agar assays were conducted for screening BEAS-2B cells infected with the retroviral shRNA library with the acquired feature of anchorage-independent growth, large (>0.5mm in diameter) and wellseparated colonies were isolated for proliferation. PCRs were performed to amplify the integrated shRNA fragment from individual genomic DNA extracted from each colony, and each PCR product is submitted for DNA sequencing to reveal the integrated shRNA and its target gene. A total of 6 candidate transformation suppressors including INPP4B, Sesn2, TIAR, ACRC, Nup210, LMTK3 were identified. We validated Sesn2 as the candidate of lung cancer tumor suppressor. Knockdown of Sesn2 by an shRNA targeting 3 UTR of Sesn2 transcript potently stimulated the proliferation and malignant transformation of lung bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B via activation of Akt-mTOR-p70S6K signaling, whereas ectopic expression of Sens2 re-suppressed the malignant transformation elicited by the Sesn2 shRNA. Moreover, knockdown of Sesn2 in BEAS-2B cells promoted the BEAS-2B cell-transplanted xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Lastly, DNA sequencing indicated mutations of Sesn2 gene are rare, the protein levels of Sesn2 of 77 Chinese lung cancer patients varies greatly compared to their adjacent normal tissues, and the low expression level of Sesn2 associates with the poor survival in these examined patients by Kaplan Meier analysis. Conclusions Our shRNA-based screen has demonstrated Sesn2 is a potential tumor suppressor in lung epithelial cells. The expression level of Sesn2 may serve as a prognostic marker for Chinese lung cancer patients in the clinic. PMID:25962159

  20. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Induce Autophagy through S6 Kinase Inhibition of the Insulin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pereboom, Tamara C.; Goos, Yvonne J.; Seinen, Cor W.; van Oirschot, Brigitte A.; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H.; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Gazda, Hanna T.; Bierings, Marc B.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies. PMID:24875531

  1. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/S6 Kinase 1 Signals Influence T Cell Activation Independently of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, Robert J.; Brownlie, Rebecca J.; Meyuhas, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Ag-dependent activation of naive T cells induces dramatic changes in cellular metabolism that are essential for cell growth, division, and differentiation. In recent years, the serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a key integrator of signaling pathways that regulate these metabolic processes. However, the role of specific downstream effectors of mTOR function in T cells is poorly understood. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is an essential component of the ribosome and is inducibly phosphorylated following mTOR activation in eukaryotic cells. In the current work, we addressed the role of phosphorylation of rpS6 as an effector of mTOR function in T cell development, growth, proliferation, and differentiation using knockin and TCR transgenic mice. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that rpS6 phosphorylation is not required for any of these processes either in vitro or in vivo. Indeed, rpS6 knockin mice are completely sensitive to the inhibitory effects of rapamycin and an S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)–specific inhibitor on T cell activation and proliferation. These results place the mTOR complex 1-S6K1 axis as a crucial determinant of T cell activation independently of its ability to regulate rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26453749

  2. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/S6 Kinase 1 Signals Influence T Cell Activation Independently of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Salmond, Robert J; Brownlie, Rebecca J; Meyuhas, Oded; Zamoyska, Rose

    2015-11-15

    Ag-dependent activation of naive T cells induces dramatic changes in cellular metabolism that are essential for cell growth, division, and differentiation. In recent years, the serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a key integrator of signaling pathways that regulate these metabolic processes. However, the role of specific downstream effectors of mTOR function in T cells is poorly understood. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is an essential component of the ribosome and is inducibly phosphorylated following mTOR activation in eukaryotic cells. In the current work, we addressed the role of phosphorylation of rpS6 as an effector of mTOR function in T cell development, growth, proliferation, and differentiation using knockin and TCR transgenic mice. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that rpS6 phosphorylation is not required for any of these processes either in vitro or in vivo. Indeed, rpS6 knockin mice are completely sensitive to the inhibitory effects of rapamycin and an S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)-specific inhibitor on T cell activation and proliferation. These results place the mTOR complex 1-S6K1 axis as a crucial determinant of T cell activation independently of its ability to regulate rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26453749

  3. The p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) Is a Mediator of Smooth Muscle Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Franke, Aaron; Khromov, Alexander; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.; Somlyo, Avril V.

    2013-01-01

    In the canonical model of smooth muscle (SM) contraction, the contractile force is generated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC20) by the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Moreover, phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of the RLC20 phosphatase (MLCP) by the RhoA-dependent ROCK kinase, inhibits the phosphatase activity and consequently inhibits dephosphorylation of RLC20 with concomitant increase in contractile force, at constant intracellular [Ca2+]. This pathway is referred to as Ca2+-sensitization. There is, however, emerging evidence suggesting that additional Ser/Thr kinases may contribute to the regulatory pathways in SM. Here, we report data implicating the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in SM contractility. During both Ca2+- and agonist (U46619) induced SM contraction, RSK inhibition by the highly selective compound BI-D1870 (which has no effect on MLCK or ROCK) resulted in significant suppression of contractile force. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of RLC20 and MYPT1 were both significantly decreased. Experiments involving the irreversible MLCP inhibitor microcystin-LR, in the absence of Ca2+, revealed that the decrease in phosphorylation levels of RLC20 upon RSK inhibition are not due solely to the increase in the phosphatase activity, but reflect direct or indirect phosphorylation of RLC20 by RSK. Finally, we show that agonist (U46619) stimulation of SM leads to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 and PDK1, consistent with a canonical activation cascade for RSK. Thus, we demonstrate a novel and important physiological function of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, which to date has been typically associated with the regulation of gene expression. PMID:23516539

  4. Identification of S6 kinase 1 as a novel mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-phosphorylating kinase.

    PubMed

    Holz, Marina K; Blenis, John

    2005-07-15

    Here we demonstrate that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is phosphorylated in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. We show that S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), but not Akt, directly phosphorylates mTOR in cell-free in vitro system and in cells. Expression of a constitutively active, rapamycin- and wortmannin-resistant S6K1 leads to constitutive phosphorylation of mTOR, whereas knock-down of S6K1 using small inhibitory RNA greatly reduces mTOR phosphorylation despite elevated Akt activity. Importantly, phosphorylation of mTOR by S6K1 occurs at threonine 2446/serine 2448. This region has been shown previously to be part of a regulatory repressor domain. These sites are also constitutively phosphorylated in the breast cancer cell line MCF7 carrying an amplification of the S6K1 gene, but not in a less tumorigenic cell line, MCF10a. Many models for Akt signaling to mTOR have been presented, suggesting direct phosphorylation by Akt. These models must be reconsidered in light of the present findings. PMID:15905173

  5. Constitutively active Akt1 expression in mouse pancreas requires S6 kinase 1 for insulinoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Alliouachene, Samira; Tuttle, Robyn L.; Boumard, Stephanie; Lapointe, Thomas; Berissi, Sophie; Germain, Stephane; Jaubert, Francis; Tosh, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pende, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Factors that promote pancreatic β cell growth and function are potential therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus. In mice, genetic experiments suggest that signaling cascades initiated by insulin and IGFs positively regulate β cell mass and insulin secretion. Akt and S6 kinase (S6K) family members are activated as part of these signaling cascades, but how the interplay between these proteins controls β cell growth and function has not been determined. Here, we found that although transgenic mice overexpressing the constitutively active form of Akt1 under the rat insulin promoter (RIP-MyrAkt1 mice) had enlarged β cells and high plasma insulin levels, leading to improved glucose tolerance, a substantial proportion of the mice developed insulinomas later in life, which caused decreased viability. This oncogenic transformation tightly correlated with nuclear exclusion of the tumor suppressor PTEN. To address the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate S6K1 in the MyrAkt1-mediated phenotype, we crossed RIP-MyrAkt1 and S6K1-deficient mice. The resulting mice displayed reduced insulinemia and glycemia compared with RIP-MyrAkt1 mice due to a combined effect of improved insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, although the increase in β cell size in RIP-MyrAkt1 mice was not affected by S6K1 deficiency, the hyperplastic transformation required S6K1. Our results therefore identify S6K1 as a critical element for MyrAkt1-induced tumor formation and suggest that it may represent a useful target for anticancer therapy downstream of mTOR. PMID:18846252

  6. MEK1-independent activation of MAPK and MEK1-dependent activation of p70 S6 kinase by stem cell factor (SCF) in ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lian; Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 ; Zhang, Xin; Du, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoning; Hou, Nan; Zhao, Di; Sun, Jianzhi; Li, Li; Wang, Xiuwen; Ma, Chunhong

    2009-05-01

    We discovered a stem cell factor (SCF)-triggered, MEK1-independent, and PI3K-dependent MAPK activation pathway in the Kit-expressing ovarian cancer cell line HEY. When we knocked down MEK1 with RNA interference (RNAi) to study the function of MEK1 on the proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells, we found that impaired cell growth still occurred after MEK1 expression had been suppressed, although MAPK activation remained intact. This suggests that there is MEK1-independent activation of MAPK in the SCF-induced ovarian cancer cell growth process, and that MEK1 still plays a crucial role in maintaining the malignant properties of ovarian cancer cells even when it fails to activate MAPK as expected.

  7. C. elegans S6K Mutants Require a Creatine-Kinase-like Effector for Lifespan Extension.

    PubMed

    McQuary, Philip R; Liao, Chen-Yu; Chang, Jessica T; Kumsta, Caroline; She, Xingyu; Davis, Andrew; Chu, Chu-Chiao; Gelino, Sara; Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Petrascheck, Michael; Brill, Laurence M; Ladiges, Warren C; Kennedy, Brian K; Hansen, Malene

    2016-03-01

    Deficiency of S6 kinase (S6K) extends the lifespan of multiple species, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To discover potential effectors of S6K-mediated longevity, we performed a proteomics analysis of long-lived rsks-1/S6K C. elegans mutants compared to wild-type animals. We identified the arginine kinase ARGK-1 as the most significantly enriched protein in rsks-1/S6K mutants. ARGK-1 is an ortholog of mammalian creatine kinase, which maintains cellular ATP levels. We found that argk-1 is possibly a selective effector of rsks-1/S6K-mediated longevity and that overexpression of ARGK-1 extends C. elegans lifespan, in part by activating the energy sensor AAK-2/AMPK. argk-1 is also required for the reduced body size and increased stress resistance observed in rsks-1/S6K mutants. Finally, creatine kinase levels are increased in the brains of S6K1 knockout mice. Our study identifies ARGK-1 as a longevity effector in C. elegans with reduced RSKS-1/S6K levels. PMID:26923601

  8. S6 Kinase is essential for MYC-dependent rDNA transcription in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Naomi C; Tchoubrieva, Elissaveta B; Chahal, Arjun; Woods, Simone; Lee, Amanda; Lin, Jane I; Parsons, Linda; Jastrzebski, Katarzyna; Poortinga, Gretchen; Hannan, Katherine M; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D; Quinn, Leonie M

    2015-10-01

    Increased rates of ribosome biogenesis and biomass accumulation are fundamental properties of rapidly growing and dividing malignant cells. The MYC oncoprotein drives growth predominantly via its ability to upregulate the ribosome biogenesis program, in particular stimulating the activity of the RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) machinery to increase ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription. Although MYC function is known to be highly dependent on the cellular signalling context, the pathways interacting with MYC to regulate transcription of ribosomal genes (rDNA) in vivo in response to growth factor status, nutrient availability and cellular stress are only beginning to be understood. To determine factors critical to MYC-dependent stimulation of rDNA transcription in vivo, we performed a transient expression screen for known oncogenic signalling pathways in Drosophila. Strikingly, from the broad range of pathways tested, we found that ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (S6K) activity, downstream of the TOR pathway, was the only factor rate-limiting for the rapid induction of rDNA transcription due to transiently increased MYC. Further, we demonstrated that one of the mechanism(s) by which MYC and S6K cooperate is through coordinate activation of the essential Pol I transcription initiation factor TIF-1A (RRN 3). As Pol I targeted therapy is now in phase 1 clinical trials in patients with haematological malignancies, including those driven by MYC, these data suggest that therapies dually targeting Pol I transcription and S6K activity may be effective in treating MYC-driven tumours. PMID:26215099

  9. The ribosomal S6 kinase inhibitor BI-D1870 ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Takada, Ichiro; Yogiashi, Yoshiko; Makishima, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the infiltration of TH1 and TH17 cells into the CNS. Ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2; RPS6KA3) regulates TH17 differentiation by attenuating ROR?t transcriptional activities and IL-17A production. The pan-RSK inhibitor BI-D1870 also inhibits TH17 differentiation, but the effect of BI-D1870 in vivo remains unclear. Here, we generated mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated them with BI-D1870. BI-D1870 administration protected mice from EAE by reducing the infiltration of TH1 and TH17 cells into the CNS and decreasing mRNA levels of Ccr6 in TH17 cells. These results suggest that RSK inhibition is a promising strategy for the treatment of MS. PMID:26386981

  10. Nuclear export of S6K1 II is regulated by protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation at Ser-17.

    PubMed

    Panasyuk, Ganna; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Bretner, Maria; Litchfield, David W; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T

    2006-10-20

    Ribosomal S6 kinases (S6Ks) are principal players in the regulation of cell growth and energy metabolism. Signaling via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways mediates the activation of S6K in response to various mitogenic stimuli. The family of S6Ks consists of two forms, S6K1 and -2, that have cytoplasmic and nuclear splicing variants, S6K1 II and S6K1 I, respectively. Nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of both isoforms induced by mitogenic stimuli has been reported recently. Here we present the identification of protein kinase CK2 (CK2) as a novel binding and regulatory partner for S6K1 II. The interaction between S6K1 II and CK2beta regulatory subunit was initially identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of transiently expressed and endogenous proteins. The interaction between S6K1 II and CK2 was found to occur in serum-starved and serum-stimulated cells. In addition, we found that S6K1 II is a substrate for CK2. The localization of the CK2 phosphorylation site was narrowed down to Ser-17 in S6K1 II. Mutational analysis and the use of phosphospecific antibody indicate that Ser-17 is a major in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation site for CK2. Functional studies reveal that, in contrast to the wild type kinase, the phosphorylation-mimicking mutant of S6K1 II (S17E) retains its cytoplasmic localization in serum-stimulated cells. Treatment of cells with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B revealed that the S17E mutant accumulates in the nucleus to the same extent as S6K1 II wild type. These results indicate that nuclear import of the S17E mutant is not affected, although the export is significantly enhanced. We also provide evidence that nuclear export of S6K1 is mediated by a CRM1-dependent mechanism. Taken together, this study establishes a functional link between S6K1 II and CK2 signaling, which involves the regulation of S6K1 II nuclear export by CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-17. PMID:16895915

  11. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase: a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Poomakkoth, Noufira; Issa, Aya; Abdulrahman, Nabeel; Abdelaziz, Somaia Gamal; Mraiche, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    A global survey of cancer has shown that lung cancer is the most common cause of the new cancer cases and cancer deaths in men worldwide. The mortality from lung cancer is more than the combined mortality from breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. The two major histological types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for about 85 % of cases and small cell lung cancer accounting for 15 % of cases. NSCLC, the more prevalent form of lung cancer, is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a very poor prognosis. Many factors have been shown to contribute to the development of lung cancer in humans including tobacco smoking, exposure to environmental carcinogens (asbestos, or radon) and genetic factors. Despite the advances in treatment, lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Interestingly, the overall 5 year survival from lung cancer has not changed appreciably in the past 25 years. For this reason, novel and more effective treatments and strategies for NSCLC are critically needed. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), a serine threonine kinase that lies downstream of the Ras-MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) cascade, has been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in various malignancies through indirect (e.g., modulation of transcription factors) or direct effects on the cell-cycle machinery. Increased expression of RSK has been demonstrated in various cancers, including lung cancer. This review focuses on the role of RSK in lung cancer and its potential therapeutic application. PMID:26791782

  12. Arabidopsis S6 kinase mutants display chromosome instability and altered RBR1-E2F pathway activity.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Rossana; Magyar, Zoltn; Monardes, Antonia; Khan, Safina; Zalejski, Christine; Orellana, Juan; Szabados, Lszl; de la Torre, Consuelo; Koncz, Csaba; Bgre, Lszl

    2010-09-01

    The 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is a conserved component of signalling pathways controlling growth in eukaryotes. To study S6K function in plants, we isolated single- and double-knockout mutations and RNA-interference (RNAi)-silencing lines in the linked Arabidopsis S6K1 and S6K2 genes. Hemizygous s6k1s6k2/++ mutant and S6K1 RNAi lines show high phenotypic instability with variation in size, increased trichome branching, produce non-viable pollen and high levels of aborted seeds. Analysis of their DNA content by flow cytometry, as well as chromosome counting using DAPI staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed an increase in ploidy and aneuploidy. In agreement with this data, we found that S6K1 associates with the Retinoblastoma-related 1 (RBR1)-E2FB complex and this is partly mediated by its N-terminal LVxCxE motif. Moreover, the S6K1-RBR1 association regulates RBR1 nuclear localization, as well as E2F-dependent expression of cell cycle genes. Arabidopsis cells grown under nutrient-limiting conditions require S6K for repression of cell proliferation. The data suggest a new function for plant S6K as a repressor of cell proliferation and required for maintenance of chromosome stability and ploidy levels. PMID:20683442

  13. A gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase is induced simultaneously with genes for a mitogen-activated protein kinase and an S6 ribosomal protein kinase by touch, cold, and water stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, T; Irie, K; Hirayama, T; Hayashida, N; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Matsumoto, K; Shinozaki, K

    1996-01-01

    We describe here the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a protein kinase that has high sequence homology to members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MEKK) family; this cDNA is named cATMEKKI (Arabidopsis thaliana MAP kinase or ERK kinase kinase 1). The catalytic domain of the putative ATMEKK1 protein shows approximately 40% identity with the amino acid sequences of the catalytic domains of MAPKKKs (such as Byr2 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Ste11 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bck1 from S. cerevisiae, MEKK from mouse, and NPK1 from tobacco). In yeast cells that overexpress ATMEKK1, the protein kinase replaces Ste11 in responding to mating pheromone. In this study, the expression of three protein kinases was examined by Northern blot analyses: ATMEKK1 (structurally related to MAPKKK), ATMPK3 (structurally related to MAPK), and ATPK19 (structurally related to ribosomal S6 kinase). The mRNA levels of these three protein kinases increased markedly and simultaneously in response to touch, cold, and salinity stress. These results suggest that MAP kinase cascades, which are thought to respond to a variety of extracellular signals, are regulated not only at the posttranslational level but also at the transcriptional level in plants and that MAP kinase cascades in plants may function in transducing signals in the presence of environmental stress. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8570631

  14. Mechanism of Sustained Activation of Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) and ERK by Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus ORF45

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Ersheng; Wu, Fayi; Zhu, Fanxiu

    2009-01-01

    As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses exploit diverse cellular signaling machineries, including the mitogen-activated protein-kinase pathway, during their infections. We have demonstrated previously that the open reading frame 45 (ORF45) of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interacts with p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) and strongly stimulates their kinase activities (Kuang, E., Tang, Q., Maul, G. G., and Zhu, F. (2008) J. Virol.82 ,1838 -185018057234). Here, we define the mechanism by which ORF45 activates RSKs. We demonstrated that binding of ORF45 to RSK increases the association of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) with RSK, such that ORF45, RSK, and ERK formed high molecular mass protein complexes. We further demonstrated that the complexes shielded active pERK and pRSK from dephosphorylation. As a result, the complex-associated RSK and ERK were activated and sustained at high levels. Finally, we provide evidence that this mechanism contributes to the sustained activation of ERK and RSK in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication. PMID:19304659

  15. Regulation of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 and protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianmin; Janknecht, Ralf

    2002-11-01

    The ETS transcription factor ER81 is activated in response to many signals via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). However, ER81 is not only phosphorylated on MAPK sites but also at other sites that impact on its transactivation potential. Here we describe that the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), a protein kinase downstream of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) subclass of MAPKs, binds to ER81, phosphorylates it, and enhances ER81-dependent transcription. Two in vivo RSK1 phosphorylation sites within ER81, Ser(191) and Ser(216), were identified, whose mutation to alanine reduces ER81 activity upon ERK-MAPK stimulation. Furthermore, RSK1 activates the ER81 cofactor CREB-binding protein and may thereby augment ER81-dependent transcription. Similar to RSK1, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates ER81 on Ser(191)/Ser(216). Additionally, PKA targets ER81 on Ser(334) in vivo. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of Ser(334) severely reduces the DNA-binding ability of ER81 but also enhances the transactivation potential of ER81. These counteractive effects of PKA phosphorylation on ER81-dependent transcription may cause the selective up-regulation of promoters with high but not low affinity for ER81. Collectively, we have identified mechanisms for how two distinct signaling pathways with different effector protein kinases, RSK1 and PKA, converge on ER81, which may regulate ER81 function during development and tumorigenesis. PMID:12213813

  16. Identification of the Raptor-binding motif on Arabidopsis S6 kinase and its use as a TOR signaling suppressor.

    PubMed

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Hur, Yoon-Sun; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2016-03-25

    TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signaling plays central role as a regulator of growth and proliferation in all eukaryotic cells and its key signaling components and effectors are also conserved in plants. Unlike the mammalian and yeast counterparts, however, we found through yeast two-hybrid analysis that multiple regions of the Arabidopsis Raptor (regulatory associated protein of TOR) are required for binding to its substrate. We also identified that a 44-amino acid region at the N-terminal end of Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) specifically interacted with AtRaptor1, indicating that this region may contain a functional equivalent of the TOS (TOR-Signaling) motif present in the mammalian TOR substrates. Transient over-expression of this 44-amino acid fragment in Arabidopsis protoplasts resulted in significant decrease in rDNA transcription, demonstrating a feasibility of developing a new plant-specific TOR signaling inhibitor based upon perturbation of the Raptor-substrate interaction. PMID:26920057

  17. RANTES-mediated chemokine transcription in astrocytes involves activation and translocation of p90 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (RSK).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhai, Qiwei; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E

    2002-05-24

    RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) (> or =10 ng/ml) stimulates the induction of KC and other chemokines in astrocytes. Elements of the signal transduction pathway controlling this response were identified. RANTES induced phosphorylation of MEK, ERK1/2, p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) in astrocytes. U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of MEK, blocked the phosphorylation of the downstream elements ERK, RSK, and CREB, inhibited chemokine synthesis, and reduced transcription from a KC promoter construct. Dominant negative mutants of RSK or CREB blocked the transcription driven by the KC promoter. Finally, RANTES treatment induces nuclear translocation of phosphorylated RSK in astrocytes. This novel role for RSK in signaling chemokine responses and synthesis in astrocytes may contribute to the amplification mechanisms responsible for prolonging inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. PMID:11893739

  18. Molecular basis for the substrate specificity of NIMA-related kinase-6 (NEK6). Evidence that NEK6 does not phosphorylate the hydrophobic motif of ribosomal S6 protein kinase and serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Jose M; Deak, Maria; Morrice, Nick; Kieloch, Agnieszka; Hastie, C James; Dong, Liying; Schutkowski, Mike; Reimer, Ulf; Alessi, Dario R

    2002-08-01

    The AGC family of protein kinases, which includes isoforms of protein kinase B (also known as Akt), ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K), and serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK) are activated in response to many extracellular signals and play key roles in regulating diverse cellular processes. They are activated by the phosphorylation of the T loop of their kinase domain by the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and by phosphorylation of a residue located C-terminal to the kinase domain in a region termed the hydrophobic motif. Recent work has implicated the NIMA (never in mitosis, gene A)-related kinase-6 (NEK6) as the enzyme that phosphorylates the hydrophobic motif of S6K1 in vivo. Here we demonstrate that in addition to phosphorylating S6K1 and SGK1 at their hydrophobic motif, NEK6 also phosphorylates S6K1 at two other sites and phosphorylates SGK1 at one other site in vitro. Employing the Jerini pepSTAR method in combination with kinetic analysis of phosphorylation of variant peptides, we establish the key substrate specificity determinants for NEK6. Our analysis indicates that NEK6 has a strong preference for Leu 3 residues N-terminal to the site of phosphorylation. Its mutation to either Ile or Val severely reduced the efficacy with which NEK6-phosphorylated peptide substrates, and moreover, mutation of the equivalent Leu residue in S6K1 or SGK1 prevented phosphorylation of their hydrophobic motifs by NEK6 in vitro. However, these mutants of S6K1 or SGK1 still became phosphorylated at their hydrophobic motif following insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulation of transfected 293 cells. This study provides the first description of the basis for the substrate specificity of NEK6 and indicates that NEK6 is unlikely to be responsible for the IGF1-induced phosphorylation of the hydrophobic motif of S6K, SGK, and protein kinase B isoforms in vivo. PMID:12023960

  19. Modulation of maturation and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Xenopus oocytes by microinjection of oncogenic ras protein and protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, T; Kung, H F

    1990-01-01

    Using Xenopus oocytes as a model system, we investigated the possible involvement of ras proteins in the pathway leading to phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. Our results indicate that microinjection of oncogenic T24 H-ras protein (which contains valine at position 12) markedly stimulated S6 phosphorylation on serine residues in oocytes, whereas normal ras protein (which contains glycine at position 12) was without effect. The S6 phosphorylation activity in the cell extract from T24 ras protein-injected oocytes was increased significantly. In addition, injection of protein kinase C potentiated the induction of maturation and S6 phosphorylation by the oncogenic ras protein. A similar potentiation was detected when T24 ras protein-injected oocytes were incubated with active phorbol ester. These findings suggest that ras proteins activate the pathway linked to S6 phosphorylation and that protein kinase C has a synergistic effect on the ras-mediated pathway. Images PMID:2406569

  20. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 3 contributes to cardiac insufficiency in ?-tropomyosin Glu180Gly transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Passariello, Catherine L.; Gayanilo, Marjorie; Kritzer, Michael D.; Thakur, Hrishikesh; Cozacov, Zoharit; Rusconi, Francesca; Wieczorek, David; Sanders, Michael; Li, Jinliang

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial interstitial fibrosis is an important contributor to the development of heart failure. Type 3 p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK3) was recently shown to be required for concentric myocyte hypertrophy under in vivo pathological conditions. However, the role of RSK family members in myocardial fibrosis remains uninvestigated. Transgenic expression of ?-tropomyosin containing a Glu180Gly mutation (TM180) in mice of a mixed C57BL/6:FVB/N background induces a cardiomyopathy characterized by a small left ventricle, interstitial fibrosis, and diminished systolic and diastolic function. Using this mouse model, we now show that RSK3 is required for the induction of interstitial fibrosis in vivo. TM180 transgenic mice were crossed to RSK3 constitutive knockout (RSK3?/?) mice. Although RSK3 knockout did not affect myocyte growth, the decreased cardiac function and mild pulmonary edema associated with the TM180 transgene were attenuated by RSK3 knockout. The improved cardiac function was consistent with reduced interstitial fibrosis in the TM180;RSK3?/? mice as shown by histology and gene expression analysis, including the decreased expression of collagens. The specific inhibition of RSK3 should be considered as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for improving cardiac function and the prevention of sudden cardiac death in diseases in which interstitial fibrosis contributes to the development of heart failure. PMID:23913705

  1. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 promotes invasion and metastasis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sumin; Elf, Shannon; Lythgoe, Katherine; Hitosugi, Taro; Taunton, Jack; Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Li; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Fan, Songqing; Sun, Shi-Yong; Marcus, Adam I; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Khuri, Fadlo R; Shin, Dong M; Chen, Jing

    2010-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common types of human cancer and frequently metastasizes to LNs. Identifying metastasis-promoting factors is of immense clinical interest, as the prognosis for patients with even a single unilateral LN metastasis is extremely poor. Here, we report that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) promotes human HNSCC cell invasion and metastasis. We determined that RSK2 was overexpressed and activated in highly invasive HNSCC cell lines compared with poorly invasive cell lines. Expression of RSK2 also correlated with metastatic progression in patients with HNSCC. Ectopic expression of RSK2 substantially enhanced the invasive capacity of HNSCC cells, while inhibition of RSK2 activity led to marked attenuation of invasion in vitro. Additionally, shRNA knockdown of RSK2 substantially reduced the invasive and metastatic potential of HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model, respectively. Mechanistically, we determined that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and Hsp27 are phosphorylated and activated by RSK2 and are important for the RSK2-mediated invasive ability of HNSCC cells. Our findings suggest that RSK2 is involved in the prometastatic programming of HNSCC cells, through phosphorylation of proteins in a putative signaling network. Moreover, targeting RSK2 markedly attenuates in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of HNSCC cells, suggesting that RSK2 may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of metastatic HNSCC. PMID:20234090

  2. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and S6 Kinase mediate diazoxide preconditioning in primary rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Somhrita; Rutkai, Ibolya; Katakam, Prasad V G; Busija, David W

    2015-09-01

    We examined the role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in delayed diazoxide (DZ)-induced preconditioning of cultured rat primary cortical neurons. Neurons were treated for 3 days with 500 ?M DZ or feeding medium and then exposed to 3 h of continuous normoxia in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium with glucose or with 3 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by normoxia and feeding medium. The OGD decreased viability by 50%, depolarized mitochondria, and reduced mitochondrial respiration, whereas DZ treatment improved viability and mitochondrial respiration, and suppressed reactive oxygen species production, but did not restore mitochondrial membrane potential after OGD. Neuroprotection by DZ was associated with increased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), mTOR, and the major mTOR downstream substrate, S6 Kinase (S6K). The mTOR inhibitors rapamycin and Torin-1, as well as S6K-targeted siRNA abolished the protective effects of DZ. The effects of DZ on mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species production were not affected by rapamycin. Preconditioning with DZ also changed mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. We conclude that in addition to reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, DZ protects against OGD by activation of the Akt-mTOR-S6K pathway and by changes in mitochondrial respiration. Ischemic strokes have limited therapeutic options. Diazoxide (DZ) preconditioning can reduce neuronal damage. Using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), we studied Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling and mitochondrial respiration in neuronal preconditioning. We found DZ protects neurons against OGD via the Akt/mTOR/S6K pathway and alters the mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. This suggests that the Akt/mTOR/S6k pathway and mitochondria are novel stroke targets. PMID:26016889

  3. Immediate-early response 5 (IER5) interacts with protein phosphatase 2A and regulates the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shotaro; Ishita, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Yukio; Sakurai, Hiroshi

    2015-11-30

    Immediate-early response 5 (IER5) is a growth factor-inducible protein with homology to the N-terminus of IER2. Deletion analysis shows that a large region of IER5, including the N-terminal region, is involved in cell growth and stress resistance. The N-terminal region mediates IER5 oligomerization and binding to the B55 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). IER5 physically interacts with the PP2A target proteins ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and the interactions are essential for the reduced phosphorylation of S6K and HSF1. Our data indicate that oligomeric IER5 regulates PP2A activity and cell growth. PMID:26496226

  4. Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1 at Thr421/Ser424 and Dephosphorylation at Thr389 Regulates SP600125-Induced Polyploidization of Megakaryocytic Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Di; Zhao, Yong-Shan; Liu, Shuo; Xing, Si-Ning; Zhao, Song; Chen, Cong-Qin; Jiang, Zhi-Ming; Pu, Fei-Fei; Cao, Jian-Ping; Ma, Dong-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) are one of the few cell types that become polyploid; however, the mechanisms by which these cells are designated to become polyploid are not fully understood. In this investigation, we successfully established two relatively synchronous polyploid cell models by inducing Dami and CMK cells with SP600125. We found that SP600125 induced the polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells, concomitant with the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389. The polyploidization was partially blocked by H-89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, through direct binding to S6K1, leading to dephosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and phosphorylation at Thr389, independent of PKA. Overexpression of a rapamycin-resistant mutant of S6K1 further enhanced the inhibitory effect of LY294002 on the SP600125-induced polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells. SP600125 also induced the polyploidization of Meg-01 cells, which are derived from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, without causing a significant change in S6K1 phosphorylation. Additionally, SP600125 induced the polyploidization of HEL cells, which are derived from a patient with erythroleukemia, and phosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 was detected. However, the polyploidization of both Meg-01 cells and HEL cells as a result of SP600125 treatment was lower than that of SP600125-induced Dami and CMK cells, and it was not blocked by H-89 despite the increased phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr389 in both cell lines in response to H-89. Given that the Dami and CMK cell lines were derived from patients with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) and expressed high levels of platelet-specific antigens, our data suggested that SP600125-induced polyploidization is cell-type specific, that these cell lines were more differentiated, and that phosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 may play an important role in the SP600125-induced polyploidization of these cell lines synergistically with other signaling pathways. PMID:25486532

  5. Focal adhesion kinase is required for IGF-I-mediated growth of skeletal muscle cells via a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-associated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Hannah; Kazi, Abid A.; Lang, Charles H.; Timmons, James A.; Pierre, Philippe; Wilkinson, Daniel J.; Smith, Kenneth; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an attachment complex protein associated with the regulation of muscle mass through as-of-yet unclear mechanisms. We tested whether FAK is functionally important for muscle hypertrophy, with the hypothesis that FAK knockdown (FAK-KD) would impede cell growth associated with a trophic stimulus. C2C12 skeletal muscle cells harboring FAK-targeted (FAK-KD) or scrambled (SCR) shRNA were created using lentiviral transfection techniques. Both FAK-KD and SCR myotubes were incubated for 24 h with IGF-I (10 ng/ml), and additional SCR cells (±IGF-1) were incubated with a FAK kinase inhibitor before assay of cell growth. Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and putative FAK signaling mechanisms (immunoblotting and coimmunoprecipitation) were assessed. IGF-I-induced increases in myotube width (+41 ± 7% vs. non-IGF-I-treated) and total protein (+44 ± 6%) were, after 24 h, attenuated in FAK-KD cells, whereas MPS was suppressed in FAK-KD vs. SCR after 4 h. These blunted responses were associated with attenuated IGF-I-induced FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation and markedly suppressed phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and critical downstream mTOR signaling (ribosomal S6 kinase, eIF4F assembly) in FAK shRNA cells (all P < 0.05 vs. IGF-I-treated SCR cells). However, binding of FAK to TSC2 or its phosphatase Shp-2 was not affected by IGF-I or cell phenotype. Finally, FAK-KD-mediated suppression of cell growth was recapitulated by direct inhibition of FAK kinase activity in SCR cells. We conclude that FAK is required for IGF-I-induced muscle hypertrophy, signaling through a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-dependent pathway via means requiring the kinase activity of FAK but not altered FAK-TSC2 or FAK-Shp-2 binding. PMID:23695213

  6. Functional characterization of human RSK4, a new 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase, reveals constitutive activation in most cell types.

    PubMed

    Dümmler, Bettina A; Hauge, Camilla; Silber, Joachim; Yntema, Helger G; Kruse, Lars S; Kofoed, Birte; Hemmings, Brian A; Alessi, Dario R; Frödin, Morten

    2005-04-01

    The 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK1-3) are important mediators of growth factor stimulation of cellular proliferation, survival, and differentiation and are activated via coordinated phosphorylation by ERK and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Here we performed the functional characterization of a predicted new human RSK homologue, RSK4. We showed that RSK4 is a predominantly cytosolic protein with very low expression and several characteristics of the RSK family kinases, including the presence of two functional kinase domains and a C-terminal docking site for ERK. Surprisingly, however, in all cell types analyzed, endogenous RSK4 was maximally (constitutively) activated under serum-starved conditions where other RSKs are inactive due to their requirement for growth factor stimulation. Constitutive activation appeared to result from constitutive phosphorylation of Ser232, Ser372, and Ser389, and the low basal ERK activity in serum-starved cells appeared to be sufficient for induction of approximately 50% of the constitutive RSK4 activity. Finally experiments in mouse embryonic stem cells with targeted deletion of the PDK1 gene suggested that PDK1 was not required for phosphorylation of Ser232, a key regulatory site in the activation loop of the N-terminal kinase domain, that in other RSKs is phosphorylated by PDK1. The unusual regulation and growth factor-independent kinase activity indicate that RSK4 is functionally distinct from other RSKs and may help explain recent findings suggesting that RSK4 can participate in non-growth factor signaling as for instance p53-induced growth arrest. PMID:15632195

  7. S6K1 controls autophagosome maturation in autophagy induced by sulforaphane or serum deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ha?, Aleksandra; Domachowska, Anna; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Cyske, Karolina; Pawlik, Anna; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that mTORC1 suppresses autophagy by phosphorylation and inactivation of proteins involved in autophagosome formation. However, the role of its substrate, p70S6 kinase1 (S6K1), in autophagy is quite controversial. In some models S6K1 activity correlates with autophagy suppression, however, some other studies show that S6K1 promotes rather than inhibits this process. Here, we investigated the role of S6K1 in prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and non-cancerous, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), either treated with autophagy inducer sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous plants, or deprived of serum. Our results indicate that constitutively active S6K1 decreases the level of LC3 processing and foci formation by autophagosomal vacuoles in cells treated with sulforaphane. On the other hand, presence of S6K1 is necessary for autophagosome maturation under conditions of autophagy induced by either sulforaphane or serum deprivation. Diminished level of S6K1 or lack of S6 kinases results in both, accumulation of autophagosomes and drop in the autophagolysosome number, and thus disturbs autophagy flux under stress conditions. Moreover, lack of S6 kinases reduces cell survival under stress conditions. PMID:26054233

  8. Regulation of Ribosomal S6 Protein Kinase-p90rsk, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3, and ?-Catenin in Early Xenopus Development

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Monica A.; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Krebs, Edwin G.; Moon, Randall T.

    1999-01-01

    ?-Catenin is a multifunctional protein that binds cadherins at the plasma membrane, HMG box transcription factors in the nucleus, and several cytoplasmic proteins that are involved in regulating its stability. In developing embryos and in some human cancers, the accumulation of ?-catenin in the cytoplasm and subsequently the nuclei of cells may be regulated by the Wnt-1 signaling cascade and by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). This has increased interest in regulators of both GSK-3 and ?-catenin. Searching for kinase activities able to phosphorylate the conserved, inhibitory-regulatory GSK-3 residue serine 9, we found p90rsk to be a potential upstream regulator of GSK-3. Overexpression of p90rsk in Xenopus embryos leads to increased steady-state levels of total ?-catenin but not of the free soluble protein. Instead, p90rsk overexpression increases the levels of ?-catenin in a cell fraction containing membrane-associated cadherins. Consistent with the lack of elevation of free ?-catenin levels, ectopic p90rsk was unable to rescue dorsal cell fate in embryos ventralized by UV irradiation. We show that p90rsk is a downstream target of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during early Xenopus development, since ectopic FGF signaling activates both endogenous and overexpressed p90rsk. Moreover, overexpression of a dominant negative FGF receptor, which blocks endogenous FGF signaling, leads to decreased p90rsk kinase activity. Finally, we report that FGF inhibits endogenous GSK-3 activity in Xenopus embryos. We hypothesize that FGF and p90rsk play heretofore unsuspected roles in modulating GSK-3 and ?-catenin. PMID:9891076

  9. Mechanical stretch activates mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Naoya; Kawano, Fuminori; Nakata, Ken

    2015-08-01

    Cellular protein synthesis is believed to be antagonistically regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined the relationship between mTOR/p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and AMPK in response to mechanical stretch. C2C12 myoblasts were grown on a silicone elastomer chamber to confluence and further cultured in differentiation medium for 4 days to form multinucleated myotubes. Cells were subjected to 15% cyclic uniaxial stretch for 4 h at a frequency of 1 Hz. Phosphorylation of p70S6K at threonine 389 and AMPK at threonine 172 of the catalytic ? subunit were concomitantly increased by mechanical stretch. Stimulation of the mTOR pathway by adding leucine and insulin increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K without inactivation of AMPK. In contrast, addition of compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K in stretched cells. Activation of AMPK by the addition of 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleoside reduced the phosphorylation of p70S6K in response to mechanical stretch. In conclusion, crosstalk between mTOR and AMPK signaling was not tightly regulated in response to physiological stimuli, such as mechanical stress and/or nutrients. However, pharmacological modulation of AMPK influenced the mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. PMID:25971373

  10. Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling.

    PubMed

    Apr, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Bjrn; van Hall, Gerrit; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-03-15

    Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3 h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (?90%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr(389) phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased severalfold immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (?55 and ?110%, respectively, P < 0.05) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation was reduced (?55%, P < 0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P < 0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTOR complex 1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown. PMID:25605643

  11. mGluR-Dependent Long-Term Depression Is Associated with Increased Phosphorylation of S6 and Synthesis of Elongation Factor 1A but Remains Expressed in S6K-Deficient Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Antion, Marcia D.; Hou, Lingfei; Wong, Helen; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Klann, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) in the hippocampus requires rapid protein synthesis, which suggests that mGluR activation is coupled to signaling pathways that regulate translation. Herein, we have investigated the signaling pathways that couple group I mGluRs to ribosomal S6 protein phosphorylation and 5?oligopyrimidine tract (5?TOP)-encoded protein synthesis during mGluR-LTD. We found that mGluR-LTD was associated with increased phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (S6K1) and S6, as well as the synthesis of the 5?TOP-encoded protein elongation factor 1A (EF1A). Moreover, we found that LTD-associated increases in S6K1 phosphorylation, S6 phosphorylation, and levels of EF1A were sensitive to inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). However, mGluR-LTD was normal in S6K1 knockout mice and enhanced in both S6K2 knockout mice and S6K1/S6K2 double knockout mice. In addition, we observed that LTD-associated increases in S6 phosphorylation were still increased in S6K1- and S6K2-deficient mice, whereas basal levels of EF1A were abnormally elevated. Taken together, these findings indicate that mGluR-LTD is associated with PI3K-, mTOR-, and ERK-dependent alterations in the phosphorylation of S6 and S6K. Our data also suggest that S6Ks are not required for the expression of mGluR-LTD and that the synthesis of 5?TOP-encoded proteins is independent of S6Ks during mGluR-LTD. PMID:18316404

  12. Basic anatomy and tumor biology of the RPS6KA6 gene that encodes the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase-4

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Cao, Shousong; Yang, Min; Wu, Sihong; Wang, Zhe; Lin, Xiukun; Song, Xiangrang; Liao, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The RPS6KA6 gene encodes the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase-4 (RSK4) that is still largely uncharacterized. In this study we identified a new RSK4 transcription initiation site and several alternative splice sites with a 5’RACE approach. The resulting mRNA variants encompass four possible first start codons. The first 15 nucleotides (nt) of exon 22 in mouse and the penultimate exon in both human (exon 21) and mouse (exon 24) RSK4 underwent alternative splicing, although the penultimate exon deleted variant appeared mainly in cell clines, but not in most normal tissues. Demethylation agent 5-azacytidine inhibited the deletion of the penultimate exon whereas two indolocarbazole-derived inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinase 4 or 6 induced deletion of the first 39 nt from exon 21 of human RSK4. In all human cancer cell lines studied, the 90-kD wild type RSK4 was sparse but, surprisingly, several isoforms at or smaller than 72-kD were expressed as detected by seven different antibodies. On immunoblots, each of these smaller isoforms often appeared as a duplet or triplet and the levels of these isoforms varied greatly among different cell lines and culture conditions. Cyclin D1 inhibited RSK4 expression and serum starvation enhanced the inhibition, whereas c-Myc and RSK4 inhibited cyclin D1. The effects of RSK4 on cell growth, cell death and chemoresponse depended on the mRNA variant or the protein isoform expressed, on the specificity of the cell lines, as well as on the anchorage-dependent or -independent growth conditions and the in vivo situation. Moreover, we also observed that even a given cDNA might be expressed to multiple proteins; therefore, when using a cDNA, one needs to exclude this possibility before attribution of the biological results from the cDNA to the anticipated protein. Collectively, our results suggest that whether RSK4 is oncogenic or tumor suppressive depends on many factors. PMID:22614021

  13. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Apr, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Bjrn; Rooyackers, Olav; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids (EAAs). Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied EAAs with leucine, EAAs without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ?280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAAs and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly. PMID:26169935

  14. Hydroxychloroquine Destabilizes Phospho-S6 in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Ok; Mustafa, Aladdin; Hudes, Gary R.; Kruger, Warren D.

    2015-01-01

    mTOR inhibitors are used to treat metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC), but most patients eventually become resistant. One possible mechanism for resistance is upregulation of autophagy, a pathway that helps recycle intracellular proteins and promotes cell survival. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a potent autophagy inhibitor used to treat malaria and autoimmune disorders, is currently being studied in the context of cancer treatment. Here, we have investigated the effects of HCQ on three different renal carcinoma derived cell lines. We found that HCQ treatment inhibits RCC cell growth, promotes apoptosis, inhibits mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and increases rates of glycolysis. To understand the molecular mechanism behind these effects, we examined various nodes in the mTOR pathway and compared the effects of HCQ with the effects of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001. A key downstream readout of the pathway, phospho-S6 protein, was inhibited by both HCQ and RAD001. However, the upstream kinase, P70S6K was only inhibited by RAD001 and not HCQ, suggesting that the block by HCQ was downstream of P70S6K. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib restored phospho-S6 levels, suggesting that the reduction of phospho-S6 is caused by increased degradation of phospho-S6, but not total S6. Surprisingly, treatment with other autophagy inhibitors did not exhibit the same effects. Our findings suggest that HCQ causes the down-regulation of phospho-S6 in RCC cell lines via a novel mechanism that is not shared with other autophagy inhibitors. PMID:26134285

  15. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  16. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many

  17. The mTOR Kinase Inhibitor INK128 Blunts Migration of Cultured Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Calton, Melissa A; Vollrath, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell migration in response to disease has been reported for age-related macular degeneration, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The complex molecular process of RPE cell migration is regulated in part by growth factors and cytokines, and activation of the PI3/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Rapamycin, an allosteric mTOR inhibitor, has been shown to block only one of the primary downstream mTOR effectors, p70 S6 kinase 1, in many cell types. INK128, a selective mTOR ATP binding site competitor, blocks both p70 S6 kinase 1 and a second primary downstream effector, 4E-BP1. We performed scratch assays using differentiated ARPE-19 and primary porcine RPE cells to assess the effect of mTOR inhibition on cell migration. We found that INK128-mediated blocking of both p70 S6 kinase 1 and 4E-BP1 was much more effective at preventing RPE cell migration than rapamycin-mediated inhibition of p70 S6 kinase 1 alone. PMID:26427479

  18. Haloperidol Regulates the State of Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 via Activation of PKA and Phosphorylation of DARPP-32

    PubMed Central

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Bowling, Heather; Lopez, Sbastien; Santini, Emanuela; Matamales, Miriam; Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Herv, Denis; Hoeffer, Charles; Klann, Eric; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Fisone, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Administration of typical antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol, promotes cAMP-dependent signaling in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum. In this study, we have examined the effect of haloperidol on the state of phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit. We found that haloperidol increases the phosphorylation of rpS6 at the dual site Ser235/236, which is involved in the regulation of mRNA translation. This effect was exerted in the MSNs of the indirect pathway, which express specifically dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and adenosine A2 receptors (A2ARs). The effect of haloperidol was decreased by blockade of A2ARs or by genetic attenuation of the G?olf protein, which couples A2ARs to activation of adenylyl cyclase. Moreover, stimulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) increased Ser235/236 phosphorylation in cultured striatal neurons. The ability of haloperidol to promote rpS6 phosphorylation was abolished in knock-in mice deficient for PKA activation of the protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32?kDa. In contrast, pharmacological or genetic inactivation of p70 rpS6 kinase 1, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases did not affect haloperidol-induced rpS6 phosphorylation. These results identify PKA as a major rpS6 kinase in neuronal cells and suggest that regulation of protein synthesis through rpS6 may be a potential target of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21814187

  19. Insights into the Inhibition of the p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) by the Flavonol Glycoside SL0101 from the 1.5 Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of RSK2 with Bound Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Derewenda, Urszula; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Szukalska, Gabriela; Banerjee, Budhaditya; Hilinski, Michael K.; Lannigan, Deborah A.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2012-09-11

    The p90 ribosomal S6 family of kinases (RSK) are potential drug targets, due to their involvement in cancer and other pathologies. There are currently only two known selective inhibitors of RSK, but the basis for selectivity is not known. One of these inhibitors is a naturally occurring kaempferol-a-l-diacetylrhamnoside, SL0101. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of the N-terminal kinase domain of the RSK2 isoform with SL0101 at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. The refined atomic model reveals unprecedented structural reorganization of the protein moiety, as compared to the nucleotide-bound form. The entire N-lobe, the hinge region, and the aD-helix undergo dramatic conformational changes resulting in a rearrangement of the nucleotide binding site with concomitant formation of a highly hydrophobic pocket spatially suited to accommodate SL0101. These unexpected results will be invaluable in further optimization of the SL0101 scaffold as a promising lead for a novel class of kinase inhibitors.

  20. Glyceollin, a novel regulator of mTOR/p70S6 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An estimated 70% of breast cancer tumors utilize estrogen receptor (ER) signaling to maintain tumorigenesis, and targeting of the estrogen receptor is a common method of treatment for these tumor types. However, ER-positive (+) breast cancers often acquire drug resistant or altered ER activity in r...

  1. Glutamate-dependent translational control through ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in cultured bergmann glial cells.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mndez, Marco; Escalante-Lpez, Miguel; Martnez-Lozada, Zila; Hernndez-Kelly, Luisa C; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Ortega, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Glutamate (Glu) the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system regulates gene expression at different levels through the activation of specific membrane receptors and transporters expressed in neurons and glia cells. A membrane to nucleus signaling cascade triggered by this neurotransmitter has been described in cultured cerebellar Bergmann glia cells isolated from chick embryos. Furthermore, it has also been described that Glu receptors activation is linked to a modulation of [(35)S]-methionine incorporation into newly synthesized polypeptides. In order to gain insight into the signal transduction cascades that participate in this effect, in the present study we characterized the phosphorylation of a critical component of the translational machinery, namely the ribosomal protein S6. The phosphorylation sites in rpS6 have been mapped to five clustered residues, Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, Ser244 and Ser247. Nevertheless, Ser236 phosphorylation is the primary phosphorylation site. The kinases responsible of this modification are p70(S6K) and p90(RSK). rpS6 phosphorylation increases the affinity of 40s subunit for mRNAs and thus facilitates translational initiation. Glutamate exposure of cultured cerebellar Bergmann glia cells results in a time- and dose-dependent increase in rpS6 phosphorylation. This effect is mainly observed at cytoplasm, and involves the phosphoinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B pathway. Our results favor the notion of a continuous neuronal signaling to glia cells that regulates the proteome of these cells not only at the transcriptional level but also at the level of protein synthesis. PMID:25736255

  2. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor family protein 2 is a key mediator of the epidermal growth factor-induced ribosomal S6 kinase 2/cAMP-responsive element-binding protein/Fos protein signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cong; Zhu, Feng; Wen, Weihong; Yao, Ke; Li, Shengqing; Zykova, Tatyana; Liu, Kangdong; Li, Xiang; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2012-07-27

    TRAF2 has an important function in mediating the TNF-R signaling pathway toward activation of NF-κB and JNKs. Here we reveal a novel function of TRAF2 in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRAF2 blocked EGF-induced AP-1 activity and anchorage- independent cell transformation. Notably, we showed that EGF induces ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) ubiquitination, and knocking down TRAF2 suppresses ubiquitination of RSK2 induced by EGF. We also found that TRAF2 affects RSK2 activity through RSK2 ubiquitination. RSK2 plays a critical role in AP-1 activity mediated through CREB and c-Fos, which regulates anchorage-independent cell transformation. In addition, TRAF2 is overexpressed in colon cancer and required for colon cancer development, suggesting that TRAF2 might be a potential molecular target for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:22685297

  3. Diacylglycerol kinase α exacerbates cardiac injury after ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toshiki; Shishido, Tetsuro; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Kitahara, Tatsuro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Katoh, Shigehiko; Funayama, Akira; Netsu, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Tetsu; Goto, Kaoru; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Early coronary reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium is a desired therapeutic goal for the preservation of myocardial function. However, reperfusion itself causes additional myocardium injuries. Activation of the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C (DAG-PKC) cascade has been implicated in the cardioprotective effects occurring after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). DAG kinase (DGK) controls cellular DAG levels by converting DAG to phosphatidic acid, and may act as an endogenous regulator of DAG-PKC signaling. In the present study, we examined the functional role of DGKα in cardiac injury after I/R in in vivo mouse hearts. We generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of DGKα (DGKα-TG). The left anterior descending coronary artery was transiently occluded for 20 min and reperfused for 24 h in DGKα-TG mice and wild-type littermate (WT) mice. The levels of phosphorylation activity of PKCε, extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) were increased after I/R in WT mouse hearts. However, in DGKα-TG mice, activation of PKCε, ERK1/2, and p70S6K was attenuated compared to WT mice. After 24 h, Evans blue/triphenyltetrazolium chloride double staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining showed that DGKα-TG mice had significantly larger myocardial infarctions and larger numbers of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes than WT mice. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization revealed that left ventricular systolic function was more severely depressed in DGKα-TG mice than in WT mice after I/R. These findings suggest that DGKα exacerbates I/R injury by inhibiting the cardioprotective effects of PKCε, ERK1/2, and p70S6K activation. PMID:23719772

  4. Luteolin is a novel p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor that suppresses Notch4 signaling by blocking the activation of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1)

    PubMed Central

    Reipas, Kristen M.; Law, Jennifer H.; Couto, Nicole; Islam, Sumaiya; Li, Yvonne; Li, Huifang; Cherkasov, Artem; Jung, Karen; Cheema, Amarpal S.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Hassell, John A.; Dunn, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are notoriously difficult to treat because they lack hormone receptors and have limited targeted therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is essential for TNBC growth and survival indicating it as a target for therapeutic development. RSK phosphorylates Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), an oncogenic transcription/translation factor, highly expressed in TNBC (~70% of cases) and associated with poor prognosis, drug resistance and tumor initiation. YB-1 regulates the tumor-initiating cell markers, CD44 and CD49f however its role in Notch signaling has not been explored. We sought to identify novel chemical entities with RSK inhibitory activity. The Prestwick Chemical Library of 1120 off-patent drugs was screened for RSK inhibitors using both in vitro kinase assays and molecular docking. The lead candidate, luteolin, inhibited RSK1 and RSK2 kinase activity and suppressed growth in TNBC, including TIC-enriched populations. Combining luteolin with paclitaxel increased cell death and unlike chemotherapy alone, did not enrich for CD44+ cells. Luteolins efficacy against drug-resistant cells was further indicated in the primary x43 cell line, where it suppressed monolayer growth and mammosphere formation. We next endeavored to understand how the inhibition of RSK/YB-1 signaling by luteolin elicited an effect on TIC-enriched populations. ChIP-on-ChIP experiments in SUM149 cells revealed a 12-fold enrichment of YB-1 binding to the Notch4 promoter. We chose to pursue this because there are several reports indicating that Notch4 maintains cells in an undifferentiated, TIC state. Herein we report that silencing YB-1 with siRNA decreased Notch4 mRNA. Conversely, transient expression of Flag:YB-1WT or the constitutively active mutant Flag:YB-1D102 increased Notch4 mRNA. The levels of Notch4 transcript and the abundance of the Notch4 intracellular domain (N4ICD) correlated with activation of P-RSKS221/7 and P-YB-1S102 in a panel of TNBC cell lines. Silencing YB-1 or RSK reduced Notch4 mRNA and this corresponded with loss of N4ICD. Likewise, the RSK inhibitors, luteolin and BI-D1870, suppressed P-YB-1 S102 and thereby reduced Notch4. In conclusion, inhibiting the RSK/YB-1 pathway with luteolin is a novel approach to blocking Notch4 signaling and as such provides a means of inhibiting TICs. PMID:23593654

  5. Palmatine inhibits growth and invasion in prostate cancer cell: Potential role for rpS6/NF?B/FLIP.

    PubMed

    Hambright, Heather G; Batth, Izhar Singh; Xie, Jianping; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki Pratap

    2015-10-01

    Novel agents are desperately needed for improving the quality of life and 5-year survival to more than 30% for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Previously we showed that Nexrutine, Phellodendron amurense bark extract, inhibits prostate tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently using biochemical fractionation we identified butanol fraction contributes to the observed biological activities. We report here that palmatine, which is present in the butanol fraction, selectively inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells without significant effect on non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. By screening receptor tyrosine kinases in a protein kinase array, we identified ribosomal protein S6, a downstream target of p70S6K and the Akt/mTOR signaling cascade as a potential target. We further show that palmatine treatment is associated with decreased activation of NF?B and its downstream target gene FLIP. These events led to inhibition of invasion. Similar results were obtained using parent extract Nexrutine (Nx) suggesting that palmatine either in the purified form or as one of the components in Nx is a potent cytotoxic agent with tumor invasion inhibitory properties. Synergistic inhibition of rpS6/NF?B/FLIP axis with palmatine may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer and possibly other malignancies with their constitutive activation. These data support a biological link between rpS6/NF?B/FLIP in mediating palmatine-induced inhibitory effects and warrants additional preclinical studies to test its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25043857

  6. The prometastatic ribosomal S6 kinase 2-cAMP response element-binding protein (RSK2-CREB) signaling pathway up-regulates the actin-binding protein fascin-1 to promote tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Jin, Lingtao; Alesi, Gina N; Kim, Young-Mee; Fan, Jun; Seo, Jae Ho; Wang, Dongsheng; Tucker, Meghan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Lee, Benjamin H; Taunton, Jack; Magliocca, Kelly R; Chen, Zhuo G; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Kang, Sumin

    2013-11-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with breast, lung, and head and neck cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metastases in these cancers remain unclear. We found that the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2)-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway is commonly activated in diverse metastatic human cancer cells, leading to up-regulation of a CREB transcription target Fascin-1. We also observed that the protein expression patterns of RSK2 and Fascin-1 correlate in primary human tumor tissue samples from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Moreover, knockdown of RSK2 disrupts filopodia formation and bundling in highly invasive cancer cells, leading to attenuated cancer cell invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas expression of Fascin-1 significantly rescues these phenotypes. Furthermore, targeting RSK2 with the small molecule RSK inhibitor FMK-MEA effectively attenuated the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Taken together, our findings for the first time link RSK2-CREB signaling to filopodia formation and bundling through the up-regulation of Fascin-1, providing a proinvasive and prometastatic advantage to human cancers. Therefore, protein effectors of the RSK2-CREB-Fascin-1 pathway represent promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the clinical prognosis and treatment of metastatic human cancers. PMID:24085294

  7. PDK1, the master regulator of AGC kinase signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Mora, Alfonso; Komander, David; van Aalten, Daan M F; Alessi, Dario R

    2004-04-01

    The interaction of insulin and growth factors with their receptors on the outside surface of a cell, leads to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and generation of the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) second messenger at the inner surface of the cell membrane. One of the most studied signalling events controlled by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, comprises the activation of a group of AGC family protein kinases, including isoforms of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K), serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK) and protein kinase C (PKC), which play crucial roles in regulating physiological processes relevant to metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. Here, we review recent biochemical, genetic and structural studies on the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and activates the AGC kinase members regulated by PI 3-kinase. We also discuss whether inhibitors of PDK1 might have chemotherapeutic potential in the treatment of cancers in which the PDK1-regulated AGC kinases are constitutively activated. PMID:15209375

  8. The Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase (PI3K)-Delta and Gamma Inhibitor, IPI-145, Overcomes Signals from the PI3K/AKT/S6 Pathway and Promotes Apoptosis in CLL

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, K; Peluso, M; Fu, M; Rosin, NY; Burger, JA; Wierda, WG; Keating, MJ; Faia, K; OBrien, S; Kutok, JL; Gandhi, V

    2015-01-01

    The functional relevance of the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the evolution of protein kinases as therapeutic targets have recently shifted the paradigm for treatment of B-cell malignancies. Inhibition of p110? with idelalisib has shown clinical activity in CLL. The dynamic interplay of isoforms p110? and p110? in leukocytes support the hypothesis that dual blockade may provide a therapeutic benefit. IPI-145, an oral inhibitor of p110? and p110? isoforms, sensitizes BCR- stimulated and/or stromal co-cultured primary CLL cells to apoptosis (median 20%, n=57; p<0.0001) including samples with poor prognostic markers, unmutated IgVH (n=28) and prior treatment (n=15) (p<0.0001). IPI-145 potently inhibits the CD40L/IL-2/IL-10 induced proliferation of CLL cells with an IC50 in sub-nanomolar range. A corresponding dose responsive inhibition of pAKTSer473 is observed with an IC50 of 0.36 nM. IPI-145 diminishes the BCR- induced chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 secretion to 17% and 37% respectively. Pre-treatment with 1 ?M IPI-145 inhibits the chemotaxis towards CXCL12; reduces pseudoemperipolesis to median 50%, inferring its ability to interfere with homing capabilities of CLL cells. BCR- activated signaling proteins AKTSer473, BADSer112, ERKThr202/Tyr204 and S6Ser235/236 are mitigated by IPI-145. Importantly, for clinical development in hematological malignancies, IPI-145 is selective to CLL B-cells, sparing normal B- and T-lymphocytes. PMID:25917267

  9. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-delta and gamma inhibitor, IPI-145 (Duvelisib), overcomes signals from the PI3K/AKT/S6 pathway and promotes apoptosis in CLL.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, K; Peluso, M; Fu, M; Rosin, N Y; Burger, J A; Wierda, W G; Keating, M J; Faia, K; O'Brien, S; Kutok, J L; Gandhi, V

    2015-09-01

    The functional relevance of the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the evolution of protein kinases as therapeutic targets have recently shifted the paradigm for treatment of B-cell malignancies. Inhibition of p110? with idelalisib has shown clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The dynamic interplay of isoforms p110? and p110? in leukocytes support the hypothesis that dual blockade may provide a therapeutic benefit. IPI-145, an oral inhibitor of p110? and p110? isoforms, sensitizes BCR-stimulated and/or stromal co-cultured primary CLL cells to apoptosis (median 20%, n=57; P<0.0001) including samples with poor prognostic markers, unmutated IgVH (n=28) and prior treatment (n=15; P<0.0001). IPI-145 potently inhibits the CD40L/IL-2/IL-10 induced proliferation of CLL cells with an IC50 in sub-nanomolar range. A corresponding dose-responsive inhibition of pAKT(Ser473) is observed with an IC50 of 0.36?nM. IPI-145 diminishes the BCR-induced chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 secretion to 17% and 37%, respectively. Pre-treatment with 1??M IPI-145 inhibits the chemotaxis toward CXCL12; reduces pseudoemperipolesis to median 50%, inferring its ability to interfere with homing capabilities of CLL cells. BCR-activated signaling proteins AKT(Ser473), BAD(Ser112), ERK(Thr202/Tyr204) and S6(Ser235/236) are mitigated by IPI-145. Importantly, for clinical development in hematological malignancies, IPI-145 is selective to CLL B cells, sparing normal B- and T-lymphocytes. PMID:25917267

  10. Development of Organometallic S6K1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is found in many diseases, including diabetes, aging, and cancer. We developed ATP competitive organometallic kinase inhibitors, EM5 and FL772, which are inspired by the structure of the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine, to specifically inhibit S6K1 using a strategy previously used to target other kinases. Biochemical data demonstrate that EM5 and FL772 inhibit the kinase with IC50 value in the low nanomolar range at 100 ?M ATP and that the more potent FL772 compound has a greater than 100-fold specificity over S6K2. The crystal structures of S6K1 bound to staurosporine, EM5, and FL772 reveal that the EM5 and FL772 inhibitors bind in the ATP binding pocket and make S6K1-specific contacts, resulting in changes to the p-loop, ?C helix, and ?D helix when compared to the staurosporine-bound structure. Cellular data reveal that FL772 is able to inhibit S6K phosphorylation in yeast cells. Together, these studies demonstrate that potent, selective, and cell permeable S6K1 inhibitors can be prepared and provide a scaffold for future development of S6K inhibitors with possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25356520

  11. Changes in growth-related kinases in head, neck and limb muscles with age

    PubMed Central

    Rahnert, Jill A.; Luo, Qingwei; Balog, Edward M.; Sokoloff, Alan J.; Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia coincides with declines in several systemic processes that signal through the MAP kinase and Akt-mTOR-p70S6k cascades typically associated with muscle growth. Effects of aging on these pathways have primarily been examined in limb muscles, which experience substantial activity and neural changes in addition to systemic hormonal and metabolic changes. Head and neck muscles are reported to undergo reduced sarcopenia and disuse with age relative to limb muscles, suggesting muscle activity may contribute to maintaining mass with age. However many head and neck muscles derive from embryonic branchial arches, rather than the somites from which limb muscles originate, suggesting that developmental origin may be important. This study compares the expression and phosphorylation of MAP kinase and mTOR networks in head, neck, tongue, and limb muscles from 8- and 26-month old F344 rats to test the hypothesis that physical activity and developmental origin contribute to preservation of muscle mass with age. Phosphorylation of p38 was exaggerated in aged branchial arch muscles. Phosphorylation of ERK and p70S6k T421/S424 declined with age only in the biceps brachii. Expression of p70S6k declined in all head and neck, tongue and limb muscles although no change in phosphorylation of p70S6k on T389 could be resolved. A systemic change that results in a loss of p70S6k protein expression may reduce the capacity to respond to acute hypertrophic stimuli, while the exaggerated p38 signaling in branchial arch muscles may reflect more active muscle remodeling. PMID:21095226

  12. Application of the [γ-32P] ATP kinase assay to study anabolic signaling in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    McGlory, Chris; White, Amanda; Treins, Caroline; Drust, Barry; Close, Graeme L.; MacLaren, Don P. M.; Campbell, Iain T.; Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon; Morton, James P.

    2014-01-01

    AMPK (AMP-dependant protein kinase)-mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin in complex 1)-p70S6K1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 of 70 kDa) signaling plays a crucial role in muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Understanding this pathway has been advanced by the application of the Western blot (WB) technique. However, because many components of the mTORC1 pathway undergo numerous, multisite posttranslational modifications, solely studying the phosphorylation changes of mTORC1 and its substrates may not adequately represent the true metabolic signaling processes. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a quantitative in vitro [γ-32P] ATP kinase assay (KA) for p70S6K1 to assess kinase activity in human skeletal muscle to resistance exercise (RE) and protein feeding. In an initial series of experiments the assay was validated in tissue culture and in p70S6K1-knockout tissues. Following these experiments, the methodology was applied to assess p70S6K1 signaling responses to a physiologically relevant stimulus. Six men performed unilateral RE followed by the consumption of 20 g of protein. Muscle biopsies were obtained at pre-RE, and 1 and 3 h post-RE. In response to RE and protein consumption, p70S6K1 activity as assessed by the KA was significantly increased from pre-RE at 1 and 3 h post-RE. However, phosphorylated p70S6K1thr389 was not significantly elevated. AMPK activity was suppressed from pre-RE at 3 h post-RE, whereas phosphorylated ACCser79 was unchanged. Total protein kinase B activity also was unchanged after RE from pre-RE levels. Of the other markers we assessed by WB, 4EBP1thr37/46 phosphorylation was the only significant responder, being elevated at 3 h post-RE from pre-RE. These data highlight the utility of the KA to study skeletal muscle plasticity. PMID:24436296

  13. Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Cheol-Hee; Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 ; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389} and phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and phosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K{sup Thr389} and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at Ser{sup 9} and, to a lesser extent, Thr{sup 390}, the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 389}, and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 421} and Ser{sup 424}. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389}; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}, and p-70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our data show that proteasome inhibition regulates p38/GSK{sup Ser9}/p70S6K{sup Thr380} and ERK/GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}/p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} kinase signaling, which is involved in cell survival and cell death.

  14. The N-terminal region of p27 inhibits HIF-1α protein translation in ribosomal protein S6-dependent manner by regulating PHLPP-Ras-ERK-p90RSK axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, D; Liu, J; Mi, X; Liang, Y; Li, J; Huang, C

    2014-01-01

    P27 was identified as a tumor suppressor nearly two decades, being implicated in cell-cycle control, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis and motility. Our present study, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, revealed a potential role of p27 in inhibiting S6-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein translation, which contributed to the protection from environmental carcinogen (sodium arsenite)-induced cell transformation. Our findings showed that depletion of p27 expression by knockout and knockdown approaches efficiently enhanced S6 phosphorylation in arsenite response via overactivating Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which consequently resulted in the stimulation of p90RSK (90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase), a direct kinase for S6 phosphorylation. Although PI3K/AKT pathway was also involved in S6 activation, blocking AKT and p70S6K activation did not attenuate arsenite-induced S6 activation in p27−/− cells, suggesting p27 specifically targeted Ras/ERK pathway rather than PI3K/AKT pathway for inhibition of S6 activation in response to arsenite exposure. Further functional studies found that p27 had a negative role in cell transformation induced by chronic low-dose arsentie exposure. Mechanistic investigations showed that HIF-1α translation was upregulated in p27-deficient cells in an S6 phosphorylation-dependent manner and functioned as a driving force in arsenite-induced cell transformation. Knockdown of HIF-1α efficiently reversed arsenite-induced cell transformation in p27-depleted cells. Taken together, our findings provided strong evidence showing that by targeting Ras/ERK pathway, p27 provided a negative control over HIF-1α protein synthesis in an S6-dependent manner, and abrogated arsenite-induced cell transformation via downregulation of HIF-1α translation. PMID:25412313

  15. Rapamycin-enhanced mitomycin C-induced apoptotic death is mediated through the S6K1BadBak pathway in peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, X; Dilly, A-K; Kim, S-Y; Choudry, H A; Lee, Y J

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the most common secondary cancerous disease, and more effective novel regimens are needed. In this study, we identified a novel combination treatment for PC, chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C in combination with mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin. We observed that the combination of mitomycin C and rapamycin induced synergistic cytotoxicity and apoptosis, which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. The combination of mitomycin C and rapamycin inactivated p70 S6 ribosomal kinase (S6K1) and dephosphorylated Bad, leading to dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bak, which resulted in Bak oligomerization, mitochondria dysfunction and cytochrome c release. PF-4708671, a S6K1-specific inhibitor, enhanced the combination treatment-induced apoptosis, whereas S6K1 E389 DeltaCT-HA (S6K1 active form) dramatically decreased the induction of apoptosis. In addition, the combination treatment significantly inhibited LS174T intraperitoneal tumor growth in vivo. This study provides a preclinical rationale for apoptosis induction linked with the mTOR pathway through a combination of chemotherapeutic agents and mTOR inhibitor, and will support this combinatorial strategy to PC patients. PMID:24901052

  16. Contraction inhibits insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1/2-associated phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity, but not protein kinase B activation or glucose uptake, in rat muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, J P; Soos, M A; Aslesen, R; O'rahilly, S; Jensen, J

    2000-01-01

    The initial stages of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake are thought to involve tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs), which recruit and activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), leading to the activation of protein kinase B (PKB) and other downstream effectors. In contrast, contraction stimulates glucose uptake via a PI 3-kinase-independent mechanism. The combined effects of insulin and contraction on glucose uptake are additive. However, it has been reported that contraction causes a decrease in insulin-stimulated IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity. To investigate this paradox, we have examined the effects of contraction on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and proximal insulin-signalling events in isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle. Stimulation by insulin or contraction produced a 3-fold increase in glucose uptake, with the effects of simultaneous treatment by insulin and contraction being additive. Wortmannin completely blocked the additive effect of insulin in contracting skeletal muscle, indicating that this is a PI 3-kinase-dependent effect. Insulin-stimulated recruitment of PI 3-kinase to IRS-1 was unaffected by contraction; however, insulin produced no discernible increase in PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 or IRS-2 immunocomplexes in contracting skeletal muscle. Consistent with this, contraction inhibited insulin-stimulated p70(S6K) activation. In contrast, insulin-stimulated activation of PKB was unaffected by contraction. Thus, in contracting skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates glucose uptake and activates PKB, but not p70(S6K), by a PI 3-kinase-dependent mechanism that is independent of changes in IRS-1- and IRS-2-associated PI 3-kinase activity. PMID:10903138

  17. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Cristiana S B; Reis, Slvia R L; Pessoa, Ana F M; De Souza, Letcia M I; Stoppiglia, Luiz F; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise A B; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Colodel, Edson M; Arantes, Vanessa C; Latorraca, Mrcia Q

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate ? cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6%) for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC) protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2) was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry. PMID:25860970

  18. Identification of quercitrin as an inhibitor of the p90 S6 ribosomal kinase (RSK): structure of its complex with the N-terminal domain of RSK2 at 1.8 resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Derewenda, Urszula; Artamonov, Mykhaylo; Szukalska, Gabriela; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Parikh, Hardik I.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2013-02-01

    The crystal structure of quercitrin, a naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, has been determined in a complex with the N-terminal kinase domain of murine RSK2. The structure revealed that quercitrin inhibits the RSK2 kinase in the same fashion as another known inhibitor, SL0101. Members of the RSK family of kinases constitute attractive targets for drug design, but a lack of structural information regarding the mechanism of selective inhibitors impedes progress in this field. The crystal structure of the N-terminal kinase domain (residues 45346) of mouse RSK2, or RSK2{sup NTKD}, has recently been described in complex with one of only two known selective inhibitors, a rare naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-(3??,4??-di-O-acetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranoside), known as SL0101. Based on this structure, it was hypothesized that quercitrin (quercetin 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside), a related but ubiquitous and inexpensive compound, might also act as an RSK inhibitor. Here, it is demonstrated that quercitrin binds to RSK2{sup NTKD} with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 5.8 M as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a crystal structure of the binary complex at 1.8 resolution is reported. The crystal structure reveals a very similar mode of binding to that recently reported for SL0101. Closer inspection shows a number of small but significant differences that explain the slightly higher K{sub d} for quercitrin compared with SL0101. It is also shown that quercitrin can effectively substitute for SL0101 in a biological assay, in which it significantly suppresses the contractile force in rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle in response to Ca{sup 2+}.

  19. Bacteriophage P70: Unique Morphology and Unrelatedness to Other Listeria Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Schmuki, Martina M.; Erne, Doris; Loessner, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen, and its bacteriophages find many uses in detection and biocontrol of its host. The novel broad-host-range virulent phage P70 has a unique morphology with an elongated capsid. Its genome sequence was determined by a hybrid sequencing strategy employing Sanger and PacBio techniques. The P70 genome contains 67,170 bp and 119 open reading frames (ORFs). Our analyses suggest that P70 represents an archetype of virus unrelated to other known Listeria bacteriophages. PMID:22993158

  20. S6K1 in the Central Nervous System Regulates Energy Expenditure via MC4R/CRH Pathways in Response to Deprivation of an Essential Amino Acid

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tingting; Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Guo, Feifan

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that the central nervous system (CNS), especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. We have previously shown that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is critical for stimulating fat loss in response to dietary leucine deprivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the CNS regulation of leucine deprivationstimulated fat loss are, however, still largely unknown. Here, we used intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral vectors to identify a novel role for hypothalamic p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a major downstream effector of the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin, in leucine deprivation stimulation of energy expenditure. Furthermore, we show that the effect of hypothalamic S6K1 is mediated by modulation of Crh expression in a melanocortin-4 receptordependent manner. Taken together, our studies provide a new perspective for understanding the regulation of energy expenditure by the CNS and the importance of cross-talk between nutritional control and regulation of endocrine signals. PMID:22787141

  1. Removal of S6K1 and S6K2 Leads to Divergent Alterations in Learning, Memory, and Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antion, Marcia D.; Merhav, Maayan; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Reis, Gerald; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Schuman Erin M.; Rosenblum, Kobi; Klann, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Protein synthesis is required for the expression of enduring memories and long-lasting synaptic plasticity. During cellular proliferation and growth, S6 kinases (S6Ks) are activated and coordinate the synthesis of de novo proteins. We hypothesized that protein synthesis mediated by S6Ks is critical for the manifestation of learning, memory, and

  2. Removal of S6K1 and S6K2 Leads to Divergent Alterations in Learning, Memory, and Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antion, Marcia D.; Merhav, Maayan; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Reis, Gerald; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Schuman Erin M.; Rosenblum, Kobi; Klann, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Protein synthesis is required for the expression of enduring memories and long-lasting synaptic plasticity. During cellular proliferation and growth, S6 kinases (S6Ks) are activated and coordinate the synthesis of de novo proteins. We hypothesized that protein synthesis mediated by S6Ks is critical for the manifestation of learning, memory, and…

  3. Identification of quercitrin as an inhibitor of the p90 S6 ribosomal kinase (RSK): structure of its complex with the N-terminal domain of RSK2 at 1.8? resolution

    PubMed Central

    Derewenda, Urszula; Artamonov, Mykhaylo; Szukalska, Gabriela; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Parikh, Hardik I.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the RSK family of kinases constitute attractive targets for drug design, but a lack of structural information regarding the mechanism of selective inhibitors impedes progress in this field. The crystal structure of the N-terminal kinase domain (residues 45346) of mouse RSK2, or RSK2NTKD, has recently been described in complex with one of only two known selective inhibitors, a rare naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-(3??,4??-di-O-acetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranoside), known as SL0101. Based on this structure, it was hypothesized that quercitrin (quercetin 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside), a related but ubiquitous and inexpensive compound, might also act as an RSK inhibitor. Here, it is demonstrated that quercitrin binds to RSK2NTKD with a dissociation constant (K d) of 5.8?M as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a crystal structure of the binary complex at 1.8? resolution is reported. The crystal structure reveals a very similar mode of binding to that recently reported for SL0101. Closer inspection shows a number of small but significant differences that explain the slightly higher K d for quercitrin compared with SL0101. It is also shown that quercitrin can effectively substitute for SL0101 in a biological assay, in which it significantly suppresses the contractile force in rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle in response to Ca2+. PMID:23385462

  4. Role of antigen selectivity in autoimmune responses to the Ku (p70/p80) antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, W H; Sthoeger, Z M; Lahita, R G

    1989-01-01

    Levels of anti-Ku (p70/p80) antibodies were measured longitudinally in sera from four individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus or related disorders. Antibodies to the native Ku antigen (p70/p80 complex) varied over a range of up to 577-fold. Large fluctuations were also observed in the levels of autoantibodies to several distinct epitopes of the Ku (p70/p80) antigen. Levels of these individual autoantibody populations generally paralleled one another, suggesting that they are coordinately regulated. A similar pattern of anti-DNA antibody fluctuation was seen in some sera. To examine the possibility that these autoantibodies were generated by polyclonal B cell activation, the levels of anti-Ku (p70/p80) and anti-DNA antibodies were compared to the levels of antibodies to Escherichia coli proteins, tetanus toxoid, and bovine insulin, transferrin, cytochrome c, serum albumin, and thyroglobulin. In sera from the same individual, anti-Ku (p70/p80) antibodies were sometimes produced in the complete absence of polyclonal activation, and at other times were accompanied by increased polyclonal activation. Anti-DNA antibody levels more closely paralleled the level of polyclonal activation than did the anti-Ku (p70/p80) levels. These studies suggest that anti-Ku (p70/p80) antibodies are generated by an antigen-selective mechanism, but that polyclonal activation frequently, although not invariably, accompanies autoantibody production. This observation is consistent with the possibility that polyclonal activation might be secondary to autoantibody production. Images PMID:2527251

  5. Effects of heat exposure on Akt/S6K1 signaling and expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in chicken (Gallus gallus) pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Boussaid-Om Ezzine, S; Everaert, N; Mtayer-Coustard, S; Rideau, N; Berri, C; Joubert, R; Temim, S; Collin, A; Tesseraud, S

    2010-11-01

    In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens. We also explored the protein kinase B (PKB also called Akt)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1)/S6 pathway that mediates anabolic signals thereby regulating metabolism and hypertrophic/atrophic balance. Four-week-old chickens were exposed to 32 or 22 degrees C for 1 week. Chickens from both groups were then fasted for 16 h or left fed, and submitted to an oral administration of glucose-arginine to induce an anabolic response (30-min treatment) or left untreated. High ambient temperature and the associated decrease in feed intake modified the expression of certain energy-related genes (e.g. -40% for PGC-1alpha) and protein metabolism (e.g. about +80% for atrogin-1), but the expression of several muscle metabolism-related genes considered here was unchanged. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratio, was reduced in warm conditions (approximately -20%). Slightly lower activation of S6 induced by glucose-arginine treatment was found at 32 degrees C compared to 22 degrees C, which might indicate somewhat lower efficiency of mRNA translation. Analysis of glucose/insulin balance suggested changes in glucose metabolism under heat exposure. However, this remains to be characterized. PMID:20620217

  6. Mitogen inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in intact cells via serine 9 phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Stambolic, V; Woodgett, J R

    1994-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a protein-serine kinase implicated in cell-fate determination and differentiation, phosphorylates several regulatory proteins that are activated by dephosphorylation in response to hormones or growth factors. GSK-3 beta is phosphorylated in vitro at serine 9 by p70 S6 kinase and p90rsk-1, resulting in its inhibition [Sutherland, Leighton, and Cohen (1993) Biochem. J. 296, 15-19]. Using HeLa cells expressing GSK-3 beta or a mutant containing alanine at residue 9, we demonstrate that serine 9 is modified in intact cells and is targeted specifically by p90rsk-1, and that phosphorylation leads to loss of activity. Since p90rsk-1 is directly activated by mitogen-activated protein kinases, agonists of this pathway, such as insulin, repress GSK-3 function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7980435

  7. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase/ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 cascade phosphorylates cAMP response element-binding protein to induce MUC5B gene expression via D-prostanoid receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon Ho; Lee, Sang-Nam; Aoyagi, Hiroki; Yamasaki, Yasundo; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Park, Boryung; Shin, Dong Min; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Yoon, Joo-Heon

    2011-09-30

    Mucus hypersecretion is a prominent feature of respiratory diseases, and MUC5B is a major airway mucin. Mucin gene expression can be affected by inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin (PG) D(2,) an inflammatory mediator synthesized by hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS). PGD(2) binds to either D-prostanoid receptor (DP1) or chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on T-helper type 2 cells (CRTH2). We investigated the mechanisms by which PGD(2) induces MUC5B gene expression in airway epithelial cells. Western blot analysis showed that H-PGDS was highly expressed in nasal polyps. Similar results were obtained for PGD(2) expression. In addition, we could clearly detect the expressions of both H-PGDS and DP1 in nasal epithelial cells but not CRTH2. We demonstrated that PGD(2) increased MUC5B gene expression in normal human nasal epithelial cells as well as in NCI-H292 cells in vitro. S5751, a DP1 antagonist, inhibited PGD(2)-induced MUC5B expression, whereas a CRTH2 antagonist (OC0459) did not. These data suggest that PGD(2) induced MUC5B expression via DP1. Pretreatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059) blocked both PGD(2)-induced ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and MUC5B expression. Proximity ligation assays showed direct interaction between RSK1 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Stimulation with PGD(2) caused an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, whereas intracellular Ca(2+) did not have such an effect. PGD(2)-induced MUC5B mRNA levels were regulated by CREB via direct interaction with two cAMP-response element sites (-921/-914 and -900/-893). Finally, we demonstrated that PGD(2) can induce MUC5B overproduction via ERK MAPK/RSK1/CREB signaling and that DP1 receptor may have suppressive effects in controlling MUC5B overproduction in the airway. PMID:21832046

  8. Gastrin induces sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 phosphorylation and mTOR activation via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-/protein kinase C-dependent but AKT-independent pathway in renal proximal tubule cells derived from a normotensive male human.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbing; Jose, Pedro A

    2013-02-01

    Gastrin is natriuretic, but its renal molecular targets and signal transduction pathways are not fully known. In this study, we confirmed the existence of CCKBR (a gastrin receptor) in male human renal proximal tubule cells and discovered that gastrin induced S6 phosphorylation, a downstream component of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Gastrin also increased the phosphorylation of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) at serine 552, caused its internalization, and decreased its expression at the cell surface and NHE activity. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was dependent on PI3 kinases because it was blocked by 2 different PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294,002. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was not affected by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 but was blocked by a pan-PKC (chelerythrine) and a conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor (G6976) (10 ?M) and an intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester, suggesting the importance of cPKC and intracellular calcium in the gastrin signaling pathway. The cPKC involved was probably PKC? because it was phosphorylated by gastrin. The gastrin-mediated phosphorylation of NHE3, S6, and PKC? was via phospholipase C because it was blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122 (10 ?M). The phosphorylation (activation) of AKT, which is usually upstream of mammalian target of rapamycin in the classic PI3 kinase-AKT-p70S6K signaling pathway, was not affected, suggesting that the gastrin-induced phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 is dependent on both PI3 kinase and PKC? but not AKT. PMID:23275470

  9. Revealing Different Roles of the mTOR-Targets S6K1 and S6K2 in Breast Cancer by Expression Profiling and Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Elin; Magi?, Ivana; Bostner, Josefine; Dyrager, Christine; Lysholm, Fredrik; Hallbeck, Anna-Lotta; Stl, Olle; Lundstrm, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Background The AKT/mTORC1/S6K pathway is frequently overstimulated in breast cancer, constituting a promising therapeutic target. The benefit from mTOR inhibitors varies, likely as a consequence of tumour heterogeneity, and upregulation of several compensatory feed-back mechanisms. The mTORC1 downstream effectors S6K1, S6K2, and 4EBP1 are amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer, associated with a poor outcome and divergent endocrine treatment benefit. S6K1 and S6K2 share high sequence homology, but evidence of partly distinct biological functions is emerging. The aim of this work was to explore possible different roles and treatment target potentials of S6K1 and S6K2 in breast cancer. Materials and methods Whole-genome expression profiles were compared for breast tumours expressing high levels of S6K1, S6K2 or 4EBP1, using public datasets, as well as after in vitro siRNA downregulation of S6K1 and/or S6K2 in ZR751 breast cancer cells. In silico homology modelling of the S6K2 kinase domain was used to evaluate its possible structural divergences to S6K1. Results Genome expression profiles were highly different in S6K1 and S6K2 high tumours, whereas S6K2 and 4EBP1 profiles showed significant overlaps, both correlated to genes involved in cell cycle progression, among these the master regulator E2F1. S6K2 and 4EBP1 were inversely associated with IGF1 levels, and their prognostic value was shown to be restricted to tumours positive for IGFR and/or HER2. In vitro, S6K1 and S6K2 silencing resulted in upregulation of genes in the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes. Isoform-specific silencing also showed distinct patterns, e.g. S6K2 downregulation lead to upregulation of several cell cycle associated genes. Structural analyses of the S6K2 kinase domain showed unique structure patterns, deviating from those of S6K1, facilitating the development of isoform-specific inhibitors. Our data support emerging proposals of distinct biological features of S6K1 and S6K2, suggesting their importance as separate oncogenes and clinical markers, where specific targeting in different breast cancer subtypes could facilitate further individualised therapies. PMID:26698305

  10. Short chain fatty acids induce both effector and regulatory T cells by suppression of histone deacetylases and regulation of the mTOR-S6K pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongho; Kim, Myunghoo; Kang, Seung G.; Jannasch, Amber Hopf; Cooper, Bruce; Patterson, John; Kim, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are highly produced in the intestine and potentially regulate the immune system. We studied the function of SCFAs in regulation of T cell differentiation into effector and regulatory T cells. We report that SCFAs can directly promote T cell differentiation into T cells producing IL-17, IFN-γ, and/or IL-10 depending on cytokine milieu. This effect of SCFAs on T cells is independent of GPR41- or GPR43 but dependent on direct histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor activity. Inhibition of HDACs in T cells by SCFAs increased the acetylation of p70 S6 kinase and phosphorylation rS6, regulating the mTOR pathway required for generation of Th17, Th1, and IL-10+ T cells. Acetate (C2) administration enhanced the induction of Th1 and Th17 cells during C. rodentium infection but decreased anti-CD3-induced inflammation in an IL-10-dependent manner. Our results indicate that SCFAs promote T cell differentiation into both effector and regulatory T cells to promote either immunity or immune tolerance depending on immunological milieu. PMID:24917457

  11. Human cytomegalovirus infection induces rapamycin-insensitive phosphorylation of downstream effectors of mTOR kinase.

    PubMed

    Kudchodkar, Sagar B; Yu, Yongjun; Maguire, Tobi G; Alwine, James C

    2004-10-01

    Signaling mediated by the cellular kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activates cap-dependent translation under normal (nonstressed) conditions. However, translation is inhibited by cellular stress responses or rapamycin treatment, which inhibit mTOR kinase activity. We show that during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, viral protein synthesis and virus production proceed relatively normally when mTOR kinase activity is inhibited due to hypoxic stress or rapamycin treatment. Using rapamycin inhibition of mTOR, we show that HCMV infection induces phosphorylation of two mTOR effectors, eucaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein (4E-BP) and eIF4G. The virally induced phosphorylation of eIF4G is both mTOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) independent, whereas the phosphorylation of 4E-BP is mTOR independent, but PI3K dependent. HCMV infection does not induce mTOR-independent phosphorylation of a third mTOR effector, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K). We show that the HCMV-induced phosphorylation of eIF4G and 4E-BP correlates with the association of eIF4E, the cap binding protein, with eIF4G in the eIF4F translation initiation complex. Thus, HCMV induces mechanisms to maintain the integrity of the eIF4F complex even when mTOR signaling is inhibited. PMID:15452223

  12. Translational Control of Myelin Basic Protein Expression by ERK2 MAP Kinase Regulates Timely Remyelination in the Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Kelly; Zhao, Tianna; Karl, Molly; Lewis, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Successful myelin repair in the adult CNS requires the robust and timely production of myelin proteins to generate new myelin sheaths. The underlying regulatory mechanisms and complex molecular basis of myelin regeneration, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of ERK MAP kinase signaling in this process. Conditional deletion of Erk2 from cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage resulted in delayed remyelination following demyelinating injury to the adult mouse corpus callosum. The delayed repair occurred as a result of a specific deficit in the translation of the major myelin protein, MBP. In the absence of ERK2, activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target, ribosomal protein S6 (S6RP), was impaired at a critical time when premyelinating oligodendrocytes were transitioning to mature cells capable of generating new myelin sheaths. Thus, we have described an important link between the ERK MAP kinase signaling cascade and the translational machinery specifically in remyelinating oligodendrocytes in vivo. These results suggest an important role for ERK2 in the translational control of MBP, a myelin protein that appears critical for ensuring the timely generation of new myelin sheaths following demyelinating injury in the adult CNS. PMID:25995471

  13. Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and their role in regulating kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Hill, M M; Hess, D; Brazil, D P; Hofsteenge, J; Hemmings, B A

    2001-10-01

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a central role in signal transduction pathways that activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Despite its key role as an upstream activator of enzymes such as protein kinase B and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, the regulatory mechanisms controlling PDK1 activity are poorly understood. PDK1 has been reported to be constitutively active in resting cells and not further activated by growth factor stimulation (Casamayor, A., Morrice, N. A., and Alessi, D. R. (1999) Biochem. J. 342, 287-292). Here, we report that PDK1 becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to pervanadate and insulin. Following pervanadate treatment, PDK1 kinase activity increased 1.5- to 3-fold whereas the activity of PDK1 associated with the plasma membrane increased approximately 6-fold. The activity of PDK1 localized to the plasma membrane was also increased by insulin treatment. Three tyrosine phosphorylation sites of PDK1 (Tyr-9 and Tyr-373/376) were identified using in vivo labeling and mass spectrometry. Using site-directed mutants, we show that, although phosphorylation on Tyr-373/376 is important for PDK1 activity, phosphorylation on Tyr-9 has no effect on the activity of the kinase. Both of these residues can be phosphorylated by v-Src tyrosine kinase in vitro, and co-expression of v-Src leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PDK1. Thus, these data suggest that PDK1 activity is regulated by reversible phosphorylation, possibly by a member of the Src kinase family. PMID:11481331

  14. Specific interaction between S6K1 and CoA synthase: a potential link between the mTOR/S6K pathway, CoA biosynthesis and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Panayotou, George; Gout, Ivan T; Filonenko, Valeriy

    2004-12-17

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is a key regulator of cell size and growth. It is regulated via phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. We demonstrate for the first time that CoA synthase associates specifically with S6K1. The association was observed between native and transiently overexpressed proteins in vivo, as well as by BIAcore analysis in vitro. The sites of interaction were mapped to the C-terminal regions of both CoA synthase and S6K1. In vitro studies indicated that the interaction does not affect their enzymatic activities and that CoA synthase is not a substrate for S6 kinase. This study uncovers a potential link between mTor/S6K signaling pathway and energy metabolism through CoA and its thioester derivatives, but its physiological relevance should be further elucidated. PMID:15589845

  15. S6K inhibition renders cardiac protection against myocardial infarction through PDK1 phosphorylation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Di, Ruomin; Wu, Xiangqi; Chang, Zai; Zhao, Xia; Feng, Qiuting; Lu, Shuangshuang; Luan, Qing; Hemmings, Brian A; Li, Xinli; Yang, Zhongzhou

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we observed a rapid and robust activation of the ribosomal protein S6K (S6 kinase) provoked by MI (myocardial infarction) in mice. As activation of S6K promotes cell growth, we hypothesized that increased S6K activity contributes to pathological cardiac remodelling after MI and that suppression of S6K activation may prevent aberrant cardiac remodelling and improve cardiac function. In mice, administration of rapamycin effectively suppressed S6K activation in the heart and significantly improved cardiac function after MI. The heart weight/body weight ratio and fibrotic area were substantially reduced in rapamycin-treated mice. In rapamycin-treated mice, decreased cardiomyocyte remodelling and cell apoptosis were observed compared with vehicle-treated controls. Consistently, inhibition of S6K with PF-4708671 displayed similar protection against MI as rapamycin. Mechanistically, we observed significantly enhanced Thr308 phosphorylation and activation of Akt in rapamycin- and PF-4708671-treated hearts. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) and Akt1/3 abolished cardioprotection after MI in the presence of rapamycin administration. These results demonstrate that S6K inhibition rendered beneficial effects on left ventricular function and alleviated adverse remodelling following MI in mice by enhancing Akt signalling, suggesting the therapeutic value of both rapamycin and PF-4708671 in treating patients following an MI. PMID:21906027

  16. Doxycycline reduces the migration of tuberous sclerosis complex-2 null cells - effects on RhoA-GTPase and focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ho Yin; Oliver, Brian Gregory George; Burgess, Janette Kay; Krymskaya, Vera P; Black, Judith Lee; Moir, Lyn M

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is associated with dysfunction of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) leading to enhanced cell proliferation and migration. This study aims to examine whether doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, can inhibit the enhanced migration of TSC2-deficient cells, identify signalling pathways through which doxycycline works and to assess the effectiveness of combining doxycycline with rapamycin (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor) in controlling cell migration, proliferation and wound closure. TSC2-positive and TSC2-negative mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), 323-TSC2-positive and 323-TSC2-null MEF and Eker rat uterine leiomyoma (ELT3) cells were treated with doxycycline or rapamycin alone, or in combination. Migration, wound closure and proliferation were assessed using a transwell migration assay, time-lapse microscopy and manual cell counts respectively. RhoA-GTPase activity, phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in TSC2-negative MEF treated with doxycycline were examined using ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. The enhanced migration of TSC2-null cells was reduced by doxycycline at concentrations as low as 20 pM, while the rate of wound closure was reduced at 2–59 μM. Doxycycline decreased RhoA-GTPase activity and phosphorylation of FAK in these cells but had no effect on the phosphorylation of p70S6K, ERK1/2 or AKT. Combining doxycycline with rapamycin significantly reduced the rate of wound closure at lower concentrations than achieved with either drug alone. This study shows that doxycycline inhibits TSC2-null cell migration. Thus doxycycline has potential as an anti-migratory agent in the treatment of diseases with TSC2 dysfunction. PMID:26282580

  17. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 as an emerging target in the management of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fyffe, Chanse; Falasca, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It should be noted that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is a protein encoded by the PDPK1 gene, which plays a key role in the signaling pathways activated by several growth factors and hormones. PDK1 is a crucial kinase that functions downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation and activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases, such as protein kinase B (Akt), protein kinase C (PKC), p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases, and serum glucocorticoid-dependent kinase, by phosphorylating serine/threonine residues in the activation loop. AGC kinases are known to play crucial roles in regulating physiological processes relevant to metabolism, growth, proliferation, and survival. Changes in the expression and activity of PDK1 and several AGC kinases have been linked to human diseases including cancer. Recent data have revealed that the alteration of PDK1 is a critical component of oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in breast cancer, suggesting that inhibition of PDK1 can inhibit breast cancer progression. Indeed, PDK1 is highly expressed in a majority of human breast cancer cell lines and both PDK1 protein and messenger ribonucleic acid are overexpressed in a majority of human breast cancers. Furthermore, overexpression of PDK1 is sufficient to transform mammary epithelial cells. PDK1 plays an essential role in regulating cell migration, especially in the context of phosphatase and tensin homologue deficiency. More importantly, downregulation of PDK1 levels inhibits migration and experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Thus, targeting PDK1 may be a valuable anticancer strategy that may improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic strategies in breast cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the evidence that has been reported to support the idea that PDK1 may be a key target in breast cancer management. PMID:24039447

  18. S6K1 controls pancreatic ? cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Um, Sung Hee; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Chau, Gia Cac; Vintersten, Kristina; Mueller, Matthias; Gangloff, Yann-Gael; Adams, Ralf H; Spetz, Jean-Francois; Elghazi, Lynda; Pfluger, Paul T; Pende, Mario; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Tauler, Albert; Tschp, Matthias H; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide heath problem that is characterized by insulin resistance and the eventual loss of ? cell function. As recent studies have shown that loss of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases systemic insulin sensitivity, S6K1 inhibitors are being pursued as potential agents for improving insulin resistance. Here we found that S6K1 deficiency in mice also leads to decreased ? cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and impaired placental development. IUGR is a common complication of human pregnancy that limits the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, leading to diminished embryonic ? cell growth and the onset of T2DM later in life. However, restoration of placental development and the rescue of IUGR by tetraploid embryo complementation did not restore ? cell size or insulin levels in S6K1-/- embryos, suggesting that loss of S6K1 leads to an intrinsic ? cell lesion. Consistent with this hypothesis, reexpression of S6K1 in ? cells of S6K1-/- mice restored embryonic ? cell size, insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and RPS6 phosphorylation, without rescuing IUGR. Together, these data suggest that a nutrient-mediated reduction in intrinsic ? cell S6K1 signaling, rather than IUGR, during fetal development may underlie reduced ? cell growth and eventual development of T2DM later in life. PMID:26075820

  19. S6K1 controls pancreatic β cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Um, Sung Hee; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Chau, Gia Cac; Vintersten, Kristina; Mueller, Matthias; Gangloff, Yann-Gael; Adams, Ralf H.; Spetz, Jean-Francois; Elghazi, Lynda; Pfluger, Paul T.; Pende, Mario; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Tauler, Albert; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide heath problem that is characterized by insulin resistance and the eventual loss of β cell function. As recent studies have shown that loss of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases systemic insulin sensitivity, S6K1 inhibitors are being pursued as potential agents for improving insulin resistance. Here we found that S6K1 deficiency in mice also leads to decreased β cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and impaired placental development. IUGR is a common complication of human pregnancy that limits the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, leading to diminished embryonic β cell growth and the onset of T2DM later in life. However, restoration of placental development and the rescue of IUGR by tetraploid embryo complementation did not restore β cell size or insulin levels in S6K1–/– embryos, suggesting that loss of S6K1 leads to an intrinsic β cell lesion. Consistent with this hypothesis, reexpression of S6K1 in β cells of S6K1–/– mice restored embryonic β cell size, insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and RPS6 phosphorylation, without rescuing IUGR. Together, these data suggest that a nutrient-mediated reduction in intrinsic β cell S6K1 signaling, rather than IUGR, during fetal development may underlie reduced β cell growth and eventual development of T2DM later in life. PMID:26075820

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and selected downstream targets display organ-specific responses in the hibernating ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2005-03-01

    The responses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), the c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38MAPK, during mammalian hibernation were analyzed in five organs of Richardson's ground squirrels, Spermophilus richardsonii. Each kinase subfamily responded differently in torpor and each showed organ-specific patterns of response. ERK1/2 activities increased significantly in muscle and brain during hibernation but decreased in kidney and liver. JNK activity rose in four organs (except brain) during hibernation whereas active, phosphorylated p38MAPK increased only in muscle and heart. Activities of ERK-activated kinases also responded to hibernation: MAPKAPK-1 rose in muscle and brain, MAPKAPK-2 decreased in liver and kidney but rose in the other three organs, and p70S6K kinase activity decreased kidney and heart. Transcription factors, c-Jun and CREB, also showed organ-specific responses during torpor. The data suggest key roles for MAPKs in the regulation of the known organ-specific changes in gene expression and protein phosphorylation that define the hibernation phenotype. PMID:15618024

  1. The Circadian Protein BMAL1 Regulates Translation in Response to S6K1-Mediated Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Jonathan O; Yuan, Elizabeth D; Boyle, Lara M; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Kwiatkowski, Erica; Nathan, Ashwin; Gttler, Thomas; Davis, Fred; Asara, John M; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-05-21

    The circadian timing system synchronizes cellular function by coordinating rhythmic transcription via a transcription-translational feedback loop. How the circadian system regulates gene expression at the translational level remains a mystery. Here, we show that the key circadian transcription factor BMAL1 associates with the translational machinery in the cytosol and promotes protein synthesis. The mTOR-effector kinase, ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1), an important regulator of translation, rhythmically phosphorylates BMAL1 at an evolutionarily conserved site. S6K1-mediated phosphorylation is critical for BMAL1 to both associate with the translational machinery and stimulate protein synthesis. Protein synthesis rates demonstrate circadian oscillations dependent on BMAL1. Thus, in addition to its critical role in circadian transcription, BMAL1 is a translation factor that links circadian timing and the mTOR signaling pathway. More broadly, these results expand the role of the circadian clock to the regulation of protein synthesis. PMID:25981667

  2. Identification of Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantigens and analysis of anti-Ki autoantibody reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Francoeur, A.M.; Peebles, C.L.; Gompper, P.T.; Tan, E.M.

    1986-03-01

    Anti-Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantibodies, named after the prototype patient Kikuta by Tojo et al., occur in approximately 10% of patients with SLE, often in association with anti-Sm autoantibodies. Anti-Ki sera specifically immunoprecipitated two protein antigens, Ki/sub 86/ (M/sub r/ 86,000) and Ki/sub 66/ (M/sub r/ 66,000), from radiolabeled cell extracts. The Ki system was found to be immunologically identical to the Ku system described by Mimori et al. and the p70/p80 system described by Reeves. The Ki primary in vitro translation products were identified and proved similar in size to the cellular antigens. The Ki antigens were purified from human spleen by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. The purified Ki antigens proved to be closely related by amino acid composition, and did not appear to be phosphorylated, glycosylated, or associated with RNA. The Ki antigens were found to bind to DNA, in agreement with the observations on the Ku and p70/p80 antigens. They were found to be widely conserved in mammals and were coordinately expressed in all tissues tested.

  3. Nerve growth factor inhibits Na+/H+ exchange and formula absorption through parallel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mTOR and ERK pathways in thick ascending limb.

    PubMed

    Good, David W; George, Thampi; Watts, Bruns A

    2008-09-26

    In the medullary thick ascending limb, inhibiting the basolateral NHE1 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger with nerve growth factor (NGF) induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling that secondarily inhibits apical NHE3 and transepithelial HCO(3)(-) absorption. The inhibition by NGF is mediated 50% through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Here we examined the signaling pathway responsible for the remainder of the NGF-induced inhibition. Inhibition of HCO(3)(-) absorption was reduced 45% by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002 and 50% by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream effector of PI3K. The combination of a PI3K inhibitor plus rapamycin did not cause a further reduction in the inhibition by NGF. In contrast, the combination of a PI3K inhibitor plus the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 completely eliminated inhibition by NGF. Rapamycin decreased NGF-induced inhibition of basolateral NHE1 by 45%. NGF induced a 2-fold increase in phosphorylation of Akt, a PI3K target linked to mTOR activation, and a 2.2-fold increase in the activity of p70 S6 kinase, a downstream effector of mTOR. p70 S6 kinase activation was blocked by wortmannin and rapamycin, consistent with PI3K, mTOR, and p70 S6 kinase in a linear pathway. Rapamycin-sensitive inhibition of NHE1 by NGF was associated with an increased level of phosphorylated mTOR in the basolateral membrane domain. These findings indicate that NGF inhibits HCO(3)(-) absorption in the medullary thick ascending limb through the parallel activation of PI3K-mTOR and ERK signaling pathways, which converge to inhibit NHE1. The results identify a role for mTOR in the regulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity and implicate NHE1 as a possible downstream effector contributing to mTOR's effects on cell growth, proliferation, survival, and tumorigenesis. PMID:18660503

  4. eIF3 controls cell size independently of S6K1-activity

    PubMed Central

    Schipany, Katharina; Rosner, Margit; Ionce, Loredana; Hengstschlger, Markus; Kovacic, Boris

    2015-01-01

    All multicellular organisms require a life-long regulation of the number and the size of cells, which build up their organs. mTOR acts as a signaling nodule for the regulation of protein synthesis and growth. To activate the translational cascade, mTOR phosphorylates S6 kinase (S6K1), which is liberated from the eIF3-complex and mobilized for activation of its downstream targets. How S6K1 regulates cell size remains unclear. Here, we challenged cell size control through S6K1 by specifically depleting its binding partner eIF3 in normal and transformed cell lines. We show that loss of eIF3 leads to a massive reduction of cell size and cell number accompanied with an unexpected increase in S6K1-activity. The hyperactive S6K1-signaling was rapamycin-sensitive, suggesting an upstream mTOR-regulation. A selective S6K1 inhibitor (PF-4708671) was unable to interfere with the reduced size, despite efficiently inhibiting S6K1-activity. Restoration of eIF3 expression recovered size defects, without affecting the p-S6 levels. We further show that two, yet uncharacterized, cancer-associated mutations in the eIF3-complex, have the capacity to recover from reduced size phenotype, suggesting a possible role for eIF3 in regulating cancer cell size. Collectively, our results uncover a role for eIF3-complex in maintenance of normal and neoplastic cell size - independent of S6K1-signaling. PMID:26172298

  5. Basic fibroblast growth factor-induced activation of novel CREB kinase during the differentiation of immortalized hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, J Y; Shin, S W; Ahn, Y S; Chung, K C

    2001-04-27

    Growth factors bind to their specific receptors on the responsive cell surface and thereby initiate dramatic changes in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of their target cells. In the present study we have examined the mechanism by which growth factor-induced signals are propagated to the nucleus, leading to the activation of transcription factor, cis-acting cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB), in immortalized hippocampal progenitor cells (H19-7). During the differentiation of H19-7 cells by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) a critical regulatory Ser(133) residue of CREB was phosphorylated followed by an increase of CRE-mediated gene transcription. Expression of S133A CREB mutants blocked the differentiation of H19-7 cells by bFGF. Although the kinetics of CREB phosphorylation by EGF was transient, bFGF induced a prolonged pattern of CREB phosphorylation. Interestingly, bFGF-induced CREB phosphorylation and subsequent CRE-mediated gene transcription is not likely to be mediated by any of previously known signaling pathways that lead to phosphorylation of CREB, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase A, protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-p70(S6K), calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, and casein kinase 2. By using in vitro in gel kinase assay the presence of a novel 120-kDa bFGF-inducible CREB kinase was identified. These findings identify a new growth factor-activated signaling pathway that regulates gene expression at the CRE. PMID:11278709

  6. Sam68 Regulates S6K1 Alternative Splicing during Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for alternative splicing during adipogenesis is poorly understood. The Sam68 RNA binding protein is a known regulator of alternative splicing, and mice deficient for Sam68 exhibit adipogenesis defects due to defective mTOR signaling. Sam68 null preadipocytes were monitored for alternative splicing imbalances in components of the mTOR signaling pathway. Herein, we report that Sam68 regulates isoform expression of the ribosomal S6 kinase gene (Rps6kb1). Sam68-deficient adipocytes express Rps6kb1-002 and its encoded p31S6K1 protein, in contrast to wild-type adipocytes that do not express this isoform. Sam68 binds an RNA sequence encoded by Rps6kb1 intron 6 and prevents serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1)-mediated alternative splicing of Rps6kb1-002, as assessed by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and minigene assays. Depletion of p31S6K1 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) partially restored adipogenesis of Sam68-deficient preadipocytes. The ectopic expression of p31S6K1 in wild-type 3T3-L1 cells resulted in adipogenesis differentiation defects, showing that p31S6K1 is an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Our findings indicate that Sam68 is required to prevent the expression of p31S6K1 in adipocytes for adipogenesis to occur. PMID:25776557

  7. Sam68 Regulates S6K1 Alternative Splicing during Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingwen; Richard, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    The requirement for alternative splicing during adipogenesis is poorly understood. The Sam68 RNA binding protein is a known regulator of alternative splicing, and mice deficient for Sam68 exhibit adipogenesis defects due to defective mTOR signaling. Sam68 null preadipocytes were monitored for alternative splicing imbalances in components of the mTOR signaling pathway. Herein, we report that Sam68 regulates isoform expression of the ribosomal S6 kinase gene (Rps6kb1). Sam68-deficient adipocytes express Rps6kb1-002 and its encoded p31S6K1 protein, in contrast to wild-type adipocytes that do not express this isoform. Sam68 binds an RNA sequence encoded by Rps6kb1 intron 6 and prevents serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1)-mediated alternative splicing of Rps6kb1-002, as assessed by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and minigene assays. Depletion of p31S6K1 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) partially restored adipogenesis of Sam68-deficient preadipocytes. The ectopic expression of p31S6K1 in wild-type 3T3-L1 cells resulted in adipogenesis differentiation defects, showing that p31S6K1 is an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Our findings indicate that Sam68 is required to prevent the expression of p31S6K1 in adipocytes for adipogenesis to occur. PMID:25776557

  8. Morphoproteomic profile of mTOR, Ras/Raf kinase/ERK, and NF-kappaB pathways in human gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Brown, Robert E; Trung, Camtu D; Li, Wei; Wang, Liwei; Khoury, Thaer; Alrawi, Sadir; Yao, James; Xia, Keping; Tan, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    Preclinical studies using human gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) cell lines have shown that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, can inhibit tumor growth and that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of the Ras/Raf kinase/ERK pathway is related to chemoresistance and apoptosis. We examined the state of activation of components of mTOR, Ras/Raf kinase/ERK, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signal transduction pathways, as well as cell cycle protein analyte correlates in GAC cases. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue microarray blocks containing samples from 210 cases of GAC were examined. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to detect the following antigens: S100P, upstream stimulator of ERK, and NF-kappaB pathways; phosphorylated (p)-mTOR (Ser 2448), p-ERK-1/2 (Thr 202/Tyr 204), and one of their common down-stream effectors, p-p70S6K(Thr 389); p-NF-kappaBp65(Ser 536); and cell cycle associated proteins, Ki-67, and S phase kinase-associated protein (Skp)2. Immunoreactivity (0 to 4+) of protein expression and compartmentalization were assessed by bright-field microscopy. The majority of cases showed positive (1+ to 4+) cytoplasmic/plasmalemmal p-mTOR (88%), and moderate-strong (2+ to 4+) nuclear p-p70S6K (93%) and nuclear S100P (81%) expression. A subset of cases exhibited moderate-strong nuclear p-ERK-1/2 (15%) and p-NF-kappaBp65 (36%) expression. The majority of cases showed concomitant moderate-strong (2+ to 4+) nuclear Ki-67 (71%) and Skp2 (68%). Nuclear expression levels of p-ERK-1/2 and p-NF-kappaBp65, of p-p70S6K and p-NF-kappaB, and of Ki-67 and Skp2, respectively, showed significant linear correlations in GAC (p <0.001). Additionally, there were statistically significant differences in the mean expression levels of p-ERK-1/2 and p-NF-kappaBp65 in diffuse vs intestinal types of GAC, with higher levels of both in the diffuse type ( p = 0.001 and p <0.0001, respectively). In summary, morphoproteomic analysis reveals constitutive activation of mTOR and to some extent, Ras/Raf kinase and NF-kappaB pathways in GAC, as evidenced by increased cytoplasmic p-mTOR, nuclear translocation of p-p70S6K and p-ERK-1/2 phosphorylated at putative sites of activation (Ser 2448, Thr 389, and Thr 202/Tyr 204, respectively), as well as correlative expression of cell cycle analytes, Ki-67, and Skp2. These results suggest that a prospective study is warranted to evaluate the use of morphoproteomic profiling of individual patients with GAC in order to design combinatorial treatment strategies that target the mTOR, Ras/Raf kinase/ERK, and/or NF-kappaB pathways. PMID:18715846

  9. Transforming somatic mutations of mammalian target of rapamycin kinase in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Kawazu, Masahito; Yasuda, Takahiko; Soda, Manabu; Ueno, Toshihide; Kojima, Shinya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Yoshino, Ichiro; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Sai, Eirin; Mano, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that acts downstream of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and regulates a wide range of cellular functions including transcription, translation, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Whereas genetic alterations that result in mTOR activation are frequently present in human cancers, whether the mTOR gene itself becomes an oncogene through somatic mutation has remained unclear. We have now identified a somatic non-synonymous mutation of mTOR that results in a leucine-to-valine substitution at amino acid position 2209 in a specimen of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The mTOR(L2209V) mutant manifested marked transforming potential in a focus formation assay with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, and it induced the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, S6 ribosomal protein, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 in these cells. Examination of additional tumor specimens as well as public and in-house databases of cancer genome mutations identified another 28 independent non-synonymous mutations of mTOR in various cancer types, with 12 of these mutations also showing transforming ability. Most of these oncogenic mutations cluster at the interface between the kinase domain and the FAT (FRAP, ATM, TRRAP) domain in the 3-D structure of mTOR. Transforming mTOR mutants were also found to promote 3T3 cell survival, and their oncogenic activity was sensitive to rapamycin. Our data thus show that mTOR acquires transforming activity through genetic changes in cancer, and they suggest that such tumors may be candidates for molecularly targeted therapy with mTOR inhibitors. PMID:26432419

  10. Ketogenic diet delays the phase of circadian rhythms and does not affect AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Genzer, Yoni; Dadon, Maayan; Burg, Chen; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren

    2015-12-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is used for weight loss or to treat epilepsy. KD leads to liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which would be expected to inhibit gluconeogenesis. However, KD leads to increased hepatic glucose output. As AMPK and its active phosphorylated form (pAMPK) show circadian oscillation, this discrepancy could stem from wrong-time-of-day sampling. The effect of KD was tested on mouse clock gene expression, AMPK, mTOR, SIRT1 and locomotor activity for 2 months and compared to low-fat diet (LFD). KD led to 1.5-fold increased levels of blood glucose and insulin. Brain pAMPK/AMPK ratio was 40% higher under KD, whereas that in liver was not affected. KD led to 40% and 20% down-regulation of the ratio of pP70S6K/P70S6K, the downstream target of mTOR, in the brain and liver, respectively. SIRT1 levels were 40% higher in the brain, but 40% lower in the liver of KD-fed mice. Clock genes showed delayed rhythms under KD. In the brain of KD-fed mice, amplitudes of clock genes were down-regulated, whereas 6-fold up-regulation was found in the liver. The metabolic state under KD indicates reduced satiety in the brain and reduced anabolism alongside increased gluconeogenesis in the liver. PMID:26408964

  11. Decorin activates AMPK, an energy sensor kinase, to induce autophagy in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Atul; Neill, Thomas; Owens, Rick T; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V

    2014-02-01

    The highly conserved eukaryotic process of macroautophagy (autophagy) is a non-specific bulk-degradation program critical for maintaining proper cellular homeostasis, and for clearing aged and damaged organelles. This decision is inextricably dependent upon prevailing metabolic demands and energy requirements of the cell. Soluble monomeric decorin functions as a natural tumor repressor that antagonizes a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, we discovered that decorin induces endothelial cell autophagy, downstream of VEGFR2. This process was wholly dependent upon Peg3, a decorin-inducible genomically imprinted tumor suppressor gene. However, the signaling cascades responsible have remained elusive. In this report we discovered that Vps34, a class III phosphoinositide kinase, is an upstream kinase required for Peg3 induction. Moreover, decorin triggered differential formation of Vps34/Beclin 1 complexes with concomitant dissolution of inhibitive Bcl-2/Beclin 1 complexes. Further, decorin inhibited anti-autophagic signaling via suppression of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K activity with the concurrent activation of pro-autophagic AMPK-mediated signaling cascades. Mechanistically, AMPK is downstream of VEGFR2 and inhibition of AMPK signaling abrogated decorin-evoked autophagy. Collectively, these findings hint at the complexity of the underlying molecular relays necessary for decorin-evoked endothelial cell autophagy and reveal important therapeutic targets for augmenting autophagy and combatting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:24472739

  12. Reprint of: Decorin activates AMPK, an energy sensor kinase, to induce autophagy in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Atul; Neill, Thomas; Owens, Rick T; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V

    2014-04-01

    The highly conserved eukaryotic process of macroautophagy (autophagy) is a non-specific bulk-degradation program critical for maintaining proper cellular homeostasis, and for clearing aged and damaged organelles. This decision is inextricably dependent upon prevailing metabolic demands and energy requirements of the cell. Soluble monomeric decorin functions as a natural tumor repressor that antagonizes a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, we discovered that decorin induces endothelial cell autophagy, downstream of VEGFR2. This process was wholly dependent upon Peg3, a decorin-inducible genomically imprinted tumor suppressor gene. However, the signaling cascades responsible have remained elusive. In this report we discovered that Vps34, a class III phosphoinositide kinase, is an upstream kinase required for Peg3 induction. Moreover, decorin triggered differential formation of Vps34/Beclin 1 complexes with concomitant dissolution of inhibitive Bcl-2/Beclin 1 complexes. Further, decorin inhibited anti-autophagic signaling via suppression of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K activity with the concurrent activation of pro-autophagic AMPK-mediated signaling cascades. Mechanistically, AMPK is downstream of VEGFR2 and inhibition of AMPK signaling abrogated decorin-evoked autophagy. Collectively, these findings hint at the complexity of the underlying molecular relays necessary for decorin-evoked endothelial cell autophagy and reveal important therapeutic targets for augmenting autophagy and combatting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:24726292

  13. Hypophosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is a molecular mechanism underlying ischemic tolerance induced by either hibernation or preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Shin-Ichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Bernstock, Joshua D; Castri, Paola; Ruetzler, Christl; Miyake, Junko; Lee, Yang-Ja; Hallenbeck, John M

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) have an extraordinary capacity to withstand prolonged and profound reductions in blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain without incurring any cellular damage. As such, the hibernation torpor of I. tridecemlineatus provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we report that during hibernation torpor, a marked reduction in the phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) occurs within the brains of I. tridecemlineatus. Of note, rpS6 phosphorylation was shown to increase in the brains of rats that underwent an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. However, such an increase was attenuated after the implementation of an ischemic preconditioning paradigm. In addition, cultured cortical neurons treated with the rpS6 kinase (S6K) inhibitors, d-glucosamine or PF4708671, displayed a decrease in rpS6 phosphorylation and a subsequent increase in tolerance to oxygen/glucose deprivation, an invitro model of ischemic stroke. Collectively, such evidence suggests that the down-regulation of rpS6 signal transduction may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia that occurs during hibernation torpor and after ischemic preconditioning. Further identification and characterization of the mechanisms used by hibernating species to increase ischemic tolerance may eventually clarify how the loss of homeostatic control that occurs during and after cerebral ischemia in the clinic can ultimately be minimized and/or prevented. Mammalian hibernation provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we demonstrate that marked reductions in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), extracellular signal-regulated kinase family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p44/42 (p44/42MAPK) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) occur within the brains of both hibernating squirrels and rats, which have undergone an ischemic preconditioning paradigm. We therefore propose that the down-regulation of rpS6 signal transduction may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia that occurs during hibernation torpor and after ischemic preconditioning, via a suppression of protein synthesis and/or energy consumption. PMID:26375300

  14. Prognostic significance and therapeutic potential of the activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud Activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-mediated tumorigenesis in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and correlated with unfavorable outcome in certain types of other cancers. However, the prognostic value of AKT/mTOR activation in ALCL remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we aim to address this question from a clinical perspective by comparing the expressions of the AKT/mTOR signaling molecules in ALCL patients and exploring the therapeutic significance of targeting the AKT/mTOR pathway in ALCL. Methods A cohort of 103 patients with ALCL was enrolled in the study. Expression of ALK fusion proteins and the AKT/mTOR signaling phosphoproteins was studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The pathogenic role of ALK fusion proteins and the therapeutic significance of targeting the ATK/mTOR signaling pathway were further investigated in vitro study with an ALK?+?ALCL cell line and the NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells. Results ALK expression was detected in 60% of ALCLs, of which 79% exhibited the presence of NPM-ALK, whereas the remaining 21% expressed variant-ALK fusions. Phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), and 70kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (p70S6K1) was detected in 76%, 80%, 91%, and 93% of ALCL patients, respectively. Both phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and p-mTOR were correlated to ALK expression, and p-mTOR was closely correlated to p-AKT. Both p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K1 were correlated to p-mTOR, but were not correlated to the expression of ALK and p-AKT. Clinically, ALK?+?ALCL occurred more commonly in younger patients, and ALK?+?ALCL patients had a much better prognosis than ALK-ALCL cases. However, expression of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1, or p-p70S6K1 did not have an impact on the clinical outcome. Overexpression of NPM-ALK in a nonmalignant murine pro-B lymphoid cell line, BaF3, induced the cells to become cytokine-independent and resistant to glucocorticoids (GCs). Targeting AKT/mTOR inhibited growth and triggered the apoptotic cell death of ALK?+?ALCL cells and NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells, and also reversed GC resistance induced by overexpression of NPM-ALK. Conclusions Overexpression of ALK due to chromosomal translocations is seen in the majority of ALCL patients and endows them with a much better prognosis. The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is highly activated in ALK?+?ALCL patients and targeting the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway might confer a great therapeutic potential in ALCL. PMID:24112608

  15. Hyperactivation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase promotes escape from hormone dependence in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Miller, Todd W; Hennessy, Bryan T; Gonzlez-Angulo, Ana M; Fox, Emily M; Mills, Gordon B; Chen, Heidi; Higham, Catherine; Garca-Echeverra, Carlos; Shyr, Yu; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2010-07-01

    Many breast cancers exhibit a degree of dependence on estrogen for tumor growth. Although several therapies have been developed to treat individuals with estrogen-dependent breast cancers, some tumors show de novo or acquired resistance, rendering them particularly elusive to current therapeutic strategies. Understanding the mechanisms by which these cancers develop resistance would enable the development of new and effective therapeutics. In order to determine mechanisms of escape from hormone dependence in estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast cancer, we established 4 human breast cancer cell lines after long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED). LTED cells showed variable changes in ER levels and sensitivity to 17beta-estradiol. Proteomic profiling of LTED cells revealed increased phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrates p70S6 kinase and p85S6 kinase as well as the PI3K substrate AKT. Inhibition of PI3K and mTOR induced LTED cell apoptosis and prevented the emergence of hormone-independent cells. Using reverse-phase protein microarrays, we identified a breast tumor protein signature of PI3K pathway activation that predicted poor outcome after adjuvant endocrine therapy in patients. Our data suggest that upon adaptation to hormone deprivation, breast cancer cells rely heavily on PI3K signaling. Our findings also imply that acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer may be abrogated by combination therapies targeting both ER and PI3K pathways. PMID:20530877

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits High Glucose-induced Matrix Protein Synthesis by Activating AMP-activated Protein Kinase in Renal Epithelial Cells*♦

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak Joo; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Feliers, Denis; Cavaglieri, Rita C.; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Abboud, Hanna E.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, a signaling gas, affects several cell functions. We hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide modulates high glucose (30 mm) stimulation of matrix protein synthesis in glomerular epithelial cells. High glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis, cellular hypertrophy, and matrix laminin and type IV collagen content was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor. High glucose activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), shown by phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, was inhibited by NaHS. High glucose stimulated mTORC1 to promote key events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation: binding of eIF4A to eIF4G, reduction in PDCD4 expression and inhibition of its binding to eIF4A, eEF2 kinase phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation of eEF2; these events were inhibited by NaHS. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, was examined. NaHS dose-dependently stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and restored AMPK phosphorylation reduced by high glucose. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, abolished NaHS modulation of high glucose effect on events in mRNA translation as well as global and matrix protein synthesis. NaHS induction of AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by siRNA for calmodulin kinase kinase β, but not LKB1, upstream kinases for AMPK; STO-609, a calmodulin kinase kinase β inhibitor, had the same effect. Renal cortical content of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes, was significantly reduced in mice with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, coinciding with renal hypertrophy and matrix accumulation. Hydrogen sulfide is a newly identified modulator of protein synthesis in the kidney, and reduction in its generation may contribute to kidney injury in diabetes. PMID:22158625

  17. IL-2-dependent proliferation of murine T cells requires expression of both the p55 and p70 subunits of the IL-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, D L; Rebollo, A; Kumar, A; Gibert, M; Thze, J

    1990-12-15

    An IL-4-dependent T cell clone (LD8) was isolated from the murine IL-2-dependent cytotoxic T cell line C30.1. This clone has lost the capacity to proliferate in response to IL-2 after long-term culture in IL-4. LD8 cells express the p70, but not the p55, subunit of the IL-2R on their cell surface. The number of p70 IL-2R molecules on LD8 cells is comparable with the number of high-affinity IL-2R on the parental C30.1 cell line. LD8 cells can efficiently internalize IL-2 through the p70 IL-2R subunit. Following stimulation by IL-2, LD8 cells up-regulate p70 IL-2R mRNA, but do not express p55 IL-2R mRNA. IL-2-dependent proliferation of LD8 cells was reconstituted after introduction and expression of a human p55 IL-2R cDNA. To further investigate the role of p70 IL-2R, we have measured IL-2-induced proliferation of C30.1 cells in the presence of three anti-p55 IL-2R mAb (5A2, PC61, and 7D4) that recognize different epitopes. Under the experimental conditions used, the combination of anti-p55 IL-2R mAb prevents the formation of high-affinity IL-2R, but does not affect the binding of IL-2 to p70 IL-2R or IL-2 internalization. However, these three mAb inhibit proliferation of C30.1 cells even in the presence of IL-2 concentrations sufficient to saturate p70 IL-2R. Together these results demonstrate that p70 IL-2R alone is not sufficient to transmit IL-2-induced growth signals and that formation of p55-p70 IL-2R complex is required for IL-2-dependent proliferation of murine T cells. PMID:2258612

  18. The bacterial preparation OK432 induces IL-12p70 secretion in human dendritic cells in a TLR3 dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Karlsen, Marie; Jonsson, Roland; Appel, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) used in therapeutic cancer immunotherapy have to be able to stimulate T cells resulting in an immune response that can efficiently target the cancer cells. One of the critical hurdles has been the lack of IL-12p70 production when maturating the DC, which is rectified by using the bacterial preparation OK432 (trade name Picibanil) to mature the cells. In order to identify the mechanism behind OK432 stimulation of DC, we investigated the contribution of different TLR to examine their involvement in IL-12p70 production. By combining different inhibitors of TLR signaling, we demonstrate here that TLR3 is responsible for the IL-12p70 production of DC induced by OK432. Moreover, our data suggest that the ligand triggering IL-12p70 secretion upon TLR3 stimulation is sensitive to proteinase and partly also RNAse treatment. The fact that a bacterial compound like OK432 can activate the TLR3 pathway in human DC is a novel finding. OK432 demonstrates a critical ability to induce IL-12p70 production, which is of great relevance in DC based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22363584

  19. The Bacterial Preparation OK432 Induces IL-12p70 Secretion in Human Dendritic Cells in a TLR3 Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Karlsen, Marie; Jonsson, Roland; Appel, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) used in therapeutic cancer immunotherapy have to be able to stimulate T cells resulting in an immune response that can efficiently target the cancer cells. One of the critical hurdles has been the lack of IL-12p70 production when maturating the DC, which is rectified by using the bacterial preparation OK432 (trade name Picibanil) to mature the cells. In order to identify the mechanism behind OK432 stimulation of DC, we investigated the contribution of different TLR to examine their involvement in IL-12p70 production. By combining different inhibitors of TLR signaling, we demonstrate here that TLR3 is responsible for the IL-12p70 production of DC induced by OK432. Moreover, our data suggest that the ligand triggering IL-12p70 secretion upon TLR3 stimulation is sensitive to proteinase and partly also RNAse treatment. The fact that a bacterial compound like OK432 can activate the TLR3 pathway in human DC is a novel finding. OK432 demonstrates a critical ability to induce IL-12p70 production, which is of great relevance in DC based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22363584

  20. Biological Effects of the Pim Kinase Inhibitor, SGI-1776, in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes-Gomez, Fabiola; Chen, Lisa S.; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Gandhi, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Pim kinases are constitutively active serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in hematological malignancies such as multiple myeloma. Pim kinase substrates are involved in transcription, protein translation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. SGI-1776 is a potent Pim kinase inhibitor that has proven to be cytotoxic to leukemia and lymphoma cells. Based on this background, we hypothesized that SGI-1776 treatment would result in myeloma cytotoxicity. To test this, myeloma cell lines and primary CD138+ cells from myeloma patients were treated with SGI-1776 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and effect on cell death and proliferation, induction of autophagy, as wells as changes in cell cycle profile were measured. SGI-1776 treatment resulted in limited apoptosis in cell lines (mean 30%) and CD138+ cells (<10%) as assessed by Annexin-V/PI. Limited effect was observed in cell cycle profile or growth in cell lines. However, DNA synthesis was decreased by 70% at 3 ?M (all time points) in U266 though this was not observed in MM.1S. In accordance, immunoblot analyses revealed no change in transcription (c-Myc and H3), or apoptotic (Bad) proteins that are substrates of Pim kinases. In contrast, autophagy, as assessed by acridine orange staining, was induced with SGI-1776 treatment in both cell lines (U266 25-70%; MM.1S 8-52%) and CD138+ cells (19-21%). Immunoblot analyses of autophagy LC3b marker and translation initiation proteins (phospho p70S6K and 4E-BP1) corroborated autophagy induction. These data indicate that SGI-1776 treatment in myeloma cell lines and CD138+ myeloma cells elicits its deleterious effects through inhibition of translation and induction of autophagy. PMID:23988451

  1. Activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 on Ser307 and Ser612 and impairs the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin insulin biosynthetic pathway in RIN pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Francesco; D'Alessandris, Cristina; Federici, Massimo; Laratta, Emanuela; Del Guerra, Silvia; Del Prato, Stefano; Marchetti, Piero; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2004-06-01

    Many adverse effects of glucose were attributed to its increased routing through the hexosamine pathway (HBP). There is evidence for an autocrine role of the insulin signaling in beta-cell function. We tested the hypothesis that activation of the HBP induces defects in insulin biosynthesis by affecting the insulin-mediated protein translation signaling. Exposure of human pancreatic islets and RIN beta-cells to glucosamine resulted in reduction in glucose- and insulin-stimulated insulin biosynthesis, which in RIN beta-cells was associated with impairment in insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation at Tyr(608) and Tyr(628), which are essential for engaging phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). These changes were accompanied by impaired activation of PI 3-kinase, and activation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin/phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein-1/p70S6 kinase pathway. RIN beta-cells exposed to high glucose exhibited increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and ERK1/2 activity, which was associated with increased IRS-1 phosphorylation at serine (Ser)(307) and Ser(612), respectively, that inhibits coupling of IRS-1 to the insulin receptor and is upstream of the inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Azaserine reverted the stimulatory effects of high glucose on JNK and ERK1/2 activity and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307) and Ser(612). Glucosamine mimicked the stimulatory effects of high glucose on JNK and ERK1/2 activity and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307) and Ser(612). Inhibition of JNK and MAPK kinase-1 activity reverted the negative effects of glucosamine on insulin-mediated protein synthesis. These results suggest that activation of the HBP accounts, in part, for glucose-induced phosphorylation at Ser(307) and Ser(612) of IRS-1 mediated by JNK and ERK1/2, respectively. These changes result in impaired coupling of IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase, and activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin/phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein-1/p70S6 kinase pathway. PMID:15001544

  2. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 does not correlate with translation efficiency in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Biever, Anne; Puighermanal, Emma; Nishi, Akinori; David, Alexandre; Panciatici, Claire; Longueville, Sophie; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Meyuhas, Oded; Herv, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2015-03-11

    Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, is phosphorylated on several residues in response to numerous stimuli. Although commonly used as a marker for neuronal activity, its upstream mechanisms of regulation are poorly studied and its role in protein synthesis remains largely debated. Here, we demonstrate that the psychostimulant d-amphetamine (d-amph) markedly increases rpS6 phosphorylation at Ser235/236 sites in both crude and synaptoneurosomal preparations of the mouse striatum. This effect occurs selectively in D1R-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and requires the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32/PP-1 cascade, whereas it is independent of mTORC1/p70S6K, PKC, and ERK signaling. By developing a novel assay to label nascent peptidic chains, we show that the rpS6 phosphorylation induced in striatonigral MSNs by d-amph, as well as in striatopallidal MSNs by the antipsychotic haloperidol or in both subtypes by papaverine, is not correlated with the translation of global or 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract mRNAs. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic insights into the in vivo regulation of the post-translational modification of rpS6 in the striatum and point out the lack of a relationship between PKA-dependent rpS6 phosphorylation and translation efficiency. PMID:25762659

  3. Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H. )

    1990-08-15

    We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis.

  4. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling Promotes Aberrant Pituitary Growth in a Mouse Model of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Willingham, Mark C.; Furuya, Fumihiko; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2008-01-01

    TSH-secreting pituitary tumors (TSHomas) are pituitary tumors that constitutively secrete TSH. Molecular mechanisms underlying this abnormality are largely undefined. We recently created a knock-in mutant mouse harboring a mutation (denoted as PV) in the thyroid hormone receptor-β gene (TRβPV/PV mouse). As these mice age, they spontaneously develop TSHomas. Using this mouse model, we investigated the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of TSHomas. Concurrent with aberrant growth of pituitaries, AKT and its downstream effectors, mammalian target rapamycin and p70S6K, were activated to contribute to increased cell proliferation and pituitary growth. In addition, activation of AKT led to decreased apoptosis by inhibiting proapoptotic activity of Bcl-2-associated death promoter, further contributing to the aberrant cell proliferation. These results suggest an activated PI3K-AKT pathway could underscore tumorigenesis, raising the possibility that this pathway could be a potential therapeutic target in TSHomas. Indeed, TRβPV/PV mice treated with a PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, showed a significant decrease in pituitary growth. The progrowth signaling via AKT-mammalian target rapamycin-p70S6K and cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase were inhibited, and proapoptotic activity of Bcl-2-associated death promoter was increased by LY294002 treatment. Thus, activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway mediates, at least in part, the aberrant pituitary growth, and the intervention of this signaling pathway presents a novel therapeutic opportunity for TSHomas. PMID:18356276

  5. Targeting TORC2 in multiple myeloma with a new mTOR kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Bao; Frost, Patrick; Shi, Yijiang; Belanger, Eileen; Benavides, Angelica; Pezeshkpour, Gholam; Cappia, Susanna; Guglielmelli, Tommasina; Gera, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Although preclinical work with rapalogs suggests potential in treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), they have been less successful clinically. These drugs allostearically inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase primarily curtailing activity of the target of rapamycin complex (TORC)1. To assess if the mammalian target of rapamycin within the TORC2 complex could be a better target in MM, we tested a new agent, pp242, which prevents activation of TORC2 as well as TORC1. Although comparable to rapamycin against phosphorylation of the TORC1 substrates p70S6kinase and 4E-BP-1, pp242 could also inhibit phosphorylation of AKT on serine 473, a TORC2 substrate, while rapamycin was ineffective. pp242 was also more effective than rapamycin in achieving cytoreduction and apoptosis in MM cells. In addition, pp242 was an effective agent against primary MM cells in vitro and growth of 8226 cells in mice. Knockdown of the TORC2 complex protein, rictor, was deleterious to MM cells further supporting TORC2 as the critical target for pp242. TORC2 activation was frequently identified in primary specimens by immunostaining for AKT phosphorylation on serine 473. Potential mechanisms of up-regulated TORC2 activity in MM were stimulation with interleukin-6 or insulin-like growth factor 1, and phosphatase and tensin homolog or RAS alterations. Combining pp242 with bortezomib led to synergistic anti-MM effects. These results support TORC2 as a therapeutic target in MM. PMID:20686120

  6. Serum IL-12 in systemic lupus erythematosus: absence of p70 heterodimers but presence of p40 monomers correlating with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Lauwerys, B R; Van Snick, J; Houssiau, F A

    2002-01-01

    Biologically active IL-12 is a 70 kDa heterodimeric cytokine (IL-12 p70) mainly produced by antigen-presenting cells (APC) and made of disulfide-linked alpha (p35) and beta (p40) chains. Since the production of the p40 subunit is independently regulated from that of IL-12 p70, we compared levels of p40 and IL-12 p70 in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Sera obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy subjects were used as controls. Serum p40 titers were significantly higher in SLE patients (mean +/- s.e.m.: 348 +/- 40 pg/ml) compared with patients with rheumatoid arthiritis (mean +/- s.e.m.: 116 +/- 18 pg/ml, P < 0.0001) or controls (mean +/- s.e.m.: 0 +/- pg/ml, P < 0.0001). By contrast, IL-12 p70 was not detected in any serum. In SLE patients, serum p40 levels were positively correlated with the SLEDAI (r = + 0.56, P = 0.02) and negatively with serum C3 levels (r = - 0.42, P = 0.03). Follow-up measurements indicated that serum p40 dropped significantly after immunosuppressive therapy. Finally, size exclusion chromatography with p40 immunoprecipitates obtained from SLE sera demonstrated that p40 was present as a monomer, and not as a homodimer, nor as a p19/p40 (IL-23) heterodimer. In conclusion, serum p40 monomers (but not IL-12 p70 titers) are elevated in the sera of SLE patients commensurate with disease activity. While the relevance of these observations needs to be further investigated, our results are consistent with the APC dysfunction described in SLE. PMID:12139377

  7. Supersymmetric AdS6 via T duality.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Y; Colgáin, E Ó; Rodríguez-Gómez, D; Sfetsos, K

    2013-06-01

    We present a new supersymmetric AdS(6) solution of type IIB supergravity with SU(2) isometry. Through the AdS/CFT correspondence, this has potentially very interesting implications for 5D fixed point theories. This solution is the result of a non-Abelian T duality on the known supersymmetric AdS(6) solution of massive IIA. The SU(2) R symmetry is untouched, leading to sixteen supercharges and preserved supersymmetry. PMID:25167481

  8. Faraday effect in Sn2P2S6 crystals.

    PubMed

    Krupych, Oleh; Adamenko, Dmytro; Mys, Oksana; Grabar, Aleksandr; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2008-11-10

    We have revealed a large Faraday rotation in tin thiohypodiphosphate (Sn(2)P(2)S(6)) crystals, which makes this material promising for magneto-optics. The effective Faraday tensor component and the Verdet constant for the direction of the optic axis have been determined by measuring the pure Faraday rotation in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals with both the single-ray and small-angular polarimetric methods at the normal conditions and a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The effective Verdet constant is found to be equal to 115 rad/T x m. PMID:19002228

  9. 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein related protein (P70R/ABCD4) localizes to endoplasmic reticulum not peroxisomes, and NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic property determines the subcellular localization of ABC subfamily D proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Seki, Midori; Yasui, Akina; Murasaki, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Masashi; Yamashita, Yukari; Sakaguchi, Masao; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2009-01-15

    70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein related protein (P70R/ABCD4) is a member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein subfamily D. ABC subfamily D proteins are also known as peroxisomal ABC proteins. Therefore, P70R is thought to be a peroxisomal membrane protein. However, the subcellular localization of P70R is not extensively investigated. In this study, we transiently expressed P70R in fusion with HA (P70R-HA) in CHO cells and examined subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. Surprisingly, P70R-HA was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), not to peroxisomes. To examine the ER-targeting property of P70R, we expressed various NH{sub 2}-terminal deletion constructs of P70R. Among the NH{sub 2}-terminal deletion constructs, mutant proteins starting with hydrophobic transmembrane segment (TMS) were localized to ER, but the ones containing the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic cytosolic domain were not. ABC subfamily D proteins destined for peroxisomes have NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic region adjacent to TMS1. However, only P70R lacks the region and is translated with NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic TMS1. Furthermore, attachment of the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic domain to the NH{sub 2}-terminus of P70R excluded P70R from the ER-targeting pathway. These data suggest that P70R resides in the ER but not the peroxisomal membranes, and the hydrophobic property of NH{sub 2}-terminal region determines the subcellular localization of ABC subfamily D proteins.

  10. A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen in Mammalian Cells for Regulators of S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Angela; Rapley, Joseph; Mesirov, Jill P.; Tamayo, Pablo; Avruch, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    mTOR complex1, the major regulator of mRNA translation in all eukaryotic cells, is strongly activated in most cancers. We performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in a human cancer cell line, seeking genes that regulate S6 phosphorylation, readout of mTORC1 activity. Applying a stringent selection, we retrieved nearly 600 genes wherein at least two RNAis gave significant reduction in S6-P. This cohort contains known regulators of mTOR complex 1 and is significantly enriched in genes whose depletion affects the proliferation/viability of the large set of cancer cell lines in the Achilles database in a manner paralleling that caused by mTOR depletion. We next examined the effect of RNAi pools directed at 534 of these gene products on S6-P in TSC1 null mouse embryo fibroblasts. 76 RNAis reduced S6 phosphorylation significantly in 2 or 3 replicates. Surprisingly, among this cohort of genes the only elements previously associated with the maintenance of mTORC1 activity are two subunits of the vacuolar ATPase and the CUL4 subunit DDB1. RNAi against a second set of 84 targets reduced S6-P in only one of three replicates. However, an indication that this group also bears attention is the presence of rpS6KB1 itself, Rac1 and MAP4K3, a protein kinase that supports amino acid signaling to rpS6KB1. The finding that S6 phosphorylation requires a previously unidentified, functionally diverse cohort of genes that participate in fundamental cellular processes such as mRNA translation, RNA processing, DNA repair and metabolism suggests the operation of feedback pathways in the regulation of mTORC1 operating through novel mechanisms. PMID:25790369

  11. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Paula; Howley, Rachel; Doolan, Padraig; Clarke, Colin; Madden, Stephen F; Clynes, Martin; Farrell, Michael; Amberger-Murphy, Verena

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-? expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. PMID:22285130

  12. Transforming Growth Factor ?1-induced Apoptosis in Podocytes via the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1-NADPH Oxidase 4 Axis.

    PubMed

    Das, Ranjan; Xu, Shanhua; Nguyen, Tuyet Thi; Quan, Xianglan; Choi, Seong-Kyung; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Eun Young; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2015-12-25

    TGF-? is a pleiotropic cytokine that accumulates during kidney injuries, resulting in various renal diseases. We have reported previously that TGF-?1 induces the selective up-regulation of mitochondrial Nox4, playing critical roles in podocyte apoptosis. Here we investigated the regulatory mechanism of Nox4 up-regulation by mTORC1 activation on TGF-?1-induced apoptosis in immortalized podocytes. TGF-?1 treatment markedly increased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream targets p70S6K and 4EBP1. Blocking TGF-? receptor I with SB431542 completely blunted the phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, and 4EBP1. Transient adenoviral overexpression of mTOR-WT and constitutively active mTOR? augmented TGF-?1-treated Nox4 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis, whereas mTOR kinase-dead suppressed the above changes. In addition, knockdown of mTOR mimicked the effect of mTOR-KD. Inhibition of mTORC1 by low-dose rapamycin or knockdown of p70S6K protected podocytes through attenuation of Nox4 expression and subsequent oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by TGF-?1. Pharmacological inhibition of the MEK-ERK cascade, but not the PI3K-Akt-TSC2 pathway, abolished TGF-?1-induced mTOR activation. Inhibition of either ERK1/2 or mTORC1 did not reduce the TGF-?1-stimulated increase in Nox4 mRNA level but significantly inhibited total Nox4 expression, ROS generation, and apoptosis induced by TGF-?1. Moreover, double knockdown of Smad2 and 3 or only Smad4 completely suppressed TGF-?1-induced ERK1/2-mTORactivation. Our data suggest that TGF-?1 increases translation of Nox4 through the Smad-ERK1/2-mTORC1 axis, which is independent of transcriptional regulation. Activation of this pathway plays a crucial role in ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to podocyte apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of the ERK1/2-mTORC1 pathway could be a potential therapeutic and preventive target in proteinuric and chronic kidney diseases. PMID:26565025

  13. FGF-2 protects small cell lung cancer cells from apoptosis through a complex involving PKC?, B-Raf and S6K2

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Olivier E; Wellbrock, Claudia; Khanzada, Umme K; Aubert, Muriel; Arozarena, Imanol; Davidson, Sally; Bowen, Frances; Parker, Peter J; Filonenko, V V; Gout, Ivan T; Sebire, Neil; Marais, Richard; Downward, Julian; Seckl, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) die because of chemoresistance. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) increases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-XL, and triggers chemoresistance in SCLC cells. Here we show that these effects are mediated through the formation of a specific multiprotein complex comprising B-Raf, PKC? and S6K2. S6K1, Raf-1 and other PKC isoforms do not form similar complexes. RNAi-mediated downregulation of B-Raf, PKC? or S6K2 abolishes FGF-2-mediated survival. In contrast, overexpression of PKC? increases XIAP and Bcl-XL levels and chemoresistance in SCLC cells. In a tetracycline-inducible system, increased S6K2 kinase activity triggers upregulation of XIAP, Bcl-XL and prosurvival effects. However, increased S6K1 kinase activity has no such effect. Thus, S6K2 but not S6K1 mediates prosurvival/chemoresistance signalling. PMID:16810323

  14. FGF-2 protects small cell lung cancer cells from apoptosis through a complex involving PKCepsilon, B-Raf and S6K2.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Olivier E; Wellbrock, Claudia; Khanzada, Umme K; Aubert, Muriel; Arozarena, Imanol; Davidson, Sally; Bowen, Frances; Parker, Peter J; Filonenko, V V; Gout, Ivan T; Sebire, Neil; Marais, Richard; Downward, Julian; Seckl, Michael J

    2006-07-12

    Patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) die because of chemoresistance. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) increases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-X(L), and triggers chemoresistance in SCLC cells. Here we show that these effects are mediated through the formation of a specific multiprotein complex comprising B-Raf, PKCepsilon and S6K2. S6K1, Raf-1 and other PKC isoforms do not form similar complexes. RNAi-mediated downregulation of B-Raf, PKCepsilon or S6K2 abolishes FGF-2-mediated survival. In contrast, overexpression of PKCepsilon increases XIAP and Bcl-X(L) levels and chemoresistance in SCLC cells. In a tetracycline-inducible system, increased S6K2 kinase activity triggers upregulation of XIAP, Bcl-X(L) and prosurvival effects. However, increased S6K1 kinase activity has no such effect. Thus, S6K2 but not S6K1 mediates prosurvival/chemoresistance signalling. PMID:16810323

  15. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  16. Aschantin targeting on the kinase domain of mammalian target of rapamycin suppresses epidermal growth factor-induced neoplastic cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheol-Jung; Jang, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Li, Yan; Ryu, Hyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Il; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Hye Suk; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Surh, Young-Joon; Cho, Yong-Yeon

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine protein kinase, forms two different complexes, complex 1 and 2, and plays a key role in the regulation of Akt signaling-mediated cell proliferation and transformation. This study reveals aschantin, a natural compound abundantly found in Magnolia flos, as a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor. Aschantin directly targeted the active pocket of mTOR kinase domain by competing with adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but not PI3K and PDK1. Aschantin inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced full activation of Akt by phosphorylation at Ser473/Thr308, resulting in inhibition of the mTORC2/Akt and Akt/mTORC1/p70S6K signaling pathways and activation of GSK3β by abrogation of Akt-mediated GSK3β phosphorylation at Ser9. The activated GSK3β inhibited cell proliferation by c-Jun phosphorylation at Ser243, which facilitated destabilization and degradation of c-Jun through the ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation pathway. Notably, aschantin treatment decreased c-Jun stability through inhibition of the mTORC2-Akt signaling pathway, which suppressed EGF-induced anchorage-independent cell transformation in non-malignant JB6 Cl41 and HaCaT cells and colony growth of LNCaP and MIAPaCa-2 cancer cells in soft agar. Altogether, the results show that aschantin targets mTOR kinase and destabilizes c-Jun, which implicate aschantin as a potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agent. PMID:26243309

  17. Consistent N=8 truncation of massive IIA on S 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Adolfo; Varela, Oscar

    2015-12-01

    Massive type IIA supergravity is shown to admit a consistent truncation on the six-sphere to maximal supergravity in four dimensions with a dyonic ISO(7) gauging. We obtain the complete, non-linear embedding of all the D = 4 fields into the IIA metric and form potentials, and show its consistency. We first rewrite the IIA theory in an SO(1 , 3) SL(7)-covariant way. Then, we employ an N=8 SL(7)-covariant restriction of the D = 4 tensor hierarchy in order to find the full embedding. The redundant D = 4 degrees of freedom introduced by the tensor hierarchy can be eliminated by writing the embedding in terms of the field strengths and exploiting the restricted duality hierarchy. In particular, closed expressions for the Freund-Rubin term are found using this technique which reveal a pattern valid for other truncations. Finally, we show that the present N=8 truncation of massive IIA on S 6 and the N=2 truncation obtained when S 6 is equipped with its nearly-Khler structure, overlap in the N=1 , G2-invariant sector of the former.

  18. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway. PMID:16397275

  19. Mice Deficient in Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation Suffer from Muscle Weakness that Reflects a Growth Defect and Energy Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Dreazen, Avigail; Gielchinsky, Yuval; Saada, Ann; Freedman, Nanette; Mishani, Eyal; Zimmerman, Gabriel; Kasir, Judith; Meyuhas, Oded

    2009-01-01

    Background Mice, whose ribosomal protein S6 cannot be phosphorylated due to replacement of all five phosphorylatable serine residues by alanines (rpS6P?/?), are viable and fertile. However, phenotypic characterization of these mice and embryo fibroblasts derived from them, has established the role of these modifications in the regulation of the size of several cell types, as well as pancreatic ?-cell function and glucose homeostasis. A relatively passive behavior of these mice has raised the possibility that they suffer from muscle weakness, which has, indeed, been confirmed by a variety of physical performance tests. Methodology/Principal Findings A large variety of experimental methodologies, including morphometric measurements of histological preparations, high throughput proteomic analysis, positron emission tomography (PET) and numerous biochemical assays, were used in an attempt to establish the mechanism underlying the relative weakness of rpS6P?/? muscles. Collectively, these experiments have demonstrated that the physical inferiority appears to result from two defects: a) a decrease in total muscle mass that reflects impaired growth, rather than aberrant differentiation of myofibers, as well as a diminished abundance of contractile proteins; and b) a reduced content of ATP and phosphocreatine, two readily available energy sources. The abundance of three mitochondrial proteins has been shown to diminish in the knockin mouse. However, the apparent energy deficiency in this genotype does not result from a lower mitochondrial mass or compromised activity of enzymes of the oxidative phosphorylation, nor does it reflect a decline in insulin-dependent glucose uptake, or diminution in storage of glycogen or triacylglycerol (TG) in the muscle. Conclusions/Significance This study establishes rpS6 phosphorylation as a determinant of muscle strength through its role in regulation of myofiber growth and energy content. Interestingly, a similar role has been assigned for ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, even though it regulates myoblast growth in an rpS6 phosphorylation-independent fashion. PMID:19479038

  20. Maturation of monocyte derived dendritic cells with OK432 boosts IL-12p70 secretion and conveys strong T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Design of tumour specific immunotherapies using the patients' own dendritic cells (DC) is a fast advancing scientific field. The functional qualities of the DC generated in vitro are critical, and today's gold standard for maturation is a cytokine cocktail consisting of IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and PGE2 generating cells lacking IL-12p70 production. OK432 is an immunotherapeutic agent derived from killed Streptococcus pyogenes that has been used clinically to treat malignant and benign neoplasms for decades. Methods In this study, we analysed the effects of OK432 on DC maturation, DC migration, cytokine and chemokine secretion as well as T-cell stimulatory capacity, and compared it to the cytokine cocktail alone and combinations of OK432 with the cytokine cocktail. Results OK432 induced a marked up-regulation of CD40 on the cell surface as well as a strong inflammatory response from the DC with significantly more secretion of 19 different cytokines and chemokines compared to the cytokine cocktail. Interestingly, secretion of IL-15 and IL-12p70 was detected at high concentrations after maturation of DC with OK432. However, the OK432 treated DC did not migrate as well as DC treated with cytokine cocktail in a transwell migration assay. During allogeneic T-cell stimulation OK432 treated DC induced proliferation of over 50 percent of CD4 and 30 percent of CD8 T-cells for more than two cell divisions, whereas cytokine cocktail treated DC induced proliferation of 12 and 11 percent of CD4 and CD8 T-cells, respectively. Conclusions The clinically approved compound OK432 has interesting properties that warrants its use in DC immunotherapy and should be considered as a potential immunomodulating agent in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:21208424

  1. IL-2 suppression of IL-12p70 by a recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-2 induces T-cell auto-reactivity and CNS demyelination.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Mandana; Mott, Kevin R; Allen, Sariah J; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the role of cellular infiltrates in CNS demyelination in immunocompetent mice, we have used a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) in which different strains of mice are infected with a recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-2. Histologic examination of the mice infected with HSV-IL-2 demonstrates that natural killer cells, dendritic cells, B cells, and CD25 (IL-2rα) do not play any role in the HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination. T cell depletion, T cell knockout and T cell adoptive transfer experiments suggest that both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells contribute to HSV-IL-2-induced CNS demyelination with CD8(+) T cells being the primary inducers. In the adoptive transfer studies, all of the transferred T cells irrespective of their CD25 status at the time of transfer were positive for expression of FoxP3 and depletion of FoxP3 blocked CNS demyelination by HSV-IL-2. The expression levels of IL-12p35 relative to IL-12p40 differed in BM-derived macrophages infected with HSV-IL-2 from those infected with wild-type HSV-1. HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination was blocked by injecting HSV-IL-2-infected mice with IL-12p70 DNA. This study demonstrates that suppression of the IL-12p70 function of macrophages by IL-2 causes T cells to become auto-aggressive. Interruption of this immunoregulatory axis results in demyelination of the optic nerve, the spinal cord and the brain by autoreactive T cells in the HSV-IL-2 mouse model of MS. PMID:21364747

  2. The novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235, inhibits growth and proliferation in multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Philipp Mandl-Weber, Sonja; Oduncu, Fuat; Schmidmaier, Ralf

    2009-02-01

    NVP-BEZ235 is a new inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3 kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) whose efficacy in advanced solid tumours is currently being evaluated in a phase I/II clinical trial. Here we show that NVP-BEZ235 inhibits growth in common myeloma cell lines as well as primary myeloma cells at nanomolar concentrations in a time and dose dependent fashion. Further experiments revealed induction of apoptosis in three of four cell lines. Inhibition of cell growth was mainly due to inhibition of myeloma cell proliferation, as shown by the BrdU assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, which was due to downregulation of cyclin D1, pRb and cdc25a. NVP-BEZ235 inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), P70S6k and 4E-BP-1. Furthermore we show that the stimulatory effect of CD40-ligand (CD40L), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and conditioned medium of HS-5 stromal cells on myeloma cell growth is completely abrogated by NVP-BEZ235. In addition, synergism studies revealed synergistic and additive activity of NVP-BEZ235 together with melphalan, doxorubicin and bortezomib. Taken together, inhibition of PI3 kinase/mTOR by NVP-BEZ235 is highly effective and NVP-BEZ235 represents a potential new candidate for targeted therapy in multiple myeloma.

  3. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Corrupts Coronary Collateral Growth by Activating Adenosine Monophosphate Activated Kinase-α Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Sam, Wai Johnn; Stevanov, Kelly; Enrick, Molly; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Kolz, Christopher; Thakker, Prashanth; Hardwick, James P.; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Dyck, Jason R.B.; Yin, Liya; Chilian, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to determine the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress impairs collateral growth in the heart. Approach and Results Rats were treated with rotenone (mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that increases reactive oxygen species production) or sham-treated with vehicle and subjected to repetitive ischemia protocol for 10 days to induce coronary collateral growth. In control rats, repetitive ischemia increased flow to the collateral-dependent zone; however, rotenone treatment prevented this increase suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress compromises coronary collateral growth. In addition, rotenone also attenuated mitochondrial complex I activity and led to excessive mitochondrial aggregation. To further understand the mechanistic pathway(s) involved, human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with 50 ng/ mL vascular endothelial growth factor, 1 µmol/L rotenone, and rotenone/vascular endothelial growth factor for 48 hours. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced robust tube formation; however, rotenone completely inhibited this effect (P<0.05 rotenone versus vascular endothelial growth factor treatment). Inhibition of tube formation by rotenone was also associated with significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation. Immunoblot analyses of human coronary artery endothelial cells with rotenone treatment showed significant activation of adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK)-α and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase. Activation of AMPK-α suggested impairments in energy production, which was reflected by decrease in O2 consumption and bioenergetic reserve capacity of cultured cells. Knockdown of AMPK-α (siRNA) also preserved tube formation during rotenone, suggesting the negative effects were mediated by the activation of AMPK-α. Conversely, expression of a constitutively active AMPK-α blocked tube formation. Conclusions We conclude that activation of AMPK-α during mitochondrial oxidative stress inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, which impairs phenotypic switching necessary for the growth of blood vessels. PMID:23788766

  4. Preclinical Pharmacological Evaluation of a Novel Multiple Kinase Inhibitor, ON123300, in Brain Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Hua; Zhou, Qingyu; Elkholi, Rana; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Gallo, James M.

    2014-01-01

    ON123300 is a low molecular weight multi-kinase inhibitor identified through a series of screens that supported further analyses for brain tumor chemotherapy. Biochemical assays indicated ON123300 was a strong inhibitor of Ark5 and CDK4 as well as growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases such as Beta-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGFR?]. ON123300 inhibited U87 glioma cell proliferation with an IC50 = 3.4 0.1 ?M and reduced phosphorylation of Akt, yet it also unexpectedly induced Erk activation; both in a dose- and time-dependent manner that subsequently was attributed to relieving Akt-mediated C-Raf S259 inactivation and activating a p70S6K initiated PI3K negative feedback loop. Co-treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib [GFN] produced synergistic cytotoxic effects. Pursuant to the in vitro studies, in vivo pharmacokinetic [PK] and pharmacodynamic [PD] studies of ON123300 were completed in mice bearing intracerebral U87 tumors following IV doses of 5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg alone, and also at the higher dose concurrently with GFN. ON123300 showed high brain and brain tumor accumulation based on brain partition coefficient values of at least 2.5. Consistent with the in vitro studies, single agent ON123300 caused a dose-dependent suppression of phosphorylation of Akt as well as activation of Erk in brain tumors, whereas addition of GFN to the ON123300 regimen significantly enhanced p-Akt inhibition and prevented Erk activation. In summary, ON123300 demonstrated favorable PK characteristics and future development for brain tumor therapy would require use of combinations, such as GFN, that mitigated its Erk activation and enhanced its activity. PMID:24568969

  5. The nuts and bolts of AGC protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Laura R; Komander, David; Alessi, Dario R

    2010-01-01

    The AGC kinase subfamily of protein kinases contains 60 members, including PKA, PKG and PKC. The family comprises some intensely examined protein kinases (such as Akt, S6K, RSK, MSK, PDK1 and GRK) as well as many less well-studied enzymes (such as SGK, NDR, LATS, CRIK, SGK494, PRKX, PRKY and MAST). Research has shed new light onto the architecture and regulatory mechanisms of these kinases. In addition, AGC kinases mediate diverse and important cellular functions, and their mutation and/or dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and diabetes. PMID:20027184

  6. The serine-threonine kinase p90RSK is a new target of enzastaurin in follicular lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kheirallah, S; Fruchon, S; Ysebaert, L; Blanc, A; Capilla, F; Marrot, A; AlSaati, T; Frenois, F X; Benhadji, K A; Fourni, J J; Laurent, G; Bezombes, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Follicular lymphoma is the second most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and, despite the introduction of rituximab for its treatment, this disease is still considered incurable. Besides genetic alterations involving Bcl-2, Bcl-6 or c-Myc, follicular lymphoma cells often display altered B-cell receptor signalling pathways including overactive PKC and PI3K/Akt systems. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of enzastaurin, an inhibitor of PKC, was evaluated both in vitro on follicular lymphoma cell lines and in vivo on a xenograft murine model. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA transfection, we determined the different signalling pathways after enzastaurin treatment. KEY RESULTS Enzastaurin inhibited the serine-threonine kinase p90RSK which has downstream effects on GSK3?. Bad and p70S6K. These signalling proteins control follicular lymphoma cell survival and apoptosis; which accounted for the inhibition by enzastaurin of cell survival and its induction of apoptosis of follicular lymphoma cell lines in vitro. Importantly, these results were replicated in vivo where enzastaurin inhibited the growth of follicular lymphoma xenografts in mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The targeting of p90RSK by enzastaurin represents a new therapeutic option for the treatment of follicular lymphoma. PMID:23992368

  7. Venus Kinase Receptors Control Reproduction in the Platyhelminth Parasite Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Cailliau, Katia; Morel, Marion; Hahnel, Steffen; Leutner, Silke; Beckmann, Svenja; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Dissous, Colette

    2014-01-01

    The Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) is a single transmembrane molecule composed of an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptor and an extracellular Venus Flytrap (VFT) structure similar to the ligand binding domain of many class C G Protein Coupled Receptors. This receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) was first discovered in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, then in a large variety of invertebrates. A single vkr gene is found in most genomes, except in S. mansoni in which two genes Smvkr1 and Smvkr2 exist. VKRs form a unique family of RTKs present only in invertebrates and their biological functions are still to be discovered. In this work, we show that SmVKRs are expressed in the reproductive organs of S. mansoni, particularly in the ovaries of female worms. By transcriptional analyses evidence was obtained that both SmVKRs fulfill different roles during oocyte maturation. Suppression of Smvkr expression by RNA interference induced spectacular morphological changes in female worms with a strong disorganization of the ovary, which was dominated by the presence of primary oocytes, and a defect of egg formation. Following expression in Xenopus oocytes, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2 receptors were shown to be activated by distinct ligands which are L-Arginine and calcium ions, respectively. Signalling analysis in Xenopus oocytes revealed the capacity of SmVKRs to activate the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K and Erk MAPK pathways involved in cellular growth and proliferation. Additionally, SmVKR1 induced phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). Activation of JNK by SmVKR1 was supported by the results of yeast two-hybrid experiments identifying several components of the JNK pathway as specific interacting partners of SmVKR1. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the functions of SmVKR in gametogenesis, and particularly in oogenesis and egg formation. By eliciting signalling pathways potentially involved in oocyte proliferation, growth and migration, these receptors control parasite reproduction and can therefore be considered as potential targets for anti-schistosome therapies. PMID:24875530

  8. A hepatic amino acid/mTOR/S6K-dependent signalling pathway modulates systemic lipid metabolism via neuronal signals

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kenji; Yamada, Tetsuya; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Imai, Junta; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Sawada, Shojiro; Kaneko, Keizo; Ono, Hiraku; Asano, Tomoichiro; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is coordinated among tissues and organs via neuronal signals. Levels of circulating amino acids (AAs), which are elevated in obesity, activate the intracellular target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1)/S6kinase (S6K) pathway in the liver. Here we demonstrate that hepatic AA/mTORC1/S6K signalling modulates systemic lipid metabolism via a mechanism involving neuronal inter-tissue communication. Hepatic expression of an AA transporter, SNAT2, activates the mTORC1/S6K pathway, and markedly elevates serum triglycerides (TGs), while downregulating adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Hepatic Rheb or active-S6K expression have similar metabolic effects, whereas hepatic expression of dominant-negative-S6K inhibits TG elevation in SNAT2 mice. Denervation, pharmacological deafferentation and β-blocker administration suppress obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia with adipose LPL upregulation, suggesting that signals are transduced between liver and adipose tissue via a neuronal pathway consisting of afferent vagal and efferent sympathetic nerves. Thus, the neuronal mechanism uncovered here serves to coordinate amino acid and lipid levels and contributes to the development of obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:26268630

  9. Phospho-kinase profile of colorectal tumors guides in the selection of multi-kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Juan Carlos; Corrales-Sanchez, Vernica; Morales, Jorge Carlos; Nez, Luz-Elena; Mors, Francisco; Pandiella, Atanasio; Ocaa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases play a central role in the oncogenesis of colorectal tumors and are attractive druggable targets. Detection of activated kinases within a tumor could open avenues for drug selection and optimization of new kinase inhibitors. By using a phosphokinase arrays with human colorectal tumors we identified activated kinases, including the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), components of the PI3K/mTOR pathway (AKT and S6), and STAT, among others. A pharmacological screening with kinase inhibitors against these proteins helped us to identify a new kinase inhibitor, termed EC-70124 that showed the highest anti-proliferative activity in cell lines. EC-70124 also inhibited cell migration and biochemical experiments demonstrated its effect targeting the PI3K/mTOR pathway. This drug also arrested cells at G2/M and induced apoptosis. Experiments in combination with standard chemotherapy used in the clinical setting indicated a synergistic effect. EC-70124 also reduced tumor growth in vivo and inhibited pS6 in the implanted tumors. In conclusion, by studying the kinase profile of colorectal tumors, we identified relevant activated pathways, and a new multi-kinase compound with significant antitumor properties. PMID:26418718

  10. Improved protocol to purify untagged amelogenin Application to murine amelogenin containing the equivalent P70 ? T point mutation observed in human amelogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenin is the predominant extracellular protein responsible for converting carbonated hydroxyapatite into dental enamel, the hardest and most heavily mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Despite much effort, the precise mechanism by which amelogenin regulates enamel formation is not fully understood. To assist efforts aimed at understanding the biochemical mechanism of enamel formation, more facile protocols to purify recombinantly expressed amelogenin, ideally without any tag to assist affinity purification, are advantageous. Here we describe an improved method to purify milligram quantities of amelogenin that exploits its high solubility in 2% glacial acetic acid under conditions of low ionic strength. The method involves heating the frozen cell pellet for two 15 min periods at ?70 C with 2 min of sonication in between, dialysis twice in 2% acetic acid (1:250 v/v), and reverse phase chromatography. A further improvement in yield is obtained by resuspending the frozen cell pellet in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride in the first step. The acetic acid heating method is illustrated with a murine amelogenin containing the corresponding P70 ? T point mutation observed in an human amelogenin associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (P71T), while the guanidine hydrochloride heating method is illustrated with wild type murine amelogenin (M180). The self-assembly properties of P71T were probed by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies as a function of protein (0.11.8 mM) and NaCl (0367 mM) concentration. Relative to similar studies with wild type murine amelogenin, P71T self-associates at lower protein or salt concentrations with the interactions initiated near the N-terminus. PMID:25306873

  11. Improved protocol to purify untagged amelogenin - Application to murine amelogenin containing the equivalent P70 → T point mutation observed in human amelogenesis imperfecta

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2015-01-02

    Amelogenin is the predominant extracellular protein responsible for converting carbonated hydroxyapatite into dental enamel, the hardest and most heavily mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Despite much effort, the precise mechanism by which amelogenin regulates enamel formation is not fully understood. To assist efforts aimed at understanding the biochemical mechanism of enamel formation, more facile protocols to purify recombinantly expressed amelogenin, ideally without any tag to assist affinity purification, are advantageous. Here we describe an improved method to purify milligram quantities of amelogenin that exploits its high solubility in 2% glacial acetic acid under conditions of low ionic strength. The method involves heating the frozen cell pellet for two 15 min periods at ~70 ºC with two minutes of sonication in between, dialysis twice in 2% acetic acid (1:250 v/v), and reverse phase chromatography. A further improvement in yield is obtained by resuspending the frozen cell pellet in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride in the first step. The acetic acid heating method is illustrated with a murine amelogenin containing the corresponding P70T point mutation observed in an human amelogenin associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (P71T), while the guanidine hydrochloride heating method is illustrated with wild type murine amelogenin (M180). The self-assembly properties of P71T were probed by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies as a function of protein (0.1 to 1.8 mM) and NaCl (0 to 367 mM) concentration. Relative to similar studies with wild type murine amelogenin, P71T self-associates at lower protein or salt concentrations with the interactions initiated near the N-terminus.

  12. Mineralocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Proximal Tubule Injury Is Mediated by a Redox-Sensitive mTOR/S6K1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Habibi, Javad; Nistala, Ravi; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Hayden, Melvin R.; Joginpally, Tejaswini; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Parrish, Alan R.; Sowers, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine kinase that regulates phosphorylation (p) of its target ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1), whose activation can lead to glomerular and proximal tubular cell (PTC) injury and associated proteinuria. Increased mTOR/S6K1 signaling regulates signaling pathways that target fibrosis through adherens junctions. Recent data indicate aldosterone signaling through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) can activate the mTOR pathway. Further, antagonism of the MR has beneficial effects on proteinuria that occur independent of hemodynamics. Methods Accordingly, hypertensive transgenic TG(mRen2)27 (Ren2) rats, with elevated serum aldosterone and proteinuria, and age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either a low dose (1 mg/kg/day) or a conventional dose (30 mg/kg/day) of spironolactone (MR antagonist) or placebo for 3 weeks. Results Ren2 rats displayed increases in urine levels of the PTC brush border lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-?-aminoglycosidase (?-NAG) in conjunction with reductions in PTC megalin, the apical membrane adherens protein T-cadherin and basolateral ?-(E)-catenin, and fibrosis. In concert with these abnormalities, Ren2 renal cortical tissue also displayed increased Ser2448 (p)/activation of mTOR and Thr389 (p)-S6K1 and increased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) content, a marker for peroxynitrite. Low-dose spironolactone had no effect on blood pressure but decreased proteinuria and ?-NAG comparable to a conventional dose of this MR antagonist. Both doses of spironolactone attenuated ultrastructural maladaptive alterations and led to comparable reductions in (p)-mTOR/(p)-S6K1, 3-NT, fibrosis, and increased expression of ?-(E)-catenin, T- and N-cadherin. Conclusions Thereby, MR antagonism improves proximal tubule integrity by targeting mTOR/S6K1 signaling and redox status independent of changes in blood pressure. PMID:22205374

  13. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Paula; Howley, Rachel; Doolan, Padraig; Clarke, Colin; Madden, Stephen F.; Clynes, Martin; Farrell, Michael; Amberger-Murphy, Verena; All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  14. PF-04691502, a potent and selective oral inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR kinases with antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Mehta, Pramod P; Yin, Min-Jean; Sun, Shaoxian; Zou, Aihua; Chen, Jeffrey; Rafidi, Kristina; Feng, Zheng; Nickel, Jeffrey; Engebretsen, Jon; Hallin, Jill; Blasina, Alessandra; Zhang, Eric; Nguyen, Leslie; Sun, Minghao; Vogt, Peter K; McHarg, Aileen; Cheng, Hengmiao; Christensen, James G; Kan, Julie L C; Bagrodia, Shubha

    2011-11-01

    Deregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway such as by PTEN loss or PIK3CA mutation occurs frequently in human cancer and contributes to resistance to antitumor therapies. Inhibition of key signaling proteins in the pathway therefore represents a valuable targeting strategy for diverse cancers. PF-04691502 is an ATP-competitive PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor, which potently inhibited recombinant class I PI3K and mTOR in biochemical assays and suppressed transformation of avian fibroblasts mediated by wild-type PI3K ?, ?, or mutant PI3K?. In PIK3CA-mutant and PTEN-deleted cancer cell lines, PF-04691502 reduced phosphorylation of AKT T308 and AKT S473 (IC(50) of 7.5-47 nmol/L and 3.8-20 nmol/L, respectively) and inhibited cell proliferation (IC(50) of 179-313 nmol/L). PF-04691502 inhibited mTORC1 activity in cells as measured by PI3K-independent nutrient stimulated assay, with an IC(50) of 32 nmol/L and inhibited the activation of PI3K and mTOR downstream effectors including AKT, FKHRL1, PRAS40, p70S6K, 4EBP1, and S6RP. Short-term exposure to PF-04691502 predominantly inhibited PI3K, whereas mTOR inhibition persisted for 24 to 48 hours. PF-04691502 induced cell cycle G(1) arrest, concomitant with upregulation of p27 Kip1 and reduction of Rb. Antitumor activity was observed in U87 (PTEN null), SKOV3 (PIK3CA mutation), and gefitinib- and erlotinib-resistant non-small cell lung carcinoma xenografts. In summary, PF-04691502 is a potent dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor with broad antitumor activity. PF-04691502 has entered phase I clinical trials. PMID:21750219

  15. Preclinical evaluation of WYE-687, a mTOR kinase inhibitor, as a potential anti-acute myeloid leukemia agent.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Wang, Lingling; Shen, Yunfeng; Xia, Jun; Chen, Heng; Jiang, Yuanqiang; Lu, Mize

    2016-02-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity by WYE-687, a potent mTOR kinase inhibitor. We demonstrated that WYE-687 potently inhibited survival and proliferation of established (HL-60, U937, AML-193 and THP-1 lines) and human AML progenitor cells. Yet, same WYE-687 treatment was non-cytotoxic to the primary peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. WYE-687 induced caspase-dependent apoptotic death in above AML cells/progenitor cells. On the other hand, the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK), the caspase-3 specific inhibitor (Z-DEVD-FMK) or the caspase-9 specific inhibitor (z-LEHD-fmk) attenuated WYE-687-induced cytotoxicity. At the molecular level, WYE-687 concurrently inhibited activation of mTORC1 (p70S6K1 and S6 phosphorylations) and mTORC2 (AKT Ser-473 and FoxO1/3a phosphorylations), whiling downregulating mTORC1/2-regulated genes (Bcl-xL and hypoxia-inducible factor 1/2?) in both HL-60/U937cells and human AML progenitor cells. Invivo, oral administration of WYE-687 potently inhibited U937 leukemic xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, without causing significant toxicities. In summary, our results demonstrate that targeting mTORC1/2 by WYE-687 leads to potent antitumor activity in preclinical models of AML. PMID:26792718

  16. Anti-Malarial Drug Artesunate Attenuates Experimental Allergic Asthma via Inhibition of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chang; Ho, W. Eugene; Goh, Fera Y.; Guan, Shou Ping; Kong, Li Ren; Lai, Wen-Qi; Leung, Bernard P.; Wong, W. S. Fred

    2011-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is linked to the development of asthma. Anti-malarial drug artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the principal active component of a medicinal plant Artemisia annua, and has been shown to inhibit PI3K/Akt activity. We hypothesized that artesunate may attenuate allergic asthma via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) developed airway inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for total and differential cell counts, and cytokine and chemokine levels. Lung tissues were examined for cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion, and the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Airway hyperresponsiveness was monitored by direct airway resistance analysis. Artesunate dose-dependently inhibited OVA-induced increases in total and eosinophil counts, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. It attenuated OVA-induced lung tissue eosinophilia and airway mucus production, mRNA expression of E-selectin, IL-17, IL-33 and Muc5ac in lung tissues, and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, artesunate blocked epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates tuberin, p70S6 kinase and 4E-binding protein 1, and transactivation of NF-?B. Similarly, artesunate blocked the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates in lung tissues from OVA-challenged mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of artesunate was further confirmed in a house dust mite mouse asthma model. Conclusion/Significance Artesunate ameliorates experimental allergic airway inflammation probably via negative regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway and the downstream NF-?B activity. These findings provide a novel therapeutic value for artesunate in the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:21695271

  17. The mTORC1 Effectors S6K1 and 4E-BP Play Different Roles in CNS Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Miao, Linqing; Liang, Feisi; Huang, Haoliang; Teng, Xiuyin; Li, Shaohua; Nuriddinov, Jaloliddin; Selzer, Michael E.; Hu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Using mouse optic nerve (ON) crush as a CNS injury model, we and others have found that activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in mature retinal ganglion cells by deletion of the negative regulators, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and tuberous sclerosis 1, promotes ON regeneration. mTORC1 activation inhibits eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) and activates ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), both of which stimulate translation. We reasoned that mTORC1s regeneration-promoting effects might be separable from its deleterious effects by differential manipulation of its downstream effectors. Here we show that S6K1 activation, but not 4E-BP inhibition, is sufficient to promote axon regeneration. However, inhibition of 4E-BP is required for PTEN deletion-induced axon regeneration. Both activation and inhibition of S6K1 decrease the effect of PTEN deletion on axon regeneration, implicating a dual role of S6K1 in regulating axon growth. PMID:25382660

  18. A chronic increase in physical activity inhibits fed-state mTOR/S6K1 signaling and reduces IRS-1 serine phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Erin L.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Kramer, Victoria J.; Drummond, Micah J.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2009-01-01

    A chronic increase in physical activity and (or) endurance training can improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. Cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of insulin resistance are unclear, though one proposed mechanism is that nutrient overload chronically increases available energy, over-activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) signaling pathway leading to increased phosphorylation of serine residues on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). The objective of this study was to determine if increased physical activity would inhibit mTOR/S6K1 signaling and reduce IRS-1 serine phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle. Soleus muscle was collected from fed male Sprague-Dawley sedentary rats (Inactive) and rats with free access to running wheels for 9 weeks (Active). Immunoblotting methods were used to measure phosphorylation status of mTOR, S6K1, IRS-1, and PKB/Akt (protein kinase B/AKT), and total abundance of proteins associated with the mTOR pathway. Muscle citrate synthase activity and plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were measured. Phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448), S6K1 (Thr389), and IRS-1 (Ser636-639) was reduced in Active rats (p < 0.05). Total protein abundance of mTOR, S6K1, IRS-1, 4E-BP1, eEF2, PKB/Akt and AMPK?, and phosphorylation of PKB/Akt were unaffected (p > 0.05). Total SKAR protein, a downstream target of S6K1, and citrate synthase activity increased in Active rats (p < 0.05), though plasma insulin and glucose levels were unchanged (p > 0.05). Reduced mTOR/S6K1 signaling during chronic increases in physical activity may play an important regulatory role in the serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, which should be examined as a potential mechanism for attenuation of insulin resistance associated with increased IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. PMID:18347658

  19. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. hnRNPA1 couples nuclear export and translation of specific mRNAs downstream of FGF-2/S6K2 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Rajat; Durie, Danielle; Li, Hui; Liu, Bing-Qian; Skehel, John Mark; Mauri, Francesco; Cuorvo, LuciaVeronica; Barbareschi, Mattia; Guo, Lin; Holcik, Martin; Seckl, Michael J.; Pardo, Olivier E.

    2014-01-01

    The increased cap-independent translation of anti-apoptotic proteins is involved in the development of drug resistance in lung cancer but signalling events regulating this are poorly understood. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) signalling-induced S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) activation is necessary, but the downstream mediator(s) coupling this kinase to the translational response is unknown. Here, we show that S6K2 binds and phosphorylates hnRNPA1 on novel Ser4/6 sites, increasing its association with BCL-XL and XIAP mRNAs to promote their nuclear export. In the cytoplasm, phosphoS4/6-hnRNPA1 dissociates from these mRNAs de-repressing their IRES-mediated translation. This correlates with the phosphorylation-dependent association of hnRNPA1 with 14-3-3 leading to hnRNPA1 sumoylation on K183 and its re-import into the nucleus. A non-phosphorylatible, S4/6A mutant prevented these processes, hindering the pro-survival activity of FGF-2/S6K2 signalling. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining of lung and breast cancer tissue samples demonstrated that increased S6K2 expression correlates with decreased cytoplasmic hnRNPA1 and increased BCL-XL expression. In short, phosphorylation on novel N-term sites of hnRNPA1 promotes translation of anti-apoptotic proteins and is indispensable for the pro-survival effects of FGF-2. PMID:25324306

  1. TORC1 and TORC2 work together to regulate ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yerlikaya, Seda; Meusburger, Madeleine; Kumari, Romika; Huber, Alexandre; Anrather, Dorothea; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charles; Ammerer, Gustav; Baranov, Pavel V; Loewith, Robbie

    2016-01-15

    Nutrient-sensitive phosphorylation of the S6 protein of the 40S subunit of the eukaryote ribosome is highly conserved. However, despite four decades of research, the functional consequences of this modification remain unknown. Revisiting this enigma in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that the regulation of Rps6 phosphorylation on Ser-232 and Ser-233 is mediated by both TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TORC2. TORC1 regulates phosphorylation of both sites via the poorly characterized AGC-family kinase Ypk3 and the PP1 phosphatase Glc7, whereas TORC2 regulates phosphorylation of only the N-terminal phosphosite via Ypk1. Cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable variant of Rps6 display a reduced growth rate and a 40S biogenesis defect, but these phenotypes are not observed in cells in which Rps6 kinase activity is compromised. Furthermore, using polysome profiling and ribosome profiling, we failed to uncover a role of Rps6 phosphorylation in either global translation or translation of individual mRNAs. Taking the results together, this work depicts the signaling cascades orchestrating Rps6 phosphorylation in budding yeast, challenges the notion that Rps6 phosphorylation plays a role in translation, and demonstrates that observations made with Rps6 knock-ins must be interpreted cautiously. PMID:26582391

  2. The ribosomal protein S6 in renal cell carcinoma: functional relevance and potential as biomarker.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Maximilian; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Kopitz, Jürgen; Duensing, Stefan; Pahernik, Sascha; Hohenfellner, Markus; Schirmacher, Peter; Roth, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the mTOR pathway, such as everolimus, are promising compounds to treat patients with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). However, the precise mechanisms of action are far from clear, and biomarkers predicting the response to mTOR inhibitors are still missing. Here, we provide evidence that in RCCs the rpS6 protein is the major mediator of anti-tumoral effects exerted by everolimus. Inhibition of mTOR signaling results in substantially decreased clonogenicity and proliferation of RCC cells, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. Everolimus effectively blocked protein biosynthesis both in vitro and in a novel ex vivo tissue slice model using fresh vital human RCC tissue. Compared to other components of the mTOR pathway, phosphorylation of rpS6 was most effectively downregulated by everolimus. Importantly, siRNA-mediated downregulation of rpS6, but not of 4ebp1 or p27, abolished the inhibitory effects of everolimus on proliferation and protein synthesis. Moreover, we analyzed the tissue expression of phosphorylated rpS6 (p-rpS6) and non-phosphorylated rpS6 in a large collection of patients with RCCs (n=598 and n=548, respectively). Expression of both proteins qualified as independent negative prognostic markers with a substantially shorter survival of patients with RCCs exhibiting high levels of rpS6 and p-rpS6. Taken together, our functional studies identified rpS6 as a main mediator of the anti-tumoral activity of Everolimus. Therefore, further (pre-)clinical evaluations of rpS6 as a predictive marker for everolimus-based treatment for RCC patients are warranted. Finally, the combined detection of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated rpS6 could represent a robust prognostic marker to identify patients with high risk RCCs. PMID:26506236

  3. Regulation of death induction and chemosensitizing action of 3-bromopyruvate in myeloid leukemia cells: energy depletion, oxidative stress, and protein kinase activity modulation.

    PubMed

    Calvio, Eva; Esta, Mara Cristina; Snchez-Martn, Carlos; Brea, Roco; de Blas, Elena; Boyano-Adnez, Mara del Carmen; Rial, Eduardo; Aller, Patricio

    2014-02-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrP) is an alkylating, energy-depleting drug that is of interest in antitumor therapies, although the mechanisms underlying its cytotoxicity are ill-defined. We show here that 3-BrP causes concentration-dependent cell death of HL60 and other human myeloid leukemia cells, inducing both apoptosis and necrosis at 20-30 ?M and a pure necrotic response at 60 ?M. Low concentrations of 3-BrP (10-20 ?M) brought about a rapid inhibition of glycolysis, which at higher concentrations was followed by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. The combination of these effects causes concentration-dependent ATP depletion, although this cannot explain the lethality at intermediate 3-BrP concentrations (20-30 ?M). The oxidative stress caused by exposure to 3-BrP was evident as a moderate overproduction of reactive oxygen species and a concentration-dependent depletion of glutathione, which was an important determinant of 3-BrP toxicity. In addition, 3-BrP caused glutathione-dependent stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K phosphorylation or activation, as well as rapid LKB-1/AMP kinase (AMPK) activation, which was later followed by Akt-mediated inactivation. Experiments with pharmacological inhibitors revealed that p38 MAPK activation enhances 3-BrP toxicity, which is conversely restrained by ERK and Akt activity. Finally, 3-BrP was seen to cooperate with antitumor agents like arsenic trioxide and curcumin in causing cell death, a response apparently mediated by both the generation of oxidative stress induced by 3-BrP and the attenuation of Akt and ERK activation by curcumin. In summary, 3-BrP cytotoxicity is the result of several combined regulatory mechanisms that might represent important targets to improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24307199

  4. Residues in Na(+) channel D3-S6 segment modulate both batrachotoxin and local anesthetic affinities.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Nau, C; Wang, G K

    2000-09-01

    Batrachotoxin (BTX) alters the gating of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and causes these channels to open persistently, whereas local anesthetics (LAs) block Na(+) conductance. The BTX and LA receptors have been mapped to several common residues in D1-S6 and D4-S6 segments of the Na(+) channel alpha-subunit. We substituted individual residues with lysine in homologous segment D3-S6 of the rat muscle mu1 Na(+) channel from F1274 to N1281 to determine whether additional residues are involved in BTX and LA binding. Two mutant channels, mu1-S1276K and mu1-L1280K, when expressed in mammalian cells, become completely resistant to 5 microM BTX during repetitive pulses. The activation and/or fast inactivation gating of these mutants is substantially different from that of wild type. These mutants also display approximately 10-20-fold reduction in bupivacaine affinity toward their inactivated state but show only approximately twofold affinity changes toward their resting state. These results demonstrate that residues mu1-S1276 and mu1-L1280 in D3-S6 are critical for both BTX and LA binding interactions. We propose that LAs interact readily with these residues from D3-S6 along with those from D1-S6 and D4-S6 in close proximity when the Na(+) channel is in its inactivated state. Implications of this state-dependent binding model for the S6 alignment are discussed. PMID:10969000

  5. 8 CFR 1236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal 1236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition of classification. As a condition of classification and...

  6. 8 CFR 1236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal 1236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition of classification. As a condition of classification and...

  7. 8 CFR 1236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal 1236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition of classification. As a condition of classification and...

  8. Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation in the Nervous System: From Regulation to Function

    PubMed Central

    Biever, Anne; Valjent, Emmanuel; Puighermanal, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) about four decades ago, much effort has been made to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this post-translational modification. In the field of neuroscience, rpS6 phosphorylation is commonly used as a readout of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling activation or as a marker for neuronal activity. Nevertheless, its biological role in neurons still remains puzzling. Here we review the pharmacological and physiological stimuli regulating this modification in the nervous system as well as the pathways that transduce these signals into rpS6 phosphorylation. Altered rpS6 phosphorylation observed in various genetic and pathophysiological mouse models is also discussed. Finally, we examine the current state of knowledge on the physiological role of this post-translational modification and highlight the questions that remain to be addressed. PMID:26733799

  9. Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation in the Nervous System: From Regulation to Function.

    PubMed

    Biever, Anne; Valjent, Emmanuel; Puighermanal, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) about four decades ago, much effort has been made to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this post-translational modification. In the field of neuroscience, rpS6 phosphorylation is commonly used as a readout of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling activation or as a marker for neuronal activity. Nevertheless, its biological role in neurons still remains puzzling. Here we review the pharmacological and physiological stimuli regulating this modification in the nervous system as well as the pathways that transduce these signals into rpS6 phosphorylation. Altered rpS6 phosphorylation observed in various genetic and pathophysiological mouse models is also discussed. Finally, we examine the current state of knowledge on the physiological role of this post-translational modification and highlight the questions that remain to be addressed. PMID:26733799

  10. Activation of a serine/threonine kinase signaling pathway by transforming growth factor type beta.

    PubMed Central

    Atfi, A; Lepage, K; Allard, P; Chapdelaine, A; Chevalier, S

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional factor that regulates proliferation and differentiation of many cell types. TGF-beta mediates its effects by binding to and activating cell surface receptors that possess serine/threonine kinase activity. However, the intracellular signaling pathways through which TGF-beta receptors act remain largely unknown. Here we show that TGF-beta activates a 78-kDa protein (p78) serine/threonine kinase as evidenced by an in-gel kinase assay. Ligand-induced activation of the kinase was near-maximal 5 min after TGF-beta addition to the cells and occurred exclusively on serine and threonine residues. This kinase is distinct from TGF-beta receptor type II, as well as several cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinases of similar size, including protein kinase C, Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, and ribosomal S6 kinase. Indeed, these kinases can be separated almost completely from p78 kinase by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. Furthermore, using different cell lines, we demonstrate that p78 kinase is activated only in cells for which TGF-beta can act as a growth inhibitory factor. These data raise the interesting possibility that protein serine/threonine kinases contribute to the intracellular relay of biological signals originating from receptor serine/threonine kinases such as the TGF-beta receptors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8618854

  11. Delayed Phosphorylation of Classical Protein Kinase C (PKC) Substrates Requires PKC Internalization and Formation of the Pericentrion in a Phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    El-Osta, Mohamad A.; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jola; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2011-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that sustained activation (30–60 min) of protein kinase C (PKC) results in translocation of PKC α and βII to the pericentrion, a dynamic subset of the recycling compartment whose formation is dependent on PKC and phospholipase D (PLD). Here we investigated whether the formation of the pericentrion modulates the ability of PKC to phosphorylate substrates, especially if it reduces substrate phosphorylation by sequestering PKC. Surprisingly, using an antibody that detects phosphosubstrates of classical PKCs, the results showed that the majority of PKC phosphosubstrates are phosphorylated with delayed kinetics, correlating with the time frame of PKC translocation to the pericentrion. Substrate phosphorylation was blocked by PLD inhibitors and was not observed in response to activation of a PKC βII mutant (F663D) that is defective in interaction with PLD and in internalization. Phosphorylation was also inhibited by blocking clathrin-dependent endocytosis, demonstrating a requirement for endocytosis for the PKC-dependent major phosphorylation effects. Serotonin receptor activation by serotonin showed a similar response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, implicating a potential role of delayed kinetics in G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Evaluation of candidate substrates revealed that the phosphorylation of the PKC substrate p70S6K kinase behaved in a similar manner. Gradient-based fractionation revealed that the majority of these PKC substrates reside within the pericentrion-enriched fractions and not in the plasma membrane. Finally, proteomic analysis of the pericentrion-enriched fractions revealed several proteins as known PKC substrates and/or proteins involved in endocytic trafficking. These results reveal an important role for PKC internalization and for the pericentrion as key determinants/amplifiers of PKC action. PMID:21478146

  12. A virtual screen identified C96 as a novel inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that displays potent preclinical activity against multiple myeloma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zubin; Chen, Guodong; Zhou, Xiumin; Qiao, Chunhua; Hou, Tingjun; Mao, Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway is emerging as a promising therapeutic target for multiple myeloma (MM). In the present study, we performed a virtual screen against 800,000 of small molecule compounds by targeting PI3Kγ. C96, one of such compounds, inhibited PI3K activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but did not suppress IGF-1R activation. The cell-free assay revealed that C96 preferred to inhibit PI3Kα and δ, but was not active against AKT1, 2, 3 or mTOR. C96 inhibited PI3K activation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with its inhibition on PI3K/AKT, C96 downregulated the activation of mTOR, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, but did not suppress other kinases such as ERK and c-Src. Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by C96 led to MM cell apoptosis which was demonstrated by Annexin V staining and activation of the pro-apoptotic signals. Furthermore, C96 displayed potent anti-myeloma activity in a MM xenograft model in nude mice. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bodyweight almost fully suppressed tumor growth within 16 days, but without gross toxicity. Importantly, AKT activation was suppressed in tumor tissues from C96-treated mice, which was consistent with delayed tumor growth. Thus, we identified a novel PI3K inhibitor with a great potential for MM therapy. PMID:25003534

  13. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation is controlled by TOR and modulated by PKA in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tahmeena; Köhler, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary TOR and PKA signaling pathways control eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation. TOR activity in model fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, responds principally to nutrients, e.g., nitrogen and phosphate sources, which are incorporated into the growing cell mass; PKA signaling responds to the availability of the cells' major energy source, glucose. In the fungal commensal and pathogen, Candida albicans, little is known of how these pathways interact. Here, the signal from phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-S6) was defined as a surrogate marker for TOR-dependent anabolic activity in C. albicans. Nutritional, pharmacologic, and genetic modulation of TOR activity elicited corresponding changes in P-S6 levels. The P-S6 signal corresponded to translational activity of a GFP reporter protein. Contributions of four PKA pathway components to anabolic activation were then examined. In high glucose concentrations, only Tpk2 was required to upregulate P-S6 to physiologic levels, whereas all four tested components were required to downregulate P-S6 in low glucose. TOR was epistatic to PKA components with respect to P-S6. In many host niches inhabited by C. albicans, glucose is scarce, with protein being available as a nitrogen source. We speculate that PKA may modulate TOR-dependent cell growth to a rate sustainable by available energy sources, when monomers of anabolic processes, such as amino acids, are abundant. PMID:26173379

  14. S6 inhibition contributes to isoflurane neurotoxicity in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohui; Xue, Qingsheng; Luo, Yan; Hu, Xiaodong; Yu, Buwei

    2015-03-01

    Postnatal isoflurane exposure leads to neurodegeneration and deficits of spatial learning and memory in the adulthood. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Ribosomal protein S6 is demonstrated to play a pivotal role in control of cell survival, protein synthesis and synaptogenesis for brain development. In this study, the possible role of S6 and its upstream signaling pathways in the developmental neurotoxicity of isoflurane was evaluated using models of primary cultured hippocampal neurons and postnatal day 7 rats. We found that isoflurane decreased IGF-1 level and suppressed activation of IGF-1 receptor, sequentially inhibiting S6 activity via IGF-1/MEK/ERK and IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. S6 inhibition enhanced isoflurane-induced decreased Bcl-xL and increased cleaved caspase-3 and Bad, also reduced PSD95 expression and aggravated deficits of spatial learning and memory. S6 activation could reverse the damages above. These results indicate that S6 inhibition, led by suppression of upstream IGF-1/MEK/ERK and IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, is involved in the neuroapoptosis, synaptogenesis impairment and spatial learning and memory decline caused by postnatal isoflurane exposure. S6 activation may exhibit protective potential against developmental neurotoxicity of isoflurane. PMID:25597859

  15. Hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 Heterostructure Nanowire Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Novel hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays were fabricated on silicon substrates by a one-step thermal evaporation of CdS powder. The as-grown products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Studies reveal that a typical hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire is composed of a single crystalline Cd4SiS6 nanowire core sheathed with amorphous SiO2 sheath. Furthermore, secondary nanostructures of SiO2 nanowires are highly dense grown on the primary Cd4SiS6 core-SiO2 sheath nanowires and formed hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays which stand vertically on silicon substrates. The possible growth mechanism of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays is proposed. The optical properties of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays are investigated using Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. PMID:20652094

  16. Electronic Structure and Phase Transition in Ferroelectic Sn2P2S6 Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Glukhov, Konstantin; Fedyo, Kristina; Banys, Juras; Vysochanskii, Yulian

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the P2S6 cluster electronic structure and its comparison with the crystal valence band in the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases has been done by first-principles calculations for Sn2P2S6 ferroelectrics. The origin of ferroelectricity has been outlined. It was established that the spontaneous polarization follows from the stereochemical activity of the electron lone pair of tin cations, which is determined by hybridization with P2S6 molecular orbitals. The chemical bonds covalence increase and rearrangement are related to the valence band changes at transition from the paraelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase. PMID:23203069

  17. The Crosstalk of mTOR/S6K1 and Hedgehog pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Ding, Qingqing; Yen, Chia-Jui; Xia, Weiya; Izzo, Julie G.; Lang, Jing-Yu; Li, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Wang, Xuemei; Lee, Dung-Fang; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Huo, Longfei; LaBaff, Adam M.; Liu, Dong-Ping; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Wei-Chao; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Buttar, Navtej S.; Wang, Kenneth K.; Wu, Yun; Wang, Huamin; Ajani, Jaffer; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most prevalent esophageal cancer type in the United States. TNFα/mTOR pathway is known to mediate the development of EAC. Additionally, aberrant activation of Gli1, downstream effector of hedgehog pathway, has been observed in EAC. In this study, we found that activated mTOR/S6K1 pathway promotes Gli1 transcriptional activity and oncogenic function through S6K1-mediated Gli1 phosphorylation at Ser84, which releases Gli1 from its endogenous inhibitor, SuFu. Moreover, elimination of S6K1 activation by mTOR pathway inhibitor enhances the killing effects of the hedgehog pathway inhibitor. Together, our results established a crosstalk between mTOR/S6K1 and the hedgehog pathways, which provides not only a mechanism for SMO-independent Gli1 activation but also a rationale for combination therapy for EAC. PMID:22439934

  18. The selectivity of protein kinase inhibitors: a further update

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jenny; Plater, Lorna; Elliott, Matt; Shpiro, Natalia; Hastie, C. James; Mclauchlan, Hilary; Klevernic, Iva; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Alessi, Dario R.; Cohen, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70–80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB 203580/SB202190 and BIRB 0796 to be used in parallel to assess the physiological roles of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) isoforms, PI-103 and wortmannin to be used in parallel to inhibit phosphatidylinositol (phosphoinositide) 3-kinases, PP1 or PP2 to be used in parallel with Src-I1 (Src inhibitor-1) to inhibit Src family members; PD 184352 or PD 0325901 to inhibit MKK1 (MAPK kinase-1) or MKK1 plus MKK5, Akt-I-1/2 to inhibit the activation of PKB (protein kinase B/Akt), rapamycin to inhibit TORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)–raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) complex], CT 99021 to inhibit GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), BI-D1870 and SL0101 or FMK (fluoromethylketone) to be used in parallel to inhibit RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase), D4476 to inhibit CK1 (casein kinase 1), VX680 to inhibit Aurora kinases, and roscovitine as a pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. We have also identified harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase 1A) in vitro. The results have further emphasized the need for considerable caution in using small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases to assess the physiological roles of these enzymes. Despite being used widely, many of the compounds that we analysed were too non-specific for useful conclusions to be made, other than to exclude the involvement of particular protein kinases in cellular processes. PMID:17850214

  19. The selectivity of protein kinase inhibitors: a further update.

    PubMed

    Bain, Jenny; Plater, Lorna; Elliott, Matt; Shpiro, Natalia; Hastie, C James; McLauchlan, Hilary; Klevernic, Iva; Arthur, J Simon C; Alessi, Dario R; Cohen, Philip

    2007-12-15

    The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70-80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB 203580/SB202190 and BIRB 0796 to be used in parallel to assess the physiological roles of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) isoforms, PI-103 and wortmannin to be used in parallel to inhibit phosphatidylinositol (phosphoinositide) 3-kinases, PP1 or PP2 to be used in parallel with Src-I1 (Src inhibitor-1) to inhibit Src family members; PD 184352 or PD 0325901 to inhibit MKK1 (MAPK kinase-1) or MKK1 plus MKK5, Akt-I-1/2 to inhibit the activation of PKB (protein kinase B/Akt), rapamycin to inhibit TORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) complex], CT 99021 to inhibit GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), BI-D1870 and SL0101 or FMK (fluoromethylketone) to be used in parallel to inhibit RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase), D4476 to inhibit CK1 (casein kinase 1), VX680 to inhibit Aurora kinases, and roscovitine as a pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. We have also identified harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase 1A) in vitro. The results have further emphasized the need for considerable caution in using small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases to assess the physiological roles of these enzymes. Despite being used widely, many of the compounds that we analysed were too non-specific for useful conclusions to be made, other than to exclude the involvement of particular protein kinases in cellular processes. PMID:17850214

  20. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Na8Eu2(Si2S6)2 and Na8Eu2(Ge2S6)2: Europium(II) quaternary chalcogenides that contain an ethane-like (Si2S6)6- or (Ge2S6)6- moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Amitava; Ghosh, Kartik; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J.; Dorhout, Peter K.

    2015-03-01

    Two isostructural europium(II) quaternary chalcogenides, Na8Eu2(Si2S6)2, 1, and Na8Eu2(Ge2S6)2, 2, containing an ethane-like (Si2S6)6- or (Ge2S6)6- moiety have been synthesized by employing the polychalcogenide molten flux method. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that both compounds crystallize in the C2/m space group, and their structures contain layers of {[Na2Eu2(Si2S6)2]6-}? or {[Na2Eu2(Ge2S6)2]6-}? anions held together by six interlayer sodium cations to yield {Na6[Na2Eu2(Si2S6)2]}? and {Na6[Na2Eu2(Ge2S6)2]}?. Compound 2 is a semiconductor with an optical band gap of 2.15(2) eV. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility indicates that compounds 1 and 2 are paramagnetic with ?eff=7.794(1) ?B per Eu and g=1.964(1) for 1 and ?eff=8.016(1) ?B per Eu and g=2.020(1) for 2, moments that are in good agreement with the europium(II) spin-only moment of 7.94 ?B. The europium-151 Mssbauer isomer shift of 2 confirms the presence of europium(II) cations with an electronic configuration between [Xe]4f6.81 and 4f76s0.32.

  1. 8 CFR 236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal 236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition... section 101(a)(15)(S) of the Act, nonimmigrants in S classification must have executed Form I-854, Part...

  2. 8 CFR 236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal 236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition... section 101(a)(15)(S) of the Act, nonimmigrants in S classification must have executed Form I-854, Part...

  3. 8 CFR 236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal 236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition... section 101(a)(15)(S) of the Act, nonimmigrants in S classification must have executed Form I-854, Part...

  4. Sevoflurane inhibits the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in neonatal rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hong; Li, Chang-Lin; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Zhou-Jing; Zhao, Xuan; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Besides neurotoxic effects, inhaled anesthetics might have other adverse effects on the developing brain. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), the first identified ribosomal protein undergoing phosphorylation, has important physiological functions in regulating protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and glucose homeostasis. To date, the function of sevoflurane on rpS6 phosphorylation is unclear. In our present study, we showed that sevoflurane anesthesia inhibited rpS6 phosphorylation in cerebral cortex and CA1 region of the hippocampus. The activity of Akt was detected to be reduced within both cortical and hippocampal regions in the brain with the treatment of sevoflurane. However, the treatment seemed to have no effect on the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream effector of Akt. Sevoflurane had a paradoxical effect on ERK activity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Last but not the least, Sevoflurane increased PP1 activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Thus, the exposure to sevoflurane inhibited dramatically the phosphorylation of rpS6 in neonatal rat brains. The inhibitory effect of sevoflurane on rpS6 phosphorylation might be mediated by the suppression on AKT activity at an mTOR-independent manner and the enhancement of PP1 activity. PMID:26628963

  5. Polo-like kinase-activating kinases

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, Vincent; Carmena, Mar

    2012-01-01

    The events of cell division are regulated by a complex interplay between kinases and phosphatases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), polo-like kinases (Plks) and Aurora kinases play central roles in this process. Polo kinase (Plk1 in humans) regulates a wide range of events in mitosis and cytokinesis. To ensure the accuracy of these processes, polo activity itself is subject to complex regulation. Phosphorylation of polo in its T loop (or activation loop) increases its kinase activity several-fold. It has been shown that Aurora A kinase, with its co-factor Bora, activates Plk1 in G2, and that this is essential for recovery from cell cycle arrest induced by DNA damage. In a recent article published in PLoS Biology, we report that Drosophila polo is activated by Aurora B kinase at centromeres, and that this is crucial for polo function in regulating chromosome dynamics in prometaphase. Our results suggest that this regulatory pathway is conserved in humans. Here, we propose a model for the collaboration between Aurora B and polo in the regulation of kinetochore attachment to microtubules in early mitosis. Moreover, we suggest that Aurora B could also function to activate Polo/Plk1 in cytokinesis. Finally, we discuss recent findings and open questions regarding the activation of polo and polo-like kinases by different kinases in mitosis, cytokinesis and other processes. PMID:22433949

  6. An S6:S18 complex inhibits translation of E. coli rpsF

    PubMed Central

    Babina, Arianne M.; Soo, Mark W.; Fu, Yang; Meyer, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    More than half of the ribosomal protein operons in Escherichia coli are regulated by structures within the mRNA transcripts that interact with specific ribosomal proteins to inhibit further protein expression. This regulation is accomplished using a variety of mechanisms and the RNA structures responsible for regulation are often not conserved across bacterial phyla. A widely conserved mRNA structure preceding the ribosomal protein operon containing rpsF and rpsR (encoding S6 and S18) was recently identified through comparative genomics. Examples of this RNA from both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis were shown to interact in vitro with an S6:S18 complex. In this work, we demonstrate that in E. coli, this RNA structure regulates gene expression in response to the S6:S18 complex. ?-galactosidase activity from a lacZ reporter translationally fused to the 5? UTR and first nine codons of E. coli rpsF is reduced fourfold by overexpression of a genomic fragment encoding both S6 and S18 but not by overexpression of either protein individually. Mutations to the mRNA structure, as well as to the RNA-binding site of S18 and the S6S18 interaction surfaces of S6 and S18, are sufficient to derepress ?-galactosidase activity, indicating that the S6:S18 complex is the biologically active effector. Measurement of transcript levels shows that although reporter levels do not change upon protein overexpression, levels of the native transcript are reduced fourfold, suggesting that the mRNA regulator prevents translation and this effect is amplified on the native transcript by other mechanisms. PMID:26447183

  7. S6K1 promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a model of metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khotskaya, Yekaterina B; Goverdhan, Aarthi; Shen, Jia; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Chang, Shih-Shin; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Wei, Yongkun; Xia, Weiya; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of oncology-related death in US women. Of all invasive breast cancers, patients with tumors lacking expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have the poorest clinical prognosis. These referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represent an aggressive form of disease that is marked by early-onset metastasis, high tumor recurrence rate, and low overall survival during the first three years post-diagnosis. In this report, we discuss a novel model of early-onset TNBC metastasis to bone and lungs, derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast cancer cells injected intravenously produced rapid, osteolytic metastases in long bones and spines of athymic nude mice, with concurrent metastasis to lungs, liver, and soft tissues. From the bone metastases, we developed a highly metastatic luciferase-tagged cell line variant named MDA-231-LUC Met. In this report, we demonstrate that the Akt/mTOR/S6K1 axis is hyperactivated in these cells, leading to a dramatic increase in phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein at Ser235/236. Lastly, we provide evidence that inhibition of the furthest downstream kinase in the mTOR pathway, S6K1, with a highly specific inhibitor PF-4708671 inhibits cell migration, and thus may provide a potent anti-metastatic adjuvant therapy approach. PMID:25075253

  8. S6K1 inhibition enhances the apoptotic cell death of breast cancer cells in response to Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibition by the downregulation of survivin

    PubMed Central

    PARK, JIN-AH; JIN, HYEON-OK; LEE, HA-NA; KIM, JIN-HEE; PARK, IN-CHUL; NOH, WOO CHUL; CHANG, YOON HWAN; HONG, YOUNG JUN; KIM, KEUN-CHUL; LEE, JIN KYUNG

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer cells possess a deregulated apoptotic pathway with increased expression levels of anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins and ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) protein activity. Therefore, combined interference of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family and S6K1 protein expression may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. In the present study, it was identified that the administration of a combination of ABT263 [navitoclax; a Bcl-2/Bcl-extra large (Bcl-xL) inhibitor] and PF4708671 (an S6K1 inhibitor) markedly increased apoptotic cell death in the BT474 breast cancer cells compared with the administration of either agent alone. Furthermore, the downregulation of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and S6K1 with small interfering RNA induced a significant increase in cell death compared with RNA interference of either agent alone. Notably, combination treatment with ABT263 and PF4708671 decreased the expression level of survivin protein, with this ectopic expression of survivin attenuating cell death. Thus, the present study determined that the combined inhibition of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and S6K1 may be a good strategy for treating patients with breast cancer. PMID:26622578

  9. HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses in fractionated ?-irradiated mice by modulating the IL-12p70-STAT4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Choi, Nam-Hee; Jung, Uhee

    2012-05-01

    Whole body irradiated mice appear to experience a down-regulation of the helper T (Th)1-like immune response, and maintain a persistent immunological imbalance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HemoHIM (an herbal product made from Angelica Radix, Cnidium officinale , and Paeonia japonica cultivated in Korea) to ameliorate the immunological imbalance induce in fractionated ?-irradiated mice. The mice were exposed to ? rays twice a week (0.5 Gy fractions) for a total dose of 5 Gy, and HemoHIM was administrated orally from 1 week before the first irradiation to 1 week before the final analysis. All experiments were performed 4 and 6 months after their first exposure. HemoHIM ameliorated the Th1- and Th2-related immune responses normally occur in irradiated mice with or without dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. HemoHIM also restored the natural killer cell activities without changing the percentage of natural killer cells in irradiated mice. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM prevented the reduction in levels of interleukin-12p70 in irradiated mice. Finally, we found that HemoHIM enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4 that was reduced in irradiated mice. Our findings suggest that HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses by modulating the IL-12p70/pSTAT4 signaling pathway. PMID:22439601

  10. Activation and cytokine profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells in leprosy: in vitro stimulation by sonicated Mycobacterium leprae induces decreased level of IL-12p70 in lepromatous leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Andr Flores; Moretto, Daniela Ferraz; Gigliotti, Patrcia; Peruchi, Mariela; Vilani-Moreno, Ftima Regina; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Latini, Ana Carla Pereira; Iyer, Anand; Das, Pranab Kumar; de Souza, Vnia Nieto Brito

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the connection of innate and adaptive immunity of hosts to mycobacterial infection. Studies on the interaction of monocyte-derived DCs (MO-DCs) using Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients are rare. The present study demonstrated that the differentiation of MOs to DCs was similar in all forms of leprosy compared to normal healthy individuals. In vitro stimulation of immature MO-DCs with sonicated M. leprae induced variable degrees of DC maturation as determined by the increased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD83, in all studied groups. The production of different cytokines by the MO-DCs appeared similar in all of the studied groups under similar conditions. However, the production of interleukin (IL)-12p70 by MO-DCs from lepromatous (LL) leprosy patients after in vitro stimulation with M. leprae was lower than tuberculoid leprosy patients and healthy individuals, even after CD40 ligation with CD40 ligand-transfected cells. The present cumulative findings suggest that the MO-DCs of LL patients are generally a weak producer of IL-12p70 despite the moderate activating properties ofM. leprae. These results may explain the poor M. leprae-specific cell-mediated immunity in the LL type of leprosy. PMID:26222022

  11. CCN1 acutely increases nitric oxide production via integrin ?v?3-Akt-S6K-phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at the serine 1177 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soojin; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Gyungah; Won, Kyung-Jong; Park, Yoon Shin; Jo, Inho

    2015-12-01

    Although CCN1 (also known as cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer 61, CYR61) has been reported to promote angiogenesis and neovascularization in endothelial cells (ECs), its effects on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production have never been studied. Using human umbilical vein ECs, we investigated whether and how CCN1 regulates NO production. CCN1 acutely increased NO production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at serine 1177 (eNOS-Ser(1177)), but not that of eNOS-Thr(495) or eNOS-Ser(114). The level of total eNOS expression was unaltered. Treatment with either LY294002, a selective inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase known as an upstream kinase of Akt, or H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1, Rho-associated protein kinase 2, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), inhibited CCN1-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation and subsequent NO production. Ectopic expression of small interfering RNA against Akt and S6K significantly inhibited the effects of CCN1. Consistently, CCN1 increased the phosphorylation of Akt-Ser(473) and S6K-Thr(389). However, CCN1 did not alter the expression or secretion of VEGF, a known downstream factor of CCN1 and a potential upstream factor of Akt-mediated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation. Furthermore, neutralization of integrin ?v?3 with corresponding antibody completely reversed all of the observed effects of CCN1. Moreover, CCN1 increased acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the rat aortas. Finally, we also found that CCN1-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation and NO production are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, CCN1 acutely increases NO production via activation of a signaling axis in integrin ?v?3-Akt-S6K-eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation, suggesting an important role for CCN1 in vasodilation. PMID:26393424

  12. Phenotypically Dormant and Immature Leukaemia Cells Display Increased Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Pallis, Monica; Harvey, Tamsin; Russell, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity drives a number of key metabolic processes including growth and protein synthesis. Inhibition of the mTOR pathway promotes cellular dormancy. Since cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can be phenotypically dormant (quiescent), we examined biomarkers of their mTOR pathway activity concurrently with Ki-67 and CD71 (indicators of cycling cells) by quantitative flow cytometry. Using antibodies to phosphorylated epitopes of mTOR (S2448) and its downstream targets ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6, S235/236) and 4E-BP1 (T36/45), we documented that these phosphorylations were negligible in lymphocytes, but evident in dormant as well as proliferating subsets of both mobilised normal stem cell harvest CD34+ cells and AML blasts. Although mTOR phosphorylation in AML blasts was lower than that of the normal CD34+ cells, p-4E-BP1 was 2.6-fold higher and p-rpS6 was 22-fold higher. Moreover, in contrast to 4E-BP1, rpS6 phosphorylation was higher in dormant than proliferating AML blasts, and was also higher in the immature CD34+CD38- blast subset. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas show that rpS6 expression is associated with that of respiratory chain enzymes in AML. We conclude that phenotypic quiescence markers do not necessarily predict metabolic dormancy and that elevated rpS6 ser235/236 phosphorylation is characteristic of AML. PMID:26985829

  13. The PP242 Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitor Activates Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) in Multiple Myeloma Cells via a Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1)/ Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF-4E)/RAF Pathway and Activation Is a Mechanism of Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Bao; Benavides, Angelica; Shi, Yijiang; Yang, Yonghui; Frost, Patrick; Gera, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Activation of PI3-K-AKT and ERK pathways is a complication of mTOR inhibitor therapy. Newer mTOR inhibitors (like pp242) can overcome feedback activation of AKT in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We, thus, studied if feedback activation of ERK is still a complication of therapy with such drugs in this tumor model. PP242 induced ERK activation in MM cell lines as well as primary cells. Surprisingly, equimolar concentrations of rapamycin were relatively ineffective at ERK activation. Activation was not correlated with P70S6kinase inhibition nor was it prevented by PI3-kinase inhibition. ERK activation was prevented by MEK inhibitors and was associated with concurrent stimulation of RAF kinase activity but not RAS activation. RAF activation correlated with decreased phosphorylation of RAF at Ser-289, Ser-296, and Ser-301 inhibitory residues. Knockdown studies confirmed TORC1 inhibition was the key proximal event that resulted in ERK activation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of eIF-4E blunted pp242-induced ERK phosphorylation. Since pp242 was more potent than rapamycin in causing sequestering of eIF-4E, a TORC1/4E-BP1/eIF-4E-mediated mechanism of ERK activation could explain the greater effectiveness of pp242. Use of MEK inhibitors confirmed ERK activation served as a mechanism of resistance to the lethal effects of pp242. Thus, although active site mTOR inhibitors overcome AKT activation often seen with rapalog therapy, feedback ERK activation is still a problem of resistance, is more severe than that seen with use of first generation rapalogs and is mediated by a TORC1- and eIF-4E-dependent mechanism ultimately signaling to RAF. PMID:22556409

  14. Highly efficient acousto-optic diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals.

    PubMed

    Martynyuk-Lototska, I Yu; Mys, O G; Grabar, A A; Stoika, I M; Vysochanskii, Yu M; Vlokh, R O

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the acousto-optic (AO) diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals and found that they manifest high values of an AO figure of merit. The above crystals may therefore be used as highly efficient materials in different AO applications. PMID:18157276

  15. Disparate role of Na(+) channel D2-S6 residues in batrachotoxin and local anesthetic action.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Barile, M; Wang, G K

    2001-05-01

    Batrachotoxin (BTX) stabilizes the voltage-gated Na(+) channels in their open conformation, whereas local anesthetics (LAs) block Na(+) conductance. Site-directed mutagenesis has identified clusters of common residues at D1-S6, D3-S6, and D4-S6 segments within the alpha-subunit Na(+) channel that are critical for binding of these two types of ligands. In this report, we address whether segment D2-S6 is similarly involved in both BTX and LA actions. Thirteen amino acid positions from G783 to L795 of the rat skeletal muscle Na(+) channel ((mu)1/Skm1) were individually substituted with a lysine residue. Four mutants (N784K, L785K, V787K, and L788K) expressed sufficient Na(+) currents for further studies. Activation and/or inactivation gating was altered in mutant channels; in particular, mu1-V787K displays enhanced slow inactivation and exhibited use-dependent inhibition of peak Na(+) currents during repetitive pulses. Two of these four mutants, (mu)1-N784K and (mu)1-L788K, were completely resistant to 5 microM BTX. This BTX-resistant phenotype could be caused by structural perturbations induced by a lysine point mutation in the D2-S6 segment. However, these two BTX-resistant mutants remained quite sensitive to bupivacaine block with affinity for inactivated Na(+) channels (K(I)) of approximately 10 microM or less, which suggests that (mu)1-N784 and (mu)1-L788 residues are not in close proximity to the LA binding site. PMID:11306693

  16. A Novel (S)-6-Hydroxynicotine Oxidase Gene from Shinella sp. Strain HZN7

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jiguo; Wei, Yin; Ma, Yun; Wen, Rongti; Wen, Yuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine is an important environmental toxicant in tobacco waste. Shinella sp. strain HZN7 can metabolize nicotine into nontoxic compounds via variations of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. However, the catabolic mechanism of this variant pathway at the gene or enzyme level is still unknown. In this study, two 6-hydroxynicotine degradation-deficient mutants, N7-M9 and N7-W3, were generated by transposon mutagenesis. The corresponding mutant genes, designated nctB and tnp2, were cloned and analyzed. The nctB gene encodes a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase that converts (S)-6-hydroxynicotine into 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and then spontaneously hydrolyzes into 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine. The deletion and complementation of the nctB gene showed that this enzyme is essential for nicotine or (S)-6-hydroxynicotine degradation. Purified NctB could also convert (S)-nicotine into N-methylmyosmine, which spontaneously hydrolyzed into pseudooxynicotine. The kinetic constants of NctB toward (S)-6-hydroxynicotine (Km = 0.019 mM, kcat = 7.3 s?1) and nicotine (Km = 2.03 mM, kcat = 0.396 s?1) indicated that (S)-6-hydroxynicotine is the preferred substrate in vivo. NctB showed no activities toward the R enantiomer of nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine. Strain HZN7 could degrade (R)-nicotine into (R)-6-hydroxynicotine without any further degradation. The tnp2 gene from mutant N7-W3 encodes a putative transposase, and its deletion did not abolish the nicotine degradation activity. This study advances the understanding of the microbial diversity of nicotine biodegradation. PMID:25002425

  17. A novel (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase gene from Shinella sp. strain HZN7.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiguo; Wei, Yin; Ma, Yun; Wen, Rongti; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    Nicotine is an important environmental toxicant in tobacco waste. Shinella sp. strain HZN7 can metabolize nicotine into nontoxic compounds via variations of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. However, the catabolic mechanism of this variant pathway at the gene or enzyme level is still unknown. In this study, two 6-hydroxynicotine degradation-deficient mutants, N7-M9 and N7-W3, were generated by transposon mutagenesis. The corresponding mutant genes, designated nctB and tnp2, were cloned and analyzed. The nctB gene encodes a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase that converts (S)-6-hydroxynicotine into 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and then spontaneously hydrolyzes into 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine. The deletion and complementation of the nctB gene showed that this enzyme is essential for nicotine or (S)-6-hydroxynicotine degradation. Purified NctB could also convert (S)-nicotine into N-methylmyosmine, which spontaneously hydrolyzed into pseudooxynicotine. The kinetic constants of NctB toward (S)-6-hydroxynicotine (Km = 0.019 mM, kcat = 7.3 s(-1)) and nicotine (Km = 2.03 mM, kcat = 0.396 s(-1)) indicated that (S)-6-hydroxynicotine is the preferred substrate in vivo. NctB showed no activities toward the R enantiomer of nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine. Strain HZN7 could degrade (R)-nicotine into (R)-6-hydroxynicotine without any further degradation. The tnp2 gene from mutant N7-W3 encodes a putative transposase, and its deletion did not abolish the nicotine degradation activity. This study advances the understanding of the microbial diversity of nicotine biodegradation. PMID:25002425

  18. Prokaryotic Diacylglycerol Kinase and Undecaprenol Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Wade D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) and undecaprenol kinase (UDPK) are the lone members of a family of multispan membrane enzymes that are very small, lack relationships to any other family of proteinsincluding water soluble kinases, and that exhibit an unusual structure and active site architecture. Escherichia coli DAGK plays an important role in recycling diacylglycerol produced as a byproduct of biosynthesis of molecules located in the periplasmic space. UDPK seems to play an analogous role in Gram-positive bacteria, where its importance is evident by the fact that UDPK is essential for biofilm formation by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. DAGK has also long served as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, folding, stability, and structure. This review explores our current understanding of the microbial physiology, enzymology, structural biology, and folding of the prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family, which is based on over 40 years of studies. PMID:22224599

  19. Caffeine induces apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells by inhibiting AKT/mTOR/S6K, NF-?B and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shinji; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Yachie, Akihiro; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    We previously reported that caffeine-assisted chemotherapy improved the treatment of malignant bone and soft tissue tumours such as osteosarcoma. Caffeine affects tumour cells through various pathways, including phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), AKT, Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), caspase-3 and p53, and has therefore been indicated as being useful for the treatment of malignant tumours. Here, the effects of caffeine on the proliferation of HOS osteosarcoma cells were assessed by WST-8 assay, and the effects on the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were assessed by western blot analyses. Caffeine inhibited proliferation of HOS cells and suppressed NF-?B, AKT, mTOR/S6K and ERK activities. Our results support those from previous studies relating to the use of caffeine in the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:22993301

  20. Elastic properties of (PbySn1-y )2P2S6 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilanych, Rostyslav; Yevych, Ruslan; Kohutych, Anton; Perechinskii, Sergij; Stoika, Ivan; Vysochanskii, Yulian

    2014-09-01

    Elastic properties of (PbySn1-y )2P2S6 solid solutions were studied using Brillouin scattering technique. Different scattering geometries were used for sound velocities determination that make it possible to find all components of the stiffness tensor. The concentration dependencies of volume compressibility, the Grneisen parameter and Debye temperature were investigated. The results obtained were used to analyze chemical bonding with substitution of tin by lead at room temperature in the crystals under consideration.

  1. Elastic properties of (Pb y Sn1- y )2P2S6 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilanych, Rostyslav M.; Yevych, Ruslan M.; Kohutych, Anton A.; Perechinskii, Sergij I.; Stoika, Ivan M.; Vysochanskii, Yulian M.

    2014-09-01

    Elastic properties of (Pb y Sn1- y )2P2S6 solid solutions were studied using Brillouin scattering technique. Different scattering geometries were used for sound velocities determination that make it possible to find all components of the stiffness tensor. The concentration dependencies of volume compressibility, the Grneisen parameter and Debye temperature were investigated. The results obtained were used to analyze chemical bonding with substitution of tin by lead at room temperature in the crystals under consideration.

  2. Synthesis and Molecular Recognition of Water-Soluble S6-Corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Hui; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2015-07-13

    We report the efficient and scalable synthesis and molecular-recognition properties of novel and water-soluble S6-corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines. The synthesis comprises a one-pot nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction between diesters of 2,5-dimercaptoterephthalate and 3,6-dichlorotetrazine followed by the inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of the tetrazine moieties with an enamine and exhaustive saponification of esters. The resulting S6-corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines, which adopt a 1,3,5-alternate conformation in the crystalline state, are able to selectively form stable 1:1 complexes with dicationic guest species in water with association constants ranging from (1.100.06)10(3) ?M(-1) to (1.180.06)10(5) ?M(-1). The easy availability, large cavity size, strong and selective binding power render the water-soluble S6-corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines useful macrocyclic hosts in various disciplines of supramolecular chemistry. PMID:26038253

  3. mTORC1 drives HIF-1? and VEGF-A signalling via multiple mechanisms involving 4E-BP1, S6K1 and STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Kayleigh M.; Yang, Jian; Shen, Ming Hong; Sampson, Julian R.; Tee, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical trials using rapalogues in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) show regression in volume of typically vascularised tumours including angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). By blocking mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling, rapalogue efficacy is likely to occur in part through suppression of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). We show that rapamycin reduces HIF-1? protein levels, and to a lesser extent VEGF-A levels, in renal cystadenoma cells in a Tsc2+/? mouse model. We establish that mTORC1 drives HIF-1? protein accumulation through enhanced transcription of HIF-1? mRNA, a process that is blocked by either inhibition or knockdown of signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3). Furthermore, we demonstrate that STAT3 is directly phosphorylated by mTORC1 on Ser727 during hypoxia, promoting HIF-1? mRNA transcription. mTORC1 also regulates HIF-1? synthesis on a translational level via co-operative regulation of both initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 (S6K1), whilst HIF-1? degradation remains unaffected. We therefore propose that mTORC1 drives HIF-1? synthesis in a multi-faceted manner through 4E-BP1/eIF4E, S6K1 and STAT3. Interestingly, we observe a disconnect between HIF-1? protein levels and VEGF-A expression. While both S6K1 and 4E-BP1 regulate HIF-1? translation, VEGF-A is primarily under the control of 4E-BP1/eIF4E. S6K1 inhibition reduces HIF-1? but not VEGF-A expression, suggesting that mTORC1 mediates VEGF-A expression via both HIF-1?-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our work has important implications for the treatment of vascularised tumours, where mTORC1 acts as a central mediator of STAT3, HIF-1?, VEGF-A and angiogenesis via multiple signalling mechanisms. PMID:24931163

  4. AKT/mTOR and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ziying; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Zhou, Xu; Li, Donghong; Yang, Lawei; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is closely associated with excess mortality from pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Although multiple mechanisms in which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, the role of autophagy in human lung epithelial cells has not been examined. In this study, we evaluated whether chrysotile asbestos induces autophagy in A549 human lung epithelial cells and then analyzed the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Chrysotile asbestos induced autophagy in A549 cells based on a series of biochemical and microscopic autophagy markers. We observed that asbestos increased expression of A549 cell microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II), an autophagy marker, in conjunction with dephosphorylation of phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-p70S6K. Notably, AKT1/AKT2 double-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) had negligible asbestos-induced LC3-II expression, supporting a crucial role for AKT signaling. Chrysotile asbestos also led to the phosphorylation/activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK, but not p38 MAPK, dramatically inhibited the protein expression of LC3-II. Moreover, JNK2(-/-) MEFs but not JNK1(-/-) MEFs blocked LC3-II levels induced by chrysotile asbestos. In addition, N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, attenuated chrysotile asbestos-induced dephosphorylation of P-AKT and completely abolished phosphorylation/activation of JNK. Finally, we demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos-induced apoptosis was not affected by the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or autophagy-related gene 5 siRNA, indicating that the chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy may be adaptive rather than prosurvival. Our findings demonstrate that AKT/mTOR and JNK2 signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy. These data provide a mechanistic basis for possible future clinical applications targeting these signaling pathways in the management of asbestos-induced lung disease. PMID:24735948

  5. Ex Vivo Nicotine Stimulation Augments the Efficacy of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell-Derived Dendritic Cell Vaccination via Activating Akt-S6 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan Yan; Yang, Yi Wen; You, Xiang; Deng, Xiao Qian; Hu, Chun Fang; Zhu, Cong; Wang, Jun Yao; Gu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yi Nan; Li, Qing; Gao, Feng Guang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) agonist nicotine has stimulatory effects on murine bone marrow-derived semimature DCs, but the effect of nicotine on peripheral blood mononuclear cell- (PBMC-) derived human semimature dendritic cells (hu-imDCs) is still to be clarified. In the present study, hu-imDCs (cultured 4 days) were conferred with??ex vivo lower dose nicotine stimulation and the effect of nicotine on surface molecules expression, the ability of cross-presentation, DCs-mediated PBMC priming, and activated signaling pathways were determined. We could demonstrate that the treatment with nicotine resulted in increased surface molecules expression, enhanced hu-imDCs-mediated PBMC proliferation, upregulated release of IL-12 in the supernatant of cocultured DCs-PBMC, and augmented phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6. Nicotine associated with traces of LPS efficiently enhanced endosomal translocation of internalized ovalbumin (OVA) and increased TAP-OVA colocalization. Importantly, the upregulation of nicotine-increased surface molecules upregulation was significantly abrogated by the inhibition of Akt kinase. These findings demonstrate that ex vivo nicotine stimulation augments hu-imDCs surface molecules expression via Akt-S6 pathway, combined with increased Ag-presentation result in augmented efficacy of DCs-mediated PBMC proliferation and Th1 polarization. PMID:26351626

  6. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Woo-Young; Koh, Hee-Jong; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2015-09-18

    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. PMID:26241676

  7. Reduced ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation after progressive resistance exercise in growing adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Nathan J; Nokleby, Jessica J; Thicke, Bethany M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate moderate intensity progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in growing adolescent rats and its effect on muscle hypertrophy (defined as an increase in fiber cross-sectional area [CSA]). We hypothesized that in adolescent animals moderate intensity PRE would increase (a) fiber CSA; (b) myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content; and (c) expression and phosphorylation of cell signaling molecules involved in translational regulation, compared with that in age-matched sedentary (SED) controls. In the PRE group, 3-week-old male rats were trained to climb a vertical ladder as a mode of PRE training such that by 10 weeks all animals in the PRE group had progressed to carry an additional 80% of their body weight per climb. In agreement with our hypotheses, we observed that 10 weeks of moderate PRE in adolescent animals was sufficient to increase the CSA of muscle fibers and increase MyHC content. The average muscle fiber CSA increased by >10%, and the total MyHC content increased by 35% (p < 0.05) in the PRE group compared with that in the SED animals. Concurrently, we investigated sustained changes in the expression and phosphorylation of key signaling molecules that are previously identified regulators of hypertrophy in adult animal models. Contrary to our hypotheses, expression and phosphorylation of the translational regulators mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt were not increased in the PRE group. In addition, we observed that the ratio of phosphorylated-to-unphosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) was reduced over sixfold in PRE animals (p < 0.05) and that total rpS6 protein levels were unchanged between PRE and SED animals (p > 0.05). We conclude that moderate intensity PRE is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy in adolescent animals, whereas the signaling mechanisms associated with muscle hypertrophy may differ between growing adolescents and adults. PMID:22614147

  8. Targeting Protein Kinases with Selective and Semi-Promiscuous Covalent Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rand M.; Taunton, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors are an important class of therapeutics. In addition, selective kinase inhibitors can often reveal unexpected biological insights, augmenting genetic approaches and playing a decisive role in preclinical target validation studies. Nevertheless, developing protein kinase inhibitors with sufficient selectivity and pharmacodynamic potency presents significant challenges. Targeting noncatalytic cysteines with covalent inhibitors is a powerful approach to address both challenges simultaneously. Here, we describe our efforts to design irreversible and reversible electrophilic inhibitors with varying degrees of kinase selectivity. Highly selective covalent inhibitors have been used to elucidate the roles of p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (RSK) in animal models of atherosclerosis and diabetes. By contrast, semi-promiscuous covalent inhibitors have revealed new therapeutic targets in disease-causing parasites and have shown utility as chemoproteomic probes for interrogating kinase occupancy in living cells. PMID:25399643

  9. Light induced absorption and optical sensitizing of Sn2P2S6:Sb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypka, Yaroslav; Shumelyuk, Alexandr; Odoulov, Serguey; Basun, Sergey; Evans, Dean

    2015-12-01

    Photorefractive sensitivity of antimony doped Sn2P2S6 can be increased at ambient temperature by preexposure of the sample with an intense auxiliary light beam. It is shown that the largest enhancement of sensitivity occurs if the photon energy of preexposure light is close to the crystal bandgap, it decreases gradually with increasing wavelength. The preexposure gives rise also to a pronounced transient light induced absorption which vanishes approximately one order of magnitude faster than the decay of the sensitized state.

  10. Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals.

    PubMed

    Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Grabar, A; Vlokh, R

    2009-07-01

    We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed. PMID:21828470

  11. Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2–RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex

    PubMed Central

    Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gergő; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszenői, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase–kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK→MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 “docking” groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they “readjust,” whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state. PMID:25730857

  12. From Phosphosites to Kinases.

    PubMed

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V; Jensen, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a pivotal role in propagating the phosphorylation-mediated signaling networks in living cells. With the overwhelming quantities of phosphoproteomics data being generated, the number of identified phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) is ever increasing. Often, proteomics investigations aim to understand the global signaling modulation that takes place in different biological conditions investigated. For phosphoproteomics data, identifying the kinases central to mediating this response is key. This has prompted several efforts to catalogue the immense amounts of phosphorylation data and known or predicted kinases responsible for the modifications. However, barely 20 % of the known phosphosites are assigned to a kinase, initiating various bioinformatics efforts that attempt to predict the responsible kinases. These algorithms employ different approaches to predict kinase consensus sequence motifs, mostly based on large scale in vivo and in vitro experiments. The context of the kinase and the phosphorylated proteins in a biological system is equally important for predicting association between the enzymes and substrates, an aspect that is also being tackled with available bioinformatics tools. This chapter summarizes the use of the larger phosphorylation databases, and approaches that can be applied to predict kinases that phosphorylate individual sites or that are globally modulated in phosphoproteomics datasets. PMID:26584935

  13. Glutamine promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation through the mTOR/S6 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lingqin; Sheng, Xiugui; Willson, Adam K; Roque, Dario R; Stine, Jessica E; Guo, Hui; Jones, Hannah M; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine is one of the main nutrients used by tumor cells for biosynthesis. Therefore, targeted inhibition of glutamine metabolism may have anti-tumorigenic implications. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of glutamine on ovarian cancer cell growth. Three ovarian cancer cell lines, HEY, SKOV3, and IGROV-1, were assayed for glutamine dependence by analyzing cytotoxicity, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, cell stress, and glucose/glutamine metabolism. Our results revealed that administration of glutamine increased cell proliferation in all three ovarian cancer cell lines in a dose dependent manner. Depletion of glutamine induced reactive oxygen species and expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins. In addition, glutamine increased the activity of glutaminase (GLS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) by modulating the mTOR/S6 and MAPK pathways. Inhibition of mTOR activity by rapamycin or blocking S6 expression by siRNA inhibited GDH and GLS activity, leading to a decrease in glutamine-induced cell proliferation. These studies suggest that targeting glutamine metabolism may be a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26045471

  14. SnGa2GeS6: synthesis, structure, linear and nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zuohong; Li, Chao; Kang, Lei; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2015-04-28

    A new sulfide, SnGa2GeS6, has been synthesized, which represents the first member in the quaternary Sn/M/M'/Q (M = Ga, In; M' = Si, Ge; Q = S, Se, Te) system. It adopts a new structure type in the non-centrosymmetric space group Fdd2. In the structure, Sn(2+) is coordinated to a distorted square-pyramid of five S atoms, demonstrating the stereochemical activity of the lone electron pair, while the Ge atom and Ga atom are both tetrahedrally coordinated to four S atoms. The SnS5 square-pyramids and the MS4 (M = Ga, Ge) tetrahedra are connected to each other via corner and edge-sharing to generate a three-dimensional framework. The compound exhibits a powder second harmonic generation signal at 2 μm whose strength is about one-fourth that of the benchmark material AgGaS2, which may be explained in view of the macroscopic arrangement of the SnS5 square-pyramids and the MS4 tetrahedra. Moreover, based on UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy measurements and the electronic structure calculations, SnGa2GeS6 has two optical transitions at about 1.12 eV and 2.04 eV respectively. PMID:25801715

  15. Mechanism for activation of the growth factor-activated AGC kinases by turn motif phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hauge, Camilla; Antal, Torben L; Hirschberg, Daniel; Doehn, Ulrik; Thorup, Katrine; Idrissova, Leila; Hansen, Klaus; Jensen, Ole N; Jrgensen, Thomas J; Biondi, Ricardo M; Frdin, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The growth factor/insulin-stimulated AGC kinases share an activation mechanism based on three phosphorylation sites. Of these, only the role of the activation loop phosphate in the kinase domain and the hydrophobic motif (HM) phosphate in a C-terminal tail region are well characterized. We investigated the role of the third, so-called turn motif phosphate, also located in the tail, in the AGC kinases PKB, S6K, RSK, MSK, PRK and PKC. We report cooperative action of the HM phosphate and the turn motif phosphate, because it binds a phosphoSer/Thr-binding site above the glycine-rich loop within the kinase domain, promoting zipper-like association of the tail with the kinase domain, serving to stabilize the HM in its kinase-activating binding site. We present a molecular model for allosteric activation of AGC kinases by the turn motif phosphate via HM-mediated stabilization of the ?C helix. In S6K and MSK, the turn motif phosphate thereby also protects the HM from dephosphorylation. Our results suggest that the mechanism described is a key feature in activation of upto 26 human AGC kinases. PMID:17446865

  16. The secretory pathway kinases.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, Anju; Kinch, Lisa N; Tagliabracci, Vincent S

    2015-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a nearly universal post-translation modification involved in a plethora of cellular events. Even though phosphorylation of extracellular proteins had been observed, the identity of the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins remained a mystery until only recently. Advances in genome sequencing and genetic studies have paved the way for the discovery of a new class of kinases that localize within the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the extracellular space. These novel kinases phosphorylate proteins and proteoglycans in the secretory pathway and appear to regulate various extracellular processes. Mutations in these kinases cause human disease, thus underscoring the biological importance of phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25862977

  17. By activating Fas/ceramide synthase 6/p38 kinase in lipid rafts, Stichoposide D inhibits growth of leukemia xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seong-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seon; Shin, Sung-Won; Ju, Mi-Ha; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Stonik, Valentin A.; Kwak, Jong-Young; Park, Joo-In

    2015-01-01

    Stichoposide D (STD) is a marine triterpene glycoside isolated from sea cucumbers. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of STD in human leukemia cells. The role of Fas (CD95), ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis was examined in human leukemia cells. In addition, the antitumor effects of STD in K562 and HL-60 leukemia xenograft models were investigated. We found that STD induces Fas translocation to lipid rafts, and thus mediates cell apoptosis. We also observed the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis. The use of methyl-?-cyclodextrin and nystatin to disrupt lipid rafts prevents the clustering of Fas and the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase, and also inhibits STD-induced apoptosis. Specific inhibition by Fas, CerS6, and p38 kinase siRNA transfection partially blocked STD-induced apoptosis. In addition, STD has antitumor activity through the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase without displaying any toxicity in HL-60 and K562 xenograft models. We observed that the anti-tumor effect of STD is partially prevented in CerS6 shRNA-silenced xenograft models. We first report that Fas/CerS6/p38 kinase activation in lipid rafts by STD is involved in its anti-leukemic activity. We also established that STD is able to enhance the chemosensitivity of K562 cells to etoposide or Ara-C. These data suggest that STD may be used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents to treat leukemia. PMID:26318294

  18. By activating Fas/ceramide synthase 6/p38 kinase in lipid rafts, stichoposide D inhibits growth of leukemia xenografts.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seong-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seon; Shin, Sung-Won; Ju, Mi-Ha; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Stonik, Valentin A; Kwak, Jong-Young; Park, Joo-In

    2015-09-29

    Stichoposide D (STD) is a marine triterpene glycoside isolated from sea cucumbers. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of STD in human leukemia cells. The role of Fas (CD95), ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis was examined in human leukemia cells. In addition, the antitumor effects of STD in K562 and HL-60 leukemia xenograft models were investigated. We found that STD induces Fas translocation to lipid rafts, and thus mediates cell apoptosis. We also observed the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis. The use of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin to disrupt lipid rafts prevents the clustering of Fas and the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase, and also inhibits STD-induced apoptosis. Specific inhibition by Fas, CerS6, and p38 kinase siRNA transfection partially blocked STD-induced apoptosis. In addition, STD has antitumor activity through the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase without displaying any toxicity in HL-60 and K562 xenograft models. We observed that the anti-tumor effect of STD is partially prevented in CerS6 shRNA-silenced xenograft models. We first report that Fas/CerS6/p38 kinase activation in lipid rafts by STD is involved in its anti-leukemic activity. We also established that STD is able to enhance the chemosensitivity of K562 cells to etoposide or Ara-C. These data suggest that STD may be used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents to treat leukemia. PMID:26318294

  19. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Shin, Yun-jeong; Kim, Woo-Young; Koh, Hee-Jong; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2015-09-18

    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. - Highlights: • Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (AtNAP1) interacts with RPS6 as well as with AtHD2B. • rDNA transcription is regulated S6K1. • Overexpression or down regulation of AtNAP1 results in concomitant increase or decrease in rDNA transcription.

  20. Stress value in 2003 Dayao M S6.1 earthquake source region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Wan, Yongge; Wang, Huilin

    2011-08-01

    The M S6.2 Dayao, Yunnan, earthquake occurred on July 21, 2003, followed by a major M S6.1 earthquake about 88 days later in the same region. Hypocenters of the two earthquakes are almost in the same place. Based on the P wave first motion polarities of the two aftershock sequences recorded by temporary stations, we have studied the stress field in the aftershock zone and obtained the two stress field directions in Dayao region using the new version of PKU Grid Test Software provided by Chunquan Yu. Assuming that the rotation of the stress field is caused by the second main shock, we estimated the crustal stress value in the focal region by using the stress value calculation method proposed by Yongge Wan. The estimated maximum, intermediate and minimum principal stresses are 166.3 MPa, 158.7 MPa and 151 MPa, respectively, before the second main shock. The normal and shear stresses projected on the fault plane of the second main shock before it occurred are 157.3 MPa, 7.4 MPa, and are 158.8 MPa, 0.2 MPa after it occurred, respectively. The perturbed input parameters experiments attest the stability of the solution. The result shows that the preseismic shear stress is larger than the post-seismic one, and their difference corresponds to the stress drop approximately. The estimated compressive stress level is very high, but the differential stress is low. The result is helpful for friction coefficient estimation, plate motion simulation and related studies.

  1. The Pathology of Aging 129S6/SvEvTac Mice.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, E; Castiglioni, V; Recordati, C; Gobbi, A; Capillo, M; Invernizzi, A; Scanziani, E; Marchesi, F

    2016-03-01

    The 129 mouse strain is commonly used for the generation of genetically engineered mice. Genetic drift or accidental contamination during outcrossing has resulted in several 129 substrains. Comprehensive data on spontaneous age-related pathology exist for the 129S4/SvJae substrain, whereas only limited information is available for other 129 substrains. This longitudinal aging study describes the life span and spontaneous lesions of 44 male and 18 female mice of the 129S6/SvEvTac substrain. Median survival time was 778 and 770 days for males and females, respectively. Tumors of lung and Harderian gland were the most common neoplasms in both sexes. Hepatocellular tumors occurred mainly in males. Hematopoietic tumors were observed at low frequency. Suppurative and ulcerative blepharoconjunctivitis was the most common nonneoplastic condition in both sexes. Corynebacteria (primarily Corynebacterium urealyticum and C. pseudodiphtheriticum) were isolated from animals with blepharoconjunctivitis and in some cases from unaffected mice, although a clear causal association between corynebacterial infections and blepharoconjunctivitis could not be inferred. Polyarteritis occurred only in males and was identified as the most common nonneoplastic contributory cause of death. Eosinophilic crystalline pneumonia occurred in both sexes and was a relevant cause of death or comorbidity. Epithelial hyalinosis at extrapulmonary sites was noted at higher frequency in females. This study contributes important data on the spontaneous age-related pathology of the 129S6/SvEvTac mouse substrain and is a valuable reference for evaluation of the phenotype in genetically engineered mice obtained with this 129 substrain. PMID:26467077

  2. Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) activation in breast cancer: requirement for mTORC1 activity associates with ER-alpha expression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ben A; Kim, Tae Yeon; Skor, Maxwell N; Conzen, Suzanne D

    2012-09-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an attractive target for cancer treatment. While rapamycin and its derivatives (e.g., everolimus) have been shown to inhibit mTOR signaling and cell proliferation in preclinical models of breast cancer, mTOR inhibition has demonstrated variable clinical efficacy with a trend toward better responses in estrogen receptor alpha positive (ER?+) compared to ER? negative (ER?-) tumors. Recently, serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) was identified as a substrate of mTOR kinase activity. Previous studies have alternatively suggested that either mTORC1 or mTORC2 is exclusively required for SGK1's Ser422 phosphorylation and activation in breast cancer cells. We investigated the effect of rapamycin on the growth of several ER?+ and ER?- breast cancer cell lines and examined differences in the phosphorylation of mTOR substrates (SGK1, p70S6K, and Akt) that might account for the differing sensitivity of these cell lines to rapamycin. We also examined which mTOR complex contributes to SGK1-Ser422 phosphorylation in ER?+ versus ER?- breast cell lines. We then assessed whether inhibiting SGK1 activity added to rapamycin-mediated cell growth inhibition by either using the SGK1 inhibitor GSK650394A or expressing an SGK1 shRNA. We observed sensitivity to rapamycin-mediated growth inhibition and inactivation of insulin-mediated SGK1-Ser422 phosphorylation in ER?+ MCF-7 and T47D cells, but not in ER?- MDA-MB-231 or MCF10A-Myc cells. In addition, either depleting SGK1 with shRNA or inhibiting SGK1 with GSK650394A preferentially sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to rapamycin. Finally, we found that rapamycin-sensitive SGK1-Ser422 phosphorylation required ER? expression in MCF-7 derived cell lines. Therefore, targeting SGK1 activity may improve the efficacy of rapamycin and its analogs in the treatment of ER?- breast cancer. PMID:22842983

  3. Trpc1 Ion Channel Modulates Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway during Myoblast Differentiation and Muscle Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Zanou, Nadge; Schakman, Olivier; Louis, Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dietrich, Alexander; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Gailly, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed in vitro that calcium entry through Trpc1 ion channels regulates myoblast migration and differentiation. In the present work, we used primary cell cultures and isolated muscles from Trpc1?/? and Trpc1+/+ murine model to investigate the role of Trpc1 in myoblast differentiation and in muscle regeneration. In these models, we studied regeneration consecutive to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury and observed a significant hypotrophy and a delayed regeneration in Trpc1?/? muscles consisting in smaller fiber size and increased proportion of centrally nucleated fibers. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin and of one of their targets, the developmental MHC (MHCd). Consequently, muscle tension was systematically lower in muscles from Trpc1?/? mice. Importantly, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, which plays a crucial role in muscle growth and regeneration, was down-regulated in regenerating Trpc1?/? muscles. Indeed, phosphorylation of both Akt and p70S6K proteins was decreased as well as the activation of PI3K, the main upstream regulator of the Akt. This effect was independent of insulin-like growth factor expression. Akt phosphorylation also was reduced in Trpc1?/? primary myoblasts and in control myoblasts differentiated in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or pretreated with EGTA-AM or wortmannin, suggesting that the entry of Ca2+ through Trpc1 channels enhanced the activity of PI3K. Our results emphasize the involvement of Trpc1 channels in skeletal muscle development in vitro and in vivo, and identify a Ca2+-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration. PMID:22399301

  4. Ribosomal S6 kinase 4 (RSK4) expression in ovarian tumors and its regulation by antineoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian; Zeferino-Toquero, Moises; Estrada-Moscoso, Isaias; Imani-Razavi, Fazlollah Shahram; Olivares, Aleida; Perez-Juarez, Carlos Eduardo; Diaz-Cueto, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Survival rate in ovarian cancer depends on the stage of the disease. RSK4, which has been considered as a tumor suppressor factor, controls cells invasion due to its antiinvasive and antimetastatic properties. Modulation of RSK4 expression could be an important event to increase the survival rate in ovarian cancer patients. Thus, the goal of the present study was to establish the differences in RSK4 expression among normal, benign and malignant ovarian tissues and to determine whether antineoplastic drugs regulate its expression in SKOV3 and TOV-112D cells. RSK4 levels in 30 malignant ovarian tumors, 64 benign tumors and 36 normal ovary tissues were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Modulation of RSK4 expression by two antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin and vorinostat) was also studied in the SKOV3 and TOV-112D ovarian cancer cell lines using the same techniques. RSK4 mRNA and protein levels were decreased in malignant ovarian tumors as compared to benign tumors and normal tissue. These low-RSK4 levels were significantly associated with advanced stages of ovarian cancer. RSK4 expression was increased after incubation of SKOV3 and TOV-112D cell lines with cisplatin and vorinostat for 24 h. The combination of these antineoplastic drugs did not produce a synergistic or additive effect. These results suggest that RSK4 is expressed at low levels in malignant ovarian tumors, which correlates with advanced stages of the disease. Additionally, RSK4 expression is regulated by cisplatin and vorinostat in two ovarian cancer cell lines. PMID:26732474

  5. 17 CFR 239.16 - Form S-6, for unit investment trusts registered on Form N-8B-2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Investment Company Act of 1940 on Form N-8B-2 ( 274.12 of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form S-6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...

  6. Color-singlet J/? production at O(?s6) in ? decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Jian-Xiong

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the conflict between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of the inclusive J/? production in ? decay, we consider the ?s6 order color-singlet (CS) contributions of processes ??J/?+gg and ??J/?+gggg. Both the branching ratio and the J/? momentum spectrum are calculated, and the branching ratio (4.710-4) is larger than the leading-order contribution (?s5, ??J/?+ccg). Together with the QCD and QED leading-order contributions considered in our previous work, the CS prediction of the branching ratio for the direct J/? production is Br(??J/?direct+X)=0.90-0.31+0.4910-4, which is still about 3.8 times less than the CLEO measurement. We also obtain a preliminary CS prediction of Rcc=(B(??J/?+cc+X))/(B(??J/?+X)) and find that the value 0.39-0.20+0.21 is much larger than the color-octet prediction, and suggest to measure this quality in future experimental analysis.

  7. Gene organization for nitric oxide reduction in Alcaligenes faecalis S-6.

    PubMed

    Kukimoto, M; Nishiyama, M; Tanokura, M; Horinouchi, S

    2000-04-01

    norB and norC encoding the cytochrome b-containing subunit and the cytochrome c-containing subunit, respectively, of the nitric oxide reductase (NOR) in Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 were cloned and sequenced. Both NorB and NorC showed more than 40% sequence identity to the corresponding subunits of cytochrome bc-type NORs in other denitrifying bacteria. norCB was in a gene cluster containing seven other genes; these were named dnr, orf2, orf3, norE, norF, norQ, and norD on the basis of their similarity with NOR systems in other bacteria. Potential FNR-binding sites were present in front of norCB, norEF, and/or orf2/orf3, suggesting that most of these genes are regulated simultaneously by an FNR-related protein. NorB and NorC proteins produced in the membrane fraction in Escherichia coli showed no enzyme activity, probably due to lack of NorQ and NorD, which appear to perform some essential function for activation of the NorB-NorC complex in the recombinant E. coli. PMID:10830505

  8. Neutron scattering study of ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrejkovic, P.; Kempa, M.; Vysochanskii, Y.; Saint-Grgoire, P.; Bourges, P.; Rushchanskii, K. Z.; Hlinka, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ferroelectric phase transition in the semiconductor Sn2P2S6 single crystal has been studied by means of neutron scattering in the pressure-temperature range adjacent to the anticipated tricritical Lifshitz point (p?0.18 GPa, T?296 K). The observations reveal a direct ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition in the whole investigated pressure range (0.18-0.6 GPa). These results are in a clear disagreement with phase diagrams assumed in numerous earlier works, according to which a hypothetical intermediate incommensurate phase extends over several or even tens of degrees in the 0.5 GPa pressure range. Temperature dependence of the anisotropic quasielastic diffuse scattering suggests that polarization fluctuations present above TC are strongly reduced in the ordered phase. Still, the temperature dependence of the (200) Bragg reflection intensity at p=0.18 GPa can be remarkably well modeled assuming the order-parameter amplitude growth according to the power law with logarithmic corrections predicted for a uniaxial ferroelectric transition at the tricritical Lifshitz point.

  9. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures.

    PubMed

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K; Haglund, Ellinor; Schug, Alexander; Onuchic, Jos N

    2015-12-28

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein's functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism. PMID:26723626

  10. Nonlinear optical coefficients and phase-matching conditions in Sn(2)P(2)S(6).

    PubMed

    Haertle, D; Jazbinsek, M; Montemezzani, G; Gnter, P

    2005-05-16

    Phase matching conditions and second and third order nonlinear optical coefficients of Sn2P2S6 crystals are reported. The coefficients for second harmonic generation (SHG) are given at lambda = 1542 nm and 1907 nm at room temperature. The largest coefficients at these wavelengths are d111 = 17+/-1.5pm/V and d111 = 12+/-1.5pm/V, respectively. The third-order subsceptibilities chi(3) 1111 = (17 +/- 6) . 10-20m2/V2 and chi(3) 2222 = (9 +/- 3) . 10-20m2/V2 were determined at lambda = 1907 nm. All measurements were performed by the Maker-Fringe technique. Based on the recently determined refractive indices, we analyze the phase-matching conditions for second harmonic generation, sum- and difference-frequency generation and parametric oscillation at room temperature. Phase-matching curves as a function of wavelength and propagation direction are given. Experimental phase-matched type I SHG at 1907 nm has been demonstrated. The results agree very well with the calculations. It is shown that phase-matched optical parametrical oscillation is possible in the whole transparency range up to 8 microm with an effective nonlinear coefficient deff approximately 4pm/V. PMID:19495283

  11. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Schug, Alexander; Onuchic, José N.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein's functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism.

  12. A Comprehensive Behavioral Test Battery to Assess Learning and Memory in 129S6/Tg2576 Mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Andrea; Bauer, Björn; Abner, Erin L; Ashkenazy-Frolinger, Tal; Hartz, Anika M S

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic Tg2576 mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) are a widely used Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model to evaluate treatment effects on amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology and cognition. Tg2576 mice on a B6;SJL background strain carry a recessive rd1 mutation that leads to early retinal degeneration and visual impairment in homozygous carriers. This can impair performance in behavioral tests that rely on visual cues, and thus, affect study results. Therefore, B6;SJL/Tg2576 mice were systematically backcrossed with 129S6/SvEvTac mice resulting in 129S6/Tg2576 mice that lack the rd1 mutation. 129S6/Tg2576 mice do not develop retinal degeneration but still show Aβ accumulation in the brain that is comparable to the original B6;SJL/Tg2576 mouse. However, comprehensive studies on cognitive decline in 129S6/Tg2576 mice are limited. In this study, we used two dementia mouse models on a 129S6 background-scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice (3-5 month-old) and transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice (11-13 month-old)-to establish a behavioral test battery for assessing learning and memory. The test battery consisted of five tests to evaluate different aspects of cognitive impairment: a Y-Maze forced alternation task, a novel object recognition test, the Morris water maze, the radial arm water maze, and a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task. We first established this behavioral test battery with the scopolamine-induced dementia model using 129S6/SvEvTac mice and then evaluated 129S6/Tg2576 mice using the same testing protocol. Both models showed distinctive patterns of cognitive impairment. Together, the non-invasive behavioral test battery presented here allows detecting cognitive impairment in scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice and in transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice. Due to the modular nature of this test battery, more behavioral tests, e.g. invasive assays to gain additional cognitive information, can easily be added. PMID:26808326

  13. A Comprehensive Behavioral Test Battery to Assess Learning and Memory in 129S6/Tg2576 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Andrea; Bauer, Björn; Abner, Erin L.; Ashkenazy-Frolinger, Tal; Hartz, Anika M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic Tg2576 mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) are a widely used Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model to evaluate treatment effects on amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology and cognition. Tg2576 mice on a B6;SJL background strain carry a recessive rd1 mutation that leads to early retinal degeneration and visual impairment in homozygous carriers. This can impair performance in behavioral tests that rely on visual cues, and thus, affect study results. Therefore, B6;SJL/Tg2576 mice were systematically backcrossed with 129S6/SvEvTac mice resulting in 129S6/Tg2576 mice that lack the rd1 mutation. 129S6/Tg2576 mice do not develop retinal degeneration but still show Aβ accumulation in the brain that is comparable to the original B6;SJL/Tg2576 mouse. However, comprehensive studies on cognitive decline in 129S6/Tg2576 mice are limited. In this study, we used two dementia mouse models on a 129S6 background—scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice (3–5 month-old) and transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice (11–13 month-old)–to establish a behavioral test battery for assessing learning and memory. The test battery consisted of five tests to evaluate different aspects of cognitive impairment: a Y-Maze forced alternation task, a novel object recognition test, the Morris water maze, the radial arm water maze, and a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task. We first established this behavioral test battery with the scopolamine-induced dementia model using 129S6/SvEvTac mice and then evaluated 129S6/Tg2576 mice using the same testing protocol. Both models showed distinctive patterns of cognitive impairment. Together, the non-invasive behavioral test battery presented here allows detecting cognitive impairment in scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice and in transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice. Due to the modular nature of this test battery, more behavioral tests, e.g. invasive assays to gain additional cognitive information, can easily be added. PMID:26808326

  14. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however, along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  15. PAK family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhuo-shen; Manser, Ed

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that are represented by six genes in humans (PAK 16), and are found in all eukaryotes sequenced to date. Genetic and knockdown experiments in frogs, fish and mice indicate group I PAKs are widely expressed, required for multiple tissue development, and particularly important for immune and nervous system function in the adult. The group II PAKs (human PAKs 46) are more enigmatic, but their restriction to metazoans and presence at cell-cell junctions suggests these kinases emerged to regulate junctional signaling. Studies of protozoa and fungal PAKs show that they regulate cell shape and polarity through phosphorylation of multiple cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule binding proteins, myosins and septins. This chapter discusses what we know about the regulation of PAKs and their physiological role in different model organisms, based primarily on gene knockout studies. PMID:23162738

  16. Roles of Sestrin2 and Ribosomal Protein S6 in Transient Global Ischemia-Induced Hippocampal Neuronal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yao-Chung; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Yang, Ding-I; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shang-Der

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that sestrin2 is a crucial modulator for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, sestrin2 may also regulate ribosomal protein S6 (RpS6), a molecule important for protein synthesis, through the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex that is pivotal for longevity. However, the roles of sestrin2 in cerebral ischemia, in which oxidative stress is one of the major pathogenic mechanisms, are still less understood. In this study, we hypothesized that sestrin2 may protect hippocampal CA1 neurons against transient global ischemia (TGI)-induced apoptosis by regulating RpS6 phosphorylation in rats. We found that sestrin2 expression was progressively increased in the hippocampal CA1 subfield 148 h after TGI, reaching the maximal level at 24 h, and declined thereafter. Further, an increased extent of RpS6 phosphorylation, but not total RpS6 protein level, was observed in the hippocampal CA1 subfield after TGI. The sestrin2 siRNA, which substantially blocked the expression of TGI-induced sestrin2, also abolished RpS6 phosphorylation. TGI with reperfusion may induce oxidative stress with the resultant formation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). We found that sestrin2 siRNA further augmented the formation of 8-OHdG induced by TGI with reperfusion for 4 h. Consistently, sestrin2 siRNA also enhanced apoptosis induced by TGI with reperfusion for 48 h based on the analysis of DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA fragmentation sandwich ELISA, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Together these findings indicated that TGI-induced sestrin2 expression contributed to RpS6 phosphorylation and neuroprotection against ischemic injury in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. PMID:26556340

  17. Phosphatidylinositol kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, P.T.; Heng, A.B.W.; Traugh, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase was isolated from the postribosomal supernatant of rabbit reticulocytes. This activity was identified by the formation of a product that comigrated with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) when purified PI was phosphorylated in the presence of (/sup 32/P)ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. Three major peaks of PI kinase activity were resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The first peak eluted at 50-100 mM NaCl together with several serine protein kinases, casein kinase (CK) I and protease activated kinase (PAK) I and II. The PI kinase was subsequently separated from the protein kinases by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The second peak eluted at 125-160 mM NaCl and contained another lipid kinase activity that produced a product which comigrated with phosphatidic acid on thin layer chromatography. The third peak, which eluted at 165-200 mM NaCl, partly comigrated with casein kinase (CK) II and an active protein kinase(s) which phosphorylated mixed histone and histone I. CK II and the histone kinase activities were also separated by chromatography on phosphocelluslose. The different forms of PI kinase were characterized and compared with respect to substrate and salt requirements.

  18. Ringwoodite Lamellae in Olivine from the S6 Chondrite Tenham: The Transformation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.; Decarli, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    Ringwoodite lamellae in partially transformed olivine have been reported to occur in the shock-induced melt veins or near the melt veins in heavily shocked (S6) chondrites [1-4]. These features were interpreted to have formed by a coherent intracrystalline transformation mechanism like that observed in experimentally transformed samples by Kerschhofer et al. [5-7]. However, our SEM and TEM observations on the partially transformed olivine suggest that the transformation is incoherent and occurs along specific orientation [4], which is in agreement with the new interpretation of ringwoodite lamellae based on new SEM and SXRD observations [8]. Here we report more detailed TEM results, which are crucial to understand the transformation mechanism. Abundant ringwoodite lamellae were found in olivine grains, which occur as host-rock fragments entrained in melt veins and pockets. These partially transformed olivines are commonly intergrown with enstatite and plagioclase in multi-phase fragments. High-resolution SEM images reveal that the ringwoodite lamellae are not continuous, but rather polycrystalline ringwoodite with crystal size about 1 mm. Preliminary TEM results show that olivine are heavily deformed or occur as fine olivine grains, and ringwoodite lamellae consist of individual ringwoodite grains in the matrix of olivine fine grains. The discontinuous lamellar textures that we observe strongly suggest that the lamellae consist of many distinct ringwoodite crystallites rather than single-crystal lamella. It is possible that lamellae of polycrystalline ringwoodite in olivine could form by a mechanism analogous to the formation of planar deformation features (PDF), representing preferential transformation along specific crystallographic defect planes of the host phase. [1 Chen et al. (2004) Proceedings. of NAS 101(42), 15033-15037. [2] Ohtani et al. (2004) EPSL 227(3-4), 505- 515. [3] Beck, et al. (2005) Nature 435, 1071-1074. [4] Xie and Sharp (2006), LPSC XXXVII, 2306.pdf. [5] Kerschhofer et al. (1996) Science 274 (5284), 79-81. [6] Kerschhofer et al. (1998) Mineralogical magazine 62(5),617-638. [7] Kerschhofer et al. (2000) PEPI 121, 59-76. [8] Chen et al. (2006) Meteoritics Planet. Sci. (41), 731-737.

  19. DAG/PKC? and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK II? Operate in Parallel to Each Other in PLC?1-Driven Cell Proliferation and Migration of Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells, through Akt/mTOR/S6 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lianzhi; Zhuang, Luhua; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Fen; Chen, Xiaolei; Xia, Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C? (PLC?) activates diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) axes to regulate import events in some cancer cells, including gastric adenocarcinoma cells. However, whether DAG/PKC? and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK II? axes are simultaneously involved in PLC?1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and the underlying mechanism are not elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of DAG/PKC? or CaMK II? in PLC?1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, using the BGC-823 cell line. The results indicated that the inhibition of PKC? and CaMK II? could block cell proliferation and migration of BGC-823 cells as well as the effect of inhibiting PLC?1, including the decrease of cell viability, the increase of apoptotic index, the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression level, and the decrease of cell migration rate. Both DAG/PKC? and CaMK II? triggered protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 pathway to regulate protein synthesis. The data indicate that DAG/PKC? and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK II? operate in parallel to each other in PLC?1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells through Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway, with important implication for validating PLC?1 as a molecular biomarker in early gastric cancer diagnosis and disease surveillance. PMID:26633375

  20. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Linn, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  1. The Pallbearer E3 Ligase Promotes Actin Remodeling via RAC in Efferocytosis by Degrading the Ribosomal Protein S6

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Wang, Hui; Silva, Elizabeth; Thompson, James; Guillou, Aurélien; Yates, John R.; Buchon, Nicolas; Franc, Nathalie C.

    2014-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is achieved through phagocytosis by professional or amateur phagocytes. It is critical for tissue homeostasis and remodeling in all animals. Failure in this process can contribute to the development of inflammatory autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases. We previously found that the PALL-SCF E3-Ubiquitin ligase complex promotes apoptotic cell clearance, yet it remained unclear as to how it did so. Here, we show that the F-Box protein PALL interacts with phosphorylated Ribosomal protein S6 (RpS6) to promote its ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. This leads to RAC2 GTPase up-regulation and activation and F-actin remodeling that promotes efferocytosis. We further show that the specific role of PALL in efferocytosis is driven by its apoptotic cell-induced nuclear export. Finding a role for RpS6 in negatively regulating efferocytosis provides the opportunity to develop new strategies to regulate this process. PMID:25533207

  2. Glycine311, a determinant of paxilline block in BK channels: a novel bend in the BK S6 helix.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Tang, Qiong-Yao; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Lingle, Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    The tremorogenic fungal metabolite, paxilline, is widely used as a potent and relatively specific blocker of Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated Slo1 (or BK) K(+) channels. The pH-regulated Slo3 K(+) channel, a Slo1 homologue, is resistant to blockade by paxilline. Taking advantage of the marked differences in paxilline sensitivity and the homology between subunits, we have examined the paxilline sensitivity of a set of chimeric Slo1/Slo3 subunits. Paxilline sensitivity is associated with elements of the S5-P loop-S6 module of the Slo1 channel. Replacement of the Slo1 S5 segment or the second half of the P loop results in modest changes in paxilline sensitivity. Replacing the Slo1 S6 segment with the Slo3 sequence abolishes paxilline sensitivity. An increase in paxilline affinity and changes in block kinetics also result from replacing the first part of the Slo1 P loop, the so-called turret, with Slo3 sequence. The Slo1 and Slo3 S6 segments differ at 10 residues. Slo1-G311S was found to markedly reduce paxilline block. In constructs with a Slo3 S6 segment, S300G restored paxilline block, but most effectively when paired with a Slo1 P loop. Other S6 residues differing between Slo1 and Slo3 had little influence on paxilline block. The involvement of Slo1 G311 in paxilline sensitivity suggests that paxilline may occupy a position within the central cavity or access its blocking position through the central cavity. To explain the differences in paxilline sensitivity between Slo1 and Slo3, we propose that the G311/S300 position in Slo1 and Slo3 underlies a structural difference between subunits in the bend of S6, which influences the occupancy by paxilline. PMID:20421373

  3. The distribution and clearance of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine, an active ketamine metabolite, in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Moaddel, Ruin; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Dossou, Katina Sourou Sylvestre; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Green, Carol; Bupp, James; Swezey, Robert; OLoughlin, Kathleen; Wainer, Irving W

    2015-01-01

    The distribution, clearance, and bioavailability of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine has been studied in the Wistar rat. The plasma and brain tissue concentrations over time of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were determined after intravenous (20mg/kg) and oral (20mg/kg) administration of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine (n=3). After intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis and the half-life of drug elimination during the terminal phase (t1/2) was 8.04.0h and the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 7352736mL/kg, clearance (Cl) was 704139mL/h per kg, and the bioavailability was 46.3%. Significant concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were measured in brain tissues at 10min after intravenous administration, ?30?g/mL per g tissue which decreased to 6?g/mL per g tissue at 60min. The plasma and brain concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were also determined after the intravenous administration of (S)-ketamine, where significant plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were observed 10min after administration. The (S)-ketamine metabolites (S)-norketamine, (S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6R)-hydroxynorketamine, (2S,5S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,4S)-hydroxynorketamine were also detected in both plasma and brain tissue. The enantioselectivity of the conversion of (S)-ketamine and (R)-ketamine to the respective (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites was also investigated over the first 60min after intravenous administration. (S)-Ketamine produced significantly greater plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine relative to the (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine observed after the administration of (R)-ketamine. However, the relative brain tissue: plasma concentrations of the enantiomeric (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites were not significantly different indicating that the penetration of the metabolite is not enantioselective. PMID:26171236

  4. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  5. Covalent-Allosteric Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weisner, Jörn; Gontla, Rajesh; van der Westhuizen, Leandi; Oeck, Sebastian; Ketzer, Julia; Janning, Petra; Richters, André; Mühlenberg, Thomas; Fang, Zhizhou; Taher, Abu; Jendrossek, Verena; Pelly, Stephen C; Bauer, Sebastian; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Rauh, Daniel

    2015-08-24

    Targeting and stabilizing distinct kinase conformations is an instrumental strategy for dissecting conformation-dependent signaling of protein kinases. Herein the structure-based design, synthesis, and evaluation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-dependent covalent-allosteric inhibitors (CAIs) of the kinase Akt is reported. These inhibitors bind covalently to a distinct cysteine of the kinase and thereby stabilize the inactive kinase conformation. These modulators exhibit high potency and selectivity, and represent an innovative approach for chemical biology and medicinal chemistry research. PMID:26110718

  6. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA. PMID:21861931

  7. Electronic, optical properties, surface energies and work functions of Ag8SnS6: First-principles method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chun-Lin; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yun-Wang; Liu, Shen-Ye; Mei, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Ternary metal chalcogenide semiconductor Ag8SnS6, which is an efficient photocatalyst under visible light radiation, is studied by plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. After geometry optimization, the electronic and optical properties are studied. A scissor operator value of 0.81 eV is introduced to overcome the underestimation of the calculation band gaps. The contribution of different bands is analyzed by virtue of total and partial density of states. Furthermore, in order to understand the optical properties of Ag8SnS6, the dielectric function, absorption coefficient, and refractive index are also performed in the energy range from 0 to 11 eV. The absorption spectrum indicates that Ag8SnS6 has a good absorbency in visible light area. Surface energies and work functions of , , , and (112) orientations have been calculated. These results reveal the reason for an outstanding photocatalytic activity of Ag8SnS6. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2012A0302015 and 2012B0302050).

  8. The thermal unfolding of the ribosome-inactivating protein saporin-S6 characterized by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marina; Scirè, Andrea; Tanfani, Fabio; Ausili, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    Saporin-S6 is a plant toxin belonging to the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) family. Since it was extracted and isolated from Saponaria officinalis for the first time almost thirty years ago, the protein has been widely studied mainly for its potential applications in anti-tumour and anti-viral infection therapy. Like other RIPs, saporin-S6 is particularly effective in the form of immunotoxin conjugated with monoclonal antibodies and its chemico-physical characteristics made the protein a perfect candidate for the synthesis, development and use of saporin-S6-based chimeric toxins. The high stability of the protein against different denaturing agents has been broadly demonstrated, however, its complete thermal unfolding characterization has not already been performed. In this work we analyse in detail structure, thermostability and unfolding features by means of infrared spectroscopy coupled with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. Our data showed that saporin-S6 in solution at neutral pH exhibits a secondary structure analogue to that of the crystal and confirmed its good stability at moderately high temperatures, with a temperature of melting of 58°C. Our results also demonstrated that the thermal unfolding process is non-cooperative and occurs in two steps, and revealed the sequence of the events that take place during the denaturation, showing a higher stability of the N-terminal domain of the protein. PMID:26096917

  9. rpS6 Regulates Blood-Testis Barrier Dynamics By Affecting F-Actin Organization and Protein Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Ka-Wai; Mruk, Dolores D.; Silvestrini, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, preleptotene spermatocytes residing near the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stage VIII–IX of the epithelial cycle to continue their development in the adluminal compartment. Unlike other blood-tissue barriers (e.g. the blood-brain barrier) that are created by the endothelial tight junction (TJ) barrier of capillaries, the BTB is created by specialized junctions between Sertoli cells in which TJ coexists with basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES, a testis-specific adherens junction). The basal ES is typified by the presence of tightly packed actin filament bundles sandwiched between cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and the apposing plasma membranes of Sertoli cells. These actin filament bundles also confer unusual adhesive strength to the BTB. Yet the mechanisms by which these filamentous actin (F-actin) networks are regulated from the bundled to the debundled state to facilitate the transit of spermatocytes remain elusive. Herein, we provide evidence that ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), the downstream signaling molecule of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, is a major regulator of F-actin organization and adhesion protein recruitment at the BTB. rpS6 is restrictively and spatiotemporally activated at the BTB during the epithelial cycle. An activation of rpS6 led to a disruption of the Sertoli cell TJ barrier and BTB integrity. Its silencing in vitro or in vivo by using small interfering RNA duplexes or short hairpin RNA was found to promote the Sertoli cell TJ permeability barrier by the recruitment of adhesion proteins (e.g. claudin-11 and occludin) to the BTB. Thus, rpS6 in the mTORC1 pathway regulates BTB restructuring via its effects on the F-actin organization and protein recruitment at the BTB. PMID:22948214

  10. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  11. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  12. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. A High-Throughput Radiometric Kinase Assay.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant kinase signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases. While kinases have become attractive drug targets, only a small fraction of human protein kinases have validated inhibitors. Screening of libraries of compounds against a kinase or kinases of interest is routinely performed during kinase inhibitor development to identify promising scaffolds for a particular target and to identify kinase targets for compounds of interest. Screening of more focused compound libraries may also be conducted in the later stages of inhibitor development to improve potency and optimize selectivity. The dot blot kinase assay is a robust, high-throughput kinase assay that can be used to screen a number of small-molecule compounds against one kinase of interest or several kinases. Here, a protocol for a dot blot kinase assay used for measuring insulin receptor kinase activity is presented. This protocol can be readily adapted for use with other protein kinases. PMID:26501904

  1. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  2. Aurora Kinases Throughout Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Annika K; Demidov, Dmitri; Lermontova, Inna; Beeckman, Tom; Van Damme, Danil

    2016-01-01

    Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved key mitotic determinants in all eukaryotes. Yeasts contain a single Aurora kinase, whereas multicellular eukaryotes have at least two functionally diverged members. The involvement of Aurora kinases in human cancers has provided an in-depth mechanistic understanding of their roles throughout cell division in animal and yeast models. By contrast, understanding Aurora kinase function in plants is only starting to emerge. Nevertheless, genetic, cell biological, and biochemical approaches have revealed functional diversification between the plant Aurora kinases and suggest a role in formative (asymmetric) divisions, chromatin modification, and genome stability. This review provides an overview of the accumulated knowledge on the function of plant Aurora kinases as well as some major challenges for the future. PMID:26616196

  3. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Peter, M

    2001-09-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

  4. The Significance of Intragraft CD138+ Lymphocytes and p-S6RP in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Eileen W; Wallace, William D; Gjertson, David W; Reed, Elaine F; Ettenger, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that intragraft CD20+ B cells are associated with acute cellular rejection (ACR) and and allograft loss. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein, a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt/mTor pathway, promotes growth and proliferation of cells and could identify metabolically active cells such as alloantibody secreting plasma cells. Since CD20+ lymphocytes can differentiate into CD138+ plasma cells, we aimed to identify functionally active plasma cells by using intragraft CD138 quantification and p-S6RP staining and correlate these results with allograft rejection, function, and survival. Methods We examined 46 renal transplant biopsies from 32 pediatric patients who were biopsied for clinical suspicion of rejection. Immunohistochemical staining for C4d, CD20, CD138, and p-S6RP was performed. Patient creatinine clearance and graft status was followed post-biopsy. Results Patients with ?6 CD138+ cells/hpf had worse graft survival with a HR of 3.4 (95% CI 1.3, 9.2) 2 years post-biopsy compared to those with 05 cells/hpf (p=0.016). CD138+ cells stained for p-S6RP, indicating functionally active plasma cells. They were associated with ACR (p=0.004) and deteriorating graft function ((R2=0.22, p=0.001). Intragraft CD20+ and CD138+ cells found together in ACR were associated with poorer graft survival than either marker alone, HR 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.2, p=0.01). Conclusions A threshold of ?6 CD138+ metabolically active plasma cells/hpf, coexisting with CD20+ B cells, was associated with poor allograft function and survival. This may represent an additional antibody-mediated process present in the setting of ACR and could play an important role in characterization and treatment of transplant rejection. PMID:20736897

  5. Tau-tubulin kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ikezu, Seiko; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2014-01-01

    Tau-tubulin kinase (TTBK) belongs to casein kinase superfamily and phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein tau and tubulin. TTBK has two isoforms, TTBK1 and TTBK2, which contain highly homologous catalytic domains but their non-catalytic domains are distinctly different. TTBK1 is expressed specifically in the central nervous system and is involved in phosphorylation and aggregation of tau. TTBK2 is ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues and genetically linked to spinocerebellar ataxia type 11. TTBK1 directly phosphorylates tau protein, especially at Ser422, and also activates cycline-dependent kinase 5 in a unique mechanism. TTBK1 protein expression is significantly elevated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains, and genetic variations of the TTBK1 gene are associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease in two cohorts of Chinese and Spanish populations. TTBK1 transgenic mice harboring the entire 55-kilobase genomic sequence of human TTBK1 show progression of tau accumulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration when crossed with tau mutant mice. Our recent study shows that there is a striking switch in mononuclear phagocyte and activation phenotypes in the anterior horn of the spinal cord from alternatively activated (M2-skewed) microglia in P301L tau mutant mice to pro-inflammatory (M1-skewed) infiltrating peripheral monocytes by crossing the tau mice with TTBK1 transgenic mice. TTBK1 is responsible for mediating M1-activated microglia-induced neurotoxicity, and its overexpression induces axonal degeneration in vitro. These studies suggest that TTBK1 is an important molecule for the inflammatory axonal degeneration, which may be relevant to the pathobiology of tauopathy including AD. PMID:24808823

  6. Proline Scan of the hERG Channel S6 Helix Reveals the Location of the Intracellular Pore Gate

    PubMed Central

    Thouta, Samrat; Sokolov, Stanislav; Abe, Yuki; Clark, SheldonJ.; Cheng, YenM.; Claydon, TomW.

    2014-01-01

    In Shaker-like channels, the activation gate is formed at the bundle crossing by the convergence of the inner S6 helices near a conserved proline-valine-proline motif, which introduces a kink that allows for electromechanical coupling with voltage sensor motions via the S4-S5 linker. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels lack the proline-valine-proline motif and the location of the intracellular pore gate and how it is coupled to S4 movement is less clear. Here, we show that proline substitutions within the S6 of hERG perturbed pore gate closure, trapping channels in the open state. Performing a proline scan of the inner S6 helix, from Ile655 to Tyr667 revealed that gate perturbation occurred with proximal (I655P-Q664P), but not distal (R665P-Y667P) substitutions, suggesting that Gln664 marks the position of the intracellular gate in hERG channels. Using voltage-clamp fluorimetry and gating current analysis, we demonstrate that proline substitutions trap the activation gate open by disrupting the coupling between the voltage-sensing unit and the pore of the channel. We characterize voltage sensor movement in one such trapped-open mutant channel and demonstrate the kinetics of what we interpret to be intrinsic hERG voltage sensor movement. PMID:24606930

  7. [Kinase inhibitors and their resistance].

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yosuke; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-08-01

    Kinase cascades are involved in all stages of tumorigenesis through modulation of transformation and differentiation, cell-cycle progression, and motility. Advances in molecular targeted drug development allow the design and synthesis of inhibitors targeting cancer-associated signal transduction pathways. Potent selective inhibitors with low toxicity can benefit patients especially with several malignancies harboring an oncogenic driver addictive signal. This article evaluates information on solid tumor-related kinase signals and inhibitors, including receptor tyrosine kinase or serine/threonine kinase signals that lead to successful application in clinical settings. In addition, the resistant mechanisms to the inhibitors is summarized. PMID:26281685

  8. Protein kinase C isotypes controlled by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through the protein kinase PDK1.

    PubMed

    Le Good, J A; Ziegler, W H; Parekh, D B; Alessi, D R; Cohen, P; Parker, P J

    1998-09-25

    Phosphorylation sites in members of the protein kinase A (PKA), PKG, and PKC kinase subfamily are conserved. Thus, the PKB kinase PDK1 may be responsible for the phosphorylation of PKC isotypes. PDK1 phosphorylated the activation loop sites of PKCzeta and PKCdelta in vitro and in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-dependent manner in vivo in human embryonic kidney (293) cells. All members of the PKC family tested formed complexes with PDK1. PDK1-dependent phosphorylation of PKCdelta in vitro was stimulated by combined PKC and PDK1 activators. The activation loop phosphorylation of PKCdelta in response to serum stimulation of cells was PI 3-kinase-dependent and was enhanced by PDK1 coexpression. PMID:9748166

  9. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  10. Phosphorylated Ribosomal Protein S6 Is Required for Akt-Driven Hyperplasia and Malignant Transformation, but Not for Hypertrophy, Aneuploidy and Hyperfunction of Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Avigail Dreazen; Azar, Shahar; Klochendler, Agnes; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Avraham, Shlomit; Birnbaum, Lea; Binder Gallimidi, Adi; Katz, Maximiliano; Dor, Yuval; Meyuhas, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive expression of active Akt (Akttg) drives hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pancreatic β-cells, concomitantly with increased insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, and at a later stage the development of insulinoma. To determine which functions of Akt are mediated by ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), an Akt effector, we generated mice that express constitutive Akt in β-cells in the background of unphosphorylatable ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P-/-). rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency failed to block Akttg-induced hypertrophy and aneuploidy in β-cells, as well as the improved glucose homeostasis, indicating that Akt carries out these functions independently of rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency efficiently restrained the reduction in nuclear localization of the cell cycle inhibitor p27, as well as the development of Akttg-driven hyperplasia and tumor formation in β-cells. In vitro experiments with Akttg and rpS6P-/-;Akttg fibroblasts demonstrated that rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency leads to reduced translation fidelity, which might underlie its anti-tumorigenic effect in the pancreas. However, the role of translation infidelity in tumor suppression cannot simply be inferred from this heterologous experimental model, as rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency unexpectedly elevated the resistance of Akttg fibroblasts to proteotoxic, genotoxic as well as autophagic stresses. In contrast, rpS6P-/- fibroblasts exhibited a higher sensitivity to these stresses upon constitutive expression of oncogenic Kras. The latter result provides a possible mechanistic explanation for the ability of rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency to enhance DNA damage and protect mice from Kras-induced neoplastic transformation in the exocrine pancreas. We propose that Akt1 and Kras exert their oncogenic properties through distinct mechanisms, even though both show addiction to rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26919188

  11. Phosphorylated Ribosomal Protein S6 Is Required for Akt-Driven Hyperplasia and Malignant Transformation, but Not for Hypertrophy, Aneuploidy and Hyperfunction of Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Avigail Dreazen; Azar, Shahar; Klochendler, Agnes; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Avraham, Shlomit; Birnbaum, Lea; Binder Gallimidi, Adi; Katz, Maximiliano; Dor, Yuval; Meyuhas, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive expression of active Akt (Akttg) drives hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pancreatic β-cells, concomitantly with increased insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, and at a later stage the development of insulinoma. To determine which functions of Akt are mediated by ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), an Akt effector, we generated mice that express constitutive Akt in β-cells in the background of unphosphorylatable ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P-/-). rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency failed to block Akttg-induced hypertrophy and aneuploidy in β-cells, as well as the improved glucose homeostasis, indicating that Akt carries out these functions independently of rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency efficiently restrained the reduction in nuclear localization of the cell cycle inhibitor p27, as well as the development of Akttg-driven hyperplasia and tumor formation in β-cells. In vitro experiments with Akttg and rpS6P-/-;Akttg fibroblasts demonstrated that rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency leads to reduced translation fidelity, which might underlie its anti-tumorigenic effect in the pancreas. However, the role of translation infidelity in tumor suppression cannot simply be inferred from this heterologous experimental model, as rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency unexpectedly elevated the resistance of Akttg fibroblasts to proteotoxic, genotoxic as well as autophagic stresses. In contrast, rpS6P-/- fibroblasts exhibited a higher sensitivity to these stresses upon constitutive expression of oncogenic Kras. The latter result provides a possible mechanistic explanation for the ability of rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency to enhance DNA damage and protect mice from Kras-induced neoplastic transformation in the exocrine pancreas. We propose that Akt1 and Kras exert their oncogenic properties through distinct mechanisms, even though both show addiction to rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26919188

  12. Protein kinase C inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Swannie, Helen C; Kaye, Stanley B

    2002-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine protein kinases that are involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate growth factor response, proliferation, and apoptosis. Its central role in these processes, which are closely involved in tumor initiation, progression, and response to antitumor agents, makes it an attractive therapeutic target in cancer. Despite initial activity seen in melanoma (bryostatin and UCN-01), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ISIS 3521, bryostatin, and UCN-01), and ovarian carcinoma (ISIS 3521 and bryostatin) in phase I studies, single-agent activity in those phase II studies reported to date has been limited. Preclinical data highlight a role for PKC in modulation of drug resistance and synergy with conventional cytotoxic drugs. A randomized phase III study of ISIS 3521 in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, compared with chemotherapy alone, in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer is underway. This paper reviews the rationale for using PKC inhibitors in cancer therapy, the challenges for clinical trial design, and the recent clinical experience with modulators of PKC activity. PMID:11734112

  13. Erlotinib antagonizes constitutive activation of SRC family kinases and mTOR in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Boehrer, Simone; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Lainey, Elodie; Bouteloup, Cyrielle; Tailler, Maximilien; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Grard; Ads, Lionel; Thpot, Sylvain; Sbert, Marie; Gardin, Claude; de Botton, Stphane; Fenaux, Pierre; Kroemer, Guido

    2011-09-15

    Tyrosine kinases such as SRC family kinases (SFKs) as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) serine/threonine kinase are often constitutively activated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and hence constitute potential therapeutic targets. Here we demonstrate that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib, which has previously been shown to mediate antiproliferative/cytotoxic off-target effects in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and AML blasts, reduces SFK overactivation. Erlotinib induced an arrest in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle that, in cells with constitutive SFK activation, could be recapitulated by chemical inhibition of SFKs with 3-(4-chlorophenyl)1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-?]pyrimidin-4-amine (PP2). Moreover, erlotinib inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR targets like p70 (SK6) , stimulated the maturation of the autophagic marker LC3 and promoted the formation of autophagosomes. Notably, PP2 and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin had a similar cell cycle-arresting activity to erlotinib, but neither of these compounds alone induced significant levels of cell death. Altogether, these results suggest that the therapeutic off-target effect of erlotinib may be linked to, yet cannot be entirely explained by, the inhibition of oncogenic signaling via SFKs and mTOR. Thus, combination therapies with erlotinib and rapamycin might be beneficial for MDS and AML patients. PMID:21897118

  14. Understanding the Polo Kinase machine.

    PubMed

    Archambault, V; Lpine, G; Kachaner, D

    2015-09-10

    The Polo Kinase is a central regulator of cell division required for several events of mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition to a kinase domain (KD), Polo-like kinases (Plks) comprise a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions with targets and regulators of Plks. In all organisms that contain Plks, one Plk family member fulfills several essential functions in the regulation of cell division, and here we refer to this conserved protein as Polo Kinase (Plk1 in humans). The PBD and the KD are capable of both cooperation and mutual inhibition in their functions. Crystal structures of the PBD, the KD and, recently, a PBD-KD complex have helped understanding the inner workings of the Polo Kinase. In parallel, an impressive array of molecular mechanisms has been found to mediate the regulation of the protein. Moreover, the targeting of Polo Kinase in the development of anti-cancer drugs has yielded several molecules with which to chemically modulate Polo Kinase to study its biological functions. Here we review our current understanding of the protein function and regulation of Polo Kinase as a fascinating molecular device in control of cell division. PMID:25619835

  15. Mexiletine block of disease-associated mutations in S6 segments of the human skeletal muscle Na+ channel

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masanori P; Cannon, Stephen C

    2001-01-01

    Over twenty different missense mutations in the ?-subunit of the adult skeletal muscle Na+ channel (hSkM1) have been identified as a cause of myotonia or periodic paralysis. We examined state-dependent mexiletine block for mutations involving the putative binding site in S6 segments (V445M, S804F, V1293I, V1589M and M1592V). Whole-cell Na+ currents were measured from wild-type (WT) and mutant channels transiently expressed in HEK cells. Use-dependent block (10 ms pulses to ?10 mV, at 20 Hz) in 100 ?m mexiletine was reduced modestly by mutations in IVS6 (V1589M, M1592V) and enhanced by the mutation in IS6 (V445M). For mutations in IIS6 (S804F) and IIIS6 (V1293I) use-dependent block was not statistically different from that of wild-type channels. Resting-state block (10 ms pulses to ?10 mV from ?150 mV, at 0.1 Hz) of S6 mutants was comparable to that of WT (dissociation constant for resting channels, KR = 650 40 ?m, n = 9). The S6 mutant with the greatest change in KR was V445M (KR = 794 45 ?m, n = 5), but this difference was only marginally significant (P = 0.047). A modified technique for estimating local anaesthetic affinity of inactivated channels was developed to reduce errors due to slow inactivation and to failure of drug binding to reach equilibrium. Mexiletine affinity for inactivated channels was reduced by mutations in IVS6 (V1589M: dissociation constant for the inactivated state (KI) = 44.7 ?m; M1592V: KI = 40.0 ?m) and increased by the mutation in IS6 (V445M: KI = 15.0 ?m), compared to wild-type channels (KI = 28.3 ?m). We conclude that the disease-associated S6 mutations in domains IIV cause at most a 2-fold change in inactivated state affinity and have even less of an effect on resting block. Model simulations show that the reduced use-dependent block of IVS6 mutants derives primarily from an increased off-rate at hyperpolarized potentials, whereas the enhanced use-dependent block of the IS6 mutant was due to a higher affinity for inactivated V445M channels. PMID:11744749

  16. Raf Family Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Matallanas, David; Birtwistle, Marc; Romano, David; Zebisch, Armin; Rauch, Jens; von Kriegsheim, Alexander; Kolch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    First identified in the early 1980s as retroviral oncogenes, the Raf proteins have been the objects of intense research. The discoveries 10 years later that the Raf family members (Raf-1, B-Raf, and A-Raf) are bona fide Ras effectors and upstream activators of the ubiquitous ERK pathway increased the interest in these proteins primarily because of the central role that this cascade plays in cancer development. The important role of Raf in cancer was corroborated in 2002 with the discovery of B-Raf genetic mutations in a large number of tumors. This led to intensified drug development efforts to target Raf signaling in cancer. This work yielded not only recent clinical successes but also surprising insights into the regulation of Raf proteins by homodimerization and heterodimerization. Surprising insights also came from the hunt for new Raf targets. Although MEK remains the only widely accepted Raf substrate, new kinase-independent roles for Raf proteins have emerged. These include the regulation of apoptosis by suppressing the activity of the proapoptotic kinases, ASK1 and MST2, and the regulation of cell motility and differentiation by controlling the activity of Rok-?. In this review, we discuss the regulation of Raf proteins and their role in cancer, with special focus on the interacting proteins that modulate Raf signaling. We also describe the new pathways controlled by Raf proteins and summarize the successes and failures in the development of efficient anticancer therapies targeting Raf. Finally, we also argue for the necessity of more systemic approaches to obtain a better understanding of how the Ras-Raf signaling network generates biological specificity. PMID:21779496

  17. Huaier Extract Induces Autophagic Cell Death by Inhibiting the mTOR/S6K Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaming; Zhang, Ning; Dong, Lun; Sun, Mingjuan; Cun, Jinjing; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Shangge; Yang, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    Huaier extract is attracting increased attention due to its biological activities, including antitumor, anti-parasite and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in Huaier-induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Huaier treatment inhibited cell viability in all three cell lines and induced various large membranous vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In addition, electron microscopy, MDC staining, accumulated expression of autophagy markers and flow cytometry revealed that Huaier extract triggered autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy attenuated Huaier-induced cell death. Furthermore, Huaier extract inhibited the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K pathway in breast cancer cells. After implanting MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously into the right flank of BALB/c nu/nu mice, Huaier extract induced autophagy and effectively inhibited xenograft tumor growth. This study is the first to show that Huaier-induced cytotoxicity is partially mediated through autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells through suppression of the mTOR/S6K pathway. PMID:26134510

  18. Large negative thermal expansion in non-perovskite lead-free ferroelectric Sn2P2S6.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yangchun; Li, Menglei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Mei; Lin, Kun; Hu, Lei; Yuan, Wenxia; Duan, Wenhui; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2016-02-17

    Functional materials showing both negative thermal expansion (NTE) and physical performance, such as ferroelectricity and magnetism, have been extensively explored in the past decade. However, among ferroelectrics a remarkable NTE was only found in perovskite-type PbTiO3-based compounds. In this work, a large NTE of -4.7 × 10(-5) K(-1) is obtained in the non-perovskite lead-free ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 from 243 K to TC (338 K). Structure refinements and first-principle calculations reveal the effects of the Sn(ii) 5s-S 3p interaction on spontaneous polarization and its correlation with NTE. Then the mechanism of spontaneous volume ferroelectrostriction (SVFS) is verified and it could well elucidate the nature of NTE in ferroelectric Sn2P2S6. This is the first case to demonstrate the unusual NTE behavior by SVFS in a non-perovskite lead-free ferroelectric material. PMID:26854264

  19. Bivalent Inhibitors of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Carrie M.; Chang, Matthew E. K.; Maly, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases are key players in a large number of cellular signaling pathways. Dysregulated kinase activity has been implicated in a number of diseases, and members of this enzyme family are of therapeutic interest. However, due to the fact that most inhibitors interact with the highly conserved ATP-binding sites of kinases, it is a significant challenge to develop pharmacological agents that target only one of the greater than 500 kinases present in humans. A potential solution to this problem is the development of bisubstrate and bivalent kinase inhibitors, in which an active site-directed moiety is tethered to another ligand that targets a location outside of the ATP-binding cleft. Because kinase signaling specificity is modulated by regions outside of the ATP-binding site, strategies that exploit these interactions have the potential to provide reagents with high target selectivity. This review highlights examples of kinase interaction sites that can potentially be exploited by bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors. Furthermore, an overview of efforts to target these interactions with bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors is provided. Finally, several examples of the successful application of these reagents in a cellular setting are described. PMID:24564382

  20. Resistance to noise-induced hearing loss in 129S6 and MOLF mice: identification of independent, overlapping, and interacting chromosomal regions.

    PubMed

    Street, Valerie A; Kujawa, Sharon G; Manichaikul, Ani; Broman, Karl W; Kallman, Jeremy C; Shilling, Dustin J; Iwata, Ayaka J; Robinson, Linda C; Robbins, Carol A; Li, Jin; Liberman, M Charles; Tempel, Bruce L

    2014-10-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a prevalent health risk. Inbred mouse strains 129S6/SvEvTac (129S6) and MOLF/EiJ (MOLF) show strong NIHL resistance (NR) relative to CBA/CaJ (CBACa). In this study, we developed quantitative trait locus (QTL) maps for NR. We generated F1 animals by intercrossing (129S6??CBACa) and (MOLF??CBACa). In each intercross, NR was recessive. N2 animals were produced by backcrossing F1s to their respective parental strain. The 232 N2-129S6 and 225 N2-MOLF progenies were evaluated for NR using auditory brainstem response. In 129S6, five QTL were identified on chromosomes (Chr) 17, 18, 14, 11, and 4, referred to as loci nr1, nr2, nr3, nr4, and nr5, respectively. In MOLF, four QTL were found on Chr 4, 17, 6, and 12, referred to as nr7, nr8, nr9, and nr10, respectively. Given that NR QTL were discovered on Chr 4 and 17 in both the N2-129S6 and N2-MOLF cross, we generated two consomic strains by separately transferring 129S6-derived Chr 4 and 17 into an otherwise CBACa background and a double-consomic strain by crossing the two strains. Phenotypic analysis of the consomic strains indicated that whole 129S6 Chr 4 contributes strongly to mid-frequency NR, while whole 129S6 Chr 17 contributes markedly to high-frequency NR. Therefore, we anticipated that the double-consomic strain containing Chr 4 and 17 would demonstrate NR across the mid- and high-frequency range. However, whole 129S6 Chr 17 masks the expression of mid-frequency NR from whole 129S6 Chr 4. To further dissect NR on 129S6 Chr 4 and 17, CBACa.129S6 congenic strains were generated for each chromosome. Phenotypic analysis of the Chr 17 CBACa.129S6 congenic strains further defined the NR region on proximal Chr 17, uncovered another NR locus (nr6) on distal Chr 17, and revealed an epistatic interaction between proximal and distal 129S6 Chr 17. PMID:24952082

  1. Acetylcorynoline Impairs the Maturation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells via Suppression of I?B Kinase and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ru-Huei; Wang, Yu-Chi; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chu, Ching-Liang; Tsai, Rong-Tzong; Ho, Yu-Chen; Chang, Wen-Lin; Chiu, Shao-Chih; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2013-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are major modulators in the immune system. One active field of research is the manipulation of DCs as pharmacological targets to screen novel biological modifiers for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Acetylcorynoline is the major alkaloid component derived from Corydalis bungeana herbs. We assessed the capability of acetylcorynoline to regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs. Methodology/Principal Findings Our experimental data showed that treatment with up to 20 M acetylcorynoline does not cause cytotoxicity in cells. Acetylcorynoline significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12p70 by LPS-stimulated DCs. The expression of LPS-induced major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40, and CD86 on DCs was also decreased by acetylcorynoline, and the endocytic capacity of LPS-stimulated DCs was restored by acetylcorynoline. In addition, LPS-stimulated DC-elicited allogeneic T-cell proliferation was blocked by acetylcorynoline, and the migratory ability of LPS-stimulated DCs was reduced by acetylcorynoline. Moreover, acetylcorynoline significantly inhibits LPS-induced activation of I?B kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Importantly, administration of acetylcorynoline significantly attenuates 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. Conclusions/Significance Acetylcorynoline may be one of the potent immunosuppressive agents through the blockage of DC maturation and function. PMID:23472193

  2. mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) controls hydrophobic motif phosphorylation and activation of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1).

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Juan M; Alessi, Dario R

    2008-12-15

    SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1) is a member of the AGC (protein kinase A/protein kinase G/protein kinase C) family of protein kinases and is activated by agonists including growth factors. SGK1 regulates diverse effects of extracellular agonists by phosphorylating regulatory proteins that control cellular processes such as ion transport and growth. Like other AGC family kinases, activation of SGK1 is triggered by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the T-loop of the kinase domain and a serine residue lying within the C-terminal hydrophobic motif (Ser(422) in SGK1). PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) phosphorylates the T-loop of SGK1. The identity of the hydrophobic motif kinase is unclear. Recent work has established that mTORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) complex 1] phosphorylates the hydrophobic motif of S6K (S6 kinase), whereas mTORC2 (mTOR complex 2) phosphorylates the hydrophobic motif of Akt (also known as protein kinase B). In the present study we demonstrate that SGK1 hydrophobic motif phosphorylation and activity is ablated in knockout fibroblasts possessing mTORC1 activity, but lacking the mTORC2 subunits rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR), Sin1 (stress-activated-protein-kinase-interacting protein 1) or mLST8 (mammalian lethal with SEC13 protein 8). Furthermore, phosphorylation of NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated gene 1), a physiological substrate of SGK1, was also abolished in rictor-, Sin1- or mLST8-deficient fibroblasts. mTORC2 immunoprecipitated from wild-type, but not from mLST8- or rictor-knockout cells, phosphorylated SGK1 at Ser(422). Consistent with mTORC1 not regulating SGK1, immunoprecipitated mTORC1 failed to phosphorylate SGK1 at Ser(422), under conditions which it phosphorylated the hydrophobic motif of S6K. Moreover, rapamycin treatment of HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293, MCF-7 or HeLa cells suppressed phosphorylation of S6K, without affecting SGK1 phosphorylation or activation. The findings of the present study indicate that mTORC2, but not mTORC1, plays a vital role in controlling the hydrophobic motif phosphorylation and activity of SGK1. Our findings may explain why in previous studies phosphorylation of substrates, such as FOXO (forkhead box O), that could be regulated by SGK, are reduced in mTORC2-deficient cells. The results of the present study indicate that NDRG1 phosphorylation represents an excellent biomarker for mTORC2 activity. PMID:18925875

  3. Protein Crystals of Raf Kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image shows crystals of the protein raf kinase grown on Earth (photo a) and on USML-2 (photo b). The space-grown crystals are an order of magnitude larger. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals

  4. Hsp90 Promotes Kinase Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lachowiec, Jennifer; Lemus, Tzitziki; Borenstein, Elhanan; Queitsch, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) promotes the maturation and stability of its client proteins, including many kinases. In doing so, Hsp90 may allow its clients to accumulate mutations as previously proposed by the capacitor hypothesis. If true, Hsp90 clients should show increased evolutionary rate compared with nonclients; however, other factors, such as gene expression and protein connectivity, may confound or obscure the chaperones putative contribution. Here, we compared the evolutionary rates of many Hsp90 clients and nonclients in the human protein kinase superfamily. We show that Hsp90 client status promotes evolutionary rate independently of, but in a small magnitude similar to that of gene expression and protein connectivity. Hsp90s effect on kinase evolutionary rate was detected across mammals, specifically relaxing purifying selection. Hsp90 clients also showed increased nucleotide diversity and harbored more damaging variation than nonclient kinases across humans. These results are consistent with the central argument of the capacitor hypothesis that interaction with the chaperone allows its clients to harbor genetic variation. Hsp90 client status is thought to be highly dynamic with as few as one amino acid change rendering a protein dependent on the chaperone. Contrary to this expectation, we found that across protein kinase phylogeny Hsp90 client status tends to be gained, maintained, and shared among closely related kinases. We also infer that the ancestral protein kinase was not an Hsp90 client. Taken together, our results suggest that Hsp90 played an important role in shaping the kinase superfamily. PMID:25246701

  5. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  6. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Hsu, Peggy P.; Awad, Mark M.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as druggable targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours. PMID:24132104

  7. Antisite Defects in Layered Multiferroic CuCr0.9In0.1P2S6

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Qian; Belianinov, Alex; Dziaugys, Andrius; Maksymovych, Petro; Vysochanskii, Yulian; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-10-06

    The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. We carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In3+(Cu+) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as the potential applications inmore »2-D electronics.« less

  8. MOM-4, a MAP kinase kinase kinase-related protein, activates WRM-1/LIT-1 kinase to transduce anterior/posterior polarity signals in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Shin, T H; Yasuda, J; Rocheleau, C E; Lin, R; Soto, M; Bei, Y; Davis, R J; Mello, C C

    1999-08-01

    In C. elegans, a Wnt/WG-like signaling pathway down-regulates the TCF/LEF-related protein, POP-1, to specify posterior cell fates. Effectors of this signaling pathway include a beta-catenin homolog, WRM-1, and a conserved protein kinase, LIT-1. WRM-1 and LIT-1 form a kinase complex that can directly phosphorylate POP-1, but how signaling activates WRM-1/LIT-1 kinase is not yet known. Here we show that mom-4, a genetically defined effector of polarity signaling, encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase-related protein that stimulates the WRM-1/LIT-1-dependent phosphorylation of POP-1. LIT-1 kinase activity requires a conserved residue analogous to an activating phosphorylation site in other kinases, including MAP kinases. These findings suggest that anterior/posterior polarity signaling in C. elegans may involve a MAP kinase-like signaling mechanism. PMID:10488343

  9. Antisite defects in layered multiferroic CuCr0.9In0.1P2S6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian; Belianinov, Alex; Dziaugys, Andrius; Maksymovych, Petro; Vysochanskii, Yulian; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-11-01

    The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. In this work, we carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In3+(Cu+) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as their potential applications in 2-D electronics.The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. In this work, we carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In3+(Cu+) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as their potential applications in 2-D electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04779j

  10. Phosphorylation of Smads by Intracellular Kinases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Matsuura, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Smad proteins transduce the TGF- family signal at the cell surface into gene regulation in the nucleus. In addition to being phosphorylated by the TGF- family receptors, Smads are phosphorylated by a variety of intracellular kinases. The most studied are by cyclin-dependent kinases, the MAP kinase family members, and GSK-3. Phosphorylation by these kinases regulates Smad activities, leading to various biological effects. This chapter describes the methods for analyzing Smad phosphorylation by these kinases. PMID:26520119

  11. Self-incompatibility (S) locus region of the mutated S6-haplotype of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) contains a functional pollen S allele and a non-functional pistil S allele.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

    2003-11-01

    This study characterizes the S6m-haplotype, a mutated S6-haplotype with an altered HindIII cut site, of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus). Inheritance and pollination studies of S-haplotypes from reciprocal crosses between 'Erdi Botermo' (EB; S4S6mSa) and 'Rheinische Schattenmorelle' (RS; S6SaSbSc) revealed that the S6m-haplotype conferred unilateral incompatibility with a non-functional pistil component and a functional pollen component. Expression analyses of S6-RNase and SFB6, a candidate gene for pollen-S, in the S6m-haplotype showed that SFB6 was transcribed in EB pollen, but S6-RNase was not transcribed in EB styles. These results were consistent with data from the inheritance and pollination studies. Inverse PCR for the flanking regions of S6-RNase in the S6- and S6m-haplotypes revealed an approximately 2600 bp insertion present at approximately 800 bp upstream of the S6-RNase in the S6m-haplotype, which is responsible for the alternation of the HindIII cut site and a possible cause of inhibition of the transcription of S6-RNase. SFB6 was present downstream of S6-RNase in both the S6- and S6m-haplotypes and expressed in the same way, supporting the idea that SFB is a good candidate for pollen-S in Prunus. PMID:14512382

  12. Activation of MEK-1 and SEK-1 by Tpl-2 proto-oncoprotein, a novel MAP kinase kinase kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, A; Ahmad, T B; Carlile, G W; Pappin, D; Narsimhan, R P; Ley, S C

    1996-01-01

    The Tpl-2 protein serine/threonine kinase was originally identified, in a C-terminally deleted form, as the product of an oncogene associated with the progression of Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced T cell lymphomas in rats. The kinase domain of Tpl-2 is homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene product, STE11, which encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase. This suggested that Tpl-2 might have a similar activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, immunoprecipitated Tpl-2 and Tpl-2deltaC (a C-terminally truncated mutant) phosphorylated and activated recombinant fusion proteins of the mammalian MAP kinase kinases, MEK-1 and SEK-1, in vitro. Furthermore, transfection of Tpl-2 into COS-1 cells or Jurkat T cells. markedly activated the MAP kinases, ERK-1 and SAP kinase (JNK), which are substrates for MEK-1 and SEK-1, respectively. Tpl-2, therefore, is a MAP kinase kinase kinase which can activate two MAP kinase pathways. After Raf and Mos, Tpl-2 is the third serine/threonine oncoprotein kinase that has been shown to function as a direct activator of MEK-1. Images PMID:8631303

  13. Polo-like kinases inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garuti, L; Roberti, M; Bottegoni, G

    2012-01-01

    Polo-like kinases (PLKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that play crucial roles in multiple stages of mitosis. PLK1 is the most studied member of the family. It is overexpressed in a wide spectrum of cancer types and is a promising target in oncology. Most of PLK1 inhibitors are ATP-competitive. Despite the structural similarities among various kinases, several inhibitors are selective. Some areas of the PLK1 active site are important for selectivity against other kinases. These include a small pocket formed by Leu 132 in the hinge region, a bulky phenylalanine and a small cysteine at the bottom and in the roof of the ATP pocket, respectively, and an unusual concentration of positively charged residues in the solvent-exposed region. Many ATP-competitive inhibitors are heterocyclic systems able to interact with the unique features of the PLK1 binding site. Other inhibitors target regions outside the ATP pocket, such as the substrate binding domain or a hydrophobic pocket, formed when the kinase is in the inactive conformation. An alternative approach to obtain specificity and to overcome drug resistance often associated with kinase inhibitors is the inhibition of the polo-box domain (PBD) of PLK1. The PBD is unique for the family of PLKs and is essential for PLK functions; so it is a useful target for the development of selective and potent inhibitors for clinical uses. In this review some PLK inhibitors are reported, focusing on chemical structures, structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and biological activities. The great potential of these compounds could open promising perspectives. Moreover, a combination of polo-like kinases inhibitors with other anticancer drugs might offer new opportunities for cancer therapy. PMID:22709006

  14. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Eriksons group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Srctransforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Srcassociated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  15. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  16. Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

    2015-02-01

    The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

  17. Lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} atomic state of radium.

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, W. L.; Sulai, I. A.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Kentucky

    2009-01-01

    The lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} state of atomic radium is determined to be 385(45) {mu}s using cold {sup 226}Ra atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap. The {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is populated from the decay of the {sup 1}P{sub 1} state which is excited by a pulse of 483 nm light. The decay of the {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is observed by detecting delayed fluorescence at 714 nm from the last step in the decay sequence {sup 1}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}S{sub 0}. The measured lifetime is compared to a number of theoretical calculations. An improved value of the 7s7p {sup 1}P{sub 1} level of 20 715.598(6) cm{sup -1} is obtained.

  18. Rho Kinases in Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pernis, Alessandra B; Ricker, Edd; Weng, Chien-Huan; Rozo, Cristina; Yi, Woelsung

    2016-01-14

    The Rho kinases, or ROCKs, are a family of serine-threonine kinases that serve as key downstream effectors for Rho GTPases. The ROCKs are increasingly recognized as critical coordinators of a tissue response to injury due to their ability to modulate a wide range of biological processes. Dysregulated ROCK activity has been implicated in several human pathophysiological conditions ranging from cardiovascular and renal disorders to fibrotic diseases. In recent years, an important role for the ROCKs in the regulation of immune responses is also being uncovered. We provide an overview of the role of the ROCKs in immune cells and discuss studies that highlight the emerging involvement of this family of kinases in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Given the potential promise of the ROCKs as therapeutic targets, we also outline the approaches that could be employed to inhibit the ROCKs in autoimmune disorders. PMID:26768244

  19. Deletion of 11 Amino Acids in p90rsk-mo-1 Abolishes Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Denise J.; Krebs, Edwin G.

    1999-01-01

    p90rsk is a distal member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. It has been cloned from a variety of species including Xenopus laevis, mouse, chicken, rat, and human. The clone p90rsk-mo-1, isolated by others from a mouse library, contains a unique 33-nucleotide deletion not found in the p90rsk clones from any other species that have been examined. When p90rsk-mo-1 was expressed in Cos-7 cells that were subsequently stimulated with epidermal growth factor, the immunoprecipitated p90rsk-mo-1 protein showed no measurable kinase activity toward the ribosomal protein S6 peptide. By comparison, expression of rat p90rsk-1 resulted in significant kinase activity. Deletion of the 33-nucleotide region missing in the p90rsk-mo-1 clone from the p90rsk-rat-1 cDNA abolished kinase activity in the resulting protein. When these 33 nucleotides were introduced into the p90rsk-mo-1 cDNA, the expressed protein showed significant kinase activity. Reverse transcription-PCR and direct sequencing of mRNA isolated from several mouse tissues indicated the presence of the full-length form of p90rsk-1 in the mouse and showed no conclusive evidence for a deletion-containing form. This study indicates the presence of a full-length p90rsk-1 mRNA in mouse tissues that is homologous to that identified in other species and suggests that the deletion in p90rsk-mo-1 may be a cloning artifact. The findings provide additional support for the conclusion that the first catalytic domain of p90rsk is responsible for its enzymatic activity toward ribosomal protein S6. PMID:9858555

  20. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway in Human Cancer: Genetic Alterations and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Arcaro, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Ana S

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently activated in human cancer and represents an attractive target for therapies based on small molecule inhibitors. PI3K isoforms play an essential role in the signal transduction events activated by cell surface receptors including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There are eight known PI3K isoforms in humans, which have been subdivided into three classes (I-III). Therefore PI3Ks show considerable diversity and it remains unclear which kinases in this family should be targeted in cancer. The class IA of PI3K comprises the p110α, p110β and p110δ isoforms, which associate with activated RTKs. In human cancer, recent reports have described activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene encoding p110α, and inactivating mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) gene, a tumour suppressor and antagonist of the PI3K pathway. The PIK3CA mutations described in cancer constitutively activate p110α and, when expressed in cells drive oncogenic transformation. Moreover, these mutations cause the constitutive activation of downstream signaling molecules such as Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) that is commonly observed in cancer cells. In addition to p110α, the other isoforms of the PI3K family may also play a role in human cancer, although their individual functions remain to be precisely identified. In this review we will discuss the evidence implicating individual PI3K isoforms in human cancer and their potential as drug targets in this context. PMID:19384426

  1. Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Activation Status of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 Signaling Pathway in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Prodromidis, Georgios; Nikitakis, Nikolaos G.; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Aberrations of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 pathway have been linked to various types of human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activation status of Akt, mTOR, and pS6 in oral lichen planus (OLP) in comparison with oral premalignant and malignant lesions and normal oral mucosa (NM). Materials and Methods. Immunohistochemistry for p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 was performed in 40 OLP, 20 oral leukoplakias (OL), 10 OSCC, and 10 control samples of NM. Results. Nuclear p-Akt expression was detected in the vast majority of cases in all categories, being significantly higher in OL. Cytoplasmic p-Akt and p-mTOR staining was present only in a minority of OLP cases, being significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Phospho-pS6 showed cytoplasmic positivity in most OLP cases, which however was significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Conclusions. Overall, cytoplasmic p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 levels appear to be significantly lower in OLP compared to OL and OSCC. However, the expression of these molecules in a subset of OLP cases suggests that activation of Akt/mTOR/pS6 may occur in the context of OLP, possibly contributing to the premalignant potential of individual cases. PMID:24228033

  2. Targeting of ribosomal protein S6 to dendritic spines by in vivo high frequency stimulation to induce long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Nihonmatsu, Itsuko; Ohkawa, Noriaki; Saitoh, Yoshito; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampus is believed to be the cellular basis of long-term memory. Protein synthesis is required for persistent forms of synaptic plasticity, including L-LTP. Neural activity is thought to enhance local protein synthesis in dendrites, and one of the mechanisms required to induce or maintain the long-lasting synaptic plasticity is protein translation in the dendrites. One regulator of translational processes is ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit. Although polyribosomes containing rpS6 are observed in dendritic spines, it remains unclear whether L-LTP induction triggers selective targeting of the translational machinery to activated synapses in vivo. Therefore, we investigated synaptic targeting of the translational machinery by observing rpS6 immunoreactivity during high frequency stimulation (HFS) for L-LTP induction in vivo. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed a selective but transient increase in rpS6 immunoreactivity occurring as early as 15 min after the onset of HFS in dendritic spine heads at synaptic sites receiving HFS. Concurrently, levels of the rpS6 protein rapidly declined in somata of granule cells, as determined using immunofluorescence microscopy. These results suggest that the translational machinery is rapidly targeted to activated spines and that this targeting mechanism may contribute to the establishment of L-LTP. PMID:26432888

  3. Casein Kinase 2-A Kinase that Inhibits Brown Fat Formation.

    PubMed

    Enerbck, Sven

    2015-12-01

    In adipose tissue, there is a delicate balance between storing and expending energy. In this issue, Shinoda etal. (2015) use phosphoproteomics to identify casein kinase 2 (CK2) as a suppressor of brown adipocyte formation, providing insights into how adipose tissue regulates its composition of white versus brown adipocytes. PMID:26636493

  4. Evolutionary Ancestry of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases and Choline Kinases.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shenshen; Safaei, Javad; Pelech, Steven

    2016-03-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins catalyzed by protein kinases in eukaryotes supports an important role for eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) in the emergence of nucleated cells in the third superkingdom of life. Choline kinases (ChKs) could also be critical in the early evolution of eukaryotes, because of their function in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is unique to eukaryotic membranes. However, the genomic origins of ePKs and ChKs are unclear. The high degeneracy of protein sequences and broad expansion of ePK families have made this fundamental question difficult to answer. In this study, we identified two class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with high similarities to consensus amino acid sequences of human protein-serine/threonine kinases. Comparisons of primary and tertiary structures supported that ePKs and ChKs evolved from a common ancestor related to glutaminyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which may have been one of the key factors in the successful of emergence of ancient eukaryotic cells from bacterial colonies. PMID:26742849

  5. Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 M s 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, Z. J.; Xie, L. L.; Zhou, B. F.

    2015-10-01

    The 2014 M s 6.5 (M w6.1) Ludian earthquake occurred in the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region of western China. This earthquake caused much more severe engineering damage than the usual earthquakes with the same magnitude in China. The National Strong Motion Network obtained large set of ground motion recordings during the earthquake. To investigate the engineering interested characteristics of ground motion from Ludian earthquake and compare it with the M w 7.9 Wenchuan and the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquakes in western China, studies on the ground motion field, attenuation relationship, distance dependence of significant duration, and site amplification were carried out. Some conclusion is drawn. Specifically, the ground motion field reveals a directional feature, and the distribution characteristics of the two horizontal components are similar. The attenuation relationship for Ludian earthquake is basically consistent with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for western China, except the slight smaller than the GMPE predicted at short periods. The distance dependences of ground motion duration are different in Sichuan and Yunnan regions due to the local physical dispersion and Q value. The site amplification factors are dominated by linear site response for lower reference ground motion, but the nonlinearity becomes notable for higher reference ground motion. This feature is basically consistent with the empirical model for western China. All the results indicate that the spatial distribution of ground motion, the attenuation characteristics, and the site amplification effect should be considered in characterization of near-field ground motion.

  6. Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 M s 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, Z. J.; Xie, L. L.; Zhou, B. F.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 M s 6.5 ( M w6.1) Ludian earthquake occurred in the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region of western China. This earthquake caused much more severe engineering damage than the usual earthquakes with the same magnitude in China. The National Strong Motion Network obtained large set of ground motion recordings during the earthquake. To investigate the engineering interested characteristics of ground motion from Ludian earthquake and compare it with the M w 7.9 Wenchuan and the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquakes in western China, studies on the ground motion field, attenuation relationship, distance dependence of significant duration, and site amplification were carried out. Some conclusion is drawn. Specifically, the ground motion field reveals a directional feature, and the distribution characteristics of the two horizontal components are similar. The attenuation relationship for Ludian earthquake is basically consistent with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for western China, except the slight smaller than the GMPE predicted at short periods. The distance dependences of ground motion duration are different in Sichuan and Yunnan regions due to the local physical dispersion and Q value. The site amplification factors are dominated by linear site response for lower reference ground motion, but the nonlinearity becomes notable for higher reference ground motion. This feature is basically consistent with the empirical model for western China. All the results indicate that the spatial distribution of ground motion, the attenuation characteristics, and the site amplification effect should be considered in characterization of near-field ground motion.

  7. Blockade of HERG potassium currents by fluvoxamine: incomplete attenuation by S6 mutations at F656 or Y652

    PubMed Central

    Milnes, James T; Crociani, Olivia; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Hancox, Jules C; Witchel, Harry J

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the Human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) potassium channel is commonly linked with acquired long QT syndrome and associated proarrhythmia. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterise any inhibitory action on HERG of the selective-serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine, (ii) to then determine whether fluvoxamine shared the consensus molecular determinants of HERG blockade of those drugs so far tested. Heterologous HERG potassium current (IHERG) was measured at 37C, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, from a mammalian cell line (Human embryonic kidney 293) expressing HERG channels. IHERG tails, following repolarisation from +20 to ?40 mV, were blocked by fluvoxamine with an IC50 of 3.8 ?M. Blockade of wild-type HERG was of extremely rapid onset (within 10 ms) and showed voltage dependence, with fluvoxamine also inducing a leftward shift in voltage-dependent activation of IHERG. Characteristics of block were consistent with a component of closed channel (or extremely rapidly developing open channel) blockade and dependence on open and inactivated channel states. The attenuated-inactivation mutation S631A partially reduced the blocking effect of fluvoxamine. The S6 mutations, Y652A and F656A, and the pore helix mutant S631A only partially attenuated blockade by fluvoxamine at concentrations causing profound blockade of wild-type HERG. All HERG-blocking pharmaceuticals studied to date have been shown to block F656 mutant channels with over 100-fold reduced potency compared to their blockade of the wild-type channel. Fluvoxamine is therefore quite distinct in this regard from previously studied agents. PMID:12839862

  8. MAP kinase cascades: scaffolding signal specificity.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, Frank; Peter, Matthias

    2002-01-22

    Scaffold proteins organize many MAP kinase pathways by interacting with several components of these cascades. Recent studies suggest that scaffold proteins provide local activation platforms that contribute to signal specificity by insulating different MAP kinase pathways. PMID:11818078

  9. The generality of kinase-catalyzed biotinylation.

    PubMed

    Senevirathne, Chamara; Embogama, D Maheeka; Anthony, Thilani A; Fouda, Ahmed E; Pflum, Mary Kay H

    2016-01-01

    Kinase-catalyzed protein phosphorylation is involved in a wide variety of cellular events. Development of methods to monitor phosphoproteins in normal and diseased states is critical to fully characterize cell signaling. Towards phosphoprotein analysis tools, our lab reported kinase-catalyzed labeling where γ-phosphate modified ATP analogs are utilized by kinases to label peptides or protein substrates with a functional tag. In particular, the ATP-biotin analog was developed for kinase-catalyzed biotinylation. However, kinase-catalyzed labeling has been tested rigorously with only a few kinases, preventing use of ATP-biotin as a general tool. Here, biotinylation experiments, gel or HPLC-based quantification, and kinetic measurements indicated that twenty-five kinases throughout the kinome tree accepted ATP-biotin as a cosubstrate. With this rigorous characterization of ATP-biotin compatibility, kinase-catalyzed labeling is now immediately useful for studying phosphoproteins and characterizing the role of phosphorylation in various biological events. PMID:26672511

  10. Positions of the cytoplasmic end of BK ? S0 helix relative to S1S6 and of ?1 TM1 and TM2 relative to S0S6

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoxia; Zakharov, Sergey I.; Yao, Yongneng

    2015-01-01

    The large-conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-gated K+ (BK) channel consists of four ? subunits, which form a voltage- and Ca2+-gated channel, and up to four modulatory ? subunits. The ?1 subunit is expressed in smooth muscle, where it slows BK channel kinetics and shifts the conductancevoltage (G-V) curve to the left at [Ca2+] > 2 M. In addition to the six transmembrane (TM) helices, S1S6, conserved in all voltage-dependent K+ channels, BK ? has a unique seventh TM helix, S0, which may contribute to the unusual rightward shift in the G-V curve of BK ? in the absence of ?1 and to a leftward shift in its presence. Such a role is supported by the close proximity of S0 to S3 and S4 in the voltage-sensing domain. Furthermore, on the extracellular side of the membrane, one of the two TM helices of ?1, TM2, is adjacent to S0. We have now analyzed induced disulfide bond formation between substituted Cys residues on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. There, in contrast, S0 is closest to the S2S3 loop, from which position it is displaced on the addition of ?1. The cytoplasmic ends of ?1 TM1 and TM2 are adjacent and are located between the S2S3 loop of one ? subunit and S1 of a neighboring ? subunit and are not adjacent to S0; i.e., S0 and TM2 have different trajectories through the membrane. In the absence of ?1, 70% of disulfide bonding of W43C (S0) and L175C (S2S3) has no effect on V50 for activation, implying that the cytoplasmic end of S0 and the S2S3 loop move in concert, if at all, during activation. Otherwise, linking them together in one state would obstruct the transition to the other state, which would certainly change V50. PMID:25667410

  11. Choline kinase in Cuscuta reflexa

    PubMed Central

    Setty, Pravina N.; Krishnan, P. S.

    1972-01-01

    1. Choline kinase is a mitochondrial enzyme in Cuscuta reflexa. It can be solubilized from the particles by treatment with 350mm-sodium chloride, or by freezing and thawing. 2. Choline kinase of C. reflexa was purified by starting from the crude mitochondrial fraction. A 33–52% recovery of the enzyme, on the basis of the activity in the original homogenate, in 1200–2250-fold enrichment, was effected. 3. The purified preparation of choline kinase had a sigmoid saturation curve with respect to choline, with a Hill number of 2.3, and was inhibited by ADP (competitive in nature and allosteric in binding, with a Hill number of 2.7) and by phosphorylcholine (non-competitive and non-allosteric). The kinetic characteristics of the enzyme were consistent with the K type allosteric model of Monod et al. (1965). 4. The enzyme was desensitized, with respect to choline regulation, by prolonged storage in the cold, was activated significantly on warming before assay and was inactivated by high concentrations of sodium chloride. 5. The significance of allostery in choline kinase in relation to the intracellular regulation of phospholipid synthesis is discussed. PMID:5010855

  12. Pseudo Jahn-Teller origin of puckering in cyclohexahomoatomic molecules E6 (E = S, Se, Te) and restoring S6 planar ring configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilkhani, Ali Reza

    2015-10-01

    The pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE) is employed to explore the origin of the puckering structure of cyclohexasulfur (S6), cyclohexaselenium (Se6) and cyclohexatellurium (Te6) and their nondegenerate and degenerate vibronic excited states and their planar structure instabilities have investigated. The ab initio geometry optimization and frequency calculations show that all these cyclohexahomoatomic molecules chose D6h symmetry in the planar configuration, and according the S6 and Se6 experimental structure, the chair form of the molecules is stable structure. The vibronic coupling between the ground state 1A1g and excited state 1B2g is the cause of chair puckering in all these series compounds and the numerical solutions of the PJTE (1A1g+1B2g)⊗b2g problems describe their instability. The adiabatic potential energy surfaces (APES) cross sections of low-lying electronic states along the b2g puckering normal coordinates have calculated by the state-average complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) method. The calculation results show that, the chair puckering instability in the S6 from unstable planar configuration with D6h symmetry to a stable D3d distorted geometry, is stronger than others, whereas it is weaker in Te6. Additionally, coordination two canions (X = H+, He2+) to the S6 chair structure restore the planarity of S6 puckered ring in the S6X2 systems, although the D6h symmetry in S6 planar ring configuration changes to the Cs symmetry in the systems.

  13. Latest progress in tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pospelova, Tatiana V.; Pospelov, Valery A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the latest progress in development of some kinase inhibitors such as inhibitors of c-MET, LIM and Bcr-Abl kinases. Importantly, many oncogenic kinases signal via the mTOR pathway, suggesting a common target for drug combinations. PMID:24727648

  14. Assessing Kinase Activity in Plants with In-Gel Kinase Assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The in-gel protein kinase assay is a powerful method to measure the protein phosphorylation activity of specific protein kinases. Any protein substrate can be embedded in polyacrylamide gels where they can be phosphorylated by protein kinases that are separated in the gel under denaturing conditions and then renatured. The kinase activity can be visualized in situ in the gels by autoradiography. This method has been used to compare the activities of protein kinases in parallel samples or to identify their potential substrates. Here, we describe in detail an in-gel kinase assay to measure the activity of some protein kinases in plants. PMID:26577790

  15. Attenuation of pattern recognition receptor signaling is mediated by a MAP kinase kinase kinase.

    PubMed

    Mithoe, Sharon C; Ludwig, Christina; Pel, Michiel Jc; Cucinotta, Mara; Casartelli, Alberto; Mbengue, Malick; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Robatzek, Silke; Pieterse, Corné Mj; Aebersold, Ruedi; Menke, Frank Lh

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a key role in plant and animal innate immunity. PRR binding of their cognate ligand triggers a signaling network and activates an immune response. Activation of PRR signaling must be controlled prior to ligand binding to prevent spurious signaling and immune activation. Flagellin perception in Arabidopsis through FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2) induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and immunity. However, the precise molecular mechanism that connects activated FLS2 to downstream MAPK cascades remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of a differentially phosphorylated MAP kinase kinase kinase that also interacts with FLS2. Using targeted proteomics and functional analysis, we show that MKKK7 negatively regulates flagellin-triggered signaling and basal immunity and this requires phosphorylation of MKKK7 on specific serine residues. MKKK7 attenuates MPK6 activity and defense gene expression. Moreover, MKKK7 suppresses the reactive oxygen species burst downstream of FLS2, suggesting that MKKK7-mediated attenuation of FLS2 signaling occurs through direct modulation of the FLS2 complex. PMID:26769563

  16. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert . E-mail: biocrr@lsuhsc.edu

    2005-05-27

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTP{alpha}, PTP{epsilon}, and PTP{lambda}. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined.

  17. Aurora kinase inhibitors: progress towards the clinic.

    PubMed

    Kollareddy, Madhu; Zheleva, Daniella; Dzubak, Petr; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik Subhashchandra; Lepsik, Martin; Hajduch, Marian

    2012-12-01

    The Aurora kinases (serine/threonine kinases) were discovered in 1995 during studies of mutant alleles associated with abnormal spindle pole formation in Drosophila melanogaster. They soon became the focus of much attention because of their importance in human biology and association with cancer. Aurora kinases are essential for cell division and are primarily active during mitosis. Following their identification as potential targets for cancer chemotherapy, many Aurora kinase inhibitors have been discovered, and are currently under development. The binding modes of Aurora kinase inhibitors to Aurora kinases share specific hydrogen bonds between the inhibitor core and the back bone of the kinase hinge region, while others parts of the molecules may point to different parts of the active site via noncovalent interactions. Currently there are about 30 Aurora kinase inhibitors in different stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. This review summarizes the characteristics and status of Aurora kinase inhibitors in preclinical, Phase I, and Phase II clinical studies, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of action and resistance to these promising anticancer agents. We also discuss the validity of Aurora kinases as oncology targets, on/off-target toxicities, and other important aspects of overall clinical performance and future of Aurora kinase inhibitors. PMID:22350019

  18. Kinomics: characterizing the therapeutically validated kinase space.

    PubMed

    Vieth, Michal; Sutherland, Jeffrey J; Robertson, Daniel H; Campbell, Robert M

    2005-06-15

    The annotation and visualization of medicinally relevant kinase space revealed that kinase inhibitors in the clinic are, on average, of higher molecular weight and more lipophilic than all other clinically investigated drugs. Tyrosine kinases from the vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor families are the most pursued targets. Furthermore, oncological indications account for 75% of all kinase-related clinical interest. In addition, analysis of the similarity between kinase targets with respect to sequence, selectivity and structure has revealed that kinases with > or =60% sequence identity are most likely to be inhibited by the same classes of compounds and have similar ATP-binding sites. The identification of this threshold, together with the widely accepted representation of the sequence-based kinase space, is expanding our understanding of the clinical and structural space of the kinome. PMID:15970266

  19. The role of Mott-Schottky heterojunctions in Ag-Ag8SnS6 as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Qingquan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan; Liang, Na; Xu, Miao; Chen, Wenlong; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2015-03-01

    Well-defined uniform pyramidal Ag-Ag8SnS6 heterodimers are prepared via a one-pot method. A plausible formation mechanism for the unique structures based on a seed-growth process and an etching effect due to oleylamine is proposed. The formed metal-semiconductor Mott-Schottky heterojunction promotes electron transfer from semiconducting Ag8 SnS6 to metallic Ag, which catalyzes the reduction of I3 (-) to I(-). When used as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells, the heterodimers show comparable performance to platinum. PMID:25619568

  20. Myogenic signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase requires the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing-Hua; Aoki, Masahiro; Zheng, Jenny Z.; Li, Jian; Vogt, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of muscle-specific proteins. Here we demonstrate that a downstream target of PI 3-kinase, serine-threonine kinase Akt, plays an important role in myogenic differentiation. Expression of constitutively active forms of Akt dramatically enhances myotube formation and expression of the muscle-specific proteins MyoD, creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and desmin. Transdominant negative forms of Akt inhibit myotube formation and the expression of muscle-specific proteins. The inhibition of myotube formation and the reduced expression of muscle-specific proteins caused by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 are completely reversed by constitutively active forms of Akt. Wild-type cellular Akt effects a partial reversal of LY294002-induced inhibition of myogenic differentiation. This result suggests that Akt can substitute for PI 3-kinase in the stimulation of myogenesis; Akt may be an essential downstream component of PI 3-kinase-induced muscle differentiation. PMID:10051597

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Bioinformatic mining of kinase inhibitors that regulate autophagy through kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Biao; Jin, Ye; Ben, Wei; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Keping; Feng, Shujun; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Jianhua

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the kinase inhibitors that may regulate autophagy. A total of 62 kinases were obtained through text mining by importing the keyword 'autophagy' and a 'protein kinase' Excel file to PubMed. Subsequently, 146 kinases were derivated through screening in the PubMed database by importing the 'autophagy‑associated gene' and 'protein kinase' files. Following intersection of the above two methods, 54 candidate autophagy‑associated kinases were obtained. Enrichment analysis indicated that these candidate autophagy‑associated kinases were mainly enriched in pathways such as the calcium, Wnt, HIF‑1 and mTOR signaling pathways. Among the 54 kinases, 24 were identified through text mining to have specific kinase inhibitors that regulate the corresponding functions; a total of 56 kinase inhibitors were found to be involved in the regulation of these 24 kinases. In total, nine of these 56 kinase inhibitors identified had been widely reported in autophagy regulation studies, 23 kinase inhibitors had been seldom reported and 24 had never been reported. Therefore, introducing these kinases into autophagy regulation analysis in subsequent studies may produce important results. PMID:25323421

  3. The Origin and Evolution of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Mushegian, Arcady; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play key role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. GRKs phosphorylate activated receptors, promoting high affinity binding of arrestins, which precludes G protein coupling. Direct binding to active GPCRs activates GRKs, so that they selectively phosphorylate only the activated form of the receptor regardless of the accessibility of the substrate peptides within it and their Ser/Thr-containing sequence. Mammalian GRKs were classified into three main lineages, but earlier GRK evolution has not been studied. Here we show that GRKs emerged at the early stages of eukaryotic evolution via an insertion of a kinase similar to ribosomal protein S6 kinase into a loop in RGS domain. GRKs in Metazoa fall into two clades, one including GRK2 and GRK3, and the other consisting of all remaining GRKs, split into GRK1-GRK7 lineage and GRK4-GRK5-GRK6 lineage in vertebrates. One representative of each of the two ancient clades is found as early as placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. Several protists, two oomycetes and unicellular brown algae have one GRK-like protein, suggesting that the insertion of a kinase domain into the RGS domain preceded the origin of Metazoa. The two GRK families acquired distinct structural units in the N- and C-termini responsible for membrane recruitment and receptor association. Thus, GRKs apparently emerged before animals and rapidly expanded in true Metazoa, most likely due to the need for rapid signalling adjustments in fast-moving animals. PMID:22442725

  4. Protein kinase C-associated kinase can activate NFkappaB in both a kinase-dependent and a kinase-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Moran, Stewart T; Haider, Khaleda; Ow, Yongkai; Milton, Peter; Chen, Luojing; Pillai, Shiv

    2003-06-13

    Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as RIP4/DIK) activates NFkappaB when overexpressed in cell lines and is required for keratinocyte differentiation in vivo. However, very little is understood about the factors upstream of PKK or how PKK activates NFkappaB. Here we show that certain catalytically inactive mutants of PKK can activate NFkappaB, although to a lesser degree than wild type PKK. The deletion of specific domains of wild type PKK diminishes the ability of this enzyme to activate NFkappaB; the same deletions made on a catalytically inactive PKK background completely ablate NFkappaB activation. PKK may be phosphorylated by two specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases, MEKK2 and MEKK3, and this interaction may in part be mediated through a critical activation loop residue, Thr184. Catalytically inactive PKK mutants that block phorbol ester-induced NFkappaB activation do not interfere with, but unexpectedly enhance, the activation of NFkappaB by these two mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. Taken together, these data indicate that PKK may function in both a kinase-dependent as well as a kinase-independent manner to activate NFkappaB. PMID:12676934

  5. Mitotic Kinases and p53 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Geun-Hyoung; Breuer, Eun-Kyoung Yim

    2012-01-01

    Mitosis is tightly regulated and any errors in this process often lead to aneuploidy, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Deregulation of mitotic kinases is significantly associated with improper cell division and aneuploidy. Because of their importance during mitosis and the relevance to cancer, mitotic kinase signaling has been extensively studied over the past few decades and, as a result, several mitotic kinase inhibitors have been developed. Despite promising preclinical results, targeting mitotic kinases for cancer therapy faces numerous challenges, including safety and patient selection issues. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mitotic kinase signaling and its interactive network. Increasing evidence suggests that tumor suppressor p53 functions at the center of the mitotic kinase signaling network. In response to mitotic spindle damage, multiple mitotic kinases phosphorylate p53 to either activate or deactivate p53-mediated signaling. p53 can also regulate the expression and function of mitotic kinases, suggesting the existence of a network of mutual regulation, which can be positive or negative, between mitotic kinases and p53 signaling. Therefore, deciphering this regulatory network will provide knowledge to overcome current limitations of targeting mitotic kinases and further improve the results of targeted therapy. PMID:22852086

  6. Inhibitors of CLK Protein Kinases Suppress Cell Growth and Induce Apoptosis by Modulating Pre-mRNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Shinsuke; Dairiki, Ryo; Nakayama, Yusuke; Murai, Aiko; Miyashita, Risa; Iwatani, Misa; Nomura, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the importance of alternative splicing in various physiological processes, including the development of different diseases. CDC-like kinases (CLKs) and serine-arginine protein kinases (SRPKs) are components of the splicing machinery that are crucial for exon selection. The discovery of small molecule inhibitors against these kinases is of significant value, not only to delineate the molecular mechanisms of splicing, but also to identify potential therapeutic opportunities. Here we describe a series of small molecules that inhibit CLKs and SRPKs and thereby modulate pre-mRNA splicing. Treatment with these small molecules (Cpd-1, Cpd-2, or Cpd-3) significantly reduced the levels of endogenous phosphorylated SR proteins and caused enlargement of nuclear speckles in MDA-MB-468 cells. Additionally, the compounds resulted in splicing alterations of RPS6KB1 (S6K), and subsequent depletion of S6K protein. Interestingly, the activity of compounds selective for CLKs was well correlated with the activity for modulating S6K splicing as well as growth inhibition of cancer cells. A comprehensive mRNA sequencing approach revealed that the inhibitors induced splicing alterations and protein depletion for multiple genes, including those involved in growth and survival pathways such as S6K, EGFR, EIF3D, and PARP. Fluorescence pulse-chase labeling analyses demonstrated that isoforms with premature termination codons generated after treatment with the CLK inhibitors were degraded much faster than canonical mRNAs. Taken together, these results suggest that CLK inhibitors exhibit growth suppression and apoptosis induction through splicing alterations in genes involved in growth and survival. These small molecule inhibitors may be valuable tools for elucidating the molecular machinery of splicing and for the potential development of a novel class of antitumor agents. PMID:25581376

  7. Elastic Electron Scattering by Laser-Excited (sup 138)Ba (...6s6p (sup 1)P(sub 1)) Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csanak, G.

    1997-01-01

    The result of a joint experimental and theoretical study concerning elastic electron scattering by laser-excited (sup 138)Ba (...6s6p (sup 1)P(sub 1)) atoms are presented. From these studies, we extracted differential scattering cross sections (DCS's) and collision parameters for elastic scattering by the coherently prepared (sup 1)P(sub 1) atoms.

  8. Evodiamine induces apoptosis and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells through mTOR/S6K1-mediated downregulation of Mcl-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Qu, Shanna; Shi, Qi; He, Dalin; Jin, Xunbo

    2014-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer agents, has been considered as a new strategy for anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that evodiamine, a quinolone alkaloid isolated from the fruit of Evodia fructus, induced apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we found that evodiamine significantly reduced the protein levels of Mcl-1 in 253J and T24 bladder cancer cells, and overexpression of this molecule attenuated the apoptosis induced by evodiamine alone, or in combination with TRAIL. Further experiments revealed that evodiamine did not affect the mRNA level, proteasomal degradation and protein stability of Mcl-1. On the other hand, evodiamine inhibited the mTOR/S6K1 pathway, which usually regulates protein translation; moreover, knockdown of S6K1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively reduced Mcl-1 levels, indicating evodiamine downregulates c-FLIP through inhibition of mTOR/S6K1 pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that evodiamine induces apoptosis and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis possibly through mTOR/S6K1-mediated downregulation of Mcl-1; furthermore, these findings provide a rationale for the combined application of evodiamine with TRAIL in the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:24566141

  9. Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), a novel membrane-associated, ankyrin repeat-containing protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Haider, K; Ponda, M; Cariappa, A; Rowitch, D; Pillai, S

    2001-06-15

    A novel murine membrane-associated protein kinase, PKK (protein kinase C-associated kinase), was cloned on the basis of its physical association with protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta). The regulated expression of PKK in mouse embryos is consistent with a role for this kinase in early embryogenesis. The human homolog of PKK has over 90% identity to its murine counterpart, has been localized to chromosome 21q22.3, and is identical to the PKCdelta-interacting kinase, DIK (Bahr, C., Rohwer, A., Stempka, L., Rincke, G., Marks, F., and Gschwendt, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36350-36357). PKK comprises an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal region containing 11 ankyrin repeats. PKK exhibits protein kinase activity in vitro and associates with cellular membranes. PKK exists in three discernible forms at steady state: an underphosphorylated form of 100 kDa; a soluble, cytosolic, phosphorylated form of 110 kDa; and a phosphorylated, detergent-insoluble form of 112 kDa. PKK is initially synthesized as an underphosphorylated soluble 100-kDa protein that is quantitatively converted to a detergent-soluble 110-kDa form. This conversion requires an active catalytic domain. Although PKK physically associates with PKCbeta, it does not phosphorylate this PKC isoform. However, PKK itself may be phosphorylated by PKCbeta. PKK represents a developmentally regulated protein kinase that can associate with membranes. The functional significance of its association with PKCbeta remains to be ascertained. PMID:11278382

  10. Microcystin-LR promotes proliferation by activating Akt/S6K1 pathway and disordering apoptosis and cell cycle associated proteins phosphorylation in HL7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghui; Wang, Hao; Wang, Beilei; Chen, Tao; Wang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Pu; Xu, Lihong; Guo, Zonglou

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies had shown that MC-LR inhibited PP2A activity and hyperphosphorylated PP2A substrates at 24h exposure in HL7702 cells. Although the cytoskeleton was rearranged, the cellular effects were not observed. The purpose of the present study with HL7702 cell exposed to MC-LR for 1-72h was to further uncover the adverse effects of MC-LR comprehensively. The results showed that there were no obvious difference in apoptosis rate and cell-cycle distribution but the cell proliferation was changed since 36h exposure while the uptake of MC-LR and its binding to PP2A/C kept unchanged since 1h exposure. PP2A activity had not manifested continued decline compare to 24h exposure and PP2A regulator ?4 was found to release its associated PP2A/C since 1h exposure. The increasing of p-Akt-T308, p-Akt-S473, p-S6K1, p-S6, and p-4E-BP1 since 1h MC-LR exposure indicated that Akt/S6K1 cascade had been activated as early as 1h MC-LR treatment. And, PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002) blocked MC-LR-induced Akt/S6K1 activation and proliferation. Besides, MC-LR also led to hyperphosphorylation of c-Myc, c-Jun, Bcl-2 and Bad and activation of Cdk1. Our study indicated that MC-LR exposure promoted HL7702 cell proliferation and the main mechanism was the activation of Akt/S6K1 cascade. Meanwhile, hyperphosphorylation of Bcl-2, Bad, c-Myc and c-Jun might also be involved. And, the inhibition of PP2A was the major reason for these molecular changes. PMID:26506538

  11. Using Bioluminescent Kinase Profiling Strips to Identify Kinase Inhibitor Selectivity and Promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Zegzouti, Hicham; Hennek, Jacquelyn; Goueli, Said A

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of a kinase inhibitor throughout drug discovery and development is predicated upon its selectivity towards the target of interest. Thus, profiling the compound against a broad panel of kinases is important for providing a better understanding of its activity and for obviating any off-target activities that can result in undesirable consequences. To assess the selectivity and potency of an inhibitor against multiple kinases, it is desirable to use a universal assay that can monitor the activity of all classes of kinases regardless of the nature of their substrates. The luminescent ADP-Glo kinase assay is a universal platform that measures kinase activity by quantifying the amount of the common kinase reaction product ADP. Here we present a method using standardized kinase profiling systems for inhibitor profiling studies based on ADP detection by luminescence. The kinase profiling systems are sets of kinases organized by family, presented in multi-tube strips containing eight enzymes, each with corresponding substrate strips, and standardized for optimal kinase activity. We show that using the kinase profiling strips we could quickly and easily generate multiple selectivity profiles using small or large kinase panels, and identify compound promiscuity within the kinome. PMID:26501902

  12. Labeling and Identification of Direct Kinase Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott M.; White, Forest M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying kinase substrates is an important step in mapping signal transduction pathways, but remains a difficult and time-consuming process. Analog-sensitive kinases (AS-kinases) have been used to selectively tag and identify direct kinase substrates in lysates from whole cells. In this approach a gamma-thiol ATP-analog and AS-kinase are used to selectively thiophosphorylate target proteins. Thiophosphate is used as a chemical handle to purify peptides from a tryptic digest, and target proteins are identified by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we describe an updated strategy for labeling AS-kinase substrates, solid-phase capture of thiophosphorylated peptides, incorporation of stable-isotopic labeling in cell culture (SILAC) for filtering nonspecific background peptides, enrichment of phosphorylated target peptides to identify low-abundance targets, and analysis by LC-MS/MS. PMID:22669844

  13. Protein kinases in normal and transformed melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Quong, R Y; Bickford, S T; Ing, Y L; Terman, B; Herlyn, M; Lassam, N J

    1994-10-01

    Aberrant function of protein kinases has been implicated in the development of melanoma. In an effort to define the molecular events involved in initiation and progression of this malignancy, we used RT-PCR to identify protein kinases in both normal and transformed melanocytes. Collectively, we identified seven clones corresponding to previously characterized protein kinases (JAK-1, TYK02, AXL/UFO, IGF1-R, KDR and FER) as well as the recently identified MLK-3/PTK1 protein kinase. Northern analysis was used to determine the expression pattern of each protein kinase in both normal melanocytes and a variety of melanoma cell lines. Relatively abundant levels of UFO/AXL and KDR mRNAs were observed in a subset of the melanoma cell lines whereas most of the remaining protein kinases were expressed at similar levels in both normal and transformed melanocytes. PMID:7858416

  14. The serine kinase phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) regulates T cell development.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Heather J; Alessi, Dario R; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2004-05-01

    T lymphocyte activation is associated with activation of diverse AGC serine kinases (named after family members protein kinase A, protein kinase G and protein kinase C). It has been difficult to assess the function of these molecules in T cell development with simple gene-deletion strategies because different isoforms of AGC kinases are coexpressed in the thymus and have overlapping, redundant functions. To circumvent these problems, we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), a rate-limiting 'upstream' activator of AGC kinases. Here we analyzed the effect of PDK1 deletion on T lineage development. We also assessed the consequences of reducing PDK1 levels to 10% of normal. Complete PDK1 loss blocked T cell differentiation in the thymus, whereas reduced PDK1 expression allowed T cell differentiation but blocked proliferative expansion. These studies show that AGC family kinases are essential for T cell development. PMID:15077109

  15. Crystal structures of the N-terminal kinase domain of human RSK1 bound to three different ligands: Implications for the design of RSK1 specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Mari; Kornienko, Maria; Byrne, Noel; Reid, John C; Mizuarai, Shinji; Kotani, Hidehito; Munshi, Sanjeev K

    2007-12-01

    The p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) also known as MAPKAP-Ks are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by ERK or PDK1 and act as downstream effectors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). RSK1, a member of the RSK family, contains two distinct kinase domains in a single polypeptide chain, the regulatory C-terminal kinase domain (CTKD) and the catalytic N-terminal kinase domain (NTKD). Autophosphorylation of the CTKD leads to activation of the NTKD that subsequently phosphorylates downstream substrates. Here we report the crystal structures of the unactivated RSK1 NTKD bound to different ligands at 2.0 A resolution. The activation loop and helix alphaC, key regulatory elements of kinase function, are disordered. The DFG motif of the inactive RSK1 adopts an "active-like" conformation. The beta-PO(4) group in the AMP-PCP complex adopts a unique conformation that may contribute to inactivity of the enzyme. Structures of RSK1 ligand complexes offer insights into the design of novel anticancer agents and into the regulation of the catalytic activity of RSKs. PMID:17965187

  16. Tec family kinases in inflammation and disease.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Nicole J; Urbaniak, Ania M; Danks, Lynett

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decade, the Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (Btk, Tec, Bmx, Itk, and Rlk) have been shown to play a key role in inflammation and bone destruction. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been the most widely studied due to the critical role of this kinase in B-cell development and recent evidence showing that blocking Btk signaling is effective in ameliorating lymphoma progression and experimental arthritis. This review will examine the role of TFK in myeloid cell function and the potential of targeting these kinases as a therapeutic intervention in autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22449071

  17. MST kinases in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease. PMID:26370497

  18. Kinase-likeness and kinase-privileged fragments: toward virtual polypharmacology.

    PubMed

    Aronov, Alex M; McClain, Brian; Moody, Cameron Stuver; Murcko, Mark A

    2008-03-13

    Small molecule protein kinase inhibitors are widely employed as biological reagents and as leads in the design of drugs for a variety of diseases. We investigated the phenomenon of kinase-likeness, i.e., the propensity of ligands to inhibit protein kinases, in the context of kinase-specific substructural fragments. The frequency of occurrence of multiple structural fragments in kinase inhibitor libraries relative to nonkinase compounds has been analyzed. A combination of structural fragment counts, termed the "2-0" kinase-likeness rule, provides approximately 5-fold enrichment in kinase active compounds. This rule has been validated using in-house kinase counterscreening data and applied prospectively to uncover kinase activities in marketed drugs. In addition, the role of discriminating fragments in kinase recognition was interrogated using available structural data, providing an insight into their effect on inhibitor potency and selectivity. One of these fragments, bisarylaniline, has been characterized as a kinase-privileged fragment with specific binding preferences and a link to increased activity within kinases. PMID:18288794

  19. Allosteric activation of kinases: Design and application of RapR kinases

    PubMed Central

    Karginov, Andrei V.

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe a method for the engineered regulation of protein kinases in living cells, the design and application of RapR (rapamycin regulated) kinases. The RapR kinase method enables activation of kinases with high specificity and precise temporal control. Insertion of an engineered allosteric switch, the iFKBP domain, at a structurally conserved position within the kinase catalytic domain makes the modified kinase inactive. Treatment with rapamycin or its non-immunosuppresive analogs triggers interaction with a small FKBP-rapamycin-binding domain (FRB), restoring the activity of the kinase. The reagents used in this method are genetically encoded or membrane permeable, enabling ready application in many systems. Based on the structural similarity of kinase catalytic domains, this method is likely applicable to a wide variety of kinases. Successful regulation has already been demonstrated for three kinases representing both tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase families (p38, FAK, Src). Procedures for designing and testing RapR kinases are discussed. PMID:22161545

  20. Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases set the amplitude of receptor tyrosine kinase output

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Gloria; Niederst, Matt; Cohen-Katsenelson, Ksenya; Stender, Joshua D.; Kunkel, Maya T.; Chen, Muhan; Brognard, John; Sierecki, Emma; Gao, Tianyan; Nowak, Dawid G.; Trotman, Lloyd C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factor receptor levels are aberrantly high in diverse cancers, driving the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Understanding the molecular basis for this aberrant elevation has profound clinical implications. Here we show that the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) suppresses receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling output by a previously unidentified epigenetic mechanism unrelated to its previously described function as the hydrophobic motif phosphatase for the protein kinase AKT, protein kinase C, and S6 kinase. Specifically, we show that nuclear-localized PHLPP suppresses histone phosphorylation and acetylation, in turn suppressing the transcription of diverse growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. These data uncover a much broader role for PHLPP in regulation of growth factor signaling beyond its direct inactivation of AKT: By suppressing RTK levels, PHLPP dampens the downstream signaling output of two major oncogenic pathways, the PI3 kinase/AKT and the Rat sarcoma (RAS)/ERK pathways. Our data are consistent with a model in which PHLPP modifies the histone code to control the transcription of RTKs. PMID:25201979

  1. The mitogenic and myogenic actions of insulin-like growth factors utilize distinct signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Coolican, S A; Samuel, D S; Ewton, D Z; McWade, F J; Florini, J R

    1997-03-01

    It is well established that mitogens inhibit differentiation of skeletal muscle cells, but the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), acting through a single receptor, stimulate both proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Although the IGF-I mitogenic signaling pathway has been extensively studied in other cell types, little is known about the signaling pathway leading to differentiation in skeletal muscle. By using specific inhibitors of the IGF signal transduction pathway, we have begun to define the signaling intermediates mediating the two responses to IGFs. We found that PD098059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase activation, inhibited IGF-stimulated proliferation of L6A1 myoblasts and the events associated with it, such as phosphorylation of the MAP kinases and elevation of c-fos mRNA and cyclin D protein. Surprisingly, PD098059 caused a dramatic enhancement of differentiation, evident both at a morphological (fusion of myoblasts into myotubes) and biochemical level (elevation of myogenin and p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor expression, as well as creatine kinase activity). In sharp contrast, LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and rapamycin, an inhibitor of the activation of p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)), completely abolished IGF stimulation of L6A1 differentiation. We found that p70(S6k) activity increased substantially during differentiation, and this increase was further enhanced by PD098059. Our results demonstrate that the MAP kinase pathway plays a primary role in the mitogenic response and is inhibitory to the myogenic response in L6A1 myoblasts, while activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/p70(S6k) pathway is essential for IGF-stimulated differentiation. Thus, it appears that signaling from the IGF-I receptor utilizes two distinct pathways leading either to proliferation or differentiation. PMID:9045696

  2. Dominant Mutations of Drosophila Map Kinase Kinase and Their Activities in Drosophila and Yeast Map Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Y. M.; Tsuda, L.; Inoue, Y. H.; Irie, K.; Adachi-Yamada, T.; Hata, M.; Nishi, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Nishida, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Eight alleles of Dsor1 encoding a Drosophila homologue of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase were obtained as dominant suppressors of the MAP kinase kinase kinase D-raf. These Dsor1 alleles themselves showed no obvious phenotypic consequences nor any effect on the viability of the flies, although they were highly sensitive to upstream signals and strongly interacted with gain-of-function mutations of upstream factors. They suppressed mutations for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs); torso (tor), sevenless (sev) and to a lesser extent Drosophila EGF receptor (DER). Furthermore, the Dsor1 alleles showed no significant interaction with gain-of-function mutations of DER. The observed difference in activity of the Dsor1 alleles among the RTK pathways suggests Dsor1 is one of the components of the pathway that regulates signal specificity. Expression of Dsor1 in budding yeast demonstrated that Dsor1 can activate yeast MAP kinase homologues if a proper activator of Dsor1 is coexpressed. Nucleotide sequencing of the Dsor1 mutant genes revealed that most of the mutations are associated with amino acid changes at highly conserved residues in the kinase domain. The results suggest that they function as suppressors due to increased reactivity to upstream factors. PMID:9136016

  3. The Borosulfates K4 [BS4 O15 (OH)], Ba[B2 S3 O13 ], and Gd2 [B2 S6 O24 ].

    PubMed

    Gross, Peter; Kirchhain, Arno; Höppe, Henning A

    2016-03-18

    K4 [BS4 O15 (OH)], Ba[B2 S3 O13 ], and Gd2 [B2 S6 O24 ] were obtained by a new synthetic approach. The strategy involves initially synthesizing the complex acid H[B(HSO4 )4 ] which is subsequently reacted in an open system with anhydrous chlorides of K, Ba, and Gd to the respective borosulfates and a volatile molecule (HCl). Furthermore, protonated borosulfates should be accessible by appropriate stoichiometry of the starting materials, particularly in closed systems, which inhibit deprotonation of H[B(HSO4 )4 ] via condensation and dehydration. This approach led to the successful synthesis of the first divalent and trivalent metal borosulfates (Ba[B2 S3 O13 ] with band-silicate topology and Gd2 [B2 S6 O24 ] with cyclosilicate topology) and the first hydrogen borosulfate K4 [BS4 O15 (OH)]. PMID:26924507

  4. An x-ray scattering study of Sn2P2S6: absence of incommensurate phase up to 1 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrejkovic, P.; Guennou, M.; Kempa, M.; Vysochanskii, Y.; Garbarino, G.; Hlinka, J.

    2013-03-01

    The ferroelectric phase transition in a semiconductor Sn2P2S6 single crystal has been studied by means of high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction in the pressure-temperature range where an incommensurate modulated phase has been anticipated for many years. In contrast with the predictions, the present measurements reveal only a direct ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition close to T = 100 K, p = 1.1 GPa. In the vicinity of this phase transition, a characteristic critical diffuse scattering was observed, but no satellite peaks could be resolved there. It is concluded that the earlier hypothesis about the presence of an incommensurate phase and associated Lifshitz point in the temperature-pressure phase diagram of Sn2P2S6 is incorrect.

  5. An x-ray scattering study of Sn2P2S6: absence of incommensurate phase up to 1 GPa.

    PubMed

    Ondrejkovic, P; Guennou, M; Kempa, M; Vysochanskii, Y; Garbarino, G; Hlinka, J

    2013-03-20

    The ferroelectric phase transition in a semiconductor Sn(2)P(2)S(6) single crystal has been studied by means of high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction in the pressure-temperature range where an incommensurate modulated phase has been anticipated for many years. In contrast with the predictions, the present measurements reveal only a direct ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition close to T = 100 K, p = 1.1 GPa. In the vicinity of this phase transition, a characteristic critical diffuse scattering was observed, but no satellite peaks could be resolved there. It is concluded that the earlier hypothesis about the presence of an incommensurate phase and associated Lifshitz point in the temperature-pressure phase diagram of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) is incorrect. PMID:23406668

  6. The Polyphosphate Kinase Gene ppk2 Is Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inorganic Polyphosphate Regulation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yu-Min; Belchis, Deborah A.; Karakousis, Petros C.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene Rv3232c/MT3329 (ppk2) encodes a class II polyphosphate kinase, which hydrolyzes inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) to synthesize GTP. We assessed the role of ppk2 in M. tuberculosis poly P regulation, antibiotic tolerance, and virulence. A ppk2-deficient mutant (ppk2::Tn) and its isogenic wild-type (WT) and complemented (Comp) strains were studied. For each strain, the intrabacillary poly P content, MIC of isoniazid, and growth kinetics during infection of J774 macrophages were determined. Multiplex immunobead assays were used to evaluate cytokines elaborated during macrophage infection. The requirement of ppk2 for M. tuberculosis virulence was assessed in the murine model. The ppk2::Tn mutant was found to have significantly increased poly P content and a 4-fold increase in the MIC of isoniazid relative to the WT and Comp strains. The ppk2::Tn mutant showed reduced survival at day 7 in activated and naive J774 macrophages relative to the WT. Naive ppk2::Tn mutant-infected macrophages showed increased expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) relative to WT-infected macrophages. The ppk2::Tn mutant exhibited significantly lower lung CFU during acute murine infection compared to the control groups. ppk2 is required for control of intrabacillary poly P levels and optimal M. tuberculosis growth and survival in macrophages and mouse lungs. PMID:23695835

  7. The tyrosine kinase Btk regulates the macrophage response to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Kprl, Afitap Derya; Kastner, Renate; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Lassnig, Caroline; Putz, Eva Maria; Majer, Olivia; Reutterer, Benjamin; Sexl, Veronika; Kuchler, Karl; Mller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas; Ellmeier, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in the immune response to the Gram-positive intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). In response to Lm infection, Btk was activated in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and Btk (-/-) BMMs showed enhanced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12p40 secretion, while type I interferons were produced at levels similar to wild-type (wt) BMMs. Although Btk-deficient BMMs displayed reduced phagocytosis of E. coli fragments, there was no difference between wt and Btk (-/-) BMMs in the uptake of Lm upon infection. Moreover, there was no difference in the response to heat-killed Lm between wt and Btk (-/-) BMMs, suggesting a role for Btk in signaling pathways that are induced by intracellular Lm. Finally, Btk (-/-) mice displayed enhanced resistance and an increased mean survival time upon Lm infection in comparison to wt mice. This correlated with elevated IFN-? and IL-12p70 serum levels in Btk (-/-) mice at day 1 after infection. Taken together, our data suggest an important regulatory role for Btk in macrophages during Lm infection. PMID:23544144

  8. The Tyrosine Kinase Btk Regulates the Macrophage Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kprl, Afitap Derya; Kastner, Renate; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Lassnig, Caroline; Putz, Eva Maria; Majer, Olivia; Reutterer, Benjamin; Sexl, Veronika; Kuchler, Karl; Mller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas; Ellmeier, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in the immune response to the Gram-positive intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). In response to Lm infection, Btk was activated in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and Btk?/? BMMs showed enhanced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12p40 secretion, while type I interferons were produced at levels similar to wild-type (wt) BMMs. Although Btk-deficient BMMs displayed reduced phagocytosis of E. coli fragments, there was no difference between wt and Btk?/? BMMs in the uptake of Lm upon infection. Moreover, there was no difference in the response to heat-killed Lm between wt and Btk?/? BMMs, suggesting a role for Btk in signaling pathways that are induced by intracellular Lm. Finally, Btk?/? mice displayed enhanced resistance and an increased mean survival time upon Lm infection in comparison to wt mice. This correlated with elevated IFN-? and IL-12p70 serum levels in Btk?/? mice at day 1 after infection. Taken together, our data suggest an important regulatory role for Btk in macrophages during Lm infection. PMID:23544144

  9. The specificity of Av3 sea anemone toxin for arthropods is determined at linker DI/SS2-S6in the pore module of target sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Gur Barzilai, Maya; Kahn, Roy; Regev, Noa; Gordon, Dalia; Moran, Yehu; Gurevitz, Michael

    2014-10-15

    Av3 is a peptide neurotoxin from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis that shows specificity for arthropod voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs). Interestingly, Av3 competes with a scorpion ?-toxin on binding to insect Navs and similarly inhibits the inactivation process, and thus has been classified as 'receptor site-3 toxin', although the two peptides are structurally unrelated. This raises questions as to commonalities and differences in the way both toxins interact with Navs. Recently, site-3 was partly resolved for scorpion ?-toxins highlighting S1-S2 and S3-S4 external linkers at the DIV voltage-sensor module and the juxtaposed external linkers at the DI pore module. To uncover channel determinants involved in Av3 specificity for arthropods, the toxin was examined on channel chimaeras constructed with the external linkers of the mammalian brain Nav1.2a, which is insensitive to Av3, in the background of the Drosophila DmNav1. This approach highlighted the role of linker DI/SS2-S6, adjacent to the channel pore, in determining Av3 specificity. Point mutagenesis at DI/SS2-S6 accompanied by functional assays highlighted Trp404 and His405 as a putative point of Av3 interaction with DmNav1. His405 conservation in arthropod Navs compared with tyrosine in vertebrate Navs may represent an ancient substitution that explains the contemporary selectivity of Av3. Trp404 and His405 localization near the membrane surface and the hydrophobic bioactive surface of Av3 suggest that the toxin possibly binds at a cleft by DI/S6. A partial overlap in receptor site-3 of both toxins nearby DI/S6 may explain their binding competition capabilities. PMID:25055135

  10. Investigation of PI3K/PKB/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway in relationship of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimers disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunqing; Wu, Dongke; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jiankun; Chen, Siping; Hua, Binghong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of PI3K/PKB/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway in the risk-increasing mechanisms of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) towards the Alzheimers disease (AD). Based on the high-sugar high-fat diet, the single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was performed to induce the T2DM rat model; the immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR technique were then performed to detect the expression levels of mTOR, PI3K, PKB, S6K1 and phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampal tissues of each group. The related metabolic indicators of the T2DM group and the T2DM + AD group were significantly higher than the normal control group and the AD group (P<0.01); the Morris water maze test of the AD group and the learning and memory of the T2DM + AD group were than significantly decreased than the T2DM group (P<0.01); the T2DM + AD group exhibited significantly increased expression levels of mTOR, S6K1 and Tau protein in the hippocampal tissues than the AD group and the T2DM group (P<0.05), and while the expression levels of PI3K and PKB were decreased (P<0.05). Among the possible mechanisms through which T2DM increased the risk of AD, the dystransduction of insulin signaling pathway (PI3K/PKB/mTOR/S6K1) was the important cause of hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein, thus it prompted the AD occurrence. PMID:26770471

  11. Hepatitis C virus activates the mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway in inhibiting IRS-1 function for insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sandip K; Shrivastava, Shubham; Meyer, Keith; Ray, Ratna B; Ray, Ranjit

    2012-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection significantly increases the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) plays a key role in insulin signaling, thus enabling metabolic regulation in mammalian cells. We have previously shown that HCV infection modulates phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream target of IRS-1. In this study, we further examined the status of total IRS-1 and the downstream regulation of the Akt pathway in understanding mTOR/S6K1 signaling using HCV genotype 2a (clone JFH1)-infected hepatocytes. Inhibition of IRS-1 expression was observed in HCV-infected hepatocytes compared to that in a mock-infected control. The status of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC-1/TSC-2) was significantly decreased after HCV infection of human hepatocytes, showing a modulation of the downstream Akt pathway. Subsequent study indicated an increased level of Rheb and mTOR expression in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Interestingly, the phosphoS6K1 level was higher in HCV-infected hepatocytes, suggesting a novel mechanism for IRS-1 inhibition. Ectopic expression of TSC-1/TSC-2 significantly recovered the IRS-1 protein expression level in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Further analyses indicated that HCV core protein plays a significant role in modulating the mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway. Proteasome inhibitor MG 132 recovered IRS-1 and TSC1/2 expression, suggesting that degradation occurred via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. A functional consequence of IRS-1 inhibition was reflected in a decrease in GLUT4 protein expression and upregulation of the gluconeogenic enzyme PCK2 in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Together, these observations suggested that HCV infection activates the mTOR/S6K1 pathway in inhibiting IRS-1 function and perturbs glucose metabolism via downregulation of GLUT4 and upregulation of PCK2 for insulin resistance. PMID:22457523

  12. Roscovitine blocks leukocyte extravasation by inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 and 9

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Nina; Uhl, Bernd; Joore, Jos; Schmerwitz, Ulrike K; Mayer, Bettina A; Reichel, Christoph A; Krombach, Fritz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Frst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that induces tumour cell death, is under evaluation as an anti-cancer drug. By triggering leukocyte apoptosis, roscovitine can also enhance the resolution of inflammation. Beyond death-inducing properties, we tested whether roscovitine affects leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, a vital step in the onset of inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were evaluated in venules of mouse cremaster muscle, using intravital microscopy. In primary human endothelial cells, we studied the influence of roscovitine on adhesion molecules and on the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway. A cellular kinome array, in vitro CDK profiling and RNAi methods were used to identify targets of roscovitine. KEY RESULTS In vivo, roscovitine attenuated the tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced leukocyte adherence to and transmigration through, the endothelium. In vitro, roscovitine strongly inhibited TNF-?-evoked expression of endothelial adhesion molecules (E-selectin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule). Roscovitine blocked NF-?B-dependent gene transcription, but not the NF-?B activation cascade [inhibitor of ?B (I?B) kinase activity, I?B-? degradation, p65 translocation]. Using a cellular kinome array and an in vitro CDK panel, we found that roscovitine inhibited protein kinase A, ribosomal S6 kinase and CDKs 2, 5, 7 and 9. Experiments using kinase inhibitors and siRNA showed that the decreased endothelial activation was due solely to blockade of CDK5 and CDK9 by roscovitine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our study highlights a novel mode of action for roscovitine, preventing endothelial activation and leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction by inhibition of CDK5 and 9. This might expand its usage as a promising anti-inflammatory compound. PMID:21391976

  13. Photoabsorption of the ground state of Ne and of Ne-like Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+, P5+, S6+, and Cl7+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakho, I.

    2016-03-01

    Photoabsorption of the 1s2 2s2 2p6 (1S0) ground state of Ne-like ions is presented in this paper. Resonance energies and width of the 2 s 2p6 n p1P1 series of Ne and Ne-like Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+, P5+, S6+, and Cl7+ ions are reported. Wavelengths of the 2s2 2p6 (1S0) → 2s2 2p5(2P 3 / 2 , 1 / 2) n d transitions in neon-like Na+ ion and of the 2s2 2p6(1S0) → 2 s 2p6 n p1P1 transitions in Ne and in Ne-like Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+, P5+, S6+, and Cl7+ ions are tabulated. Analysis of the resonances investigated is done in the framework of the LS, jj and JK coupling schemes. All the calculations are made using the Screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) formalism. Very good agreement is found between the SCUNC results and various experimental and theoretical literature values and new data for the Ne-like Si4+, P5+, S6+, and Cl7+ ions are listed.

  14. Spin-polarized Dirac cones and topological nontriviality in a metal-organic framework Ni2C24S6H12.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-03-01

    Dirac cones in the band structure make a great contribution to the unique electronic properties of graphene. But the spin-degeneracy of Dirac cones limits the application of graphene in spintronics. Here, using first-principles calculations, we propose a two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF), Ni2C24S6H12, with spin-polarized Dirac cones at the six corners of the Brillouin zone (BZ). Ferromagnetism is quite stable with a high Curie temperature (630 K) as revealed by Monte Carlo simulation within the Ising model. Taking spin-orbit coupling into account, band gaps are opened up at the Dirac point (5.9 meV) and ? point (10.4 meV) in the BZ, making Ni2C24S6H12 a Chern topological insulator which is implemented for achieving the quantum anomalous Hall effect. These interesting properties enable Ni2C24S6H12 to be a promising candidate material for spintronics device applications. PMID:26923280

  15. Oleanolic acid suppresses the proliferation of human bladder cancer by Akt/mTOR/S6K and ERK1/2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Da-Wei; Guo, He-Qing; Zhou, Gao-Biao; Li, Jian-Ye; Su, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Oleanolic acid has significant pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, regulating blood sugar level and liver protection, which are more effective compared with free aglyconeoleanolic acid. However, it is still unknown if oleanolic acid affects the proliferation of human bladder cancer. We utilized T24 cells to study the effect of oleanolic acid on the proliferation and apoptosis of human bladder cancer. In this study, we found that the anti-cancer effect of oleanolic acid significantly suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and caspase-3 activity of T24 cells. Furthermore, Akt, mTOR and S6K protein expression was greatly inhibited in T24 cells under oleanolic acid treatment. Meanwhile, ERK1/2 of phosphorylation protein expression was significantly promoted by oleanolic acid treatment. Taken together, we provided evidences that oleanolic acid was Akt/mTOR/S6K and ERK1/2 signaling-targeting anti-tumor agent. These findings represent new evidences that oleanolic acid suppresses the proliferation of human bladder cancer by Akt/mTOR/S6K and ERK1/2 signaling, and oleanolic acid may be used to prevent human bladder cancer. PMID:26823699

  16. TSC1/2 regulates intestinal stem cell maintenance and lineage differentiation through Rheb-TORC1-S6K but independently of nutritional status or Notch regulation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhenghui; Sun, Pei; Lin, Guonan; Xi, Rongwen

    2013-09-01

    Tubular sclerosis complex gene products TSC1 and TSC2 have evolutionarily conserved roles in cell growth from Drosophila to mammals. Here we reveal important roles for TSC1/2 in regulating intestinal stem cell (ISC) maintenance and differentiation of the enteroendocrine cell lineage in the Drosophila midgut. Loss of either the Tsc1 or Tsc2 gene in ISCs causes rapid ISC loss through TORC1 hyperactivation, because ISCs can be efficiently rescued by mutation of S6k or by rapamycin treatment. In addition, overexpression of Rheb, which triggers TORC1 activation, recapitulates the phenotype caused by TSC1/2 disruption. Genetic studies suggest that TSC1/2 maintains ISCs independently of nutritional status or Notch regulation, probably by inhibiting cell delamination. We show that Tsc1/Tsc2 mutant ISCs can efficiently produce enterocytes but not enteroendocrine cells, and this altered differentiation potential is also caused by hyperactivation of TORC1. Reduced TORC1-S6K signaling by mutation of S6k, however, has no effect on ISC maintenance or cell lineage differentiation. Our studies demonstrate that hyperactivation of TORC1 following the loss of TSC1/2 is detrimental to stem cell maintenance and multiple lineage differentiation in the Drosophila ISC lineage, a mechanism that could be conserved in other stem cell lineages, including that in humans. PMID:23843608

  17. The increased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in Arbacia punctulata is not a universal event in the activation of sea urchin eggs.

    PubMed

    Ward, G E; Vacquier, V D; Michel, S

    1983-02-01

    Eggs of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata (Ap), Lytechinus pictus (Lp), and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp) were labeled to equilibrium with 32PO3-4. Approximately 65-70% of the label in extractable adenine nucleotides comigrates chromatographically with ATP. Autoradiograms of one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) slab gels show that each species possesses a distinct complement of phosphate-exchangeable phosphoproteins. No changes in the phosphoprotein composition are detected in Lp and Sp eggs as a result of fertilization or development for 2.5 hr (with the possible exception of a 43,000 Mr protein in Lp). In Ap, increases in the phosphorylation of bands at Mr's 30,000, 55,000, and 105,000 are seen during the first 10 min postinsemination. The 30,000 Mr band in Ap eggs has previously been identified as ribosomal protein S6 and the hypothesis presented that its increased phosphorylation may be an important step in the activation of protein synthesis at fertilization (D. G. Ballinger and T. Hunt, 1981, Dev. Biol. 87, 277-285). In Lp and Sp eggs S6 (identified by two-dimensional PAGE) is heavily phosphorylated in the unfertilized state and the extent of labeling does not increase after fertilization. If the increased phosphorylation of S6 seen in Ap is indeed related to translational activation, then these results suggest that different sea urchin species may rely on different mechanisms for the activation of protein synthesis. PMID:6825939

  18. Measuring the Activity of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2: A Kinase Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Dae; Li, Xiaojie; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has multiple functional domains including a kinase domain. The kinase activity of LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Developing an assay to understand the mechanisms of LRRK2 kinase activity is important for the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe how to measure in vitro LRRK2 kinase activity and its inhibition. PMID:21960214

  19. A novel viral thymidylate kinase with dual kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Hernandez, Eduardo; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Lugo-Sanchez, Maria E; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F; Castillo-Yaez, Francisco J; Brieba, Luis G; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2015-10-01

    Nucleotide phosphorylation is a key step in DNA replication and viral infections, since suitable levels of nucleotide triphosphates pool are required for this process. Deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) is produced either by de novo or salvage pathways, which is further phosphorylated to deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP). Thymidyne monophosphate kinase (TMK) is the enzyme in the junction of both pathways, which phosphorylates dTMP to yield deoxythymidine diphosphate (dTDP) using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a phosphate donor. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome contains an open reading frame (ORF454) that encodes a thymidine kinase and TMK domains in a single polypeptide. We overexpressed the TMK ORF454 domain (TMKwssv) and its specific activity was measured with dTMP and dTDP as phosphate acceptors. We found that TMKwssv can phosphorylate dTMP to yield dTDP and also is able to use dTDP as a substrate to produce dTTP. Kinetic parameters K M and k cat were calculated for dTMP (110 ?M, 3.6 s(-1)), dTDP (251 ?M, 0.9 s(-1)) and ATP (92 ?M, 3.2 s(-1)) substrates, and TMKwssv showed a sequential ordered bi-bi reaction mechanism. The binding constants K d for dTMP (1.9 ?M) and dTDP (10 ?M) to TMKwssv were determined by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. The affinity of the nucleotidic analog stavudine monophosphate was in the same order of magnitude (K d 3.6 ?M) to the canonical substrate dTMP. These results suggest that nucleotide analogues such as stavudine could be a suitable antiviral strategy for the WSSV-associated disease. PMID:26315341

  20. Multifunctional Abl kinases in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Aaditya; Wang, Jun; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    The Abelson tyrosine kinases were initially identified as drivers of leukemia in mice and humans. The Abl family kinases Abl1 and Abl2 regulate diverse cellular processes during development and normal homeostasis, and their functions are subverted during inflammation, cancer and other pathologies. Abl kinases can be activated by multiple stimuli leading to cytoskeletal reorganization required for cell morphogenesis, motility, adhesion and polarity. Depending on the cellular context, Abl kinases regulate cell survival and proliferation. Emerging data support important roles for Abl kinases in pathologies linked to inflammation. Among these are neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Unexpectedly, Abl kinases have also been identified as important players in mammalian host cells during microbial pathogenesis. Thus, the use of Abl kinase inhibitors might prove to be effective in the treatment of pathologies beyond leukemia and solid tumors. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and in the accompanying poster, we highlight the emerging roles of Abl kinases in the regulation of cellular processes in normal cells and diverse pathologies ranging from cancer to microbial pathogenesis. PMID:26729027

  1. MECHANISTIC ANALYSIS OF PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE KINASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is the primary regulator of flux through the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The PDK is a member of the ATPase/kinase superfamily. Member proteins of this family are characterized by four signature sequences in the catalytic domain (N-, D-, F-, and G...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some features of phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency, such as anemia. A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency? These resources address the ...

  3. Pyridinylimidazole inhibitors of Tie2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Semones, Marcus; Feng, Yanhong; Johnson, Neil; Adams, Jerry L; Winkler, Jim; Hansbury, Michael

    2007-09-01

    This communication details the evolution of the screening lead SB-203580, a known CSBP/p38 kinase inhibitor, into a potent and selective Tie2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The optimized compound 5 showed efficacy in an in vivo model of angiogenesis and a MOPC-315 plasmacytoma xenograft model. PMID:17618114

  4. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions. PMID:26734566

  5. Identification of Direct Kinase Substrates via Kinase Assay-Linked Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang; Arrington, Justine V; Tao, W Andy

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in the regulation of various cellular functions. Dysregulation of phosphorylation is implicated in the pathogenesis of certain cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and central nervous system disorders. As a result, protein kinases have become potential drug targets for treating a wide variety of diseases. Identification of kinase substrates is vital not only for dissecting signaling pathways, but also for understanding disease pathologies and identifying novel therapeutic targets. However, identification of bona fide kinase substrates has remained challenging, necessitating the development of new methods and techniques. The kinase assay linked phosphoproteomics (KALIP) approach integrates in vitro kinase assays with global phosphoproteomics experiments to identify the direct substrates of protein kinases. This strategy has demonstrated outstanding sensitivity and a low false-positive rate for kinase substrate screening. PMID:26584932

  6. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGF?-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38? (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structureactivity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16 and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. A 2.4 cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors. PMID:25075558

  7. Extinction, applied after retrieval of auditory fear memory, selectively increases zinc-finger protein 268 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 expression in prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Vincenzo; Roquet, Rheall F; DeMis, John; Chiamulera, Cristiano; Monfils, Marie-H

    2014-11-01

    Retrieval of consolidated memories induces a labile phase during which memory can be disrupted or updated through a reconsolidation process. A central component of behavioral updating during reconsolidation using a retrieval-extinction manipulation (Ret+Ext) is the synaptic removal of a calcium-permeable-?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (CP-AMPARs) in the lateral amygdala-a metabotropic GluR1 receptor (mGluR1) dependent mechanism. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Ret+Ext on the expression of molecular markers that could play a role in the reconsolidation process. Specifically, we tested the effects of Ret+Ext on the global expression of zinc-finger 268 protein (Zif268), a marker previously found to be implicated in memory reconsolidation, to confirm its occurrence after retrieval (Ret) and Ret+Ext. We also evaluated the global expression of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P), here proposed as a marker of the mGluR1-mediated memory process induced by Ret+Ext. The expression of both markers (zif268, rpS6P) was assessed by immunolocalization in prelimbic cortex (PRL), infralimbic cortex (IL), ventral subdivision of the lateral amygdala (LA) and hippocampus CA1 (CA1) in fear-conditioned rats. Our results showed that retrieval and Ret+Ext, but not extinction alone, increased Zif268 expression in prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala. Ret+Ext, but not retrieval, retrieval followed by context exposure or extinction alone, increased the expression of rpS6P in prefrontal cortex and LA. In summary, (i) Zif268 increased after retrieval confirming that reconsolidation is engaged in our conditions, (ii) Zif268 increased after Ret+Ext confirming that it does not simply reflect an extinction or reconsolidation disruption (Zif268 level of expression should be lower in both cases) and (iii) rpS6P increased after Ret+Ext, but not after extinction, suggesting, as expected, a potential mGluR1 mediated molecular mechanism specific for Ret+Ext. Together with the Zif268 increase, our results suggest that the Ret+Ext induced memory process is more similar to reconsolidation updating than extinction facilitation. PMID:25196703

  8. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Trawinska, Malgorzata Monika; Perrotti, Alessio Pio; De Fabritiis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during pregnancy has become recently a matter of continuous debate. The introduction of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) in clinical practice has dramatically changed the prognosis of CML patients; in fact, patients diagnosed in chronic phase can reasonably expect many years of excellent disease control and good quality of life, as well as a normal life expectancy, including the necessity to address issues relating to fertility and pregnancy. Physicians are frequently being asked for advice regarding the need for, and/or the appropriateness of, stopping treatment in order to conceive. In this report, we will review the data published in terms of fertility, conception, pregnancy, pregnancy outcome and illness control for TKI treated CML patients, as well as how to manage a planned and/or unplanned pregnancy. PMID:24804001

  9. Characterization of a Tumor-Associated Activating Mutation of the p110? PI 3-Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Dbouk, Hashem A.; Khalil, Bassem D.; Wu, Haiyan; Shymanets, Aliaksei; Nrnberg, Bernd; Backer, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    The PI3-kinase pathway is commonly activated in tumors, most often by loss of PTEN lipid phosphatase activity or the amplification or mutation of p110?. Oncogenic mutants have commonly been found in p110?, but rarely in any of the other catalytic subunits of class I PI3-kinases. We here characterize a p110? helical domain mutation, E633K, first identified in a Her2-positive breast cancer. The mutation increases basal p110? activity, but does not affect activation of p85/p110? dimers by phosphopeptides or G??. Expression of the mutant causes increases in Akt and S6K1 activation, transformation, chemotaxis, proliferation and survival in low serum. E633 is conserved among class I PI3 Ks, and its mutation in p110? is also activating. Interestingly, the E633K mutant occurs near a region that interacts with membranes in activated PI 3-kinases, and its mutation abrogates the requirement for an intact Ras-binding domain in p110?-mediated transformation. We propose that the E633K mutant activates p110? by enhancing its basal association with membranes. This study presents the first analysis of an activating oncogenic mutation of p110?. PMID:23734178

  10. Bioluminescent kinase strips: A novel approach to targeted and flexible kinase inhibitor profiling.

    PubMed

    Hennek, J; Alves, J; Yao, E; Goueli, S A; Zegzouti, H

    2016-02-15

    In addition to target efficacy, drug safety is a major requirement during the drug discovery process and is influenced by target specificity. Therefore, it is imperative that every new drug candidate be profiled against various liability panels that include protein kinases. Here, an effective methodology to streamline kinase inhibitor profiling is described. An accessible standardized profiling system for 112 protein kinases covering all branches of the kinome was developed. This approach consists of creating different sets of kinases and their corresponding substrates in multi-tube strips. The kinase stocks are pre-standardized for optimal kinase activity and used for inhibitor profiling using a bioluminescent ADP detection assay. We show that these strips can routinely generate inhibitor selectivity profiles for small or broad kinase family panels. Lipid kinases were also assembled in strip format and profiled together with protein kinases. We identified two specific PI3K inhibitors that have off-target effects on CK2 that were not reported before and would have been missed if compounds were not profiled against lipid and protein kinases simultaneously. To validate the accuracy of the data generated by this method, we confirmed that the inhibition potencies observed are consistent with published values produced by more complex technologies such as radioactivity assays. PMID:26628096

  11. Physiological roles of mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activated p38-regulated/activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kostenko, Sergiy; Dumitriu, Gianina; Lgreid, Kari Jenssen; Moens, Ugo

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of proteins that constitute signaling pathways involved in processes that control gene expression, cell division, cell survival, apoptosis, metabolism, differentiation and motility. The MAPK pathways can be divided into conventional and atypical MAPK pathways. The first group converts a signal into a cellular response through a relay of three consecutive phosphorylation events exerted by MAPK kinase kinases, MAPK kinase, and MAPK. Atypical MAPK pathways are not organized into this three-tiered cascade. MAPK that belongs to both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways can phosphorylate both non-protein kinase substrates and other protein kinases. The latter are referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases. This review focuses on one such MAPK-activated protein kinase, MAPK-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) or p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK). This protein is highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and seems to be the target of both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways. Recent findings on the regulation of the activity and subcellular localization, bona fide interaction partners and physiological roles of MK5/PRAK are discussed. PMID:21666810

  12. Mitotic regulation by NIMA-related kinases

    PubMed Central

    O'Regan, Laura; Blot, Joelle; Fry, Andrew M

    2007-01-01

    The NIMA-related kinases represent a family of serine/threonine kinases implicated in cell cycle control. The founding member of this family, the NIMA kinase of Aspergillus nidulans, as well as the fission yeast homologue Fin1, contribute to multiple aspects of mitotic progression including the timing of mitotic entry, chromatin condensation, spindle organization and cytokinesis. Mammals contain a large family of eleven NIMA-related kinases, named Nek1 to Nek11. Of these, there is now substantial evidence that Nek2, Nek6, Nek7 and Nek9 also regulate mitotic events. At least three of these kinases, as well as NIMA and Fin1, have been localized to the microtubule organizing centre of their respective species, namely the centrosome or spindle pole body. Here, they have important functions in microtubule organization and mitotic spindle assembly. Other Nek kinases have been proposed to play microtubule-dependent roles in non-dividing cells, most notably in regulating the axonemal microtubules of cilia and flagella. In this review, we discuss the evidence that NIMA-related kinases make a significant contribution to the orchestration of mitotic progression and thereby protect cells from chromosome instability. Furthermore, we highlight their potential as novel chemotherapeutic targets. PMID:17727698

  13. Dynamic architecture of a protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Christopher L.; Kornev, Alexandr P.; Gilson, Michael K.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases are dynamically regulated signaling proteins that act as switches in the cell by phosphorylating target proteins. To establish a framework for analyzing linkages between structure, function, dynamics, and allostery in protein kinases, we carried out multiple microsecond-scale molecular-dynamics simulations of protein kinase A (PKA), an exemplar active kinase. We identified residueresidue correlated motions based on the concept of mutual information and used the GirvanNewman method to partition PKA into structurally contiguous communities. Most of these communities included 4060 residues and were associated with a particular protein kinase function or a regulatory mechanism, and well-known motifs based on sequence and secondary structure were often split into different communities. The observed community maps were sensitive to the presence of different ligands and provide a new framework for interpreting long-distance allosteric coupling. Communication between different communities was also in agreement with the previously defined architecture of the protein kinase core based on the hydrophobic spine network. This finding gives us confidence in suggesting that community analyses can be used for other protein kinases and will provide an efficient tool for structural biologists. The communities also allow us to think about allosteric consequences of mutations that are linked to disease. PMID:25319261

  14. p38 MAP kinases in the heart.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Tomohiro; Wang, Yibin

    2016-01-10

    p38 kinases are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) with established contribution to a wide range of signaling pathways and different biological processes. The prototypic p38 MAPK, p38? was originally identified as an essential signaling kinase for inflammatory cytokine production Extensive studies have now revealed that p38s have critical roles in many different tissues far beyond immune regulation and inflammatory responses. In this review, we will focus on the structure and molecular biology of p38s, and their specific roles in heart, especially regarding myocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and hypertrophic responses. PMID:26390817

  15. Creatine kinase isoenzymes in bovine tissue.

    PubMed

    Galitzer, S J; Oehme, F W

    1985-07-01

    Brain, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, rumen, abomasum, small intestine, skeletal muscle, and urinary bladder from healthy cattle were analyzed for creatine kinase isoenzymes as a possible aid in the diagnosis of myocardial disease. Creatine kinase was detected in all organs evaluated. In addition, 6 different fluorescing bands were detected by isoenzyme analysis. Large quantities of the same isoenzymes were in cardiac and skeletal muscle, but not in other organs. Creatine kinase isoenzyme analysis does not necessarily indicate cardiac damage, but may narrow the range of tissue damage possibilities to be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:4026022

  16. (22S)-6-O-acetyl-21betaH-hopane-3beta,6beta,22,29-tetrol from oakmoss (Evernia prunastri).

    PubMed

    Lutnaes, Bjart Frode; Bruun, Torger; Kjøsen, Helge

    2004-08-01

    A novel hopanoid triterpene, (22S)-6-O-acetyl-21betaH-hopane-3beta,6beta,22,29-tetraol, was isolated from oakmoss (Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.), as identified from 1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC NMR, MS and IR spectroscopy. During recrystallisation a new compound, 30-nor-6-O-acetyl-3beta,6beta-dihydroxy-21alphaH-hopan-22-one, was formed by a formal loss of methanol from the dihydroxypropyl moiety. No biological activity was found for the naturally occurring compound upon testing against a series of fish and human pathogenic bacteria. PMID:15214492

  17. A phenylalanine residue at segment D3-S6 in Nav1.4 voltage-gated Na(+) channels is critical for pyrethroid action.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Barile, M; Wang, G K

    2001-09-01

    Mammalian voltage-gated Na(+) channels were less sensitive to pyrethroids than their insect counterparts by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. Deltamethrin at 10 microM elicited weak gating changes in rat skeletal muscle alpha-subunit Na(+) channels (Nav1.4) after > 30 min of perfusion. About 10% of the peak current was maintained during the 8-ms, +50-mV pulse and, upon repolarization to -140 mV, the amplitude of the slow tail current corresponded to less than 3% of total Na(+) channels modified by deltamethrin. A background mutation, Nav1.4-I687M (within D2:S4-S5 cytoplasmic linker), enhanced the deltamethrin-induced maintained current by approximately 2.5-fold, whereas Nav1.4-I687T, a homologous superkdr mutation, reduced it by approximately 2-fold. Repetitive pulses at 2 Hz further augmented the effects of deltamethrin on Nav1.4-I687M mutant channels so that approximately 75% of peak currents were maintained. A second mutation, Nav1.4-I687M/F1278I at the middle of D3-S6, rendered the channel greatly resistant to deltamethrin. This double mutant channel remained sensitive to batrachotoxin (BTX), even though nearby residues S1276 and L1280 were critical for BTX action. We hypothesize that the deltamethrin receptor and the BTX receptor are situated at the middle but opposite surface of the D3-S6 alpha-helical structure. Another mutant, Nav1.4-I687M/N784K, exhibited a partial deltamethrin-resistant phenotype but was completely resistant to BTX. Consistent with the BTX-resistant phenotype of N784K and the known adjacent kdr mutation at position L785F, deltamethrin and BTX were probably situated next to each other upon binding at D2-S6. Evidently, distinct residues from multiple S6 segments were critical for deltamethrin and BTX actions. PMID:11502895

  18. Efficient near-infrared quantum cutting and downshift in Ce3+-Pr3+ codoped SrLaGa3S6O suitable for solar spectral converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gongguo; Cui, Qiuyu; Liu, Guodong

    2016-03-01

    A novel solar spectral converter SrLaGa3S6O:Ce3+, Pr3+ for Si solar cells is developed. The luminescence spectra and the decay curves were investigated. The results show that through dual-mode NIR downconversions mechanism (quantum cutting and downshift), it can almost convert UV-blue-red (250-625 nm) photons into an intense NIR emission (930-1060 nm), perfectly matching the maximum spectral response of Si solar cells. The solar utilization of Si solar cell has been greatly broadening and enhancing. We believe this phosphor may open a new route for designing an advanced solar spectral converter for Si solar cells.

  19. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein,