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Sample records for p70 s6 kinase

  1. Structural Basis of Human p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase-1 Regulation by Activation Loop Phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Tomoko; Byrne, Noel; Diehl, Ronald E.; Funabashi, Kaoru; Hall, Dawn L.; Ikuta, Mari; Patel, Sangita B.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Smith, Robert F.; Takahashi, Ikuko; Zugay-Murphy, Joan; Iwasawa, Yoshikazu; Lumb, Kevin J.; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Sharma, Sujata

    2010-03-04

    p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) is a downstream effector of the mTOR signaling pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell-cycle progression, and glucose homeostasis. Multiple phosphorylation events within the catalytic, autoinhibitory, and hydrophobic motif domains contribute to the regulation of p70S6K. We report the crystal structures of the kinase domain of p70S6K1 bound to staurosporine in both the unphosphorylated state and in the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-phosphorylated state in which Thr-252 of the activation loop is phosphorylated. Unphosphorylated p70S6K1 exists in two crystal forms, one in which the p70S6K1 kinase domain exists as a monomer and the other as a domain-swapped dimer. The crystal structure of the partially activated kinase domain that is phosphorylated within the activation loop reveals conformational ordering of the activation loop that is consistent with a role in activation. The structures offer insights into the structural basis of the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-induced activation of p70S6K and provide a platform for the rational structure-guided design of specific p70S6K inhibitors.

  2. Vascular tumors have increased p70 S6-kinase activation and are inhibited by topical rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Du, Wa; Gerald, Damien; Perruzzi, Carole A; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Enayati, Ladan; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Edmonds, Joseph; Hochman, Marcelo L; Lev, Dina C; Phung, Thuy L

    2013-10-01

    Vascular tumors are endothelial cell neoplasms whose cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to tumor formation, are poorly understood, and current therapies have limited efficacy with significant side effects. We have investigated mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in benign and malignant vascular tumors, and the effects of mTOR kinase inhibitor as a potential therapy for these lesions. Human vascular tumors (infantile hemangioma and angiosarcoma) were analyzed by immunohistochemical stains and western blot for the phosphorylation of p70 S6-kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6), which are activated downstream of mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1). To assess the function of S6K, tumor cells with genetic knockdown of S6K were analyzed for cell proliferation and migration. The effects of topical rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, on mTORC1 and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) activities, as well as on tumor growth and migration, were determined. Vascular tumors showed increased activation of S6K and S6. Genetic knockdown of S6K resulted in reduced tumor cell proliferation and migration. Rapamycin fully inhibited mTORC1 and partially inhibited mTORC2 activities, including the phosphorylation of Akt (serine 473) and PKC?, in vascular tumor cells. Rapamycin significantly reduced vascular tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. As a potential localized therapy for cutaneous vascular tumors, topically applied rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth with limited systemic drug absorption. These findings reveal the importance of mTOR signaling pathways in benign and malignant vascular tumors. The mTOR pathway is an important therapeutic target in vascular tumors, and topical mTOR inhibitors may provide an alternative and well-tolerated therapy for the treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. PMID:23938603

  3. Insulin stimulation of SREBP-1c processing in transgenic rat hepatocytes requires p70 S6-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Joshua L.; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Bae, Soo-Han; Farooqi, Midhat S.; Liang, Guosheng; Hammer, Robert E.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in liver, thereby increasing fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. We created a line of transgenic rats that produce epitope-tagged human SREBP-1c in liver under control of the constitutive apolipoprotein E promoter/enhancer. This system allows us to dissect the pathway by which insulin stimulates SREBP-1c processing without interference by the insulin-mediated increase in SREBP-1c mRNA. Rats are used because freshly isolated rat hepatocytes respond much more robustly to insulin than do mouse hepatocytes. The data reveal that insulin-mediated stimulation of SREBP-1c processing requires the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which also is required for insulin-mediated SREBP-1c mRNA induction. However, in contrast to mRNA induction, insulin stimulation of SREBP-1c processing is blocked by an inhibitor of p70 S6-kinase. The data indicate that the pathways for insulin enhancement of SREBP-1c mRNA and proteolytic processing diverge after mTORC1. Stimulation of processing requires the mTORC1 target p70 S6-kinase, whereas induction of mRNA bypasses this enzyme. Insulin stimulation of both processes is blocked by glucagon. The transgenic rat system will be useful in further defining the molecular mechanism for insulin stimulation of lipid synthesis in liver in normal and diabetic states. PMID:22927400

  4. Effects of electroacupuncture on the expression of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia?

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanzhen; Wang, Xuan; Ye, Xiaobao; Gao, Changhua; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying electroacupuncture therapy for vascular dementia through electroacupuncture at the acupoints of Baihui (DU20), Dazhui (DU14), and bilateral Shenshu (BL23) in a rat model of vascular dementia produced by bilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Morris water maze test showed that electroacupuncture improved the learning ability of vascular dementia rats. Western blot assay revealed that the expression of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 in vascular dementia rats was significantly increased after electroacupuncture, compared with the model group that was not treated with acupuncture. The average escape latency was also shortened after electroacupuncture, and escape strategies in the spatial probe test improved from edge and random searches, to linear and trending swim pathways. The experimental findings indicate that electroacupuncture improves learning and memory ability by up-regulating expression of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 in the hippocampus of vascular dementia rats. PMID:25767501

  5. Absence of ?-sarcoglycan alters the response of p70S6 kinase to mechanical perturbation in murine skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) is located at the sarcolemma of muscle fibers, providing structural integrity. Mutations in and loss of DGC proteins cause a spectrum of muscular dystrophies. When only the sarcoglycan subcomplex is absent, muscles display severe myofiber degeneration, but little susceptibility to contractile damage, suggesting that disease occurs not by structural deficits but through aberrant signaling, namely, loss of normal mechanotransduction signaling through the sarcoglycan complex. We extended our previous studies on mechanosensitive, ?-sarcoglycan-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation, to determine whether additional pathways are altered with the loss of ?-sarcoglycan. Methods We examined mechanotransduction in the presence and absence of ?-sarcoglycan, using C2C12 myotubes, and primary cultures and isolated muscles from C57Bl/6 (C57) and ?-sarcoglycan-null (?-SG-/-) mice. All were subjected to cyclic passive stretch. Signaling protein phosphorylation was determined by immunoblotting of lysates from stretched and non-stretched samples. Calcium dependence was assessed by maintaining muscles in calcium-free or tetracaine-supplemented Ringer’s solution. Dependence on mTOR was determined by stretching isolated muscles in the presence or absence of rapamycin. Results C2C12 myotube stretch caused a robust increase in P-p70S6K, but decreased P-FAK and P-ERK2. Neither Akt nor ERK1 were responsive to passive stretch. Similar but non-significant trends were observed in C57 primary cultures in response to stretch, and ?-SG-/- cultures displayed no p70S6K response. In contrast, in isolated muscles, p70S6K was mechanically responsive. Basal p70S6K activation was elevated in muscles of ?-SG-/- mice, in a calcium-independent manner. p70S6K activation increased with stretch in both C57 and ?-SG-/- isolated muscles, and was sustained in ?-SG-/- muscles, unlike the transient response in C57 muscles. Rapamycin treatment blocked all of p70S6K activation in stretched C57 muscles, and reduced downstream S6RP phosphorylation. However, even though rapamycin treatment decreased p70S6K activation in stretched ?-SG-/- muscles, S6RP phosphorylation remained elevated. Conclusions p70S6K is an important component of ?-sarcoglycan-dependent mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle. Our results suggest that loss of ?-sarcoglycan uncouples the response of p70S6K to stretch and implies that ?-sarcoglycan is important for inactivation of this pathway. Overall, we assert that altered load-sensing mechanisms exist in muscular dystrophies where the sarcoglycans are absent. PMID:25024843

  6. Resveratrol suppresses angiotensin II-induced Akt/protein kinase B and p70 S6 kinase phosphorylation and subsequent hypertrophy in rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ursula G B; Sorescu, Dan; Griendling, Kathy K; Vollmar, Angelika M; Dirsch, Verena M

    2002-10-01

    Resveratrol (RV), a polyphenolic substance found in grape skin, is proposed to account in part for the protective effect of red wine in the cardiovascular system. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a pivotal step in the development of cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that RV may alter Ang II-mediated hypertrophic VSMC growth and to identify the putative underlying signaling pathways. We show that RV indeed potently inhibits Ang II-induced [(3)H]leucine incorporation in a concentration-dependent manner (50 microM RV, 71% inhibition). Western blot analysis reveals that phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and to a lesser extent the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, both essentially involved in Ang II-mediated hypertrophy, is dose dependently reduced by RV. Consistent with these results, we show that RV attenuates phosphorylation of the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70(S6K)), a kinase downstream of the ERK 1/2 as well as the Akt pathway, that is implicated in Ang II-induced protein synthesis. Upstream of Akt/PKB RV seems to mediate its antihypertrophic effect by inhibiting phosphorylation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) rather than by activating phosphatases. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that RV inhibits Ang II-induced VSMC hypertrophy, possibly by interfering mainly with the PI(3)K/Akt and p70(S6K) but also with the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, this study delivers important new insight in the molecular pathways that may contribute to the proposed beneficial effects of RV in cardiovascular disease. PMID:12237323

  7. Specific activation of p85-p110 phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase stimulates DNA synthesis by ras- and p70 S6 kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, J; Chen, D; Wjasow, C; Michaeli, T; Backer, J M

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a polyclonal antibody that activates the heterodimeric p85-p110 phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase in vitro and in microinjected cells. Affinity purification revealed that the activating antibody recognized the N-terminal SH2 (NSH2) domain of p85, and the antibody increased the catalytic activity of recombinant p85-p110 dimers threefold in vitro. To study the role of endogenous PI 3'-kinase in intact cells, the activating anti-NSH2 antibody was microinjected into GRC + LR73 cells, a CHO cell derivative selected for tight quiescence during serum withdrawal. Microinjection of anti-NSH2 antibodies increased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation fivefold in quiescent cells and enhanced the response to serum. These data reflect a specific activation of PI 3'-kinase, as the effect was blocked by coinjection of the appropriate antigen (glutathione S-transferase-NSH2 domains from p85 alpha), coinjection of inhibitory anti-p110 antibodies, or treatment of cells with wortmannin. We used the activating antibodies to study signals downstream from PI 3'-kinase. Although treatment of cells with 50 nM rapamycin only partially decreased anti-NSH2-stimulated BrdU incorporation, coinjection with an anti-p70 S6 kinase antibody effectively blocked anti-NSH2-stimulated DNA synthesis. We also found that coinjection of inhibitory anti-ras antibodies blocked both serum- and anti-NSH2-stimulated BrdU incorporation by approximately 60%, and treatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of MEK abolished antibody-stimulated BrdU incorporation. We conclude that selective activation of physiological levels of PI 3'-kinase is sufficient to stimulate DNA synthesis in quiescent cells. PI 3'-kinase-mediated DNA synthesis requires both p70 S6 kinase and the P21ras/MEK pathway. PMID:8972205

  8. Identification of a Dual Inhibitor of Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase1 (S6K1) Pathways.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sanguine; Lim, Semi; Mun, Ji Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Ramadhar, Timothy R; Farrand, Lee; Shin, Seung Ho; Thimmegowda, N R; Lee, Hyong Joo; Frank, David A; Clardy, Jon; Lee, Sam W; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-25

    Bioactive phytochemicals can suppress the growth of malignant cells, and investigation of the mechanisms responsible can assist in the identification of novel therapeutic strategies for cancer therapy. Ginger has been reported to exhibit potent anti-cancer effects, although previous reports have often focused on a narrow range of specific compounds. Through a direct comparison of various ginger compounds, we determined that gingerenone A selectively kills cancer cells while exhibiting minimal toxicity toward normal cells. Kinase array screening revealed JAK2 and S6K1 as the molecular targets primarily responsible for gingerenone A-induced cancer cell death. The effect of gingerenone A was strongly associated with relative phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and S6K1, and administration of gingerenone A significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. More importantly, the combined inhibition of JAK2 and S6K1 by commercial inhibitors selectively induced apoptosis in cancer cells, whereas treatment with either agent alone did not. These findings provide rationale for dual targeting of JAK2 and S6K1 in cancer for a combinatorial therapeutic approach. PMID:26242912

  9. P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Shi, Zhumei; Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} P70S6K1 regulates VEGF expression; {yields} P70S6K1 induces transcriptional activation through HIF-1{alpha} binding site; {yields} P70S6K1 regulates HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression; {yields} P70S6K1 mediates tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression. -- Abstract: The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN-negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1{alpha} binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

  10. A first-in-human phase I trial of LY2780301, a dual p70 S6 kinase and Akt Inhibitor, in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Azaro, Analia; Rodon, Jordi; Calles, Antonio; Brańa, Irene; Hidalgo, Manuel; Lopez-Casas, Pedro P; Munoz, Manuel; Westwood, Paul; Miller, Joel; Moser, Brian A; Ohnmacht, Ute; Bumgardner, William; Benhadji, Karim A; Calvo, Emiliano

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this phase I study of LY2780301, a dual p70 S6 kinase and Akt inhibitor, was to determine the recommended phase II dose as a single agent in patients with advanced cancer. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic analyses, and co-clinical analyses in Avatar models. Eligible patients received total daily doses of LY2780301 100-500 mg, given orally as a single dose or divided into 2 doses for 28-day cycles. Dose escalation followed 3 + 3 design. The primary pharmacodynamic endpoint was inhibition of S6 assessed by skin and tumor biopsy. Thirty-two patients were treated. Common toxicities possibly related to treatment included constipation (19 %), fatigue (13 %), nausea (9 %), and diarrhea (9 %). Grade 3/4 toxicities potentially related to treatment were anemia (n = 2), increased alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) (n = 1), and increased gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (n = 1). One patient experienced best overall response of prolonged stable disease for 6 cycles. Plasma exposures of LY2780301 exceeded predicted efficacious exposures, but were not dose proportional. Among patients receiving 500 mg daily >50 % exhibited reduced S6 in skin biopsies at Day 8 of treatment, but the effect was not maintained. Plasma concentrations of LY2780301 and/or its metabolites were not correlated with S6 expression in the epidermis. There was minimal antitumor activity against the model, CRC 019. Avatar models showed minimal pharmacodynamic effects consistent with the observed antitumor effects. This study suggests a dose of LY2780301 500 mg QD for future studies. PMID:25902900

  11. Protective Role of p70S6K in Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Kechen; Kozar, Rosemary A.

    2012-01-01

    The mTOR signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival and in directing immune responses. As the intestinal epithelium displays rapid cell growth and differentiation and is an important immune regulatory organ, we hypothesized that mTOR may play an important role in the protection against intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which the mTOR pathway is altered by intestinal I/R, p70S6K, the major effector of the mTOR pathway, was investigated along with the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR and an immunosuppressant agent used clinically in transplant patients. In vitro experiments using an intestinal epithelial cell line and hypoxia/reoxygenation demonstrated that overexpression of p70S6K promoted cell growth and migration, and decreased cell apoptosis. Inhibition of p70S6K by rapamycin reversed these protective effects. In a mouse model of gut I/R, an increase of p70S6K activity was found by 5 min and remained elevated after 6 h of reperfusion. Inhibition of p70S6K by rapamycin worsened gut injury, promoted inflammation, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Importantly, rapamycin treated animals had a significantly increased mortality. These novel results demonstrate a key role of p70S6K in protection against I/R injury in the intestine and suggest a potential danger in using mTOR inhibitors in patients at risk for gut hypoperfusion. PMID:22848534

  12. Resistance to Selumetinib (AZD6244) in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines is Mediated by p70S6K and RPS6 Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Silvina; Tristante, Elena; Saceda, Miguel; Carbonell, Pablo; Mayor-López, Leticia; Carballo-Santana, Mar; Carrasco-García, Estefanía; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; García-Morales, Pilar; Carballo, Fernando; Ferragut, José A.; Martínez-Lacaci, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a MEK1/2 inhibitor that has gained interest as an anti-tumour agent. We have determined the degree of sensitivity/resistance to Selumetinib in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines using cell proliferation and soft agar assays. Sensitive cell lines underwent G1 arrest, whereas Selumetinib had no effect on the cell cycle of resistant cells. Some of the resistant cell lines showed high levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of serum. Selumetinib inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and RSK and had no effect on AKT phosphorylation in both sensitive and resistant cells. Furthermore, mutations in KRAS, BRAF, or PIK3CA were not clearly associated with Selumetinib resistance. Surprisingly, Selumetinib was able to inhibit phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in sensitive cell lines. However, p70S6K and RPS6 phosphorylation remained unaffected or even increased in resistant cells. Moreover, in some of the resistant cell lines p70S6K and RPS6 were phosphorylated in the absence of serum. Interestingly, colorectal primary cultures derived from tumours excised to patients exhibited the same behaviour than established cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of p70S6K using the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, the specific mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin and the specific p70S6K inhibitor PF-4708671 potentiated Selumetinib effects in resistant cells. In addition, biological inhibition of p70S6K using siRNA rendered responsiveness to Selumetinib in resistant cell lines. Furthermore, combination of p70S6K silencing and PF-47086714 was even more effective. We can conclude that p70S6K and its downstream target RPS6 are potential biomarkers of resistance to Selumetinib in colorectal cancer. PMID:25379021

  13. Roles of oxidative stress and the ERK1/2, PTEN and p70S6K signaling pathways in arsenite-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2015-12-15

    Studies show that arsenite induces oxidative stress and modifies cellular function via phosphorylation of proteins and inhibition of DNA repair enzymes. Autophagy, which has multiple physiological and pathological roles in cellular function, is initiated by oxidative stress and is regulated by the signaling pathways of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and extracellular signaling-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) that play important roles in oncogenesis. However, the effects of arsenite-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and on expression of related proteins are not fully understood. This study found that cells treated with sodium arsenite had reduced 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) and increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 in SV-40 immortalized human uroepithelial (SV-HUC-1) cells. Arsenite also increased the number of autophagosomes and increased levels of the autophagy markers Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B. Reactive oxygen species scavenger decreased arsenite-induced autophagy in SV-HUC-1 cells. Our previous work showed that arsenite induced phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study further showed that arsenite decreased phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) levels and increased phospho-p70S6 kinase (p-p70S6K) in SV-HUC-1 cells. However, both kinase inhibitor U0126 and the DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor 5-aza-deoxycytidine abolished the effect of arsenite on expressions of PTEN and p-p70S6K. These results show that autophagy induced by arsenite exposure is mediated by oxidative stress, which regulates activation of the PTEN, p70S6K and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Thus, this study clarifies the role of autophagy in arsenite-induced urothelial carcinogenesis. PMID:26432159

  14. D-Glucosamine inhibits proliferation of human cancer cells through inhibition of p70S6K

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Hyun-Ji; Lee, Jason S.; Song, Dae-Kyu; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Suh, Seong-Il; Park, Jong-Wook; Suh, Min-Ho; Baek, Won-Ki . E-mail: wonki@dsmc.or.kr

    2007-09-07

    Although D-glucosamine has been reported as an inhibitor of tumor growth both in vivo and in vitro, the mechanism for the anticancer effect of D-glucosamine is still unclear. Since there are several reports suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits protein synthesis, we examined whether D-glucosamine affects p70S6 K activity, an important signaling molecule involved in protein translation. In the present study, we found D-glucosamine inhibited the activity of p70S6K and the proliferation of DU145 prostate cancer cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. D-Glucosamine decreased phosphorylation of p70S6K, and its downstream substrates RPS6, and eIF-4B, but not mTOR and 4EBP1 in DU145 cells, suggesting that D-glucosamine induced inhibition of p70S6K is not through the inhibition of mTOR. In addition, D-glucosamine enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR. These findings suggest that D-glucosamine can inhibit growth of cancer cells through dephosphorylation of p70S6K.

  15. PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway Is Involved in A?25-35-Induced Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengnuo; Zhang, Bei; Luan, Ping; Gu, Beibei; Wan, Qing; Huang, Xiaoyun; Liao, Wang; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Disruption or deregulation of the autophagy system has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). A? plays an important role in this autophagic system. In many cases, autophagy is regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K) signaling pathway. However, whether this signaling pathway is involved in A?-induced autophagy in neuronal cells is not known. Here, we studied whether A?25-35 induces autophagy in HT22 cells and C57 mice and investigated whether PI3K is involved in the autophagy induction. We found that A?25-35 inhibited HT22 cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A?25-35 induced autophagosome formation, the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), and the suppression of the mTOR pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, A?25-35 impaired the learning abilities of C57 mice. Our study suggests that A?25-35 induces autophagy and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K pathway is involved in the process, which improves our understanding of the pathogenesis of AD and provides an additional model for AD research. PMID:26583091

  16. Palmitate activates mTOR/p70S6K through AMPK inhibition and hypophosphorylation of raptor in skeletal muscle cells: Reversal by oleate is similar to metformin.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bumsup; Querfurth, Henry W

    2015-11-01

    Excessive saturated free fatty acids (SFFAs; e.g. palmitate) in blood are a pathogenic factor in diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and liver failure. In contrast, monounsaturated free fatty acids (e.g. oleate) prevent the toxic effect of SFFAs in various types of cells. The mechanism is poorly understood and involvement of the mTOR complex is untested. In the present study, we demonstrate that oleate preconditioning, as well as coincubation, completely prevented palmitate-induced markers of inflammatory signaling, insulin resistance and cytotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes. We then examined the effect of palmitate and/or oleate on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal path and whether their link is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Palmitate decreased the phosphorylation of raptor and 4E-BP1 while increasing the phosphorylation of p70S6K. Palmitate also inhibited phosphorylation of AMPK, but did not change the phosphorylated levels of mTOR or rictor. Oleate completely prevented the palmitate-induced dysregulation of mTOR components and restored pAMPK whereas alone it produced no signaling changes. To understand this more, we show activation of AMPK by metformin also prevented palmitate-induced changes in the phosphorylations of raptor and p70S6K, confirming that the mTORC1/p70S6K signaling pathway is responsive to AMPK activity. By contrast, inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by Compound C worsened palmitate-induced changes and correspondingly blocked the protective effect of oleate. Finally, metformin modestly attenuated palmitate-induced insulin resistance and cytotoxicity, as did oleate. Our findings indicate that palmitate activates mTORC1/p70S6K signaling by AMPK inhibition and phosphorylation of raptor. Oleate reverses these effects through a metformin-like facilitation of AMPK. PMID:26344902

  17. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  18. TRAP1-dependent regulation of p70S6K is involved in the attenuation of protein synthesis and cell migration: relevance in human colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Matassa, Danilo Swann; Agliarulo, Ilenia; Amoroso, Maria Rosaria; Maddalena, Francesca; Sepe, Leandra; Ferrari, Maria Carla; Sagar, Vinay; D'Amico, Silvia; Loreni, Fabrizio; Paolella, Giovanni; Landriscina, Matteo; Esposito, Franca

    2014-12-01

    TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is an HSP90 chaperone involved in stress protection and apoptosis in mitochondrial and extramitochondrial compartments. Remarkably, aberrant deregulation of TRAP1 function has been observed in several cancer types with potential new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in humans. Although previous studies by our group identified novel roles of TRAP1 in quality control of mitochondria-destined proteins through the attenuation of protein synthesis, molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. To shed further light on the signaling pathways regulated by TRAP1 in the attenuation of protein synthesis, this study demonstrates that the entire pathway of cap-mediated translation is activated in cells following TRAP1 interference: consistently, expression and consequent phosphorylation of p70S6K and RSK1, two translation activating kinases, are increased upon TRAP1 silencing. Furthermore, we show that these regulatory functions affect the response to translational stress and cell migration in wound healing assays, processes involving both kinases. Notably, the regulatory mechanisms controlled by TRAP1 are conserved in colorectal cancer tissues, since an inverse correlation between TRAP1 and p70S6K expression is found in tumor tissues, thereby supporting the relevant role of TRAP1 translational regulation in vivo. Taken as a whole, these new findings candidate TRAP1 network for new anti-cancer strategies aimed at targeting the translational/quality control machinery of tumor cells. PMID:24962791

  19. Apelin-13 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Liu, Wei; Feng, Fen; Li, Xin; He, Lu; Lv, Deguan; Qin, Xuping; Li, Lifang; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2015-12-01

    Apelin is highly expressed in rat left ventricular hypertrophy Sprague Dawley rat models, and it plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular system. The aim this study was to clarify whether apelin-13 promotes hypertrophy in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes and to investigate its underlying mechanism. The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed by measuring the diameter, volume, and protein content of H9c2 cells. The activation of autophagy was evaluated by observing the morphology of autophagosomes by transmission electron microscopy, observing the subcellular localization of LC3 by light microscopy, and detecting the membrane-associated form of LC3 by western blot analysis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway was identified and the proteins expression was detected using western blot analysis. The results revealed that apelin-13 increased the diameter, volume, and protein content of H9c2 cells and promoted the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, and p70S6K. Apelin-13 activated the PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K pathway. PI3K inhibitor LY294002, Akt inhibitor 1701-1, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the increase of the cell diameter, volume, protein content induced by apelin-13. Apelin-13 increased the autophagosomes and up-regulated the expressions of beclin 1 and LC3-II/I both transiently and stably. The autophagy inhibitor 3MA ameliorated the increase of cell diameter, volume, and protein content that were induced by apelin-13. These results suggested that apelin-13 promotes H9c2 rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy. PMID:26607438

  20. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1? protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1? protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1?. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1?. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1? protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1? through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1? protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1? expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1? protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  1. Metformin Increases Sensitivity of Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Gemcitabine by Reducing CD133+ Cell Populations and Suppressing ERK/P70S6K Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Xinqun; Chu, Hongpeng; Yang, Xuan; Meng, Yuanpu; Shi, Pengfei; Gou, Shanmiao

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains dismal, with little advance in chemotherapy because of its high frequency of chemoresistance. Metformin is widely used to treat type II diabetes, and was shown recently to inhibit pancreatic cancer stem cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated the role of metformin in chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, and its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms. Metformin increases sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. The mechanism involves, at least in part, the inhibition of CD133+ cells proliferation and suppression of P70S6K signaling activation via inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. Studies of primary tumor samples revealed a relationship between P70S6K signaling activation and the malignancy of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of clinical data revealed a trend of the benefit of metformin for pancreatic cancer patients with diabetes. The results suggested that metformin has a potential clinical use in overcoming chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26391180

  2. Carnosine Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells by Retarding Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenwei; Miao, Lei; Wu, Xin; Liu, Guangze; Peng, Yuting; Xin, Xiaoming; Jiao, Binghua; Kong, Xiangping

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine), described as an enigmatic peptide for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially antiproliferation properties, has been demonstrated to play an anti-tumorigenic role in certain types of cancer. However, its function in human gastric carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, the effect of carnosine on cell proliferation and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in the cultured human gastric carcinoma cells. The mTOR signaling axis molecules were analyzed in carnosine treated cells. The results showed that treatment with carnosine led to proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, apoptosis increase, and inhibition of mTOR signaling activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, suggesting that proliferation inhibition of carnosine in human gastric carcinoma was through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and carnosine would be a mimic of rapamycin. PMID:24799956

  3. MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer and modulates cell growth and invasion by targeting p70S6K1 and MUC1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huijuan; Xiao, ZhengHua; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer. •MiR-145 targets p70S6K1 and MUC1. •p70S6K1 and MUC1 are involved in miR-145 mediated tumor cell growth and cell invasion, respectively. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Previous studies have shown that miR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer; however, the roles of miR-145 in ovarian cancer growth and invasion have not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that miR-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as in serum samples of ovarian cancer, compared to healthy ovarian tissues, cell lines and serum samples. Functional studies suggest that miR-145 overexpression leads to the inhibition of colony formation, cell proliferation, cell growth viability and invasion, and the induction of cell apoptosis. In accordance with the effect of miR-145 on cell growth, miR-145 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. MiR-145 is found to negatively regulate P70S6K1 and MUC1 protein levels by directly targeting their 3?UTRs. Importantly, the overexpression of p70S6K1 and MUC1 can restore the cell colony formation and invasion abilities that are reduced by miR-145, respectively. MiR-145 expression is increased after 5-aza-CdR treatment, and 5-aza-CdR treatment results in the same phenotype as the effect of miR-145 overexpression. Our study suggests that miR-145 modulates ovarian cancer growth and invasion by suppressing p70S6K1 and MUC1, functioning as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, our data imply that miR-145 has potential as a miRNA-based therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  4. ?-santalol inhibits the angiogenesis and growth of human prostate tumor growth by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitors, as efficient antiangiogenesis agents, have been applied in the cancer treatment. However, recently, most of these anticancer drugs have some adverse effects. Discovery of novel VEGFR2 inhibitors as anticancer drug candidates is still needed. Methods We used ?-santalol and analyzed its inhibitory effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Prostate tumor cells (PC-3 or LNCaP) in vitro. Tumor xenografts in nude mice were used to examine the in vivo activity of ?-santalol. Results ?-santalol significantly inhibits HUVEC proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation. Western blot analysis indicated that ?-santalol inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 kinase and the downstream protein kinases including AKT, ERK, FAK, Src, mTOR, and pS6K in HUVEC, PC-3 and LNCaP cells. ?-santalol treatment inhibited ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis as evident by rat aortic and sponge implant angiogenesis assay. ?-santalol significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model. The antiangiogenic effect by CD31 immunohistochemical staining indicated that ?-santalol inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. Furthermore, ?-santalol reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, mTOR and P70S6K expressions. Molecular docking simulation indicated that ?-santalol form hydrogen bonds and aromatic interactions within the ATP-binding region of the VEGFR2 kinase unit. Conclusion ?-santalol inhibits angiogenesis by targeting VEGFR2 regulated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway, and could be used as a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:24261856

  5. Regulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases by ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mong-Lien; Panasyuk, Ganna; Gwalter, Jodie; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Fenton, Tim; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan

    2008-05-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is a key player in the regulation of cell growth and energy metabolism via the mTOR and PI3K signalling pathways. The activity and subcellular localization of S6K are regulated by multiple S/T phosphorylations in response to diverse extracellular stimuli. Downregulation of S6K signalling occurs through the action of S/T phosphatases (PP2A and PP1) and tumor suppressors (TSC1/2 and PTEN). We report here that, in addition to phosphorylation, S6Ks are ubiquitinated in cells. The pattern of ubiquitination and the effect of proteasomal inhibitors on the steady-state level of transiently overexpressed and endogenous S6Ks point to proteasome-mediated degradation of ubiquitinated S6Ks. Furthermore, we found that the site(s) of ubiquitination are located in the kinase domain and that the N- and C-terminal regulatory regions modulate the efficiency of S6K ubiquitination. This study suggests that S6K signalling also could be regulated through the proteasome-mediated turnover of S6Ks. PMID:18280803

  6. Berberine regulates proliferation, collagen synthesis and cytokine secretion of cardiac fibroblasts via AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Fen; Chen, Manhua; Yu, Bo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Guizhong; Gui, Feng; Liu, Zhenxing; Bai, Xiangyan; Chen, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The traditional Chinese medicinal berberine has long been used to treat cardiovascular diseases; however, the mechanism underlying its effects remains unclear. Here, this study would to investigate the effects of berberine on proliferation, collagen synthesis and cytokine secretion of cardiac fibroblasts. Methods: We assessed proliferation, collagen synthesis and cytokine secretion in cardiac fibroblasts subjected to angiotensin II (Ang II) subsequent to the consumption of berberine or a control treatment. And then we detected the role of AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in berberine treatment of cardiac fibroblasts. Results: In the present study, the cellular behaviors of cardiac fibroblasts induced by Ang II were significantly activated including proliferation, transformation into myofibroblasts and collagen synthesis. Additionally, the ability of cytokine secretion was enhanced obviously. It was demonstrated that treatment of cardiac fibroblasts with berberine resulted in deceased proliferation, and attenuated fibroblast ?-smooth muscle actin expression and collagen synthesis. And the protein secretion of TGF?1 was inhibited; however, the protein secretion of IL-10 was increased in cardiac fibroblasts with berberine treatment. Mechanistically, the phosphorylation level of AMPK was increased; and the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and p70S6K were decreased in berberine treatment group. Conclusion: These results illustrated that the protective effects of berberine on cellular behaviors of cardiac fibroblasts were at least in part due to activate AMPK signaling pathway and downregulate mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. Berberine might become a new strategy for treating cardiac fibrosis in the future. PMID:26722438

  7. Metabolic Control by S6 Kinases Depends on Dietary Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Castańeda, Tamara R.; Abplanalp, William; Um, Sung Hee; Pfluger, Paul T.; Schrott, Brigitte; Brown, Kimberly; Grant, Erin; Carnevalli, Larissa; Benoit, Stephen C.; Morgan, Donald A.; Gilham, Dean; Hui, David Y.; Rahmouni, Kamal; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted deletion of S6 kinase (S6K) 1 in mice leads to higher energy expenditure and improved glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we analyze the potential role of dietary lipids in regulating the mTORC1/S6K system. Analysis of S6K phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro showed that dietary lipids activate S6K, and this effect is not dependent upon amino acids. Comparison of male mice lacking S6K1 and 2 (S6K-dko) with wt controls showed that S6K-dko mice are protected against obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high-fat diet. S6K-dko mice fed a high-fat diet had increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance, lower fat mass gain, and changes in markers of lipid metabolism. Importantly, however, these metabolic phenotypes were dependent upon dietary lipids, with no such effects observed in S6K-dko mice fed a fat-free diet. These changes appear to be mediated via modulation of cellular metabolism in skeletal muscle, as shown by the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that the metabolic functions of S6K in vivo play a key role as a molecular interface connecting dietary lipids to the endogenous control of energy metabolism. PMID:22412899

  8. Cross-talk between Sirtuin and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Signaling in the Regulation of S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1) Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sungki; Zhao, Bin; Lombard, David B.; Fingar, Diane C.; Inoki, Ken

    2014-01-01

    p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1), a major substrate of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, regulates diverse cellular processes including protein synthesis, cell growth, and survival. Although it is well known that the activity of S6K1 is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation status, the regulation of S6K1 activity by other post-translational modifications such as acetylation has not been well understood. Here we show that the acetylation of the C-terminal region (CTR) of S6K1 blocks mTORC1-dependent Thr-389 phosphorylation, an essential phosphorylation site for S6K1 activity. The acetylation of the CTR of S6K1 is inhibited by the class III histone deacetylases, SIRT1 and SIRT2. An S6K1 mutant lacking acetylation sites in its CTR shows enhanced Thr-389 phosphorylation and kinase activity, whereas the acetylation-mimetic S6K1 mutant exhibits decreased Thr-389 phosphorylation and kinase activity. Interestingly, relative to the acetylation-mimetic S6K1 mutant, the acetylation-defective mutant displays higher affinity toward Raptor, an essential scaffolding component of mTORC1 that recruits mTORC1 substrates. These observations indicate that sirtuin-mediated regulation of S6K1 acetylation is an additional important regulatory modification that impinges on the mechanisms underlying mTORC1-dependent S6K1 activation. PMID:24652283

  9. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 signaling in prefrontal cortex controls depressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Jason M; Maldonado-Avilés, Jaime G; Lepack, Ashley E; DiLeone, Ralph J; Duman, Ronald S

    2015-05-12

    Current treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) have a time lag and are ineffective for a large number of patients. Development of novel pharmacological therapies requires a comprehensive understanding of the molecular events that contribute to MDD pathophysiology. Recent evidence points toward aberrant activity of synaptic proteins as a critical contributing factor. In the present studies, we used viral-mediated gene transfer to target a key mediator of activity-dependent synaptic protein synthesis downstream of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) known as p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Targeted delivery of two mutants of S6K1, constitutively active or dominant-negative, to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats allowed control of the mTORC1/S6K1 translational pathway. Our results demonstrate that increased expression of S6K1 in the mPFC produces antidepressant effects in the forced swim test without altering locomotor activity. Moreover, expression of active S6K1 in the mPFC blocked the anhedonia caused by chronic stress, resulting in a state of stress resilience. This antidepressant response was associated with increased neuronal complexity caused by enhanced S6K1 activity. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative S6K1 in the mPFC resulted in prodepressive behavior in the forced swim test and was sufficient to cause anhedonia in the absence of chronic stress exposure. Together, these data demonstrate a critical role for S6K1 activity in depressive behaviors, and suggest that pathways downstream of mTORC1 may underlie the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD. PMID:25918363

  10. Protein Kinase C Phosphorylates Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase ?II and Regulates Its Subcellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Valovka, Taras; Verdier, Frederique; Cramer, Rainer; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Fenton, Timothy; Rebholz, Heike; Wang, Mong-Lien; Gzhegotsky, Miechyslav; Lutsyk, Alexander; Matsuka, Genadiy; Filonenko, Valeriy; Wang, Lijun; Proud, Christopher G.; Parker, Peter J.; Gout, Ivan T.

    2003-01-01

    The ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) belongs to the AGC family of Ser/Thr kinases and is known to be involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. There are two forms of S6K, termed S6K? and S6K?, which have cytoplasmic and nuclear splice variants. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling has been recently proposed for S6K?, based on the use of the nuclear export inhibitor, leptomycin B. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating subcellular localization of S6Ks in response to mitogenic stimuli remain to be elucidated. Here we present data on the in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation of S6K?, but not S6K?, by protein kinase C (PKC). The site of phosphorylation was identified as S486, which is located within the C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Mutational analysis and the use of phosphospecific antibodies provided evidence that PKC-mediated phosphorylation at S486 does not affect S6K activity but eliminates the function of its nuclear localization signal and causes retention of an activated form of the kinase in the cytoplasm. Taken together, this study uncovers a novel mechanism for the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of S6K?II by PKC-mediated phosphorylation. PMID:12529391

  11. Tanshinone IIA Inhibits HIF-1? and VEGF Expression in Breast Cancer Cells via mTOR/p70S6K/RPS6/4E-BP1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guobing; Shan, Changyu; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Xiaoye; Chen, Yibiao; Cui, Hongjuan; Gao, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play important roles in angiogenesis and tumor growth. Tanshinone IIA (T2A) is a novel antiangiogenic agent with promising antitumor effects; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic effects of T2A remains unclear. In the present study, we provided evidence showing that T2A inhibited angiogenesis and breast cancer growth by down-regulating VEGF expression. Specifically, T2A repressed HIF-1? expression at the translational level and inhibited the transcriptional activity of HIF-1?, which led to the down-regulation of VEGF expression. Suppression of HIF-1? synthesis by T2A correlated with strong dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its effectors ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), a pathway regulating HIF-1? expression at the translational level. In addition, we also found that T2A inhibited the angiogenesis and growth of human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice through suppression of HIF-1? and VEGF. Our study provides novel perspectives and potential targets for the treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:25659153

  12. Broussonetia kazinoki modulates the expression of VEGFR-2 and MMP-2 through the inhibition of ERK, Akt and p70S6K?dependent signaling pathways: Its implication in endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tubular formation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Rak; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Ahn, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Hye-Jin; In, Jae Kyung; Lee, Sang-Jin; Bae, Gyu-Un; Kim, Yong Kee; Oh, Joa Sub; Seo, Dong-Wan

    2014-10-01

    Broussonetia kazinoki (BK) has been used as a traditional medicine to improve vision, as well as for inflammatory and infectious diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanism of the ethanolic extract of BK on cell proliferation, migration and tubular formation in vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. BK treatment inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation through the downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins including cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins. Moreover, BK treatment suppressed cell migration and tubular formation in response to VEGF-A. These anti-angiogenic activities of BK were associated with the inactivation of mitogenic signaling pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt and p70S6K, and the subsequent downregulation of VEGFR-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Taken together, these findings suggest further evaluation and development of BK as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of angiogenesis-related diseases including cancer. PMID:25109823

  13. Melittin Suppresses HIF-1?/VEGF Expression through Inhibition of ERK and mTOR/p70S6K Pathway in Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Ji; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Chung, Il-Kyung; Lee, In-Kyu; Kwak, Jong-Young; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    Objective Melittin (MEL), a major component of bee venom, has been associated with various diseases including arthritis, rheumatism and various cancers. In this study, the anti-angiogenic effects of MEL in CaSki cells that were responsive to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) were examined. Methodology/Principal Findings MEL decreased the EGF-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) protein and significantly regulated angiogenesis and tumor progression. We found that inhibition of the HIF-1? protein level is due to the shortened half-life by MEL. Mechanistically, MEL specifically inhibited the EGF-induced HIF-1? expression by suppressing the phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR and p70S6K. It also blocked the EGF-induced DNA binding activity of HIF-1? and the secretion of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that MEL reduced the binding of HIF-1? to the VEGF promoter HRE region. The anti-angiogenesis effects of MEL were confirmed through a matrigel plus assay. Conclusions MEL specifically suppressed EGF-induced VEGF secretion and new blood vessel formation by inhibiting HIF-1?. These results suggest that MEL may inhibit human cervical cancer progression and angiogenesis by inhibiting HIF-1? and VEGF expression. PMID:23936001

  14. A Xenopus ribosomal protein S6 kinase has two apparent kinase domains that are each similar to distinct protein kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S W; Erikson, E; Blenis, J; Maller, J L; Erikson, R L

    1988-01-01

    We report the molecular cloning of cDNAs for S6 kinase II (S6KII) mRNAs present in Xenopus ovarian tissue. Two cDNAs were isolated by hybridization to oligonucleotide probes designed to encode tryptic peptides isolated from S6KII. The two cDNAs show 91% sequence similarity to each other. These two cDNAs predict proteins of 733 (S6KII alpha) and 629 (S6KII beta) amino acids that show 95% sequence similarity over the 629 amino acids where they are colinear. Amino acids 44-733 of S6KII alpha were expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was used to raise antiserum in rabbits. This antiserum reacted with authentic S6KII prepared from Xenopus eggs. This interaction was specifically blocked by the recombinant protein from E. coli. The sequences of S6KII alpha and -beta predict four tryptic peptides whose sequences are identical to four peptides isolated from a tryptic digest of S6KII. The S6KII proteins have a very unusual structure when compared with previously studied protein kinases. They contain two apparent kinase domains, each similar to distinct protein kinases. The amino-terminal 366 amino acids show high sequence similarity to the regions of protein kinase C, the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase that contain the sites for ATP binding and are believed to be the catalytic centers for phosphotransferase activity. The remainder of the S6 kinase molecule shows high sequence similarity to the ATP-binding and presumed catalytic domain of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase b kinase. Images PMID:3368449

  15. Characterization of an activated ribosomal S6 kinase variant from maturing sea star oocytes: association with phosphatase 2A and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Charlton, L A; Sayed, M; Clark-Lewis, I; Aebersold, R; Pelech, S L

    1999-11-01

    Two ribosomal protein S6 kinases (i.e., pp52(S6K) and pp70(S6K)) of the p70 S6 kinase family were markedly activated during meiotic maturation of Pisaster ochraceus sea star oocytes. A rapid protocol was developed for the purification from the oocyte cytosol of pp52(S6K) by approximately 50,000-fold with a specific enzyme activity of 1.6 micromol per min per mg. The purified enzyme apparently featured the N- and C-terminal regions of pp70(S6K) as it immunoreacted with antibodies directed to peptides patterned after these amino acid sequences in mammalian pp70(S6K). pp52(S6K) was inhibited by fluoride (IC(50) approximately 60 mM), but was relatively insensitive to beta-glycerolphosphate, EGTA, dithiothreitol, spermine, heparin, NaCl, and metal ions such as Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Ca(2+). The consensus sequence for substrate phosphorylation was determined to be RXXSXR, which was partially distinct from mammalian p70(S6K) in its requirement for an amino-terminal arginine. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 by p52(S6K) occurred exclusively on serine on at least five tryptic peptides. Inhibition of sea star p52(S6K) phosphotransferase activity after treatment with protein serine/threonine phosphatases confirmed that p52(S6K) was still regulated by phosphorylation. The sea star S6 kinase was purified to near homogeneity with the regulatory and catalytic subunits of protein-serine phosphatase 2A and the heat shock protein 60. The association of an S6 kinase with phosphatase 2A was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of S6 kinase activity with phosphatase 2A-specific antibodies. The purified S6 kinase and the sea star oocyte system will be useful for analysis of upstream and downstream signaling events that lead to phosphorylation of the S6 protein and other targets. PMID:10502303

  16. Activation of an S6 kinase from rat astroglial cells by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Pierre, M; Gavaret, J M; Matricon, C; Pomerance, M; Jacquemin, C; Toru-Delbauffe, D

    1988-02-15

    Forskolin and isoproterenol, agonists of adenylate cyclase activity, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, stimulated an S6 kinase activity in astroglial cells. This activity was insensitive to the thermostable inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and had the same behaviour on a DEAE-Sephacel column as the mitogen stimulated S6 kinase. These observations support the idea that the cyclic AMP cascade, as well as various growth factors, can activate S6 kinase. PMID:2830139

  17. Silencing of angiotensin II type-1 receptor inhibits high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells via inactivation of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Quanyou; Hou, Fangli

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF), which is one of hallmark pathological feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Angiotensin II via its type-1 receptor AT1R is involved in the development of TIF. The purpose of our study was aimed to investigate the effect of silencing of AT1R on EMT and elucidate the possible mechanism underling these effects. EMT was induced by high glucose (HG) in human proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2 cells. The mRNA levels of AT1R were determined. The expression of AT1R was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). After transfection with siAT1R, cell viability and expression levels of epithelial cell marker (epithelial (E)-cadherin), mesenchymal cell marker (alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA)), four transcriptional factors (snail, slug, twist, and ZEB-1) were determined, as well as the roles of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6K signaling pathway. The levels of AT1R were significantly higher after exposure to HG (P < 0.05). Transfection with siAT1R had no effect on cell viability, but reversed HG-induced EMT by up-regulation of E-cadherin expression and decrease of ?-SMA, snail, and twist levels. MTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway was highly activated in HK-2 cells cultured under HG, but was inhibited by transfection with siAT1R. Our results suggest that silencing of AT1R inhibits EMT induced by HG in HK-2 cells via inactivation of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. Silencing of AT1R might be a new strategy to treat DN. PMID:26626074

  18. S6 kinase 1 is required for rapamycin-sensitive liver proliferation after mouse hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Espeillac, Catherine; Mitchell, Claudia; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Chauvin, Céline; Koka, Vonda; Gillet, Cynthia; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.; Desdouets, Chantal; Pende, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Rapamycin is an antibiotic inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation by acting on target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase. Mammalian TOR (mTOR) is thought to work through 2 independent complexes to regulate cell size and cell replication, and these 2 complexes show differential sensitivity to rapamycin. Here we combine functional genetics and pharmacological treatments to analyze rapamycin-sensitive mTOR substrates that are involved in cell proliferation and tissue regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice. After hepatectomy, hepatocytes proliferated rapidly, correlating with increased S6 kinase phosphorylation, while treatment with rapamycin derivatives impaired regeneration and blocked S6 kinase activation. In addition, genetic deletion of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) caused a delay in S phase entry in hepatocytes after hepatectomy. The proliferative defect of S6K1-deficient hepatocytes was cell autonomous, as it was also observed in primary cultures and hepatic overexpression of S6K1-rescued proliferation. We found that S6K1 controlled steady-state levels of cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) mRNA in liver, and cyclin D1 expression was required to promote hepatocyte cell cycle. Notably, in vivo overexpression of cyclin D1 was sufficient to restore the proliferative capacity of S6K-null livers. The identification of an S6K1-dependent mechanism participating in cell proliferation in vivo may be relevant for cancer cells displaying high mTOR complex 1 activity and cyclin D1 accumulation. PMID:21633171

  19. Activation of S6 kinase in astroglial cells by FGFa and FGFb.

    PubMed

    Gavaret, J M; Matricon, C; Pomerance, M; Jacquemin, C; Toru-Delbauffe, D; Pierre, M

    1989-01-01

    Basic (b) and acidic (a) forms of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) promoted a rapid increase of the cytosolic S6 kinase activity in astroglial cells. S6 kinase activity was maximal 10 min after addition of the factors to cell cultures and remained at this level for at least 30 min. Half-activation of the enzyme was obtained with 3 ng/ml FGFa. Heparin (100 micrograms/ml) potentiated the response to suboptimal concentrations of FGFa. This growth factor appeared to stimulate an astroglial S6 kinase resembling that stimulated by insulin, IGF1, TPA and cAMP. Although FGFb is more potent than FGFa in stimulating proliferation of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (CCL39), it was not more efficient than FGFa in stimulating the S6 kinase activity of astroglial cells. PMID:2537162

  20. Structure of S6 Kinase 1 Determines whether Raptor-

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    , Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 The mTOR protein kinase is the target of the immu- nosuppressive and anti-cancer receptor FKBP12, the immunosuppressant and anti-cancer compound rapamycin interacts with the rap- tor-labeled anti-mouse, anti-goat, and anti-rabbit sec- ondary antibodies from Santa Cruz Biotechnology; raptor

  1. Early effect of BCNU on rat astrocytes. Inhibition of S6 kinase activation by growth factors.

    PubMed

    Pierre, M; Pomerance, M; Gavaret, J M; Mousset, S; Toru-Delbauffe, D; Pierre, J

    1991-07-15

    In primary cultures of astrocytes, methylmethane, 2-N-methyl 9-hydroxy-ellepticinium acetate, ditercalinium, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea and 1,3 bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) blocked to various extents the activation of S6 kinase by acidic fibroblast growth factor and insulin [or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)]. The effects of the most active agent, BCNU, were time and concentration dependent. Pretreatment of cells with 50 microM BCNU for 1 hr completely prevented S6 kinase activation by growth factors for at least 2 days. The S6 kinase activity of unstimulated cells was slightly affected. S6 kinase activation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13 acetate was also strongly impaired by treating cells with BCNU whereas activation by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP was slightly reduced. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and phospholipid and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase were unaffected. BCNU had no direct effect on IGF1 binding to cell surface receptors or on the S6 kinase activity of cell cytosols. PMID:1713461

  2. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Hyun . E-mail: ihpark@uiuc.edu; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-09-10

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector.

  3. Drosophila S6 Kinase Like Inhibits Neuromuscular Junction Growth by Downregulating the BMP Receptor Thickveins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoli; Wu, Yingga; Du, Li; Li, Wenhua; Xiong, Ying; Yao, Aiyu; Wang, Qifu; Zhang, Yong Q.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic connections must be precisely controlled to ensure proper neural circuit formation. In Drosophila melanogaster, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) promotes growth of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by binding and activating the BMP ligand receptors wishful thinking (Wit) and thickveins (Tkv) expressed in motor neurons. We report here that an evolutionally conserved, previously uncharacterized member of the S6 kinase (S6K) family S6K like (S6KL) acts as a negative regulator of BMP signaling. S6KL null mutants were viable and fertile but exhibited more satellite boutons, fewer and larger synaptic vesicles, larger spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potential (mEJP) amplitudes, and reduced synaptic endocytosis at the NMJ terminals. Reducing the gene dose by half of tkv in S6KL mutant background reversed the NMJ overgrowth phenotype. The NMJ phenotypes of S6KL mutants were accompanied by an elevated level of Tkv protein and phosphorylated Mad, an effector of the BMP signaling pathway, in the nervous system. In addition, Tkv physically interacted with S6KL in cultured S2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of S6KL enhanced Tkv expression, while S6KL overexpression downregulated Tkv in cultured S2 cells. This latter effect was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Our results together demonstrate for the first time that S6KL regulates synaptic development and function by facilitating proteasomal degradation of the BMP receptor Tkv. PMID:25748449

  4. Development of monoclonal antibodies specific to ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Savinska, Lilia; Skorokhod, Oleksandr; Klipa, Olga; Gout, Ivan; Filonenko, Valeriy

    2012-08-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the family of AGC kinases, which includes PKB/Akt, PKC, PDK1, and SGK1. Mammalian cells express two isoforms of S6K, termed S6K1 and S6K2. Each of these has nuclear and cytoplasmic spicing variants, which originate from different initiation start codons. Nuclear isoforms of S6K1 and S6K2 are slightly longer, as they possess additional sequences at the N-terminus with nuclear localization signals. Biochemical and genetic studies implicated S6Ks in the regulation of cell size, growth, and energy metabolism. Deregulation of S6K signaling has been linked to various human pathologies, making them excellent targets for drug discovery. The aim of this study was to produce monoclonal antibodies directed at the N-terminal regulatory region of S6K2, which shows very low homology to S6K1 or other members of the AGC family. To achieve this goal, two S6K2 fragments covering 1-64aa and 14-64aa N-terminal sequences were expressed in bacteria as GST/6His fusion proteins. Affinity purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens for immunization, hybridoma screening, and analysis of generated clones. We produced a panel of S6K2-specific antibodies, which recognized recombinant S6K2 proteins in ELISA and Western blot analysis. Further analysis of selected clones revealed that three clones, termed B1, B2, and B4, specifically recognized not only recombinant, but also endogenous S6K2 in Western blot analysis of HEK293 cell lysates. Specificity of B2 clone has been confirmed in additional commonly used immunoassays, including immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry. These properties make B2 MAb particularly valuable for elucidating signal transduction pathways involving S6K2 signaling under physiological conditions and in human pathologies. PMID:22894784

  5. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Savinska, Lilia; Skorokhod, Oleksandr; Klipa, Olga; Gout, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the family of AGC kinases, which includes PKB/Akt, PKC, PDK1, and SGK1. Mammalian cells express two isoforms of S6K, termed S6K1 and S6K2. Each of these has nuclear and cytoplasmic spicing variants, which originate from different initiation start codons. Nuclear isoforms of S6K1 and S6K2 are slightly longer, as they possess additional sequences at the N-terminus with nuclear localization signals. Biochemical and genetic studies implicated S6Ks in the regulation of cell size, growth, and energy metabolism. Deregulation of S6K signaling has been linked to various human pathologies, making them excellent targets for drug discovery. The aim of this study was to produce monoclonal antibodies directed at the N-terminal regulatory region of S6K2, which shows very low homology to S6K1 or other members of the AGC family. To achieve this goal, two S6K2 fragments covering 1–64aa and 14–64aa N-terminal sequences were expressed in bacteria as GST/6His fusion proteins. Affinity purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens for immunization, hybridoma screening, and analysis of generated clones. We produced a panel of S6K2-specific antibodies, which recognized recombinant S6K2 proteins in ELISA and Western blot analysis. Further analysis of selected clones revealed that three clones, termed B1, B2, and B4, specifically recognized not only recombinant, but also endogenous S6K2 in Western blot analysis of HEK293 cell lysates. Specificity of B2 clone has been confirmed in additional commonly used immunoassays, including immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry. These properties make B2 MAb particularly valuable for elucidating signal transduction pathways involving S6K2 signaling under physiological conditions and in human pathologies. PMID:22894784

  6. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 interacts with and is ubiquitinated by ubiquitin ligase ROC1.

    PubMed

    Panasyuk, Ganna; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan

    2008-05-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is involved in the regulation of cell growth and cellular metabolism. The activation of S6K in response to diverse extracellular stimuli is mediated by multiple phosphorylations coordinated by the mTOR and PI3K signaling pathways. We have recently found that both forms of S6K are modified by ubiquitination. Following these findings, we demonstrate here for the first time that S6K1 associates specifically with ubiquitin ligase ROC1 in vitro and in vivo. The interaction was initially identified in the yeast two-hybrid screening and further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Furthermore, the overexpression of ROC1 leads to an increase in S6K1 ubiquitination. Consistent with this observation, we showed that the steady-state level of S6K1 is regulated by ROC1, since downregulation of ROC1 by specific siRNA promotes stabilization of S6K1 protein. The results suggest the involvement of ROC1 in S6K1 ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. PMID:18279656

  7. Phenformin Induces Cell Cycle Change, Apoptosis, and Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition and Regulates the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Ren, Lidong; Liu, Chenghao; Xia, Tiansong; Zha, Xiaoming; Wang, Shui

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a world-wide challenge, and additional anti-cancer therapies are still urgently needed. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the potent anti-tumor effect of biguanides, among which phenformin was reported to potentially be a more active anti-cancer agent than metformin. However, little attention has been given to the role of phenformin in breast cancer. In this study, we reveal the role of phenformin in cell death of the MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 breast cancer cell lines. The respective IC50 values of phenformin in MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 cells were 1.184±0.045 mM, 0.665±0.007 mM, 2.347±0.010 mM and 1.885±0.015 mM (mean± standard error). Phenformin induced cell cycle change and apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK pathways. Interestingly, phenformin induced MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition) and decreased the migration rate in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, our results suggest that phenformin inhibits breast cancer cell metastasis after intracardiac injection into nude mice. Taken together, our study further confirms the potential benefit of phenformin in breast cancer treatment and provides novel mechanistic insight into its anti-cancer activity in breast cancer. PMID:26114294

  8. Chronic resistance training decreases MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 gene expression but does not modify Akt, GSK-3beta and p70S6K levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Nelo Eidy; de Siqueira Filho, Mário Alves; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rosa, José Cesar; Yamashita, Alex Shimura; de Oliveira Carvalho, Carla Roberta; Seelaender, Marilia; Lancha-Jr, Antonio Herbert

    2009-06-01

    Long-term adaptation to resistance training is probably due to the cumulative molecular effects of each exercise session. Therefore, we studied in female Wistar rats the molecular effects of a chronic resistance training regimen (3 months) leading to skeletal muscle hypertrophy in the plantaris muscle. Our results demonstrated that muscle proteolytic genes MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 were significantly decreased in the exercised group measured 24 h after the last resistance exercise session (41.64 and 61.19%, respectively; P < 0.05). Nonetheless, when measured at the same time point, 4EBP-1, GSK-3beta and eIF2Bepsilon mRNA levels and Akt, GSK-3beta and p70S6K protein levels (regulators of translation initiation) were not modified. Such data suggests that if gene transcription constitutes a control point in the protein synthesis pathway this regulation probably occurs in early adaptation periods or during extreme situations leading to skeletal muscle remodeling. However, proteolytic gene expression is modified even after a prolonged resistance training regimen leading to moderate skeletal muscle hypertrophy. PMID:19306017

  9. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/S6 Kinase 1 Signals Influence T Cell Activation Independently of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Salmond, Robert J; Brownlie, Rebecca J; Meyuhas, Oded; Zamoyska, Rose

    2015-11-15

    Ag-dependent activation of naive T cells induces dramatic changes in cellular metabolism that are essential for cell growth, division, and differentiation. In recent years, the serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a key integrator of signaling pathways that regulate these metabolic processes. However, the role of specific downstream effectors of mTOR function in T cells is poorly understood. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is an essential component of the ribosome and is inducibly phosphorylated following mTOR activation in eukaryotic cells. In the current work, we addressed the role of phosphorylation of rpS6 as an effector of mTOR function in T cell development, growth, proliferation, and differentiation using knockin and TCR transgenic mice. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that rpS6 phosphorylation is not required for any of these processes either in vitro or in vivo. Indeed, rpS6 knockin mice are completely sensitive to the inhibitory effects of rapamycin and an S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)-specific inhibitor on T cell activation and proliferation. These results place the mTOR complex 1-S6K1 axis as a crucial determinant of T cell activation independently of its ability to regulate rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26453749

  10. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/S6 Kinase 1 Signals Influence T Cell Activation Independently of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, Robert J.; Brownlie, Rebecca J.; Meyuhas, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Ag-dependent activation of naive T cells induces dramatic changes in cellular metabolism that are essential for cell growth, division, and differentiation. In recent years, the serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a key integrator of signaling pathways that regulate these metabolic processes. However, the role of specific downstream effectors of mTOR function in T cells is poorly understood. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is an essential component of the ribosome and is inducibly phosphorylated following mTOR activation in eukaryotic cells. In the current work, we addressed the role of phosphorylation of rpS6 as an effector of mTOR function in T cell development, growth, proliferation, and differentiation using knockin and TCR transgenic mice. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that rpS6 phosphorylation is not required for any of these processes either in vitro or in vivo. Indeed, rpS6 knockin mice are completely sensitive to the inhibitory effects of rapamycin and an S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)–specific inhibitor on T cell activation and proliferation. These results place the mTOR complex 1-S6K1 axis as a crucial determinant of T cell activation independently of its ability to regulate rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26453749

  11. Mechanism of Sustained Activation of Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) and ERK by Kaposi Sarcoma-associated

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Mechanism of Sustained Activation of Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) and ERK by Kaposi Sarcoma frame 45 (ORF45) of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interacts with p90 ribo- somal S6 kinases that this mechanism contributes to the sustained activation of ERK and RSK in Kaposi sarcoma- associated herpesvirus

  12. An ShRNA Based Genetic Screen Identified Sesn2 as a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Lung Cancer via Suppression of Akt-mTOR-p70S6K Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Liu, Jiawei; Fan, Fangfang; Li, Yilan; Ning, Xuelian; Sun, Yue; Dai, Shaochun; Liu, Baogang; Gao, Min; Fu, Songbin; Zhou, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is emerging rapidly as the leading death cause in Chinese cancer patients. The causal factors for Chinese lung cancer development remain largely unclear. Here we employed an shRNA library-based loss-of-function screen in a genome-wide and unbiased manner to interrogate potential tumor suppressor candidates in the immortalized human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Methods/Results Soft agar assays were conducted for screening BEAS-2B cells infected with the retroviral shRNA library with the acquired feature of anchorage-independent growth, large (>0.5mm in diameter) and well—separated colonies were isolated for proliferation. PCRs were performed to amplify the integrated shRNA fragment from individual genomic DNA extracted from each colony, and each PCR product is submitted for DNA sequencing to reveal the integrated shRNA and its target gene. A total of 6 candidate transformation suppressors including INPP4B, Sesn2, TIAR, ACRC, Nup210, LMTK3 were identified. We validated Sesn2 as the candidate of lung cancer tumor suppressor. Knockdown of Sesn2 by an shRNA targeting 3’ UTR of Sesn2 transcript potently stimulated the proliferation and malignant transformation of lung bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B via activation of Akt-mTOR-p70S6K signaling, whereas ectopic expression of Sens2 re-suppressed the malignant transformation elicited by the Sesn2 shRNA. Moreover, knockdown of Sesn2 in BEAS-2B cells promoted the BEAS-2B cell-transplanted xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Lastly, DNA sequencing indicated mutations of Sesn2 gene are rare, the protein levels of Sesn2 of 77 Chinese lung cancer patients varies greatly compared to their adjacent normal tissues, and the low expression level of Sesn2 associates with the poor survival in these examined patients by Kaplan Meier analysis. Conclusions Our shRNA-based screen has demonstrated Sesn2 is a potential tumor suppressor in lung epithelial cells. The expression level of Sesn2 may serve as a prognostic marker for Chinese lung cancer patients in the clinic. PMID:25962159

  13. Constitutively active Akt1 expression in mouse pancreas requires S6 kinase 1 for insulinoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Alliouachene, Samira; Tuttle, Robyn L.; Boumard, Stephanie; Lapointe, Thomas; Berissi, Sophie; Germain, Stephane; Jaubert, Francis; Tosh, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pende, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Factors that promote pancreatic ? cell growth and function are potential therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus. In mice, genetic experiments suggest that signaling cascades initiated by insulin and IGFs positively regulate ? cell mass and insulin secretion. Akt and S6 kinase (S6K) family members are activated as part of these signaling cascades, but how the interplay between these proteins controls ? cell growth and function has not been determined. Here, we found that although transgenic mice overexpressing the constitutively active form of Akt1 under the rat insulin promoter (RIP-MyrAkt1 mice) had enlarged ? cells and high plasma insulin levels, leading to improved glucose tolerance, a substantial proportion of the mice developed insulinomas later in life, which caused decreased viability. This oncogenic transformation tightly correlated with nuclear exclusion of the tumor suppressor PTEN. To address the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate S6K1 in the MyrAkt1-mediated phenotype, we crossed RIP-MyrAkt1 and S6K1-deficient mice. The resulting mice displayed reduced insulinemia and glycemia compared with RIP-MyrAkt1 mice due to a combined effect of improved insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, although the increase in ? cell size in RIP-MyrAkt1 mice was not affected by S6K1 deficiency, the hyperplastic transformation required S6K1. Our results therefore identify S6K1 as a critical element for MyrAkt1-induced tumor formation and suggest that it may represent a useful target for anticancer therapy downstream of mTOR. PMID:18846252

  14. Nuclear export of S6K1 II is regulated by protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation at Ser-17.

    PubMed

    Panasyuk, Ganna; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Bretner, Maria; Litchfield, David W; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T

    2006-10-20

    Ribosomal S6 kinases (S6Ks) are principal players in the regulation of cell growth and energy metabolism. Signaling via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways mediates the activation of S6K in response to various mitogenic stimuli. The family of S6Ks consists of two forms, S6K1 and -2, that have cytoplasmic and nuclear splicing variants, S6K1 II and S6K1 I, respectively. Nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of both isoforms induced by mitogenic stimuli has been reported recently. Here we present the identification of protein kinase CK2 (CK2) as a novel binding and regulatory partner for S6K1 II. The interaction between S6K1 II and CK2beta regulatory subunit was initially identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of transiently expressed and endogenous proteins. The interaction between S6K1 II and CK2 was found to occur in serum-starved and serum-stimulated cells. In addition, we found that S6K1 II is a substrate for CK2. The localization of the CK2 phosphorylation site was narrowed down to Ser-17 in S6K1 II. Mutational analysis and the use of phosphospecific antibody indicate that Ser-17 is a major in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation site for CK2. Functional studies reveal that, in contrast to the wild type kinase, the phosphorylation-mimicking mutant of S6K1 II (S17E) retains its cytoplasmic localization in serum-stimulated cells. Treatment of cells with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B revealed that the S17E mutant accumulates in the nucleus to the same extent as S6K1 II wild type. These results indicate that nuclear import of the S17E mutant is not affected, although the export is significantly enhanced. We also provide evidence that nuclear export of S6K1 is mediated by a CRM1-dependent mechanism. Taken together, this study establishes a functional link between S6K1 II and CK2 signaling, which involves the regulation of S6K1 II nuclear export by CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-17. PMID:16895915

  15. S6 Kinase is essential for MYC-dependent rDNA transcription in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Naomi C; Tchoubrieva, Elissaveta B; Chahal, Arjun; Woods, Simone; Lee, Amanda; Lin, Jane I; Parsons, Linda; Jastrzebski, Katarzyna; Poortinga, Gretchen; Hannan, Katherine M; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D; Quinn, Leonie M

    2015-10-01

    Increased rates of ribosome biogenesis and biomass accumulation are fundamental properties of rapidly growing and dividing malignant cells. The MYC oncoprotein drives growth predominantly via its ability to upregulate the ribosome biogenesis program, in particular stimulating the activity of the RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) machinery to increase ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription. Although MYC function is known to be highly dependent on the cellular signalling context, the pathways interacting with MYC to regulate transcription of ribosomal genes (rDNA) in vivo in response to growth factor status, nutrient availability and cellular stress are only beginning to be understood. To determine factors critical to MYC-dependent stimulation of rDNA transcription in vivo, we performed a transient expression screen for known oncogenic signalling pathways in Drosophila. Strikingly, from the broad range of pathways tested, we found that ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (S6K) activity, downstream of the TOR pathway, was the only factor rate-limiting for the rapid induction of rDNA transcription due to transiently increased MYC. Further, we demonstrated that one of the mechanism(s) by which MYC and S6K cooperate is through coordinate activation of the essential Pol I transcription initiation factor TIF-1A (RRN 3). As Pol I targeted therapy is now in phase 1 clinical trials in patients with haematological malignancies, including those driven by MYC, these data suggest that therapies dually targeting Pol I transcription and S6K activity may be effective in treating MYC-driven tumours. PMID:26215099

  16. MEK1-independent activation of MAPK and MEK1-dependent activation of p70 S6 kinase by stem cell factor (SCF) in ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lian; Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 ; Zhang, Xin; Du, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoning; Hou, Nan; Zhao, Di; Sun, Jianzhi; Li, Li; Wang, Xiuwen; Ma, Chunhong

    2009-05-01

    We discovered a stem cell factor (SCF)-triggered, MEK1-independent, and PI3K-dependent MAPK activation pathway in the Kit-expressing ovarian cancer cell line HEY. When we knocked down MEK1 with RNA interference (RNAi) to study the function of MEK1 on the proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells, we found that impaired cell growth still occurred after MEK1 expression had been suppressed, although MAPK activation remained intact. This suggests that there is MEK1-independent activation of MAPK in the SCF-induced ovarian cancer cell growth process, and that MEK1 still plays a crucial role in maintaining the malignant properties of ovarian cancer cells even when it fails to activate MAPK as expected.

  17. The ribosomal S6 kinase inhibitor BI-D1870 ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Takada, Ichiro; Yogiashi, Yoshiko; Makishima, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the infiltration of TH1 and TH17 cells into the CNS. Ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2; RPS6KA3) regulates TH17 differentiation by attenuating ROR?t transcriptional activities and IL-17A production. The pan-RSK inhibitor BI-D1870 also inhibits TH17 differentiation, but the effect of BI-D1870 in vivo remains unclear. Here, we generated mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated them with BI-D1870. BI-D1870 administration protected mice from EAE by reducing the infiltration of TH1 and TH17 cells into the CNS and decreasing mRNA levels of Ccr6 in TH17 cells. These results suggest that RSK inhibition is a promising strategy for the treatment of MS. PMID:26386981

  18. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) isoenzyme specifically regulates cytokinesis progression.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyun-Ja; Lee, In Jeong; Jang, Seunghoon; Bae, Chang-Dae; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-02-01

    The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase family (RSK1-4) of Ser/Thr kinases is a downstream component of the Ras-MAPK cascade responsible for regulating various cellular processes. Here, we examined the potential involvement of RSKs in regulating mitosis by transfecting HeLa cells with siRNAs targeting RSK1 and -2, which are the major isoforms. Depletion of RSK1 but not RSK2 triggered a significant accumulation of binucleated cells compared to control cells (0.5% vs. 10.5%, respectively); this was rescued by expression of exogenous RSK1 but not a kinase-defective mutant. Monitoring of cell division by time-lapse imaging revealed that the observed binucleation mainly stemmed from a failure to form and ingress the cleavage furrow during early cytokinesis. Immunocytochemical analysis of RhoA and anillin, the two principal regulators of cleavage furrow formation and ingression, showed that these proteins were abnormally localized during anaphase in RSK1-depleted cells. Furthermore, RSK1-depleted cells seemed to have impairments in midzone microtubule formation, as suggested by morphological changes and lengthening of the midzone (15.2 ± 1.7 ?m vs. 17.4 ± 1.7 ?m in control cells). We also observed shortening of the pole-to-polar-cortex distance in RSK1-depleted cells (4.30 ± 1.37 ?m vs. 2.80 ± 0.84 ?m in control cells) and scanty distribution of microtubules at the periphery of the equatorial region during anaphase, suggesting an aberrant distribution of astral microtubules. Taken together, these results suggest that RSK1 is specifically required for cleavage furrow formation and ingression during cytokinesis. This may occur via the involvement of RSK1 in proper midzone and astral microtubule structure formation during anaphase, which is essential for the correct localization of anillin and RhoA. PMID:24269382

  19. Identical M sub r 70,000 S6 kinase is activated biphasically by epidermal growth factor: A phosphopeptide that characterizes the late phase

    SciTech Connect

    Susa, M.; Thomas, G. )

    1990-09-01

    Mitogenic stimulation of quiescent mouse 3T3 cells with epidermal growth factor leads to biphasic S6 kinase activation. The kinases present in both phases of the response have been purified from {sup 32}P-labeled cells and shown to contain a phosphoprotein of equivalent M{sub r} 70,000. Chromatographic analysis of the purified S6 kinases on a Mono Q column reveals that (1) all {sup 32}P-labeled protein coelutes with S6 kinase activity, (2) only those fractions containing S6 kinase autophosphorylate, (3) autophosphorylation is restricted to a single M{sub r} 70,000 protein, and (4) the extent of autophosphorylation directly parallels the degree of S6 kinase activation. Analysis of the two autophosphorylated S6 kinases by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping indicates that they are the same protein. Both in vivo {sup 32}P-labeled S6 kinase contain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine but no detectable phosphotyrosine. Two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps of the in vivo {sup 32}P-labeled S6 kinases are essentially identical, except for a single qualitative change in the late-phase S6 kinase.

  20. Properties of the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated S6 kinase from rat astroglial cells.

    PubMed

    Toru-Delbauffe, D; Gavaret, J M; Jacquemin, C; Matricon, C; Pomerance, M; Pierre, M

    1988-11-01

    The S6 kinase activity of astroglial cells in primary culture stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) has been studied. This activity was eluted as a single peak at 0.15 M NaCl from a DEAE-Sephacel column. The chromatography of this peak on phosphocellulose revealed an activity eluted at 0.15 M NaCl. This partially purified enzyme had a sedimentation coefficient of 3.7S; Km values were 2 X 10(-5) M for ATP and 10(-6) M for 40S ribosomal subunits. The optimal Mg2+ concentration requirement was 2-3 mM. Mn2+ and Co2+ could substitute for Mg2+ (optimum concentrations 1.5 and 0.8 mM, respectively), but these cations were strong inhibitors in the presence of Mg2+. The enzyme was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, indicating that it contained thiol groups. This S6 kinase used ATP, but not GTP, as a phosphate donor, and exhibited great specificity for S6 as phosphate acceptor. Whole histones and protamine were slightly phosphorylated whereas phosvitin, histone H1, and surprisingly the peptide Arg-Arg-Leu-Ser-Ser-Leu-Arg-Ala were not phosphorylated. The TPA-stimulated S6 kinase resembles the insulin-, fibroblast growth factor- and cyclic AMP-stimulated enzymes, suggesting that several pathways might activate the same entity. PMID:3171588

  1. [A model for studying the transmission of information produced by certain growth factors: activation mechanisms of S6 kinase in cultured astrocytes].

    PubMed

    Toru-Delbauffe, D; Gavaret, J M; Matricon, C; Pomerance, M; Jacquemin, C; Pierre, M

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of cultured astrocytes from 2-day-old rat cerebral hemispheres with insulin, somatomedin C (IGF1), thrombin and acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors promoted a rapid activation of a cytosolic protein kinase (S6 kinase) which phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6. The phorbol ester (TPA) also triggered a rapid increase in S6 kinase activity. Two agonists of adenylate cyclase activity (forskolin and isoproterenol) and the cyclic AMP analog (dibutyryl cAMP) also stimulated the same S6 kinase. These observations support the idea that several pathways might promote the activation of the same entity that is regarded as one of the primary targets of signals elicited by growth factors. PMID:2629775

  2. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 3 contributes to cardiac insufficiency in ?-tropomyosin Glu180Gly transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Passariello, Catherine L.; Gayanilo, Marjorie; Kritzer, Michael D.; Thakur, Hrishikesh; Cozacov, Zoharit; Rusconi, Francesca; Wieczorek, David; Sanders, Michael; Li, Jinliang

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial interstitial fibrosis is an important contributor to the development of heart failure. Type 3 p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK3) was recently shown to be required for concentric myocyte hypertrophy under in vivo pathological conditions. However, the role of RSK family members in myocardial fibrosis remains uninvestigated. Transgenic expression of ?-tropomyosin containing a Glu180Gly mutation (TM180) in mice of a mixed C57BL/6:FVB/N background induces a cardiomyopathy characterized by a small left ventricle, interstitial fibrosis, and diminished systolic and diastolic function. Using this mouse model, we now show that RSK3 is required for the induction of interstitial fibrosis in vivo. TM180 transgenic mice were crossed to RSK3 constitutive knockout (RSK3?/?) mice. Although RSK3 knockout did not affect myocyte growth, the decreased cardiac function and mild pulmonary edema associated with the TM180 transgene were attenuated by RSK3 knockout. The improved cardiac function was consistent with reduced interstitial fibrosis in the TM180;RSK3?/? mice as shown by histology and gene expression analysis, including the decreased expression of collagens. The specific inhibition of RSK3 should be considered as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for improving cardiac function and the prevention of sudden cardiac death in diseases in which interstitial fibrosis contributes to the development of heart failure. PMID:23913705

  3. Phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 during agonist-induced exocytosis in exocrine glands is catalyzed by calcium-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Experiments with guinea pig parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Padel, U; Söling, H D

    1985-08-15

    The ribosomal protein S6 in exocrine cells is phosphorylated during stimulation of exocytosis by cAMP-dependent or calcium-dependent agonists. Under both conditions the same tryptic S6 phosphopeptides (termed A, B, and C) were found [Padel, Kruppa, Jahn & Söling (1983) FEBS Lett. 159, 112-118]. Studies have now been made of the phosphorylation pattern of protein S6 from purified guinea pig parotid ribosomes following in vitro phosphorylation with calmodulin-dependent, phospholipid-dependent, and cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Only the phospholipid-dependent enzyme led to the phosphorylation of peptides A, B, and C, while the cAMP-dependent enzyme phosphorylated only peptides A and C, and the calmodulin-dependent enzyme did not phosphorylate any of the phosphopeptides found in S6 from unstimulated or stimulated intact cells. Guinea pig parotid microsomes contain substantial phospholipid-dependent protein kinase activity. Stimulation of intact parotid glands with tetradecanoylphorbol acetate led to a significant phosphorylation of S6 and a similar tryptic S6 phosphopeptide pattern as seen with carbamoylcholine. It is concluded that activation of phospholipid-dependent protein kinase is responsible for the phosphorylation of protein S6 during stimulation with calcium-dependent and cAMP-dependent secretagogues. PMID:2992953

  4. IL-17A and its homologs IL-25/IL-17E recruit the c-RAF/S6 kinase pathway and the generation of pro-oncogenic LMW-E in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mombelli, Sarah; Cochaud, Stéphanie; Merrouche, Yacine; Garbar, Christian; Antonicelli, Frank; Laprevotte, Emilie; Alberici, Gilles; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Eliaou, Jean-François; Bastid, Jérémy; Bensussan, Armand; Giustiniani, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory IL-17 cytokines were initially described for their pathogenic role in chronic inflammatory diseases and subsequent accumulating evidence indicated their involvement in carcinogenesis. In the present study we report that IL-17A and IL-17E receptors subunits mRNA expressions are upregulated in breast cancers versus normal samples. IL-17E, which is undetectable in most normal breast tissues tested, seems more expressed in some tumors. Investigation of the molecular signaling following stimulation of human breast cancer cell lines with IL-17A and IL-17E showed that both cytokines induced the phosphorylation of c-RAF, ERK1/2 and p70 S6 Kinase were involved in the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Accordingly, IL-17A and IL-17E promoted resistance to Docetaxel and failed to induce apoptosis as previously reported for IL-17E. Interestingly, we also revealed that both cytokines induced the generation of tumorogenic low molecular weight forms of cyclin E (LMW-E), which high levels correlated strongly with a poor survival in breast cancer patients. These results show for the first time some of the molecular pathways activated by IL-17A and IL-17E that may participate to their pro-oncogenic activity in breast cancers. PMID:26154409

  5. Immediate-early response 5 (IER5) interacts with protein phosphatase 2A and regulates the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shotaro; Ishita, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Yukio; Sakurai, Hiroshi

    2015-11-30

    Immediate-early response 5 (IER5) is a growth factor-inducible protein with homology to the N-terminus of IER2. Deletion analysis shows that a large region of IER5, including the N-terminal region, is involved in cell growth and stress resistance. The N-terminal region mediates IER5 oligomerization and binding to the B55 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). IER5 physically interacts with the PP2A target proteins ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and the interactions are essential for the reduced phosphorylation of S6K and HSF1. Our data indicate that oligomeric IER5 regulates PP2A activity and cell growth. PMID:26496226

  6. Focal adhesion kinase is required for IGF-I-mediated growth of skeletal muscle cells via a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-associated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Hannah; Kazi, Abid A.; Lang, Charles H.; Timmons, James A.; Pierre, Philippe; Wilkinson, Daniel J.; Smith, Kenneth; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an attachment complex protein associated with the regulation of muscle mass through as-of-yet unclear mechanisms. We tested whether FAK is functionally important for muscle hypertrophy, with the hypothesis that FAK knockdown (FAK-KD) would impede cell growth associated with a trophic stimulus. C2C12 skeletal muscle cells harboring FAK-targeted (FAK-KD) or scrambled (SCR) shRNA were created using lentiviral transfection techniques. Both FAK-KD and SCR myotubes were incubated for 24 h with IGF-I (10 ng/ml), and additional SCR cells (±IGF-1) were incubated with a FAK kinase inhibitor before assay of cell growth. Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and putative FAK signaling mechanisms (immunoblotting and coimmunoprecipitation) were assessed. IGF-I-induced increases in myotube width (+41 ± 7% vs. non-IGF-I-treated) and total protein (+44 ± 6%) were, after 24 h, attenuated in FAK-KD cells, whereas MPS was suppressed in FAK-KD vs. SCR after 4 h. These blunted responses were associated with attenuated IGF-I-induced FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation and markedly suppressed phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and critical downstream mTOR signaling (ribosomal S6 kinase, eIF4F assembly) in FAK shRNA cells (all P < 0.05 vs. IGF-I-treated SCR cells). However, binding of FAK to TSC2 or its phosphatase Shp-2 was not affected by IGF-I or cell phenotype. Finally, FAK-KD-mediated suppression of cell growth was recapitulated by direct inhibition of FAK kinase activity in SCR cells. We conclude that FAK is required for IGF-I-induced muscle hypertrophy, signaling through a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-dependent pathway via means requiring the kinase activity of FAK but not altered FAK-TSC2 or FAK-Shp-2 binding. PMID:23695213

  7. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  8. mGluR-Dependent Long-Term Depression Is Associated with Increased Phosphorylation of S6 and Synthesis of Elongation Factor 1A but Remains Expressed in S6K-Deficient Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Antion, Marcia D.; Hou, Lingfei; Wong, Helen; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Klann, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) in the hippocampus requires rapid protein synthesis, which suggests that mGluR activation is coupled to signaling pathways that regulate translation. Herein, we have investigated the signaling pathways that couple group I mGluRs to ribosomal S6 protein phosphorylation and 5?oligopyrimidine tract (5?TOP)-encoded protein synthesis during mGluR-LTD. We found that mGluR-LTD was associated with increased phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (S6K1) and S6, as well as the synthesis of the 5?TOP-encoded protein elongation factor 1A (EF1A). Moreover, we found that LTD-associated increases in S6K1 phosphorylation, S6 phosphorylation, and levels of EF1A were sensitive to inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). However, mGluR-LTD was normal in S6K1 knockout mice and enhanced in both S6K2 knockout mice and S6K1/S6K2 double knockout mice. In addition, we observed that LTD-associated increases in S6 phosphorylation were still increased in S6K1- and S6K2-deficient mice, whereas basal levels of EF1A were abnormally elevated. Taken together, these findings indicate that mGluR-LTD is associated with PI3K-, mTOR-, and ERK-dependent alterations in the phosphorylation of S6 and S6K. Our data also suggest that S6Ks are not required for the expression of mGluR-LTD and that the synthesis of 5?TOP-encoded proteins is independent of S6Ks during mGluR-LTD. PMID:18316404

  9. The mTOR Kinase Inhibitor INK128 Blunts Migration of Cultured Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Calton, Melissa A; Vollrath, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell migration in response to disease has been reported for age-related macular degeneration, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The complex molecular process of RPE cell migration is regulated in part by growth factors and cytokines, and activation of the PI3/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Rapamycin, an allosteric mTOR inhibitor, has been shown to block only one of the primary downstream mTOR effectors, p70 S6 kinase 1, in many cell types. INK128, a selective mTOR ATP binding site competitor, blocks both p70 S6 kinase 1 and a second primary downstream effector, 4E-BP1. We performed scratch assays using differentiated ARPE-19 and primary porcine RPE cells to assess the effect of mTOR inhibition on cell migration. We found that INK128-mediated blocking of both p70 S6 kinase 1 and 4E-BP1 was much more effective at preventing RPE cell migration than rapamycin-mediated inhibition of p70 S6 kinase 1 alone. PMID:26427479

  10. Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling.

    PubMed

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; van Hall, Gerrit; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-03-15

    Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3 h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (?90%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr(389) phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased severalfold immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (?55 and ?110%, respectively, P < 0.05) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation was reduced (?55%, P < 0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P < 0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTOR complex 1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown. PMID:25605643

  11. Hydroxychloroquine Destabilizes Phospho-S6 in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Ok; Mustafa, Aladdin; Hudes, Gary R.; Kruger, Warren D.

    2015-01-01

    mTOR inhibitors are used to treat metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC), but most patients eventually become resistant. One possible mechanism for resistance is upregulation of autophagy, a pathway that helps recycle intracellular proteins and promotes cell survival. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a potent autophagy inhibitor used to treat malaria and autoimmune disorders, is currently being studied in the context of cancer treatment. Here, we have investigated the effects of HCQ on three different renal carcinoma derived cell lines. We found that HCQ treatment inhibits RCC cell growth, promotes apoptosis, inhibits mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and increases rates of glycolysis. To understand the molecular mechanism behind these effects, we examined various nodes in the mTOR pathway and compared the effects of HCQ with the effects of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001. A key downstream readout of the pathway, phospho-S6 protein, was inhibited by both HCQ and RAD001. However, the upstream kinase, P70S6K was only inhibited by RAD001 and not HCQ, suggesting that the block by HCQ was downstream of P70S6K. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib restored phospho-S6 levels, suggesting that the reduction of phospho-S6 is caused by increased degradation of phospho-S6, but not total S6. Surprisingly, treatment with other autophagy inhibitors did not exhibit the same effects. Our findings suggest that HCQ causes the down-regulation of phospho-S6 in RCC cell lines via a novel mechanism that is not shared with other autophagy inhibitors. PMID:26134285

  12. Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Cheol-Hee; Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 ; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389} and phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and phosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K{sup Thr389} and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at Ser{sup 9} and, to a lesser extent, Thr{sup 390}, the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 389}, and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 421} and Ser{sup 424}. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389}; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}, and p-70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our data show that proteasome inhibition regulates p38/GSK{sup Ser9}/p70S6K{sup Thr380} and ERK/GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}/p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} kinase signaling, which is involved in cell survival and cell death.

  13. Insights into the Inhibition of the p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) by the Flavonol Glycoside SL0101 from the 1.5 Ĺ Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of RSK2 with Bound Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Derewenda, Urszula; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Szukalska, Gabriela; Banerjee, Budhaditya; Hilinski, Michael K.; Lannigan, Deborah A.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2012-09-11

    The p90 ribosomal S6 family of kinases (RSK) are potential drug targets, due to their involvement in cancer and other pathologies. There are currently only two known selective inhibitors of RSK, but the basis for selectivity is not known. One of these inhibitors is a naturally occurring kaempferol-a-l-diacetylrhamnoside, SL0101. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of the N-terminal kinase domain of the RSK2 isoform with SL0101 at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. The refined atomic model reveals unprecedented structural reorganization of the protein moiety, as compared to the nucleotide-bound form. The entire N-lobe, the hinge region, and the aD-helix undergo dramatic conformational changes resulting in a rearrangement of the nucleotide binding site with concomitant formation of a highly hydrophobic pocket spatially suited to accommodate SL0101. These unexpected results will be invaluable in further optimization of the SL0101 scaffold as a promising lead for a novel class of kinase inhibitors.

  14. Palmatine inhibits growth and invasion in prostate cancer cell: Potential role for rpS6/NF?B/FLIP.

    PubMed

    Hambright, Heather G; Batth, Izhar Singh; Xie, Jianping; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki Pratap

    2015-10-01

    Novel agents are desperately needed for improving the quality of life and 5-year survival to more than 30% for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Previously we showed that Nexrutine, Phellodendron amurense bark extract, inhibits prostate tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently using biochemical fractionation we identified butanol fraction contributes to the observed biological activities. We report here that palmatine, which is present in the butanol fraction, selectively inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells without significant effect on non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. By screening receptor tyrosine kinases in a protein kinase array, we identified ribosomal protein S6, a downstream target of p70S6K and the Akt/mTOR signaling cascade as a potential target. We further show that palmatine treatment is associated with decreased activation of NF?B and its downstream target gene FLIP. These events led to inhibition of invasion. Similar results were obtained using parent extract Nexrutine (Nx) suggesting that palmatine either in the purified form or as one of the components in Nx is a potent cytotoxic agent with tumor invasion inhibitory properties. Synergistic inhibition of rpS6/NF?B/FLIP axis with palmatine may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer and possibly other malignancies with their constitutive activation. These data support a biological link between rpS6/NF?B/FLIP in mediating palmatine-induced inhibitory effects and warrants additional preclinical studies to test its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25043857

  15. Structural Basis of Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (RSK1) Inhibition by S100B Protein: MODULATION OF THE EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED KINASE (ERK) SIGNALING CASCADE IN A CALCIUM-DEPENDENT WAY.

    PubMed

    Gógl, Gerg?; Alexa, Anita; Kiss, Bence; Katona, Gergely; Kovács, Mihály; Bodor, Andrea; Reményi, Attila; Nyitray, László

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) promote MAPK-activated protein kinase activation. In the MAPK pathway responsible for cell growth, ERK2 initiates the first phosphorylation event on RSK1, which is inhibited by Ca(2+)-binding S100 proteins in malignant melanomas. Here, we present a detailed in vitro biochemical and structural characterization of the S100B-RSK1 interaction. The Ca(2+)-dependent binding of S100B to the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)-type domain of RSK1 is reminiscent of the better known binding of calmodulin to CaMKII. Although S100B-RSK1 and the calmodulin-CAMKII system are clearly distinct functionally, they demonstrate how unrelated intracellular Ca(2+)-binding proteins could influence the activity of the CaMK domain-containing protein kinases. Our crystallographic, small angle x-ray scattering, and NMR analysis revealed that S100B forms a "fuzzy" complex with RSK1 peptide ligands. Based on fast-kinetics experiments, we conclude that the binding involves both conformation selection and induced fit steps. Knowledge of the structural basis of this interaction could facilitate therapeutic targeting of melanomas. PMID:26527685

  16. ?-Terpineol induces fatty liver in mice mediated by the AMP-activated kinase and sterol response element binding protein pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Sim, Woo-Cheol; Choi, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The use of herbal medicines in disease prevention and treatment is growing rapidly worldwide, without careful consideration of safety issues. ?-Terpineol is a monoterpene alcoholic component of Melaleuca alternifolia, Salvia officinalis and Carthamus tinctorius that is used widely as a flavor and essential oil in food. The present study showed that ?-terpineol induces fatty liver via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mTOR-sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) pathway. ?-Terpineol-treated hepatocytes had significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation. ?-Terpineol suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, and increased p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and SREBP-1 activation. It also increased luciferase activity in cells transfected with LXRE-tk-Luc and SRE-tk-Luc. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by co-treatment with rapamycin or co-transfection with dominant negative p70S6K blocked completely the effects of ?-terpineol. ?-Terpineol oral administration to mice for 2weeks led to decreased AMPK phosphorylation and increased SREBP-1 activation in the liver, followed by hepatic lipid accumulation. Conversely, rapamycin co-treatment reversed ?-terpineol-induced SREBP-1 activation and fatty liver in mice. These data provide evidence that ?-terpineol causes fatty liver, an effect mediated by the AMPK/mTOR/SREBP-1 pathway. PMID:23274539

  17. Luteolin is a novel p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor that suppresses Notch4 signaling by blocking the activation of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1)

    PubMed Central

    Reipas, Kristen M.; Law, Jennifer H.; Couto, Nicole; Islam, Sumaiya; Li, Yvonne; Li, Huifang; Cherkasov, Artem; Jung, Karen; Cheema, Amarpal S.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Hassell, John A.; Dunn, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are notoriously difficult to treat because they lack hormone receptors and have limited targeted therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is essential for TNBC growth and survival indicating it as a target for therapeutic development. RSK phosphorylates Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), an oncogenic transcription/translation factor, highly expressed in TNBC (~70% of cases) and associated with poor prognosis, drug resistance and tumor initiation. YB-1 regulates the tumor-initiating cell markers, CD44 and CD49f however its role in Notch signaling has not been explored. We sought to identify novel chemical entities with RSK inhibitory activity. The Prestwick Chemical Library of 1120 off-patent drugs was screened for RSK inhibitors using both in vitro kinase assays and molecular docking. The lead candidate, luteolin, inhibited RSK1 and RSK2 kinase activity and suppressed growth in TNBC, including TIC-enriched populations. Combining luteolin with paclitaxel increased cell death and unlike chemotherapy alone, did not enrich for CD44+ cells. Luteolin’s efficacy against drug-resistant cells was further indicated in the primary x43 cell line, where it suppressed monolayer growth and mammosphere formation. We next endeavored to understand how the inhibition of RSK/YB-1 signaling by luteolin elicited an effect on TIC-enriched populations. ChIP-on-ChIP experiments in SUM149 cells revealed a 12-fold enrichment of YB-1 binding to the Notch4 promoter. We chose to pursue this because there are several reports indicating that Notch4 maintains cells in an undifferentiated, TIC state. Herein we report that silencing YB-1 with siRNA decreased Notch4 mRNA. Conversely, transient expression of Flag:YB-1WT or the constitutively active mutant Flag:YB-1D102 increased Notch4 mRNA. The levels of Notch4 transcript and the abundance of the Notch4 intracellular domain (N4ICD) correlated with activation of P-RSKS221/7 and P-YB-1S102 in a panel of TNBC cell lines. Silencing YB-1 or RSK reduced Notch4 mRNA and this corresponded with loss of N4ICD. Likewise, the RSK inhibitors, luteolin and BI-D1870, suppressed P-YB-1 S102 and thereby reduced Notch4. In conclusion, inhibiting the RSK/YB-1 pathway with luteolin is a novel approach to blocking Notch4 signaling and as such provides a means of inhibiting TICs. PMID:23593654

  18. Glyceollin, a novel regulator of mTOR/p70S6 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An estimated 70% of breast cancer tumors utilize estrogen receptor (ER) signaling to maintain tumorigenesis, and targeting of the estrogen receptor is a common method of treatment for these tumor types. However, ER-positive (+) breast cancers often acquire drug resistant or altered ER activity in r...

  19. Development of Organometallic S6K1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is found in many diseases, including diabetes, aging, and cancer. We developed ATP competitive organometallic kinase inhibitors, EM5 and FL772, which are inspired by the structure of the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine, to specifically inhibit S6K1 using a strategy previously used to target other kinases. Biochemical data demonstrate that EM5 and FL772 inhibit the kinase with IC50 value in the low nanomolar range at 100 ?M ATP and that the more potent FL772 compound has a greater than 100-fold specificity over S6K2. The crystal structures of S6K1 bound to staurosporine, EM5, and FL772 reveal that the EM5 and FL772 inhibitors bind in the ATP binding pocket and make S6K1-specific contacts, resulting in changes to the p-loop, ?C helix, and ?D helix when compared to the staurosporine-bound structure. Cellular data reveal that FL772 is able to inhibit S6K phosphorylation in yeast cells. Together, these studies demonstrate that potent, selective, and cell permeable S6K1 inhibitors can be prepared and provide a scaffold for future development of S6K inhibitors with possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25356520

  20. The Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase (PI3K)-Delta and Gamma Inhibitor, IPI-145, Overcomes Signals from the PI3K/AKT/S6 Pathway and Promotes Apoptosis in CLL

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, K; Peluso, M; Fu, M; Rosin, NY; Burger, JA; Wierda, WG; Keating, MJ; Faia, K; O’Brien, S; Kutok, JL; Gandhi, V

    2015-01-01

    The functional relevance of the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the evolution of protein kinases as therapeutic targets have recently shifted the paradigm for treatment of B-cell malignancies. Inhibition of p110? with idelalisib has shown clinical activity in CLL. The dynamic interplay of isoforms p110? and p110? in leukocytes support the hypothesis that dual blockade may provide a therapeutic benefit. IPI-145, an oral inhibitor of p110? and p110? isoforms, sensitizes BCR- stimulated and/or stromal co-cultured primary CLL cells to apoptosis (median 20%, n=57; p<0.0001) including samples with poor prognostic markers, unmutated IgVH (n=28) and prior treatment (n=15) (p<0.0001). IPI-145 potently inhibits the CD40L/IL-2/IL-10 induced proliferation of CLL cells with an IC50 in sub-nanomolar range. A corresponding dose responsive inhibition of pAKTSer473 is observed with an IC50 of 0.36 nM. IPI-145 diminishes the BCR- induced chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 secretion to 17% and 37% respectively. Pre-treatment with 1 ?M IPI-145 inhibits the chemotaxis towards CXCL12; reduces pseudoemperipolesis to median 50%, inferring its ability to interfere with homing capabilities of CLL cells. BCR- activated signaling proteins AKTSer473, BADSer112, ERKThr202/Tyr204 and S6Ser235/236 are mitigated by IPI-145. Importantly, for clinical development in hematological malignancies, IPI-145 is selective to CLL B-cells, sparing normal B- and T-lymphocytes. PMID:25917267

  1. Gastrin induces sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 phosphorylation and mTOR activation via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-/protein kinase C-dependent but AKT-independent pathway in renal proximal tubule cells derived from a normotensive male human.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbing; Jose, Pedro A

    2013-02-01

    Gastrin is natriuretic, but its renal molecular targets and signal transduction pathways are not fully known. In this study, we confirmed the existence of CCKBR (a gastrin receptor) in male human renal proximal tubule cells and discovered that gastrin induced S6 phosphorylation, a downstream component of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Gastrin also increased the phosphorylation of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) at serine 552, caused its internalization, and decreased its expression at the cell surface and NHE activity. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was dependent on PI3 kinases because it was blocked by 2 different PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294,002. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was not affected by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 but was blocked by a pan-PKC (chelerythrine) and a conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor (Gö6976) (10 ?M) and an intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester, suggesting the importance of cPKC and intracellular calcium in the gastrin signaling pathway. The cPKC involved was probably PKC? because it was phosphorylated by gastrin. The gastrin-mediated phosphorylation of NHE3, S6, and PKC? was via phospholipase C because it was blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122 (10 ?M). The phosphorylation (activation) of AKT, which is usually upstream of mammalian target of rapamycin in the classic PI3 kinase-AKT-p70S6K signaling pathway, was not affected, suggesting that the gastrin-induced phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 is dependent on both PI3 kinase and PKC? but not AKT. PMID:23275470

  2. Strangeness s = -6 dibaryon

    E-print Network

    Dai Lian-Rong; Zhang Zong-Ye; Yu You-Wen

    2006-05-24

    The structure of $(\\Omega\\Omega)_{0^+}$ dibaryon with strangeness $s=-6$ is studied in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model, in which vector meson exchange dominates the short range interaction. The resonating group method (RGM) is adopted, in which the $\\Omega\\Omega$ and $CC$ (hidden color) channels are involved. The color screening effect and the effects of mixing of scalar mesons on $(\\Omega\\Omega)_{0^+}$ are also investigated.

  3. Removal of S6K1 and S6K2 Leads to Divergent Alterations in Learning, Memory, and Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antion, Marcia D.; Merhav, Maayan; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Reis, Gerald; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Schuman Erin M.; Rosenblum, Kobi; Klann, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Protein synthesis is required for the expression of enduring memories and long-lasting synaptic plasticity. During cellular proliferation and growth, S6 kinases (S6Ks) are activated and coordinate the synthesis of de novo proteins. We hypothesized that protein synthesis mediated by S6Ks is critical for the manifestation of learning, memory, and…

  4. Translational Control of Myelin Basic Protein Expression by ERK2 MAP Kinase Regulates Timely Remyelination in the Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Kelly; Zhao, Tianna; Karl, Molly; Lewis, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Successful myelin repair in the adult CNS requires the robust and timely production of myelin proteins to generate new myelin sheaths. The underlying regulatory mechanisms and complex molecular basis of myelin regeneration, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of ERK MAP kinase signaling in this process. Conditional deletion of Erk2 from cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage resulted in delayed remyelination following demyelinating injury to the adult mouse corpus callosum. The delayed repair occurred as a result of a specific deficit in the translation of the major myelin protein, MBP. In the absence of ERK2, activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target, ribosomal protein S6 (S6RP), was impaired at a critical time when premyelinating oligodendrocytes were transitioning to mature cells capable of generating new myelin sheaths. Thus, we have described an important link between the ERK MAP kinase signaling cascade and the translational machinery specifically in remyelinating oligodendrocytes in vivo. These results suggest an important role for ERK2 in the translational control of MBP, a myelin protein that appears critical for ensuring the timely generation of new myelin sheaths following demyelinating injury in the adult CNS. PMID:25995471

  5. Nijmegen breakage syndrome fibroblasts expressing the C-terminal truncated NBN(p70) protein undergo p38/MK2-dependent premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Davis, Terence; Tivey, Hannah S E; Brook, Amy J C; Kipling, David

    2015-02-01

    Fibroblasts from the progeroid Nijmegen breakage syndrome that express a truncated version of the nibrin protein (NBN(p70)) undergo premature senescence and have an enlarged morphology with high levels of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase, although they do not have F-actin stress fibres. Growth of these fibroblasts in the continuous presence of p38 inhibitors resulted in a large increase in replicative capacity and changed the cellular morphology so that the cells resembled young normal fibroblasts. A similar effect was seen using an inhibitor of the p38 downstream effector kinase MK2. These data suggest that NBN(p70) expressing cells undergo a degree of stress-induced replicative senescence via p38/MK2 activation, potentially due to increased telomere dysfunction, that may play a role in the progeroid features seen in this syndrome. PMID:25214013

  6. Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4B (EIF4B) by Open Reading Frame 45/p90 Ribosomal S6

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Ribosomal S6 Kinase (ORF45/RSK) Signaling Axis Facilitates Protein Translation during Kaposi Sarcoma (KSHV) causes sustained activation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs). Results: ORF45 increases (KSHV) causes sustained activation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), which is crucial for KSHV lytic rep

  7. Apoptotic cells activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibit epithelial cell growth without change in intracellular energy stores.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vimal A; Massenburg, Donald; Vujicic, Snezana; Feng, Lanfei; Tang, Meiyi; Litbarg, Natalia; Antoni, Angelika; Rauch, Joyce; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Levine, Jerrold S

    2015-09-11

    Apoptosis plays an indispensable role in the maintenance and development of tissues. We have shown that receptor-mediated recognition of apoptotic target cells by viable kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) inhibits the proliferation and survival of PTECs. Here, we examined the effect of apoptotic targets on PTEC cell growth (cell size during G1 phase of the cell cycle). Using a cell culture model, we show that apoptotic cells potently activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a highly sensitive sensor of intracellular energy stores. AMPK activation leads to decreased activity of its downstream target, ribosomal protein p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), and concomitant inhibition of cell growth. Importantly, these events occur without detectable change in intracellular levels of AMP, ADP, or ATP. Inhibition of AMPK, either pharmacologically by compound C or molecularly by shRNA, diminishes the effects of apoptotic targets and largely restores p70S6K activity and cell size to normal levels. Apoptotic targets also inhibit Akt, a second signaling pathway regulating cell growth. Expression of a constitutively active Akt construct partially relieved cell growth inhibition but was less effective than inhibition of AMPK. Inhibition of cell growth by apoptotic targets is dependent on physical interaction between apoptotic targets and PTECs but independent of phagocytosis. We conclude that receptor-mediated recognition of apoptotic targets mimics the effects of intracellular energy depletion, activating AMPK and inhibiting cell growth. By acting as sentinels of environmental change, apoptotic death may enable nearby viable cells, especially nonmigratory epithelial cells, to monitor and adapt to local stresses. PMID:26183782

  8. Identification of quercitrin as an inhibitor of the p90 S6 ribosomal kinase (RSK): structure of its complex with the N-terminal domain of RSK2 at 1.8 Ĺ resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Derewenda, Urszula; Artamonov, Mykhaylo; Szukalska, Gabriela; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Parikh, Hardik I.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2013-02-01

    The crystal structure of quercitrin, a naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, has been determined in a complex with the N-terminal kinase domain of murine RSK2. The structure revealed that quercitrin inhibits the RSK2 kinase in the same fashion as another known inhibitor, SL0101. Members of the RSK family of kinases constitute attractive targets for drug design, but a lack of structural information regarding the mechanism of selective inhibitors impedes progress in this field. The crystal structure of the N-terminal kinase domain (residues 45–346) of mouse RSK2, or RSK2{sup NTKD}, has recently been described in complex with one of only two known selective inhibitors, a rare naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-(3??,4??-di-O-acetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranoside), known as SL0101. Based on this structure, it was hypothesized that quercitrin (quercetin 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside), a related but ubiquitous and inexpensive compound, might also act as an RSK inhibitor. Here, it is demonstrated that quercitrin binds to RSK2{sup NTKD} with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 5.8 µM as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a crystal structure of the binary complex at 1.8 Ĺ resolution is reported. The crystal structure reveals a very similar mode of binding to that recently reported for SL0101. Closer inspection shows a number of small but significant differences that explain the slightly higher K{sub d} for quercitrin compared with SL0101. It is also shown that quercitrin can effectively substitute for SL0101 in a biological assay, in which it significantly suppresses the contractile force in rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle in response to Ca{sup 2+}.

  9. Doxycycline reduces the migration of tuberous sclerosis complex-2 null cells - effects on RhoA-GTPase and focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ho Yin; Oliver, Brian Gregory George; Burgess, Janette Kay; Krymskaya, Vera P; Black, Judith Lee; Moir, Lyn M

    2015-11-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is associated with dysfunction of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) leading to enhanced cell proliferation and migration. This study aims to examine whether doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, can inhibit the enhanced migration of TSC2-deficient cells, identify signalling pathways through which doxycycline works and to assess the effectiveness of combining doxycycline with rapamycin (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor) in controlling cell migration, proliferation and wound closure. TSC2-positive and TSC2-negative mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), 323-TSC2-positive and 323-TSC2-null MEF and Eker rat uterine leiomyoma (ELT3) cells were treated with doxycycline or rapamycin alone, or in combination. Migration, wound closure and proliferation were assessed using a transwell migration assay, time-lapse microscopy and manual cell counts respectively. RhoA-GTPase activity, phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in TSC2-negative MEF treated with doxycycline were examined using ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. The enhanced migration of TSC2-null cells was reduced by doxycycline at concentrations as low as 20 pM, while the rate of wound closure was reduced at 2-59 ?M. Doxycycline decreased RhoA-GTPase activity and phosphorylation of FAK in these cells but had no effect on the phosphorylation of p70S6K, ERK1/2 or AKT. Combining doxycycline with rapamycin significantly reduced the rate of wound closure at lower concentrations than achieved with either drug alone. This study shows that doxycycline inhibits TSC2-null cell migration. Thus doxycycline has potential as an anti-migratory agent in the treatment of diseases with TSC2 dysfunction. PMID:26282580

  10. Learned stressor resistance requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, John P.; Flyer-Adams, Johanna G.; Drugan, Robert C.; Amat, Jose; Daut, Rachel A.; Foilb, Allison R.; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Behaviorally controllable stressors confer protection from the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of future uncontrollable stressors, a phenomenon termed “behavioral immunization”. Recent data implicate protein synthesis within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as critical to behavioral immunization. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a series of controllable tailshocks and 1 week later to uncontrollable tailshocks, followed 24 h later by social exploration and shuttlebox escape tests. To test the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade in behavioral immunization, either D-AP5 or the MEK inhibitor U0126 was injected to the prelimbic (PL) or infralimbic (IL) mPFC prior to controllable stress exposure. Phosphorylated ERK and P70S6K, regulators of transcription and translation, were quantified by Western blot or immunohistochemistry after controllable or uncontrollable tailshocks. Prior controllable stress prevented the social exploration and shuttlebox performance deficits caused by the later uncontrollable stressor, and this effect was blocked by injections of D-AP5 into mPFC. A significant increase in phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, but not P70S6K, occurred within the PL and IL in rats exposed to controllable stress, but not to uncontrollable stress. However, U0126 only prevented behavioral immunization when injected to the PL. We provide evidence that NMDAR and ERK dependent signaling within the PL region is required for behavioral immunization, a learned form of stressor resistance. PMID:25324750

  11. Revealing Different Roles of the mTOR-Targets S6K1 and S6K2 in Breast Cancer by Expression Profiling and Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Elin; Magi?, Ivana; Bostner, Josefine; Dyrager, Christine; Lysholm, Fredrik; Hallbeck, Anna-Lotta; Stĺl, Olle; Lundström, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Background The AKT/mTORC1/S6K pathway is frequently overstimulated in breast cancer, constituting a promising therapeutic target. The benefit from mTOR inhibitors varies, likely as a consequence of tumour heterogeneity, and upregulation of several compensatory feed-back mechanisms. The mTORC1 downstream effectors S6K1, S6K2, and 4EBP1 are amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer, associated with a poor outcome and divergent endocrine treatment benefit. S6K1 and S6K2 share high sequence homology, but evidence of partly distinct biological functions is emerging. The aim of this work was to explore possible different roles and treatment target potentials of S6K1 and S6K2 in breast cancer. Materials and methods Whole-genome expression profiles were compared for breast tumours expressing high levels of S6K1, S6K2 or 4EBP1, using public datasets, as well as after in vitro siRNA downregulation of S6K1 and/or S6K2 in ZR751 breast cancer cells. In silico homology modelling of the S6K2 kinase domain was used to evaluate its possible structural divergences to S6K1. Results Genome expression profiles were highly different in S6K1 and S6K2 high tumours, whereas S6K2 and 4EBP1 profiles showed significant overlaps, both correlated to genes involved in cell cycle progression, among these the master regulator E2F1. S6K2 and 4EBP1 were inversely associated with IGF1 levels, and their prognostic value was shown to be restricted to tumours positive for IGFR and/or HER2. In vitro, S6K1 and S6K2 silencing resulted in upregulation of genes in the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes. Isoform-specific silencing also showed distinct patterns, e.g. S6K2 downregulation lead to upregulation of several cell cycle associated genes. Structural analyses of the S6K2 kinase domain showed unique structure patterns, deviating from those of S6K1, facilitating the development of isoform-specific inhibitors. Our data support emerging proposals of distinct biological features of S6K1 and S6K2, suggesting their importance as separate oncogenes and clinical markers, where specific targeting in different breast cancer subtypes could facilitate further individualised therapies. PMID:26698305

  12. Specific interaction between S6K1 and CoA synthase: a potential link between the mTOR/S6K pathway, CoA biosynthesis and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Panayotou, George; Gout, Ivan T; Filonenko, Valeriy

    2004-12-17

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is a key regulator of cell size and growth. It is regulated via phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. We demonstrate for the first time that CoA synthase associates specifically with S6K1. The association was observed between native and transiently overexpressed proteins in vivo, as well as by BIAcore analysis in vitro. The sites of interaction were mapped to the C-terminal regions of both CoA synthase and S6K1. In vitro studies indicated that the interaction does not affect their enzymatic activities and that CoA synthase is not a substrate for S6 kinase. This study uncovers a potential link between mTor/S6K signaling pathway and energy metabolism through CoA and its thioester derivatives, but its physiological relevance should be further elucidated. PMID:15589845

  13. Ketogenic diet delays the phase of circadian rhythms and does not affect AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Genzer, Yoni; Dadon, Maayan; Burg, Chen; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren

    2015-12-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is used for weight loss or to treat epilepsy. KD leads to liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which would be expected to inhibit gluconeogenesis. However, KD leads to increased hepatic glucose output. As AMPK and its active phosphorylated form (pAMPK) show circadian oscillation, this discrepancy could stem from wrong-time-of-day sampling. The effect of KD was tested on mouse clock gene expression, AMPK, mTOR, SIRT1 and locomotor activity for 2 months and compared to low-fat diet (LFD). KD led to 1.5-fold increased levels of blood glucose and insulin. Brain pAMPK/AMPK ratio was 40% higher under KD, whereas that in liver was not affected. KD led to 40% and 20% down-regulation of the ratio of pP70S6K/P70S6K, the downstream target of mTOR, in the brain and liver, respectively. SIRT1 levels were 40% higher in the brain, but 40% lower in the liver of KD-fed mice. Clock genes showed delayed rhythms under KD. In the brain of KD-fed mice, amplitudes of clock genes were down-regulated, whereas 6-fold up-regulation was found in the liver. The metabolic state under KD indicates reduced satiety in the brain and reduced anabolism alongside increased gluconeogenesis in the liver. PMID:26408964

  14. Reprint of: Decorin activates AMPK, an energy sensor kinase, to induce autophagy in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Atul; Neill, Thomas; Owens, Rick T; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V

    2014-04-01

    The highly conserved eukaryotic process of macroautophagy (autophagy) is a non-specific bulk-degradation program critical for maintaining proper cellular homeostasis, and for clearing aged and damaged organelles. This decision is inextricably dependent upon prevailing metabolic demands and energy requirements of the cell. Soluble monomeric decorin functions as a natural tumor repressor that antagonizes a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, we discovered that decorin induces endothelial cell autophagy, downstream of VEGFR2. This process was wholly dependent upon Peg3, a decorin-inducible genomically imprinted tumor suppressor gene. However, the signaling cascades responsible have remained elusive. In this report we discovered that Vps34, a class III phosphoinositide kinase, is an upstream kinase required for Peg3 induction. Moreover, decorin triggered differential formation of Vps34/Beclin 1 complexes with concomitant dissolution of inhibitive Bcl-2/Beclin 1 complexes. Further, decorin inhibited anti-autophagic signaling via suppression of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K activity with the concurrent activation of pro-autophagic AMPK-mediated signaling cascades. Mechanistically, AMPK is downstream of VEGFR2 and inhibition of AMPK signaling abrogated decorin-evoked autophagy. Collectively, these findings hint at the complexity of the underlying molecular relays necessary for decorin-evoked endothelial cell autophagy and reveal important therapeutic targets for augmenting autophagy and combatting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:24726292

  15. Decorin activates AMPK, an energy sensor kinase, to induce autophagy in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Atul; Neill, Thomas; Owens, Rick T; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V

    2014-02-01

    The highly conserved eukaryotic process of macroautophagy (autophagy) is a non-specific bulk-degradation program critical for maintaining proper cellular homeostasis, and for clearing aged and damaged organelles. This decision is inextricably dependent upon prevailing metabolic demands and energy requirements of the cell. Soluble monomeric decorin functions as a natural tumor repressor that antagonizes a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, we discovered that decorin induces endothelial cell autophagy, downstream of VEGFR2. This process was wholly dependent upon Peg3, a decorin-inducible genomically imprinted tumor suppressor gene. However, the signaling cascades responsible have remained elusive. In this report we discovered that Vps34, a class III phosphoinositide kinase, is an upstream kinase required for Peg3 induction. Moreover, decorin triggered differential formation of Vps34/Beclin 1 complexes with concomitant dissolution of inhibitive Bcl-2/Beclin 1 complexes. Further, decorin inhibited anti-autophagic signaling via suppression of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K activity with the concurrent activation of pro-autophagic AMPK-mediated signaling cascades. Mechanistically, AMPK is downstream of VEGFR2 and inhibition of AMPK signaling abrogated decorin-evoked autophagy. Collectively, these findings hint at the complexity of the underlying molecular relays necessary for decorin-evoked endothelial cell autophagy and reveal important therapeutic targets for augmenting autophagy and combatting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:24472739

  16. Lessons from (S)-6-(1-(6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-3-yl)ethyl)quinoline (PF-04254644), an inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met with high protein kinase selectivity but broad phosphodiesterase family inhibition leading to myocardial degeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, J Jean; Shen, Hong; Tran-Dubé, Michelle; Nambu, Mitchell; McTigue, Michele; Grodsky, Neil; Ryan, Kevin; Yamazaki, Shinji; Aguirre, Shirley; Parker, Max; Li, Qiuhua; Zou, Helen; Christensen, James

    2013-09-12

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling axis is deregulated in many cancers and plays important roles in tumor invasive growth and metastasis. An exclusively selective c-Met inhibitor (S)-6-(1-(6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-3-yl)ethyl)quinoline (8) was discovered from a highly selective high-throughput screening hit via structure-based drug design and medicinal chemistry lead optimization. Compound 8 had many attractive properties meriting preclinical evaluation. Broad off-target screens identified 8 as a pan-phosphodiesterase (PDE) family inhibitor, which was implicated in a sustained increase in heart rate, increased cardiac output, and decreased contractility indices, as well as myocardial degeneration in in vivo safety evaluations in rats. Compound 8 was terminated as a preclinical candidate because of a narrow therapeutic window in cardio-related safety. The learning from multiparameter lead optimization and strategies to avoid the toxicity attrition at the late stage of drug discovery are discussed. PMID:23944843

  17. Biological Effects of the Pim Kinase Inhibitor, SGI-1776, in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes-Gomez, Fabiola; Chen, Lisa S.; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Gandhi, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Pim kinases are constitutively active serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in hematological malignancies such as multiple myeloma. Pim kinase substrates are involved in transcription, protein translation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. SGI-1776 is a potent Pim kinase inhibitor that has proven to be cytotoxic to leukemia and lymphoma cells. Based on this background, we hypothesized that SGI-1776 treatment would result in myeloma cytotoxicity. To test this, myeloma cell lines and primary CD138+ cells from myeloma patients were treated with SGI-1776 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and effect on cell death and proliferation, induction of autophagy, as wells as changes in cell cycle profile were measured. SGI-1776 treatment resulted in limited apoptosis in cell lines (mean 30%) and CD138+ cells (<10%) as assessed by Annexin-V/PI. Limited effect was observed in cell cycle profile or growth in cell lines. However, DNA synthesis was decreased by 70% at 3 ?M (all time points) in U266 though this was not observed in MM.1S. In accordance, immunoblot analyses revealed no change in transcription (c-Myc and H3), or apoptotic (Bad) proteins that are substrates of Pim kinases. In contrast, autophagy, as assessed by acridine orange staining, was induced with SGI-1776 treatment in both cell lines (U266 25-70%; MM.1S 8-52%) and CD138+ cells (19-21%). Immunoblot analyses of autophagy LC3b marker and translation initiation proteins (phospho p70S6K and 4E-BP1) corroborated autophagy induction. These data indicate that SGI-1776 treatment in myeloma cell lines and CD138+ myeloma cells elicits its deleterious effects through inhibition of translation and induction of autophagy. PMID:23988451

  18. Activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 on Ser307 and Ser612 and impairs the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin insulin biosynthetic pathway in RIN pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Francesco; D'Alessandris, Cristina; Federici, Massimo; Laratta, Emanuela; Del Guerra, Silvia; Del Prato, Stefano; Marchetti, Piero; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2004-06-01

    Many adverse effects of glucose were attributed to its increased routing through the hexosamine pathway (HBP). There is evidence for an autocrine role of the insulin signaling in beta-cell function. We tested the hypothesis that activation of the HBP induces defects in insulin biosynthesis by affecting the insulin-mediated protein translation signaling. Exposure of human pancreatic islets and RIN beta-cells to glucosamine resulted in reduction in glucose- and insulin-stimulated insulin biosynthesis, which in RIN beta-cells was associated with impairment in insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation at Tyr(608) and Tyr(628), which are essential for engaging phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). These changes were accompanied by impaired activation of PI 3-kinase, and activation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin/phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein-1/p70S6 kinase pathway. RIN beta-cells exposed to high glucose exhibited increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and ERK1/2 activity, which was associated with increased IRS-1 phosphorylation at serine (Ser)(307) and Ser(612), respectively, that inhibits coupling of IRS-1 to the insulin receptor and is upstream of the inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Azaserine reverted the stimulatory effects of high glucose on JNK and ERK1/2 activity and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307) and Ser(612). Glucosamine mimicked the stimulatory effects of high glucose on JNK and ERK1/2 activity and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307) and Ser(612). Inhibition of JNK and MAPK kinase-1 activity reverted the negative effects of glucosamine on insulin-mediated protein synthesis. These results suggest that activation of the HBP accounts, in part, for glucose-induced phosphorylation at Ser(307) and Ser(612) of IRS-1 mediated by JNK and ERK1/2, respectively. These changes result in impaired coupling of IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase, and activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin/phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein-1/p70S6 kinase pathway. PMID:15001544

  19. Deficient IL-12p70 secretion by dendritic cells based on IL12B promoter genotype.

    PubMed

    Müller-Berghaus, J; Kern, K; Paschen, A; Nguyen, X D; Klüter, H; Morahan, G; Schadendorf, D

    2004-08-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a heterodimeric cytokine, is important in the generation of a Th1-biased immune response. Several polymorphisms have been described in IL12B, the gene encoding the p40 subunit of IL-12. A bi-allelic polymorphism within the IL12B promoter region has been reported to show association with diseases as diverse as severe childhood asthma and fatal cerebral malaria. In order to define the molecular basis for these disease associations, we investigated the secretion of IL-12 by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Homozygotes for the IL12B promoter polymorphism showed a 10-fold difference in median p70 secretion in response to CD40 ligation. Remarkably, this difference resulted from the inability of most allele 1 homozygotes to secrete heterodimeric IL-12. In contrast, most of the donors homozygous for allele 2 had detectable secretion. These findings are important for the understanding of the highly complex regulation of IL-12 secretion, and its consequent impact on disease susceptibility, in humans. PMID:15175646

  20. Genome-wide comparative analyses of domain organisation of repertoires of protein kinases of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, N.

    BLAST; RLK, receptor like kinases; RS6K, Ribosomal protein S6 kinase; cNMP, cyclic nucleotide kinase subfamily comprising of Ser/Thr receptor kinases. The presence of calcium dependent kinases kinases of A. thaliana that regulate plant-specific physiological processes like ethylene hormone response

  1. S6K1 controls pancreatic ? cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Um, Sung Hee; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Chau, Gia Cac; Vintersten, Kristina; Mueller, Matthias; Gangloff, Yann-Gael; Adams, Ralf H.; Spetz, Jean-Francois; Elghazi, Lynda; Pfluger, Paul T.; Pende, Mario; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Tauler, Albert; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide heath problem that is characterized by insulin resistance and the eventual loss of ? cell function. As recent studies have shown that loss of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases systemic insulin sensitivity, S6K1 inhibitors are being pursued as potential agents for improving insulin resistance. Here we found that S6K1 deficiency in mice also leads to decreased ? cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and impaired placental development. IUGR is a common complication of human pregnancy that limits the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, leading to diminished embryonic ? cell growth and the onset of T2DM later in life. However, restoration of placental development and the rescue of IUGR by tetraploid embryo complementation did not restore ? cell size or insulin levels in S6K1–/– embryos, suggesting that loss of S6K1 leads to an intrinsic ? cell lesion. Consistent with this hypothesis, reexpression of S6K1 in ? cells of S6K1–/– mice restored embryonic ? cell size, insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and RPS6 phosphorylation, without rescuing IUGR. Together, these data suggest that a nutrient-mediated reduction in intrinsic ? cell S6K1 signaling, rather than IUGR, during fetal development may underlie reduced ? cell growth and eventual development of T2DM later in life. PMID:26075820

  2. Targeting TORC2 in multiple myeloma with a new mTOR kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Bao; Frost, Patrick; Shi, Yijiang; Belanger, Eileen; Benavides, Angelica; Pezeshkpour, Gholam; Cappia, Susanna; Guglielmelli, Tommasina; Gera, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Although preclinical work with rapalogs suggests potential in treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), they have been less successful clinically. These drugs allostearically inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase primarily curtailing activity of the target of rapamycin complex (TORC)1. To assess if the mammalian target of rapamycin within the TORC2 complex could be a better target in MM, we tested a new agent, pp242, which prevents activation of TORC2 as well as TORC1. Although comparable to rapamycin against phosphorylation of the TORC1 substrates p70S6kinase and 4E-BP-1, pp242 could also inhibit phosphorylation of AKT on serine 473, a TORC2 substrate, while rapamycin was ineffective. pp242 was also more effective than rapamycin in achieving cytoreduction and apoptosis in MM cells. In addition, pp242 was an effective agent against primary MM cells in vitro and growth of 8226 cells in mice. Knockdown of the TORC2 complex protein, rictor, was deleterious to MM cells further supporting TORC2 as the critical target for pp242. TORC2 activation was frequently identified in primary specimens by immunostaining for AKT phosphorylation on serine 473. Potential mechanisms of up-regulated TORC2 activity in MM were stimulation with interleukin-6 or insulin-like growth factor 1, and phosphatase and tensin homolog or RAS alterations. Combining pp242 with bortezomib led to synergistic anti-MM effects. These results support TORC2 as a therapeutic target in MM. PMID:20686120

  3. Identification of Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantigens and analysis of anti-Ki autoantibody reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Francoeur, A.M.; Peebles, C.L.; Gompper, P.T.; Tan, E.M.

    1986-03-01

    Anti-Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantibodies, named after the prototype patient Kikuta by Tojo et al., occur in approximately 10% of patients with SLE, often in association with anti-Sm autoantibodies. Anti-Ki sera specifically immunoprecipitated two protein antigens, Ki/sub 86/ (M/sub r/ 86,000) and Ki/sub 66/ (M/sub r/ 66,000), from radiolabeled cell extracts. The Ki system was found to be immunologically identical to the Ku system described by Mimori et al. and the p70/p80 system described by Reeves. The Ki primary in vitro translation products were identified and proved similar in size to the cellular antigens. The Ki antigens were purified from human spleen by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. The purified Ki antigens proved to be closely related by amino acid composition, and did not appear to be phosphorylated, glycosylated, or associated with RNA. The Ki antigens were found to bind to DNA, in agreement with the observations on the Ku and p70/p80 antigens. They were found to be widely conserved in mammals and were coordinately expressed in all tissues tested.

  4. Transforming Growth Factor ?1-induced Apoptosis in Podocytes via the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1-NADPH Oxidase 4 Axis.

    PubMed

    Das, Ranjan; Xu, Shanhua; Nguyen, Tuyet Thi; Quan, Xianglan; Choi, Seong-Kyung; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Eun Young; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2015-12-25

    TGF-? is a pleiotropic cytokine that accumulates during kidney injuries, resulting in various renal diseases. We have reported previously that TGF-?1 induces the selective up-regulation of mitochondrial Nox4, playing critical roles in podocyte apoptosis. Here we investigated the regulatory mechanism of Nox4 up-regulation by mTORC1 activation on TGF-?1-induced apoptosis in immortalized podocytes. TGF-?1 treatment markedly increased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream targets p70S6K and 4EBP1. Blocking TGF-? receptor I with SB431542 completely blunted the phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, and 4EBP1. Transient adenoviral overexpression of mTOR-WT and constitutively active mTOR? augmented TGF-?1-treated Nox4 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis, whereas mTOR kinase-dead suppressed the above changes. In addition, knockdown of mTOR mimicked the effect of mTOR-KD. Inhibition of mTORC1 by low-dose rapamycin or knockdown of p70S6K protected podocytes through attenuation of Nox4 expression and subsequent oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by TGF-?1. Pharmacological inhibition of the MEK-ERK cascade, but not the PI3K-Akt-TSC2 pathway, abolished TGF-?1-induced mTOR activation. Inhibition of either ERK1/2 or mTORC1 did not reduce the TGF-?1-stimulated increase in Nox4 mRNA level but significantly inhibited total Nox4 expression, ROS generation, and apoptosis induced by TGF-?1. Moreover, double knockdown of Smad2 and 3 or only Smad4 completely suppressed TGF-?1-induced ERK1/2-mTORactivation. Our data suggest that TGF-?1 increases translation of Nox4 through the Smad-ERK1/2-mTORC1 axis, which is independent of transcriptional regulation. Activation of this pathway plays a crucial role in ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to podocyte apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of the ERK1/2-mTORC1 pathway could be a potential therapeutic and preventive target in proteinuric and chronic kidney diseases. PMID:26565025

  5. Src Family Kinases Are Required for Prolactin Induction of Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Vara, Juan Ángel Fresno; Cáceres, Ma Aurora Domínguez; Silva, Augusto; Martín-Pérez, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a pleiotropic cytokine promoting cellular proliferation and differentiation. Because PRL activates the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFK), we have studied the role of these kinases in PRL cell proliferation signaling. PRL induced [3H]thymidine incorporation upon transient transfection of BaF-3 cells with the PRL receptor. This effect was inhibited by cotransfection with the dominant negative mutant of c-Src (K>A295/Y>F527, SrcDM). The role of SFK in PRL-induced proliferation was confirmed in the BaF-3 PRL receptor-stable transfectant, W53 cells, where PRL induced Fyn and Lyn activation. The SFK-selective inhibitors PP1/PP2 and herbimycin A blocked PRL-dependent cell proliferation by arresting the W53 cells in G1, with no evident apoptosis. In parallel, PP1/PP2 inhibited PRL induction of cell growth-related genes c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, and odc. These inhibitors have no effect on PRL-mediated activation of Ras/Mapk and Jak/Start pathways. In contrast, they inhibited the PRL-dependent stimulation of the SFKs substrate Sam68, the phosphorylation of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, and the PI3K-dependent Akt and p70S6k serine kinases. Consistently, transient expression of SrcDM in W53 cells also blocked PRL activation of Akt. These results demonstrate that activation of SFKs is required for cell proliferation induced by PRL. PMID:11452011

  6. WELDING RESEARCH JANUARY 2004-S6

    E-print Network

    DuPont, John N.

    WELDING RESEARCH JANUARY 2004-S6 ABSTRACT. The influence of microstruc- ture on the fatigue crack propagation be- havior of gas metal arc welds in 316L and AL6XN austenitic stainless steels has been effects as the fatigue crack propa- gated from the base metal into the weld metal. The results

  7. Sam68 Regulates S6K1 Alternative Splicing during Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for alternative splicing during adipogenesis is poorly understood. The Sam68 RNA binding protein is a known regulator of alternative splicing, and mice deficient for Sam68 exhibit adipogenesis defects due to defective mTOR signaling. Sam68 null preadipocytes were monitored for alternative splicing imbalances in components of the mTOR signaling pathway. Herein, we report that Sam68 regulates isoform expression of the ribosomal S6 kinase gene (Rps6kb1). Sam68-deficient adipocytes express Rps6kb1-002 and its encoded p31S6K1 protein, in contrast to wild-type adipocytes that do not express this isoform. Sam68 binds an RNA sequence encoded by Rps6kb1 intron 6 and prevents serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1)-mediated alternative splicing of Rps6kb1-002, as assessed by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and minigene assays. Depletion of p31S6K1 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) partially restored adipogenesis of Sam68-deficient preadipocytes. The ectopic expression of p31S6K1 in wild-type 3T3-L1 cells resulted in adipogenesis differentiation defects, showing that p31S6K1 is an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Our findings indicate that Sam68 is required to prevent the expression of p31S6K1 in adipocytes for adipogenesis to occur. PMID:25776557

  8. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway. PMID:16397275

  9. Preclinical Pharmacological Evaluation of a Novel Multiple Kinase Inhibitor, ON123300, in Brain Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Hua; Zhou, Qingyu; Elkholi, Rana; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Gallo, James M.

    2014-01-01

    ON123300 is a low molecular weight multi-kinase inhibitor identified through a series of screens that supported further analyses for brain tumor chemotherapy. Biochemical assays indicated ON123300 was a strong inhibitor of Ark5 and CDK4 as well as growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases such as Beta-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGFR?]. ON123300 inhibited U87 glioma cell proliferation with an IC50 = 3.4 ± 0.1 ?M and reduced phosphorylation of Akt, yet it also unexpectedly induced Erk activation; both in a dose- and time-dependent manner that subsequently was attributed to relieving Akt-mediated C-Raf S259 inactivation and activating a p70S6K initiated PI3K negative feedback loop. Co-treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib [GFN] produced synergistic cytotoxic effects. Pursuant to the in vitro studies, in vivo pharmacokinetic [PK] and pharmacodynamic [PD] studies of ON123300 were completed in mice bearing intracerebral U87 tumors following IV doses of 5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg alone, and also at the higher dose concurrently with GFN. ON123300 showed high brain and brain tumor accumulation based on brain partition coefficient values of at least 2.5. Consistent with the in vitro studies, single agent ON123300 caused a dose-dependent suppression of phosphorylation of Akt as well as activation of Erk in brain tumors, whereas addition of GFN to the ON123300 regimen significantly enhanced p-Akt inhibition and prevented Erk activation. In summary, ON123300 demonstrated favorable PK characteristics and future development for brain tumor therapy would require use of combinations, such as GFN, that mitigated its Erk activation and enhanced its activity. PMID:24568969

  10. Planar dicyclic B6S6, B6S6(-), and B6S6(2-) clusters: boron sulfide analogues of naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Zhi; Bai, Hui; Ou, Ting; Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of current interest in chemistry. Based upon global structural searches and B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, we present herein the perfectly planar dicyclic boron sulfide clusters: D2h B6S6 (1, (1)Ag), D2h B6S6(-) (2, (2)B3u), and D2h B6S6(2-) (3, (1)Ag). These are the global minima of the systems, being at least 0.73, 0.81, and 0.53 eV lower in energy, respectively, than their alternative isomers at the CCSD(T) level. The D2h structures feature twin B3S2 five-membered rings, which are fused together via a B2 unit and terminated by two BS groups. Bonding analyses show that the closed-shell B6S6(2-) (3) cluster possesses 10 delocalized ? electrons, closely analogous to the bonding pattern of the aromatic naphthalene C10H8. The B6S6(-) (2) and B6S6 (1) species are readily obtained upon removal of one or two ? electrons from B6S6(2-) (3). The results build a new analogous relationship between boron sulfide clusters and their PAH counterparts. The B6S6(-) (2) monoanion and B6S6(2-) (3) dianion can be effectively stabilized in neutral LiB6S6 and Li2B6S6 salts, respectively. PMID:25573556

  11. Kinase dysfunction and kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    London, Cheryl A

    2013-02-01

    With recent advances in molecular biology, abnormalities in cancer cells that contribute to dysregulation of cell survival and proliferation are being characterized with greater precision. Through this process, key abnormalities in cancer cells involving proteins that regulate signal transduction, migration, mitosis and other critical processes have been identified. Such abnormalities often involve a class of proteins called kinases that act to phosphorylate other proteins in the cell, resulting in activation of these proteins in the absence of appropriate stimulation/regulation. Given their role in tumour biology, substantial effort has been directed at blocking the function of these proteins. Several approaches have been used, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. While antibodies are primarily directed at cell surface proteins, small molecule inhibitors, also known as kinase inhibitors, target proteins throughout the cell. A variety of kinase inhibitors have been approved for the treatment of human cancers. In some instances, these inhibitors have exhibited significant clinical efficacy, and it is likely that their biological activity will be further enhanced as combination regimens with standard treatment modalities are explored. The use of kinase inhibitors in dogs and cats is relatively recent, although two inhibitors, toceranib (Palladia; Pfizer Animal Health, Madison, NJ, USA) and masitinib (Kinavet; Catalent Pharma Solutions, Somerset, NJ, USA) have been approved by the Federal Drug Administration (USA) for use in dogs. This article reviews the biology of protein kinase dysfunction in human and animal cancers, and the application of specific kinase inhibitors to veterinary cancer patients. PMID:23331696

  12. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Paula; Howley, Rachel; Doolan, Padraig; Clarke, Colin; Madden, Stephen F.; Clynes, Martin; Farrell, Michael; Amberger-Murphy, Verena; All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  13. FGF-2 protects small cell lung cancer cells from apoptosis through a complex involving PKC?, B-Raf and S6K2

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Olivier E; Wellbrock, Claudia; Khanzada, Umme K; Aubert, Muriel; Arozarena, Imanol; Davidson, Sally; Bowen, Frances; Parker, Peter J; Filonenko, V V; Gout, Ivan T; Sebire, Neil; Marais, Richard; Downward, Julian; Seckl, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) die because of chemoresistance. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) increases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-XL, and triggers chemoresistance in SCLC cells. Here we show that these effects are mediated through the formation of a specific multiprotein complex comprising B-Raf, PKC? and S6K2. S6K1, Raf-1 and other PKC isoforms do not form similar complexes. RNAi-mediated downregulation of B-Raf, PKC? or S6K2 abolishes FGF-2-mediated survival. In contrast, overexpression of PKC? increases XIAP and Bcl-XL levels and chemoresistance in SCLC cells. In a tetracycline-inducible system, increased S6K2 kinase activity triggers upregulation of XIAP, Bcl-XL and prosurvival effects. However, increased S6K1 kinase activity has no such effect. Thus, S6K2 but not S6K1 mediates prosurvival/chemoresistance signalling. PMID:16810323

  14. FGF-2 protects small cell lung cancer cells from apoptosis through a complex involving PKCepsilon, B-Raf and S6K2.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Olivier E; Wellbrock, Claudia; Khanzada, Umme K; Aubert, Muriel; Arozarena, Imanol; Davidson, Sally; Bowen, Frances; Parker, Peter J; Filonenko, V V; Gout, Ivan T; Sebire, Neil; Marais, Richard; Downward, Julian; Seckl, Michael J

    2006-07-12

    Patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) die because of chemoresistance. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) increases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-X(L), and triggers chemoresistance in SCLC cells. Here we show that these effects are mediated through the formation of a specific multiprotein complex comprising B-Raf, PKCepsilon and S6K2. S6K1, Raf-1 and other PKC isoforms do not form similar complexes. RNAi-mediated downregulation of B-Raf, PKCepsilon or S6K2 abolishes FGF-2-mediated survival. In contrast, overexpression of PKCepsilon increases XIAP and Bcl-X(L) levels and chemoresistance in SCLC cells. In a tetracycline-inducible system, increased S6K2 kinase activity triggers upregulation of XIAP, Bcl-X(L) and prosurvival effects. However, increased S6K1 kinase activity has no such effect. Thus, S6K2 but not S6K1 mediates prosurvival/chemoresistance signalling. PMID:16810323

  15. Human breast tumor cells express IL-10 and IL-12p40 transcripts and proteins, but do not produce IL-12p70.

    PubMed

    Heckel, Mark C; Wolfson, Alexey; Slachta, Christopher A; Schwarting, Roland; Salgame, Padmini; Katsetos, Christos D; Platsoucas, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    IL-10 transcripts were expressed in 14/15 primary breast adenocarcinomas and in 5/8 established breast tumor lines. Immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation from lysates and supernatants revealed that established breast tumor lines produced IL-10 protein. Immunohistochemistry revealed that IL-10 is localized to tumor cells of primary breast adenocarcinomas and to occasional infiltrating MNC. Established breast tumor cell lines expressed IL-12p40 transcripts (6/8) and protein (4/7) and IL-12p35 transcripts (6/7). Using two sandwich ELISAs, specific, respectively, for IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 proteins, we demonstrated that established breast tumor cell lines produce IL-12p40 monomer/homodimer, but not IL-12p70. Positive staining for IL-12p70 in primary breast adenocarcinomas was found only in MNC infiltrating the tumor while tumor cells were negative. IL-12p40 homodimer/monomer inhibit as antagonists IL-12 or IL-23, although they may also act as agonists and positive regulators. Also, primary breast adenocarcinomas (15/15) and established breast tumor cell lines (6/8) expressed TGF-?1 transcripts. IL-10, IL-12p40 and TGF-?1 may inhibit substantially the anti-tumor immune response. PMID:21055733

  16. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Phosphopeptide patterns of the ribosomal protein S6 following stimulation of guinea pig parotid glands by secretagogues involving either cAMP or calcium as second messenger.

    PubMed

    Padel, U; Kruppa, J; Jahn, R; Söling, H D

    1983-08-01

    Stimulation of secretion in exocrine cells is associated with the incorporation of up to 3 to 4 phosphates into the ribosomal protein S6. This occurs with secretagogues involving either cAMP or free calcium as second messenger. An analysis of the phosphorylation pattern of S6 from stimulated guinea pig parotid glands reveals 3 phosphopeptides (termed A,B,C). The phosphopeptide pattern was identical for cAMP- or calcium-mediated stimulation, whereas phosphorylation of the S6 protein in vitro with catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase resulted only in the formation of phosphopeptides A and C. Therefore, secretagogue-mediated phosphorylation is not or not exclusively catalyzed by cAMP-dependent protein kinase even when cAMP is the second messenger. PMID:6307749

  18. Polo-like kinase-activating kinases

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, Vincent; Carmena, Mar

    2012-01-01

    The events of cell division are regulated by a complex interplay between kinases and phosphatases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), polo-like kinases (Plks) and Aurora kinases play central roles in this process. Polo kinase (Plk1 in humans) regulates a wide range of events in mitosis and cytokinesis. To ensure the accuracy of these processes, polo activity itself is subject to complex regulation. Phosphorylation of polo in its T loop (or activation loop) increases its kinase activity several-fold. It has been shown that Aurora A kinase, with its co-factor Bora, activates Plk1 in G2, and that this is essential for recovery from cell cycle arrest induced by DNA damage. In a recent article published in PLoS Biology, we report that Drosophila polo is activated by Aurora B kinase at centromeres, and that this is crucial for polo function in regulating chromosome dynamics in prometaphase. Our results suggest that this regulatory pathway is conserved in humans. Here, we propose a model for the collaboration between Aurora B and polo in the regulation of kinetochore attachment to microtubules in early mitosis. Moreover, we suggest that Aurora B could also function to activate Polo/Plk1 in cytokinesis. Finally, we discuss recent findings and open questions regarding the activation of polo and polo-like kinases by different kinases in mitosis, cytokinesis and other processes. PMID:22433949

  19. The PP242 Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitor Activates Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) in Multiple Myeloma Cells via a Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1)/ Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF-4E)/RAF Pathway and Activation Is a Mechanism of Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Bao; Benavides, Angelica; Shi, Yijiang; Yang, Yonghui; Frost, Patrick; Gera, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Activation of PI3-K-AKT and ERK pathways is a complication of mTOR inhibitor therapy. Newer mTOR inhibitors (like pp242) can overcome feedback activation of AKT in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We, thus, studied if feedback activation of ERK is still a complication of therapy with such drugs in this tumor model. PP242 induced ERK activation in MM cell lines as well as primary cells. Surprisingly, equimolar concentrations of rapamycin were relatively ineffective at ERK activation. Activation was not correlated with P70S6kinase inhibition nor was it prevented by PI3-kinase inhibition. ERK activation was prevented by MEK inhibitors and was associated with concurrent stimulation of RAF kinase activity but not RAS activation. RAF activation correlated with decreased phosphorylation of RAF at Ser-289, Ser-296, and Ser-301 inhibitory residues. Knockdown studies confirmed TORC1 inhibition was the key proximal event that resulted in ERK activation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of eIF-4E blunted pp242-induced ERK phosphorylation. Since pp242 was more potent than rapamycin in causing sequestering of eIF-4E, a TORC1/4E-BP1/eIF-4E-mediated mechanism of ERK activation could explain the greater effectiveness of pp242. Use of MEK inhibitors confirmed ERK activation served as a mechanism of resistance to the lethal effects of pp242. Thus, although active site mTOR inhibitors overcome AKT activation often seen with rapalog therapy, feedback ERK activation is still a problem of resistance, is more severe than that seen with use of first generation rapalogs and is mediated by a TORC1- and eIF-4E-dependent mechanism ultimately signaling to RAF. PMID:22556409

  20. A hepatic amino acid/mTOR/S6K-dependent signalling pathway modulates systemic lipid metabolism via neuronal signals

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kenji; Yamada, Tetsuya; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Imai, Junta; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Sawada, Shojiro; Kaneko, Keizo; Ono, Hiraku; Asano, Tomoichiro; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is coordinated among tissues and organs via neuronal signals. Levels of circulating amino acids (AAs), which are elevated in obesity, activate the intracellular target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1)/S6kinase (S6K) pathway in the liver. Here we demonstrate that hepatic AA/mTORC1/S6K signalling modulates systemic lipid metabolism via a mechanism involving neuronal inter-tissue communication. Hepatic expression of an AA transporter, SNAT2, activates the mTORC1/S6K pathway, and markedly elevates serum triglycerides (TGs), while downregulating adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Hepatic Rheb or active-S6K expression have similar metabolic effects, whereas hepatic expression of dominant-negative-S6K inhibits TG elevation in SNAT2 mice. Denervation, pharmacological deafferentation and ?-blocker administration suppress obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia with adipose LPL upregulation, suggesting that signals are transduced between liver and adipose tissue via a neuronal pathway consisting of afferent vagal and efferent sympathetic nerves. Thus, the neuronal mechanism uncovered here serves to coordinate amino acid and lipid levels and contributes to the development of obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:26268630

  1. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of three fungal exocellular ?-glucans in MCF-7 breast cancer cells is mediated by oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the Forkhead transcription factor, FOXO3a.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Eveline A I F; Fortes, Zuleica B; da Cunha, Mário A A; Barbosa, Aneli M; Khaper, Neelam; Dekker, Robert F H

    2015-10-01

    Fungal ?-d-glucans of the (1?3)-type are known to exhibit direct antitumor effects, and can also indirectly decrease tumor proliferation through immunomodulatory responses. The underlying molecular mechanisms involved in decreasing tumor formation, however, are not well understood. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative role and mechanism of action of three different fungal exocellular ?-glucans in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The ?-glucans were obtained from Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 [two botryosphaerans; (1?3)(1?6)-?-d-glucan; one produced on glucose, the other on fructose] and Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI [lasiodiplodan; (1?6)-?-d-glucan, produced on glucose]. Using the cell proliferation-MTT assay, we showed that the ?-glucans exhibited a time- and concentration-dependent antiproliferative activity (IC50, 100?g/ml). Markers of cell cycle, apoptosis, necrosis and oxidative stress were analyzed using flow cytometry, RT-PCR and Western blotting. Exposure to ?-glucans increased apoptosis, necrosis, oxidative stress, mRNA expression of p53, p27 and Bax; the activity of AMP-activated protein-kinase, Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a, Bax and caspase-3; and decreased the activity of p70S6K in MCF-7 cells. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the fungal ?-glucans increased oxidative stress, which was associated with reduced cell viability. We showed that these ?-glucans exhibited an antiproliferative effect that was associated with apoptosis, necrosis and oxidative stress. This study demonstrated for the first time that the apoptosis induced by ?-glucans was mediated by AMP-activated protein-kinase and Forkhead transcription factor, FOXO3a. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into their antiproliferative roles, and compelling evidence that these ?-glucans possess a broad range of biomodulatory properties that may prove useful in cancer treatment. PMID:26255117

  2. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  3. A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates reactive oxygen species homeostasis in Arabidopsis *

    E-print Network

    Hirt, Heribert

    1 A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates reactive oxygen species homeostasis oxygen species homeostasis Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) play key roles homeostasis in Arabidopsis. We show that MEKK1-deficient plants are misregulated in the expression of a number

  4. Stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by oncogenic Ras p21 in Xenopus oocytes. Requirement for Ras p21-GTPase-activating protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Pomerance, M; Schweighoffer, F; Tocque, B; Pierre, M

    1992-08-15

    p21ras plays an important role in the control of cell proliferation. The molecular mechanisms implicated are unknown. We report that the injection of oncogenic Lys12 Ras into Xenopus laevis oocytes promoted the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) after a lag of about 90 min. MAP kinase activity was 10-fold higher 4 h after injection of oncogenic Lys12 Ras than after injection of nononcogenic Gly12 Ras. The stimulated MAP kinase activity remained at a plateau for at least 18 h. Maximal stimulation was obtained with 5 ng of Lys12 Ras, which is similar to the amount that elicits germinal vesicle breakdown. DEAE-Sephacel chromatography of extracts from Lys12 Ras-injected oocytes showed one peak of MAP kinase. MAP kinase activation by Lys12 Ras was associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase (p42). As previously shown, the S6-kinase II (likely pp90rsk), which is activated in vitro by MAP kinase, was also activated by oncogenic Lys12 Ras. Lys12 Ras with an additional mutation (Glu38) in the effector region that binds GTPase-activating protein (GAP) did not promote MAP kinase or S6 kinase activations. Thus, GAP may be involved downstream to Ras in these activation processes. Our results indicate that the Ras-GAP complex promotes MAP kinase activation in oocytes. This supports the idea that Ras-GAP controls MAP kinase, a kinase implicated in the action of various stimuli. PMID:1322893

  5. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases by purine analogues.

    PubMed

    Veselý, J; Havlicek, L; Strnad, M; Blow, J J; Donella-Deana, A; Pinna, L; Letham, D S; Kato, J; Detivaud, L; Leclerc, S

    1994-09-01

    While testing purines related to the non-specific protein kinase inhibitors N6-dimethylaminopurine and N6-(delta 2-isopentenyl)adenine as potential inhibitors of the p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase, we discovered a compound with high specificity, 2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)-6- benzylamino-9-methylpurine (olomoucine). Kinetic analysis of kinase inhibition reveals that olomoucine behaves as a competitive inhibitor for ATP and as a non-competitive inhibitor for histone H1 (linear inhibition for both substrates). The kinase specificity of this inhibition was investigated for 35 highly purified kinases (including p34cdk4/cyclin D1, p40cdk6/cyclin D3, cAMP-dependent and cGMP-dependent kinases, eight protein kinase C isoforms, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, myosin light-chain kinase, mitogen-activated S6 kinase, casein kinase 2, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, AMP-stimulated kinase, eight tyrosine kinases). Most kinases are not significantly inhibited. Only the cell-cycle regulating p34cdc2/cyclin B, p33cdk2/cyclin A and p33cdk2/cyclin E kinases, the brain p33cdk5/p35 kinase and the ERK1/MAP-kinase (and its starfish homologue p44mpk) are substantially inhibited by olomoucine (IC50 values are 7, 7, 7, 3 and 25 microM, respectively). The cdk4/cyclin D1 and cdk6/cyclin D3 kinases are not significantly sensitive to olomoucine (IC50 values greater than 1 mM and 150 microM, respectively). N6-(delta 2-Isopentenyl)adenine is confirmed as a general kinase inhibitor with IC50 values of 50-100 microM for many kinases. The purine specificity of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition was investigated: among 81 purine derivatives tested, only C2, N6 and N9-substituted purines exert a strong inhibitory effect on the p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase. An essentially similar sensitivity to this olomoucine family of compounds was observed for the brain-specific cdk5/p35 kinase. Structure/activity relationship studies allow speculation on the interactions of olomoucine and its analogues with the kinase catalytic subunit. Olomoucine inhibits in vitro M-phase-promoting factor activity in metaphase-arrested Xenopus egg extracts, inhibits in vitro DNA synthesis in Xenopus interphase egg extracts and inhibits the licensing factor, an essential replication factor ensuring that DNA is replicated only once in each cell cycle. Olomoucine inhibits the starfish oocyte G2/M transition in vivo. Through its unique selectivity olomoucine provides an anti-mitotic reagent that may preferentially inhibit certain steps of the cell cycle. PMID:7925396

  6. Improved protocol to purify untagged amelogenin - Application to murine amelogenin containing the equivalent P70 ? T point mutation observed in human amelogenesis imperfecta

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2015-01-02

    Amelogenin is the predominant extracellular protein responsible for converting carbonated hydroxyapatite into dental enamel, the hardest and most heavily mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Despite much effort, the precise mechanism by which amelogenin regulates enamel formation is not fully understood. To assist efforts aimed at understanding the biochemical mechanism of enamel formation, more facile protocols to purify recombinantly expressed amelogenin, ideally without any tag to assist affinity purification, are advantageous. Here we describe an improved method to purify milligram quantities of amelogenin that exploits its high solubility in 2% glacial acetic acid under conditions of low ionic strength. The method involves heating the frozen cell pellet for two 15 min periods at ~70 şC with two minutes of sonication in between, dialysis twice in 2% acetic acid (1:250 v/v), and reverse phase chromatography. A further improvement in yield is obtained by resuspending the frozen cell pellet in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride in the first step. The acetic acid heating method is illustrated with a murine amelogenin containing the corresponding P70?T point mutation observed in an human amelogenin associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (P71T), while the guanidine hydrochloride heating method is illustrated with wild type murine amelogenin (M180). The self-assembly properties of P71T were probed by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies as a function of protein (0.1 to 1.8 mM) and NaCl (0 to 367 mM) concentration. Relative to similar studies with wild type murine amelogenin, P71T self-associates at lower protein or salt concentrations with the interactions initiated near the N-terminus.

  7. Purification and properties of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, an insulin-stimulated microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Boulton, T G; Gregory, J S; Cobb, M H

    1991-01-01

    In rat 1 fibroblasts, insulin has little or no stimulatory effect on the activities of either MAP2 protein kinase or ribosomal protein S6 kinase. In contrast, in rat 1 cells that overexpress the normal human insulin receptor (rat 1 HIRc B; McClain et al. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 14663-14671), insulin activates both MAP2 and S6 kinase activities close to 5-fold. A MAP2 kinase has been purified from insulin-treated rat 1 HIRc B cells over 6300-fold by chromatography on Q-Sepharose, phenyl-Sepharose, S-Sepharose, phosphocellulose, QAE-Sepharose, UltrogelAcA54, DEAE-cellulose, and a second Q-Sepharose. Its specific activity is approximately 0.8-1 mumol.min-1.mg-1 with MAP2 and 3 mumol.min-1.mg-1 with myelin basic protein. The enzyme preparation contains one major band of Mr = 43,000 upon SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which is immunoblotted by antibodies to phosphotyrosine. A sequence from the 43-kDa band led to the isolation of a cDNA encoding the enzyme, which we have named ERK1 for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Boulton et al. (1990) Science 249, 64-67). PMID:1846291

  8. From Phosphosites to Kinases.

    PubMed

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V; Jensen, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a pivotal role in propagating the phosphorylation-mediated signaling networks in living cells. With the overwhelming quantities of phosphoproteomics data being generated, the number of identified phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) is ever increasing. Often, proteomics investigations aim to understand the global signaling modulation that takes place in different biological conditions investigated. For phosphoproteomics data, identifying the kinases central to mediating this response is key. This has prompted several efforts to catalogue the immense amounts of phosphorylation data and known or predicted kinases responsible for the modifications. However, barely 20 % of the known phosphosites are assigned to a kinase, initiating various bioinformatics efforts that attempt to predict the responsible kinases. These algorithms employ different approaches to predict kinase consensus sequence motifs, mostly based on large scale in vivo and in vitro experiments. The context of the kinase and the phosphorylated proteins in a biological system is equally important for predicting association between the enzymes and substrates, an aspect that is also being tackled with available bioinformatics tools. This chapter summarizes the use of the larger phosphorylation databases, and approaches that can be applied to predict kinases that phosphorylate individual sites or that are globally modulated in phosphoproteomics datasets. PMID:26584935

  9. The secretory pathway kinases.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, Anju; Kinch, Lisa N; Tagliabracci, Vincent S

    2015-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a nearly universal post-translation modification involved in a plethora of cellular events. Even though phosphorylation of extracellular proteins had been observed, the identity of the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins remained a mystery until only recently. Advances in genome sequencing and genetic studies have paved the way for the discovery of a new class of kinases that localize within the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the extracellular space. These novel kinases phosphorylate proteins and proteoglycans in the secretory pathway and appear to regulate various extracellular processes. Mutations in these kinases cause human disease, thus underscoring the biological importance of phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25862977

  10. By activating Fas/ceramide synthase 6/p38 kinase in lipid rafts, stichoposide D inhibits growth of leukemia xenografts.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seong-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seon; Shin, Sung-Won; Ju, Mi-Ha; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Stonik, Valentin A; Kwak, Jong-Young; Park, Joo-In

    2015-09-29

    Stichoposide D (STD) is a marine triterpene glycoside isolated from sea cucumbers. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of STD in human leukemia cells. The role of Fas (CD95), ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis was examined in human leukemia cells. In addition, the antitumor effects of STD in K562 and HL-60 leukemia xenograft models were investigated. We found that STD induces Fas translocation to lipid rafts, and thus mediates cell apoptosis. We also observed the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis. The use of methyl-?-cyclodextrin and nystatin to disrupt lipid rafts prevents the clustering of Fas and the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase, and also inhibits STD-induced apoptosis. Specific inhibition by Fas, CerS6, and p38 kinase siRNA transfection partially blocked STD-induced apoptosis. In addition, STD has antitumor activity through the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase without displaying any toxicity in HL-60 and K562 xenograft models. We observed that the anti-tumor effect of STD is partially prevented in CerS6 shRNA-silenced xenograft models. We first report that Fas/CerS6/p38 kinase activation in lipid rafts by STD is involved in its anti-leukemic activity. We also established that STD is able to enhance the chemosensitivity of K562 cells to etoposide or Ara-C. These data suggest that STD may be used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents to treat leukemia. PMID:26318294

  11. Phenotypic and Functional Activation of Hyporesponsive KIRnegNKG2Aneg Human NK-Cell Precursors Requires IL-12p70 Provided by Poly(I:C)-Matured Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Shane A.; Romano, Emanuela; Kennedy, Michael G.; Hsu, Katharine C.; Young, James W.

    2014-01-01

    A functionally responsive natural killer (NK)-cell repertoire requires the acquisition of inhibitory NKG2A and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) through pathways that remain undefined. Functional donor NK cells expressing KIRs for non-self class I MHC ligands contribute to a positive outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) by targeting HLA-matched recipient leukemic cells. Insofar as circulating donor conventional dendritic cells (DC) reconstitute with comparable kinetics to donor NK cells after alloHSCT, we used hyporesponsive KIRnegNKG2Aneg precursor cells to evaluate how specific DC subtypes generate a functionally active NK-cell repertoire. Both monocyte-derived DCs (moDC) and Langerhans-type DCs (LC) induce KIRnegNKG2Aneg precursor cells to express the inhibitory receptors NKG2A and KIR, without requiring cell proliferation. Poly(I:C)-matured moDCs significantly augmented the expression of NKG2A but not KIR in an IL-12p70-dependent manner. While all DC-stimulated KIRnegNKG2Aneg cells were able to acquire cytolytic activity against class I MHC-negative targets, the ability to secrete IFN? was restricted to cells that were stimulated by IL-12p70-producing, poly(I:C)-matured moDCs. This critical ability of poly(I:C)-matured moDCs to provide IL-12p70 to developing KIRnegNKG2Aneg precursors results in a dominant, multi-functional, NKG2Apos NK-cell population that is capable of both cytolysis and IFN? production. Poly(I:C)-matured moDCs are therefore the most effective conventional DC subtype for generating a functionally competent NK-cell repertoire by an IL-12p70-dependent mechanism. PMID:25023628

  12. Planar dicyclic B6S6, B6S6-, and B6S62- clusters: Boron sulfide analogues of naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-Zhi; Bai, Hui; Ou, Ting; Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of current interest in chemistry. Based upon global structural searches and B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, we present herein the perfectly planar dicyclic boron sulfide clusters: D2h B6S6 (1, 1Ag), D2h B6S6- (2, 2B3u), and D2h B6S62- (3, 1Ag). These are the global minima of the systems, being at least 0.73, 0.81, and 0.53 eV lower in energy, respectively, than their alternative isomers at the CCSD(T) level. The D2h structures feature twin B3S2 five-membered rings, which are fused together via a B2 unit and terminated by two BS groups. Bonding analyses show that the closed-shell B6S62- (3) cluster possesses 10 delocalized ? electrons, closely analogous to the bonding pattern of the aromatic naphthalene C10H8. The B6S6- (2) and B6S6 (1) species are readily obtained upon removal of one or two ? electrons from B6S62- (3). The results build a new analogous relationship between boron sulfide clusters and their PAH counterparts. The B6S6- (2) monoanion and B6S62- (3) dianion can be effectively stabilized in neutral LiB6S6 and Li2B6S6 salts, respectively.

  13. Aberrant mTOR activation in senescence and aging: A mitochondrial stress response?

    PubMed

    Nacarelli, Timothy; Azar, Ashley; Sell, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Unexpected activation of mTOR signaling, measured by ribosomal S6 phosphorylation or ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) activity, has been reported in aging-related settings. Evidence of elevated mTOR activity has been reported in the heart and muscle tissue in aged mice and humans, mouse models of progeria, and senescent human fibroblasts. We explore these reports and the possibility that activation of the mTOR/p70S6K kinase pathway may represent a ROS-mediated response to mitochondrial stress leading to the activation of senescence. This activation is a hallmark of both aged tissue and senescent human cells. PMID:25449851

  14. Trpc1 Ion Channel Modulates Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway during Myoblast Differentiation and Muscle Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Zanou, Nadčge; Schakman, Olivier; Louis, Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dietrich, Alexander; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Gailly, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed in vitro that calcium entry through Trpc1 ion channels regulates myoblast migration and differentiation. In the present work, we used primary cell cultures and isolated muscles from Trpc1?/? and Trpc1+/+ murine model to investigate the role of Trpc1 in myoblast differentiation and in muscle regeneration. In these models, we studied regeneration consecutive to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury and observed a significant hypotrophy and a delayed regeneration in Trpc1?/? muscles consisting in smaller fiber size and increased proportion of centrally nucleated fibers. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin and of one of their targets, the developmental MHC (MHCd). Consequently, muscle tension was systematically lower in muscles from Trpc1?/? mice. Importantly, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, which plays a crucial role in muscle growth and regeneration, was down-regulated in regenerating Trpc1?/? muscles. Indeed, phosphorylation of both Akt and p70S6K proteins was decreased as well as the activation of PI3K, the main upstream regulator of the Akt. This effect was independent of insulin-like growth factor expression. Akt phosphorylation also was reduced in Trpc1?/? primary myoblasts and in control myoblasts differentiated in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or pretreated with EGTA-AM or wortmannin, suggesting that the entry of Ca2+ through Trpc1 channels enhanced the activity of PI3K. Our results emphasize the involvement of Trpc1 channels in skeletal muscle development in vitro and in vivo, and identify a Ca2+-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration. PMID:22399301

  15. CCN1 acutely increases nitric oxide production via integrin ?v?3-Akt-S6K-phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at the serine 1177 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soojin; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Gyungah; Won, Kyung-Jong; Park, Yoon Shin; Jo, Inho

    2015-12-01

    Although CCN1 (also known as cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer 61, CYR61) has been reported to promote angiogenesis and neovascularization in endothelial cells (ECs), its effects on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production have never been studied. Using human umbilical vein ECs, we investigated whether and how CCN1 regulates NO production. CCN1 acutely increased NO production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at serine 1177 (eNOS-Ser(1177)), but not that of eNOS-Thr(495) or eNOS-Ser(114). The level of total eNOS expression was unaltered. Treatment with either LY294002, a selective inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase known as an upstream kinase of Akt, or H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1, Rho-associated protein kinase 2, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), inhibited CCN1-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation and subsequent NO production. Ectopic expression of small interfering RNA against Akt and S6K significantly inhibited the effects of CCN1. Consistently, CCN1 increased the phosphorylation of Akt-Ser(473) and S6K-Thr(389). However, CCN1 did not alter the expression or secretion of VEGF, a known downstream factor of CCN1 and a potential upstream factor of Akt-mediated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation. Furthermore, neutralization of integrin ?v?3 with corresponding antibody completely reversed all of the observed effects of CCN1. Moreover, CCN1 increased acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the rat aortas. Finally, we also found that CCN1-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation and NO production are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, CCN1 acutely increases NO production via activation of a signaling axis in integrin ?v?3-Akt-S6K-eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation, suggesting an important role for CCN1 in vasodilation. PMID:26393424

  16. S6K1 inhibition enhances the apoptotic cell death of breast cancer cells in response to Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibition by the downregulation of survivin

    PubMed Central

    PARK, JIN-AH; JIN, HYEON-OK; LEE, HA-NA; KIM, JIN-HEE; PARK, IN-CHUL; NOH, WOO CHUL; CHANG, YOON HWAN; HONG, YOUNG JUN; KIM, KEUN-CHUL; LEE, JIN KYUNG

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer cells possess a deregulated apoptotic pathway with increased expression levels of anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins and ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) protein activity. Therefore, combined interference of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family and S6K1 protein expression may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. In the present study, it was identified that the administration of a combination of ABT263 [navitoclax; a Bcl-2/Bcl-extra large (Bcl-xL) inhibitor] and PF4708671 (an S6K1 inhibitor) markedly increased apoptotic cell death in the BT474 breast cancer cells compared with the administration of either agent alone. Furthermore, the downregulation of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and S6K1 with small interfering RNA induced a significant increase in cell death compared with RNA interference of either agent alone. Notably, combination treatment with ABT263 and PF4708671 decreased the expression level of survivin protein, with this ectopic expression of survivin attenuating cell death. Thus, the present study determined that the combined inhibition of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and S6K1 may be a good strategy for treating patients with breast cancer.

  17. Activation and Function of the MAPKs and Their Substrates, the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Cargnello, Marie; Roux, Philippe P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse cellular programs by relaying extracellular signals to intracellular responses. In mammals, there are more than a dozen MAPK enzymes that coordinately regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. The best known are the conventional MAPKs, which include the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinases 1 to 3 (JNK1 to -3), p38 (?, ?, ?, and ?), and ERK5 families. There are additional, atypical MAPK enzymes, including ERK3/4, ERK7/8, and Nemo-like kinase (NLK), which have distinct regulation and functions. Together, the MAPKs regulate a large number of substrates, including members of a family of protein Ser/Thr kinases termed MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). The MAPKAPKs are related enzymes that respond to extracellular stimulation through direct MAPK-dependent activation loop phosphorylation and kinase activation. There are five MAPKAPK subfamilies: the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), the mitogen- and stress-activated kinase (MSK), the MAPK-interacting kinase (MNK), the MAPK-activated protein kinase 2/3 (MK2/3), and MK5 (also known as p38-regulated/activated protein kinase [PRAK]). These enzymes have diverse biological functions, including regulation of nucleosome and gene expression, mRNA stability and translation, and cell proliferation and survival. Here we review the mechanisms of MAPKAPK activation by the different MAPKs and discuss their physiological roles based on established substrates and recent discoveries. PMID:21372320

  18. [Creatine kinase (CK)].

    PubMed

    Shoji, S

    1995-05-01

    Creatine kinase is a key enzyme for energy metabolism of contraction and relaxation in skeletal muscle. This enzyme also correlated to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Distribution of this enzyme is quite wide, including skeletal muscle, myocard, central nervous system, and smooth muscle. Creatine kinase has three main isoenzymes; CK-MM, CK-MB, and CK-BB. Mitochondrial isoenzyme (CKm) is the fourth isoenzyme migrating electrophoretically toward the cathode. Moreover serum creatine kinase isoenzyme (mainly CK-MB and CK-BB) and lesions in the myocard, skeletal muscle, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, renal and urogenital systems, or acute psychosis, intoxication, pregnancy, labor, and cord blood are also explained. A compendium on CK-BB is also done. PMID:7602768

  19. Kinase substrate interactions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael G; Ptacek, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Kinases have become popular therapeutic targets primarily due to their integral role in cell cycle and tumor progression. The efficacy of high-throughput screening efforts is dependent on the development of high quality multiplex tools capable of replacing lower-throughput technologies such as mass spectroscopy or solution-based assays for the study of kinase-substrate interactions. Functional protein microarrays are comprised of thousands of immobilized proteins on glass slides that have been used successfully to identify protein-protein interactions. Here, we describe the application of functional protein microarrays for the identification of the phosphorylation targets of individual protein kinases using highly sensitive radioactive detection and robust informatics algorithms. PMID:21370067

  20. HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses in fractionated ?-irradiated mice by modulating the IL-12p70-STAT4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Choi, Nam-Hee; Jung, Uhee

    2012-05-01

    Whole body irradiated mice appear to experience a down-regulation of the helper T (Th)1-like immune response, and maintain a persistent immunological imbalance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HemoHIM (an herbal product made from Angelica Radix, Cnidium officinale , and Paeonia japonica cultivated in Korea) to ameliorate the immunological imbalance induce in fractionated ?-irradiated mice. The mice were exposed to ? rays twice a week (0.5 Gy fractions) for a total dose of 5 Gy, and HemoHIM was administrated orally from 1 week before the first irradiation to 1 week before the final analysis. All experiments were performed 4 and 6 months after their first exposure. HemoHIM ameliorated the Th1- and Th2-related immune responses normally occur in irradiated mice with or without dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. HemoHIM also restored the natural killer cell activities without changing the percentage of natural killer cells in irradiated mice. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM prevented the reduction in levels of interleukin-12p70 in irradiated mice. Finally, we found that HemoHIM enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4 that was reduced in irradiated mice. Our findings suggest that HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses by modulating the IL-12p70/pSTAT4 signaling pathway. PMID:22439601

  1. 8 CFR 1236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition of classification. As a condition of classification and...

  2. 8 CFR 1236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition of classification. As a condition of classification and...

  3. 8 CFR 1236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition of classification. As a condition of classification and...

  4. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Linn, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  5. Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation in the Nervous System: From Regulation to Function.

    PubMed

    Biever, Anne; Valjent, Emmanuel; Puighermanal, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) about four decades ago, much effort has been made to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this post-translational modification. In the field of neuroscience, rpS6 phosphorylation is commonly used as a readout of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling activation or as a marker for neuronal activity. Nevertheless, its biological role in neurons still remains puzzling. Here we review the pharmacological and physiological stimuli regulating this modification in the nervous system as well as the pathways that transduce these signals into rpS6 phosphorylation. Altered rpS6 phosphorylation observed in various genetic and pathophysiological mouse models is also discussed. Finally, we examine the current state of knowledge on the physiological role of this post-translational modification and highlight the questions that remain to be addressed. PMID:26733799

  6. Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation in the Nervous System: From Regulation to Function

    PubMed Central

    Biever, Anne; Valjent, Emmanuel; Puighermanal, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) about four decades ago, much effort has been made to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this post-translational modification. In the field of neuroscience, rpS6 phosphorylation is commonly used as a readout of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling activation or as a marker for neuronal activity. Nevertheless, its biological role in neurons still remains puzzling. Here we review the pharmacological and physiological stimuli regulating this modification in the nervous system as well as the pathways that transduce these signals into rpS6 phosphorylation. Altered rpS6 phosphorylation observed in various genetic and pathophysiological mouse models is also discussed. Finally, we examine the current state of knowledge on the physiological role of this post-translational modification and highlight the questions that remain to be addressed. PMID:26733799

  7. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  8. MAP kinase cascade in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tournier, C; Pomerance, M; Gavaret, J M; Pierre, M

    1994-02-01

    We have studied in cultured rat astroglial cells MAP kinases, known for their role in intracellular signal transduction. The MAP kinase activity was stimulated by growth factors (FGFb, FGFa, EGF, PDGF, and IGF1), by a phorbol ester (TPA) activating-protein kinase C (PKC), by a neuropeptide (endothelin-1), and by a neuromediator (carbachol). Astrocytes pretreated for 18 h with TPA were still stimulated by growth factors and endothelin, suggesting that down-regulated isoforms of PKC are not involved in MAP kinase activation. In contrast, the small effect of carbachol was suppressed by TPA pretreatment. Astrocytes contained two proteins (p41 and p44) recognized by MAP kinase antibody. These proteins were phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in the cytosols of stimulated astrocytes. The kinetics of MAP kinase activation by FGFb and IGF1 were very different. FGFb promoted a rapid activation of MAP kinase (about 10 min) plus a prolonged phase that lasted at least 12 h. IGF1 produced only a rapid transient peak of activation at about 20 min. Hence, extracellular signals might generate different effects in astrocytes by differentially modulating the MAP kinase cascade. On a Mono Q column the growth factor-stimulated MAP kinase activity was separated into two peaks containing p41 and p44. Stimulation of astrocytes altered the elution pattern of p44 as a result of its phosphorylation. An ATP-dependent MAP kinase activator (MW = 40-45 kDa) was found in fractions of FGFb-stimulated cells which were not retained on Mono Q column, indicating the existence of a MAP kinase kinase (MEK) in astrocytes. C-Raf, identified in other cells as a MAP kinase kinase kinase, was also present in astrocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8168869

  9. Covalent-Allosteric Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weisner, Jörn; Gontla, Rajesh; van der Westhuizen, Leandi; Oeck, Sebastian; Ketzer, Julia; Janning, Petra; Richters, André; Mühlenberg, Thomas; Fang, Zhizhou; Taher, Abu; Jendrossek, Verena; Pelly, Stephen C; Bauer, Sebastian; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Rauh, Daniel

    2015-08-24

    Targeting and stabilizing distinct kinase conformations is an instrumental strategy for dissecting conformation-dependent signaling of protein kinases. Herein the structure-based design, synthesis, and evaluation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-dependent covalent-allosteric inhibitors (CAIs) of the kinase Akt is reported. These inhibitors bind covalently to a distinct cysteine of the kinase and thereby stabilize the inactive kinase conformation. These modulators exhibit high potency and selectivity, and represent an innovative approach for chemical biology and medicinal chemistry research. PMID:26110718

  10. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation is controlled by TOR and modulated by PKA in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tahmeena; Köhler, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary TOR and PKA signaling pathways control eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation. TOR activity in model fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, responds principally to nutrients, e.g., nitrogen and phosphate sources, which are incorporated into the growing cell mass; PKA signaling responds to the availability of the cells' major energy source, glucose. In the fungal commensal and pathogen, Candida albicans, little is known of how these pathways interact. Here, the signal from phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-S6) was defined as a surrogate marker for TOR-dependent anabolic activity in C. albicans. Nutritional, pharmacologic, and genetic modulation of TOR activity elicited corresponding changes in P-S6 levels. The P-S6 signal corresponded to translational activity of a GFP reporter protein. Contributions of four PKA pathway components to anabolic activation were then examined. In high glucose concentrations, only Tpk2 was required to upregulate P-S6 to physiologic levels, whereas all four tested components were required to downregulate P-S6 in low glucose. TOR was epistatic to PKA components with respect to P-S6. In many host niches inhabited by C. albicans, glucose is scarce, with protein being available as a nitrogen source. We speculate that PKA may modulate TOR-dependent cell growth to a rate sustainable by available energy sources, when monomers of anabolic processes, such as amino acids, are abundant. PMID:26173379

  11. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation is controlled by TOR and modulated by PKA in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tahmeena; Köhler, Julia R

    2015-10-01

    TOR and PKA signaling pathways control eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation. TOR activity in model fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, responds principally to nutrients, e.g., nitrogen and phosphate sources, which are incorporated into the growing cell mass; PKA signaling responds to the availability of the cells' major energy source, glucose. In the fungal commensal and pathogen, Candida albicans, little is known of how these pathways interact. Here, the signal from phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-S6) was defined as a surrogate marker for TOR-dependent anabolic activity in C. albicans. Nutritional, pharmacologic and genetic modulation of TOR activity elicited corresponding changes in P-S6 levels. The P-S6 signal corresponded to translational activity of a GFP reporter protein. Contributions of four PKA pathway components to anabolic activation were then examined. In high glucose concentrations, only Tpk2 was required to upregulate P-S6 to physiologic levels, whereas all four tested components were required to downregulate P-S6 in low glucose. TOR was epistatic to PKA components with respect to P-S6. In many host niches inhabited by C. albicans, glucose is scarce, with protein being available as a nitrogen source. We speculate that PKA may modulate TOR-dependent cell growth to a rate sustainable by available energy sources, when monomers of anabolic processes, such as amino acids, are abundant. PMID:26173379

  12. A High-Throughput Radiometric Kinase Assay.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant kinase signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases. While kinases have become attractive drug targets, only a small fraction of human protein kinases have validated inhibitors. Screening of libraries of compounds against a kinase or kinases of interest is routinely performed during kinase inhibitor development to identify promising scaffolds for a particular target and to identify kinase targets for compounds of interest. Screening of more focused compound libraries may also be conducted in the later stages of inhibitor development to improve potency and optimize selectivity. The dot blot kinase assay is a robust, high-throughput kinase assay that can be used to screen a number of small-molecule compounds against one kinase of interest or several kinases. Here, a protocol for a dot blot kinase assay used for measuring insulin receptor kinase activity is presented. This protocol can be readily adapted for use with other protein kinases. PMID:26501904

  13. Electronic Structure and Phase Transition in Ferroelectic Sn2P2S6 Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Glukhov, Konstantin; Fedyo, Kristina; Banys, Juras; Vysochanskii, Yulian

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the P2S6 cluster electronic structure and its comparison with the crystal valence band in the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases has been done by first-principles calculations for Sn2P2S6 ferroelectrics. The origin of ferroelectricity has been outlined. It was established that the spontaneous polarization follows from the stereochemical activity of the electron lone pair of tin cations, which is determined by hybridization with P2S6 molecular orbitals. The chemical bonds covalence increase and rearrangement are related to the valence band changes at transition from the paraelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase. PMID:23203069

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (2565 Chalcedony, San Diego, CA 92122); Hibi, Masahiko (7528 Charmant Dr., No. 418, San Diego, CA 92122); Lin, Anning (8655 Via Mallorca Dr., Apt. 93, La Jolla, CA 92093)

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA); Davis, Roger (Princeton, MA); Derijard, Benoit (Shrewsbury, MA)

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  5. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  6. The amino acid sequence of a mammalian MAP kinase kinase.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, A; Nakielny, S; Cohen, P; Marshall, C

    1992-12-01

    The amino acid sequence of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) has been determined by cDNA cloning and amino acid sequencing. MAPKK (393 residues, Mr 43,330) is a new member of the protein kinase subclass that comprises byr1 and STE7 that are involved in pheromone dependent signal transduction in yeast, wis1 a mitotic regulator in S. pombe and PBS2, which confers antibiotic resistance in S. cerevisiae. PMID:1461659

  7. Stacking Pima S-6 fiber length alleles in a Tamcot 2111 background 

    E-print Network

    Souder, Christopher Lee

    2003-01-01

    Molecular markers can be used to stack fiber quality alleles among recombinant inbred lines and thus, aid in the development of unique genotypes. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for stacking Gossypium barbadense (Pima S-6...

  8. 8 CFR 236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition... section 101(a)(15)(S) of the Act, nonimmigrants in S classification must have executed Form I-854, Part...

  9. 8 CFR 236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition... section 101(a)(15)(S) of the Act, nonimmigrants in S classification must have executed Form I-854, Part...

  10. 8 CFR 236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition... section 101(a)(15)(S) of the Act, nonimmigrants in S classification must have executed Form I-854, Part...

  11. Piezooptic Coefficients and Acoustic Wave Velocities in Sn2P2S6 Crystals

    E-print Network

    O. Mys; I. Martynyuk-Lototska; A. Grabar; Yu. Vysochanskii; R. Vlokh

    2007-06-28

    Piezooptic coefficients of Sn2P2S6 crystals are experimentally determined for l=623.8 nm and T=293 K with the aid of interferometric technique. The components of the elastic stiffness tensor for these crystals are calculated on the basis of studies for the acoustic wave velocities. It is shown that acoustooptic figure of merit can achieve extremely high values for Sn2P2S6 crystals (M2 - 2x10-12s3/kg2).

  12. Sevoflurane inhibits the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in neonatal rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hong; Li, Chang-Lin; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Zhou-Jing; Zhao, Xuan; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Besides neurotoxic effects, inhaled anesthetics might have other adverse effects on the developing brain. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), the first identified ribosomal protein undergoing phosphorylation, has important physiological functions in regulating protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and glucose homeostasis. To date, the function of sevoflurane on rpS6 phosphorylation is unclear. In our present study, we showed that sevoflurane anesthesia inhibited rpS6 phosphorylation in cerebral cortex and CA1 region of the hippocampus. The activity of Akt was detected to be reduced within both cortical and hippocampal regions in the brain with the treatment of sevoflurane. However, the treatment seemed to have no effect on the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream effector of Akt. Sevoflurane had a paradoxical effect on ERK activity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Last but not the least, Sevoflurane increased PP1 activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Thus, the exposure to sevoflurane inhibited dramatically the phosphorylation of rpS6 in neonatal rat brains. The inhibitory effect of sevoflurane on rpS6 phosphorylation might be mediated by the suppression on AKT activity at an mTOR-independent manner and the enhancement of PP1 activity.

  13. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Peter, M

    2001-09-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

  14. Targeting the AIB1 Oncogene through Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibition in the Mammary Gland

    E-print Network

    Brown, Myles

    TOR activation by growth factors such as hormones and insulin (11). mTOR, itself a kinase, is a key regulator of protein synthesis after mitogen or hormone stimula- tion. Its substrates include p70S6 kinase, a serine- sible for continued activation of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor, suggesting a role

  15. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Woo-Young; Koh, Hee-Jong; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2015-09-18

    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. PMID:26241676

  16. Complementation of byr1 in fission yeast by mammalian MAP kinase kinase requires coexpression of Raf kinase.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A; Ashworth, A; Marshall, C J

    1993-07-22

    Intracellular signalling from receptor tyrosine kinases in mammalian cells involves the activation of a signal cascade which includes p21ras and the protein kinases p74raf-1, MAP kinase kinase and MAP kinases. In the yeasts Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the response to mating pheromones requires the Spk1 and KSS1/FUS3 kinases, which have sequence homology to vertebrate MAP kinases. The recent cloning of complementary DNAs for mammalian and frog MAP kinase kinases has shown that they are homologous to the S. pombe Byr1 (ref. 17) and S. cerevisiae STE7 (ref. 18) kinases, which have been proposed to function upstream of Spk1 and KSS1/FUS3, respectively. We have investigated whether these apparently similar kinase pathways are functionally conserved between vertebrates and S. pombe. We report here that expression of mammalian MAP kinase kinase alone fails to complement a byr1 mutant of S. pombe. When coexpressed with Raf kinase, however, MAP kinase kinase is activated by phosphorylation and the mating defect of the byr1 mutant is rescued. This suggests that the pathways are functionally homologous and that Raf kinase may directly phosphorylate and activate MAP kinase kinase. PMID:8332194

  17. [Kinase inhibitors and their resistance].

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yosuke; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-08-01

    Kinase cascades are involved in all stages of tumorigenesis through modulation of transformation and differentiation, cell-cycle progression, and motility. Advances in molecular targeted drug development allow the design and synthesis of inhibitors targeting cancer-associated signal transduction pathways. Potent selective inhibitors with low toxicity can benefit patients especially with several malignancies harboring an oncogenic driver addictive signal. This article evaluates information on solid tumor-related kinase signals and inhibitors, including receptor tyrosine kinase or serine/threonine kinase signals that lead to successful application in clinical settings. In addition, the resistant mechanisms to the inhibitors is summarized. PMID:26281685

  18. An S6:S18 complex inhibits translation of E. coli rpsF

    PubMed Central

    Babina, Arianne M.; Soo, Mark W.; Fu, Yang; Meyer, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    More than half of the ribosomal protein operons in Escherichia coli are regulated by structures within the mRNA transcripts that interact with specific ribosomal proteins to inhibit further protein expression. This regulation is accomplished using a variety of mechanisms and the RNA structures responsible for regulation are often not conserved across bacterial phyla. A widely conserved mRNA structure preceding the ribosomal protein operon containing rpsF and rpsR (encoding S6 and S18) was recently identified through comparative genomics. Examples of this RNA from both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis were shown to interact in vitro with an S6:S18 complex. In this work, we demonstrate that in E. coli, this RNA structure regulates gene expression in response to the S6:S18 complex. ?-galactosidase activity from a lacZ reporter translationally fused to the 5? UTR and first nine codons of E. coli rpsF is reduced fourfold by overexpression of a genomic fragment encoding both S6 and S18 but not by overexpression of either protein individually. Mutations to the mRNA structure, as well as to the RNA-binding site of S18 and the S6–S18 interaction surfaces of S6 and S18, are sufficient to derepress ?-galactosidase activity, indicating that the S6:S18 complex is the biologically active effector. Measurement of transcript levels shows that although reporter levels do not change upon protein overexpression, levels of the native transcript are reduced fourfold, suggesting that the mRNA regulator prevents translation and this effect is amplified on the native transcript by other mechanisms. PMID:26447183

  19. An S6:S18 complex inhibits translation of E. coli rpsF.

    PubMed

    Babina, Arianne M; Soo, Mark W; Fu, Yang; Meyer, Michelle M

    2015-12-01

    More than half of the ribosomal protein operons in Escherichia coli are regulated by structures within the mRNA transcripts that interact with specific ribosomal proteins to inhibit further protein expression. This regulation is accomplished using a variety of mechanisms and the RNA structures responsible for regulation are often not conserved across bacterial phyla. A widely conserved mRNA structure preceding the ribosomal protein operon containing rpsF and rpsR (encoding S6 and S18) was recently identified through comparative genomics. Examples of this RNA from both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis were shown to interact in vitro with an S6:S18 complex. In this work, we demonstrate that in E. coli, this RNA structure regulates gene expression in response to the S6:S18 complex. ?-galactosidase activity from a lacZ reporter translationally fused to the 5' UTR and first nine codons of E. coli rpsF is reduced fourfold by overexpression of a genomic fragment encoding both S6 and S18 but not by overexpression of either protein individually. Mutations to the mRNA structure, as well as to the RNA-binding site of S18 and the S6-S18 interaction surfaces of S6 and S18, are sufficient to derepress ?-galactosidase activity, indicating that the S6:S18 complex is the biologically active effector. Measurement of transcript levels shows that although reporter levels do not change upon protein overexpression, levels of the native transcript are reduced fourfold, suggesting that the mRNA regulator prevents translation and this effect is amplified on the native transcript by other mechanisms. PMID:26447183

  20. Identification of a Calcium Signalling Pathway of S-[6]-Gingerol in HuH-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Tran, Van H; Li, Yi-Ming; Mandadi, Sravan; Duke, Colin C; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2013-01-01

    Calcium signals in hepatocytes control cell growth, proliferation, and death. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily are candidate calcium influx channels. NF ? B activation strictly depends on calcium influx and often induces antiapoptotic genes favouring cell survival. Previously, we reported that S-[6]-gingerol is an efficacious agonist of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in neurones. In this study, we tested the effect of S-[6]-gingerol on HuH-7 cells using the Fluo-4 calcium assay, RT-qPCR, transient cell transfection, and luciferase measurements. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced a transient rise in [Ca(2+)] i in HuH-7 cells. The increase in [Ca(2+)] i induced by S-[6]-gingerol was abolished by preincubation with EGTA and was also inhibited by the TRPV1 channel antagonist capsazepine. Expression of TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells was confirmed by mRNA analysis as well as a test for increase of [Ca(2+)] i by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and its inhibition by capsazepine. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced rapid NF ? B activation through TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells. Furthermore, S-[6]-gingerol-induced NF ? B activation was dependent on the calcium gradient and TRPV1. The rapid NF ? B activation by S-[6]-gingerol was associated with an increase in mRNA levels of NF ? B-target genes: cIAP-2, XIAP, and Bcl-2 that encode antiapoptotic proteins. PMID:23956783

  1. Regulation of protein kinases in exocrine secretory cells during agonist-induced exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Söling, H D; Padel, U; Jahn, R; Thiel, G; Kricke, P; Fest, W

    1985-01-01

    Stimulation of exocytosis in exocrine glands is associated with an increased phosphorylation of several particulate proteins. Irrespective of the type of secretagogue (cAMP-dependent agonists, calcium-dependent agonists, calcium ionophores, phorbol esters) exocytosis is always accompanied by an enhanced phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6. It is shown by an analysis of the phosphopeptide pattern of the in vivo and the in vitro phosphorylated S6 protein that the protein kinase responsible for phosphorylation of the S6 protein during enhanced exocytosis is protein kinase C. This is so irrespective of whether the agonist uses cAMP or calcium as second messenger. Experiments with isolated guinea pig parotid gland lobules reveal that not only the acetylcholine analog carbamoylcholine, but also the beta-agonist isoproterenol lead within seconds to an increased formation of diacylglycerol. As diacylglycerol increases the affinity of protein kinase C for calcium this finding would explain why the phosphorylation pattern of the S6 protein reflects activation of protein kinase C also under conditions where (as in the case of stimulation with beta-agonists) cAMP is the primary second messenger. It would further explain why the changes of the phosphorylation of individual histones observed during agonist-induced exocytosis in the parotid gland are quite similar for isoproterenol on one hand and carbamoylcholine on the other. A 22 K protein which becomes phosphorylated only when cAMP serves as second messenger is located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. A possible relationship of this protein with the calcium transport ATPase of the endoplasmic reticulum is under investigation. PMID:4072796

  2. Catalytic Mechanisms and Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Cole, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases transfer a phosphoryl group from ATP onto target proteins and play a critical role in signal transduction and other cellular processes. Here, we review the kinase kinetic and chemical mechanisms and their application in understanding kinase structure and function. Aberrant kinase activity has been implicated in many human diseases, in particular cancer. We highlight applications of technologies and concepts derived from kinase mechanistic studies that have helped illuminate how kinases are regulated and contribute to pathophysiology. PMID:25399640

  3. Ex Vivo Nicotine Stimulation Augments the Efficacy of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell-Derived Dendritic Cell Vaccination via Activating Akt-S6 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan Yan; Yang, Yi Wen; You, Xiang; Deng, Xiao Qian; Hu, Chun Fang; Zhu, Cong; Wang, Jun Yao; Gu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yi Nan; Li, Qing; Gao, Feng Guang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) agonist nicotine has stimulatory effects on murine bone marrow-derived semimature DCs, but the effect of nicotine on peripheral blood mononuclear cell- (PBMC-) derived human semimature dendritic cells (hu-imDCs) is still to be clarified. In the present study, hu-imDCs (cultured 4 days) were conferred with??ex vivo lower dose nicotine stimulation and the effect of nicotine on surface molecules expression, the ability of cross-presentation, DCs-mediated PBMC priming, and activated signaling pathways were determined. We could demonstrate that the treatment with nicotine resulted in increased surface molecules expression, enhanced hu-imDCs-mediated PBMC proliferation, upregulated release of IL-12 in the supernatant of cocultured DCs-PBMC, and augmented phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6. Nicotine associated with traces of LPS efficiently enhanced endosomal translocation of internalized ovalbumin (OVA) and increased TAP-OVA colocalization. Importantly, the upregulation of nicotine-increased surface molecules upregulation was significantly abrogated by the inhibition of Akt kinase. These findings demonstrate that ex vivo nicotine stimulation augments hu-imDCs surface molecules expression via Akt-S6 pathway, combined with increased Ag-presentation result in augmented efficacy of DCs-mediated PBMC proliferation and Th1 polarization. PMID:26351626

  4. Characterization of fertilization-modulated myelin basic protein kinases from sea star: regulation of Mapk.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, D L; Charest, D L; Yee, A; Crawford, B J; Pelech, S L

    1999-11-01

    The myelin basic protein (MBP)-phosphorylating enzymes present during maturation and early embryogenesis of the sea star (Pisaster ochraceus) were investigated. The major maturation-activated MBP kinase (p45 Mapk) was molecularly cloned based on tryptic sequence information obtained with the purified enzyme and shown to be highly related to human Erk1 with 76% amino acid identity. Kinase assays and immunoblotting studies revealed that Mapk remained highly active until 12 h post-fertilization (PF), after which it declined. By 4 days PF, Mapk protein was no longer detectable. At 3 h PF, about half of the detectable MBP phosphotransferase activity could be attributed to a 75 kDa protein kinase that was distinct from Mapk. Like Mapk, this protein phosphorylated MBP mostly on threonine residues, but it failed to phosphorylate a peptide (APRTPGGRR) based upon the Thr-97 MAP kinase phosphorylation site in MBP. Rather, it phosphorylated a peptide (AAQKRPSQRTKYLA) patterned after the N-terminus of MBP. Our studies also showed a dramatic increase in MBP phosphotransferase activity occurred by 4 days PF that arose from a third kinase that phosphorylated MBP solely on serine residues. This kinase exhibited the following substrate substrate preference: AAQKRPSQRTKYLA, peptide substrate for S6 kinases (AKRRRLSSLRASTSKSESSQK) > MBP > histone H1 > prota-mine > casein > APRTPGGRR. This kinase was not appreciably affected by addition of phosphatidylserine/diacylglycerol, or the staurosporine analogue Roche Compound 3, but it was partly inhibited by a protein kinase C pseudosubstrate peptide. Gel filtration analysis revealed an apparent molecular mass of 41 kDa for the enzyme. Therefore, at least two novel MBP-phosphorylating enzymes distinct from Mapk are preferentially activated following fertilization and early embryogenesis of the sea star. PMID:10502300

  5. Raf Family Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Matallanas, David; Birtwistle, Marc; Romano, David; Zebisch, Armin; Rauch, Jens; von Kriegsheim, Alexander; Kolch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    First identified in the early 1980s as retroviral oncogenes, the Raf proteins have been the objects of intense research. The discoveries 10 years later that the Raf family members (Raf-1, B-Raf, and A-Raf) are bona fide Ras effectors and upstream activators of the ubiquitous ERK pathway increased the interest in these proteins primarily because of the central role that this cascade plays in cancer development. The important role of Raf in cancer was corroborated in 2002 with the discovery of B-Raf genetic mutations in a large number of tumors. This led to intensified drug development efforts to target Raf signaling in cancer. This work yielded not only recent clinical successes but also surprising insights into the regulation of Raf proteins by homodimerization and heterodimerization. Surprising insights also came from the hunt for new Raf targets. Although MEK remains the only widely accepted Raf substrate, new kinase-independent roles for Raf proteins have emerged. These include the regulation of apoptosis by suppressing the activity of the proapoptotic kinases, ASK1 and MST2, and the regulation of cell motility and differentiation by controlling the activity of Rok-?. In this review, we discuss the regulation of Raf proteins and their role in cancer, with special focus on the interacting proteins that modulate Raf signaling. We also describe the new pathways controlled by Raf proteins and summarize the successes and failures in the development of efficient anticancer therapies targeting Raf. Finally, we also argue for the necessity of more systemic approaches to obtain a better understanding of how the Ras-Raf signaling network generates biological specificity. PMID:21779496

  6. Bivalent Inhibitors of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Carrie M.; Chang, Matthew E. K.; Maly, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases are key players in a large number of cellular signaling pathways. Dysregulated kinase activity has been implicated in a number of diseases, and members of this enzyme family are of therapeutic interest. However, due to the fact that most inhibitors interact with the highly conserved ATP-binding sites of kinases, it is a significant challenge to develop pharmacological agents that target only one of the greater than 500 kinases present in humans. A potential solution to this problem is the development of bisubstrate and bivalent kinase inhibitors, in which an active site-directed moiety is tethered to another ligand that targets a location outside of the ATP-binding cleft. Because kinase signaling specificity is modulated by regions outside of the ATP-binding site, strategies that exploit these interactions have the potential to provide reagents with high target selectivity. This review highlights examples of kinase interaction sites that can potentially be exploited by bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors. Furthermore, an overview of efforts to target these interactions with bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors is provided. Finally, several examples of the successful application of these reagents in a cellular setting are described. PMID:24564382

  7. Highly efficient acoustooptic diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals

    E-print Network

    I. Yu. Martynyuk-Lototska; O. G. Mys; A. A. Grabar; I. M. Stoika; Yu. M. Vysochanskii; R. O. Vlokh

    2007-06-17

    We have studied the acoustooptic (AO) diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals and found that they manifest high values of AO figure of merit. The above crystals may therefore be used as highly efficient materials in different AO applications.

  8. Book Reviews S6mantique pour l'analyse de la linguistique/! l'informatique

    E-print Network

    Book Reviews S6mantique pour l'analyse de la linguistique/! l'informatique Francois University of Iowa Sfmantique pour l'analyse de la linguistique ?zl'informatique is a thoughtful, and semantic relations over larger and larger units, including the text as a whole and its subparts larger than

  9. The notion of plant receptor kinases working with nonreceptor kinases in het-

    E-print Network

    kinases. For example, the BRI1 leucine- rich repeat receptor kinase detects the plant hormone1475 The notion of plant receptor kinases working with nonreceptor kinases in het- eromeric with plasma membrane­local- ized RLCKs. Perhaps this will become a common theme in plant receptor kinase

  10. DAP kinase regulates JNK signaling by binding and activating protein kinase D under oxidative stress

    E-print Network

    Kimchi, Adi

    DAP kinase regulates JNK signaling by binding and activating protein kinase D under oxidative responses to oxidative stress. Here we show that DAP kinase (DAPk), a cell death promoting Ser/Thr protein kinase, plays a main role in oxidative stress-induced JNK signaling. We identify protein kinase D (PKD

  11. A Novel (S)-6-Hydroxynicotine Oxidase Gene from Shinella sp. Strain HZN7

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jiguo; Wei, Yin; Ma, Yun; Wen, Rongti; Wen, Yuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine is an important environmental toxicant in tobacco waste. Shinella sp. strain HZN7 can metabolize nicotine into nontoxic compounds via variations of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. However, the catabolic mechanism of this variant pathway at the gene or enzyme level is still unknown. In this study, two 6-hydroxynicotine degradation-deficient mutants, N7-M9 and N7-W3, were generated by transposon mutagenesis. The corresponding mutant genes, designated nctB and tnp2, were cloned and analyzed. The nctB gene encodes a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase that converts (S)-6-hydroxynicotine into 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and then spontaneously hydrolyzes into 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine. The deletion and complementation of the nctB gene showed that this enzyme is essential for nicotine or (S)-6-hydroxynicotine degradation. Purified NctB could also convert (S)-nicotine into N-methylmyosmine, which spontaneously hydrolyzed into pseudooxynicotine. The kinetic constants of NctB toward (S)-6-hydroxynicotine (Km = 0.019 mM, kcat = 7.3 s?1) and nicotine (Km = 2.03 mM, kcat = 0.396 s?1) indicated that (S)-6-hydroxynicotine is the preferred substrate in vivo. NctB showed no activities toward the R enantiomer of nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine. Strain HZN7 could degrade (R)-nicotine into (R)-6-hydroxynicotine without any further degradation. The tnp2 gene from mutant N7-W3 encodes a putative transposase, and its deletion did not abolish the nicotine degradation activity. This study advances the understanding of the microbial diversity of nicotine biodegradation. PMID:25002425

  12. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Hsu, Peggy P.; Awad, Mark M.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as ‘druggable’ targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours. PMID:24132104

  13. Pharmacological Activities and Hydrolysis by Peptidases of [Phospho-Ser(6)]-Bradykinin (pS(6)-BK).

    PubMed

    Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Luiz; Paschoalin, Thaysa; Kouyoumdjian, Maria; Calixto, Joao B; Santos, Robson A S; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Gauthier, Francis; Moreau, Thierry; Blaber, Michael; Juliano, Maria A

    2015-09-15

    Phosphorylated kininogen and some of its fragments containing serine phosphorylated bradykinin ([pS(6)]-Bk) were identified in human serum and plasma by a phosphoproteomic approach. We report the kininogenase ability of human tissue and plasma kallikreins and tryptase to generate [pS(6)]-Bk or Lys-[pS(6)]-Bk having as substrate the synthetic human kininogen fluorescent fragment Abz-MISLMKRPPGF[pS(386)]PFRSSRI-NH2. The pharmacological assays of [pS(6)]-Bk showed it as a full B2 bradykinin receptor agonist in smooth muscle, it produces a portal liver hypertensive response in rat and mouse paw edema that lasts longer than Bk. The rat hypotensive response to infusions of Bk is greater than that of [pS(6)]Bk, both if injected through femoral vein or aorta. [pS(6)]-Bk was more resistant than Bk to kininase digestion performed with angiotensin converting enzyme, neprilysin, thimet oligopeptidase, aminopeptidase P and carboxypeptidase M. (1)H-NMR experiments indicated that [pS(6)]-Bk has lower flexibility, with the pS(6)-P(7) bond restricted to the trans conformation, and can explain [pS(6)]-Bk resistance to hydrolysis. In conclusion, [pS(6)]-Bk presenting lower activity than Bk, with longer lasting effects and being slowly released by kininogenases from synthetic Abz-MISLMKRPPGF[pS(386)]PFRSSRI-NH2, suggests that phosphorylation of the kininogens can be an efficient kallikrein-kinin system regulator. PMID:26235942

  14. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  15. Phosphorylation of Smads by Intracellular Kinases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Matsuura, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Smad proteins transduce the TGF-ß family signal at the cell surface into gene regulation in the nucleus. In addition to being phosphorylated by the TGF-ß family receptors, Smads are phosphorylated by a variety of intracellular kinases. The most studied are by cyclin-dependent kinases, the MAP kinase family members, and GSK-3. Phosphorylation by these kinases regulates Smad activities, leading to various biological effects. This chapter describes the methods for analyzing Smad phosphorylation by these kinases. PMID:26520119

  16. Hsp90 Promotes Kinase Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lachowiec, Jennifer; Lemus, Tzitziki; Borenstein, Elhanan; Queitsch, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) promotes the maturation and stability of its client proteins, including many kinases. In doing so, Hsp90 may allow its clients to accumulate mutations as previously proposed by the capacitor hypothesis. If true, Hsp90 clients should show increased evolutionary rate compared with nonclients; however, other factors, such as gene expression and protein connectivity, may confound or obscure the chaperone’s putative contribution. Here, we compared the evolutionary rates of many Hsp90 clients and nonclients in the human protein kinase superfamily. We show that Hsp90 client status promotes evolutionary rate independently of, but in a small magnitude similar to that of gene expression and protein connectivity. Hsp90’s effect on kinase evolutionary rate was detected across mammals, specifically relaxing purifying selection. Hsp90 clients also showed increased nucleotide diversity and harbored more damaging variation than nonclient kinases across humans. These results are consistent with the central argument of the capacitor hypothesis that interaction with the chaperone allows its clients to harbor genetic variation. Hsp90 client status is thought to be highly dynamic with as few as one amino acid change rendering a protein dependent on the chaperone. Contrary to this expectation, we found that across protein kinase phylogeny Hsp90 client status tends to be gained, maintained, and shared among closely related kinases. We also infer that the ancestral protein kinase was not an Hsp90 client. Taken together, our results suggest that Hsp90 played an important role in shaping the kinase superfamily. PMID:25246701

  17. The immunosuppressant tributyltin oxide blocks the mTOR pathway, like rapamycin, albeit by a different mechanism.

    PubMed

    Osman, Ahmed M; van Loveren, Henk

    2014-12-01

    We treated the thymoma cell line (EL4) with two model immunosuppressants, rapamycin and tributyltin oxide (TBTO), and compared their effects on the expression levels of proteins that are downstream targets of mTOR kinase 1 (mammalian target of rapamycin, known also as mechanistic target of rapamycin): p70 ribosomal S6 kinase1 and 4E-binding protein 1, a repressor of the cap-binding protein eIF4E. In addition, we evaluated the levels of ribosomal protein S6, p-eIF4B, substrates of p70S6 kinase1, matrin 3 and ribonucleotide reductase, subunit RRM2. The levels of these proteins were evaluated in cell lysates by immunoblot. We found that both compounds inhibited the phosphorylation state of p70S6 kinase 1 and its substrates; however, TBTO, in contrast to rapamycin, reduced the level of the total p70S6k1. Besides, we detected a band with a molecular weight of c. 32?kDa only in the TBTO-treated lysates. This band was detected with a monoclonal antibody specific for S6k1, suggesting that this band might be a degradation product of the kinase. Further, TBTO and rapamycin differentially affected 4E-binding protein 1; the former compound stimulated its phosphorylation state whereas the latter inhibited it. The two immunosuppressants did not affect the level of ribonucleotide reductase, but TBTO downregulated matrin3, in agreement with a previous report, whereas rapamycin had no effect on the expression level of this latter protein. We conclude that TBTO inhibits, like rapamycin, the p70 S6 kinase 1 pathway, but with a different mechanism. However, in contrast to rapamycin, which inhibits the cap-dependent translation, TBTO increases the phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein1. PMID:24375594

  18. Structure and optical properties of Li2Ga2GeS6 nonlinear crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaenko, L. I.; Yelisseyev, A. P.; Lobanov, S. I.; Krinitsin, P. G.; Molokeev, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    Structure and optical properties of new nonlinear crystal - Li2Ga2GeS6 single crystal of optical quality, grown by the Bridgman technique were studied. The data on transmission, Raman scattering, luminescence emission, excitation and thermal quenching as well as thermostimulated luminescence are presented. Fundamental absorption edge is determined by the direct allowed electronic transitions: The values of optical band gap are estimated. Absorption band at 8.0 ?m is due to S-S vibrations. Features in photoluminescence spectra are associated with excitons: both free (narrow line at 371 nm) and self-trapped ones (broad bands at 596, 730 and 906 nm). Spontaneous emission in the 80-170 K range, both at crystal heating and cooling, is typical of pyroelectrics: This confirms the absence of symmetry center in Li2Ga2GeS6 and an opportunity of laser frequency nonlinear conversion.

  19. LiPbSb3S6: a semiconducting sulfosalt with very low thermal conductivity.

    PubMed

    Agha, Eva C; Malliakas, Christos D; Im, Jino; Jin, Hosub; Zhao, Li-Dong; Freeman, Arthur J; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2014-01-21

    The new semiconductor LiPbSb3S6 crystallizes in the space group P21/c. The structure is a member of the lillianite homologous series and is composed of layers of PbS archetype Sb/Li-S separated by trigonal-prismatic-coordinated Pb/Li. Electronic band structure calculations indicate an indirect band gap, with direct gaps lying very close in energy. LiPbSb3S6 has one of the lowest thermal conductivities seen in a crystalline material, ?0.24 W m(-1) K(-1) at room temperature, and a high resistivity, ?4 × 10(9) ?·cm, and exhibits strong light absorption with a nearly direct band gap of 1.6 eV. PMID:24405022

  20. Synthesis and Molecular Recognition of Water-Soluble S6-Corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Hui; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2015-07-13

    We report the efficient and scalable synthesis and molecular-recognition properties of novel and water-soluble S6-corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines. The synthesis comprises a one-pot nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction between diesters of 2,5-dimercaptoterephthalate and 3,6-dichlorotetrazine followed by the inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of the tetrazine moieties with an enamine and exhaustive saponification of esters. The resulting S6-corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines, which adopt a 1,3,5-alternate conformation in the crystalline state, are able to selectively form stable 1:1 complexes with dicationic guest species in water with association constants ranging from (1.10±0.06)×10(3) ?M(-1) to (1.18±0.06)×10(5) ?M(-1). The easy availability, large cavity size, strong and selective binding power render the water-soluble S6-corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines useful macrocyclic hosts in various disciplines of supramolecular chemistry. PMID:26038253

  1. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  2. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-06-30

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson's group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src-transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src-associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  3. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  4. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway in Human Cancer: Genetic Alterations and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Arcaro, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Ana S

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently activated in human cancer and represents an attractive target for therapies based on small molecule inhibitors. PI3K isoforms play an essential role in the signal transduction events activated by cell surface receptors including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There are eight known PI3K isoforms in humans, which have been subdivided into three classes (I-III). Therefore PI3Ks show considerable diversity and it remains unclear which kinases in this family should be targeted in cancer. The class IA of PI3K comprises the p110?, p110? and p110? isoforms, which associate with activated RTKs. In human cancer, recent reports have described activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene encoding p110?, and inactivating mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) gene, a tumour suppressor and antagonist of the PI3K pathway. The PIK3CA mutations described in cancer constitutively activate p110? and, when expressed in cells drive oncogenic transformation. Moreover, these mutations cause the constitutive activation of downstream signaling molecules such as Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) that is commonly observed in cancer cells. In addition to p110?, the other isoforms of the PI3K family may also play a role in human cancer, although their individual functions remain to be precisely identified. In this review we will discuss the evidence implicating individual PI3K isoforms in human cancer and their potential as drug targets in this context. PMID:19384426

  5. DAG/PKC? and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK II? Operate in Parallel to Each Other in PLC?1-Driven Cell Proliferation and Migration of Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells, through Akt/mTOR/S6 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lianzhi; Zhuang, Luhua; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Fen; Chen, Xiaolei; Xia, Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C? (PLC?) activates diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) axes to regulate import events in some cancer cells, including gastric adenocarcinoma cells. However, whether DAG/PKC? and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK II? axes are simultaneously involved in PLC?1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and the underlying mechanism are not elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of DAG/PKC? or CaMK II? in PLC?1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, using the BGC-823 cell line. The results indicated that the inhibition of PKC? and CaMK II? could block cell proliferation and migration of BGC-823 cells as well as the effect of inhibiting PLC?1, including the decrease of cell viability, the increase of apoptotic index, the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression level, and the decrease of cell migration rate. Both DAG/PKC? and CaMK II? triggered protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 pathway to regulate protein synthesis. The data indicate that DAG/PKC? and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK II? operate in parallel to each other in PLC?1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells through Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway, with important implication for validating PLC?1 as a molecular biomarker in early gastric cancer diagnosis and disease surveillance. PMID:26633375

  6. The cellular geography of Aurora kinases 

    E-print Network

    Carmena, Mar; Earnshaw, William C.

    Aurora is the name given to a family of highly conserved protein kinases with essential roles in many aspects of cell division. Yeasts have a single Aurora kinase, whereas mammals have three: Aurora A, B and C. During ...

  7. MAP kinase cascades: scaffolding signal specificity.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, Frank; Peter, Matthias

    2002-01-22

    Scaffold proteins organize many MAP kinase pathways by interacting with several components of these cascades. Recent studies suggest that scaffold proteins provide local activation platforms that contribute to signal specificity by insulating different MAP kinase pathways. PMID:11818078

  8. Computational Modeling of Kinase Inhibitor Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An exhaustive computational exercise on a comprehensive set of 15 therapeutic kinase inhibitors was undertaken to identify as to which compounds hit which kinase off-targets in the human kinome. Although the kinase selectivity propensity of each inhibitor against ?480 kinase targets is predicted, we compared our predictions to ?280 kinase targets for which consistent experimental data are available and demonstrate an overall average prediction accuracy and specificity of ?90%. A comparison of the predictions was extended to an additional ?60 kinases for sorafenib and sunitinib as new experimental data were reported recently with similar prediction accuracy. The successful predictive capabilities allowed us to propose predictions on the remaining kinome targets in an effort to repurpose known kinase inhibitors to these new kinase targets that could hold therapeutic potential.

  9. Light induced absorption and optical sensitizing of Sn2P2S6:Sb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypka, Yaroslav; Shumelyuk, Alexandr; Odoulov, Serguey; Basun, Sergey; Evans, Dean

    2015-12-01

    Photorefractive sensitivity of antimony doped Sn2P2S6 can be increased at ambient temperature by preexposure of the sample with an intense auxiliary light beam. It is shown that the largest enhancement of sensitivity occurs if the photon energy of preexposure light is close to the crystal bandgap, it decreases gradually with increasing wavelength. The preexposure gives rise also to a pronounced transient light induced absorption which vanishes approximately one order of magnitude faster than the decay of the sensitized state.

  10. Assessing Kinase Activity in Plants with In-Gel Kinase Assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The in-gel protein kinase assay is a powerful method to measure the protein phosphorylation activity of specific protein kinases. Any protein substrate can be embedded in polyacrylamide gels where they can be phosphorylated by protein kinases that are separated in the gel under denaturing conditions and then renatured. The kinase activity can be visualized in situ in the gels by autoradiography. This method has been used to compare the activities of protein kinases in parallel samples or to identify their potential substrates. Here, we describe in detail an in-gel kinase assay to measure the activity of some protein kinases in plants. PMID:26577790

  11. Glutamine promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation through the mTOR/S6 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lingqin; Sheng, Xiugui; Willson, Adam K; Roque, Dario R; Stine, Jessica E; Guo, Hui; Jones, Hannah M; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine is one of the main nutrients used by tumor cells for biosynthesis. Therefore, targeted inhibition of glutamine metabolism may have anti-tumorigenic implications. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of glutamine on ovarian cancer cell growth. Three ovarian cancer cell lines, HEY, SKOV3, and IGROV-1, were assayed for glutamine dependence by analyzing cytotoxicity, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, cell stress, and glucose/glutamine metabolism. Our results revealed that administration of glutamine increased cell proliferation in all three ovarian cancer cell lines in a dose dependent manner. Depletion of glutamine induced reactive oxygen species and expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins. In addition, glutamine increased the activity of glutaminase (GLS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) by modulating the mTOR/S6 and MAPK pathways. Inhibition of mTOR activity by rapamycin or blocking S6 expression by siRNA inhibited GDH and GLS activity, leading to a decrease in glutamine-induced cell proliferation. These studies suggest that targeting glutamine metabolism may be a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26045471

  12. Folding behavior of ribosomal protein S6 studied by modified GoŻ -like model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J.; Li, W. F.; Wang, W.

    2007-03-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that, although topology is the determinant factor in protein folding, especially for small single-domain proteins, energetic factors also play an important role in the folding process. The ribosomal protein S6 has been subjected to intensive studies. A radical change of the transition state in its circular permutants has been observed, which is believed to be caused by a biased distribution of contact energies. Since the simplistic topology-only G? -like model is not able to reproduce such an observation, we modify the model by introducing variable contact energies between residues based on their physicochemical properties. The modified G? -like model can successfully reproduce the ? -value distributions, folding nucleus, and folding pathways of both the wild-type and circular permutants of S6. Furthermore, by comparing the results of the modified and the simplistic models, we find that the hydrophobic effect constructs the major force that balances the loop entropies. This may indicate that nature maintains the folding cooperativity of this protein by carefully arranging the location of hydrophobic residues in the sequence. Our study reveals a strategy or mechanism used by nature to get out of the dilemma when the native structure, possibly required by biological function, conflicts with folding cooperativity. Finally, the possible relationship between such a design of nature and amyloidosis is also discussed.

  13. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert . E-mail: biocrr@lsuhsc.edu

    2005-05-27

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTP{alpha}, PTP{epsilon}, and PTP{lambda}. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined.

  14. Expression of an active tobacco mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase enhances freezing

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    by cold- inducible master transcription factors, oxidative stress signaling has been postulated to play in oxidative stress signaling is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to mammals, we tested enhance freezing tolerance in important crops. Nicotiana protein kinase stress tolerance Zea mays Plants

  15. High-throughput kinase profiling: a more efficient approach toward the discovery of new kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Miduturu, Chandrasekhar V; Deng, Xianming; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Yang, Wannian; Brault, Laurent; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Chung, Eunah; Yang, Qingkai; Schwaller, Juerg; Knapp, Stefan; King, Randall W; Lee, Jiing-Dwan; Herrgard, Sanna; Zarrinkar, Patrick; Gray, Nathanael S

    2011-07-29

    Selective protein kinase inhibitors have only been developed against a small number of kinase targets. Here we demonstrate that "high-throughput kinase profiling" is an efficient method for the discovery of lead compounds for established as well as unexplored kinase targets. We screened a library of 118 compounds constituting two distinct scaffolds (furan-thiazolidinediones and pyrimido-diazepines) against a panel of 353 kinases. A distinct kinase selectivity profile was observed for each scaffold. Selective inhibitors were identified with submicromolar cellular activity against PIM1, ERK5, ACK1, MPS1, PLK1-3, and Aurora A,B kinases. In addition, we identified potent inhibitors for so far unexplored kinases such as DRAK1, HIPK2, and DCAMKL1 that await further evaluation. This inhibitor-centric approach permits comprehensive assessment of a scaffold of interest and represents an efficient and general strategy for identifying new selective kinase inhibitors. PMID:21802008

  16. Time courses of changes in phospho- and total- MAP kinases in the cochlea after intense noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yukihide; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) are intracellular signaling kinases activated by phosphorylation in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. Mammalian MAP kinase pathways are composed of three major pathways: MEK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1)/ERK 1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2)/p90 RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase), JNK (c-Jun amino (N)-terminal kinase)/c-Jun, and p38 MAPK pathways. These pathways coordinately mediate physiological processes such as cell survival, protein synthesis, cell proliferation, growth, migration, and apoptosis. The involvement of MAP kinase in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been implicated in the cochlea; however, it is unknown how expression levels of MAP kinase change after the onset of NIHL and whether they are regulated by transient phosphorylation or protein synthesis. CBA/J mice were exposed to 120-dB octave band noise for 2 h. Auditory brainstem response confirmed a component of temporary threshold shift within 0-24 h and significant permanent threshold shift at 14 days after noise exposure. Levels and localizations of phospho- and total- MEK1/ERK1/2/p90 RSK, JNK/c-Jun, and p38 MAPK were comprehensively analyzed by the Bio-Plex® Suspension Array System and immunohistochemistry at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after noise exposure. The phospho-MEK1/ERK1/2/p90 RSK signaling pathway was activated in the spiral ligament and the sensory and supporting cells of the organ of Corti, with peaks at 3-6 h and independently of regulations of total-MEK1/ERK1/2/p90 RSK. The expression of phospho-JNK and p38 MAPK showed late upregulation in spiral neurons at 48 h, in addition to early upregulations with peaks at 3 h after noise trauma. Phospho-p38 MAPK activation was dependent on upregulation of total-p38 MAPK. At present, comprehensive data on MAP kinase expression provide significant insight into understanding the molecular mechanism of NIHL, and for developing therapeutic models for acute sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:23484051

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  18. Mitotic Kinases and p53 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Geun-Hyoung; Breuer, Eun-Kyoung Yim

    2012-01-01

    Mitosis is tightly regulated and any errors in this process often lead to aneuploidy, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Deregulation of mitotic kinases is significantly associated with improper cell division and aneuploidy. Because of their importance during mitosis and the relevance to cancer, mitotic kinase signaling has been extensively studied over the past few decades and, as a result, several mitotic kinase inhibitors have been developed. Despite promising preclinical results, targeting mitotic kinases for cancer therapy faces numerous challenges, including safety and patient selection issues. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mitotic kinase signaling and its interactive network. Increasing evidence suggests that tumor suppressor p53 functions at the center of the mitotic kinase signaling network. In response to mitotic spindle damage, multiple mitotic kinases phosphorylate p53 to either activate or deactivate p53-mediated signaling. p53 can also regulate the expression and function of mitotic kinases, suggesting the existence of a network of mutual regulation, which can be positive or negative, between mitotic kinases and p53 signaling. Therefore, deciphering this regulatory network will provide knowledge to overcome current limitations of targeting mitotic kinases and further improve the results of targeted therapy. PMID:22852086

  19. Protein kinase C-associated kinase can activate NFkappaB in both a kinase-dependent and a kinase-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Moran, Stewart T; Haider, Khaleda; Ow, Yongkai; Milton, Peter; Chen, Luojing; Pillai, Shiv

    2003-06-13

    Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as RIP4/DIK) activates NFkappaB when overexpressed in cell lines and is required for keratinocyte differentiation in vivo. However, very little is understood about the factors upstream of PKK or how PKK activates NFkappaB. Here we show that certain catalytically inactive mutants of PKK can activate NFkappaB, although to a lesser degree than wild type PKK. The deletion of specific domains of wild type PKK diminishes the ability of this enzyme to activate NFkappaB; the same deletions made on a catalytically inactive PKK background completely ablate NFkappaB activation. PKK may be phosphorylated by two specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases, MEKK2 and MEKK3, and this interaction may in part be mediated through a critical activation loop residue, Thr184. Catalytically inactive PKK mutants that block phorbol ester-induced NFkappaB activation do not interfere with, but unexpectedly enhance, the activation of NFkappaB by these two mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. Taken together, these data indicate that PKK may function in both a kinase-dependent as well as a kinase-independent manner to activate NFkappaB. PMID:12676934

  20. Identification of a major maturation-activated acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase in sea star oocytes as p44mpk.

    PubMed Central

    Pelech, S L; Sanghera, J S; Paddon, H B; Quayle, K A; Brownsey, R W

    1991-01-01

    Maturation-activated protein-serine/threonine kinases were investigated in the high-speed supernatant fractions from sea-star oocytes harvested at the time of germinal vesicle breakdown. One of the major stimulated protein kinases able to phosphorylate acetyl-CoA carboxylase in these extracts was found to co-purify with a 44 kDa myelin basic protein kinase (p44mpk) that is activated with a similar time course during oocyte maturation. Purified sea-star oocyte p44mpk phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (purified from rat liver) predominantly on serine and to a small extent on threonine. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase occurred principally on a tryptic phosphopeptide which displayed electrophoretic and chromatographic properties very similar to those of the peptide that has previously been shown to undergo increased phosphorylation in response to insulin in rat adipocytes [Brownsey & Denton (1982) Biochem. J. 202, 77-86]. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase was phosphorylated at a similar rate and to a similar extent by casein kinase II, which was also purified from maturing sea-star oocytes. Although casein kinase II was also activated approximately 3-fold near the time of nuclear envelope breakdown, it was responsible for only a minor component of the total enhanced acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase activity measured in the soluble extracts from maturing oocytes. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was a relatively poor substrate for the major S6 peptide kinase activity that was also stimulated during resumption of meiosis in the oocytes. The properties of the p44mpk are reminiscent of those of a microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) kinase that is activated in response to insulin and other mitogens in mammalian cells [Ray & Sturgill (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 3753-3757; Hoshi, Nishida & Sakai (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 5396-5401]. It is intriguing that several of the mammalian protein kinases that are acutely activated after mitogenic prompting of quiescent mouse fibroblasts (i.e. G0 to G1 transition), such as MAP-2 kinase, casein kinase II and S6 kinase II, have counterparts that are activated during M-phase in maturing sea star oocytes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1672814

  1. Using Bioluminescent Kinase Profiling Strips to Identify Kinase Inhibitor Selectivity and Promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Zegzouti, Hicham; Hennek, Jacquelyn; Goueli, Said A

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of a kinase inhibitor throughout drug discovery and development is predicated upon its selectivity towards the target of interest. Thus, profiling the compound against a broad panel of kinases is important for providing a better understanding of its activity and for obviating any off-target activities that can result in undesirable consequences. To assess the selectivity and potency of an inhibitor against multiple kinases, it is desirable to use a universal assay that can monitor the activity of all classes of kinases regardless of the nature of their substrates. The luminescent ADP-Glo kinase assay is a universal platform that measures kinase activity by quantifying the amount of the common kinase reaction product ADP. Here we present a method using standardized kinase profiling systems for inhibitor profiling studies based on ADP detection by luminescence. The kinase profiling systems are sets of kinases organized by family, presented in multi-tube strips containing eight enzymes, each with corresponding substrate strips, and standardized for optimal kinase activity. We show that using the kinase profiling strips we could quickly and easily generate multiple selectivity profiles using small or large kinase panels, and identify compound promiscuity within the kinome. PMID:26501902

  2. Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), a novel membrane-associated, ankyrin repeat-containing protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Haider, K; Ponda, M; Cariappa, A; Rowitch, D; Pillai, S

    2001-06-15

    A novel murine membrane-associated protein kinase, PKK (protein kinase C-associated kinase), was cloned on the basis of its physical association with protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta). The regulated expression of PKK in mouse embryos is consistent with a role for this kinase in early embryogenesis. The human homolog of PKK has over 90% identity to its murine counterpart, has been localized to chromosome 21q22.3, and is identical to the PKCdelta-interacting kinase, DIK (Bahr, C., Rohwer, A., Stempka, L., Rincke, G., Marks, F., and Gschwendt, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36350-36357). PKK comprises an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal region containing 11 ankyrin repeats. PKK exhibits protein kinase activity in vitro and associates with cellular membranes. PKK exists in three discernible forms at steady state: an underphosphorylated form of 100 kDa; a soluble, cytosolic, phosphorylated form of 110 kDa; and a phosphorylated, detergent-insoluble form of 112 kDa. PKK is initially synthesized as an underphosphorylated soluble 100-kDa protein that is quantitatively converted to a detergent-soluble 110-kDa form. This conversion requires an active catalytic domain. Although PKK physically associates with PKCbeta, it does not phosphorylate this PKC isoform. However, PKK itself may be phosphorylated by PKCbeta. PKK represents a developmentally regulated protein kinase that can associate with membranes. The functional significance of its association with PKCbeta remains to be ascertained. PMID:11278382

  3. Labeling and Identification of Direct Kinase Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott M.; White, Forest M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying kinase substrates is an important step in mapping signal transduction pathways, but remains a difficult and time-consuming process. Analog-sensitive kinases (AS-kinases) have been used to selectively tag and identify direct kinase substrates in lysates from whole cells. In this approach a gamma-thiol ATP-analog and AS-kinase are used to selectively thiophosphorylate target proteins. Thiophosphate is used as a chemical handle to purify peptides from a tryptic digest, and target proteins are identified by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we describe an updated strategy for labeling AS-kinase substrates, solid-phase capture of thiophosphorylated peptides, incorporation of stable-isotopic labeling in cell culture (SILAC) for filtering nonspecific background peptides, enrichment of phosphorylated target peptides to identify low-abundance targets, and analysis by LC-MS/MS. PMID:22669844

  4. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  5. Roles for motifs of cell cycle regulating kinases beyond substrate selection of individual kinases

    E-print Network

    Alexander, Jes

    2008-01-01

    Errors in the cell cycle, particularly during mitosis, have recently been implicated in tumorigenesis and cancer formation. Several protein kinases, including the major mitotic kinases Cdkl, Aurora A, Aurora B, Nek2, and ...

  6. Roles of Sestrin2 and Ribosomal Protein S6 in Transient Global Ischemia-Induced Hippocampal Neuronal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yao-Chung; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Yang, Ding-I; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shang-Der

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that sestrin2 is a crucial modulator for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, sestrin2 may also regulate ribosomal protein S6 (RpS6), a molecule important for protein synthesis, through the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex that is pivotal for longevity. However, the roles of sestrin2 in cerebral ischemia, in which oxidative stress is one of the major pathogenic mechanisms, are still less understood. In this study, we hypothesized that sestrin2 may protect hippocampal CA1 neurons against transient global ischemia (TGI)-induced apoptosis by regulating RpS6 phosphorylation in rats. We found that sestrin2 expression was progressively increased in the hippocampal CA1 subfield 1–48 h after TGI, reaching the maximal level at 24 h, and declined thereafter. Further, an increased extent of RpS6 phosphorylation, but not total RpS6 protein level, was observed in the hippocampal CA1 subfield after TGI. The sestrin2 siRNA, which substantially blocked the expression of TGI-induced sestrin2, also abolished RpS6 phosphorylation. TGI with reperfusion may induce oxidative stress with the resultant formation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). We found that sestrin2 siRNA further augmented the formation of 8-OHdG induced by TGI with reperfusion for 4 h. Consistently, sestrin2 siRNA also enhanced apoptosis induced by TGI with reperfusion for 48 h based on the analysis of DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA fragmentation sandwich ELISA, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Together these findings indicated that TGI-induced sestrin2 expression contributed to RpS6 phosphorylation and neuroprotection against ischemic injury in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. PMID:26556340

  7. Roles of Sestrin2 and Ribosomal Protein S6 in Transient Global Ischemia-Induced Hippocampal Neuronal Injury.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yao-Chung; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Yang, Ding-I; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shang-Der

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that sestrin2 is a crucial modulator for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, sestrin2 may also regulate ribosomal protein S6 (RpS6), a molecule important for protein synthesis, through the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex that is pivotal for longevity. However, the roles of sestrin2 in cerebral ischemia, in which oxidative stress is one of the major pathogenic mechanisms, are still less understood. In this study, we hypothesized that sestrin2 may protect hippocampal CA1 neurons against transient global ischemia (TGI)-induced apoptosis by regulating RpS6 phosphorylation in rats. We found that sestrin2 expression was progressively increased in the hippocampal CA1 subfield 1-48 h after TGI, reaching the maximal level at 24 h, and declined thereafter. Further, an increased extent of RpS6 phosphorylation, but not total RpS6 protein level, was observed in the hippocampal CA1 subfield after TGI. The sestrin2 siRNA, which substantially blocked the expression of TGI-induced sestrin2, also abolished RpS6 phosphorylation. TGI with reperfusion may induce oxidative stress with the resultant formation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). We found that sestrin2 siRNA further augmented the formation of 8-OHdG induced by TGI with reperfusion for 4 h. Consistently, sestrin2 siRNA also enhanced apoptosis induced by TGI with reperfusion for 48 h based on the analysis of DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA fragmentation sandwich ELISA, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Together these findings indicated that TGI-induced sestrin2 expression contributed to RpS6 phosphorylation and neuroprotection against ischemic injury in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. PMID:26556340

  8. Long Wavelength Monitoring of Protein Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Nathan P.; Nguyen, Luong T.; Jernigan, Finith E.; Priestman, Melanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A family of long wavelength protein kinase fluorescent reporters is described in which the probing wavelength is pre-programmed using readily available fluorophores. These agents can assess protein kinase activity within the optical window of tissue, as exemplified by monitoring endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity (1) in erythrocyte lysates and (2) in intact erythrocytes using a light-activatable reporter. PMID:24604833

  9. Staurosporine induces dopaminergic neurite outgrowth through AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Seiko; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshie; Adachi, Kanami; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Akaike, Akinori

    2014-02-01

    Axonal degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is one of the pathological features in the early stages of Parkinson disease. Promotion of axonal outgrowth of the remaining dopaminergic neurons leads to the recovery of the nigrostriatal pathway. Staurosporine (STS), a wide-spectrum kinase inhibitor, induces neurite outgrowth in various cell types, although its mechanism of action remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed which protein kinase is involved in STS-induced neurite outgrowth. We have previously established the method to measure the length of dopaminergic neurites that extend from a mesencephalic cell region, which is formed on a coverslip by an isolation wall. By means of this method, we clarified that STS treatment causes dopaminergic axonal outgrowth in mesencephalic primary cultures. Among the specific protein kinase inhibitors we tested, compound C (C.C), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, promoted dopaminergic neurite outgrowth. STS as well as C.C elevated the phosphorylation level of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, a downstream target of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The STS- and C.C-induced dopaminergic neurite outgrowth was suppressed by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor. Furthermore, the application of C.C rescued 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurite degeneration. These results suggest that STS induces dopaminergic axonal outgrowth through mTOR signaling pathway activation as a consequence of AMPK inhibition. PMID:24067927

  10. Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases set the amplitude of receptor tyrosine kinase output

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Gloria; Niederst, Matt; Cohen-Katsenelson, Ksenya; Stender, Joshua D.; Kunkel, Maya T.; Chen, Muhan; Brognard, John; Sierecki, Emma; Gao, Tianyan; Nowak, Dawid G.; Trotman, Lloyd C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factor receptor levels are aberrantly high in diverse cancers, driving the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Understanding the molecular basis for this aberrant elevation has profound clinical implications. Here we show that the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) suppresses receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling output by a previously unidentified epigenetic mechanism unrelated to its previously described function as the hydrophobic motif phosphatase for the protein kinase AKT, protein kinase C, and S6 kinase. Specifically, we show that nuclear-localized PHLPP suppresses histone phosphorylation and acetylation, in turn suppressing the transcription of diverse growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. These data uncover a much broader role for PHLPP in regulation of growth factor signaling beyond its direct inactivation of AKT: By suppressing RTK levels, PHLPP dampens the downstream signaling output of two major oncogenic pathways, the PI3 kinase/AKT and the Rat sarcoma (RAS)/ERK pathways. Our data are consistent with a model in which PHLPP modifies the histone code to control the transcription of RTKs. PMID:25201979

  11. MST kinases in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Barry J; Sahai, Erik

    2015-09-14

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease. PMID:26370497

  12. The reverse in-gel kinase assay to profile physiological kinase substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Guan, Bin; Srivastava, Minu K; Padmanabhan, Achuth; Hampton, Brian S; Bieberich, Charles J

    2007-11-01

    Elucidating kinase-substrate relationships is critical for understanding how phosphorylation affects signal transduction and regulatory cascades. Using the alpha catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) as a paradigm, we developed an in-gel method to facilitate identification of physiologic kinase substrates. In this approach, the roles of kinase and substrate in a classic in-gel kinase assay are reversed. In the reverse in-gel kinase assay (RIKA), a kinase is copolymerized in a denaturing polyacrylamide gel used to resolve a tissue or cell protein extract. Restoration of kinase activity and substrate structure followed by an in situ kinase reaction and mass spectrometric analyses results in identification of potential kinase substrates. We demonstrate that this method can be used to profile both known and novel human and mouse substrates of CK2alpha and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Using widely available straightforward technology, the RIKA has the potential to facilitate discovery of physiologic kinase substrates in any biological system. PMID:17952089

  13. Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1 Michael J of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD by phosphatases. AMPK is found in all eukaryotes. Yeast AMPK is more commonly known as SNF1 [1,6,7]. SNF1 has

  14. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures.

    PubMed

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K; Haglund, Ellinor; Schug, Alexander; Onuchic, José N

    2015-12-28

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein's functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism. PMID:26723626

  15. Gene organization for nitric oxide reduction in Alcaligenes faecalis S-6.

    PubMed

    Kukimoto, M; Nishiyama, M; Tanokura, M; Horinouchi, S

    2000-04-01

    norB and norC encoding the cytochrome b-containing subunit and the cytochrome c-containing subunit, respectively, of the nitric oxide reductase (NOR) in Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 were cloned and sequenced. Both NorB and NorC showed more than 40% sequence identity to the corresponding subunits of cytochrome bc-type NORs in other denitrifying bacteria. norCB was in a gene cluster containing seven other genes; these were named dnr, orf2, orf3, norE, norF, norQ, and norD on the basis of their similarity with NOR systems in other bacteria. Potential FNR-binding sites were present in front of norCB, norEF, and/or orf2/orf3, suggesting that most of these genes are regulated simultaneously by an FNR-related protein. NorB and NorC proteins produced in the membrane fraction in Escherichia coli showed no enzyme activity, probably due to lack of NorQ and NorD, which appear to perform some essential function for activation of the NorB-NorC complex in the recombinant E. coli. PMID:10830505

  16. Involvement of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling pathway in the regulation of ERCC-1 mRNA levels by insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Kwon, W; Park, D; Bernier, M

    1998-01-01

    Expression of DNA repair enzymes, which includes ERCC-1, might be under the control of hormonal and growth factor stimulation. In the present study it was observed that insulin increased ERCC-1 mRNA levels both in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing human insulin receptors (HIRc cells) and in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the increase in ERCC-1 gene expression in HIRc cells, we used a variety of pharmacological tools known to inhibit distinct signalling pathways. None of these inhibitors affected the amount of ERCC-1 mRNA in unstimulated cells. The pretreatment of cells with two chemically unrelated phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, failed to block the doubling of ERCC-1 mRNA content by insulin. Similarly, inhibition of pp70 S6 kinase by rapamycin had no apparent effects on this insulin response. In contrast, altering the p21(ras)-dependent pathway with either manumycin, an inhibitor of Ras farnesylation, or PD98059, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase, suppressed the induction of ERCC-1 mRNA by insulin (P<0.001). Furthermore inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis negatively regulated the expression of this insulin-regulated gene (P<0.005). These results suggest that insulin enhances ERCC-1 mRNA levels by the activation of the Ras-ERK-dependent pathway without the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/pp70 S6 kinase. PMID:9531502

  17. The tyrosine kinase Btk regulates the macrophage response to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Köprülü, Afitap Derya; Kastner, Renate; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Lassnig, Caroline; Putz, Eva Maria; Majer, Olivia; Reutterer, Benjamin; Sexl, Veronika; Kuchler, Karl; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas; Ellmeier, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in the immune response to the Gram-positive intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). In response to Lm infection, Btk was activated in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and Btk (-/-) BMMs showed enhanced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12p40 secretion, while type I interferons were produced at levels similar to wild-type (wt) BMMs. Although Btk-deficient BMMs displayed reduced phagocytosis of E. coli fragments, there was no difference between wt and Btk (-/-) BMMs in the uptake of Lm upon infection. Moreover, there was no difference in the response to heat-killed Lm between wt and Btk (-/-) BMMs, suggesting a role for Btk in signaling pathways that are induced by intracellular Lm. Finally, Btk (-/-) mice displayed enhanced resistance and an increased mean survival time upon Lm infection in comparison to wt mice. This correlated with elevated IFN-? and IL-12p70 serum levels in Btk (-/-) mice at day 1 after infection. Taken together, our data suggest an important regulatory role for Btk in macrophages during Lm infection. PMID:23544144

  18. The Tyrosine Kinase Btk Regulates the Macrophage Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Köprülü, Afitap Derya; Kastner, Renate; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Lassnig, Caroline; Putz, Eva Maria; Majer, Olivia; Reutterer, Benjamin; Sexl, Veronika; Kuchler, Karl; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas; Ellmeier, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in the immune response to the Gram-positive intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). In response to Lm infection, Btk was activated in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and Btk?/? BMMs showed enhanced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12p40 secretion, while type I interferons were produced at levels similar to wild-type (wt) BMMs. Although Btk-deficient BMMs displayed reduced phagocytosis of E. coli fragments, there was no difference between wt and Btk?/? BMMs in the uptake of Lm upon infection. Moreover, there was no difference in the response to heat-killed Lm between wt and Btk?/? BMMs, suggesting a role for Btk in signaling pathways that are induced by intracellular Lm. Finally, Btk?/? mice displayed enhanced resistance and an increased mean survival time upon Lm infection in comparison to wt mice. This correlated with elevated IFN-? and IL-12p70 serum levels in Btk?/? mice at day 1 after infection. Taken together, our data suggest an important regulatory role for Btk in macrophages during Lm infection. PMID:23544144

  19. Measuring the Activity of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2: A Kinase Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Dae; Li, Xiaojie; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has multiple functional domains including a kinase domain. The kinase activity of LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Developing an assay to understand the mechanisms of LRRK2 kinase activity is important for the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe how to measure in vitro LRRK2 kinase activity and its inhibition. PMID:21960214

  20. Glycine311, a determinant of paxilline block in BK channels: a novel bend in the BK S6 helix.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Tang, Qiong-Yao; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Lingle, Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    The tremorogenic fungal metabolite, paxilline, is widely used as a potent and relatively specific blocker of Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated Slo1 (or BK) K(+) channels. The pH-regulated Slo3 K(+) channel, a Slo1 homologue, is resistant to blockade by paxilline. Taking advantage of the marked differences in paxilline sensitivity and the homology between subunits, we have examined the paxilline sensitivity of a set of chimeric Slo1/Slo3 subunits. Paxilline sensitivity is associated with elements of the S5-P loop-S6 module of the Slo1 channel. Replacement of the Slo1 S5 segment or the second half of the P loop results in modest changes in paxilline sensitivity. Replacing the Slo1 S6 segment with the Slo3 sequence abolishes paxilline sensitivity. An increase in paxilline affinity and changes in block kinetics also result from replacing the first part of the Slo1 P loop, the so-called turret, with Slo3 sequence. The Slo1 and Slo3 S6 segments differ at 10 residues. Slo1-G311S was found to markedly reduce paxilline block. In constructs with a Slo3 S6 segment, S300G restored paxilline block, but most effectively when paired with a Slo1 P loop. Other S6 residues differing between Slo1 and Slo3 had little influence on paxilline block. The involvement of Slo1 G311 in paxilline sensitivity suggests that paxilline may occupy a position within the central cavity or access its blocking position through the central cavity. To explain the differences in paxilline sensitivity between Slo1 and Slo3, we propose that the G311/S300 position in Slo1 and Slo3 underlies a structural difference between subunits in the bend of S6, which influences the occupancy by paxilline. PMID:20421373

  1. The distribution and clearance of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine, an active ketamine metabolite, in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Moaddel, Ruin; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Dossou, Katina Sourou Sylvestre; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Green, Carol; Bupp, James; Swezey, Robert; O’Loughlin, Kathleen; Wainer, Irving W

    2015-01-01

    The distribution, clearance, and bioavailability of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine has been studied in the Wistar rat. The plasma and brain tissue concentrations over time of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were determined after intravenous (20 mg/kg) and oral (20 mg/kg) administration of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine (n = 3). After intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis and the half-life of drug elimination during the terminal phase (t1/2) was 8.0 ± 4.0 h and the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 7352 ± 736 mL/kg, clearance (Cl) was 704 ± 139 mL/h per kg, and the bioavailability was 46.3%. Significant concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were measured in brain tissues at 10 min after intravenous administration, ?30 ?g/mL per g tissue which decreased to 6 ?g/mL per g tissue at 60 min. The plasma and brain concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were also determined after the intravenous administration of (S)-ketamine, where significant plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were observed 10 min after administration. The (S)-ketamine metabolites (S)-norketamine, (S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6R)-hydroxynorketamine, (2S,5S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,4S)-hydroxynorketamine were also detected in both plasma and brain tissue. The enantioselectivity of the conversion of (S)-ketamine and (R)-ketamine to the respective (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites was also investigated over the first 60 min after intravenous administration. (S)-Ketamine produced significantly greater plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine relative to the (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine observed after the administration of (R)-ketamine. However, the relative brain tissue: plasma concentrations of the enantiomeric (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites were not significantly different indicating that the penetration of the metabolite is not enantioselective. PMID:26171236

  2. Pyridopyrimidine analogues as novel adenosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G Z; Lee, C; Pratt, J K; Perner, R J; Jiang, M Q; Gomtsyan, A; Matulenko, M A; Mao, Y; Koenig, J R; Kim, K H; Muchmore, S; Yu, H; Kohlhaas, K; Alexander, K M; McGaraughty, S; Chu, K L; Wismer, C T; Mikusa, J; Jarvis, M F; Marsh, K; Kowaluk, E A; Bhagwat, S S; Stewart, A O

    2001-08-20

    A novel series of pyridopyrimidine analogues 9 was identified as potent adenosine kinase inhibitors based on the SAR and computational studies. Substitution of the C7 position of the pyridopyrimidino core with C2' substituted pyridino moiety increased the in vivo potency and enhanced oral bioavailability of these adenosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:11514141

  3. Multifunctional Abl kinases in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Aaditya; Wang, Jun; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    The Abelson tyrosine kinases were initially identified as drivers of leukemia in mice and humans. The Abl family kinases Abl1 and Abl2 regulate diverse cellular processes during development and normal homeostasis, and their functions are subverted during inflammation, cancer and other pathologies. Abl kinases can be activated by multiple stimuli leading to cytoskeletal reorganization required for cell morphogenesis, motility, adhesion and polarity. Depending on the cellular context, Abl kinases regulate cell survival and proliferation. Emerging data support important roles for Abl kinases in pathologies linked to inflammation. Among these are neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Unexpectedly, Abl kinases have also been identified as important players in mammalian host cells during microbial pathogenesis. Thus, the use of Abl kinase inhibitors might prove to be effective in the treatment of pathologies beyond leukemia and solid tumors. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and in the accompanying poster, we highlight the emerging roles of Abl kinases in the regulation of cellular processes in normal cells and diverse pathologies ranging from cancer to microbial pathogenesis. PMID:26729027

  4. MECHANISTIC ANALYSIS OF PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE KINASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is the primary regulator of flux through the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The PDK is a member of the ATPase/kinase superfamily. Member proteins of this family are characterized by four signature sequences in the catalytic domain (N-, D-, F-, and G...

  5. The MPS1 Family of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuedong; Winey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    MPS1 protein kinases are found widely, but not ubiquitously, in eukaryotes. This family of potentially dual-specific protein kinases is among several that regulate a number of steps of mitosis. The most widely conserved MPS1 kinase functions involve activities at the kinetochore in both the chromosome attachment and the spindle checkpoint. MPS1 kinases also function at centrosomes. Beyond mitosis, MPS1 kinases have been implicated in development, cytokinesis, and several different signaling pathways. Family members are identified by virtue of a conserved C-terminal kinase domain, though the N-terminal domain is quite divergent. The kinase domain of the human enzyme has been crystallized, revealing an unusual ATP-binding pocket. The activity, level, and subcellular localization of Mps1 family members are tightly regulated during cell-cycle progression. The mitotic functions of Mps1 kinases and their overexpression in some tumors have prompted the identification of Mps1 inhibitors and their active development as anticancer drugs. PMID:22482908

  6. Ruthenium Complexes as Protein Kinase Inhibitors

    E-print Network

    Meggers, Eric

    Ruthenium Complexes as Protein Kinase Inhibitors Lilu Zhang, Patrick Carroll, and Eric Meggers* Uni. A strategy is introduced for the creation of ruthenium complex-based protein kinase inhibitors 1 (X ) CO organic molecules. Our efforts are focused on ruthenium complex scaffolds because ruthenium offers

  7. Insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways in rat hepatic stellate cells: importance for deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and hepatocyte growth factor production.

    PubMed

    Skrtic, S; Wallenius, K; Gressner, A M; Jansson, J O

    1999-12-01

    It has been shown recently that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) increases both DNA synthesis and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) production in cultured hepatic stellate cells. In this study, we used selective blockers to investigate crucial signaling pathways for these effects of IGF-1 in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells. Both LY 294002 [a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor], and rapamycin [a blocker of activation of the serine/threonine p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), a molecule downstream from PI3-K] completely reversed the IGF-1-induced stimulation of DNA synthesis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibition by PD 98059 had a less pronounced suppressory effect, although the used PD 98059 dose was fully effective in inhibiting MAPK phosphorylation. Both LY 294002 and PD 98059 lowered the IGF-1-induced increase of HGF in the medium by about 40%, but LY 294002 was 10 times more potent than PD 98059. Inhibition of p70S6K activation by rapamycin blocked IGF-1-induced DNA synthesis but not the increase in HGF. In conclusion, PI3-K (and, to some extent, MAPK) signaling pathways seem to be important for IGF-1-stimulated DNA synthesis and HGF production. DNA synthesis also seems to be dependent on rapamycin-sensitive activation of the PI3-K effector p70S6K. PMID:10579338

  8. Identification of Direct Kinase Substrates via Kinase Assay-Linked Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang; Arrington, Justine V; Tao, W Andy

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in the regulation of various cellular functions. Dysregulation of phosphorylation is implicated in the pathogenesis of certain cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and central nervous system disorders. As a result, protein kinases have become potential drug targets for treating a wide variety of diseases. Identification of kinase substrates is vital not only for dissecting signaling pathways, but also for understanding disease pathologies and identifying novel therapeutic targets. However, identification of bona fide kinase substrates has remained challenging, necessitating the development of new methods and techniques. The kinase assay linked phosphoproteomics (KALIP) approach integrates in vitro kinase assays with global phosphoproteomics experiments to identify the direct substrates of protein kinases. This strategy has demonstrated outstanding sensitivity and a low false-positive rate for kinase substrate screening. PMID:26584932

  9. Kinase activity and specificity assay using synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu Na; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of substrate proteins by protein kinases can lead to activation or inactivation of signaling pathways or metabolic processes. Precise understanding of activity and specificity of protein kinases are important questions in characterization of kinase functions. Here, we describe a procedure to study kinase activity and specificity using kinase-GFP complexes purified from plant material and synthetic peptides as substrates. Magnetic GFP beads allow purifying receptor-like kinase-GFP complexes from microsomal fractions. Kinase-GFP complexes are then incubated with ATP and the synthetic peptides for kinase reaction. Phosphorylation of substrate peptides is then identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. PMID:25930696

  10. Crystal structure of the Golgi casein kinase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junyu; Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Wen, Jianzhong; Kim, Soo-A; Dixon, Jack E

    2013-06-25

    The family with sequence similarity 20 (Fam20) kinases phosphorylate extracellular substrates and play important roles in biomineralization. Fam20C is the Golgi casein kinase that phosphorylates secretory pathway proteins within Ser-x-Glu/pSer motifs. Mutations in Fam20C cause Raine syndrome, an osteosclerotic bone dysplasia. Here we report the crystal structure of the Fam20C ortholog from Caenorhabditis elegans. The nucleotide-free and Mn/ADP-bound structures unveil an atypical protein kinase-like fold and highlight residues critical for activity. The position of the regulatory ?C helix and the lack of an activation loop indicate an architecture primed for efficient catalysis. Furthermore, several distinct elements, including the presence of disulfide bonds, suggest that the Fam20 family diverged early in the evolution of the protein kinase superfamily. Our results reinforce the structural diversity of protein kinases and have important implications for patients with disorders of biomineralization. PMID:23754375

  11. The RLK/Pelle family of kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Lindsey A.; Clark, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The RLK/Pelle class of proteins kinases is composed of over 600 members in Arabidopsis. Many of the proteins in this family are receptor-like kinases (RLK), while others have lost their extracellular domains and are found as cytoplasmic kinases. Proteins in this family that are RLKs have a variety of extracellular domains that drive function in a large number of processes, from cell wall interactions to disease resistance to developmental control. This review will briefly cover the major subclasses of RLK/Pelle proteins and their roles. In addition, two specific groups on RLKs will be discussed in detail, relating recent findings in Arabidopsis and how well these conclusions have been able to be translated to agronomically important species. Finally, some details on kinase activity and signal transduction will be addressed, along with the mystery of RLK/Pelle members lacking kinase enzymatic activity. PMID:21443627

  12. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions.

  13. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGF?-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38? (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16 and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. A 2.4 Ĺ cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors. PMID:25075558

  14. Electronic, optical properties, surface energies and work functions of Ag8SnS6: First-principles method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chun-Lin; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yun-Wang; Liu, Shen-Ye; Mei, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Ternary metal chalcogenide semiconductor Ag8SnS6, which is an efficient photocatalyst under visible light radiation, is studied by plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. After geometry optimization, the electronic and optical properties are studied. A scissor operator value of 0.81 eV is introduced to overcome the underestimation of the calculation band gaps. The contribution of different bands is analyzed by virtue of total and partial density of states. Furthermore, in order to understand the optical properties of Ag8SnS6, the dielectric function, absorption coefficient, and refractive index are also performed in the energy range from 0 to 11 eV. The absorption spectrum indicates that Ag8SnS6 has a good absorbency in visible light area. Surface energies and work functions of , , , and (112) orientations have been calculated. These results reveal the reason for an outstanding photocatalytic activity of Ag8SnS6. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2012A0302015 and 2012B0302050).

  15. The thermal unfolding of the ribosome-inactivating protein saporin-S6 characterized by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marina; Scirč, Andrea; Tanfani, Fabio; Ausili, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    Saporin-S6 is a plant toxin belonging to the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) family. Since it was extracted and isolated from Saponaria officinalis for the first time almost thirty years ago, the protein has been widely studied mainly for its potential applications in anti-tumour and anti-viral infection therapy. Like other RIPs, saporin-S6 is particularly effective in the form of immunotoxin conjugated with monoclonal antibodies and its chemico-physical characteristics made the protein a perfect candidate for the synthesis, development and use of saporin-S6-based chimeric toxins. The high stability of the protein against different denaturing agents has been broadly demonstrated, however, its complete thermal unfolding characterization has not already been performed. In this work we analyse in detail structure, thermostability and unfolding features by means of infrared spectroscopy coupled with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. Our data showed that saporin-S6 in solution at neutral pH exhibits a secondary structure analogue to that of the crystal and confirmed its good stability at moderately high temperatures, with a temperature of melting of 58°C. Our results also demonstrated that the thermal unfolding process is non-cooperative and occurs in two steps, and revealed the sequence of the events that take place during the denaturation, showing a higher stability of the N-terminal domain of the protein. PMID:26096917

  16. catalyst layer in any case, even for the low-temperature experiments (fig. S6B). The coking

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    catalyst layer in any case, even for the low- temperature experiments (fig. S6B). The coking on Ru, and it is not clear what role this plays in preventing coking. One possi- bility is that the oxygen helps remove material on Science Online. 5. N. Minh, in Proc. 8th Int. Symp. on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, S. C. Singhal, M

  17. Disc1 is mutated in the 129S6 SvEv strain and modulates working memory in mice

    E-print Network

    Disc1 is mutated in the 129S6 SvEv strain and modulates working memory in mice Hiroko Koike* , P, December 26, 2005 (received for review December 15, 2005) Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia (DISC1) is a leading candidate schizo- phrenia susceptibility gene. Here, we describe a deletion variant in mDisc1 specific

  18. Ringwoodite Lamellae in Olivine from the S6 Chondrite Tenham: The Transformation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.; Decarli, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    Ringwoodite lamellae in partially transformed olivine have been reported to occur in the shock-induced melt veins or near the melt veins in heavily shocked (S6) chondrites [1-4]. These features were interpreted to have formed by a coherent intracrystalline transformation mechanism like that observed in experimentally transformed samples by Kerschhofer et al. [5-7]. However, our SEM and TEM observations on the partially transformed olivine suggest that the transformation is incoherent and occurs along specific orientation [4], which is in agreement with the new interpretation of ringwoodite lamellae based on new SEM and SXRD observations [8]. Here we report more detailed TEM results, which are crucial to understand the transformation mechanism. Abundant ringwoodite lamellae were found in olivine grains, which occur as host-rock fragments entrained in melt veins and pockets. These partially transformed olivines are commonly intergrown with enstatite and plagioclase in multi-phase fragments. High-resolution SEM images reveal that the ringwoodite lamellae are not continuous, but rather polycrystalline ringwoodite with crystal size about 1 mm. Preliminary TEM results show that olivine are heavily deformed or occur as fine olivine grains, and ringwoodite lamellae consist of individual ringwoodite grains in the matrix of olivine fine grains. The discontinuous lamellar textures that we observe strongly suggest that the lamellae consist of many distinct ringwoodite crystallites rather than single-crystal lamella. It is possible that lamellae of polycrystalline ringwoodite in olivine could form by a mechanism analogous to the formation of planar deformation features (PDF), representing preferential transformation along specific crystallographic defect planes of the host phase. [1 Chen et al. (2004) Proceedings. of NAS 101(42), 15033-15037. [2] Ohtani et al. (2004) EPSL 227(3-4), 505- 515. [3] Beck, et al. (2005) Nature 435, 1071-1074. [4] Xie and Sharp (2006), LPSC XXXVII, 2306.pdf. [5] Kerschhofer et al. (1996) Science 274 (5284), 79-81. [6] Kerschhofer et al. (1998) Mineralogical magazine 62(5),617-638. [7] Kerschhofer et al. (2000) PEPI 121, 59-76. [8] Chen et al. (2006) Meteoritics Planet. Sci. (41), 731-737.

  19. Physiological roles of mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activated p38-regulated/activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kostenko, Sergiy; Dumitriu, Gianina; Lćgreid, Kari Jenssen; Moens, Ugo

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of proteins that constitute signaling pathways involved in processes that control gene expression, cell division, cell survival, apoptosis, metabolism, differentiation and motility. The MAPK pathways can be divided into conventional and atypical MAPK pathways. The first group converts a signal into a cellular response through a relay of three consecutive phosphorylation events exerted by MAPK kinase kinases, MAPK kinase, and MAPK. Atypical MAPK pathways are not organized into this three-tiered cascade. MAPK that belongs to both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways can phosphorylate both non-protein kinase substrates and other protein kinases. The latter are referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases. This review focuses on one such MAPK-activated protein kinase, MAPK-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) or p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK). This protein is highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and seems to be the target of both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways. Recent findings on the regulation of the activity and subcellular localization, bona fide interaction partners and physiological roles of MK5/PRAK are discussed. PMID:21666810

  20. Dynamic architecture of a protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Christopher L.; Kornev, Alexandr P.; Gilson, Michael K.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases are dynamically regulated signaling proteins that act as switches in the cell by phosphorylating target proteins. To establish a framework for analyzing linkages between structure, function, dynamics, and allostery in protein kinases, we carried out multiple microsecond-scale molecular-dynamics simulations of protein kinase A (PKA), an exemplar active kinase. We identified residue–residue correlated motions based on the concept of mutual information and used the Girvan–Newman method to partition PKA into structurally contiguous “communities.” Most of these communities included 40–60 residues and were associated with a particular protein kinase function or a regulatory mechanism, and well-known motifs based on sequence and secondary structure were often split into different communities. The observed community maps were sensitive to the presence of different ligands and provide a new framework for interpreting long-distance allosteric coupling. Communication between different communities was also in agreement with the previously defined architecture of the protein kinase core based on the “hydrophobic spine” network. This finding gives us confidence in suggesting that community analyses can be used for other protein kinases and will provide an efficient tool for structural biologists. The communities also allow us to think about allosteric consequences of mutations that are linked to disease. PMID:25319261

  1. p38 MAP kinases in the heart.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Tomohiro; Wang, Yibin

    2016-01-10

    p38 kinases are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) with established contribution to a wide range of signaling pathways and different biological processes. The prototypic p38 MAPK, p38? was originally identified as an essential signaling kinase for inflammatory cytokine production Extensive studies have now revealed that p38s have critical roles in many different tissues far beyond immune regulation and inflammatory responses. In this review, we will focus on the structure and molecular biology of p38s, and their specific roles in heart, especially regarding myocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and hypertrophic responses. PMID:26390817

  2. Creatine kinase isoenzymes in bovine tissue.

    PubMed

    Galitzer, S J; Oehme, F W

    1985-07-01

    Brain, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, rumen, abomasum, small intestine, skeletal muscle, and urinary bladder from healthy cattle were analyzed for creatine kinase isoenzymes as a possible aid in the diagnosis of myocardial disease. Creatine kinase was detected in all organs evaluated. In addition, 6 different fluorescing bands were detected by isoenzyme analysis. Large quantities of the same isoenzymes were in cardiac and skeletal muscle, but not in other organs. Creatine kinase isoenzyme analysis does not necessarily indicate cardiac damage, but may narrow the range of tissue damage possibilities to be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:4026022

  3. Growth inhibitory properties of endothelin-1 in activated human hepatic stellate cells: a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated pathway. Inhibition of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun kinase and upregulation of endothelin B receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, A; Préaux, A M; Serradeil-Le Gal, C; Raufaste, D; Gallois, C; Brenner, D A; Bradham, C; Maclouf, J; Iourgenko, V; Fouassier, L; Dhumeaux, D; Mavier, P; Lotersztajn, S

    1996-01-01

    During chronic liver diseases, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) acquire an activated myofibroblast-like phenotype, proliferate, and synthetize fibrosis components. We have shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) inhibits the proliferation of activated human HSC via endothelin B (ETB) receptors. We now investigate the transduction pathway involved in the growth inhibitory effect of ET-1 in activated HSC. Endothelin-1 and the ETB receptor agonist, sarafotoxin-S6C, increased synthesis of PGI2 and PGE2, leading to elevation of cAMP. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen and the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 both blunted the growth inhibitory effect of ET-1. Analysis of early steps associated with growth inhibition indicated that: (a) similar to ET-1, forskolin decreased c-jun mRNA induction without affecting c-fos and krox 24 mRNA expression; (b) ET-1, sarafotoxin-S6C, as well as forskolin, reduced activation of both c-Jun kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Finally, forskolin, PGI2, and PGE2 raised by fivefold the number of ET binding sites after 6 h, and increased the proportion of ETB receptors from 50% in control cells to 80% in treated cells. In conclusion, ET-1 inhibits proliferation of activated HSC via ETB receptors, through a prostaglandin/cAMP pathway that leads to inhibition of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun kinase activities. Upregulation of ETB receptors by prostaglandin/cAMP raises the possibility of a positive feedback loop that would amplify the growth inhibitory response. These results suggest that ET-1 and agents that increase cAMP might be of interest to limit proliferation of activated HSC during chronic liver diseases. PMID:8981923

  4. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  5. Identification of nuclear beta II protein kinase C as a mitotic lamin kinase.

    PubMed

    Goss, V L; Hocevar, B A; Thompson, L J; Stratton, C A; Burns, D J; Fields, A P

    1994-07-22

    Multisite phosphorylation of the nuclear lamins is thought to regulate the process of mitotic nuclear envelope breakdown in vivo. Here we investigate the involvement of two proposed human mitotic lamin kinases, beta II protein kinase C (PKC) and p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase, in human lamin B1 phosphorylation in vitro and in intact cells. We find that both kinases can phosphorylate purified soluble lamin B at similar rates. However, beta II PKC phosphorylates interphase nuclear envelope lamin B at more than 200 times the rate of human p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase. beta II PKC-mediated phosphorylation of lamin B is confined to two sites, Ser395 and Ser405, within the carboxyl-terminal domain, whereas human p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase phosphorylates a single site, Ser23, in the amino-terminal domain. A second potential p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase site within the carboxyl-terminal domain, Ser393, is not phosphorylated by human p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase. However, invertebrate p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase from sea star exhibits a different specificity, phosphorylating both amino- and carboxyl-terminal sites. Mitotic human lamin B from intact cells is phosphorylated predominantly in its carboxyl-terminal domain. Comparative tryptic phosphopeptide mapping demonstrates that the beta II PKC site, Ser405, is a prominent target of mitotic lamin B phosphorylation in vivo. beta II PKC translocates to the nucleus during the G2/M phase of cell cycle concomitant with phosphorylation of Ser405, indicating a physiologic role for nuclear beta II PKC activation in mitotic lamin B phosphorylation in vivo. The presence of phosphorylation sites within the carboxyl-terminal domain of mitotic lamin B which are not phosphorylated by either beta II PKC or p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase suggests the involvement of other lamin kinase(s) in G2/M phase lamin B phosphorylation. PMID:8034666

  6. Inhibition of Src kinases by a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor causes mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Moasser, M M; Srethapakdi, M; Sachar, K S; Kraker, A J; Rosen, N

    1999-12-15

    src kinase activity is elevated in some human tumors, including breast and colon cancers. The precise cellular function of the src family kinases is not clearly understood, but they appear to be involved in numerous signaling pathways. We studied the effects of PD173955, a novel src family-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on cancer cell lines and found that it has significant antiproliferative activity due to a potent arrest of mitotic progression. The mitotic block occurs after chromosome condensation in prophase, before spindle assembly and without loss of cyclin A and B kinase activities. This effect is seen in cancer cell lines of all types with low or high activities of src kinases as well as in untransformed cell lines. In MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, this drug produces a rapid inhibition of cellular src and yes kinase activities as well as suppression of the mitotic hyperactivity of these kinases. This compound defines a novel class of antimitotic drugs that work through inhibition of src kinases and possibly other protein kinases that are required for progression through the initial phases of mitosis. PMID:10626805

  7. Twitchin kinase interacts with MAPKAP kinase 2 in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yohei; Qadota, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Miho; Choe, Heejoo Helen; Benian, Guy M

    2015-06-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, twitchin is a giant polypeptide located in muscle A-bands. The protein kinase of twitchin is autoinhibited by 45 residues upstream (NL) and 60 residues downstream (CRD) of the kinase catalytic core. Molecular dynamics simulation on a twitchin fragment revealed that the NL is released by pulling force. However, it is unclear how the CRD is removed. To identify proteins that may remove the CRD, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using twitchin kinase as bait. One interactor is MAK-1, C. elegans orthologue of MAPKAP kinase 2. MAPKAP kinase 2 is phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAP kinase. We demonstrate that the CRD of twitchin is important for binding to MAK-1. mak-1 is expressed in nematode body wall muscle, and antibodies to MAK-1 localize between and around Z-disk analogues and to the edge of A-bands. Whereas unc-22 mutants are completely resistant, mak-1 mutants are partially resistant to nicotine. MAK-1 can phosphorylate twitchin NL-Kin-CRD in vitro. Genetic data suggest the involvement of two other mak-1 paralogues and two orthologues of p38 MAP kinase. These results suggest that MAK-1 is an activator of twitchin kinase and that the p38 MAP kinase pathway may be involved in the regulation of twitchin. PMID:25851606

  8. Kinase-interacting substrate screening is a novel method to identify kinase substrates

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Mutsuki; Hamaguchi, Tomonari; Shohag, Md. Hasanuzzaman; Kozawa, Kei; Kato, Katsuhiro; Zhang, Xinjian; Yura, Yoshimitsu; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Kataoka, Chikako; Nishioka, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases play pivotal roles in numerous cellular functions; however, the specific substrates of each protein kinase have not been fully elucidated. We have developed a novel method called kinase-interacting substrate screening (KISS). Using this method, 356 phosphorylation sites of 140 proteins were identified as candidate substrates for Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase/ROCK2), including known substrates. The KISS method was also applied to additional kinases, including PKA, MAPK1, CDK5, CaMK1, PAK7, PKN, LYN, and FYN, and a lot of candidate substrates and their phosphorylation sites were determined, most of which have not been reported previously. Among the candidate substrates for Rho-kinase, several functional clusters were identified, including the polarity-associated proteins, such as Scrib. We found that Scrib plays a crucial role in the regulation of subcellular contractility by assembling into a ternary complex with Rho-kinase and Shroom2 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We propose that the KISS method is a comprehensive and useful substrate screen for various kinases. PMID:26101221

  9. Twitchin kinase interacts with MAPKAP kinase 2 in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Yohei; Qadota, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Miho; Choe, Heejoo (Helen); Benian, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, twitchin is a giant polypeptide located in muscle A-bands. The protein kinase of twitchin is autoinhibited by 45 residues upstream (NL) and 60 residues downstream (CRD) of the kinase catalytic core. Molecular dynamics simulation on a twitchin fragment revealed that the NL is released by pulling force. However, it is unclear how the CRD is removed. To identify proteins that may remove the CRD, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using twitchin kinase as bait. One interactor is MAK-1, C. elegans orthologue of MAPKAP kinase 2. MAPKAP kinase 2 is phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAP kinase. We demonstrate that the CRD of twitchin is important for binding to MAK-1. mak-1 is expressed in nematode body wall muscle, and antibodies to MAK-1 localize between and around Z-disk analogues and to the edge of A-bands. Whereas unc-22 mutants are completely resistant, mak-1 mutants are partially resistant to nicotine. MAK-1 can phosphorylate twitchin NL-Kin-CRD in vitro. Genetic data suggest the involvement of two other mak-1 paralogues and two orthologues of p38 MAP kinase. These results suggest that MAK-1 is an activator of twitchin kinase and that the p38 MAP kinase pathway may be involved in the regulation of twitchin. PMID:25851606

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cells and brain cells in some people and muscle cells in others. Researchers speculate that different PGK1 gene ... hemolysis ; hemolytic anemia ; inheritance ; inherited ; jaundice ; kidney ; kinase ; muscle cells ; mutation ; myoglobin ; myoglobinuria ; neurologic ; pallor ; protein ; recessive ; sex ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... glucose is broken down to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell's main energy source. PKLR gene mutations ... pyruvate kinase enzyme function, causing a shortage of ATP in red blood cells and increased levels of ...

  12. Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlumberger, Martin; Massicotte, Marie-Hélčne; Nascimento, Camila L.; Chougnet, Cécile; Baudin, Eric; Leboulleux, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered. PMID:22584717

  13. Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, Martin; Massicotte, Marie-Hélčne; Nascimento, Camila L; Chougnet, Cécile; Baudin, Eric; Leboulleux, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered. PMID:22584717

  14. Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Barbara; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. There are two paralog catalytic subunits, i.e. alpha (A1) and alpha' (A2). The alpha and alpha' subunits are linked to two beta subunits to produce a heterotetrameric structure. The catalytic alpha subunits are distantly related to the CMGC subfamily of kinases, such as the Cdk kinases. There are some peculiarities associated with protein kinase CK2, which are not found with most other protein kinases: (i) the enzyme is constitutively active, (ii) it can use ATP and GTP and (iii) it is found elevated in most tumors investigated and rapidly proliferating tissues. With the elucidation of the structure of the catalytic subunit, it was possible to explain why the enzyme is constitutively active [1] and why it can bind GTP [2]. Considerable information on the potential roles of CK2 in various disease processes including cancer has been gained in recent years, and the present review may help to further elucidate its aberrant role in many disease states. Its peculiar structural features [3-9] may be advantageous in designing tailor-made compounds with the possibility to specifically target this protein kinase [10]. Since not all the aspects of what has been published on CK2 can be covered in this review, we would like to recommend the following reviews; (i) for general information on CK2 [11-18] and (ii) with a focus on aberrant CK2 [19-22]. PMID:18691045

  15. Mediator kinase module and human tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alison D; Oldenbroek, Marieke; Boyer, Thomas G

    2015-09-01

    Mediator is a conserved multi-subunit signal processor through which regulatory informatiosn conveyed by gene-specific transcription factors is transduced to RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, MED13, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C (CycC) comprise a four-subunit "kinase" module that exists in variable association with a 26-subunit Mediator core. Genetic and biochemical studies have established the Mediator kinase module as a major ingress of developmental and oncogenic signaling through Mediator, and much of its function in signal-dependent gene regulation derives from its resident CDK8 kinase activity. For example, CDK8-targeted substrate phosphorylation impacts transcription factor half-life, Pol II activity and chromatin chemistry and functional status. Recent structural and biochemical studies have revealed a precise network of physical and functional subunit interactions required for proper kinase module activity. Accordingly, pathologic change in this activity through altered expression or mutation of constituent kinase module subunits can have profound consequences for altered signaling and tumor formation. Herein, we review the structural organization, biological function and oncogenic potential of the Mediator kinase module. We focus principally on tumor-associated alterations in kinase module subunits for which mechanistic relationships as opposed to strictly correlative associations are established. These considerations point to an emerging picture of the Mediator kinase module as an oncogenic unit, one in which pathogenic activation/deactivation through component change drives tumor formation through perturbation of signal-dependent gene regulation. It follows that therapeutic strategies to combat CDK8-driven tumors will involve targeted modulation of CDK8 activity or pharmacologic manipulation of dysregulated CDK8-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26182352

  16. Two-dimensional polymeric [Hg4(?2-I)6I2(?2-C4S6)]n

    PubMed Central

    Hameau, Aurélien; Guyon, Fabrice; Knorr, Michael; Colquhoun, Victoria P.; Strohmann, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, poly[(?2-2H,5H-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]di­thiole-2,5-dithione)hexa-?2-iodido-diiodidotetra­mercury(II)], [Hg4I8(C4S6)]n, represents the first example of a coordination polymer assembled by the ?,?-C4S6 dithione ligand. The HgII ions are four-coordinated in a distorted tetra­hedral geometry, the coordination demand being satisfied either by four bridging iodide ligands or by three iodide ligands (one terminal and two bridging) and a thio­carbonyl S atom. Due to the bridging nature of the dithione ligand, the coordination polymer has a two-dimensional structure, built up of undulated layers parallel to (001). There is an inversion center at the mid-point of the central C=C double bond. PMID:21522307

  17. Purine Analogues as Kinase Inhibitors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sahil; Mehndiratta, Samir; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Jagjeet; Bedi, Preet M S; Nepali, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases constitute one of the largest and most functionally diverse gene families that regulate key cell functions. In past several years, kinase inhibition has emerged as potential anti-cancer drug target. Purine is a priveleged heterocyclic nucleus which exists in the chemical architecture of various bioactive compounds. Numerous reports on the use of purine analogues in the treatment of acute leukemias (thiopurines, pentostatin), as antiviral (acyclovir, penciclovir, ganciclovir), as immunosuppressive (azathioprine), as antitumor (vidarabine), as bronchodilator (theophylline) have been revealed. In the past decade, purine analogues have emerged as significantly potent kinase inhibitors. A fair amount of research has been done and several patents have also been published highlighting the kinase inhibitory action of purines. Caffeine, 2-aminopurine, purvalanol-A, seleciclib, FSBA, adenosine thiol analogue possessing purine as the basic moiety fall under this category. In view of the use of purines for the inhibition of kinases, there is need for compilation of data specifying the prominence of purines in the treatment of cancer through this mechanism. The structure of the potent compounds, their IC50 values, models used and the enzymes/ receptors/ targets involved have been presented in this review. The present compilation covers the patents published entailing the purines as kinase inhibitors and the purine drugs employed in chemotherapy. PMID:26081925

  18. Chronic ouabain treatment induces Rho kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Aysun; ?ahan, Gürkan; Demirta?, Ay?egül; Aypar, Eda; Gözübüyük, Gürkan; Turan, Nilüfer Nermin; Ark, Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    Ouabain is an endogenous Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor whose chronic administration induces hypertension. Endogenous ouabain levels increase in human essential hypertension. On the other hand, Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway has been implicated in various animal models of hypertension. In the current work, we evaluated the possible involvement of Rho kinase in ouabain-induced hypertension. Ouabain was administered daily (20 µg/kg, i.p.) to Wistar rats for 6 weeks. After the ouabain treatment, we evaluated the possible changes in vascular responses to KCl and phenylephrine alone and in the presence of Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. We also determined the expressions of ROCKs, Rho A and phosphorylation of myosin binding subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (pMYPT) and activation of Rho A. Agonist-induced contractions in the presence of Y27632 are significantly decreased and Y27632-induced relaxations in aortas precontracted with phenylephrine are significantly enhanced with the chronic treatment of ouabain. Although the expressions of ROCK I and ROCK II remained unchanged, pMYPT expression was significantly increased in ouabain-treated group. Moreover, Rho A expression and activation were decreased after treatment with ouabain. Although Rho kinase expression did not change in aortas, increased basal Rho kinase activation may contribute to the development of ouabain-induced hypertension. Our current data present the first evidence that Rho kinase is involved in the development of ouabain-induced hypertension in rats. PMID:25860025

  19. Tyrosine kinase – Role and significance in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases are important mediators of the signaling cascade, determining key roles in diverse biological processes like growth, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis in response to external and internal stimuli. Recent advances have implicated the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathophysiology of cancer. Though their activity is tightly regulated in normal cells, they may acquire transforming functions due to mutation(s), overexpression and autocrine paracrine stimulation, leading to malignancy. Constitutive oncogenic activation in cancer cells can be blocked by selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors and thus considered as a promising approach for innovative genome based therapeutics. The modes of oncogenic activation and the different approaches for tyrosine kinase inhibition, like small molecule inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, heat shock proteins, immunoconjugates, antisense and peptide drugs are reviewed in light of the important molecules. As angiogenesis is a major event in cancer growth and proliferation, tyrosine kinase inhibitors as a target for anti-angiogenesis can be aptly applied as a new mode of cancer therapy. The review concludes with a discussion on the application of modern techniques and knowledge of the kinome as means to gear up the tyrosine kinase drug discovery process. PMID:15912202

  20. Novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound, (3R,6S)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin, from a strain of Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2005-08-01

    A novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound was isolated from the culture broth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Shimokita 2. The structure of the isolated compound was determined as (3R,6S)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin by means of spectroscopic analyses, the modified Mosher method, and chemical conversion. The compound showed potato micro-tuber-inducing activity at a concentration of 10(-4) M, using the culture of single-node segments of potato stems in vitro. PMID:16116294

  1. Diacylglycerol Kinase Delta Promotes Lipogenesis†

    PubMed Central

    Shulga, Yulia V.; Loukov, Dessi; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Hatch, Grant M.; Umeh, G.; Jalan, Divyanshi; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Topham, Matthew K.; Brown, H. Alex; Epand, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGK?) and lipogenesis. There is a marked increase in the expression of DGK? during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes, as well as in the synthesis of neutral and polar lipids. When 3T3-L1 undifferentiated fibroblasts are transfected to express DGK? there is increased triglyceride synthesis without differentiation to adipocytes. Hence, expression of DGK? promotes lipogenesis. Lipid synthesis is decreased in DGK? knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts, especially for lipids with shorter acyl chains and limited unsaturation. This reduction occurs for both neutral and polar lipids. These findings suggest reduced de novo lipid synthesis. This is confirmed by measuring the incorporation of glycerol into polar and neutral lipids that is higher in the wild type cells than in the DGK? knockouts. In comparison, there was no change in lipid synthesis in DGK? knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts. We also demonstrate that the DGK? knockout cells had a lower expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase as well as a lower degree of activation by phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase. These three enzymes are involved in the synthesis of long chain fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that DGK? markedly increases lipid synthesis, at least in part as a result of promoting the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. PMID:24090246

  2. Proline Scan of the hERG Channel S6 Helix Reveals the Location of the Intracellular Pore Gate

    PubMed Central

    Thouta, Samrat; Sokolov, Stanislav; Abe, Yuki; Clark, Sheldon J.; Cheng, Yen M.; Claydon, Tom W.

    2014-01-01

    In Shaker-like channels, the activation gate is formed at the bundle crossing by the convergence of the inner S6 helices near a conserved proline-valine-proline motif, which introduces a kink that allows for electromechanical coupling with voltage sensor motions via the S4-S5 linker. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels lack the proline-valine-proline motif and the location of the intracellular pore gate and how it is coupled to S4 movement is less clear. Here, we show that proline substitutions within the S6 of hERG perturbed pore gate closure, trapping channels in the open state. Performing a proline scan of the inner S6 helix, from Ile655 to Tyr667 revealed that gate perturbation occurred with proximal (I655P-Q664P), but not distal (R665P-Y667P) substitutions, suggesting that Gln664 marks the position of the intracellular gate in hERG channels. Using voltage-clamp fluorimetry and gating current analysis, we demonstrate that proline substitutions trap the activation gate open by disrupting the coupling between the voltage-sensing unit and the pore of the channel. We characterize voltage sensor movement in one such trapped-open mutant channel and demonstrate the kinetics of what we interpret to be intrinsic hERG voltage sensor movement. PMID:24606930

  3. Effects of methylmercury of protein kinase A and protein kinase C in the mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige ); Katsuyama, Hironobu; Lee, Meyeong Jin; Sumino, Kimiaki )

    1993-11-01

    The effects of methylmercury administration on adenosine 3[prime],5[prime]-cyclic monophyosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) and protein kinase C were investigated by determining their second messenger bindings ([[sup 3]H]cAMP binding for protein kinase A and [[sup 3]H]PDBu for protein kinase C) and enzymatic activities in the brains of methylmercury-treated mice. After single administrations of methylmercury (10 mgHg/kg, sc), no neurological symptoms were observed, while the mercury concentration in the brain reached 5.6 ppm. Neither second messenger bindings nor enzymatic activities of either protein kinase displayed significant changes. When methylmercury was administered repeatedly (10 mgHg/kg x 5), the mercury concentration was 11.7 ppm and the enzymatic activity of protein kinase C was reduced to 75% of the control level without significant change in [[sup 3]H]PDBu binding. Significant change has not been observed in either [[sup 3]H]cAMP binding or enzymatic activity of protein kinase A. The reduction of enzymatic activity of protein kinase C was reversed by the simultaneous administration of selenite (0.5 mgSe/kg x 5). However, the fact that selenite administration alone displayed not a significant but about a 20% increase in [[sup 3]H]PDBu binding suggested that selenite itself could affect the level of protein kinase C despite having no apparent effects on protein kinase C in vitro. Further investigation is necessary to assess whether protein kinase C is involved in the detoxication mechanism of selenite with respect to methylmercury. Since the mercury concentration in the brain was higher than the IC[sub 50]s for both protein kinase A and protein kinase C observed in vitro even after single administration, methylmercury might inhibit both protein kinases, which might impair intracellular signal transduction. This might in part conceal the symptoms during the early stages of methylmercury toxicity. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. MAP kinase stimulation by cAMP does not require RAP1 but SRC family kinases.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Markus; Kudlacek, Oliver; Seidel, Markus G; Freissmuth, Michael; Sexl, Veronika

    2002-09-01

    The small G protein RAP1 and the kinase B-RAF have been proposed to link elevations of cAMP to activation of ERK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. In order to delineate signaling pathways that link receptor-generated cAMP to the activation of MAP kinase, the human A(2A)-adenosine receptor, a prototypical G(s)-coupled receptor, was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (referred as CHO-A(2A) cells). In CHO-A(2A) cells, the stimulation of the A(2A)-receptor resulted in an activation of RAP1 and formation of RAP1-B-RAF complexes. However, overexpression of a RAP1 GTPase-activating protein (RAP1GAP), which efficiently clamped cellular RAP1 in the inactive GDP-bound form, did not affect A(2A)-agonist-mediated MAP kinase stimulation. In contrast, the inhibitor of protein kinase A H89 efficiently suppressed A(2A)-agonist-mediated MAP kinase stimulation. Neither dynamin-dependent receptor internalization nor receptor-promoted shedding of matrix-bound growth factors accounted for A(2A)-receptor-dependent MAP kinase activation. PP1, an inhibitor of SRC family kinases, blunted both the A(2A)-receptor- and the forskolin-induced MAP kinase stimulation (IC(50) = 50 nm); this was also seen in PC12 cells, which express the A(2A)-receptor endogenously, and in NIH3T3 fibroblasts, in which cAMP causes MAP kinase stimulation. In the corresponding murine fibroblast cell line SYF, which lacks the ubiquitously expressed SRC family kinases SRC, YES, and FYN, forskolin barely stimulated MAP kinase; this reduction was reversed in cells in which c-SRC had been reintroduced. These findings show that activation of MAP kinase by cAMP requires a SRC family kinase that lies downstream of protein kinase A. A role for RAP1, as documented for the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, is apparently contingent on receptor endocytosis. PMID:12082090

  5. Identification of a kinase profile that predicts chromosome damage induced by small molecule kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Olaharski, Andrew J; Gonzaludo, Nina; Bitter, Hans; Goldstein, David; Kirchner, Stephan; Uppal, Hirdesh; Kolaja, Kyle

    2009-07-01

    Kinases are heavily pursued pharmaceutical targets because of their mechanistic role in many diseases. Small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs) are a compound class that includes marketed drugs and compounds in various stages of drug development. While effective, many SMKIs have been associated with toxicity including chromosomal damage. Screening for kinase-mediated toxicity as early as possible is crucial, as is a better understanding of how off-target kinase inhibition may give rise to chromosomal damage. To that end, we employed a competitive binding assay and an analytical method to predict the toxicity of SMKIs. Specifically, we developed a model based on the binding affinity of SMKIs to a panel of kinases to predict whether a compound tests positive for chromosome damage. As training data, we used the binding affinity of 113 SMKIs against a representative subset of all kinases (290 kinases), yielding a 113x290 data matrix. Additionally, these 113 SMKIs were tested for genotoxicity in an in vitro micronucleus test (MNT). Among a variety of models from our analytical toolbox, we selected using cross-validation a combination of feature selection and pattern recognition techniques: Kolmogorov-Smirnov/T-test hybrid as a univariate filter, followed by Random Forests for feature selection and Support Vector Machines (SVM) for pattern recognition. Feature selection identified 21 kinases predictive of MNT. Using the corresponding binding affinities, the SVM could accurately predict MNT results with 85% accuracy (68% sensitivity, 91% specificity). This indicates that kinase inhibition profiles are predictive of SMKI genotoxicity. While in vitro testing is required for regulatory review, our analysis identified a fast and cost-efficient method for screening out compounds earlier in drug development. Equally important, by identifying a panel of kinases predictive of genotoxicity, we provide medicinal chemists a set of kinases to avoid when designing compounds, thereby providing a basis for rational drug design away from genotoxicity. PMID:19629159

  6. Co-inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and Aurora kinases promotes mitotic catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Hong, Myung Jin; Chow, Jeremy P.H.; Man, Wing Yu; Mak, Joyce P.Y.; Ma, Hoi Tang; Poon, Randy Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Mitosis is choreographed by a number of protein kinases including polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases. As these kinases are frequently dysregulated in cancers, small-molecule inhibitors have been developed for targeted anticancer therapies. Given that PLK1 and Aurora kinases possess both unique functions as well as co-regulate multiple mitotic events, whether pharmacological inhibition of these kinases together can enhance mitotic catastrophe remains an outstanding issue to be determined. Using concentrations of inhibitors that did not induce severe mitotic defects on their own, we found that both the metaphase arrest and mitotic slippage induced by inhibitors targeting Aurora A and Aurora B (MK-5108 and Barasertib respectively) were enhanced by a PLK1 inhibitor (BI 2536). We found that PLK1 is overexpressed in cells from nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a highly invasive cancer with poor prognosis, in comparison to normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were more sensitive to BI 2536 as a single agent and co-inhibition with Aurora kinases than normal cells. These observations underscore the mechanism and potential benefits of targeting PLK1 and Aurora kinases to induce mitotic catastrophe in cancer cells. PMID:25871386

  7. Protein Kinase C and Src Family Kinases Mediate Angiotensin II-Induced Protein Kinase D Activation and Acute Aldosterone Production

    PubMed Central

    Olala, Lawrence O.; Shapiro, Brian A.; Merchen, Todd C.; Wynn, James J.; Bollag, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown a role for the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) in the regulation of acute aldosterone secretion upon angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation. However, the mechanism by which AngII activates PKD remains unclear. In this study, using both pharmacological and molecular approaches, we demonstrate that AngII-induced PKD activation is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) and Src family kinases in primary bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells and leads to increased aldosterone production. The pan PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 and the Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-1 inhibited both PKD activation and acute aldosterone production. Additionally, like the dominant-negative serine-738/742-to-alanine PKD mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PKC, the dominant-negative tyrosine-463-tophenylalanine PKD mutant, which is not phosphorylatable by the Src/Abl pathway, inhibited acute AngII-induced aldosterone production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AngII activates PKD via a mechanism involving Src family kinases and PKC, to underlie increased aldosterone production. PMID:24859649

  8. Self-incompatibility (S) locus region of the mutated S6-haplotype of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) contains a functional pollen S allele and a non-functional pistil S allele.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

    2003-11-01

    This study characterizes the S6m-haplotype, a mutated S6-haplotype with an altered HindIII cut site, of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus). Inheritance and pollination studies of S-haplotypes from reciprocal crosses between 'Erdi Botermo' (EB; S4S6mSa) and 'Rheinische Schattenmorelle' (RS; S6SaSbSc) revealed that the S6m-haplotype conferred unilateral incompatibility with a non-functional pistil component and a functional pollen component. Expression analyses of S6-RNase and SFB6, a candidate gene for pollen-S, in the S6m-haplotype showed that SFB6 was transcribed in EB pollen, but S6-RNase was not transcribed in EB styles. These results were consistent with data from the inheritance and pollination studies. Inverse PCR for the flanking regions of S6-RNase in the S6- and S6m-haplotypes revealed an approximately 2600 bp insertion present at approximately 800 bp upstream of the S6-RNase in the S6m-haplotype, which is responsible for the alternation of the HindIII cut site and a possible cause of inhibition of the transcription of S6-RNase. SFB6 was present downstream of S6-RNase in both the S6- and S6m-haplotypes and expressed in the same way, supporting the idea that SFB is a good candidate for pollen-S in Prunus. PMID:14512382

  9. The protein interaction landscape of the human CMGC kinase group.

    PubMed

    Varjosalo, Markku; Keskitalo, Salla; Van Drogen, Audrey; Nurkkala, Helka; Vichalkovski, Anton; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias

    2013-04-25

    Cellular information processing via reversible protein phosphorylation requires tight control of the localization, activity, and substrate specificity of protein kinases, which to a large extent is accomplished by complex formation with other proteins. Despite their critical role in cellular regulation and pathogenesis, protein interaction information is available for only a subset of the 518 human protein kinases. Here we present a global proteomic analysis of complexes of the human CMGC kinase group. In addition to subgroup-specific functional enrichment and modularity, the identified 652 high-confidence kinase-protein interactions provide a specific biochemical context for many poorly studied CMGC kinases. Furthermore, the analysis revealed a kinase-kinase subnetwork and candidate substrates for CMGC kinases. Finally, the presented interaction proteome uncovered a large set of interactions with proteins genetically linked to a range of human diseases, including cancer, suggesting additional routes for analyzing the role of CMGC kinases in controlling human disease pathways. PMID:23602568

  10. The survival kinases Akt and Pim as potential pharmacological targets

    PubMed Central

    Amaravadi, Ravi; Thompson, Craig B.

    2005-01-01

    The Akt and Pim kinases are cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinases that control programmed cell death by phosphorylating substrates that regulate both apoptosis and cellular metabolism. The PI3K-dependent activation of the Akt kinases and the JAK/STAT–dependent induction of the Pim kinases are examples of partially overlapping survival kinase pathways. Pharmacological manipulation of such kinases could have a major impact on the treatment of a wide variety of human diseases including cancer, inflammatory disorders, and ischemic diseases. PMID:16200194

  11. X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia; Burke, James; Chang, ChiehYing Y.; Gao, Mian; Tino, Joseph; Xie, Dianlin; Tebben, Andrew J.

    2012-06-27

    Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-ordered protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.

  12. IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaR) cross-linking recruits tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide kinases and serine/threonine kinases to glycolipid rafts.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Mark L; Chen, Yih-Wen; Shen, Li; Gao, Hong; Lang, Gillian A; Wade, Terri K; Wade, William F

    2002-01-01

    The human IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaR, CD89) triggers several important physiological functions, including phagocytosis, NADPH oxidase activation and antigen presentation. Efforts are underway to delineate FcalphaR signal-transduction pathways that control these functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that cross-linking of FcalphaR increased its partitioning into membrane glycolipid rafts and was accompanied by gamma-chain-dependent recruitment and phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinases Lck/Yes-related novel protein tyrosine kinase (Lyn) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Here we have performed a more extensive characterization of signalling effectors recruited to rafts on FcalphaR cross-linking. We demonstrate that in addition to tyrosine kinases Lyn and Btk, FcalphaR cross-linking also recruits B-lymphocyte kinase (Blk) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to rafts. We show recruitment of phosphoinositide kinases, including 3-phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase Cgamma2, and serine/threonine kinases such as protein kinase C (PKC) alpha, PKCepsilon, and protein kinase B (PKB) alpha. This suggests that lipid rafts serve as sites for FcalphaR-triggered recruitment of multiple classes of signalling effectors. We further demonstrate that tyrosine kinases and PKCalpha have a sustained association with rafts, whereas phosphoinositide 3-kinase and its downstream effectors have a transient association with rafts. This is consistent with temporally regulated divergence of FcalphaR signalling pathways in rafts. Furthermore, we suggest the spatial separation of signalling effectors by transport of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, PKBalpha and PKCepsilon to endocytic compartments containing internalized FcalphaR. PMID:12023895

  13. Allosteric small-molecule kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Clausen, Mads H; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    Small-molecule kinase inhibitors are invaluable targeted therapeutics for the treatment of various human diseases, especially cancers. While the majority of approved and developed preclinical small-molecule inhibitors are characterized as type I or type II inhibitors that target the ATP-binding pocket of kinases, the remarkable sequential and structural similarity among ATP pockets renders the selective inhibition of kinases a daunting challenge. Therefore, targeting allosteric pockets of kinases outside the highly conversed ATP pocket has been proposed as a promising alternative to overcome current barriers of kinase inhibitors, including poor selectivity and emergence of drug resistance. In spite of the small number of identified allosteric inhibitors in comparison with that of inhibitors targeting the ATP pocket, encouraging results, such as the FDA-approval of the first small-molecule allosteric inhibitor trametinib in 2013, the progress of more than 10 other allosteric inhibitors in clinical trials, and the emergence of a pipeline of highly selective and potent preclinical molecules, have been reported in the past decade. In this article, we present the current knowledge on allosteric inhibition in terms of conception, classification, potential advantages, and summarized debatable topics in the field. Recent progress and allosteric inhibitors that were identified in the past three years are highlighted in this paper. PMID:26478442

  14. Dietary resveratrol prevents development of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplastic lesions: involvement of SIRT1/S6K axis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiming; Rivas, Paul; Bedolla, Roble; Thapa, Dinesh; Reddick, Robert L; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki P

    2013-01-01

    SIRT1 (mammalian ortholog of the yeast silent information regulator 2) is a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase belonging to the multigene family of sirtuins. Anecdotal and epidemiologic observations provide evidence for beneficial effects of the calorie restriction mimetic resveratrol (RES), a SIRT1 activator in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Although SIRT1 possesses both tumorigenic and antitumorigenic potential, the molecular mechanisms underlying SIRT1-mediated tumor progression or inhibition are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1 in multiple human prostate cancer cell lines and prostate-specific PTEN knockout mouse model using resveratrol. Androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines (C42B, PC3, and DU145) express higher levels of SIRT1 than androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and nontumorigenic prostate cells (RWPE-1). Resveratrol enhanced this expression without any significant effect on SIRT1 enzymatic activity. Inhibition of SIRT1 expression using shRNA enhanced cell proliferation and inhibited autophagy by repressing phosphorylation of S6K and 4E-BP1. These biologic correlates were reversed in the presence of resveratrol. Analysis of prostates from dietary intervention with resveratrol showed a significant reduction in prostate weight and reduction in the incidence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplastic (HGPIN) lesions by approximately 54% with no significant change in body weight. Consistent with the in vitro findings, resveratrol intervention in the PTEN knockout mouse model was associated with reduction in the prostatic levels of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity and increased expression of SIRT1. These data suggest that SIRT1/S6K-mediated inhibition of autophagy drives prostate tumorigenesis. Therefore, modulation of SIRT1/S6K signaling represents an effective strategy for prostate cancer prevention. PMID:23248098

  15. On the phase transitions of 8CB/Sn2P2S6 liquid crystal nanocolloids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Douali, R; Dubois, F; Segovia-Mera, A; Daoudi, A

    2015-09-01

    Using differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the influence of Sn2P2S6 ferroelectric nanoparticles on the phase transition temperatures of the 8CB liquid crystal is studied. The spontaneous polarization, ionic and anchoring effects are discussed. For low concentration of dopant, the global effect leads to a decrease and an increase of the nematic-isotropic and the smectic A-nematic phase transition temperatures, respectively. For high concentrations, due to aggregates formation, the predominant anchoring effect induces a decrease of the both phase transition temperatures. PMID:26410848

  16. (S)-6-Bromo-BINOL-based phosphoramidite ligand with C(1) symmetry for enantioselective hydrogenation and allylic substitution.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Konstantin N; Benetsky, Eduard B; Boyko, Vladimir E; Rastorguev, Eugenie A; Davankov, Vadim A; Schäffner, Benjamin; Börner, Armin

    2010-10-01

    (S)-6-Br-BINOL-derived phosphoramidite, a simple monodentate ligand with a stereogenic center at the phosphorus atom, was synthesized for the first time. This stereoselector generated a high level of enantioselectivity (80-95% ee) in the rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation of alpha-dehydrocarboxylic acid esters and was also successfully employed in the asymmetric palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate. The optical yield also showed significant dependence with reaction type: up to 70% ee for allylic amination, up to 75% ee for allylic sulfonylation, and up to 90% ee for allylic alkylation. PMID:20803749

  17. Genetic and Pharmacological Inhibition of PDK1 in Cancer Cells: Characterization of a Selective Allosteric Kinase Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, Kumiko; Shumway, Stuart D.; Sathyanarayanan, Sriram; Chen, Albert H.; Dolinski, Brian; Xu, Youyuan; Keilhack, Heike; Nguyen, Thi; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Li, Lixia; Lutterbach, Bart A.; Chi, An; Paweletz, Cloud; Allison, Timothy; Yan, Youwei; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Klippel, Anke; Kraus, Manfred; Bobkova, Ekaterina V.; Deshmukh, Sujal; Xu, Zangwei; Mueller, Uwe; Szewczak, Alexander A.; Pan, Bo-Sheng; Richon, Victoria; Pollock, Roy; Blume-Jensen, Peter; Northrup, Alan; Andersen, Jannik N.

    2013-11-20

    Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is a critical activator of multiple prosurvival and oncogenic protein kinases and has garnered considerable interest as an oncology drug target. Despite progress characterizing PDK1 as a therapeutic target, pharmacological support is lacking due to the prevalence of nonspecific inhibitors. Here, we benchmark literature and newly developed inhibitors and conduct parallel genetic and pharmacological queries into PDK1 function in cancer cells. Through kinase selectivity profiling and x-ray crystallographic studies, we identify an exquisitely selective PDK1 inhibitor (compound 7) that uniquely binds to the inactive kinase conformation (DFG-out). In contrast to compounds 1-5, which are classical ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors (DFG-in), compound 7 specifically inhibits cellular PDK1 T-loop phosphorylation (Ser-241), supporting its unique binding mode. Interfering with PDK1 activity has minimal antiproliferative effect on cells growing as plastic-attached monolayer cultures (i.e. standard tissue culture conditions) despite reduced phosphorylation of AKT, RSK, and S6RP. However, selective PDK1 inhibition impairs anchorage-independent growth, invasion, and cancer cell migration. Compound 7 inhibits colony formation in a subset of cancer cell lines (four of 10) and primary xenograft tumor lines (nine of 57). RNAi-mediated knockdown corroborates the PDK1 dependence in cell lines and identifies candidate biomarkers of drug response. In summary, our profiling studies define a uniquely selective and cell-potent PDK1 inhibitor, and the convergence of genetic and pharmacological phenotypes supports a role of PDK1 in tumorigenesis in the context of three-dimensional in vitro culture systems.

  18. Exploring the scaffold universe of kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The scaffold concept was applied to systematically determine, analyze, and compare core structures of kinase inhibitors. From publicly available inhibitors of the human kinome, scaffolds and cyclic skeletons were systematically extracted and organized taking activity data, structural relationships, and retrosynthetic criteria into account. Scaffold coverage varied greatly across the kinome, and many scaffolds representing compounds with different activity profiles were identified. The majority of kinase inhibitor scaffolds were involved in well-defined yet distinct structural relationships, which had different consequences on compound activity. Scaffolds exclusively representing highly potent compounds were identified as well as structurally analogous scaffolds with very different degrees of promiscuity. Scaffold relationships presented herein suggest a variety of hypotheses for inhibitor design. Our detailed organization of the kinase inhibitor scaffold universe with respect to different activity and structural criteria, all scaffolds, and the original compound data assembled for our analysis are made freely available. PMID:25192260

  19. Rho kinase inhibitors for glaucoma treatment - Review.

    PubMed

    Germano, Renato Antunes Schiave; Finzi, Simone; Challa, Pratap; Susanna Junior, Remo

    2015-12-01

    Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by the loss of ganglion cells and their axons. A major risk factor for glaucomatous visual field loss is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and several studies have shown that lowering IOP reduces the risk of glaucomatous progression. Currently, an increasing number of researches involve Rho kinase inhibitors, which are a new pharmacological class of hypotensive agents specifically targeting the diseased trabecular outflow pathway. Rho kinase inhibitors reduce IOP by increasing aqueous humor drainage through the primary outflow pathway in the eye, which is known as the trabecular meshwork. In addition to improving the outflow facility of the trabecular meshwork, Rho kinase inhibitors also enhance retinal ganglion cell survival after ischemic injury and increase ocular blood flow. PMID:26677046

  20. Crystal structure of human nicotinamide riboside kinase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed A; Xiang, Song; Tong, Liang

    2007-08-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD(+) as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 A resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 A resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel beta sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations. PMID:17698003

  1. Control of meristem development by CLAVATA1 receptor kinase and kinase-associated protein phosphatase interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.M.; Walker, J.C.; Trotochaud, A.E.; Clark, S.E.

    1998-08-01

    The CLAVATA1 (CLV1) gene encodes a putative receptor kinase required for the proper balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in Arabidopsis shoot and flower meristems. Impaired CLV1 signaling results in masses of undifferentiated cells at the shoot and floral meristems. Although many putative receptor kinases have been identified in plants, the mechanism of signal transduction mediated by plant receptor-like kinases is largely unknown. One potential effector of receptor kinase signaling is kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP), a protein that binds to multiple plant receptor-like kinases in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. To examine a possible role for KAPP in CLV1-dependent plant development, the interaction of CLV1 and KAPP was investigated in vitro and in vivo. KAPP binds directly to autophosphorylated CLV1 in vitro and co-immunoprecipitates with CLV1 in plant extracts derived from meristematic tissue. Reduction of KAPP transcript accumulation in an intermediate clv1 mutant suppresses the mutant phenotype, and the degree of suppression is inversely correlated with KAPP mRNA levels. These data suggest that KAPP functions as a negative regulator of CLV1 signaling in plant development. This may represent a general model for the interaction of KAPP with receptor kinases.

  2. Lysophosphatidic acid is a major serum noncytokine survival factor for murine macrophages which acts via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Koh, J S; Lieberthal, W; Heydrick, S; Levine, J S

    1998-08-15

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the smallest and structurally simplest of all the glycerophospholipids. It occurs normally in serum and binds with high affinity to albumin, while retaining its biological activity. The effects of LPA are pleiotropic and range from mitogenesis to stress fiber formation. We show a novel role for LPA: as a macrophage survival factor with potency equivalent to serum. Administration of LPA protects macrophages from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation, and protection is equivalent to that with conventional survival factors such as macrophage colony stimulating factor. The ability of LPA to act as a survival factor is mediated by the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), since LPA activated both the p85-p110 and p110gamma isoforms of PI3K and macrophage survival was blocked completely by wortmannin or LY294002, two mechanistically dissimilar inhibitors of PI3K. pp70(s6k), a downstream kinase activated by PI3K, also contributes to survival, because inhibitors of pp70(s6k), such as rapamycin, blocked macrophage survival in the presence of LPA. Modified forms of LPA and phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, had no survival effect, thereby showing the specificity of LPA. These results show that LPA acts as a potent macrophage survival factor. Based on striking similarities between our LPA and serum data, we suggest that LPA is a major noncytokine survival factor in serum. PMID:9710440

  3. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  4. Crystal structure of human muscle creatine kinase

    E-print Network

    Shen, Yue-quan; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Lin, Zheng-jiong

    2001-08-01

    (Muhlebach et al., 1994) and they have high amino-acid sequence identity. Since 1996, several creatine kinase crystal struc- tures have been solved, including mitochondrial CK from sarcomas (sMtCK; Fritz- Wolf et al., 1996), MM-type CK from rabbit (RCK; Rao... of rabbit muscle creatine kinase determined at 2.4 A Ę (Rao et al., 1998) with high sequence identity (?96%) was selected as a search model. Residues with discrepant sequences were replaced with alanine. In the early stage of the molecular replacement...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pantothenate kinase 2. This enzyme is active in mitochondria, the energy-producing centers within cells, where it ... associated neurodegeneration. Because pantothenate kinase 2 functions in mitochondria, the signs and symptoms of this condition may ...

  6. AGCVIII Kinases: at the crossroads of cellular signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AGCVIII kinases regulate diverse developmental and cellular processes in plants. As putative mediators of secondary messengers, AGCVIII kinases potentially integrate developmental and environmental cues into specific cellular responses through substrate phosphorylation. Here we discuss the functiona...

  7. Huaier Extract Induces Autophagic Cell Death by Inhibiting the mTOR/S6K Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaming; Zhang, Ning; Dong, Lun; Sun, Mingjuan; Cun, Jinjing; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Shangge; Yang, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    Huaier extract is attracting increased attention due to its biological activities, including antitumor, anti-parasite and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in Huaier-induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Huaier treatment inhibited cell viability in all three cell lines and induced various large membranous vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In addition, electron microscopy, MDC staining, accumulated expression of autophagy markers and flow cytometry revealed that Huaier extract triggered autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy attenuated Huaier-induced cell death. Furthermore, Huaier extract inhibited the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K pathway in breast cancer cells. After implanting MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously into the right flank of BALB/c nu/nu mice, Huaier extract induced autophagy and effectively inhibited xenograft tumor growth. This study is the first to show that Huaier-induced cytotoxicity is partially mediated through autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells through suppression of the mTOR/S6K pathway. PMID:26134510

  8. The mechanism and function of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by ARF1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fuguo; Dong, Chunmin; Davis, Jason E; Wu, William H; Surrao, Kristen; Wu, Guangyu

    2015-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) can be activated by a number of biochemical pathways through distinct signaling molecules. We have recently revealed a novel function for the Ras-like small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) in mediating the activation of Raf1-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway by G protein-coupled receptors [Dong C, Li C and Wu G (2011) J Biol Chem 286, 43,361-43,369]. Here, we have further defined the underlying mechanism and the possible function of ARF1-mediated MAPK pathway. We demonstrated that the blockage of ARF1 activation and the disruption of ARF1 localization to the Golgi by mutating Thr48, a highly conserved residue involved in the exchange of GDP for GTP, and the myristoylation site Gly2 abolished ARF1's ability to activate ERK1/2. In addition, treatment with Golgi structure disrupting agents markedly attenuated ARF1-mediated ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, ARF1 significantly promoted cell proliferation. More interestingly, ARF1 activated 90kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) without influencing Elk-1 activation and ERK2 translocation to the nuclei. These data demonstrate that, once activated, ARF1 activates the MAPK pathway likely using the Golgi as a main platform, which in turn activates the cytoplasmic RSK1, leading to cell proliferation. PMID:26169956

  9. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Matthew S.; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1 pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing.

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çak?r, Birsen; K?l?çkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  11. Problem-Solving Test: "In Vitro" Protein Kinase A Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is an important mechanism in the regulation of protein activity. Among hundreds of protein kinases present in human cells, PKA, the first kinase discovered, belongs to the most important and best characterized group of these enzymes. The author presents an experiment that analyzes the "in vitro"…

  12. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  13. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  14. The crystal structure of choline kinase reveals a eukaryotic protein kinase fold

    SciTech Connect

    Peisach, D.; Gee, P.; Kent, K.; Xu, Z.

    2010-03-08

    Choline kinase catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of choline, the first committed step in the CDP-choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of a choline kinase from C. elegans (CKA-2) reveals that the enzyme is a homodimeric protein with each monomer organized into a two-domain fold. The structure is remarkably similar to those of protein kinases and aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, despite no significant similarity in amino acid sequence. Comparisons to the structures of other kinases suggest that ATP binds to CKA-2 in a pocket formed by highly conserved and catalytically important residues. In addition, a choline binding site is proposed to be near the ATP binding pocket and formed by several structurally flexible loops.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is a target for selective kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Kayode K; Larson, Eric T; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Castaneda, Lisa J; DeRocher, Amy E; Inampudi, Krishna K; Kim, Jessica E; Arakaki, Tracy L; Murphy, Ryan C; Zhang, Li; Napuli, Alberto J; Maly, Dustin J; Verlinde, Christophe LMJ; Buckner, Frederick S; Parsons, Marilyn; Hol, Wim GJ; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2010-01-01

    New drugs are needed to treat toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinases (TgCDPKs) are attractive targets because they are absent in mammals. We show that TgCDPK1 is inhibited by low nanomolar levels of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), compounds designed to be inactive against mammalian kinases. Cocrystal structures of TgCDPK1 with BKIs confirm that the structural basis for selectivity is due to the unique glycine gatekeeper residue in the ATP-binding site at residue 128. We show that BKIs interfere with an early step in T. gondii infection of human cells in culture. Furthermore, we show that TgCDPK1 is the in vivo target of BKIs because T. gondii cells expressing a glycine to methionine gatekeeper mutant enzyme show significantly decreased sensitivity to this class of selective kinase inhibitors. Thus, design of selective TgCDPK1 inhibitors with low host toxicity may be achievable. PMID:20436472

  16. Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) suppresses osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Otsuki, Dai; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Higuchi, Chikahisa

    2015-09-01

    The Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases has been shown to play a key role in inflammation and bone destruction. Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been the most widely studied because of its critical role in B cells. Furthermore, recent evidence has demonstrated that blocking Btk signaling is effective in ameliorating lymphoma progression and experimental arthritis. The role of Btk in osteoblastic differentiation has not been well elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated the role of Btk in osteoblastic differentiation and investigated the effects of a Btk inhibitor on osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, primary calvarial osteoblasts, and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. Btk expression was detected in all three cell lines. Btk inhibition stimulated mRNA expression of osteoblastic markers (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osterix) and promoted mineralization of the extracellular matrix. In addition, Btk knockdown caused increased mRNA expression of osteoblastic markers. Furthermore, Btk inhibition suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B), and protein kinase C? (PKC?). Our results indicate that Btk may regulate osteoblastic differentiation through the MAPK, NF?B, and PKC? signaling pathways. PMID:25230818

  17. Monoclonal antibodies against Xenopus greatwall kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Fisher, Laura A; Wahl, James K; Peng, Aimin

    2011-10-01

    Mitosis is known to be regulated by protein kinases, including MPF, Plk1, Aurora kinases, and so on, which become active in M-phase and phosphorylate a wide range of substrates to control multiple aspects of mitotic entry, progression, and exit. Mechanistic investigations of these kinases not only provide key insights into cell cycle regulation, but also hold great promise for cancer therapy. Recent studies, largely in Xenopus, characterized a new mitotic kinase named Greatwall (Gwl) that plays essential roles in both mitotic entry and maintenance. In this study, we generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Xenopus Gwl and characterized these antibodies for their utility in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunodepletion in Xenopus egg extracts. Importantly, we generated an MAb that is capable of neutralizing endogenous Gwl. The addition of this antibody into M-phase extracts results in loss of mitotic phosphorylation of Gwl, Plk1, and Cdk1 substrates. These results illustrate a new tool to study loss-of-function of Gwl, and support its essential role in mitosis. Finally, we demonstrated the usefulness of the MAb against human Gwl/MASTL. PMID:22008075

  18. Physiological relevance of cell cycle kinases.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Marcos

    2011-07-01

    The basic biology of the cell division cycle and its control by protein kinases was originally studied through genetic and biochemical studies in yeast and other model organisms. The major regulatory mechanisms identified in this pioneer work are conserved in mammals. However, recent studies in different cell types or genetic models are now providing a new perspective on the function of these major cell cycle regulators in different tissues. Here, we review the physiological relevance of mammalian cell cycle kinases such as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), Aurora and Polo-like kinases, and mitotic checkpoint regulators (Bub1, BubR1, and Mps1) as well as other less-studied enzymes such as Cdc7, Nek proteins, or Mastl and their implications in development, tissue homeostasis, and human disease. Among these functions, the control of self-renewal or asymmetric cell division in stem/progenitor cells and the ability to regenerate injured tissues is a central issue in current research. In addition, many of these proteins play previously unexpected roles in metabolism, cardiovascular function, or neuron biology. The modulation of their enzymatic activity may therefore have multiple therapeutic benefits in human disease. PMID:21742793

  19. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    London, Cheryl A

    2009-08-01

    Substantial progress in the field of molecular biology has permitted the identification of key abnormalities in cancer cells involving cell proteins that regulate signal transduction, cell survival, and cell proliferation. Such abnormalities often involve a class of proteins called tyrosine kinases that act to phosphorylate other proteins in the cell, tightly regulating a variety of cellular processes. A variety of small molecule inhibitors that target specific tyrosine kinases (known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors [TKIs]) have now been approved for the treatment of human cancer, and it is likely many more will become available in the near future. In some instances these inhibitors have exhibited significant clinical efficacy, and it is likely their biologic activity will be further enhanced as combination regimens with standard treatment modalities are explored. Although TKIs have been used extensively in humans, their application to cancers in dogs and cats is relatively recent. The TKIs Palladia (toceranib), Kinavet (masitinib), and Gleevec (imatinib) have been successfully used in dogs, and more recently Gleevec in cats. This article will review the biology of tyrosine kinase dysfunction in human and animal cancers, and the application of specific TKIs to veterinary cancer patients. PMID:19732728

  20. A Novel Mechanism of Modulation of Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channels by Src Kinase*S

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    by Src Kinase*S Received for publication, June 16, 2005, and in revised form, August 2, 2005 Published and binding of cAMP. Here, we identify tyrosine phosphorylation by Src kinase as another mechanism affecting. Replacement of this tyrosine by phenylalanine in HCN2 or HCN4 abolished sensitivity to Src inhibitors. Mass

  1. Asymmetric Tyrosine Kinase Arrangements in Activation or Autophosphorylation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    J Bae; J Schlessinger

    2011-12-31

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play important roles in the control of many cellular processes including cell proliferation, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Ligand-induced dimerization of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation and activation of RTKs. Structural studies have shown that while isolated ectodomains of several RTKs form symmetric dimers the isolated cytoplasmic kinase domains of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) form asymmetric dimers during their activation. Binding of one kinase molecule of EGFR to a second kinase molecule asymmetrically leads to stimulation of kinase activity and enhanced autophosphorylation. Furthermore, the structures of the kinase domain of FGFR1 and FGFR2 reveal the formation of asymmetric interfaces in the processes of autophosphorylation at their specific phosphotyrosine (pY) sites. Disruption of asymmetric dimer interface of EGFR leads to reduction in enzymatic activity and drastic reduction of autophosphorylation of FGFRs in ligandstimulated live cells. These studies demonstrate that asymmetric dimer formation is as a common phenomenon critical for activation and autophosphorylation of RTKs.

  2. Characterization of kinase inhibitors using different phosphorylation states of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daisuke; Gouda, Masaki; Kirii, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Ishihama, Yasushi; Fujii, Ikuo; Narumi, Yugo; Akita, Kensaku; Yokota, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is known that some kinase inhibitors are sensitive to the phosphorylation state of the kinase, and therefore those compounds can discriminate between a phosphorylated and unphosphorylated protein. In this study, we prepared two colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) tyrosine kinase proteins: one highly phosphorylated by autophosphorylation and the other dephosphorylated by phosphatase treatment. These kinases were subjected to an activity-based assay to investigate the effect of their phosphorylation state on the potency of several kinase inhibitors. Dasatinib, sorafenib, PD173074 and staurosporine showed similar inhibition against different phosphorylation states of CSF-1R, but pazopanib, sunitinib, GW2580 and imatinib showed more potent inhibition against dephosphorylated CSF-1R. Binding analysis of the inhibitors to the two different phosphorylation forms of CSF-1R, using surface plasmon resonance spectrometry, revealed that staurosporine bound to both forms with similar affinity, but sunitinib bound to the dephosphorylated form with higher affinity. Thus, these observations suggest that sunitinib binds preferentially to the inactive form, preventing the activation of CSF-1R. Screening against different activation states of kinases should be an important approach for prioritizing compounds and should facilitate inhibitor design. PMID:21880693

  3. A Novel Mode of Protein Kinase Inhibition Exploiting Hydrophobic Motifs of Autoinhibited Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    S Eathiraj; R Palma; M Hirschi; E Volckova; E Nakuci; J Castro; C Chen; T Chan; D France; M Ashwell

    2011-12-31

    Protein kinase inhibitors with enhanced selectivity can be designed by optimizing binding interactions with less conserved inactive conformations because such inhibitors will be less likely to compete with ATP for binding and therefore may be less impacted by high intracellular concentrations of ATP. Analysis of the ATP-binding cleft in a number of inactive protein kinases, particularly in the autoinhibited conformation, led to the identification of a previously undisclosed non-polar region in this cleft. This ATP-incompatible hydrophobic region is distinct from the previously characterized hydrophobic allosteric back pocket, as well as the main pocket. Generalized hypothetical models of inactive kinases were constructed and, for the work described here, we selected the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase family as a case study. Initial optimization of a FGFR2 inhibitor identified from a library of commercial compounds was guided using structural information from the model. We describe the inhibitory characteristics of this compound in biophysical, biochemical, and cell-based assays, and have characterized the binding mode using x-ray crystallographic studies. The results demonstrate, as expected, that these inhibitors prevent activation of the autoinhibited conformation, retain full inhibitory potency in the presence of physiological concentrations of ATP, and have favorable inhibitory activity in cancer cells. Given the widespread regulation of kinases by autoinhibitory mechanisms, the approach described herein provides a new paradigm for the discovery of inhibitors by targeting inactive conformations of protein kinases.

  4. A Complex Containing SNF1-Related Kinase (SnRK1) and Adenosine Kinase in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mohannath, Gireesha; Jackel, Jamie N.; Lee, Youn Hyung; Buchmann, R. Cody; Wang, Hui; Patil, Veena; Adams, Allie K.; Bisaro, David M.

    2014-01-01

    SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) in plants belongs to a conserved family that includes sucrose non-fermenting 1 kinase (SNF1) in yeast and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in animals. These kinases play important roles in the regulation of cellular energy homeostasis and in response to stresses that deplete ATP, they inhibit energy consuming anabolic pathways and promote catabolism. Energy stress is sensed by increased AMP:ATP ratios and in plants, 5?-AMP inhibits inactivation of phosphorylated SnRK1 by phosphatase. In previous studies, we showed that geminivirus pathogenicity proteins interact with both SnRK1 and adenosine kinase (ADK), which phosphorylates adenosine to generate 5?-AMP. This suggested a relationship between SnRK1 and ADK, which we investigate in the studies described here. We demonstrate that SnRK1 and ADK physically associate in the cytoplasm, and that SnRK1 stimulates ADK in vitro by an unknown, non-enzymatic mechanism. Further, altering SnRK1 or ADK activity in transgenic plants altered the activity of the other kinase, providing evidence for in vivo linkage but also revealing that in vivo regulation of these activities is complex. This study establishes the existence of SnRK1-ADK complexes that may play important roles in energy homeostasis and cellular responses to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:24498147

  5. Identification of an allosteric signaling network within Tec family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Raji E.; Xie, Qian; Andreotti, Amy H.

    2010-01-01

    The Tec family kinases are tyrosine kinases that function primarily in hematopoietic cells. The catalytic activity of the Tec kinases is positively influenced by the regulatory domains outside of the kinase domain. The current lack of a full-length Tec kinase structure leaves a void in our understanding of how these positive regulatory signals are transmitted to the kinase domain. Recently, a conserved structure within kinases, the ‘regulatory spine’, has been identified that assembles and disassembles as a kinase switches between its active and inactive states. Here we define the residues that comprise the regulatory spine within Tec kinases. Compared to previously characterized systems, the Tec kinases contain an extended regulatory spine that includes a conserved methionine within the C-helix and a conserved tryptophan within the SH2-kinase linker of Tec kinases. This extended regulatory spine forms a conduit for transmitting the presence of the regulatory domains of Tec kinases to the catalytic domain. We further show that mutation of the gatekeeper residue at the edge of the regulatory spine stabilizes the regulatory spine resulting in a constitutively active kinase domain. Importantly, the regulatory spine is preassembled in this gatekeeper mutant rendering phosphorylation on the activation loop unnecessary for its activity. Moreover, we show that the disruption of the conserved electrostatic interaction between Btk R544 on the activation loop and Btk E445 on the C-helix also aids in the assembly of the regulatory spine. Thus, the extended regulatory spine is a key structure that is critical for maintaining the activity of Tec kinases. PMID:20826165

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi: Oxidative stress induces arginine kinase expression.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Mariana R; Canepa, Gaspar E; Bouvier, Leon A; Pereira, Claudio A

    2006-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi arginine kinase is a key enzyme in cell energy management and is also involved in pH and nutritional stress response mechanisms. T. cruzi epimastigotes treated with hydrogen peroxide presented a time-dependent increase in arginine kinase expression, up to 10-fold, when compared with untreated parasites. Among other oxidative stress-generating compounds tested, only nifurtimox produced more than 2-fold increase in arginine kinase expression. Moreover, parasites overexpressing arginine kinase showed significantly increased survival capability during hydrogen peroxide exposure. These findings suggest the participation of arginine kinase in oxidative stress response systems. PMID:16725140

  7. Excited State Photoionization Cross Section Measurement of the 6S6D(1)D(2) State of Barium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, John Greg

    A new method for measuring absolute photoionization cross sections of excited states is developed and applied to the two photon photoionization of the 6s6d ^1D_2 state of barium by 1.064 ?m radiation. This method uses a tunable dye laser in the excitation of the excited state in the presences of intense 1.064 ?m light. The dye laser the selective excitation of atoms which are shifted by specific amounts by the intense fields. In this way the intensity of the 1.064 ?m laser can be determined even in a focused laser where a range of intensities are present. By processing the data, the photoionization cross section can be measured using only the temporal profile of the 1.064 ?m laser. (Copies available exclusively from Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, USC, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182.).

  8. Antisite defects in layered multiferroic CuCr0.9In0.1P2S6.

    PubMed

    He, Qian; Belianinov, Alex; Dziaugys, Andrius; Maksymovych, Petro; Vysochanskii, Yulian; Kalinin, Sergei V; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2015-11-28

    The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. In this work, we carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In(3+)(Cu(+)) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as their potential applications in 2-D electronics. PMID:26489774

  9. Antisite defects in layered multiferroic CuCr0.9In0.1P2S6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian; Belianinov, Alex; Dziaugys, Andrius; Maksymovych, Petro; Vysochanskii, Yulian; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-11-01

    The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. In this work, we carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In3+(Cu+) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as their potential applications in 2-D electronics.The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. In this work, we carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In3+(Cu+) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as their potential applications in 2-D electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04779j

  10. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Multi-targeted or single-targeted?

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Fleur; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J

    2011-01-01

    Since in most tumors multiple signaling pathways are involved, many of the inhibitors in clinical development are designed to affect a wide range of targeted kinases. The most important tyrosine kinase families in the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the ABL, SCR, platelet derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor families. Both multi-kinase inhibitors and single-kinase inhibitors have advantages and disadvantages, which are related to potential resistance mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, selectivity and tumor environment. In different malignancies various tyrosine kinases are mutated or overexpressed and several resistance mechanisms exist. Pharmacokinetics is influenced by interindividual differences and differs for two single targeted inhibitors or between patients treated by the same tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Different tyrosine kinase inhibitors have various mechanisms to achieve selectivity, while differences in gene expression exist between tumor and stromal cells. Considering these aspects, one type of inhibitor can generally not be preferred above the other, but will depend on the specific genetic constitution of the patient and the tumor, allowing personalized therapy. The most effective way of cancer treatment by using tyrosine kinase inhibitors is to consider each patient/tumor individually and to determine the strategy that specifically targets the consequences of altered (epi)genetics of the tumor. This strategy might result in treatment by a single multi kinase inhibitor for one patient, but in treatment by a couple of single kinase inhibitors for other patients. PMID:21603317

  11. Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Aurora Kinase Inhibition in Monopolar Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ayse Nur; Karayel, Özge; Giese, Sven H; Harmanda, Bü?ra; Sanal, Erdem; Hu, Chi-Kuo; Renard, Bernhard Y; Özlü, Nurhan

    2015-09-01

    Cytokinesis is the last step of the cell cycle that requires coordinated activities of the microtubule cytoskeleton, actin cytoskeleton, and membrane compartments. Aurora B kinase is one of the master regulatory kinases that orchestrate multiple events during cytokinesis. To reveal targets of the Aurora B kinase, we combined quantitative mass spectrometry with chemical genetics. Using the quantitative proteomic approach, SILAC (stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture), we analyzed the phosphoproteome of monopolar cytokinesis upon VX680- or AZD1152-mediated aurora kinase inhibition. In total, our analysis quantified over 20?000 phosphopeptides in response to the Aurora-B kinase inhibition; 246 unique phosphopeptides were significantly down-regulated and 74 were up-regulated. Our data provide a broad analysis of downstream effectors of Aurora kinase and offer insights into how Aurora kinase regulates cytokinesis. PMID:26270265

  12. The threonine residues in MAP kinase kinase 1 phosphorylated by MAP kinase in vitro are also phosphorylated in nerve growth factor-stimulated rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Gomez, N; Campbell, D G; Ashworth, A; Marshall, C J; Cohen, P

    1994-03-14

    The residues on MAP kinase kinase-1 (MAPKK1) phosphorylated by MAP kinase in vitro have been identified as Thr-291 and Thr-385. Both threonines are phosphorylated in PC12 cells and the 32P-labelling of each residue increases after stimulation with nerve growth factor (NGF). The results establish that MAPKK1 is a physiological substrate for MAP kinase. The two active forms of MAPKK that are resolved by Mono Q chromatography of PC12 cell extracts are both phosphorylated at Thr-291 and Thr-385, demonstrating that neither species is the MAPKK2 isoform which lacks Thr-291. PMID:8137910

  13. Identification of the sites in MAP kinase kinase-1 phosphorylated by p74raf-1.

    PubMed

    Alessi, D R; Saito, Y; Campbell, D G; Cohen, P; Sithanandam, G; Rapp, U; Ashworth, A; Marshall, C J; Cowley, S

    1994-04-01

    Many growth factors whose receptors are protein tyrosine kinases stimulate the MAP kinase pathway by activating first the GTP-binding protein Ras and then the protein kinase p74raf-1. p74raf-1 phosphorylates and activates MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK). To understand the mechanism of activation of MAPKK, we have identified Ser217 and Ser221 of MAPKK1 as the sites phosphorylated by p74raf-1. This represents the first characterization of sites phosphorylated by this proto-oncogene product. Ser217 and Ser221 lie in a region of the catalytic domain where the activating phosphorylation sites of several other protein kinases are located. Among MAPKK family members, this region is the most conserved, suggesting that all members of the family are activated by the phosphorylation of these sites. A 'kinase-dead' MAPKK1 mutant was phosphorylated at the same residues as the wild-type enzyme, establishing that both sites are phosphorylated directly by p74raf-1, and not by autophosphorylation. Only the diphosphorylated form of MAPKK1 (phosphorylated at both Ser217 and Ser221) was detected, even when the stoichiometry of phosphorylation by p74raf-1 was low, indicating that phosphorylation of one of these sites is rate limiting, phosphorylation of the second then occurring extremely rapidly. Ser217 and Ser221 were both phosphorylated in vivo within minutes when PC12 cells were stimulated with nerve growth factor. Analysis of MAPKK1 mutants in which either Ser217 or Ser221 were changed to glutamic acid, and the finding that inactivation of maximally activated MAPKK1 required the dephosphorylation of both serines, shows that phosphorylation of either residue is sufficient for maximal activation. PMID:8157000

  14. Requirement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway and Src for Gas6-Axl mitogenic and survival activities in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Goruppi, S; Ruaro, E; Varnum, B; Schneider, C

    1997-01-01

    Gas6 is a secreted protein previously identified as the ligand of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase. We have shown that Gas6 is able to induce cell cycle reentry of serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells and to efficiently prevent apoptosis after complete growth factor removal, a survival effect uncoupled from Gas6-induced mitogenesis. Here we report that the mitogenic effect of Gas6 requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity since it is abrogated both by the specific inhibitor wortmannin and by overexpression of the dominant negative P13K p85 subunit. Consistently, Gas6 activates the P13K downstream targets S6K and Akt, whose activation is abrogated by addition of wortmannin. Moreover, rapamycin treatment blocks Gas6-induced entry into the S phase of serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells. We also demonstrate the requirement of Src tyrosine kinase for Gas6 signalling since stable or transient expression of a catalytically inactive form of Src significantly inhibited Gas6-stimulated entry into the S phase. Accordingly, Gas6 addition to serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells causes activation of the intrinsic Src kinase activity. When specifically analyzed in a survival assay, these elements were found to be required for the survival effect of Gas6. Taken together, the evidence presented here identifies elements involved in the Gas6 transduction pathway that are responsible for its antiapoptotic effect and suggests that Src is involved in the events regulating cell survival. PMID:9234702

  15. Ror receptor tyrosine kinases: orphans no more

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jennifer L.; Kuntz, Steven G.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Ror proteins are a conserved family of tyrosine kinase receptors that function in developmental processes, including skeletal and neuronal development, cell movement, and cell polarity. While Ror (receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor) proteins were originally named because the associated ligand and signaling pathway were unknown, recent studies in multiple species now establish that Ror proteins are Wnt receptors. Depending on the cellular context, Ror proteins can either activate or repress transcription of Wnt target genes and can modulate Wnt signaling by sequestering Wnt ligands. New evidence implicates Ror proteins in planar cell polarity (PCP), an alternative Wnt pathway. Here, we review the progress made in understanding these mysterious proteins and in particular we focus on their function as Wnt receptors. PMID:18848778

  16. SUMOylation regulates the SNF1 protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J; Johnston, Mark

    2013-10-22

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major stress sensor of mammalian cells. AMPK's homolog in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SNF1 protein kinase, is a central regulator of carbon metabolism that inhibits the Snf3/Rgt2-Rgt1 glucose sensing pathway and activates genes involved in respiration. We present evidence that glucose induces modification of the Snf1 catalytic subunt of SNF1 with the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO, catalyzed by the SUMO (E3) ligase Mms21. Our results suggest that SUMOylation of Snf1 inhibits its function in two ways: by interaction of SUMO attached to lysine 549 with a SUMO-interacting sequence motif located near the active site of Snf1, and by targeting Snf1 for destruction via the Slx5-Slx8 (SUMO-directed) ubiquitin ligase. These findings reveal another way SNF1 function is regulated in response to carbon source. PMID:24108357

  17. The Protein Kinase C Inhibitor: Ruboxistaurin.

    PubMed

    Deissler, Heidrun L; Lang, Gabriele E

    2016-01-01

    The isozyme protein kinase C (PKC) ? is involved in several processes that are deregulated in different retinal cell types by hyperglycemia. This family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases comprises several different members, which differ in their structure, cofactor requirement and substrate specificity. Therefore, PKC? was considered a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. However, there is now evidence that even inhibition of different PKC isozymes is not sufficient to normalize vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced barrier damage of retinal endothelial cells. On the other hand, PKC? inhibition prevents hyperglycemia-induced VEGF expression in retinal pericytes, suggesting that PKC inhibitors should be administered before increased VEGF expression is established in the diabetic retina. Although initial studies have indicated that the treatment of diabetic patients with ruboxistaurin, a specific inhibitor of PKC?, may reduce visual loss in patients with diabetic retinopathy, the overall benefit seems to be small. PMID:26501476

  18. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Terence M.; Nyati, Shyam; Ross, Brian D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  19. Cellular trafficking of the IL-1RI-associated kinase-1 requires intact kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Boel, Gaby-Fleur . E-mail: boel@mail.dife.de; Jurrmann, Nadine; Brigelius-Flohe, Regina

    2005-06-24

    Upon stimulation of cells with interleukin-1 (IL-1) the IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) transiently associates to and dissociates from the IL-1RI and thereafter translocates into the nucleus. Here we show that nuclear translocation of IRAK-1 depends on its kinase activity since translocation was not observed in EL-4 cells overexpressing a kinase negative IRAK-1 mutant (EL-4{sup IRAK-1-K239S}). IRAK-1 itself, an endogenous substrate with an apparent molecular weight of 24 kDa (p24), and exogenous substrates like histone and myelin basic protein are phosphorylated by nuclear located IRAK-1. Phosphorylation of p24 cannot be detected in EL-4{sup IRAK-1-K239S} cells. IL-1-dependent recruitment of IRAK-1 to the IL-1RI and subsequent phosphorylation of IRAK-1 is a prerequisite for nuclear translocation of IRAK-1. It is therefore concluded that intracellular localization of IRAK-1 depends on its kinase activity and that IRAK-1 may also function as a kinase in the nucleus as shown by a new putative endogenous substrate.

  20. Two Dictyostelium tyrosine kinase–like kinases function in parallel, stress-induced STAT activation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Tsuyoshi; Vu, Linh Hai; Sasaki, Norimitsu; Kawata, Takefumi; Eichinger, Ludwig; Williams, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    When Dictyostelium cells are hyperosmotically stressed, STATc is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Unusually, activation is regulated by serine phosphorylation and consequent inhibition of a tyrosine phosphatase: PTP3. The identity of the cognate tyrosine kinase is unknown, and we show that two tyrosine kinase–like (TKL) enzymes, Pyk2 and Pyk3, share this function; thus, for stress-induced STATc activation, single null mutants are only marginally impaired, but the double mutant is nonactivatable. When cells are stressed, Pyk2 and Pyk3 undergo increased autocatalytic tyrosine phosphorylation. The site(s) that are generated bind the SH2 domain of STATc, and then STATc becomes the target of further kinase action. The signaling pathways that activate Pyk2 and Pyk3 are only partially overlapping, and there may be a structural basis for this difference because Pyk3 contains both a TKL domain and a pseudokinase domain. The latter functions, like the JH2 domain of metazoan JAKs, as a negative regulator of the kinase domain. The fact that two differently regulated kinases catalyze the same phosphorylation event may facilitate specific targeting because under stress, Pyk3 and Pyk2 accumulate in different parts of the cell; Pyk3 moves from the cytosol to the cortex, whereas Pyk2 accumulates in cytosolic granules that colocalize with PTP3. PMID:25143406

  1. G protein-coupled receptor kinases: more than just kinases and not only for GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Gurevich, Eugenia V.; Tesmer, John J. G.; Mushegian, Arcady; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are best known for their role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. GRKs phosphorylate activated receptors and promote high affinity binding of arrestins, which precludes G protein coupling. GRKs have a multidomain structure, with the kinase domain inserted into a loop of a regulator of G protein signaling homology domain. Unlike many other kinases, GRKs do not need to be phosphorylated in their activation loop to achieve an activated state. Instead, they are directly activated by docking with active GPCRs. In this manner they are able to selectively phosphorylate Ser/Thr residues on only the activated form of the receptor, unlike related kinases such as protein kinase A. GRKs also phosphorylate a variety of non-GPCR substrates and regulate several signaling pathways via direct interactions with other proteins in a phosphorylation-independent manner. Multiple GRK subtypes are present in virtually every animal cell, with the highest expression levels found in neurons, with their extensive and complex signal regulation. Insufficient or excessive GRK activity was implicated in a variety of human disorders, ranging from heart failure to depression to Parkinson’s disease. As key regulators of GPCR-dependent and -independent signaling pathways, GRKs are emerging drug targets and promising molecular tools for therapy. Targeted modulation of expression and/or of activity of several GRK isoforms for therapeutic purposes was recently validated in cardiac disorders and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:21903131

  2. Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Asahiro; Gong, Jian; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapeutic agents are constantly being developed and have been shown to be effective in various clinical trials. One group of representative targeted oncogenic kinases, the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has been associated with gastric cancer development. Trastuzumab, an inhibitor of ERBB2, has been approved for the treatment of gastric cancer, although other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Met, IGF-1R and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, are also activated in gastric cancer. The promising results of the trastuzumab clinical trial for gastric cancer resulted in the approval of trastuzumab-based therapy as a first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients. On the other hand, the trial examining bevacizumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy did not meet its primary goal of increasing the overall survival time of gastric cancer patients; however, a significantly higher response rate and a longer progression-free survival were observed in the bevacizumab arm of the trial. Other clinical trials, especially phase III trials that have tested drugs targeting RTKs, such as cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, figitumumab, sorafenib, sunitinib and lapatinib, have shown that these drugs have modest effects against gastric cancer. This review summarizes the recent results from the clinical trials of molecularly targeted drugs and suggests that further improvements in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer can be achieved through the combination of conventional drugs with the new molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24782606

  3. The Structure of Lombricine Kinase: Implications for Phosphagen Conformational Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, D. Jeffrey; Kirillova, Olga; Clark, Shawn A.; Davulcu, Omar; Fabiola, Felcy; Xie, Qing; Somasundaram, Thayumanasamy; Ellington, W. Ross; Chapman, Michael S.

    2012-05-29

    Lombricine kinase is a member of the phosphagen kinase family and a homolog of creatine and arginine kinases, enzymes responsible for buffering cellular ATP levels. Structures of lombricine kinase from the marine worm Urechis caupo were determined by x-ray crystallography. One form was crystallized as a nucleotide complex, and the other was substrate-free. The two structures are similar to each other and more similar to the substrate-free forms of homologs than to the substrate-bound forms of the other phosphagen kinases. Active site specificity loop 309-317, which is disordered in substrate-free structures of homologs and is known from the NMR of arginine kinase to be inherently dynamic, is resolved in both lombricine kinase structures, providing an improved basis for understanding the loop dynamics. Phosphagen kinases undergo a segmented closing on substrate binding, but the lombricine kinase ADP complex is in the open form more typical of substrate-free homologs. Through a comparison with prior complexes of intermediate structure, a correlation was revealed between the overall enzyme conformation and the substrate interactions of His{sup 178}. Comparative modeling provides a rationale for the more relaxed specificity of these kinases, of which the natural substrates are among the largest of the phosphagen substrates.

  4. Low dose of IGF-I increases cell size of skeletal muscle satellite cells via Akt/S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chun-qi; Zhi, Rui; Yang, Zhou; Li, Hai-chang; Yan, Hui-chao; Wang, Xiu-qi

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the size of pig skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs). Using microarray, real-time RT-PCR, radioimmunoassay analysis and western blot, we first showed that supplementation of low-dose of IGF-I in culture medium resulted in enlarged cell size of Lantang SCs, only Akt and S6K were up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels among almost all of the mTOR pathway key genes, but had no effect on cell number. To elucidate the signaling mechanisms responsible for regulating cell size under low-dose of IGF-I treatment, we blocked Akt and S6K activity with the specific inhibitors MK2206 and PF4708671, respectively. Both inhibitors caused a decrease in cell size. In addition, MK2206 lowered the protein level of p-Akt (Ser473), p-S6K (Thr389), and p-rpS6 (Ser235/236), whereas PF4708671 lowered the protein level of p-S6K (Thr389) and p-rpS6 (Ser235/236). However, low dose of IGF-I didn't affect the protein level of p-mTOR (Ser2448) and p-mTOR (Ser2481). When both inhibitors were applied simultaneously, the effect was the same as that of the Akt inhibition alone. Taken together, we report for the first time that low-dose of IGF-I treatment increases cell size via Akt/S6K signaling pathway. PMID:25923195

  5. Pseudo Jahn-Teller origin of puckering in cyclohexahomoatomic molecules E6 (E = S, Se, Te) and restoring S6 planar ring configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilkhani, Ali Reza

    2015-10-01

    The pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE) is employed to explore the origin of the puckering structure of cyclohexasulfur (S6), cyclohexaselenium (Se6) and cyclohexatellurium (Te6) and their nondegenerate and degenerate vibronic excited states and their planar structure instabilities have investigated. The ab initio geometry optimization and frequency calculations show that all these cyclohexahomoatomic molecules chose D6h symmetry in the planar con?guration, and according the S6 and Se6 experimental structure, the chair form of the molecules is stable structure. The vibronic coupling between the ground state 1A1g and excited state 1B2g is the cause of chair puckering in all these series compounds and the numerical solutions of the PJTE (1A1g+1B2g)?b2g problems describe their instability. The adiabatic potential energy surfaces (APES) cross sections of low-lying electronic states along the b2g puckering normal coordinates have calculated by the state-average complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) method. The calculation results show that, the chair puckering instability in the S6 from unstable planar configuration with D6h symmetry to a stable D3d distorted geometry, is stronger than others, whereas it is weaker in Te6. Additionally, coordination two canions (X = H+, He2+) to the S6 chair structure restore the planarity of S6 puckered ring in the S6X2 systems, although the D6h symmetry in S6 planar ring configuration changes to the Cs symmetry in the systems.

  6. Unveiling the Novel Dual Specificity Protein Kinases in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Gunjan; Sajid, Andaleeb; Arulanandh, Mary Diana; Singhal, Anshika; Mattoo, Abid R.; Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Maiti, Souvik; Singh, Yogendra

    2012-01-01

    Dual specificity protein kinases (DSPKs) are unique enzymes that can execute multiple functions in the cell, which are otherwise performed exclusively by serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases. In this study, we have characterized the protein kinases Bas2152 (PrkD) and Bas2037 (PrkG) from Bacillus anthracis. Transcriptional analyses of these kinases showed that they are expressed in all phases of growth. In a serendipitous discovery, both kinases were found to be DSPKs. PrkD was found to be similar to the eukaryotic dual specificity Tyr phosphorylation-regulated kinase class of dual specificity kinases, which autophosphorylates on Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues and phosphorylates Ser and Thr residues on substrates. PrkG was found to be a bona fide dual specificity protein kinase that mediates autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation on Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues. The sites of phosphorylation in both of the kinases were identified through mass spectrometry. Phosphorylation on Tyr residues regulates the kinase activity of PrkD and PrkG. PrpC, the only known Ser/Thr protein phosphatase, was also found to possess dual specificity. Genistein, a known Tyr kinase inhibitor, was found to inhibit the activities of PrkD and PrkG and affect the growth of B. anthracis cells, indicating a possible role of these kinases in cell growth and development. In addition, the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase was found to be phosphorylated by PrkD on Ser and Thr residues but not by PrkG. Thus, this study provides the first evidence of DSPKs in B. anthracis that belong to different classes and have different modes of regulation. PMID:22711536

  7. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is a target for selective kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Kayode K; Larson, Eric T; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Castaneda, Lisa J; Derocher, Amy E; Inampudi, Krishna K; Kim, Jessica E; Arakaki, Tracy L; Murphy, Ryan C; Zhang, Li; Napuli, Alberto J; Maly, Dustin J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Buckner, Frederick S; Parsons, Marilyn; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2010-05-01

    New drugs are needed to treat toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinases (TgCDPKs) are attractive targets because they are absent in mammals. We show that TgCDPK1 is inhibited by low nanomolar levels of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), compounds inactive against mammalian kinases. Cocrystal structures of TgCDPK1 with BKIs confirm that the structural basis for selectivity is due to the unique glycine gatekeeper residue in the ATP-binding site. We show that BKIs interfere with an early step in T. gondii infection of human cells in culture. Furthermore, we show that TgCDPK1 is the in vivo target of BKIs because T. gondii expressing a glycine to methionine gatekeeper mutant enzyme show significantly decreased sensitivity to BKIs. Thus, design of selective TgCDPK1 inhibitors with low host toxicity may be achievable. PMID:20436472

  8. Receptor-tyrosine-kinase- and G beta gamma-mediated MAP kinase activation by a common signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    van Biesen, T; Hawes, B E; Luttrell, D K; Krueger, K M; Touhara, K; Porfiri, E; Sakaue, M; Luttrell, L M; Lefkowitz, R J

    1995-08-31

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases mediate the phosphorylation and activation of nuclear transcription factors that regulate cell growth. MAP kinase activation may result from stimulation of either tyrosine-kinase (RTK) receptors, which possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, or G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). RTK-mediated mitogenic signalling involves a series of SH2- and SH3-dependent protein-protein interactions between tyrosine-phosphorylated receptor, Shc, Grb2 and Sos, resulting in Ras-dependent MAP kinase activation. The beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (G beta gamma) also mediate Ras-dependent MAP kinase activation by an as-yet unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that activation of MAP kinase by Gi-coupled receptors is preceded by the G beta gamma-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, leading to an increased functional association between Shc, Grb2 and Sos. Moreover, disruption of the Shc-Grb2-Sos complex blocks G beta gamma-mediated MAP kinase activation, indicating that G beta gamma does not mediate MAP kinase activation by a direct interaction with Sos. These results indicate that G beta gamma-mediated MAP kinase activation is initiated by a tyrosine phosphorylation event and proceeds by a pathway common to both GPCRs and RTKs. PMID:7651538

  9. Mixed-Lineage Kinase 3 Delivers CD3/CD28-Derived Signals into the I?B Kinase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hehner, Steffen P.; Hofmann, Thomas G.; Ushmorov, Alexej; Dienz, Oliver; Wing-Lan Leung, Irene; Lassam, Norman; Scheidereit, Claus; Dröge, Wulf; Schmitz, M. Lienhard

    2000-01-01

    The phosphorylation of I?B by the multiprotein I?B kinase complex (IKC) precedes the activation of transcription factor NF-?B, a key regulator of the inflammatory response. Here we identified the mixed-lineage group kinase 3 (MLK3) as an activator of NF-?B. Expression of the wild-type form of this mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) induced nuclear immigration, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity of NF-?B. MLK3 directly phosphorylated and thus activated I?B kinase alpha (IKK?) and IKK?, revealing its function as an I?B kinase kinase (IKKK). MLK3 cooperated with the other two IKKKs, MEKK1 and NF-?B-inducing kinase, in the induction of IKK activity. MLK3 bound to components of the IKC in vivo. This protein-protein interaction was dependent on the central leucine zipper region of MLK3. A kinase-deficient version of MLK3 strongly impaired NF-?B-dependent transcription induced by T-cell costimulation but not in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1. Accordingly, endogenous MLK3 was phosphorylated and activated by T-cell costimulation but not by treatment of cells with tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1. A dominant negative version of MLK3 inhibited NF-?B- and CD28RE/AP-dependent transcription elicited by the Rho family GTPases Rac and Cdc42, thereby providing a novel link between these GTPases and the IKC. PMID:10713178

  10. Lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} atomic state of radium.

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, W. L.; Sulai, I. A.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Kentucky

    2009-01-01

    The lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} state of atomic radium is determined to be 385(45) {mu}s using cold {sup 226}Ra atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap. The {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is populated from the decay of the {sup 1}P{sub 1} state which is excited by a pulse of 483 nm light. The decay of the {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is observed by detecting delayed fluorescence at 714 nm from the last step in the decay sequence {sup 1}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}S{sub 0}. The measured lifetime is compared to a number of theoretical calculations. An improved value of the 7s7p {sup 1}P{sub 1} level of 20 715.598(6) cm{sup -1} is obtained.

  11. Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

    2015-02-01

    The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

  12. Protein kinase C-associated kinase regulates NF-?B activation through inducing IKK activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Schifano, Matthew; Oleksyn, David; Jordan, Craig T; Ryan, Daniel; Insel, Richard; Zhao, Jiyong; Chen, Luojing

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-?B induced by extracellular stimuli requires IKK? and IKK? kinase activity. How IKK? and IKK? are activated by various upstream signaling molecules is not fully understood. We previously showed that protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as DIK/RIP4), which belongs to the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family, mediates the B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF)-induced NF-?B activation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines. Here we have investigated the mechanism underlying NF-?B activation regulated by PKK. Our results suggest that PKK can activate both the classical and the alternative NF-?B activation pathways. PKK associates with IKK? and IKK? in mammalian cells and induces activation of both IKK? and IKK? via phosphorylation of their serine residues 176/180 and 177/181, respectively. Unlike other members of the RIP family that activate NF-?B through a kinase-independent pathway, PKK appears to activate IKK and NF-?B mainly in a kinase-dependent manner. Suppression of PKK expression by RNA interference inhibits phosphorylation of IKK? and IKK? as well as activation of NF-?B in human cancer cell lines. Thus, PKK regulates NF-?B activation by modulating activation of IKK? and IKK? in mammalian cells. We propose that PKK may provide a critical link between IKK activation and various upstream signaling cascades, and may represent a potential target for inhibiting abnormal NF-?B activation in human cancers. PMID:25096806

  13. Baculovirus protein PK2 subverts eIF2? kinase function by mimicry of its kinase domain C-lobe

    PubMed Central

    Li, John J.; Cao, Chune; Fixsen, Sarah M.; Young, Janet M.; Bando, Hisanori; Elde, Nels C.; Katsuma, Susumu; Dever, Thomas E.; Sicheri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) by eIF2? family kinases is a conserved mechanism to limit protein synthesis under specific stress conditions. The baculovirus-encoded protein PK2 inhibits eIF2? family kinases in vivo, thereby increasing viral fitness. However, the precise mechanism by which PK2 inhibits eIF2? kinase function remains an enigma. Here, we probed the mechanism by which PK2 inhibits the model eIF2? kinase human RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as well as native insect eIF2? kinases. Although PK2 structurally mimics the C-lobe of a protein kinase domain and possesses the required docking infrastructure to bind eIF2?, we show that PK2 directly binds the kinase domain of PKR (PKRKD) but not eIF2?. The PKRKD–PK2 interaction requires a 22-residue N-terminal extension preceding the globular PK2 body that we term the “eIF2? kinase C-lobe mimic” (EKCM) domain. The functional insufficiency of the N-terminal extension of PK2 implicates a role for the adjacent EKCM domain in binding and inhibiting PKR. Using a genetic screen in yeast, we isolated PK2-activating mutations that cluster to a surface of the EKCM domain that in bona fide protein kinases forms the catalytic cleft through sandwiching interactions with a kinase N-lobe. Interaction assays revealed that PK2 associates with the N- but not the C-lobe of PKRKD. We propose an inhibitory model whereby PK2 engages the N-lobe of an eIF2? kinase domain to create a nonfunctional pseudokinase domain complex, possibly through a lobe-swapping mechanism. Finally, we show that PK2 enhances baculovirus fitness in insect hosts by targeting the endogenous insect heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)–like eIF2? kinase. PMID:26216977

  14. Amplification by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and chlorogenic acid of TNF-?-stimulated interleukin-6 synthesis in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohiro; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Kainuma, Shingo; Ohguchi, Reou; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2015-12-01

    Polyphenolic compounds in foods and beverages have beneficial effects on human health. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and chlorogenic acid (CGA), a major flavonoid in green tea and a major phenolic acid in coffee, respectively, have potent properties, including antioxidative effects. Our previous study demonstrated that p70 S6 kinase acts as a negative regulator in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-stimulated interleukin-6 synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, the effects of EGCG and CGA on the TNF???stimulated interleukin?6 synthesis were investigated in MC3T3?E1 cells. EGCG and CGA significantly enhanced TNF???stimulated interleukin?6 release. In addition, the interleukin?6 mRNA expression levels induced by TNF?? were supported by EGCG, as well as CGA. EGCG markedly attenuated the TNF-?-induced phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase whereas CGA failed to affect the phosphorylation. These results strongly suggest that EGCG and CGA enhance the TNF???stimulated interleukin-6 synthesis in osteoblasts, and that the amplifying effect of EGCG, but not CGA, is exerted via inhibiting p70 S6 kinase. PMID:26496857

  15. Prostaglandin F2? stimulates PI3K/ERK/mTOR signaling and skeletal myotube hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David

    2011-03-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes mediate the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandin (PG) species from cellular arachidonic acid. COX/PGs have been implicated in skeletal muscle growth/regeneration; however, the mechanisms by which PGs influence skeletal muscle adaptation are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate PGF(2?) signaling and its role in skeletal myotube hypertrophy. PGF(2?) or the FP receptor agonist fluprostenol increased C2C12 myotube diameter. This effect was abolished by the FP receptor antagonist AL8810 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition. PGF(2?) stimulated time- and dose-dependent increases in the phosphorylation of extracellular receptor kinase (ERK)1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) (Thr389 and Thr421/Ser424), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) (Ser1108) without influencing Akt (Ser473). Pretreatment with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and the ERK inhibitor PD98059 blocked F prostanoid receptor signaling responses, whereas rapamycin blocked heightened p70S6K/eIF4G phosphorylation without influencing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data suggest that activation of the F prostanoid receptor is coupled to C2C12 myotube growth and intracellular signaling via a PI3K/ERK/mTOR-dependent pathway. PMID:21191105

  16. The secret life of kinases: functions beyond catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation participates in the regulation of all fundamental biological processes, and protein kinases have been intensively studied. However, while the focus was on catalytic activities, accumulating evidence suggests that non-catalytic properties of protein kinases are essential, and in some cases even sufficient for their functions. These non-catalytic functions include the scaffolding of protein complexes, the competition for protein interactions, allosteric effects on other enzymes, subcellular targeting, and DNA binding. This rich repertoire often is used to coordinate phosphorylation events and enhance the specificity of substrate phosphorylation, but also can adopt functions that do not rely on kinase activity. Here, we discuss such kinase independent functions of protein and lipid kinases focussing on kinases that play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and motility. PMID:22035226

  17. Kinase active Misshapen regulates Notch signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhinava K; Sachan, Nalani; Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Mukherjee, Ashim

    2015-11-15

    Notch signaling pathway represents a principal cellular communication system that plays a pivotal role during development of metazoans. Drosophila misshapen (msn) encodes a protein kinase, which is related to the budding yeast Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) kinase. In a genetic screen, using candidate gene approach to identify novel kinases involved in Notch signaling, we identified msn as a novel regulator of Notch signaling. Data presented here suggest that overexpression of kinase active form of Msn exhibits phenotypes similar to Notch loss-of-function condition and msn genetically interacts with components of Notch signaling pathway. Kinase active form of Msn associates with Notch receptor and regulate its signaling activity. We further show that kinase active Misshapen leads to accumulation of membrane-tethered form of Notch. Moreover, activated Msn also depletes Armadillo and DE-Cadherin from adherens junctions. Thus, this study provides a yet unknown mode of regulation of Notch signaling by Misshapen. PMID:26431585

  18. Identification of Direct Kinase Substrates Using Analogue-Sensitive Alleles.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Daniel A; Gordon, Elizabeth A; White, Forest M; Lourido, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the substrates of protein kinases remains a major obstacle in the elucidation of eukaryotic signaling pathways. Promiscuity among kinases and their substrates coupled with the extraordinary plasticity of phosphorylation networks renders traditional genetic approaches or small-molecule inhibitors problematic when trying to determine the direct substrates of an individual kinase. Here we describe methods to label, enrich, and identify the direct substrates of analogue-sensitive kinases by exploiting their steric complementarity to artificial ATP analogues. Using calcium-dependent protein kinases of Toxoplasma gondii as a model for these approaches, this protocol brings together numerous advances that enable labeling of kinase targets in semi-permeabilized cells, quantification of direct labeling over background, and highly specific enrichment of targeted phosphopeptides. PMID:26584919

  19. MAP-ping genomic organization and organ-specific expression profiles of poplar MAP kinases and MAP kinase kinases

    PubMed Central

    Nicole, Marie-Claude; Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Morency, Marie-Josée; Beaudoin, Nathalie; Ellis, Brian E; Séguin, Armand

    2006-01-01

    Background As in other eukaryotes, plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are composed of three classes of hierarchically organized protein kinases, namely MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKs. These modules rapidly amplify and transduce extracellular signals into various appropriate intracellular responses. While extensive work has been conducted on the post-translational regulation of specific MAPKKs and MAPKs in various plant species, there has been no systematic investigation of the genomic organization and transcriptional regulation of these genes. Results Ten putative poplar MAPKK genes (PtMKKs) and 21 putative poplar MAPK genes (PtMPKs) have been identified and located within the poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genome. Analysis of exon-intron junctions and of intron phase inside the predicted coding region of each candidate gene has revealed high levels of conservation within and between phylogenetic groups. Expression profiles of all members of these two gene families were also analyzed in 17 different poplar organs, using gene-specific primers directed at the 3'-untranslated region of each candidate gene and real-time quantitative PCR. Most PtMKKs and PtMPKs were differentially expressed across this developmental series. Conclusion This analysis provides a complete survey of MAPKK and MAPK gene expression profiles in poplar, a large woody perennial plant, and thus complements the extensive expression profiling data available for the herbaceous annual Arabidopsis thaliana. The poplar genome is marked by extensive segmental and chromosomal duplications, and within both kinase families, some recently duplicated paralogous gene pairs often display markedly different patterns of expression, consistent with the rapid evolution of specialized protein functions in this highly adaptive species. PMID:16945144

  20. The Role of Pyruvate Kinase M2 in Cancer Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Vivian M; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2015-11-01

    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase is expressed preferentially in cancer cells over other pyruvate kinase isoforms. PKM2 is unique in its ability to be regulated allosterically by nutrients and growth signaling pathways, allowing cells to adapt their metabolic program to match physiological needs in different environments. Here, we discuss the role of pyruvate kinase M2 in glioma and in cancer metabolism. PMID:26526946

  1. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for integrin-stimulated AKT and Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.

    PubMed Central

    King, W G; Mattaliano, M D; Chan, T O; Tsichlis, P N; Brugge, J S

    1997-01-01

    Cell attachment to fibronectin stimulates the integrin-dependent interaction of p85-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase with integrin-dependent focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. However, it is not known if this PI 3-kinase-FAK interaction increases the synthesis of the 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides (3-PPIs) or what role, if any, is played by activated PI 3-kinase in integrin signaling. We demonstrate here the integrin-dependent accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products, PI 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3, as well as activation of AKT kinase, a serine/threonine kinase that can be stimulated by binding of PI(3,4)P2. The PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 significantly decreased the integrin-induced accumulation of the 3-PPIs and activation of AKT kinase, without having significant effects on the levels of PI(4,5)P2 or tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin. These inhibitors also reduced cell adhesion/spreading onto fibronectin but had no effect on attachment to polylysine. Interestingly, integrin-mediated Erk-2, Mek-1, and Raf-1 activation, but not Ras-GTP loading, was inhibited at least 80% by wortmannin and LY294002. In support of the pharmacologic results, fibronectin activation of Erk-2 and AKT kinases was completely inhibited by overexpression of a dominant interfering p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. We conclude that integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin results in the accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 as well as the PI 3-kinase-dependent activation of the kinases Raf-1, Mek-1, Erk-2, and AKT and that PI 3-kinase may function upstream of Raf-1 but downstream of Ras in integrin activation of Erk-2 MAP and AKT kinases. PMID:9234699

  3. Bis(tetraphenylphosphonium) (hexasulfido-2kappa2S1,S6)di-mu-sulfido-disulfido-1kappa2S-tungsten(VI)zinc(II) acetone solvate.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Azizolla; Clegg, William; Dale, Sophie H; Hyvadi, Reza

    2009-09-01

    The title complex, (C(24)H(20)P)(2)[WZnS(4)(S(6))].C(3)H(6)O or (Ph(4)P)(2)[WS(2)(mu-S)(2){Zn(S(6))}].Me(2)CO, was unexpectedly obtained on attempted recrystallization of a mixed tungten-zinc complex of a tris(pyrazolato)borate ligand. The two metal centres of the anion have distorted tetrahedral coordination and the two tetrahedra share one S...S edge; tungsten is additionally coordinated by two terminal sulfide ligands and zinc by a chelating S(6)(2-) ligand, which has one central S-S bond significantly longer than the other four, a pattern found to be consistent for this ligand. This is the first reported example of a tetrahedral zinc centre bridging an edge of a single tetrathiotungstate(VI) or tetrathiomolybdate(VI) anion, although there are many previous examples with other metals. PMID:19726844

  4. Aurora Kinases as Targets in Drug-Resistant Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rothweiler, Florian; Löschmann, Nadine; Nüsse, Benedikt; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Zehner, Richard; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2014-01-01

    Aurora kinase inhibitors displayed activity in pre-clinical neuroblastoma models. Here, we studied the effects of the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor tozasertib (VX680, MK-0457) and the aurora kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) that shows some specificity for aurora kinase A over aurora kinase B in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired drug resistance. Both compounds displayed anti-neuroblastoma activity in the nanomolar range. The anti-neuroblastoma mechanism included inhibition of aurora kinase signalling as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of the aurora kinase substrate histone H3, cell cycle inhibition in G2/M phase, and induction of apoptosis. The activity of alisertib but not of tozasertib was affected by ABCB1 expression. Aurora kinase inhibitors induced a p53 response and their activity was enhanced in combination with the MDM2 inhibitor and p53 activator nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type cells. In conclusion, aurora kinases are potential drug targets in therapy-refractory neuroblastoma, in particular for the vast majority of p53 wild-type cases. PMID:25268132

  5. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase accelerates necrotic cell death during hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Aki, T; Mizukami, Y; Oka, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Uemura, K; Fujimiya, T; Yoshida, K

    2001-01-01

    Using H9c2 cells derived from rat cardiomyocytes, we investigated the mechanism of cell death during hypoxia in the presence of serum and glucose. Hypoxic cell death is by necrosis and is accompanied by metabolic acidosis. Moreover, hypoxic cell death is inhibited by Hepes buffer as well as by 2-deoxyglucose, an inhibitor of glycolysis, indicating that metabolic acidosis should play an essential role in hypoxic injury. The involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), which is known to activate glucose metabolism, was examined using its inhibitor, LY290042, or adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Hypoxic cell death was inhibited by LY294002 in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of dominant negative PI 3-kinase was found to reduce cell death, whereas wild-type PI 3-kinase enhanced it. Dominant negative PI 3-kinase also reduced glucose consumption and acidosis, but this was stimulated by wild-type PI 3-kinase. The data indicate that PI 3-kinase stimulates cell death by enhancing metabolic acidosis. LY294002 significantly reduced glucose uptake, showing that PI 3-kinase regulates glycolysis at the step of glucose transport. These findings indicate the pivotal role of glucose metabolism in hypoxic cell death, and reveal a novel death-promoting effect of PI 3-kinase during hypoxia, despite this enzyme being considered to be a survival-promoting factor. PMID:11513748

  6. Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase repertoire, or kinome, is in general significantly larger than other eukaryotes, ranging in size from 600 to 2500 members. This large variation in kinome size is mainly due to the expansion and contraction of a few families, particularly the receptor-like kinase/Pelle family. A number of protein kinases reside in highly conserved, low copy number families and often play broadly conserved regulatory roles in metabolism and cell division, although functions of plant homologues have often diverged from their metazoan counterparts. Members of expanded plant kinase families often have roles in plant-specific processes and some may have contributed to adaptive evolution. Nonetheless, non-adaptive explanations, such as kinase duplicate subfunctionalization and insufficient time for pseudogenization, may also contribute to the large number of seemingly functional protein kinases in plants. PMID:22889912

  7. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition: An Approach to Drug Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitzki, Alexander; Gazit, Aviv

    1995-03-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and signaling processes in the cells of the immune system. Uncontrolled signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to inflammatory responses and to diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and psoriasis. Thus, inhibitors that block the activity of tyrosine kinases and the signaling pathways they activate may provide a useful basis for drug development. This article summarizes recent progress in the development of PTK inhibitors and demonstrates their potential use in the treatment of disease.

  8. Optimized assay for the quantification of histidine kinase autophosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takahiro B; Johnson, Roger A; Boon, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-25

    Although two-component signaling systems, comprising a sensory histidine kinase and a response regulator, are a primary means by which bacteria detect and respond to environmental stimuli, they are poorly characterized. Here we report optimized conditions for detecting histidine phosphorylation using a facile medium-throughput filter paper-binding assay. Employing this assay we report the kinetic parameters of previously uncharacterized histidine kinases from Vibrio haveyi, Vibrio parahaemolytius, Shewanella oneidensis, and Legionella pneumophila. In characterizing these kinases, we effectively double the number of kinetically characterized histidine kinases that have been reported in the literature. PMID:26255967

  9. Gene looping facilitates TFIIH kinase-mediated termination of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Medler, Scott; Ansari, Athar

    2015-01-01

    TFIIH is a general transcription factor with kinase and helicase activities. The kinase activity resides in the Kin28 subunit of TFIIH. The role of Kin28 kinase in the early steps of transcription is well established. Here we report a novel role of Kin28 in the termination of transcription. We show that RNAPII reads through a termination signal upon kinase inhibition. Furthermore, the recruitment of termination factors towards the 3? end of a gene was compromised in the kinase mutant, thus confirming the termination defect. A concomitant decrease in crosslinking of termination factors near the 5? end of genes was also observed in the kinase-defective mutant. Simultaneous presence of termination factors towards both the ends of a gene is indicative of gene looping; while the loss of termination factor occupancy from the distal ends suggest the abolition of a looped gene conformation. Accordingly, CCC analysis revealed that the looped architecture of genes was severely compromised in the Kin28 kinase mutant. In a looping defective sua7-1 mutant, even the enzymatically active Kin28 kinase could not rescue the termination defect. These results strongly suggest a crucial role of Kin28 kinase-dependent gene looping in the termination of transcription in budding yeast. PMID:26286112

  10. Constitutive Activity in an Ancestral Form of Abl Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    The c-abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is found in all metazoans, and is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues. The Abl tyrosine kinase plays important roles in the regulation of mammalian cell physiology. Abl-like kinases have been identified in the genomes of unicellular choanoflagellates, the closest relatives to the Metazoa, and in related unicellular organisms. Here, we have carried out the first characterization of a premetazoan Abl kinase, MbAbl2, from the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. The enzyme possesses SH3, SH2, and kinase domains in a similar arrangement to its mammalian counterparts, and is an active tyrosine kinase. MbAbl2 lacks the N-terminal myristoylation and cap sequences that are critical regulators of mammalian Abl kinase activity, and we show that MbAbl2 is constitutively active. When expressed in mammalian cells, MbAbl2 strongly phosphorylates cellular proteins on tyrosine, and transforms cells much more potently than mammalian Abl kinase. Thus, MbAbl2 appears to lack the autoinhibitory mechanism that tightly constrains the activity of mammalian Abl kinases, suggesting that this regulatory apparatus arose more recently in metazoan evolution. PMID:26090675

  11. Structural and mechanistic insights into Mps1 kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Yuting; Gao, Yuefeng; Xu, Quanbin; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Songcheng; Old, William; Resing, Katheryn; Ahn, Natalie; Lei, Ming; Liu, Xuedong

    2010-11-05

    Mps1 is one of the several essential kinases whose activation is required for robust mitotic spindle checkpoint signalling. The activity of Mps1 is tightly regulated and increases dramatically during mitosis or in response to spindle damage. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying Mps1 regulation, we determined the crystal structure of the kinase domain of Mps1. The 2.7-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure shows that the Mps1 kinase domain adopts a unique inactive conformation. Intramolecular interactions between the key Glu residue in the {alpha}C helix of the N-terminal lobe and the backbone amides in the catalytic loop lock the kinase in the inactive conformation. Autophosphorylation appears to be a priming event for kinase activation. We identified Mps1 autophosphorylation sites in the activation and the P+1 loops. Whereas activation loop autophosphorylation enhances kinase activity, autophosphorylation at the P+1 loop (T686) is associated with the active kinase. Mutation of T686 autophosphorylation site impairs both autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of T676 may be a priming event for phosphorylation at T686. Finally, we identified two critical lysine residues in the loop between helices {alpha}EF and {alpha}F that are essential for substrate recruitment and maintaining high levels of kinase activity. Our studies reveal critical biochemical mechanisms for Mps1 kinase regulation.

  12. Multivariate studies of receptor tyrosine kinase function in cancer

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Joel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are critical regulators of cellular homeostasis in multicellular organisms. They influence cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and transcriptional activation, among other ...

  13. Developing irreversible inhibitors of the protein kinase cysteinome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingsong; Sabnis, Yogesh; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Tinghu; Buhrlage, Sara J; Jones, Lyn H; Gray, Nathanael S

    2013-02-21

    Protein kinases are a large family of approximately 530 highly conserved enzymes that transfer a ?-phosphate group from ATP to a variety of amino acid residues, such as tyrosine, serine, and threonine, that serves as a ubiquitous mechanism for cellular signal transduction. The clinical success of a number of kinase-directed drugs and the frequent observation of disease causing mutations in protein kinases suggest that a large number of kinases may represent therapeutically relevant targets. To date, the majority of clinical and preclinical kinase inhibitors are ATP competitive, noncovalent inhibitors that achieve selectivity through recognition of unique features of particular protein kinases. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of irreversible inhibitors that form covalent bonds with cysteine or other nucleophilic residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Irreversible kinase inhibitors have a number of potential advantages including prolonged pharmacodynamics, suitability for rational design, high potency, and ability to validate pharmacological specificity through mutation of the reactive cysteine residue. Here, we review recent efforts to develop cysteine-targeted irreversible protein kinase inhibitors and discuss their modes of recognizing the ATP-binding pocket and their biological activity profiles. In addition, we provided an informatics assessment of the potential "kinase cysteinome" and discuss strategies for the efficient development of new covalent inhibitors. PMID:23438744

  14. Characterization of the activity of the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor XL765 (SAR245409) in tumor models with diverse genetic alterations affecting the PI3K pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiwen; Laird, A Douglas; Du, Xiangnan; Wu, Jianming; Won, Kwang-Ai; Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Hsu, Pin Pin; Qian, Fawn; Jaeger, Christopher T; Zhang, Wentao; Buhr, Chris A; Shen, Paula; Abulafia, Wendy; Chen, Jason; Young, Jenny; Plonowski, Arthur; Yakes, F Michael; Chu, Felix; Lee, Michelle; Bentzien, Frauke; Lam, Sanh Tan; Dale, Stephanie; Matthews, David J; Lamb, Peter; Foster, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Activation of the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway is a frequent occurrence in human tumors and is thought to promote growth, survival, and resistance to diverse therapies. Here, we report pharmacologic characterization of the pyridopyrimidinone derivative XL765 (SAR245409), a potent and highly selective pan inhibitor of class I PI3Ks (?, ?, ?, and ?) with activity against mTOR. Broad kinase selectivity profiling of >130 protein kinases revealed that XL765 is highly selective for class I PI3Ks and mTOR over other kinases. In cellular assays, XL765 inhibits the formation of PIP(3) in the membrane, and inhibits phosphorylation of AKT, p70S6K, and S6 phosphorylation in multiple tumor cell lines with different genetic alterations affecting the PI3K pathway. In a panel of tumor cell lines, XL765 inhibits proliferation with a wide range of potencies, with evidence of an impact of genotype on sensitivity. In mouse xenograft models, oral administration of XL765 results in dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of AKT, p70S6K, and S6 with a duration of action of approximately 24 hours. Repeat dose administration of XL765 results in significant tumor growth inhibition in multiple human xenograft models in nude mice that is associated with antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and proapoptotic effects. PMID:24634413

  15. Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 M s 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, Z. J.; Xie, L. L.; Zhou, B. F.

    2015-10-01

    The 2014 M s 6.5 (M w6.1) Ludian earthquake occurred in the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region of western China. This earthquake caused much more severe engineering damage than the usual earthquakes with the same magnitude in China. The National Strong Motion Network obtained large set of ground motion recordings during the earthquake. To investigate the engineering interested characteristics of ground motion from Ludian earthquake and compare it with the M w 7.9 Wenchuan and the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquakes in western China, studies on the ground motion field, attenuation relationship, distance dependence of significant duration, and site amplification were carried out. Some conclusion is drawn. Specifically, the ground motion field reveals a directional feature, and the distribution characteristics of the two horizontal components are similar. The attenuation relationship for Ludian earthquake is basically consistent with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for western China, except the slight smaller than the GMPE predicted at short periods. The distance dependences of ground motion duration are different in Sichuan and Yunnan regions due to the local physical dispersion and Q value. The site amplification factors are dominated by linear site response for lower reference ground motion, but the nonlinearity becomes notable for higher reference ground motion. This feature is basically consistent with the empirical model for western China. All the results indicate that the spatial distribution of ground motion, the attenuation characteristics, and the site amplification effect should be considered in characterization of near-field ground motion.

  16. Insight of dust provenance in Antarctic ice cores prior to M.I.S. 6 from ice magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanci, L.; Delmonte, B.

    2014-12-01

    The identification of dust provenance and its characteristics is a key issue to understand climate, atmospheric and environmental changes, and provides key constraints to dust transport processes. Many traditional geochemical methods for dust source tracking are not relevant in Antarctic ice cores because of their extremely low dust content, spanning from a few ppb during warm interglacial periods to a few hundreds of ppb, in the case of relatively dustier glacial periods. For the same reason, the Sr-Nd-Pb radiogenic isotope composition of mineral dust in ice cores, that is the most widely-used technique for dust source fingerprint has intrinsic limitations related to dust abundance that drastically limit the temporal information one can achieve. Rock-magnetic properties of aerosol dust, instead, can be measured directly in small ice samples despite its very low concentration. Intensity of isothermal remanent magnetization and coercivity of magnetic minerals are directly related to that of insoluble dust and these magnetic properties are informative of the dust provenance areas. We investigated rock-magnetic properties of aerosol dust in Antartic ice older than M.I.S. 6 in EPiCA Dome-C and Vostok ice core to gather information on dust provenance prior to the last interglacial times. New and previously published results from rock-magnetism suggests that aerosol dust provenance has changed in time during subsequent glacial-interglacial climatic stages. Moreover parallel changes in Dome-C and Vostok sites suggest that such changes result from long-distance dust transportation implying that transportation paths and/or dust sources did not remained the same during the last few glacial-interglacial cycles.

  17. Multi-kinase inhibition in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sorafenib (Nexavar) is a multi-kinase inhibitor that was developed as an inhibitor of RAF-1, in the ERK1/2 pathway, but which was subsequently shown to inhibit class III tyrosine kinase receptors.1 More recently regorafenib (Stivarga) has been developed, which is a further fluorinated version of sorafenib with greater bioavailability and similar inhibitory properties against RAF-1/class III RTKs.2 Some of the anti-tumor effects of sorafenib have been ascribed to anti-angiogenic actions of this agent on endothelial associated kinases such as VEGFR2. Other effects of sorafenib clearly have to be due to its effects on the inherent biology of the tumor cells themselves. For example, through various mechanisms sorafenib has been shown in the laboratory and the clinic to suppress expression of the protective protein MCL-1.3 Sorafenib has also been linked to inhibition of STAT3, NF?B, and activation of the death receptor CD95.4 Sorafenib is routinely dosed daily (400 mg BID) and 7 d after the start of dosing has a Cmax of ~21 ?M with a nadir at 12 h of ~10 ?M, and is a highly protein bound based on in vitro assays.5 Despite this in vitro binding data sorafenib has profound in vivo effects on tumor cells in renal carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma patients; cells which are not per se addicted to high activity oncogene signals that are targets of sorafenib/regorafenib. Thus the precise stable bioavailable level of sorafenib/regorafenib in patient plasma is not known. PMID:24309512

  18. Nuclear localization of Lyn tyrosine kinase mediated by inhibition of its kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kikuko; Nakayama, Yuji; Togashi, Yuuki; Obata, Yuuki; Kuga, Takahisa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2008-11-01

    Src-family kinases, cytoplasmic enzymes that participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and late endosomes/lysosomes. Lyn, a member of the Src-family kinases, is known to play a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle control in the nucleus. However, it is still unclear how the localization of Lyn to the nucleus is regulated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the distribution of Lyn between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in epitheloid HeLa cells and hematopoietic THP-1 cells. Lyn was definitely detected in purified nuclei by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. Nuclear accumulation of Lyn was enhanced upon treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export. Moreover, Lyn mutants lacking the sites for lipid modification were highly accumulated in the nucleus upon LMB treatment. Intriguingly, inhibition of the kinase activity of Lyn by SU6656, Csk overexpression, or point mutation in the ATP-binding site induced an increase in nuclear Lyn levels. These results suggest that Lyn being imported into and rapidly exported from the nucleus preferentially accumulates in the nucleus by inhibition of the kinase activity and lipid modification.

  19. Arabidopsis Receptor of Activated C Kinase1 Phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE1[OPEN

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan M.

    undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. Taken together function by influencing its protein stability. Receptor for activated C kinase1 (RACK1). For ex- ample, human RACK1 scaffolds an ADP ribosylation factor GTPase Accelerating Protein and focal

  20. Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency: 2015 status report.

    PubMed

    Grace, Rachael F; Zanella, Alberto; Neufeld, Ellis J; Morton, D Holmes; Eber, Stefan; Yaish, Hassan; Glader, Bertil

    2015-09-01

    Over the last several decades, our understanding of the genetic variation, pathophysiology, and complications of the hemolytic anemia associated with red cell pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) has expanded. Nonetheless, there remain significant gaps in our knowledge with regard to clinical care and monitoring. Treatment remains supportive with phototherapy and/or exchange transfusion in the newborn period, regular or intermittent red cell transfusions in children and adults, and splenectomy to decrease transfusion requirements and/or anemia related symptoms. In this article, we review the clinical diversity of PKD, the current standard of treatment and for supportive care, the complications observed, and future treatment directions. PMID:26087744

  1. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, Nils Egil; Clausen, Anders Ranegaard; Willer, Mette; Gojkovic, Zoran; Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund

    2009-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 A resolution structure of Dm-dNK in complex with gemcitabine shows that the residues Tyr70 and Arg105 play a crucial role in the firm positioning of gemcitabine by extra interactions made by the fluoride atoms. This explains why gemcitabine is a good substrate for Dm-dNK.

  2. Rho-associated kinase, a novel serine/threonine kinase, as a putative target for small GTP binding protein Rho.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, T; Amano, M; Yamamoto, T; Chihara, K; Nakafuku, M; Ito, M; Nakano, T; Okawa, K; Iwamatsu, A; Kaibuchi, K

    1996-01-01

    The small GTP binding protein Rho is implicated in cytoskeletal responses to extracellular signals such as lysophosphatidic acid to form stress fibers and focal contacts. Here we have purified a Rho-interacting protein with a molecular mass of approximately 164 kDa (p164) from bovine brain. This protein bound to GTPgammaS (a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog).RhoA but not to GDP.RhoA or GTPgammaS.RhoA with a mutation in the effector domain (RhoAA37).p164 had a kinase activity which was specifically stimulated by GTPgammaS.RhoA. We obtained the cDNA encoding p164 on the basis of its partial amino acid sequences and named it Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase). Rho-kinase has a catalytic domain in the N-terminal portion, a coiled coil domain in the middle portion and a zinc finger-like motif in the C-terminal portion. The catalytic domain shares 72% sequence homology with that of myotonic dystrophy kinase and the coiled coil domain contains a Rho-interacting interface. When COS7 cells were cotransfected with Rho-kinase and activated RhoA, some Rho-kinase was recruited to membranes. Thus it is likely that Rho-kinase is a putative target serine/threonine kinase for Rho and serves as a mediator of the Rho-dependent signaling pathway. Images PMID:8641286

  3. Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Douglas J.; Liu, Yu-Ting; Arduini, Robert M.; Hession, Catherine A.; Miatkowski, Konrad; Wildes, Craig P.; Cullen, Patrick F.; Hong, Victor; Hopkins, Brian T.; Mertsching, Elisabeth; Jenkins, Tracy J.; Romanowski, Michael J.; Baker, Darren P.; Silvian, Laura F.

    2010-11-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. This data provides information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members.

  4. Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, Douglas J; Liu, Yu-Ting; Arduini, Robert M; Hession, Catherine A; Miatkowski, Konrad; Wildes, Craig P; Cullen, Patrick F; Hong, Victor; Hopkins, Brian T; Mertsching, Elisabeth; Jenkins, Tracy J; Romanowski, Michael J; Baker, Darren P; Silvian, Laura F

    2010-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 Ĺ resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 Ĺ resolution. This data provides information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members. PMID:20052711

  5. Positions of the cytoplasmic end of BK ? S0 helix relative to S1–S6 and of ?1 TM1 and TM2 relative to S0–S6

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoxia; Zakharov, Sergey I.; Yao, Yongneng

    2015-01-01

    The large-conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-gated K+ (BK) channel consists of four ? subunits, which form a voltage- and Ca2+-gated channel, and up to four modulatory ? subunits. The ?1 subunit is expressed in smooth muscle, where it slows BK channel kinetics and shifts the conductance–voltage (G-V) curve to the left at [Ca2+] > 2 µM. In addition to the six transmembrane (TM) helices, S1–S6, conserved in all voltage-dependent K+ channels, BK ? has a unique seventh TM helix, S0, which may contribute to the unusual rightward shift in the G-V curve of BK ? in the absence of ?1 and to a leftward shift in its presence. Such a role is supported by the close proximity of S0 to S3 and S4 in the voltage-sensing domain. Furthermore, on the extracellular side of the membrane, one of the two TM helices of ?1, TM2, is adjacent to S0. We have now analyzed induced disulfide bond formation between substituted Cys residues on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. There, in contrast, S0 is closest to the S2–S3 loop, from which position it is displaced on the addition of ?1. The cytoplasmic ends of ?1 TM1 and TM2 are adjacent and are located between the S2–S3 loop of one ? subunit and S1 of a neighboring ? subunit and are not adjacent to S0; i.e., S0 and TM2 have different trajectories through the membrane. In the absence of ?1, 70% of disulfide bonding of W43C (S0) and L175C (S2–S3) has no effect on V50 for activation, implying that the cytoplasmic end of S0 and the S2–S3 loop move in concert, if at all, during activation. Otherwise, linking them together in one state would obstruct the transition to the other state, which would certainly change V50. PMID:25667410

  6. A mutant cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase affecting timing of chromosomal replication initiation in B. subtilis and conferring resistance to a protein kinase C inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Séror, S J; Casarégola, S; Vannier, F; Zouari, N; Dahl, M; Boye, E

    1994-01-01

    A Bacillus subtilis mutant spnA95 was isolated as resistant at 30 degrees C to the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, sphinganine, and temperature sensitive for growth. As deduced by flow cytometry measurements, the mutant has a 35% reduced initiation mass at permissive temperature, resulting in initiation of DNA replication much earlier in the cell cycle than in the wild type. This modification is accompanied by a change in cell size, as determined by phase-contrast microscopy and flow cytometry. Therefore, this strain displays the characteristics of a novel cell clock mutant. spnA is a newly identified gene in B.subtilis and was shown to encode a cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. At non-permissive temperature, the mutant was defective in the synthesis of P70, a protein with several characteristics of PKC (a cysteine-rich protein). As one possibility, we propose that the altered timing of replication may be due to the reduced synthesis of specific cysteine-rich proteins normally involved in controlling chromosomal replication initiation in B. subtilis. Images PMID:8194536

  7. Chaperones as thermodynamic sensors of drug-target interactions reveal kinase inhibitor specificities in living cells

    E-print Network

    Taipale, Mikko

    The interaction between the HSP90 chaperone and its client kinases is sensitive to the conformational status of the kinase, and stabilization of the kinase fold by small molecules strongly decreases chaperone interaction. ...

  8. Purification and characterization of echinoderm casein kinase II. Regulation by protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, J S; Charlton, L A; Paddon, H B; Pelech, S L

    1992-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) is one of several protein kinases that become activated before germinal-vesicle breakdown in maturing sea-star oocytes. Echinoderm CKII was purified over 11,000-fold with a recovery of approximately 10% by sequential fractionation of the oocyte cytosol on tyrosine-agarose, heparin-agarose, casein-agarose and MonoQ. The purified enzyme contained 45, 38 and 28 kDa polypeptides, which corresponded to its alpha, alpha' and beta subunits respectively. The beta-subunit was autophosphorylated on one major tryptic peptide on serine residues, whereas the alpha'-subunit incorporated phosphate into at least two tryptic peptides primarily on threonine residues. Western-blotting analysis of sea-star oocyte extracts with two different anti-peptide antibodies that recognized conserved regions of the alpha-subunit indicated that the protein levels of the alpha- and alpha'-subunits of CKII were unchanged during oocyte maturation. The purified CKII was partly inactivated (by 25%) by preincubation with protein-serine/threonine phosphatase 2A, but protein-tyrosine phosphatases had no effect. The beta-subunit of CKII was phosphorylated on a serine residue(s) up to 0.54 mol of P/mol of beta-subunit by purified protein kinase C, and this correlated with a 1.5-fold enhancement of its phosphotransferase activity with phosvitin as a substrate. CKII was not a substrate for the maturation-activated myelin basic protein kinase p44mpk from sea-star oocytes, nor for cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. These studies point to possible regulation of CKII by protein phosphorylation. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1590772

  9. Identification of a Fungi-Specific Lineage of Protein Kinases Closely Related to Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongtao; Jin, Qiaojun; Xu, Jin-Rong; Liu, Huiquan

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) specifically catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins and play essential roles in many cellular processes. Although TKs mainly exist in animals, recent studies revealed that some organisms outside the Opisthokont clade also contain TKs. The fungi, as the sister group to animals, are thought to lack TKs. To better understand the origin and evolution of TKs, it is important to investigate if fungi have TK or TK-related genes. We therefore systematically identified possible TKs across the fungal kingdom by using the profile hidden Markov Models searches and phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirmed that fungi lack the orthologs of animal TKs. We identified a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases (FslK) that appears to be a sister group closely related to TKs. Sequence analysis revealed that members of the FslK clade contain all the conserved protein kinase sub-domains and thus are likely enzymatically active. However, they lack key amino acid residues that determine TK-specific activities, indicating that they are not true TKs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the last common ancestor of fungi may have possessed numerous members of FslK. The ancestral FslK genes were lost in Ascomycota and Ustilaginomycotina and Pucciniomycotina of Basidiomycota during evolution. Most of these ancestral genes, however, were retained and expanded in Agaricomycetes. The discovery of the fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to TKs helps shed light on the origin and evolution of TKs and also has potential implications for the importance of these kinases in mushroom fungi. PMID:24587055

  10. Evaluation of Immune Responses in Mice after DNA Immunization with Putative Toxoplasma gondii Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 5

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Xu, Ying; Chen, Jia; Wang, Jin-Lei; Tian, Wei-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious public health problems and economic losses worldwide. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key mediators of T. gondii signaling pathways and are implicated as important virulence factors. In the present study, we cloned a novel T. gondii CDPK gene, named TgCDPK5, and constructed the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX-CDPK5. Then, we evaluated the immune protection induced by pVAX-CDPK5 in Kunming mice. After injection of pVAX-CDPK5 intramuscularly, immune responses, determined with lymphoproliferative assays and cytokine and antibody measurements, were monitored, and mouse survival times and brain cyst formation were evaluated following challenges with the T. gondii RH strain (genotype I) and the PRU strain (genotype II). pVAX-CDPK5 effectively induced immune responses with increased specific antibodies, a predominance of IgG2a production, and a strong lymphocyte proliferative response. The levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and IL-12(p70) and the percentages of CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ cells in mice vaccinated with pVAX-CDPK5 were significantly increased. However, IL-4 and IL-10 were not produced in the vaccinated mice. These results demonstrate that pVAX-CDPK5 can elicit strong humoral and cellular Th1 immune responses. The survival time of immunized mice challenged with the T. gondii RH strain (8.67 ± 4.34 days) was slightly, but not significantly, longer than that in the control groups within 7 days (P > 0.05). The numbers of brain cysts in the mice in the pVAX-CDPK5 group were reduced by ?40% compared with those in the control groups (P < 0.05), which provides a foundation for the further development of effective subunit vaccines against T. gondii. PMID:24789795

  11. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphatase and tensin homologue gene expression on the inhibition of U87MG glioblastoma cell proliferation induced by protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wen-Jing; Zou, Yan; Han, Qing-Lian; Dong, Yu-Cui; Deng, Zhen-Ling; Lv, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Tao; Ren, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the antiproliferative effects and mechanisms of action of protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells with different epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) status. The GBM cell models were established by transfection of plasmids carrying wild-type EGFR, mutated EGFRvIII or PTEN and clonal selection in U87MG cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/AKT pathway-focused gene profiles were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assays, protein expression was evaluated by western blotting and the antiproliferative effects of PKI treatment were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in GBM cells. The cell model with intact PTEN and low EGFR levels was the most sensitive to treatment with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib, whereas the model with EGFRvIII was the most resistant to treatment with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor U0126. The dual PI3-K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor PI103 had the most potent antiproliferative effects against all GBM cells tested. Following simultaneous stimulation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, rapamycin concentrations > 0.5 nmol/L failed to exhibit a further growth inhibitory effect. Concurrent inhibition of mTOR and ribosomal protein s6 activity may underlie the inhibition of GBM proliferation by PKI. In conclusion, overexpression of EGFR or EGFRvIII, accompanied by a loss of PTEN, contributed to the activation of multiple intracellular signalling pathways in GBM cells. Rigorous examination of biomarkers in tumour tissues before and after treatment may be necessary to determine the efficacy of PKI therapy in patients with GBM. PMID:23110505

  12. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) promotes ligand-independent activation of the insulin signalling pathway in rodent muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, I.; Li, H. F.; Wang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Muscle may experience hypoglycaemia during ischaemia or insulin infusion. During severe hypoglycaemia energy production is blocked, and an increase of AMP:ATP activates the energy sensor and putative insulin-sensitiser AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK promotes energy conservation and survival by shutting down anabolism and activating catabolic pathways. We investigated the molecular mechanism of a unique glucose stress defence pathway involving AMPK-dependent, insulin-independent activation of the insulin signalling pathway. Methods Cardiac or skeletal myocytes were subjected to glucose and insulin-free incubation for increasing intervals up to 20 h. AMPK, and components of the insulin signalling pathway and their targets were quantified by western blot using phosphor-specific antibodies. Phosphomimetics were used to determine the function of IRS-1 Ser789 phosphorylation and in vitro [32P]ATP kinase assays were used to measure the phosphorylation of the purified insulin receptor by AMPK. Results Glucose deprivation increased Akt-Thr308 and Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation by almost tenfold. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta increased in parallel, but phosphorylation of ribosomal 70S subunit-S6 protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin decreased. AMPK inhibitors blocked and aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) mimicked the effects of glucose starvation. Glucose deprivation increased the phosphorylation of IRS-1 on serine-789, but phosphomimetics revealed that this conferred negative regulation. Glucose deprivation enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and the insulin receptor, effects that were blocked by AMPK inhibition and mimicked by AICAR. In vitro kinase assays using purified proteins confirmed that the insulin receptor is a direct target of AMPK. Conclusions/interpretation AMPK phosphorylates and activates the insulin receptor, providing a direct link between AMPK and the insulin signalling pathway; this pathway promotes energy conservation and survival of muscle exposed to severe glucose deprivation. PMID:22207502

  13. Hybrid and Rogue Kinases Encoded in the Genomes of Model Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Rakshambikai, Ramaswamy; Gnanavel, Mutharasu; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2014-01-01

    The highly modular nature of protein kinases generates diverse functional roles mediated by evolutionary events such as domain recombination, insertion and deletion of domains. Usually domain architecture of a kinase is related to the subfamily to which the kinase catalytic domain belongs. However outlier kinases with unusual domain architectures serve in the expansion of the functional space of the protein kinase family. For example, Src kinases are made-up of SH2 and SH3 domains in addition to the kinase catalytic domain. A kinase which lacks these two domains but retains sequence characteristics within the kinase catalytic domain is an outlier that is likely to have modes of regulation different from classical src kinases. This study defines two types of outlier kinases: hybrids and rogues depending on the nature of domain recombination. Hybrid kinases are those where the catalytic kinase domain belongs to a kinase subfamily but the domain architecture is typical of another kinase subfamily. Rogue kinases are those with kinase catalytic domain characteristic of a kinase subfamily but the domain architecture is typical of neither that subfamily nor any other kinase subfamily. This report provides a consolidated set of such hybrid and rogue kinases gleaned from six eukaryotic genomes–S.cerevisiae, D. melanogaster, C.elegans, M.musculus, T.rubripes and H.sapiens–and discusses their functions. The presence of such kinases necessitates a revisiting of the classification scheme of the protein kinase family using full length sequences apart from classical classification using solely the sequences of kinase catalytic domains. The study of these kinases provides a good insight in engineering signalling pathways for a desired output. Lastly, identification of hybrids and rogues in pathogenic protozoa such as P.falciparum sheds light on possible strategies in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25255313

  14. The ABC of protein kinase conformations.

    PubMed

    Möbitz, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Due to their involvement in human diseases, protein kinases are an important therapeutic target class. Conformation is a key concept for understanding how functional activity, inhibition and sequence are linked. We assemble and annotate the mammalian structural kinome from the Protein Data Bank on the basis of a universal residue nomenclature. We identify a torsion angle around the Gly of the DFG-motif whose sharp distribution profile corresponds to three eclipsed conformations. This allows the definition a small set of clusters whose distribution shows a bias for the active conformation. A common rationale links the active and inactive state: stabilization of the active conformation, as well as inactivation by displacement of helix-?C or the DFG-motif is governed by the interaction between helix-?C and the DFG motif. In particular, the conformation of the DFG-motif is tightly correlated with the propensity of helix-?C displacement. Our analysis reveals detailed mechanisms for the displacement of helix-?C and the DFG and improves our understanding of the role of individual residues. By pooling conformations from the whole structural kinome, the energetic contributions of sequence and extrinsic factors can be estimated in free energy analyses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25839999

  15. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? for allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Wendy C; Smith, Janet L; Affleck, Karen; Amour, Augustin

    2012-02-01

    Chronic inflammation in the lung has long been linked to the pathogenesis of asthma. Central to this airway inflammation is a T-cell response to allergens, with Th2 cytokines driving the differentiation, survival and function of the major inflammatory cells involved in the allergic cascade. PI3K? (phosphoinositide 3-kinase ?) is a lipid kinase, expressed predominantly in leucocytes, where it plays a critical role in immune receptor signalling. A selective PI3K? inhibitor is predicted to block T-cell activation in the lung, reducing the production of pro-inflammatory Th2 cytokines. PI3K? is also involved in B-cell and mast cell activation. Therefore the inhibition of PI3K? should dampen down the inflammatory cascade involved in the asthmatic response through a wide breadth of pharmacology. Current anti-inflammatory therapies, which are based on corticosteroids, are effective in controlling inflammation in mild asthmatics, but moderate/severe asthmatic patients remain poorly controlled, experiencing recurrent exacerbations. Corticosteroids have no effect on mast cell degranulation and do not act directly on B-cells, so, overall, a PI3K? inhibitor has the potential to deliver improvements in onset of action, efficacy and reduced exacerbations in moderate/severe asthmatics. Additionally, PI3K? inhibition is expected to block effects of Th17 cells, which are increasingly implicated in steroid-insensitive asthma. PMID:22260698

  16. Mechanism of Focal Adhesion Kinase Mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Sebastian; Bullerjahn, Jakob Tómas; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensing at focal adhesions regulates vital cellular processes. Here, we present results from molecular dynamics (MD) and mechano-biochemical network simulations that suggest a direct role of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a mechano-sensor. Tensile forces, propagating from the membrane through the PIP2 binding site of the FERM domain and from the cytoskeleton-anchored FAT domain, activate FAK by unlocking its central phosphorylation site (Tyr576/577) from the autoinhibitory FERM domain. Varying loading rates, pulling directions, and membrane PIP2 concentrations corroborate the specific opening of the FERM-kinase domain interface, due to its remarkably lower mechanical stability compared to the individual alpha-helical domains and the PIP2-FERM link. Analyzing downstream signaling networks provides further evidence for an intrinsic mechano-signaling role of FAK in broadcasting force signals through Ras to the nucleus. This distinguishes FAK from hitherto identified focal adhesion mechano-responsive molecules, allowing a new interpretation of cell stretching experiments. PMID:26544178

  17. Autoantibody cancer biomarker: extracellular protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Nesterova, Maria V; Johnson, Natalie; Cheadle, Christopher; Bates, Susan E; Mani, Sridhar; Stratakis, Constantine A; Khan, Islam U; Kahn, Islam; Gupta, Rishab K; Cho-Chung, Yoon S

    2006-09-15

    In cancer cells, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is secreted into the conditioned medium. This PKA, designated as extracellular protein kinase A (ECPKA), is markedly up-regulated in the sera of patients with cancer. The currently available tumor markers are based on the antigen determination method and lack specificity and sensitivity. Here, we present an ECPKA autoantibody detection method for a universal biomarker that detects cancer of various cell types. We tested sera from 295 patients with cancers of various cell types, 155 normal controls, and 55 patients without cancer. The specificity and sensitivity of this autoantibody enzyme immunoassay method were compared with the conventional antigen determination method by receiver-operating characteristic plots. In the sera, the presence of autoantibody directed against ECPKA was highly correlated with cancer. High anti-ECPKA autoantibody titers (frequency, 90%; mean titer, 3.0) were found in the sera of patients with various cancers, whereas low or negative titers (frequency, 12%; mean titer, 1.0) were found in the control group. The receiver-operating characteristic plot showed that autoantibody enzyme immunoassay exhibited 90% sensitivity and 88% specificity, whereas the enzymatic assay exhibited 83% sensitivity and 80% specificity. These results show that the autoantibody method distinguished between patients with cancer and controls better than the antigen method could. Our results show that autoantibody ECPKA is a universal serum biomarker for cancers of various cell types. PMID:16982736

  18. Mechanisms of Drug-Resistance in Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Barouch-Bentov, Rina; Sauer, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Because of their important roles in disease and excellent “druggability”, kinases have become the second-largest drug target family. The great success of the BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib in treating CML illustrates the high potential of kinase inhibitor (KI) therapeutics, but also unveiled a major limitation: the development of drug-resistance. This is a significant concern as KIs reach large patient populations for an expanding array of indications. Areas covered We provide an up-to-date understanding of the mechanisms through which KIs function, and through which cells can become KI-resistant. We review current and future approaches to overcome KI-resistance, focussing on currently approved KIs and KIs in clinical trials. We then discuss approaches to improve KI efficacy and overcome drug-resistance and novel approaches to develop less drug-resistance prone KI-therapeutics. Expert opinion Although drug-resistance is a concern for current KI-therapeutics, recent progress in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and promising technological advances may overcome this limitation and provide powerful new therapeutics. PMID:21235428

  19. Biochemical and cellular effects of c-Src kinase-selective pyrido[2, 3-d]pyrimidine tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kraker, A J; Hartl, B G; Amar, A M; Barvian, M R; Showalter, H D; Moore, C W

    2000-10-01

    Increased expression or activity of c-Src tyrosine kinase has been associated with the transformed phenotype in tumor cells and with progression of neoplastic disease. A number of pyrido[2, 3-d]pyrimidines have been characterized biochemically and in cells as part of an assessment of their potential as anti-tumor agents. The compounds were ATP-competitive inhibitors of c-Src kinase with IC(50) values < 10 nM and from 6 to >100-fold selectivity for c-Src tyrosine kinase relative to basic fibroblast growth factor receptor (bFGFr) tyrosine kinase, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFr) tyrosine kinase, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) tyrosine kinase. The compounds yielded IC(50) values < 5 nM against Lck. Human colon tumor cell growth in culture was inhibited, as was colony formation in soft agar at concentrations < 1 microM. Phosphorylation of the c-Src cellular substrates paxillin, p130(cas), and Stat3 was also inhibited at concentrations < 1 microM. Autophosphorylation of EGFr tyrosine kinase or PDGFr tyrosine kinase was not inhibited by c-Src inhibitors, thus showing the selective nature of the compounds in cells. In a mitogenesis assay measuring thymidine incorporation stimulated by specific mitogens, the c-Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors reduced incorporated thymidine in a manner consistent with previously reported roles of c-Src in mitogenic signaling. Progression through the cell cycle was inhibited at G(2)/M in human colon tumor cells treated with two of the c-Src-selective compounds, which is also consistent with earlier reports describing a requirement for active c-Src tyrosine kinase for G(2) to M phase progression. The compounds described here are selective inhibitors of c-Src tyrosine kinase and have antiproliferative effects in tumor cells consistent with inhibition of c-Src. PMID:10974196

  20. Protein Kinase B Activation and Lamellipodium Formation Are Independent Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Mediated Events Differentially Regulated by Endogenous Ras

    PubMed Central

    van Weering, David H. J.; de Rooij, Johan; Marte, Barbara; Downward, Julian; Bos, Johannes L.; Burgering, Boudewijn M. T.

    1998-01-01

    Regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) can occur by binding of the regulatory p85 subunit to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and by binding of the p110 catalytic subunit to activated Ras. However, the way in which these regulatory mechanisms act to regulate PI 3-kinase in vivo is unclear. Here we show that several growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF], and epidermal growth factor [EGF; to activate an EGF receptor-Ret chimeric receptor]) all activate PI 3-kinase in vivo in the neuroectoderm-derived cell line SKF5. However, these growth factors differ in their ability to activate PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling. PDGF and EGF(Ret) treatment induced PI 3-kinase-dependent lamellipodium formation and protein kinase B (PKB) activation. In contrast, bFGF did not induce lamellipodium formation but activated PKB, albeit to a small extent. PDGF and EGF(Ret) stimulation resulted in binding of p85 to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and strong Ras activation. bFGF, however, induced only strong activation of Ras. In addition, while RasAsn17 abolished bFGF activation of PKB, PDGF- and EGF(Ret)-induced PKB activation was only partially inhibited and lamellipodium formation was unaffected. Interestingly, in contrast to activation of only endogenous Ras (bFGF), ectopic expression of activated Ras did result in lamellipodium formation. From this we conclude that, in vivo, p85 and Ras synergize to activate PI 3-kinase and that strong activation of only endogenous Ras exerts a small effect on PI 3-kinase activity, sufficient for PKB activation but not lamellipodium formation. This differential sensitivity to PI 3-kinase activation could be explained by our finding that PKB activation and lamellipodium formation are independent PI 3-kinase-induced events. PMID:9528752

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of a stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase-related kinase from Tetrahymena cells.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, S; Wang, S; Hisamoto, N; Sakai, H; Andoh, M; Matsumoto, K; Nozawa, Y

    1999-04-01

    To identify genes responsive to cold stress, we employed the differential display mRNA analysis technique to isolate a novel gene from Tetrahymena thermophila which encodes a protein kinase of 430 amino acids. A homolog of this kinase with 90% amino acid sequence identity was also found in T. pyriformis. Both kinases contain 11 subdomains typical of protein kinases. Sequence analysis revealed that the predicted amino acid sequences resemble those of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), especially p38 and stress-activated protein kinase which are known to be involved in various stress responses. However, it should be noted that the tyrosine residue in the normally conserved MAPK phosphorylation site (Thr-X-Tyr) is replaced by histidine (Thr226-Gly-His228) in this MAPK-related kinase (MRK). The recombinant MRK expressed in Escherichia coli phosphorylated myelin basic protein (MBP) and became autophosphorylated. However, the mutated recombinant protein in which Thr226 was replaced by Ala lost the ability to phosphorylate MBP, suggesting that Thr226 residue is essential for kinase activity. The MRK mRNA transcript in T. thermophila increased markedly upon temperature downshift from 35 to 15 degrees C (0.8 degrees C/min). Interestingly, osmotic shock either by sorbitol (100-200 mM) or NaCl (25-100 mM) also induced mRNA expression of the MRK in T. pyriformis. In addition, the activity of the kinase as determined by an immune complex kinase assay using MBP as a substrate was also induced by osmotic stress. This is the first demonstration of a MAPK-related kinase in the unicellular eukaryotic protozoan Tetrahymena that is induced by physical stresses such as cold temperature and osmolarity. The present results suggest that this MRK may function in the stress-signaling pathway in Tetrahymena cells. PMID:10187773

  2. Resveratrol dimers are novel sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitors and affect sphingosine kinase 1 expression and cancer cell growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Keng Gat; Gray, Alexander I; Pyne, Susan; Pyne, Nigel J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Sphingosine kinase 1 catalyses formation of the bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, which protects cancer cells from apoptosis. Therefore, sphingosine kinase 1 is a novel target for intervention with anti-cancer agents. We have assessed the effect of the anti-cancer agent, resveratrol and its dimers (ampelopsin A and balanocarpol) on sphingosine kinase 1 activity and on survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ampelopsin A and balanocarpol were purified from Hopea dryobalanoides and their effect on sphingosine kinase 1 activity and expression, [3H] thymidine incorporation, ERK-1/2 phosphorylation and PARP activity assessed in MCF-7 cells. KEY RESULTS Resveratrol, ampelopsin A and balanocarpol were novel inhibitors of sphingosine kinase 1 activity. Balanocarpol was a mixed inhibitor (with sphingosine) of sphingosine kinase 1 with a Kic= 90 ± 10 µM and a Kiu of ?500 µM. Balanocarpol and ampelopsin A also induced down-regulation of sphingosine kinase 1 expression and reduced DNA synthesis, while balanocarpol stimulated PARP cleavage in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Resveratrol was a competitive inhibitor (with sphingosine) of sphingosine kinase 1 with a Kic= 160 ± 40 µM, reduced sphingosine kinase 1 expression and induced PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Each molecule of balanocarpol may bind at least two sphingosine kinase 1 catalytic molecules to reduce the activity of each simultaneously. These findings suggest that resveratrol, ampelopsin A and balanocarpol could perturb sphingosine kinase 1-mediated signalling and this might explain their activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Hergst and Yun, pp. 1603–1604 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01898.x PMID:22251058

  3. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pyruvate kinase test system. 862.1650 Section 862.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1650 Pyruvate kinase test system....

  4. The CAMKK2-AMPK Kinase Pathway Mediates the Synaptotoxic Effects

    E-print Network

    Polleux, Franck

    Neuron Article The CAMKK2-AMPK Kinase Pathway Mediates the Synaptotoxic Effects of Ab Oligomers) progression. Recent results suggested that Ab42 oligomers trigger activation of AMP- activated kinase (AMPK calcium [Ca2+ ]i induced by NMDA receptor activation or membrane depolar- ization activates AMPK

  5. Compartmentalisation of phosphodiesterases and protein kinase A: opposites attract

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    Minireview Compartmentalisation of phosphodiesterases and protein kinase A: opposites attract 2005 Edited by Pe´ter Friedrich Abstract Understanding the molecular organisation of intracel- lular. This is particularly true for the cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) that is localised throughout the cell via its

  6. The aurora kinases in cell cycle and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Goldenson, B; Crispino, J D

    2015-01-29

    The Aurora kinases, which include Aurora A (AURKA), Aurora B (AURKB) and Aurora C (AURKC), are serine/threonine kinases required for the control of mitosis (AURKA and AURKB) and meiosis (AURKC). Since their discovery nearly 20 years ago, Aurora kinases have been studied extensively in cell and cancer biology. Several early studies found that Aurora kinases are amplified and overexpressed at the transcript and protein level in various malignancies, including several types of leukemia. These discoveries and others provided a rationale for the development of small-molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases as leukemia therapies. The first generation of Aurora kinase inhibitors did not fare well in clinical trials, owing to poor efficacy and high toxicity. However, the creation of second-generation, highly selective Aurora kinase inhibitors has increased the enthusiasm for targeting these proteins in leukemia. This review will describe the functions of each Aurora kinase, summarize their involvement in leukemia and discuss inhibitor development and efficacy in leukemia clinical trials. PMID:24632603

  7. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S. (Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter (Oakland, CA); Kim, Sung-Hou (Moraga, CA); Meijer, Laurent (Roscoff, FR)

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  8. A Broad Specificity Nucleoside Kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, Sarah R.; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W.; Columbus, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 A resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an ?/? /? sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, frutokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had been annotated as a ribokinase-like protein. Using a coupled pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase assay, the activity of Ta0880 was assessed against a variety of ribokinase/pfkB-like family substrates; activity was not observed for ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. Based on structural similarity with nucleoside kinases (NK) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjNK, PDB 2C49 and 2C4E) and Burkholderia thailandensis (BtNK, PDB 3B1O), nucleoside kinase activity was investigated. Ta0880 (TaNK) was confirmed to have nucleoside kinase activity with an apparent KM for guanosine of 0.21 ?M and catalytic efficiency of 345,000 M?1 s?1. These three NKs have significantly different substrate, phosphate donor, and cation specificities and comparisons of specificity and structure identified residues likely responsible for the nucleoside substrate selectivity. Phylogenetic analysis identified three clusters within the PfkB family and indicates that TaNK represents a new sub-family with broad nucleoside specificities. PMID:23161756

  9. Ancestral resurrection reveals evolutionary mechanisms of kinase plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Conor J; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Kennedy, Kristopher J; Miller, Chad J; Lou, Hua Jane; Johnson, Alexander D; Turk, Benjamin E; Holt, Liam J

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases have evolved diverse specificities to enable cellular information processing. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying kinase diversification, we studied the CMGC protein kinases using ancestral reconstruction. Within this group, the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) require proline at the +1 position of their substrates, while Ime2 prefers arginine. The resurrected common ancestor of CDKs, MAPKs, and Ime2 could phosphorylate substrates with +1 proline or arginine, with preference for proline. This specificity changed to a strong preference for +1 arginine in the lineage leading to Ime2 via an intermediate with equal specificity for proline and arginine. Mutant analysis revealed that a variable residue within the kinase catalytic cleft, DFGx, modulates +1 specificity. Expansion of Ime2 kinase specificity by mutation of this residue did not cause dominant deleterious effects in vivo. Tolerance of cells to new specificities likely enabled the evolutionary divergence of kinases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04126.001 PMID:25310241

  10. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: the key switch mechanism in insulin signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, P R; Withers, D J; Siddle, K

    1998-01-01

    Insulin plays a key role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. However, until recently little was known about the signalling pathways that are involved in linking the insulin receptor with downstream responses. It is now apparent that the activation of class 1a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is necessary and in some cases sufficient to elicit many of insulin's effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The lipid products of PI 3-kinase act as both membrane anchors and allosteric regulators, serving to localize and activate downstream enzymes and their protein substrates. One of the major ways these lipid products of PI 3-kinase act in insulin signalling is by binding to pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK) and protein kinase B (PKB) and in the process regulating the phosphorylation of PKB by PDK. Using mechanisms such as this, PI 3-kinase is able to act as a molecular switch to regulate the activity of serine/threonine-specific kinase cascades important in mediating insulin's effects on endpoint responses. PMID:9677303

  11. PATTERNS & PHENOTYPES Asator, a Tau-Tubulin Kinase Homolog in

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Jorgen

    PATTERNS & PHENOTYPES Asator, a Tau-Tubulin Kinase Homolog in Drosophila Localizes to the Mitotic have used a yeast two-hybrid interaction assay to identify Asator, a tau-tubulin kinase homolog by an Asator-specific mAb as well as by transgenic expression of a GFP-labeled Asator construct, we show

  12. PURIFICATION AND ISOLATION OF THE PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE ENZYME

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    PURIFICATION AND ISOLATION OF THE PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE ENZYME IN RICE PLANTS Cynthia Bach (NADH). The enzyme, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGKase), catalyzes the reaction that results to purify the enzyme from developing rice seeds. Isolation of the enzyme was obtained by obtaining a crude

  13. The Dictyostelium Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase ERK2

    E-print Network

    Firtel, Richard A.

    The Dictyostelium Mitogen- activated Protein Kinase ERK2 Is Regulated by Ras and cAMP- dependent Ras and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), are impor- tant regulators of ERK2 activation activation whereas disruption of putative Ras GEF or expression of domi- nant negative Ras proteins have

  14. Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jessica R.; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Markus, Benedikt M.; Mandelbaum, Joseph; Ramek, Alexander; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Lourido, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics, the effects of 1B7–kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes. PMID:26305940

  15. Interrogating Signaling Nodes Involved in Cellular Transformations Using Kinase Activity Probes

    E-print Network

    Stains, Cliff I.

    Protein kinases catalyze protein phosphorylation and thereby control the flow of information through signaling cascades. Currently available methods for concomitant assessment of the enzymatic activities of multiple kinases ...

  16. Structural Basis for the Autoinhibition of Focal Adhesion Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Lietha,D.; Cai, X.; Ceccarelli, D.; Lietha, Y.; Schaller, M.; Eck, M.

    2007-01-01

    Appropriate tyrosine kinase signaling depends on coordinated sequential coupling of protein-protein interactions with catalytic activation. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) integrates signals from integrin and growth factor receptors to regulate cellular responses including cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Here, we describe crystal structures representing both autoinhibited and active states of FAK. The inactive structure reveals a mechanism of inhibition in which the N-terminal FERM domain directly binds the kinase domain, blocking access to the catalytic cleft and protecting the FAK activation loop from Src phosphorylation. Additionally, the FERM domain sequesters the Tyr397 autophosphorylation and Src recruitment site, which lies in the linker connecting the FERM and kinase domains. The active phosphorylated FAK kinase adopts a conformation that is immune to FERM inhibition. Our biochemical and structural analysis shows how the architecture of autoinhibited FAK orchestrates an activation sequence of FERM domain displacement, linker autophosphorylation, Src recruitment, and full catalytic activation.

  17. In silico design of protein kinase inhibitors: successes and failures.

    PubMed

    Dubinina, Galina G; Chupryna, Oleksandr O; Platonov, Maxim O; Borisko, Petro O; Ostrovska, Galina V; Tolmachov, Andriy O; Shtil, Alexander A

    2007-03-01

    Protein kinases are among the most exploited targets in modern drug discovery due to key roles these enzymes play in human diseases including cancer. The in silico approach, an important part of rational design of protein kinase inhibitors, is founded on vast information about 3D structures of these enzymes. This review summarizes general structural features of the kinase inhibitors and the studies applied toward a large scale chemical database for virtual screening. Analyzed are the ways of validating the modern docking tools and their combinations with different scoring functions. In particular, we discuss the kinase flexibility as a reason for failures of the docking procedure. Finally, evidence is provided for the main patterns of kinase-inhibitor interactions and creation of the hinge-region-directed 2D filters. PMID:17348826

  18. Emerging Roles of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yu-Ling; Chen, Lih-Chyang; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that enables activation by growth factor receptors or integrins in various types of human cancers. The kinase-dependent and kinase-independent scaffolding functions of FAK modulate the authentic signaling and fundamental functions not only in cancer cells but also in tumor microenvironment to facilitate cancer progression and metastasis. The overexpression and activation of FAK are usually investigated in primary or metastatic cancers and correlated with the poor clinical outcome, highlighting FAK as a potential prognostic marker and anticancer target. Small molecule inhibitors targeting FAK kinase activity or FAK-scaffolding functions impair cancer development in preclinical or clinical trials. In this review, we give an overview for FAK signaling in cancer cells as well as tumor microenvironment that provides new strategies for the invention of cancer development and malignancy. PMID:25918719

  19. Kinase Identification with Supervised Laplacian Regularized Least Squares

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, He; Wang, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation is catalyzed by protein kinases and is irreplaceable in regulating biological processes. Identification of phosphorylation sites with their corresponding kinases contributes to the understanding of molecular mechanisms. Mass spectrometry analysis of phosphor-proteomes generates a large number of phosphorylated sites. However, experimental methods are costly and time-consuming, and most phosphorylation sites determined by experimental methods lack kinase information. Therefore, computational methods are urgently needed to address the kinase identification problem. To this end, we propose a new kernel-based machine learning method called Supervised Laplacian Regularized Least Squares (SLapRLS), which adopts a new method to construct kernels based on the similarity matrix and minimizes both structure risk and overall inconsistency between labels and similarities. The results predicted using both Phospho.ELM and an additional independent test dataset indicate that SLapRLS can more effectively identify kinases compared to other existing algorithms. PMID:26448296

  20. Long term exposure to L-arginine accelerates endothelial cell senescence through arginase-II and S6K1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yuyani; Fru, Michael Forbiteh; Yu, Yi; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    L-arginine supplementation is proposed to improve health status or as adjunct therapy for diseases including cardiovascular diseases. However, controversial results and even detrimental effects of L-arginine supplementation are reported. We investigate potential mechanisms of L-arginine-induced detrimental effects on vascular endothelial cells. Human endothelial cells were exposed to a physiological (0.1 mmol/L) or pharmacological (0.5 mmol/L) concentration of L-arginine for 30 minutes (acute) or 7 days (chronic). The effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelial senescence phenotype, i.e., levels of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, eNOS-uncoupling, arginase-II expression/activity, and mTORC1-S6K1 activity were analyzed. While acute L-arginine treatment enhances endothelial NO production accompanied with superoxide production and activation of S6K1 but no up-regulation of arginase-II, chronic L-arginine supplementation causes endothelial senescence, up-regulation of the adhesion molecule expression, and eNOS-uncoupling (decreased NO and enhanced superoxide production), which are associated with S6K1 activation and up-regulation of arginase-II. Silencing either S6K1 or arginase-II inhibits up-regulation/activation of each other, prevents endothelial dysfunction, adhesion molecule expression, and senescence under the chronic L-arginine supplementation condition. These results demonstrate that S6K1 and arginase-II form a positive circuit mediating the detrimental effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on endothelial cells. PMID:24860943

  1. Microcystin-LR promotes proliferation by activating Akt/S6K1 pathway and disordering apoptosis and cell cycle associated proteins phosphorylation in HL7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghui; Wang, Hao; Wang, Beilei; Chen, Tao; Wang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Pu; Xu, Lihong; Guo, Zonglou

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies had shown that MC-LR inhibited PP2A activity and hyperphosphorylated PP2A substrates at 24h exposure in HL7702 cells. Although the cytoskeleton was rearranged, the cellular effects were not observed. The purpose of the present study with HL7702 cell exposed to MC-LR for 1-72h was to further uncover the adverse effects of MC-LR comprehensively. The results showed that there were no obvious difference in apoptosis rate and cell-cycle distribution but the cell proliferation was changed since 36h exposure while the uptake of MC-LR and its binding to PP2A/C kept unchanged since 1h exposure. PP2A activity had not manifested continued decline compare to 24h exposure and PP2A regulator ?4 was found to release its associated PP2A/C since 1h exposure. The increasing of p-Akt-T308, p-Akt-S473, p-S6K1, p-S6, and p-4E-BP1 since 1h MC-LR exposure indicated that Akt/S6K1 cascade had been activated as early as 1h MC-LR treatment. And, PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002) blocked MC-LR-induced Akt/S6K1 activation and proliferation. Besides, MC-LR also led to hyperphosphorylation of c-Myc, c-Jun, Bcl-2 and Bad and activation of Cdk1. Our study indicated that MC-LR exposure promoted HL7702 cell proliferation and the main mechanism was the activation of Akt/S6K1 cascade. Meanwhile, hyperphosphorylation of Bcl-2, Bad, c-Myc and c-Jun might also be involved. And, the inhibition of PP2A was the major reason for these molecular changes. PMID:26506538

  2. Electrochemical Investigations into Kinase-Catalyzed Transformations of Tau Protein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The formation of neurofibrillary tangles by hyperphosphorylated tau is a well-recognized hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Resulting from malfunctioning protein kinases, hyperphosphorylated tau is unable to bind microtubules properly, causing it to self-associate and aggregate. The effects of tau phosphorylation on tau conformation and aggregation are still largely unexplored. The conformational analysis of tau and its hyperphosphorylated forms is usually performed by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, all of which require ample sample concentrations and/or volumes. Here we report on the use of surface based electrochemical techniques that allow for detection of conformational changes and orientation of tau protein as a function of tau phosphorylation by tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. The electrochemical methods utilize 5?-?-ferrocenyl adenosine triphosphate (Fc-ATP) derivative as a cosubstrate and tau immobilized on gold surface to probe the role of the following protein kinases: Sarcoma related kinase (Src), Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl), tau-tubulin kinase (TTBK), proto-oncogene tyrosine protein kinase Fyn (Fyn), and glycogen synthase kinase 3-? (Gsk-3?). The single kinase and sequential kinase-catalyzed Fc-phosphorylations modulate the electrochemical signal, pointing to the dramatic changes around the Fc group in the Fc-phosphorylated tau films. The location and orientation of the Fc-group in Fc-tau film was investigated by the surface plasmon resonance based on antiferrocene antibodies. Additional surface characterization of the Fc-tau films by time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that Fc-phosphorylations influence the tau orientation and conformation on surfaces. When Fc-phosphorylations were performed in solution, the subsequently immobilized Fc-tau exhibited similar trends. This study illustrates the validity and the utility of the labeled electrochemical approach for probing the changes in protein film properties, conformation, and orientation as a function of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications. PMID:23687953

  3. Stimulus Perception in Bacterial Signal-Transducing Histidine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Mascher, Thorsten; Helmann, John D.; Unden, Gottfried

    2006-01-01

    Two-component signal-transducing systems are ubiquitously distributed communication interfaces in bacteria. They consist of a histidine kinase that senses a specific environmental stimulus and a cognate response regulator that mediates the cellular response, mostly through differential expression of target genes. Histidine kinases are typically transmembrane proteins harboring at least two domains: an input (or sensor) domain and a cytoplasmic transmitter (or kinase) domain. They can be identified and classified by virtue of their conserved cytoplasmic kinase domains. In contrast, the sensor domains are highly variable, reflecting the plethora of different signals and modes of sensing. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of stimulus perception by bacterial histidine kinases, we here survey sensor domain architecture and topology within the bacterial membrane, functional aspects related to this topology, and sequence and phylogenetic conservation. Based on these criteria, three groups of histidine kinases can be differentiated. (i) Periplasmic-sensing histidine kinases detect their stimuli (often small solutes) through an extracellular input domain. (ii) Histidine kinases with sensing mechanisms linked to the transmembrane regions detect stimuli (usually membrane-associated stimuli, such as ionic strength, osmolarity, turgor, or functional state of the cell envelope) via their membrane-spanning segments and sometimes via additional short extracellular loops. (iii) Cytoplasmic-sensing histidine kinases (either membrane anchored or soluble) detect cellular or diffusible signals reporting the metabolic or developmental state of the cell. This review provides an overview of mechanisms of stimulus perception for members of all three groups of bacterial signal-transducing histidine kinases. PMID:17158704

  4. A Quantitative Mass Spectrometry-based Approach for Identifying Protein Kinase-Clients and Quantifying Kinase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes are believed to encode >500 and >1,000 protein kinases, respectively. Despite this abundance, few bona fide kinase-client relationships have been described in detail. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches have been integral to the large-scale mapp...

  5. Design and synthesis of carbazole carboxamides as promising inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingjie; Batt, Douglas G; Lippy, Jonathan S; Surti, Neha; Tebben, Andrew J; Muckelbauer, Jodi K; Chen, Lin; An, Yongmi; Chang, Chiehying; Pokross, Matt; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Haiqing; Burke, James R; Carter, Percy H; Tino, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    Four series of disubstituted carbazole-1-carboxamides were designed and synthesised as inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). 4,7- and 4,6-disubstituted carbazole-1-carboxamides were potent and selective inhibitors of BTK, while 3,7- and 3,6-disubstituted carbazole-1-carboxamides were potent and selective inhibitors of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). PMID:26320619

  6. Screening of a kinase library reveals novel pro-senescence kinases and their common NF-?B-dependent transcriptional program

    PubMed Central

    Ferrand, Mylčne; Kirsh, Olivier; Griveau, Audrey; Vindrieux, David; Martin, Nadine; Defossez, Pierre-Antoine; Bernard, David

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence results in proliferation arrest and acquisition of hallmarks such as the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP). Senescence is involved in regulating numerous physio-pathological responses, including embryonic development, cancer, and several aging-related diseases. Only a few kinases, centered on the RAS signaling pathway, have been identified as inducing premature senescence. About possible other senescence-regulating kinases and signaling pathways, practically little is known. By screening a library of activated kinases, we identified 33 kinases whose constitutive expression decreases cell proliferation and induces expression of senescence markers; p16 and SASP components. Focusing on some kinases showing the strongest pro-senescence effects, we observed that they all induce expression of SASP-component genes through activation of an NF-?B-dependent transcriptional program. Furthermore, inhibition of the p53 or Rb pathway failed to prevent the SASP-inducing effect of pro-senescence kinases. Inhibition of the NF-?B, p53, or Rb pathway proved insufficient to prevent kinase-triggered cell cycle arrest. We have thus identified a repertoire of novel pro-senescence kinases and pathways. These results will open new perspectives in the understanding on the role of cellular senescence in various physio-pathological responses. PMID:26583757

  7. A Role for Protein Kinase Casein Kinase2 a-Subunits in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock1[W][OA

    E-print Network

    Tobin, Elaine

    A Role for Protein Kinase Casein Kinase2 a-Subunits in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock1[W of Biological Sciences, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei, China (J.L., L.M.) Circadian of physiological and molecular processes are regulated by the circadian clock in organisms ranging from bacteria

  8. Screening of a kinase library reveals novel pro-senescence kinases and their common NF-?B-dependent transcriptional program.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Mylčne; Kirsh, Olivier; Griveau, Audrey; Vindrieux, David; Martin, Nadine; Defossez, Pierre-Antoine; Bernard, David

    2015-11-01

    Cellular senescence results in proliferation arrest and acquisition of hallmarks such as the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP). Senescence is involved in regulating numerous physio-pathological responses, including embryonic development, cancer, and several aging-related diseases. Only a few kinases, centered on the RAS signaling pathway, have been identified as inducing premature senescence. About possible other senescence-regulating kinases and signaling pathways, practically little is known. By screening a library of activated kinases, we identified 33 kinases whose constitutive expression decreases cell proliferation and induces expression of senescence markers; p16 and SASP components. Focusing on some kinases showing the strongest pro-senescence effects, we observed that they all induce expression of SASP-component genes through activation of an NF-?B-dependent transcriptional program. Furthermore, inhibition of the p53 or Rb pathway failed to prevent the SASP-inducing effect of pro-senescence kinases. Inhibition of the NF-?B, p53, or Rb pathway proved insufficient to prevent kinase-triggered cell cycle arrest. We have thus identified a repertoire of novel pro-senescence kinases and pathways. These results will open new perspectives in the understanding on the role of cellular senescence in various physio-pathological responses. PMID:26583757

  9. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling determines kidney size

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Kang; Nagai, Kojiro; Chen, Jianchun; Plieth, David; Hino, Masayo; Xu, Jinxian; Sha, Feng; Ikizler, T. Alp; Quarles, C. Chad; Threadgill, David W.; Neilson, Eric G.; Harris, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Kidney size adaptively increases as mammals grow and in response to the loss of 1 kidney. It is not clear how kidneys size themselves or if the processes that adapt kidney mass to lean body mass also mediate renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX). Here, we demonstrated that mice harboring a proximal tubule–specific deletion of Pten (PtenptKO) have greatly enlarged kidneys as the result of persistent activation of the class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT pathway and an increase of the antiproliferative signals p21Cip1/WAF and p27Kip1. Administration of rapamycin to PtenptKO mice diminished hypertrophy. Proximal tubule–specific deletion of Egfr in PtenptKO mice also attenuated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling and reduced the size of enlarged kidneys. In PtenptKO mice, UNX further increased mTORC1 activation and hypertrophy in the remaining kidney; however, mTORC2-dependent AKT phosphorylation did not increase further in the remaining kidney of PtenptKO mice, nor was it induced in the remaining kidney of WT mice. After UNX, renal blood flow and amino acid delivery to the remaining kidney rose abruptly, followed by increased amino acid content and activation of a class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 pathway. Thus, our findings demonstrate context-dependent roles for EGFR-modulated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling in the normal adaptation of kidney size and PTEN-independent, nutrient-dependent class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 signaling in the compensatory enlargement of the remaining kidney following UNX. PMID:25985273

  10. Identification and characterization of a novel sucrose-non-fermenting protein kinase/AMP-activated protein kinase-related protein kinase, SNARK.

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, D L; Bai, Y; Shahmolky, N; Sharma, M; Poon, R; Drucker, D J; Rosen, C F

    2001-01-01

    Subtraction hybridization after the exposure of keratinocytes to ultraviolet radiation identified a differentially expressed cDNA that encodes a protein of 630 amino acid residues possessing significant similarity to the catalytic domain of the sucrose-non-fermenting protein kinase (SNF1)/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. Northern blotting and reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR demonstrated that mRNA transcripts for the SNF1/AMPK-related kinase (SNARK) were widely expressed in rodent tissues. The SNARK gene was localized to human chromosome 1q32 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. SNARK was translated in vitro to yield a single protein band of approx. 76 kDa; Western analysis of transfected baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells detected two SNARK-immunoreactive bands of approx. 76-80 kDa. SNARK was capable of autophosphorylation in vitro; immunoprecipitated SNARK exhibited phosphotransferase activity with the synthetic peptide substrate HMRSAMSGLHLVKRR (SAMS) as a kinase substrate. SNARK activity was significantly increased by AMP and 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAriboside) in rat keratinocyte cells, implying that SNARK might be activated by an AMPK kinase-dependent pathway. Furthermore, glucose deprivation increased SNARK activity 3-fold in BHK fibroblasts. These findings identify SNARK as a glucose- and AICAriboside-regulated member of the AMPK-related gene family that represents a new candidate mediator of the cellular response to metabolic stress. PMID:11284715

  11. Modeling bone marrow toxicity using kinase structural motifs and the inhibition profiles of small molecular kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Olaharski, Andrew J; Bitter, Hans; Gonzaludo, Nina; Kondru, Rama; Goldstein, David M; Zabka, Tanja S; Lin, Henry; Singer, Thomas; Kolaja, Kyle

    2010-11-01

    The cellular function of kinases combined with the difficulty of designing selective small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs) poses a challenge for drug development. The late-stage attrition of SMKIs could be lessened by integrating safety information of kinases into the lead optimization stage of drug development. Herein, a mathematical model to predict bone marrow toxicity (BMT) is presented which enables the rational design of SMKIs away from this safety liability. A specific example highlights how this model identifies critical structural modifications to avoid BMT. The model was built using a novel algorithm, which selects 19 representative kinases from a panel of 277 based upon their ATP-binding pocket sequences and ability to predict BMT in vivo for 48 SMKIs. A support vector machine classifier was trained on the selected kinases and accurately predicts BMT with 74% accuracy. The model provides an efficient method for understanding SMKI-induced in vivo BMT earlier in drug discovery. PMID:20810542

  12. Variable intron/exon structure in the oligochaete lombricine kinase gene.

    PubMed

    Doumen, Chris

    2012-09-01

    Lombricine kinase is an annelid enzyme that belongs to the phosphagen kinase family of which creatine kinase and arginine kinase are the typical representatives. The enzymes play important roles in the cellular energy metabolism of animals. Biochemical, physiological and molecular information with respect to lombricine kinase is limited compared to other phosphagen kinases. This study presents data on the cDNA sequences of lombricine kinase from two smaller oligochaetes, Enchytraeus sp. and Stylaria sp. The deduced amino acid sequences are analyzed and compared with other selected phosphagen kinases. The intron/exon structure of the lombricine kinase gene was determined for these two species as well as two additional oligochaetes, Lumbriculus variegatus and Tubifex tubifex, and compared with available data for annelid phosphagen kinases. The data indicate the existence of a variable organization of the proposed 8-intron/9-exon gene structure. The results provide further insights in the evolution and position of these enzymes within the phosphagen kinase family. PMID:22705027

  13. A protein kinase screen of Neurospora crassa mutant strains reveals that the SNF1 protein kinase promotes glycogen synthase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Candido, Thiago De Souza; Gonçalves, Rodrigo Duarte; Felício, Ana Paula; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; De Carvalho, Ana Carolina Gomes Vieira; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2014-12-15

    Glycogen functions as a carbohydrate reserve in a variety of organisms and its metabolism is highly regulated. The activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, the rate-limiting enzymes of the synthesis and degradation processes, respectively, are regulated by allosteric modulation and reversible phosphorylation. To identify the protein kinases affecting glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa, we performed a screen of 84 serine/threonine kinase knockout strains. We identified multiple kinases that have already been described as controlling glycogen metabolism in different organisms, such as NcSNF1, NcPHO85, NcGSK3, NcPKA, PSK2 homologue and NcATG1. In addition, many hypothetical kinases have been implicated in the control of glycogen metabolism. Two kinases, NcIME-2 and NcNIMA, already functionally characterized but with no functions related to glycogen metabolism regulation, were also identified. Among the kinases identified, it is important to mention the role of NcSNF1. We showed in the present study that this kinase was implicated in glycogen synthase phosphorylation, as demonstrated by the higher levels of glycogen accumulated during growth, along with a higher glycogen synthase (GSN) ±glucose 6-phosphate activity ratio and a lesser set of phosphorylated GSN isoforms in strain Ncsnf1KO, when compared with the wild-type strain. The results led us to conclude that, in N. crassa, this kinase promotes phosphorylation of glycogen synthase either directly or indirectly, which is the opposite of what is described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The kinases also play a role in gene expression regulation, in that gdn, the gene encoding the debranching enzyme, was down-regulated by the proteins identified in the screen. Some kinases affected growth and development, suggesting a connection linking glycogen metabolism with cell growth and development. PMID:25253091

  14. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase and Kinase Specificity in Regulation of SRC and Breast Tumor Kinase.

    PubMed

    Fan, Gaofeng; Aleem, Saadat; Yang, Ming; Miller, W Todd; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2015-06-26

    Despite significant evidence to the contrary, the view that phosphatases are "nonspecific" still pervades the field. Systems biology approaches to defining how signal transduction pathways are integrated at the level of whole organisms also often downplay the contribution of phosphatases, defining them as "erasers" that serve merely to restore the system to its basal state. Here, we present a study that counteracts the idea of "nonspecific phosphatases." We have characterized two structurally similar and functionally related kinases, BRK and SRC, which are regulated by combinations of activating autophosphorylation and inhibitory C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated specificity at the level of the kinases in that SRMS phosphorylated the C terminus of BRK, but not SRC; in contrast, CSK is the kinase responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of SRC, but not BRK. For the phosphatases, we observed that RNAi-mediated suppression of PTP1B resulted in opposing effects on the activity of BRK and SRC and have defined the mechanisms underlying this specificity. PTP1B inhibited BRK by directly dephosphorylating the Tyr-342 autophosphorylation site. In contrast, PTP1B potentiated SRC activity, but not by dephosphorylating SRC itself directly; instead, PTP1B regulated the interaction between CBP/PAG and CSK. SRC associated with, and phosphorylated, the transmembrane protein CBP/PAG at Tyr-317, resulting in CSK recruitment. We identified PAG as a substrate of PTP1B, and dephosphorylation abolished recruitment of the inhibitory kinase CSK. Overall, these findings illustrate how the combinatorial effects of PTKs and PTPs may be integrated to regulate signaling, with both classes of enzymes displaying exquisite specificity. PMID:25897081

  15. Activation of protein kinase C-? and Src kinase increases urea transporter A1 ?-2, 6 sialylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuechen; Yang, Baoxue; Chen, Minguang; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M; Chen, Guangping

    2015-04-01

    The urea transporter A1 (UT-A1) is a glycosylated protein with two glycoforms: 117 and 97 kD. In diabetes, the increased abundance of the heavily glycosylated 117-kD UT-A1 corresponds to an increase of kidney tubule urea permeability. We previously reported that diabetes not only causes an increase of UT-A1 protein abundance but also, results in UT-A1 glycan changes, including an increase of sialic acid content. Because activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway is elevated in diabetes and PKC-? regulates UT-A1 urea transport activity, we explored the role of PKC in UT-A1 glycan sialylation. We found that activation of PKC specifically promotes UT-A1 glycan sialylation in both UT-A1-MDCK cells and rat kidney inner medullary collecting duct suspensions, and inhibition of PKC activity blocks high glucose-induced UT-A1 sialylation. Overexpression of PKC-? promoted UT-A1 sialylation and membrane surface expression. Conversely, PKC-?-deficient mice had significantly less sialylated UT-A1 compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, the effect of PKC-?-induced UT-A1 sialylation was mainly mediated by Src kinase but not Raf-1 kinase. Functionally, increased UT-A1 sialylation corresponded with enhanced urea transport activity. Thus, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which PKC regulates UT-A1 function by increasing glycan sialylation through Src kinase pathways, which may have an important role in preventing the osmotic diuresis caused by glucosuria under diabetic conditions. PMID:25300290

  16. Regulation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ligand Processing

    PubMed Central

    Adrain, Colin; Freeman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A primary mode of regulating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is to control access of ligand to its receptor. Many RTK ligands are synthesized as transmembrane proteins. Frequently, the active ligand must be released from the membrane by proteolysis before signaling can occur. Here, we discuss RTK ligand shedding and describe the proteases that catalyze it in flies and mammals. We focus principally on the control of EGF receptor ligand shedding, but also refer to ligands of other RTKs. Two prominent themes emerge. First, control by regulated trafficking and cellular compartmentalization of the proteases and their ligand substrates plays a key role in shedding. Second, many external signals converge on the shedding proteases and their control machinery. Proteases therefore act as regulatory hubs that integrate information that the cell receives and translate it into precise outgoing signals. The activation of signaling by proteases is therefore an essential element of the cellular communication machinery. PMID:24384567

  17. Antibodies directed against receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    FAUVEL, Bénédicte; Yasri, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have already been approved for cancers and inflammatory diseases, and monoclonal antibodies continue to be one of the fastest growing classes of therapeutic molecules. Because aberrant signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is a commonly observed factor in cancer, most of the subclasses of RTKs are being extensively studied as potential targets for treating malignancies. The first two RTKs that have been targeted by antibody therapy, with five currently marketed antibodies, are the growth factor receptors EGFR and HER2. However, due to systemic side effects, refractory patients and the development of drug resistance, these treatments are being challenged by emerging therapeutics. This review examines current monoclonal antibody therapies against RTKs. After an analysis of agents that have already been approved, we present an analysis of antibodies in clinical development that target RTKs. Finally, we highlight promising RTKs that are emerging as new oncological targets for antibody-based therapy. PMID:24859229

  18. Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) in animal development.

    PubMed

    Takács-Vellai, Krisztina; Vellai, Tibor; Farkas, Zsolt; Mehta, Anil

    2015-04-01

    In textbooks of biochemistry, nucleoside diphosphate conversion to a triphosphate by nucleoside diphosphate 'kinases' (NDPKs, also named NME or NM23 proteins) merits a few lines of text. Yet this essential metabolic function, mediated by a multimeric phosphotransferase protein, has effects that lie beyond a simple housekeeping role. NDPKs attracted more attention when NM23-H1 was identified as the first metastasis suppressor gene. In this review, we examine these NDPK enzymes from a developmental perspective because of the tractable phenotypes found in simple animal models that point to common themes. The data suggest that NDPK enzymes control the availability of surface receptors to regulate cell-sensing cues during cell migration. NDPKs regulate different forms of membrane enclosure that engulf dying cells during development. We suggest that NDPK enzymes have been essential for the regulated uptake of objects such as bacteria or micronutrients, and this evolutionarily conserved endocytic function contributes to their activity towards the regulation of metastasis. PMID:25537302

  19. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Steven I

    2009-12-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have emerged as significant targets for novel cancer therapies. For patients with differentiated or medullary carcinomas unresponsive to conventional treatments, multiple novel therapies primarily targeting angiogenesis have entered clinical trials. Partial response rates up to 30% have been reported in single-agent studies, but prolonged disease stabilisation is more commonly seen. The most successful agents target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Sorafenib and sunitinib have had promising preliminary results reported and are being used selectively for patients who do not qualify for clinical trials. Treatment for patients with metastatic or advanced thyroid carcinoma now emphasises clinical trial opportunities for novel agents with considerable promise. Adverse effects on thyroid function and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been seen with several TKIs, necessitating prospective thyroid function testing for all patients starting therapy. PMID:19942148

  20. The kinase RSK2 modulates the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    van Jaarsveld, Marijn T M; Blijdorp, Iris C J; Boersma, Antonius W M; Pothof, Joris; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Verweij, Jaap; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2013-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy (e.g. cisplatin, carboplatin) is standard of care for many types of cancer including ovarian cancer, however, the efficacy of treatment is hampered by the development of therapy resistance. The mechanisms behind platinum resistance are not completely understood. Here, we have investigated the role of the family of p90 Ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK), important downstream mediators of ERK1/2, in the response to cisplatin chemotherapy. Strikingly, whereas treatment with cisplatin did not alter the levels of RSK1 in response to cisplatin treatment, the structurally related RSK2 protein was downregulated in an ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). Furthermore, we found that knockdown of RSK2, in contrast to knockdown of RSK1, gave rise to enhanced cisplatin sensitivity in a cisplatin sensitive as well as a cisplatin-resistant A2780 cell line. These results indicate that RSK2 is regulated in response to cisplatin treatment, and this downregulation may contribute to the cytotoxic action of cisplatin. Since RSK2 is frequently amplified in a growing number of cancers, this may have implications for the sensitivity of these tumours to platinum-based cytotoxics. PMID:23041051

  1. Aurora Kinases and Potential Medical Applications of Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Giakoustidis, Alexandros; Giakoustidis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinases (AKs) represent a novel group of serine/threonine kinases. They were originally described in 1995 by David Glover in the course of studies of mutant alleles characterized with unusual spindle pole configuration in Drosophila melanogaster. Thus far, three AKs A, B, and C have been discovered in human healthy and neoplastic cells. Each one locates in different subcellular locations and they are all nuclear proteins. AKs are playing an essential role in mitotic events such as monitoring of the mitotic checkpoint, creation of bipolar mitotic spindle and alignment of centrosomes on it, also regulating centrosome separation, bio-orientation of chromosomes and cytokinesis. Any inactivation of them can have catastrophic consequences on mitotic events of spindle formation, alignment of centrosomes and cytokinesis, resulting in apoptosis. Overexpression of AKs has been detected in diverse solid and hematological cancers and has been linked with a dismal prognosis. After discovery and identification of the first aurora kinase inhibitor (AKI) ZM447439 as a potential drug for targeted therapy in cancer treatment, approximately 30 AKIs have been introduced in cancer treatment. PMID:26345296

  2. Systematic screen with kinases inhibitors reveals kinases play distinct roles in growth of osteoprogenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ni-Rong; Lu, Meng; Bin, Fan-Wen; Chang, Zhi-Yong; Meng, Jia; Zhou, Li-Wu; Guo, Ting; Zhao, Jian-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Cancer treatment-related bone loss has become growing problematic, especially in breast and prostate cancer treated with hormone/endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, bone loss caused by targeted therapy in cancer patients is largely unknown yet. In present study, a kinase inhibitors screen was applied for MC3T3-E1, a murine osteoprogenitor cell line, and seven kinase inhibitors (GSK1838705A, PF-04691502, Dasatinib, Masitinib, GDC-0941, XL880 and Everolimus) were found to suppress the cell viability with dose- and time-dependent manner. The most interesting is that many kinase inhibitors (such as lapatinib, erlotinib and sunitinib) can promote MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation at 0.01 ?M. 4 out of 7 inhibitors were selected to perform the functional study and found that they lead to cell cycle dysregulation, treatments of PF-04691502 (AKT inhibitor), Dasatinib (Src inhibitor) and Everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) lead to G1 arrest of MC3T3-E1 cells via downregulation of cyclin D1 and p-AKT, whereas XL880 (MET and VEGFR inhibitor) treatment results in increase of sub-G1 and G2/M phase by upregulation of p53 protein. Our work provides important indications for the comprehensive care of cancer patients treated with some targeted drugs. PMID:24133586

  3. Tank binding kinase 1 is a centrosome-associated kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Smitha; Nguyen, Jonathan; Johnson, Joseph; Haura, Eric; Coppola, Domenico; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-01-01

    TANK Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) is a non-canonical I?B kinase that contributes to KRAS-driven lung cancer. Here we report that TBK1 plays essential roles in mammalian cell division. Specifically, levels of active phospho-TBK1 increase during mitosis and localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and midbody, and selective inhibition or silencing of TBK1 triggers defects in spindle assembly and prevents mitotic progression. TBK1 binds to the centrosomal protein CEP170 and to the mitotic apparatus protein NuMA, and both CEP170 and NuMA are TBK1 substrates. Further, TBK1 is necessary for CEP170 centrosomal localization and binding to the microtubule depolymerase Kif2b, and for NuMA binding to dynein. Finally, selective disruption of the TBK1–CEP170 complex augments microtubule stability and triggers defects in mitosis, suggesting that TBK1 functions as a mitotic kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis. PMID:26656453

  4. DIRECT MODULATION OF THE PROTEIN KINASE A CATALYTIC SUBUNIT ? BY GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, George B.; Howe, Alan K.; Nickl, Christian K.; Dostmann, Wolfgang R.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Deming, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulates processes such as cell proliferation and migration following activation of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), yet the signaling mechanisms that link PKA with growth factor receptors remain largely undefined. Here we report that RTKs can directly modulate the function of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKA-C) through post-translational modification. In vitro kinase assays revealed that both the epidermal growth factor and platelet derived growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR, respectively) tyrosine phosphorylate PKA-C. Mass spectrometry identified tyrosine 330 (Y330) as a receptor-mediated phosphorylation site and mutation of Y330 to phenylalanine (Y330F) all but abolished the RTK-mediated phosphorylation of PKA-C in vitro. Y330 resides within a conserved region at the C-terminal tail of PKA-C that allosterically regulates enzymatic activity. Therefore, the effect of phosphorylation at Y330 on the activity of PKA-C was investigated. The Km for a peptide substrate was markedly decreased when PKA-C subunits were tyrosine phosphorylated by the receptors as compared to un-phosphorylated controls. Importantly, tyrosine-phosphorylated PKA-C subunits were detected in cells stimulated with EGF, PDGF and FGF2 and in fibroblasts undergoing PDGF-mediated chemotaxis. These results demonstrate a direct, functional interaction between RTKs and PKA-C and identify tyrosine phosphorylation as a novel mechansim for regulating PKA activity. PMID:21866565

  5. Aurora Kinases and Potential Medical Applications of Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Giakoustidis, Alexandros; Giakoustidis, Dimitrios

    2015-10-01

    Aurora kinases (AKs) represent a novel group of serine/threonine kinases. They were originally described in 1995 by David Glover in the course of studies of mutant alleles characterized with unusual spindle pole configuration in Drosophila melanogaster. Thus far, three AKs A, B, and C have been discovered in human healthy and neoplastic cells. Each one locates in different subcellular locations and they are all nuclear proteins. AKs are playing an essential role in mitotic events such as monitoring of the mitotic checkpoint, creation of bipolar mitotic spindle and alignment of centrosomes on it, also regulating centrosome separation, bio-orientation of chromosomes and cytokinesis. Any inactivation of them can have catastrophic consequences on mitotic events of spindle formation, alignment of centrosomes and cytokinesis, resulting in apoptosis. Overexpression of AKs has been detected in diverse solid and hematological cancers and has been linked with a dismal prognosis. After discovery and identification of the first aurora kinase inhibitor (AKI) ZM447439 as a potential drug for targeted therapy in cancer treatment, approximately 30 AKIs have been introduced in cancer treatment. PMID:26345296

  6. Diacylglycerol kinase regulation of protein kinase D during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jun; Li Jing; Mourot, Joshua M.; Mark Evers, B.; Chung, Dai H.

    2008-10-17

    We recently demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD) exerts a protective function during oxidative stress-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury; however, the exact role of DAG kinase (DGK){zeta}, an isoform expressed in intestine, during this process is unknown. We sought to determine the role of DGK during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury and whether DGK acts as an upstream regulator of PKD. Inhibition of DGK with R59022 compound or DGK{zeta} siRNA transfection decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced RIE-1 cell apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and increased PKD phosphorylation. Overexpression of kinase-dead DGK{zeta} also significantly increased PKD phosphorylation. Additionally, endogenous nuclear DGK{zeta} rapidly translocated to the cytoplasm following H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. Our findings demonstrate that DGK is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury. PKD activation is induced by DGK{zeta}, suggesting DGK is an upstream regulator of oxidative stress-induced activation of the PKD signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells.

  7. Kinase Domain Insertions Define Distinct Roles of CLK Kinases in SR Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Alex N.; Das, Sanjan; Debreczeni, Judit É.; Rellos, Peter; Fedorov, Oleg; Niesen, Frank H.; Guo, Kunde; Papagrigoriou, Evangelos; Amos, Ann L.; Cho, Suhyung; Turk, Benjamin E.; Ghosh, Gourisankar; Knapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Summary Splicing requires reversible phosphorylation of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, which direct splice site selection in eukaryotic mRNA. These phosphorylation events are dependent on SR protein (SRPK) and cdc2-like kinase (CLK) families. SRPK1 phosphorylation of splicing factors is restricted by a specific docking interaction whereas CLK activity is less constrained. To understand functional differences between splicing factor targeting kinases, we determined crystal structures of CLK1 and CLK3. Intriguingly, in CLKs the SRPK1 docking site is blocked by insertion of a previously unseen helix ?H. In addition, substrate docking grooves present in related mitogen activating protein kinases (MAPKs) are inaccessible due to a CLK specific ?7/8-hairpin insert. Thus, the unconstrained substrate interaction together with the determined active-site mediated substrate specificity allows CLKs to complete the functionally important hyperphosphorylation of splicing factors like ASF/SF2. In addition, despite high sequence conservation, we identified inhibitors with surprising isoform specificity for CLK1 over CLK3. PMID:19278650

  8. Photoinduced structural changes to protein kinase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozinek, Sarah C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    The importance of porphyrins in organisms is underscored by the ubiquitous biological and biochemical functions that are mediated by these compounds and by their potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is the precursor to heme and has biomedical applications such as its use as a photosensitizer in phototherapy and photodetection of cancer. Among other applications, our group has demonstrated that low-irradiance exposure to laser irradiation of PPIX, Fe-PPIX, or meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TSPP) non-covalently docked to a protein causes conformational changes in the polypeptide. Such approach can have remarkable consequences in the study of protein structure/function relationship and can be used to prompt non-native protein properties. Therefore we have investigated protein kinase A (PKA), a more relevant protein model towards the photo-treatment of cancer. PKA's enzymatic functions are regulated by the presence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate for intracellular signal transduction involved in, among other things, stimulation of transcription, tumorigenesis in Carney complex and migration of breast carcinoma cells. Since phosphorylation is a necessary step in some cancers and inflammatory diseases, inhibiting the protein kinase, and therefore phosphorylation, may serve to treat these diseases. Changes in absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime indicate: 1) both TSPP and PPIX non-covalently bind to PKA where they maintain photoreactivity; 2) absorptive photoproduct formation occurs only when PKA is bound to TSPP and irradiated; and 3) PKA undergoes secondary structural changes after irradiation with either porphyrin bound. These photoinduced changes could affect the protein's enzymatic and signaling capabilities.

  9. Assembly and activation of a kinase ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Donald H.; Rhee, Steven S.

    2010-01-01

    RNA activities can be regulated by modulating the relative energies of all conformations in a folding landscape; however, it is often unknown precisely how peripheral elements perturb the overall landscape in the absence of discrete alternative folds (inactive ensemble). This work explores the effects of sequence and secondary structure in governing kinase ribozyme activity. Kin.46 catalyzes thiophosphoryl transfer from ATP?S onto the 5? hydroxyl of polynucleotide substrates, and is regulated 10,000-fold by annealing an effector oligonucleotide to form activator helix P4. Transfer kinetics for an extensive series of ribozyme variants identified several dispensable internal single-stranded segments, in addition to a potential pseudoknot at the active site between segments J1/4 and J3/2 that is partially supported by compensatory rescue. Standard allosteric mechanisms were ruled out, such as formation of discrete repressive structures or docking P4 into the rest of the ribozyme via backbone 2? hydroxyls. Instead, P4 serves both to complete an important structural element (100-fold contribution to the reaction relative to a P4-deleted variant) and to mitigate nonspecific, inhibitory effects of the single-stranded tail (an additional 100-fold contribution to the apparent rate constant, kobs). Thermodynamic activation parameters ?H‡ and ?S‡, calculated from the temperature dependence of kobs, varied with tail length and sequence. Inhibitory effects of the unpaired tail are largely enthalpic for short tails and are both enthalpic and entropic for longer tails. These results refine the structural view of this kinase ribozyme and highlight the importance of nonspecific ensemble effects in conformational regulation by peripheral elements. PMID:20935068

  10. Creatine kinase inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Horjus, D. L.; Nieuwland, R.; Boateng, K. B.; Schaap, M. C. L.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Clark, J. F.; Sturk, A.; Brewster, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding risk with antiplatelet therapy is an increasing clinical challenge. However, the inter-individual variation in this risk is poorly understood. We assessed whether the level of plasma creatine kinase, the enzyme that utilizes ADP and phosphocreatine to rapidly regenerate ATP, may modulate bleeding risk through a dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation. Exogenous creatine kinase (500 to 4000?IU/L, phosphocreatine 5?mM) added to human plasma induced a dose-dependent reduction to complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Accordingly, endogenous plasma creatine kinase, studied in 9 healthy men (mean age 27.9?y, SE 3.3; creatine kinase 115 to 859?IU/L, median 358), was associated with reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, ?0.6; p < 0.05). After exercise, at an endogenous creatine kinase level of 4664, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was undetectable, normalizing after rest, with a concomitant reduction of creatine kinase to normal values. Thus, creatine kinase reduces ADP-induced platelet activation. This may promote bleeding, in particular when patients use platelet P2Y12 ADP receptor inhibitors. PMID:25298190

  11. LRRK2 and ubiquitination: implications for kinase inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Melrose, Heather L

    2015-09-15

    Pathogenic mutations and risk variants in LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) represent the most common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD (Parkinson's disease). LRRK2 protein is widely expressed throughout the brain and the periphery. Structurally, LRRK2 contains several functional domains, including a dual enzymatic core consisting of a kinase and GTPase domain. Disease-linked variants are found in both these enzymatic domains as well as in the COR [C-terminal of ROC (Ras of complex proteins)] and WD40 protein-protein binding domain. The kinase domain is widely believed to be linked to toxicity, and thus the thrust of pharmaceutical effort has focused on developing LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. However, recent data have suggested that inhibition of LRRK2 activity results in reduced LRRK2 levels and peripheral side effects, which are similar to those observed in homozygous LRRK2-knockout and LRRK2 kinase-dead rodent models. In a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal, a study led by Nichols reveals that dephosphorylation of LRRK2 cellular phosphorylation sites (Ser(910)/Ser(935)/Ser(955)/Ser(973)) triggers its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation and thus may account for the loss of function phenotypes observed in peripheral tissues in LRRK2-knockout/kinase-dead or inhibitor-treated rodents and primates. Albeit negative from a kinase inhibitor standpoint, the data open new avenues for LRRK2 biology and therapeutic approaches to counteract LRRK2 toxicity. PMID:26341487

  12. Activation of the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ALK by zinc.

    PubMed

    Bennasroune, Aline; Mazot, Pierre; Boutterin, Marie-Claude; Vigny, Marc

    2010-08-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase essentially and transiently expressed during development of the central and peripheral nervous system. The nature of the cognate ligand of this receptor in Vertebrates is still a matter of debate. During synaptic transmission the release of ionic zinc found in vesicles of certain glutamatergic and gabaergic terminals may act as a neuromodulator by binding to pre- or post-synaptic receptors. Recently, zinc has been shown to activate the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB, independently of neurotrophins. This activation occurs via increasing the Src family kinase activity. In the present study, we investigated whether the ALK activity could be modulated by extracellular zinc. We first showed that zinc alone rapidly activates ALK. This activation is dependent of ALK tyrosine kinase activity and dimerization of the receptor but is independent of Src family kinase activity. In contrast, addition of sodium pyrithione, a zinc ionophore, led to a further activation of ALK. This stronger activation is dependent of Src family kinase but independent of ALK activity and dimerization. In conclusion, zinc could constitute an endogenous ligand of ALK in vertebrates. PMID:20621063

  13. Regulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by MAP kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Lee M.; Guy, Hedeel I.; Kozlowski, Piotr; Huang, Min; Lazarowski, Eduardo; Pope, R. Marshall; Collins, Matthew A.; Dahlstrand, Erik N.; Earp, H. Shelton; Evans, David R.

    2000-01-01

    The de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is required for mammalian cells to proliferate. The rate-limiting step in this pathway is catalysed by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS II), part of the multifunctional enzyme CAD. Here we describe the regulation of CAD by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. When phosphorylated by MAP kinase in vitro or activated by epidermal growth factor in vivo , CAD lost its feedback inhibition (which is dependent on uridine triphosphate) and became more sensitive to activation (which depends upon phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate). Both these allosteric regulatory changes favour biosynthesis of pyrimidines for growth. They were accompanied by increased epidermal growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of CAD in vivo and were prevented by inhibition of MAP kinase. Mutation of a consensus MAP kinase phosphorylation site abolished the changes in CAD allosteric regulation that were stimulated by growth factors. Finally, consistent with an effect of MAP kinase signalling on CPS II activity, epidermal growth factor increased cellular uridine triphosphate and this increase was reversed by inhibition of MAP kinase. Hence these studies may indicate a direct link between activation of the MAP kinase cascade and de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides.

  14. Characterization of Novel Src Family Kinase Inhibitors to Attenuate Microgliosis

    PubMed Central

    Manocha, Gunjan D.; Puig, Kendra L.; Austin, Susan A.; Seyb, Kathleen; Glicksman, Marcie A.; Combs, Colin K.

    2015-01-01

    Microgliosis is a major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain pathology. A? peptide is hypothesized to act as a stimulus for microglia leading to activation of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and subsequent secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, the signaling pathways mediating microglial activation may be important therapeutic targets of anti-inflammatory therapy for AD. Four novel compounds were chosen after high throughput screening kinase activity assays determined them as potential Lyn kinase inhibitors. Their kinase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effect on A?-stimulated activation was assessed using the murine microglial cell line, BV2. Cells were treated with the compounds to determine effects on active, phosphorylated levels of Src family kinases, Src and Lyn, as well as MAP kinases ERK, JNK and p38. Only one compound, LDDN-0003499, produced a dose dependent decrease in basal levels of active, phosphorylated Src and Lyn in the BV2 cells. LDDN-0003499 treatment also attenuated the A?-stimulated increase in active, phosphorylated levels of Lyn/Src and TNF? and IL-6 secretion. This study identifies a novel small molecule Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory effects in response to A? stimulation of microglia. Further in vitro/in vivo characterization of LDDN-0003499 as well as structural modification may provide a new tool for attenuating microglial-mediated brain inflammatory conditions such as that occurring in AD. PMID:26161952

  15. LRRK2 and ubiquitination: implications for kinase inhibitor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Melrose, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations and risk variants in LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) represent the most common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD (Parkinson's disease). LRRK2 protein is widely expressed throughout the brain and the periphery. Structurally, LRRK2 contains several functional domains, including a dual enzymatic core consisting of a kinase and GTPase domain. Disease-linked variants are found in both these enzymatic domains as well as in the COR [C-terminal of ROC (Ras of complex proteins)] and WD40 protein–protein binding domain. The kinase domain is widely believed to be linked to toxicity, and thus the thrust of pharmaceutical effort has focused on developing LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. However, recent data have suggested that inhibition of LRRK2 activity results in reduced LRRK2 levels and peripheral side effects, which are similar to those observed in homozygous LRRK2-knockout and LRRK2 kinase-dead rodent models. In a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal, a study led by Nichols reveals that dephosphorylation of LRRK2 cellular phosphorylation sites (Ser910/Ser935/Ser955/Ser973) triggers its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation and thus may account for the loss of function phenotypes observed in peripheral tissues in LRRK2-knockout/kinase-dead or inhibitor-treated rodents and primates. Albeit negative from a kinase inhibitor standpoint, the data open new avenues for LRRK2 biology and therapeutic approaches to counteract LRRK2 toxicity. PMID:26341487

  16. Unconventional Functions of Mitotic Kinases in Kidney Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hascoet, Pauline; Chesnel, Franck; Le Goff, Cathy; Le Goff, Xavier; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Human tumors exhibit a variety of genetic alterations, including point mutations, translocations, gene amplifications and deletions, as well as aneuploid chromosome numbers. For carcinomas, aneuploidy is associated with poor patient outcome for a large variety of tumor types, including breast, colon, and renal cell carcinoma. The Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous carcinoma consisting of different histologic types. The clear renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype and represents 85% of the RCC. Central to the biology of the ccRCC is the loss of function of the Von Hippel–Lindau gene, but is also associated with genetic instability that could be caused by abrogation of the cell cycle mitotic spindle checkpoint and may involve the Aurora kinases, which regulate centrosome maturation. Aneuploidy can also result from the loss of cell–cell adhesion and apical–basal cell polarity that also may be regulated by the mitotic kinases (polo-like kinase 1, casein kinase 2, doublecortin-like kinase 1, and Aurora kinases). In this review, we describe the “non-mitotic” unconventional functions of these kinases in renal tumorigenesis. PMID:26579493

  17. Baculovirus protein PK2 subverts eIF2? kinase function by mimicry of its kinase domain C-lobe.

    PubMed

    Li, John J; Cao, Chune; Fixsen, Sarah M; Young, Janet M; Ono, Chikako; Bando, Hisanori; Elde, Nels C; Katsuma, Susumu; Dever, Thomas E; Sicheri, Frank

    2015-08-11

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) by eIF2? family kinases is a conserved mechanism to limit protein synthesis under specific stress conditions. The baculovirus-encoded protein PK2 inhibits eIF2? family kinases in vivo, thereby increasing viral fitness. However, the precise mechanism by which PK2 inhibits eIF2? kinase function remains an enigma. Here, we probed the mechanism by which PK2 inhibits the model eIF2? kinase human RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as well as native insect eIF2? kinases. Although PK2 structurally mimics the C-lobe of a protein kinase domain and possesses the required docking infrastructure to bind eIF2?, we show that PK2 directly binds the kinase domain of PKR (PKR(KD)) but not eIF2?. The PKR(KD)-PK2 interaction requires a 22-residue N-terminal extension preceding the globular PK2 body that we term the "eIF2? kinase C-lobe mimic" (EKCM) domain. The functional insufficiency of the N-terminal extension of PK2 implicates a role for the adjacent EKCM domain in binding and inhibiting PKR. Using a genetic screen in yeast, we isolated PK2-activating mutations that cluster to a surface of the EKCM domain that in bona fide protein kinases forms the catalytic cleft through sandwiching interactions with a kinase N-lobe. Interaction assays revealed that PK2 associates with the N- but not the C-lobe of PKR(KD). We propose an inhibitory model whereby PK2 engages the N-lobe of an eIF2? kinase domain to create a nonfunctional pseudokinase domain complex, possibly through a lobe-swapping mechanism. Finally, we show that PK2 enhances baculovirus fitness in insect hosts by targeting the endogenous insect heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)-like eIF2? kinase. PMID:26216977

  18. Host signal transduction and protein kinases implicated in Legionella infection.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2013-01-01

    Modulation of the phosphorylation status of proteins by both kinases and phosphatases plays an important role in cellular signal transduction. Challenge of host cells by Legionella pneumophila manipulates the phosphorylation state of multiple host factors. These changes play roles in bacterial uptake, vacuole modification, cellular survival, and the immune response. In addition to modification by host cell kinases in response to the bacterium, L. pneumophila translocates bacterial kinases into the host cell that may contribute to further signaling modifications. Proper regulation of host cell signaling by L. pneumophila is necessary for its ability to replicate intracellulary, while avoiding host defenses. PMID:23918173

  19. Physiological functions of protein kinase D in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ellwanger, Kornelia; Hausser, Angelika

    2013-02-01

    The cellular functions of the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) have been extensively studied within the last decade and distinct roles such as fission of vesicles at the Golgi compartment, coordination of cell migration and invasion, and regulation of gene transcription have been correlated with this kinase family. Here, we highlight the current state of in vivo studies on PKD function with a focus on animal models and discuss the molecular basis of the observed phenotypic characteristics associated with this kinase family. PMID:23288632

  20. Potential of casein kinase I in digestive cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Cristina; Chai, Jianyuan

    2009-01-01

    Casein kinase I is a group of ubiquitous Serine/Threonine kinases that have been implicated in both normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Recent findings in colon and pancreatic cancer have brought tremendous attention to these molecules as potential therapeutic targets in treatment of digestive cancers. In this review, we summarize up to date what is known about this family of kinases and their involvement in carcinogenesis and other pathological conditions. Our emphasis is on their implications in digestive cancers and their potential for cancer screening and therapy. PMID:21160770

  1. The Stress Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (Mkk)7 Is a Negative Regulator of Antigen Receptor and Growth Factor Receptor–Induced Proliferation in Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takehiko; Wada, Teiji; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Irie-Sasaki, Junko; Matsumoto, Goichi; Goto, Takayuki; Yao, Zhengbin; Wakeham, Andrew; Mak, Tak W.; Suzuki, Akira; Cho, Sarah K.; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos; Oliveira-dos-Santos, Antonio J.; Katada, Toshiaki; Nishina, Hiroshi; Penninger, Josef M.

    2001-01-01

    The dual specificity kinases mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MKK)7 and MKK4 are the only molecules known to directly activate the stress kinases stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs)/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in response to environmental or mitogenic stimuli. To examine the physiological role of MKK7 in hematopoietic cells, we used a gene targeting strategy to mutate MKK7 in murine T and B cells and non-lymphoid mast cells. Loss of MKK7 in thymocytes and mature B cells results in hyperproliferation in response to growth factor and antigen receptor stimulation and increased thymic cellularity. Mutation of mkk7 in mast cells resulted in hyperproliferation in response to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-3 and stem cell factor (SCF). SAPK/JNK activation was completely abolished in the absence of MKK7, even though expression of MKK4 was strongly upregulated in mkk7?/? mast cell lines, and phosphorylation of MKK4 occurred normally in response to multiple stress stimuli. Loss of MKK7 did not affect activation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or p38 MAPK. mkk7?/? mast cells display reduced expression of JunB and the cell cycle inhibitor p16INK4a and upregulation of cyclinD1. Reexpression of p16INK4a in mkk7?/? mast cells abrogates the hyperproliferative response. Apoptotic responses to a variety of stimuli were not affected. Thus, MKK7 is an essential and specific regulator of stress-induced SAPK/JNK activation in mast cells and MKK7 negatively regulates growth factor and antigen receptor–driven proliferation in hematopoietic cells. These results indicate that the MKK7-regulated stress signaling pathway can function as negative regulator of cell growth in multiple hematopoietic lineages. PMID:11560992

  2. Leptin Increases TNF-? Expression and Production through Phospholipase D1 in Raw 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Cheong-Hae; Oh, Jae-Won; Han, Joong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity is associated with inflammation of the respiratory tract and the pathogenesis of asthma. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in leptin-induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and to suggest a molecular link between obesity and respiratory tract inflammation. We investigated whether leptin, a typical adipocytokine, plays a role in the expression of TNF-? through increased PLD1 activity in Raw 264.7. Leptin enhanced the activity of PLD1 through activation of PLC? and Src, while PLD1 siRNA decreased the leptin-induced expression and production of TNF-?. Leptin-induced PLD activation was also inhibited by a PLC? inhibitor (PAO) and Src kinase inhibitor (PP2), indicating that PLC? and Src kinase are upstream activators of PLD1. Down-regulation of PLD1 also completely blocked activation of p70S6K, an activator of JNK. Leptin-induced expression of TNF-? was also prevented by inhibition of p70S6K and JNK. Taken together, these results indicate that PLD1 acts as an important regulator of leptin-induced expression of TNF-? by participating in the PLC?/Src/PLD1/PA/p70S6K/JNK pathway. PMID:25047119

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans Aurora A kinase AIR-1 Is Required for Postembryonic Cell Divisions and Germline

    E-print Network

    Baillie, David

    LETTER Caenorhabditis elegans Aurora A kinase AIR-1 Is Required for Postembryonic Cell Divisions the eukaryotic cell cycle. The Aurora kinases comprise a highly conserved family of serine/threonine kinases a sterile Caenorhabditis elegans mutant in which the majority of the locus encoding the Aurora A kinase air

  4. A second-site suppressor strategy for chemical genetic analysis of diverse protein kinases

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    A second-site suppressor strategy for chemical genetic analysis of diverse protein kinases Chao' kinases. A bacterial genetic selection for second-site suppressors using an aminoglycoside kinase APH(3-site suppressors to rescue the activity of intolerant kinases should facilitate chemical genetic analysis

  5. Dynamic Complexes of 2-Adrenergic Receptors with Protein Kinases and Phosphatases and the Role of Gravin*

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    -pro- tein-linked receptor kinase family, like the -adrenergic recep- tor kinase. 2-Adrenergic receptors ( 2Dynamic Complexes of 2-Adrenergic Receptors with Protein Kinases and Phosphatases and the Role with -adrener- gic receptors. Overlay assays performed with the RII sub- unit of protein kinase A and co

  6. Two Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinases Mediate Signaling, Linking Cell Wall Biosynthesis and ACC Synthase

    E-print Network

    Baskin, Tobias

    signaling pathways. We identified two Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis thalianaTwo Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinases Mediate Signaling, Linking Cell Wall Biosynthesis and ACC kinase, a kinase-inactive version of FEI1 was able to fully complement the fei1 fei2 mutant

  7. TGF-b activates Erk MAP kinase signalling through direct phosphorylation of ShcA

    E-print Network

    Derynck, Rik

    in response to TGF-b. Thus, TbRI, like the TGF-b type II receptor, is a dual-specificity kinase. Recruitment lower level than receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation. We report that upon TGF-b stimulation receptor tyrosine kinases with Erk MAP kinases. We also found that TbRI is tyrosine phosphorylated

  8. REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH SH2 domain-mediated activation of an SRC family kinase

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH SH2 domain-mediated activation of an SRC family kinase is not required@neuron.uchc.edu or ljaffe@neuron.uchc.edu Abstract SRC family kinases (SFKs) function in initiating Ca21 release to activation of SFKs or other tyrosine kinases (Ben-Yosef et al. 1998). Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been

  9. Protein Kinase G Transmits the Cardioprotective Signal From Cytosol to Mitochondria

    E-print Network

    Garlid, Keith

    , tetraphenylphosphonium, and glibenclamide, PKG-selective inhibitor KT5823, and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors). A signaling complex composed of transactivated EGFR, Src kinase, and PI3-kinase causes phos- phorylationProtein Kinase G Transmits the Cardioprotective Signal From Cytosol to Mitochondria Alexandre D

  10. Deletion of the phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p110(gamma) gene attenuates murine atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammatory cell activation by chemokines requires intracellular signaling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and the PI3-kinase-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase Akt. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process driven by oxidatively modified (atherogenic) lipoproteins, ch...

  11. The specificity of Av3 sea anemone toxin for arthropods is determined at linker DI/SS2-S6 in the pore module of target sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Gur Barzilai, Maya; Kahn, Roy; Regev, Noa; Gordon, Dalia; Moran, Yehu; Gurevitz, Michael

    2014-10-15

    Av3 is a peptide neurotoxin from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis that shows specificity for arthropod voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs). Interestingly, Av3 competes with a scorpion ?-toxin on binding to insect Navs and similarly inhibits the inactivation process, and thus has been classified as 'receptor site-3 toxin', although the two peptides are structurally unrelated. This raises questions as to commonalities and differences in the way both toxins interact with Navs. Recently, site-3 was partly resolved for scorpion ?-toxins highlighting S1-S2 and S3-S4 external linkers at the DIV voltage-sensor module and the juxtaposed external linkers at the DI pore module. To uncover channel determinants involved in Av3 specificity for arthropods, the toxin was examined on channel chimaeras constructed with the external linkers of the mammalian brain Nav1.2a, which is insensitive to Av3, in the background of the Drosophila DmNav1. This approach highlighted the role of linker DI/SS2-S6, adjacent to the channel pore, in determining Av3 specificity. Point mutagenesis at DI/SS2-S6 accompanied by functional assays highlighted Trp404 and His405 as a putative point of Av3 interaction with DmNav1. His405 conservation in arthropod Navs compared with tyrosine in vertebrate Navs may represent an ancient substitution that explains the contemporary selectivity of Av3. Trp404 and His405 localization near the membrane surface and the hydrophobic bioactive surface of Av3 suggest that the toxin possibly binds at a cleft by DI/S6. A partial overlap in receptor site-3 of both toxins nearby DI/S6 may explain their binding competition capabilities. PMID:25055135

  12. Minimal unitary representation of 5d superconformal algebra F(4) and AdS6/CFT5 higher spin (super)-algebras

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fernando, Sudarshan; Günaydin, Murat

    2014-11-28

    We study the minimal unitary representation (minrep) of SO(5, 2), obtained by quantization of its geometric quasiconformal action, its deformations and supersymmetric extensions. The minrep of SO(5, 2) describes a massless conformal scalar field in five dimensions and admits a unique “deformation” which describes a massless conformal spinor. Scalar and spinor minreps of SO(5, 2) are the 5d analogs of Dirac’s singletons of SO(3, 2). We then construct the minimal unitary representation of the unique 5d supercon-formal algebra F(4) with the even subalgebra SO(5, 2) ×SU(2). The minrep of F(4) describes a massless conformal supermultiplet consisting of two scalar andmore »one spinor fields. We then extend our results to the construction of higher spin AdS6/CFT5 (super)-algebras. The Joseph ideal of the minrep of SO(5, 2) vanishes identically as operators and hence its enveloping algebra yields the AdS6/CFT5 bosonic higher spin algebra directly. The enveloping algebra of the spinor minrep defines a “deformed” higher spin algebra for which a deformed Joseph ideal vanishes identically as operators. These results are then extended to the construction of the unique higher spin AdS6/CFT5 superalgebra as the enveloping algebra of the minimal unitary realization of F(4) obtained by the quasiconformal methods.« less

  13. Kinase Inhibitor Screening Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 as Potential Modulators of TDP-43 Cytosolic Accumulation during Cell Stress

    PubMed Central

    Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L.; Parker, Sarah J.; Lidgerwood, Grace E.; Duncan, Clare; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M.; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Crouch, Peter J.; White, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal processing of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major factor in neuronal degeneration during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is unclear how changes to TDP-43, including nuclear to cytosolic translocation and subsequent accumulation, are controlled in these diseases. TDP-43 is a member of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) RNA binding protein family and is known to associate with cytosolic RNA stress granule proteins in ALS and FTLD. hnRNP trafficking and accumulation is controlled by the action of specific kinases including members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, little is known about how kinase pathways control TDP-43 movement and accumulation. In this study, we used an in vitro model of TDP-43-positve stress granule formation to screen for the effect of kinase inhibitors on TDP-43 accumulation. We found that while a number of kinase inhibitors, particularly of the MAPK pathways modulated both TDP-43 and the global stress granule marker, human antigen R (HuR), multiple inhibitors were more specific to TDP-43 accumulation, including inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Close correlation was observed between effects of these inhibitors on TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR, but often with different effects on HuR accumulation. This may indicate a potential interaction between TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR. CDK inhibitors were also found to reverse pre-formed TDP-43-positive stress granules and both CDK and GSK3 inhibitors abrogated the accumulation of C-terminal TDP-43 (219–414) in transfected cells. Further studies are required to confirm the specific kinases involved and whether their action is through phosphorylation of the TDP-43 binding partner hnRNP K. This knowledge provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms controlling abnormal cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and may herald new opportunities for kinase modulation-based therapeutic intervention in ALS and FTLD. PMID:23840699

  14. Inhibition of ERK1/2 Worsens Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Kechen; Peng, Zhanglong; Kozar, Rosemary A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been well investigated. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of inhibition of the ERK pathway in an in vitro and in vivo model of intestinal I/R injury. Methods ERK1/2 activity was inhibited using the specific inhibitor, U0126, in intestinal epithelial cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions and in mice subjected to 1 hour of intestinal ischemia followed by 6 hours reperfusion. In vitro, cell proliferation was assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, apoptosis by DNA fragmentation, and migration using an in vitro model of intestinal wound healing. Cells were also transfected with a p70S6K plasmid and the effects of overexpression similarly analyzed. In vivo, the effects of U0126 on intestinal cell proliferation and apoptosis, intestinal permeability, lung and intestinal neutrophil infiltration and injury, and plasma cytokine levels were measured. Survival was also assessed after U0126. Activity of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) was measured by Western blot. Results In vitro, inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 significantly decreased cell proliferation and migration but enhanced cell apoptosis. Overexpression of p70S6K promoted cell proliferation and decreased cell apoptosis. In vivo, U0126 significantly increased cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in the intestine, increased intestinal permeability, intestinal and lung neutrophil infiltration, and injury, as well as systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1?. Mortality was also significantly increased by U0126. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 also abolished activity of p70S6K both in vitro and in vivo models. Conclusion Pharmacologic inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 worsens intestinal IR injury. The detrimental effects are mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of p70S6K, the major effector of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. PMID:24073294

  15. Involvement of Protein Kinase D1 in Signal Transduction from the Protein Kinase C Pathway to the Tyrosine Kinase Pathway in Response to Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone.

    PubMed

    Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Maeda, Noriko; Toku, Seikichi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2015-10-23

    The receptor for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its stimulation activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). We found that the transactivation of ErbB4 was involved in GnRH-induced ERK activation in immortalized GnRH neurons (GT1-7 cells). We found also that GnRH induced the cleavage of ErbB4. In the present study, we examined signal transduction for the activation of ERK and the cleavage of ErbB4 after GnRH treatment. Both ERK activation and ErbB4 cleavage were completely inhibited by YM-254890, an inhibitor of Gq/11 proteins. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) markedly decreased both ERK activation and ErbB4 cleavage. Experiments with two types of PKC inhibitors, Gö 6976 and bisindolylmaleimide I, indicated that novel PKC isoforms but not conventional PKC isoforms were involved in ERK activation and ErbB4 cleavage. Our experiments indicated that the novel PKC isoforms activated protein kinase D (PKD) after GnRH treatment. Knockdown and inhibitor experiments suggested that PKD1 stimulated the phosphorylation of Pyk2 by constitutively activated Src and Fyn for ERK activation. Taken together, it is highly possible that PKD1 plays a critical role in signal transduction from the PKC pathway to the tyrosine kinase pathway. Activation of the tyrosine kinase pathway may be involved in the progression of cancer. PMID:26338704

  16. The Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain is required for Cdc2 activation and mos induction by oncogenic Ras in Xenopus oocytes independently of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Pomerance, M; Thang, M N; Tocque, B; Pierre, M

    1996-06-01

    The Ras-GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP) is an important modulator of p21ras - dependent signal transduction in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cells. We investigated the role of the RasGAP SH3 domain in signal transduction with a monoclonal antibody against the SH3 domain of RasGaP. This antibody prevented the activation of the maturation-promoting factor complex (cyclin B-p34cdc2) by oncogenic Ras. The antibody appears to be specific because as little as 5 ng injected per oocyte reduced the level of Cdc2 activation by 50% whereas 100 ng of nonspecific immunoglobulin G did not affect Cdc2 activation. The antibody blocked the Cdc2 activation induced by oncogenic Ras but not that induced by progesterone, which acts independently of Ras. A peptide corresponding to positions 317 to 326 of a sequence in the SH3 domain of human RasGAP blocked Cdc2 activation, whereas a peptide corresponding to positions 273 to 305 of a sequence in the N-terminal moiety of the SH3 domain of RasGAP had no effect. The antibody did not block the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade (activation of MAPK/ERK kinase [MEK], MAP kinase, and S6 kinase p90rsk). Surprisingly, injection of the negative MAP kinase mutant protein ERK2 K52R (containing a K-to-R mutation at position 52) blocked the Cdc2 activation induced by oncogenic Ras as well as blocking the activation of MAP kinase. Thus, MAP kinase is also implicated in the regulation of Cdc2 activity. In this study, we further investigated the regulation of the synthesis of the c-mos oncogene product, which is necessary for the activation of Cdc2. We report that the synthesis of the c-mos oncogene product, which is necessary for the activation antibody to the SH3 domain of RasGAP and by injecting the negative MAP kinase mutant protein ERK2 K52R. These results suggest that oncogenic Ras activates two signaling mechanisms: the MAP kinase cascade and a signaling pathway implicating the SH3 domain of RasGAP. These mechanisms might control Mos protein expression implicated in Cdc2 activation. PMID:8649428

  17. The Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain is required for Cdc2 activation and mos induction by oncogenic Ras in Xenopus oocytes independently of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Pomerance, M; Thang, M N; Tocque, B; Pierre, M

    1996-01-01

    The Ras-GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP) is an important modulator of p21ras - dependent signal transduction in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cells. We investigated the role of the RasGAP SH3 domain in signal transduction with a monoclonal antibody against the SH3 domain of RasGaP. This antibody prevented the activation of the maturation-promoting factor complex (cyclin B-p34cdc2) by oncogenic Ras. The antibody appears to be specific because as little as 5 ng injected per oocyte reduced the level of Cdc2 activation by 50% whereas 100 ng of nonspecific immunoglobulin G did not affect Cdc2 activation. The antibody blocked the Cdc2 activation induced by oncogenic Ras but not that induced by progesterone, which acts independently of Ras. A peptide corresponding to positions 317 to 326 of a sequence in the SH3 domain of human RasGAP blocked Cdc2 activation, whereas a peptide corresponding to positions 273 to 305 of a sequence in the N-terminal moiety of the SH3 domain of RasGAP had no effect. The antibody did not block the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade (activation of MAPK/ERK kinase [MEK], MAP kinase, and S6 kinase p90rsk). Surprisingly, injection of the negative MAP kinase mutant protein ERK2 K52R (containing a K-to-R mutation at position 52) blocked the Cdc2 activation induced by oncogenic Ras as well as blocking the activation of MAP kinase. Thus, MAP kinase is also implicated in the regulation of Cdc2 activity. In this study, we further investigated the regulation of the synthesis of the c-mos oncogene product, which is necessary for the activation of Cdc2. We report that the synthesis of the c-mos oncogene product, which is necessary for the activation antibody to the SH3 domain of RasGAP and by injecting the negative MAP kinase mutant protein ERK2 K52R. These results suggest that oncogenic Ras activates two signaling mechanisms: the MAP kinase cascade and a signaling pathway implicating the SH3 domain of RasGAP. These mechanisms might control Mos protein expression implicated in Cdc2 activation. PMID:8649428

  18. Clinical experience with aurora kinase inhibitors: a review.

    PubMed

    Boss, David S; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2009-08-01

    The aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases comprises three members, designated auroras A, B, and C. Auroras A and B are essential components of the mitotic pathway, ensuring proper chromosome assembly, formation of the mitotic spindle, and cytokinesis. The role of aurora C is less clear. Overexpression of aurora A and B has been observed in several tumor types, and has been linked with a poor prognosis of cancer patients. Several small molecules targeting aurora kinases A and B or both have been evaluated preclinically and in early phase I trials. In this review we aim to summarize the most recent advances in the development of aurora kinase inhibitors, with a focus on the clinical data. PMID:19684075

  19. Canine Osteosarcoma Cells Exhibit Resistance to Aurora Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Claire M.; Pozniak, John; Scott, Milcah C.; Ito, Daisuke; Gorden, Brandi H.; Graef, Ashley J.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD1152 and VX680 on canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Cytotoxicity was seen in all four cell lines; however, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations were significantly higher than in human and canine leukemia cells. AZD1152 reduced Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, indicating resistance was not due to failure of target recognition. Efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters is one known mechanism of resistance against these drugs and verapamil enhanced AZD1152-induced apoptosis; however, these transporters were only expressed by a small percentage of cells in each line and the effects of verapamil were modest, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to resistance. Our results indicate canine osteosarcoma cells are resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors and suggest that these compounds are unlikely to be useful as single agents for this disease. Further investigation of these resistance mechanisms and the potential utility of Aurora kinase inhibitors in multi-agent protocols is warranted. PMID:23410058

  20. Structural Comparisons of Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Amzel, L.; Huang, C; Mandelker, D; Lengauer, C; Gabelli, S; Vogelstein, B

    2008-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that regulate cell growth. One of these kinases, PI3Kalpha, is frequently mutated in diverse tumour types. The recently determined structure of PI3Kalpha reveals features that distinguish this enzyme from related lipid kinases. In addition, wild-type PI3Kgamma differs from PI3Kalpha by a substitution identical to a PI3Kalpha oncogenic mutant (His1047Arg) that might explain the differences in the enzymatic activities of the normal and mutant PI3Kalpha. Comparison of the PI3K structures also identified structural features that could potentially be exploited for the design of isoform-specific inhibitors.

  1. Biochemical and structural studies on trypanosomatid pyruvate kinases 

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Wenhe

    2013-06-29

    Glycolytic enzymes have been indicated as potential drug targets in trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei), Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and Leishmania spp. Pyruvate kinase (PYK) catalyses the ...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various inherited anemias due to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various inherited anemias due to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various inherited anemias due to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various inherited anemias due to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various inherited anemias due to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  7. HTRF Kinase Assay Development and Methods in Inhibitor Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong; Manuia, Mari; Juarez, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Due to their important roles in cellular signaling and their dysfunctions being linked to diseases, kinases have become a class of proteins being actively pursued as potential drug targets. Biochemical assays for kinases have been developed in various formats to facilitate inhibitor screening and selectivity profiling. Here, we focus on one such technology: homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF). In this chapter, we describe the methods of developing an HTRF kinase assay using mutant EGFR enzyme as an example. We show how to determine the kinetic parameter of the enzyme (ATP K m), as well as how to study the inhibitor mechanism of action (MoA) exemplified by inhibitors of different MoAs. All methods described here can be readily applied to other kinases with minor modifications. PMID:26501898

  8. The energy landscape of adenylate kinase during catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, S. Jordan; Agafonov, Roman V.; Cho, Young-Jin; Pontiggia, Francesco; Otten, Renee; Pachov, Dimitar V.; Kutter, Steffen; Phung, Lien A.; Murphy, Padraig N.; Thai, Vu; Alber, Tom; Hagan, Michael F.; Kern, Dorothee

    2014-01-01

    Kinases perform phosphoryl-transfer reactions in milliseconds; without enzymes, these reactions would take about 8000 years under physiological conditions. Despite extensive studies, a comprehensive understanding of kinase energy landscapes, including both chemical and conformational steps, is lacking. Here we scrutinize the microscopic steps in the catalytic cycle of adenylate kinase, through a combination of NMR measurements during catalysis, pre-steady-state kinetics, MD simulations, and crystallography of active complexes. We find that the Mg2+ cofactor activates two distinct molecular events, phosphoryl transfer (>105-fold) and lid-opening (103-fold). In contrast, mutation of an essential active-site arginine decelerates phosphoryl transfer 103-fold without substantially affecting lid-opening. Our results highlight the importance of the entire energy landscape in catalysis and suggest that adenylate kinases have evolved to activate key processes simultaneously by precise placement of a single, charged and very abundant cofactor in a pre-organized active site. PMID:25580578

  9. Resolution of thylakoid polyphenol oxidase and a protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Race, H.L.; Davenport, J.W.; Hind, G.

    1995-12-31

    The predominant protein kinase activity in octylglucoside (OG) extracts of spinach thylakoids has been attributed to a 64-kDa protein, tp64. Recent work calls into question the relation between tp64 and protein kinase activity, which were fractionated apart using fluid phase IEF and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Hind et al. sequenced tp64 from the cDNA and showed it to be a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) homolog. Its transit peptide indicates a location for the mature protein within the thylakoid lumen, where there is presumably no ATP and where it is remote from the presumed kinase substrates: the stromally exposed regions of integral PS-II membrane proteins. Here the authors suggest that the kinase is a 64-kDa protein distinct from tp64.

  10. Dynamics of Protein Kinases: Insights from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yao; Liddle, Jennifer C.; Pardi, Arthur; Ahn, Natalie G.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Protein kinases are ubiquitous enzymes with critical roles in cellular processes and pathology. As a result, researchers have studied their activity and regulatory mechanisms extensively. Thousands of X-ray structures give snapshots of the architectures of protein kinases in various states of activation and ligand binding. However, the extent of and manner by which protein motions and conformational dynamics underlie the function and regulation of these important enzymes is not well understood. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide complementary information about protein conformation and dynamics in solution. However, until recently, the large size of these enzymes prevented researchers from using these methods with kinases. Developments in transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY)-based techniques and more efficient isotope labeling strategies are now allowing researchers to carry out NMR studies on full-length protein kinases. In this Account, we describe recent insights into the role of dynamics in protein kinase regulation and catalysis that have been gained from NMR measurements of chemical shift changes and line broadening, residual dipolar couplings, and relaxation. These findings show strong associations between protein motion and events that control kinase activity. Dynamic and conformational changes occurring at ligand binding sites and other regulatory domains of these p