Sample records for p70 s6 kinase

  1. Structural Basis of Human p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase-1 Regulation by Activation Loop Phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Tomoko; Byrne, Noel; Diehl, Ronald E.; Funabashi, Kaoru; Hall, Dawn L.; Ikuta, Mari; Patel, Sangita B.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Smith, Robert F.; Takahashi, Ikuko; Zugay-Murphy, Joan; Iwasawa, Yoshikazu; Lumb, Kevin J.; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Sharma, Sujata (Banyu); (Merck)

    2010-03-04

    p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) is a downstream effector of the mTOR signaling pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell-cycle progression, and glucose homeostasis. Multiple phosphorylation events within the catalytic, autoinhibitory, and hydrophobic motif domains contribute to the regulation of p70S6K. We report the crystal structures of the kinase domain of p70S6K1 bound to staurosporine in both the unphosphorylated state and in the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-phosphorylated state in which Thr-252 of the activation loop is phosphorylated. Unphosphorylated p70S6K1 exists in two crystal forms, one in which the p70S6K1 kinase domain exists as a monomer and the other as a domain-swapped dimer. The crystal structure of the partially activated kinase domain that is phosphorylated within the activation loop reveals conformational ordering of the activation loop that is consistent with a role in activation. The structures offer insights into the structural basis of the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-induced activation of p70S6K and provide a platform for the rational structure-guided design of specific p70S6K inhibitors.

  2. Multiple Independent Inputs Are Required for Activation of the p70 S6 Kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    QING-PING WENG; KHURSHID ANDRABI; MARK T. KOZLOWSKI; J. RUSSELL GROVE; ANDJOSEPH AVRUCH

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the noncatalytic carboxy-terminal tail of the p70 S6 kinase (amino acids 422to525)containsanautoinhibitorypseudosubstratedomainthatisphosphorylatedinsituduringactivation and in vitro by mitogen-activated protein kinases. The present study shows that a recombinant p70 deleted of the carboxy-terminal tail (p70DCT104) nevertheless exhibits a basal and serum-stimulated 40S kinase activity and susceptibility to inhibition by wortmannin very similar to those of the parent,

  3. p70S6K is regulated by focal adhesion kinase and is required for Src-selective autophagy.

    PubMed

    Sandilands, Emma; Schoenherr, Christina; Frame, Margaret C

    2015-09-01

    Here we report that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is required for optimal signalling to the Akt-p70S6K-S6 pathway in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. Specifically, in SCCs that are genetically deficient for FAK, there is reduced phosphorylation of Akt, p70S6K and S6, and signalling to Akt-p70S6K-S6 is more sensitive to inhibition by multiple agents that suppress the pathway. By contrast, mTOR is unaffected. Indeed, pharmacological agents that inhibit the Akt-p70S6K-S6 pathway, and PDK1 that lies upstream of Akt, also impair the autophagic targeting of activated c-Src (p-Src) in FAK deficient cells. This is associated with loss of a complex between p-Src and the autophagy protein LC3, a biochemical surrogate of impaired Src-selective autophagy. In keeping with a vital role for p70S6K, inhibition by a selective inhibitor and specific siRNA also impaired Src-selective autophagy. Finally, components of the PDK1-Akt-p70S6K signalling pathway were co-located with p-Src at autophagosomes, and Src and p70S6K co-exist in the same biochemical complex. We therefore deduce that the FAK-regulated signalling module PDK1-Akt-p70S6K that controls Src's intracellular trafficking operates at Src-containing autophagosomes. PMID:26071201

  4. Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5)-dependent Phosphorylation of p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (S6K) Is Required for Dendritic Spine Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kwok-On; Liang, Zhuoyi; Fei, Erkang; Huang, Huiqian; Ip, Nancy Y

    2015-06-01

    The maturation and maintenance of dendritic spines depends on neuronal activity and protein synthesis. One potential mechanism involves mammalian target of rapamycin, which promotes protein synthesis through phosphorylation of eIF4E-binding protein and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K). Upon extracellular stimulation, mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylates S6K at Thr-389. S6K also undergoes phosphorylation at other sites, including four serine residues in the autoinhibitory domain. Despite extensive biochemical studies, the importance of phosphorylation in the autoinhibitory domain in S6K function remains unresolved, and its role has not been explored in the cellular context. Here we demonstrated that S6K in neuron was phosphorylated at Ser-411 within the autoinhibitory domain by cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Ser-411 phosphorylation was regulated by neuronal activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Knockdown of S6K in hippocampal neurons by RNAi led to loss of dendritic spines, an effect that mimics neuronal activity blockade by tetrodotoxin. Notably, coexpression of wild type S6K, but not the phospho-deficient S411A mutant, could rescue the spine defects. These findings reveal the importance of cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated phosphorylation of S6K at Ser-411 in spine morphogenesis driven by BDNF and neuronal activity. PMID:25903132

  5. Requirement for phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase in growth hormone signalling to the mitogen-activated protein kinase and p70s6k pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Kilgour, E; Gout, I; Anderson, N G

    1996-01-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) co-ordinately stimulates three distinct signalling pathways in 3T3-F442A preadipocytes, the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and p70s6k. The mechanisms linking the GH receptor to these signals have not been fully identified. In this study we have examined the role of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI 3-kinase). Pretreatment of cells with wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, prevented the activation of p70s6k and partially inhibited the activation of p42 and p44 MAP kinases by GH. In contrast, wortmannin failed to appreciably affect the GH-stimulated tyrosyl phosphorylation of JAK-2 or STAT-1. GH transiently increased the activity of PI 3-kinase recovered in antiphosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates. In addition, several tyrosyl-phosphorylated proteins were specifically adsorbed from lysates of cells exposed to GH by a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the 85 kDa regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase. GH also induced an increase in the PI 3-kinase activity associated with both JAK-2 and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) immunoprecipitates. These results establish PI 3-kinase as an important mediator of GH signalling to the MAP kinase and p70s6k pathways and suggest that PI 3-kinase is activated by a mechanism involving JAK-2 and IRS-1. PMID:8615823

  6. Intracellular calcium and calmodulin link brain-derived neurotrophic factor to p70S6 kinase phosphorylation and dendritic protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianju; Lin, David S.; Zheng, Fei; Sutton, Michael A; Wang, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (S6K) pathway plays an important role in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated protein synthesis and neuroplasticity. Although many aspects of neuronal function are regulated by intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and calmodulin (CaM), their functions in BDNF-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and protein synthesis are largely unknown. Here, we report that BDNF, via TrkB-dependent activation of mTOR, induces sustained phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr389 and Thr421/Ser424. BDNF-induced phosphorylation at Thr389 was dependent on PI3 kinase, but independent of ERK-MAPK. The previously identified MAPK phosphorylation site at Thr421/Ser424 required both PI3K and MAPK in BDNF-stimulated neurons. Further, we found that the reduction in [Ca2+]i, but not extracellular calcium, blocked the BDNF-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K at both sites. Inhibition of CaM by W13 also blocked p70S6K phosphorylation. In correlation, W13 inhibited BDNF-induced local dendritic protein synthesis. Interestingly, sustained elevation of [Ca2+]i by membrane depolarization antagonized the BDNF-induced p70S6K phosphorylation. Finally, the BDNF-induced p70S6K phosphorylation did not require the increase of calcium level through either extracellular influx or PLC-mediated intracellular calcium release. Collectively, these results indicate that the basal level of intracellular calcium gates BDNF-induced activation of p70S6K and protein synthesis through CaM. PMID:20029971

  7. Ultraviolet-induced Phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr389 and Thr421\\/Ser424 Involves Hydrogen Peroxide and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin but not Akt and Atypical Protein Kinase C1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuanshu Huang; Jingxia Li; Qingdong Ke; Stephen S. Leonard; Bing-Hua Jiang; Xiao-Song Zhong; Max Costa; Vincent Castranova; Xianglin Shi

    The p70 S6 kinase (p70S6k) is a Ser\\/Thr kinase that plays an important role in cell growth, transformation, and the transition of the cell cycle in mammalian cells. Because UV radiation has been reported to induce activation of p70S6k, which is believed to play some role in the carcinogenic effects of sun exposure, the present study investigated the signaling path-

  8. Functional role of RNA polymerase II and P70 S6 kinase in KCl withdrawal-induced cerebellar granule neuron apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Jaya; Brown, Kristy R; Padilla, Amelia; Shelanski, Michael L

    2015-02-27

    KCl withdrawal-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons is associated with aberrant cell cycle activation, and treatment with cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors protects cells from undergoing apoptosis. Because the Cdk inhibitor flavopiridol is known to inhibit RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent transcription elongation by inhibiting the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, a complex of CDK9 and cyclin T), we examined whether inhibition of RNA Pol II protects neurons from apoptosis. Treatment of neurons with 5, 6-dichloro-1-?-D-ribobenzimidazole (DRB), an RNA Pol II-dependent transcription elongation inhibitor, and flavopiridol inhibited phosphorylation and activation of Pol II and protected neurons from undergoing apoptosis. In addition to Pol II, neurons subjected to KCl withdrawal showed increased phosphorylation and activation of p70 S6 kinase, which was inhibited by both DRB and flavopiridol. Immunostaining analysis of the neurons deprived of KCl showed increased nuclear levels of phospho-p70 S6 kinase, and neurons protected with DRB and flavopiridol showed accumulation of the kinase into large spliceosome assembly factor-positive speckle domains within the nuclei. The formation of these foci corresponded with cell survival, and removal of the inhibitors resulted in dispersal of the speckles into smaller foci with subsequent apoptosis induction. Because p70 S6 kinase is known to induce translation of mRNAs containing a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract, our data suggest that transcription and translation of this subset of mRNAs may contribute to KCl withdrawal-induced apoptosis in neurons. PMID:25568312

  9. P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Shi, Zhumei [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)] [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: binghjiang@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} P70S6K1 regulates VEGF expression; {yields} P70S6K1 induces transcriptional activation through HIF-1{alpha} binding site; {yields} P70S6K1 regulates HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression; {yields} P70S6K1 mediates tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression. -- Abstract: The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN-negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1{alpha} binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

  10. p70 S6-kinase mediates the cooperation between Akt1 and Mek1 pathways in fibroblast-mediated extracellular matrix remodeling.

    PubMed

    Goc, Anna; Sabbineni, Harika; Abdalla, Maha; Somanath, Payaningal R

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both synergistic and opposing effects of Akt and Mek1/2 in various cell functions and disease states. Furthermore, Akt has been reported to inhibit and activate cRaf/Mek pathway, suggesting that their mutual interaction and cooperation may be cell type, stimuli and/or context specific. While PI3-kinase/Akt and cRaf/Mek pathways have been implicated in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, mutual interactions between these two pathways and their specific contributions to the events leading to ECM synthesis and assembly is not clear. We investigated the specific role of Akt1 and Mek1 in ECM synthesis and assembly by NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and how these effects were reconciled to mediate overall ECM remodeling. Our study identified that cooperation between Akt1 and Mek1 is necessary to mediate ECM synthesis. Whereas Akt1 activation resulted in Mek1 activation as evidenced by increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, Mek1 inhibition using U0126 or DN-Mek1 resulted in enhanced Akt1 phosphorylation. Interestingly, both Akt1 and Mek1 activities were needed for the synthesis and assembly of ECM. The effect of Akt1 and Mek1 on ECM synthesis was reconciled through the activation of p70 S6-kinase via phosphorylation at T421/S424 and S411, respectively. Furthermore, Akt1 and Mek1 cooperated in mediating ECM assembly via activation of integrin ?1. Together, we show for the first time that Akt1 and Mek1 pathways cooperate in the regulation of ECM remodeling by the fibroblasts. PMID:25843685

  11. Activation of aPKC is required for vanadate-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), but not p70S6k in mouse epidermal JB6 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxia; Dokka, Sujatha; Wang, Liying; Shi, Xianglin; Castranova, Vincent; Yan, Yan; Costa, Max; Huang, Chuanshu

    2004-01-01

    Vanadium is a metal widely distributed in the environment. Although vanadate-containing compounds exert potent toxic effects on a wide variety of biological systems, the mechanisms by which vanadate mediates adverse effects are not well understood. The present study investigated the vanadate-induced phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K, two kinases known to be vital for cell survival, growth, transformation, and transition of the cell cycle in mammals. Exposure of mouse epidermal JB6 cells to vanadium led to phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Vanadium exposure also caused translocation of atypical isoforms of PKC (lambda, zeta) from the cytosol to the membrane, but had no effect on PKCalpha translocation, suggesting that the atypical PKCs (aPKC) were specifically involved in vanadium-induced cellular response. Importantly, overexpression of a dominant negative mutant PKClambda blocked Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308, whereas it did not inhibit p70S6k phosphorylation at Thr389 and Thr421/Ser424, suggesting that aPKC activation is specifically involved in vanadium-induced activation of Akt, but not in activation of p70S6k. Furthermore, vanadium-induced p70S6k phosphorylation at Thr389 and Thr421/Ser424 and Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 occurred through a PI-3K-dependent pathway because a PI-3K dominant negative mutant inhibited induction as compared with vector control cells. These results indicate that there was a differential role of aPKC in vanadate-induced phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6k, suggesting that signal transduction pathways leading to the activation of Akt and p70S6k were different. PMID:14971662

  12. PF-4708671 Activates AMPK Independently of p70S6K1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Vainer, Gilad W.; Saada, Ann; Kania-Almog, Juliane; Amartely, Adir; Bar-Tana, Jacob; Hertz, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (P70S6K1) is activated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1) and regulates proliferation, growth, and metabolism. PF-4708671 is a novel, cell-permeable, has been proposed to be a highly specific inhibitor of p70S6K1. It is used in micromolar concentration range to dissect signaling pathways downstream of mTORC1 and to study the function of p70S6K1. Here we show that PF-4708671 induces AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and activation in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) independently of p70S6K1, due to specific inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I. PMID:25202971

  13. Activation of a PKC is required for vanadate-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), but not p70 S6k in mouse epidermal JB6 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingxia Li; Sujatha Dokka; Liying Wang; Xianglin Shi; Vincent Castranova; Yan Yan; Max Costa; Chuanshu Huang

    2004-01-01

    Vanadium is a metal widely distributed in the environment. Although vanadate-containing compounds exert potent toxic effects on a wide variety of biological systems, the mechanisms by which vanadate mediates adverse effects are not well understood. The present study investigated the vanadate-induced phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K, two kinases known to be vital for cell survival, growth, transformation, and transition of

  14. Nutrient content of diet affects the signaling activity of the insulin/target of rapamycin/p70 S6 kinase pathway in the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Arsic, Dany; Guerin, Patrick M

    2008-08-01

    Regulation of female mosquito feeding and reproduction plays a central role in their disease-vector competence. In this study we show that Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes engorged on albumin, amino acid and saline meals the same way as on blood, whereas sucrose evoked a typical plant nectar feeding response. Among the artificial diets, only the albumin-containing ones allowed follicular development. The target of rapamycin (TOR)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K) pathway has been identified as an essential nutrient-sensing tool controlling egg development in mosquitoes under the control of regulating inputs from the insulin pathway. We assayed the early response of TOR, S6K, tuberous sclerosis (TSC2), insulin receptor (INR) and two insulin-like peptides (ILPs) by quantitative real-time PCR assessment of mRNA levels and immunoblotting of phosphorylated active TOR and S6K in An. gambiae ovary and brain 3 h after engorgement. We show that transcript levels of s6k and members of the insulin pathway are readily affected by nutrients (especially one ILP in the head) and that the TOR/S6K phosphorylation is able to react quickly to a meal to an extent which depends on the true nutritive value. PMID:18634792

  15. Pyrazolopyrimidines as dual Akt/p70S6K inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth D; Kim, Moon H; Bussenius, Joerg; Anand, Neel K; Blazey, Charles M; Bowles, Owen J; Canne-Bannen, Lynne; Chan, Diva S-M; Chen, Baili; Co, Erick W; Costanzo, Simona; DeFina, Steven C; Dubenko, Larisa; Engst, Stefan; Franzini, Maurizio; Huang, Ping; Jammalamadaka, Vasu; Khoury, Richard G; Klein, Rhett R; Laird, A Douglas; Le, Donna T; Mac, Morrison B; Matthews, David J; Markby, David; Miller, Nicole; Nuss, John M; Parks, Jason J; Tsang, Tsze H; Tsuhako, Amy L; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei

    2012-04-15

    Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR kinase pathway is frequently associated with human cancer. Selective inhibition of p70S6Kinase, which is the last kinase in the PI3K pathway, is not sufficient for strong tumor growth inhibition and can lead to activation of upstream proteins including Akt through relief of a negative feedback loop. Targeting multiple sites in the PI3K pathway might be beneficial for optimal activity. In this manuscript we report the design of dual Akt/p70S6K inhibitors and the evaluation of the lead compound 11b in vivo, which was eventually advanced into clinical development. PMID:22450127

  16. Oscillatory Flow-induced Proliferation of Osteoblast-like Cells Is Mediated by ?v?3 and ?1 Integrins through Synergistic Interactions of Focal Adhesion Kinase and Shc with Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ding-Yu; Li, Yi-Shuan J.; Chang, Shun-Fu; Zhou, Jing; Ho, Hui-Min; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann; Chien, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial flow in and around bone tissue is oscillatory in nature and affects the mechanical microenvironment for bone cell growth and formation. We investigated the role of oscillatory shear stress (OSS) in modulating the proliferation of human osteoblast-like MG63 cells and its underlying mechanisms. Application of OSS (0.5 ± 4 dynes/cm2) to MG63 cells induced sustained activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K (p70S6 kinase) signaling cascades and hence cell proliferation, which was accompanied by increased expression of cyclins A and D1, cyclin-dependent protein kinases-2, -4, and -6, and bone formation-related genes (c-fos, Egr-1, and Cox-2) and decreased expression of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1. OSS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K and cell proliferation were inhibited by specific antibodies or small interference RNAs of ?v?3 and ?1 integrins and by dominant-negative mutants of Shc (Shc-SH2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (FAK(F397Y)). Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that OSS induces sustained increases in association of Shc and FAK with ?v?3 and ?1 integrins and PI3K subunit p85, which were abolished by transfecting the cells with FAK(F397Y) or Shc-SH2. OSS also induced sustained activation of ERK, which was inhibited by the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and was required for OSS-induced activation of mTOR/p70S6K and proliferation in MG63 cells. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which OSS induces osteoblast-like cell proliferation through activation of ?v?3 and ?1 integrins and synergistic interactions of FAK and Shc with PI3K, leading to the modulation of downstream ERK and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathways. PMID:19889638

  17. Mechanical stimuli of skeletal muscle: implications on mTOR\\/p70s6k and protein synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelo Eidy Zanchi; Antonio Herbert Lancha

    2008-01-01

    The skeletal muscle is a tissue with adaptive properties which are essential to the survival of many species. When mechanically\\u000a stimulated it is liable to undergo remodeling, namely, changes in its mass\\/volume resulting mainly from myofibrillar protein\\u000a accumulation. The mTOR pathway (mammalian target of rapamycin) via its effector p70s6k (ribosomal protein kinase S6) has been\\u000a reported to be of importance

  18. Resistance to Selumetinib (AZD6244) in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines is Mediated by p70S6K and RPS6 Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Silvina; Tristante, Elena; Saceda, Miguel; Carbonell, Pablo; Mayor-López, Leticia; Carballo-Santana, Mar; Carrasco-García, Estefanía; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; García-Morales, Pilar; Carballo, Fernando; Ferragut, José A.; Martínez-Lacaci, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a MEK1/2 inhibitor that has gained interest as an anti-tumour agent. We have determined the degree of sensitivity/resistance to Selumetinib in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines using cell proliferation and soft agar assays. Sensitive cell lines underwent G1 arrest, whereas Selumetinib had no effect on the cell cycle of resistant cells. Some of the resistant cell lines showed high levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of serum. Selumetinib inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and RSK and had no effect on AKT phosphorylation in both sensitive and resistant cells. Furthermore, mutations in KRAS, BRAF, or PIK3CA were not clearly associated with Selumetinib resistance. Surprisingly, Selumetinib was able to inhibit phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in sensitive cell lines. However, p70S6K and RPS6 phosphorylation remained unaffected or even increased in resistant cells. Moreover, in some of the resistant cell lines p70S6K and RPS6 were phosphorylated in the absence of serum. Interestingly, colorectal primary cultures derived from tumours excised to patients exhibited the same behaviour than established cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of p70S6K using the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, the specific mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin and the specific p70S6K inhibitor PF-4708671 potentiated Selumetinib effects in resistant cells. In addition, biological inhibition of p70S6K using siRNA rendered responsiveness to Selumetinib in resistant cell lines. Furthermore, combination of p70S6K silencing and PF-47086714 was even more effective. We can conclude that p70S6K and its downstream target RPS6 are potential biomarkers of resistance to Selumetinib in colorectal cancer. PMID:25379021

  19. Effect of Orexin-A on Cortisol Secretion in H295R Cells via p70S6K/4EBP1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaocen; Guo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Orexin-A is a neuropeptide that orchestrates diverse central and peripheral processes. It is now clear that orexin system plays a central role in the regulation of endocrine, paracrine, and neurocrine. It is involved in the regulation of growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid, mineralocorticoid, and cortisol secretion. These hormones may also serve as a kind of signal linking energy balance regulation, reproduction, stress response, and cardiovascular regulation. Many studies have demonstrated the ability of orexin-A to regulate adrenocortical cells through the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) pathway. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of orexin-A on cortisol secretion via the protein 70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 (p70S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding proteins (4EBP1) signaling pathway in adrenocortical cells. We reported the first evidence that orexin-A stimulated p70S6K and 4EBP1 in human H295R adrenocortical cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. 10?6?M orexin-A treatment for 1 hour was the most potent. Our results also indicated that p70S6K and 4EBP1 kinases participated in controlling cortisol secretion via OX1 receptor in H295R cells, which implied important role of p70S6K and 4EBP1 kinases in regulating adrenal function induced by orexin-A.

  20. Inhibition of the mTOR/p70S6K pathway is not involved in the insulin-sensitizing effect of AMPK on cardiac glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Ginion, Audrey; Auquier, Julien; Benton, Carley R; Mouton, Céline; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Hue, Louis; Horman, Sandrine; Beauloye, Christophe; Bertrand, Luc

    2011-08-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is known to increase cardiac insulin sensitivity on glucose uptake. AMPK also inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) pathway. Once activated by insulin, mTOR/p70S6K phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) on serine residues, resulting in its inhibition and reduction of insulin signaling. AMPK was postulated to act on insulin by inhibiting this mTOR/p70S6K-mediated negative feedback loop. We tested this hypothesis in cardiomyocytes. The stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators and insulin correlated with AMPK and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activation, respectively. Both treatments induced the phosphorylation of Akt substrate 160 (AS160) known to control glucose uptake. Together, insulin and AMPK activators acted synergistically to induce PKB/Akt overactivation, AS160 overphosphorylation, and glucose uptake overstimulation. This correlated with p70S6K inhibition and with a decrease in serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, indicating the inhibition of the negative feedback loop. We used the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin to confirm these results. Mimicking AMPK activators in the presence of insulin, rapamycin inhibited p70S6K and reduced IRS-1 phosphorylation on serine, resulting in the overphosphorylation of PKB/Akt and AS160. However, rapamycin did not enhance the insulin-induced stimulation of glucose uptake. In conclusion, although the insulin-sensitizing effect of AMPK on PKB/Akt is explained by the inhibition of the insulin-induced negative feedback loop, its effect on glucose uptake is independent of this mechanism. This disconnection revealed that the PKB/Akt/AS160 pathway does not seem to be the rate-limiting step in the control of glucose uptake under insulin treatment. PMID:21602475

  1. Differential p70S6k and 4E-BP1 regulation by insulin and amino acids in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Terruzzi, I; Pellegatta, F; Luzi, L

    2005-10-01

    Differential stimulation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells proliferation is responsible for atherosclerotic lesions. Amino acids and insulin modulate p70S6k and 4E-BP1 activity, regulating cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesised that nutritional (amino acids) and hormonal (insulin) signals differently modulate protein anabolism in human vascular endothelial (HUVEC) and smooth muscle (HVSMC) cells. We evaluated p70S6kinase and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in the two cell types, grown in amino acid-free medium with or without insulin (INS, 100 nM) or/and amino acids mixture (AA, 3 mM) and with the selective addition or deprivation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, 0.5 mM). INS stimulated p70S6k and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation transiently in HUVEC and persistently in HVSMC. AA and INS+AA stimulated p70S6k and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation persistently in HUVEC and HVSMC. AA, but not BCAA alone or BCAA-deprived AA, induced p70S6k phosphorylation in HUVEC. BCAA deprivation decreased the p70S6k phosphorylation induced by AA with or without insulin in HVSMC. These results show that anabolic stimuli modulate p70S6k and 4E-BP1 activity differently in the two vascular cell types, suggesting that insulin stimulates protein synthesis for a longer time in HUSMC than in HUVEC. We speculate that hyperinsulinaemia frequently associated with atherosclerosis could induce a selective HVSMC proliferation. PMID:16258737

  2. FOXP1 regulation via the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    HALACLI, SEVIL OSKAY; DOGAN, AYSE LALE

    2015-01-01

    Loss of Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) protein expression confers a poor prognosis in sporadic and familial breast cancer patients, and the FOXP1 gene maps to a tumor suppressor locus at chromosome 3p14. Although correlation studies have indicated that FOXP1 has a role in tumor suppression, determination of the regulatory mechanism of FOXP1 is required to establish its function in breast cancer. It has previously been identified that FOXP1 is regulated by estrogen in breast cancer and that treatment with bisphenol A is effective for regulating the transformation of the normal human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10F. In addition, FOXO-regulated activation of FOXP1 inhibits the apoptosis of MCF-10F cells following tamoxifen and Akt inhibitor VIII administration. The present study indicates that FOXP1 regulation occurs via a PI3K/Akt/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathway. Following treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells demonstrated decreased FOXP1 protein expression levels; this result was also observed in the small interfering (si)RNA silencing of Akt. By contrast, overexpression of Akt resulted in increased FOXP1 protein expression levels in the MDA-MB-231 cells compared with the control cell lysates. Furthermore, treatment with rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K cascade, resulted in decreased FOXP1 expression in the MCF7 cells, but not in the MDA-MB-231 cells, which were resistant to rapamycin-induced inhibition. In addition, silencing of p70S6K using siRNA produced a marked decrease in FOXP1 expression. These data indicate that FOXP1 protein expression is regulated by a PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling cascade in breast cancer. PMID:25663935

  3. Pharmacogenet Genomics . Author manuscript Association of sirolimus adverse effects with m-TOR, p70S6K or Raptor

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pharmacogenet Genomics . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Association of sirolimus adverse effects.picard@unilim.fr > Abstract The m-TOR inhibitor sirolimus is an immunosuppressive drug used in kidney transplantation. m pathways. We investigated the association of candidate polymorphisms in m-TOR, Raptor and p70S6K, sirolimus

  4. FTY720 reduces migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell lines via inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong; Zhu, Jianhong; Ding, Ke; Xu, Jianguo

    2014-11-01

    2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride (FTY720), a synthetic compound from Isaria sinclairii, has been proven to possess various biological benefits including anti-cancer activity. However, the effects and related mechanisms of FTY720 on the migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells are still unclear. In the present study, we utilized U251MG and U87MG human glioblastoma cell lines to assess the effects of FTY720. We found that FTY720 significantly inhibited migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. The anti-migration and invasion effects of FTY720 were associated with its down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 while up-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Furthermore, FTY720 modulated the expression of roundabouts 1 (ROBO1), Rho-associated kinase-1 (ROCK1), and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors. In addition, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6 kinase (PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K) signaling pathway participated in FTY720-mediated suppression of migration and invasion. Thus, our findings demonstrated that FTY720 reduced glioblastoma cells migration and invasion via multiple signaling pathways, suggesting that FTY720 is a potential therapeutic agent against glioblastoma. PMID:25070489

  5. Quercetin Inhibits Angiogenesis Mediated Human Prostate Tumor Growth by Targeting VEGFR- 2 Regulated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Zhuo; Ding, Songze; Wang, Lei; Hitron, Andrew; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Xu, Mei; Chen, Gang; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a crucial step in the growth and metastasis of cancers, since it enables the growing tumor to receive oxygen and nutrients. Cancer prevention using natural products has become an integral part of cancer control. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of quercetin using ex vivo, in vivo and in vitro models. Rat aortic ring assay showed that quercetin at non-toxic concentrations significantly inhibited microvessel sprouting and exhibited a significant inhibition in the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are key events in the process of angiogenesis. Most importantly, quercetin treatment inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis as revealed by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and matrigel plug assay. Western blot analysis showed that quercetin suppressed VEGF induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and their downstream protein kinases AKT, mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase in HUVECs. Quercetin (20 mg/kg/d) significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model, indicating that quercetin inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. Furthermore, quercetin reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, mTOR and P70S6K expressions. Collectively the findings in the present study suggest that quercetin inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis by targeting VEGF-R2 regulated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway, and could be used as a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:23094058

  6. AKT/mTOR substrate P70S6K is frequently phosphorylated in gallbladder cancer tissue and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Pamela; Garcia, Patricia; Sandoval, Alejandra; Buchegger, Kurt; Weber, Helga; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor and a public health problem in some parts of the world. It is characterized by a poor prognosis and its resistance to radio and chemotherapy. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is activated in about 50% of human malignancies, and its role in gallbladder carcinoma has previously been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the phosphorylation status of the mTOR substrate p70S6K in preneoplastic and neoplastic gallbladder tissues and evaluated the effect of three mTOR inhibitors on cell growth and migration in gallbladder carcinoma cell lines. Methods Immunohistochemical staining of phospho-p70S6K was analyzed in 181 gallbladder carcinoma cases, classified according to lesion type as dysplasia, early carcinoma, or advanced carcinoma. Protein expression of AKT/mTOR members was also evaluated in eight gallbladder carcinoma cell lines by Western blot analysis. We selected two gallbladder carcinoma cell lines (G415 and TGBC-2TKB) to evaluate the effect of rapamycin, RAD001, and AZD8055 on cell viability, cell migration, and protein expression. Results Our results showed that phospho-p70S6K is highly expressed in dysplasia (66.7%, 12/18), early cancer (84.6%, 22/26), and advanced cancer (88.3%, 121/137). No statistical correlation was observed between phospho-p70S6K status and any clinical or pathological features, including age, gender, ethnicity, wall infiltration level, or histological differentiation (P < 0.05). In vitro treatment with rapamycin, RAD001, and AZD8055 reduced cell growth, cell migration, and phospho-p70S6K expression significantly in G-415 and TGBC-2TKB cancer cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings confirm the upregulation of this signaling pathway in gallbladder carcinoma and provide a rationale for the potential use of mTOR inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for human gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:24124380

  7. Temporal changes in ERK phosphorylation are harmonious with 4E-BP1, but not p70S6K, during clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy in the rat gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Koichiro; Higashi, Seiichiro; Natsume, Midori; Kawahata, Keiko; Nakazato, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is required for clenbuterol (CB)-dependent fast-type myofibril enlargement; however, its contribution to translation control is unclear. ERK mediates translational regulation through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation and (or) mTORC1-independent pathways. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ERK in translational control during CB-induced muscular hypertrophy by measuring time-dependent changes in the phosphorylation statuses of ERK, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K; an indicator of mTORC1 activity), 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), and other related signaling molecules in rat gastrocnemius muscles. Five-day administration of CB induced phenotypes associated with muscular hypertrophy (significant increases in wet weight and isometric ankle flexion torque in the gastrocnemius muscle), but was not accompanied by elevated ERK or p70S6K phosphorylation. One-day administration of CB caused significant increases in the phosphorylation of ERK, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1. In contrast, 3-day administration of CB caused significant increases in the phosphorylation of ERK and 4E-BP1, but not p70S6K. In addition, positive correlations were observed between ERK and 4E-BP1 on days 1 and 3, whereas a correlation between ERK and p70S6K was only observed on day 1. eEF2 phosphorylation was unchanged on both days 1 and 3. These findings suggest that ERK accelerates the initiation of translation, but does not support the involvement of ERK in translational elongation. Furthermore, ERK may play a major role in promoting translational initiation by mediating the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, and may contribute to the initial activation of mTORC1 during CB administration. PMID:24941107

  8. Fisetin inhibits human melanoma cell growth through direct binding to p70S6K and mTOR: findings from 3-D melanoma skin equivalents and computational modeling

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Sechi, Mario; Lall, Rahul K.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to rise. Inspite of treatment advances, the prognosis remains grim once the disease has metastasized, emphasizing the need to explore additional therapeutic strategies. One such approach is through the use of mechanism-based dietary intervention. We previously showed that the flavonoid fisetin inhibits melanoma cell proliferation, in vitro and in vivo. Here, we studied fisetin-mediated regulation of kinases involved in melanoma growth and progression. Time-course analysis in 3-D melanoma constructs that transitioned from radial to vertical growth showed that fisetin treatment resulted in significant decrease in melanocytic lesions in contrast to untreated controls that showed large tumor nests and invading disseminated cells. Further studies in melanoma cultures and mouse xenografts showed that fisetin-mediated growth inhibition was associated with dephosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and p70S6K proteins. In silico modeling indicated direct interaction of fisetin with mTOR and p70S6K with favorable free energy values. These findings were validated by cell-free competition assays that established binding of fisetin to p70S6K and mTOR while little affinity was detected with AKT. Kinase activity studies reflected similar trend with % inhibition observed for p70S6K and mTOR at lower doses than AKT. Our studies characterized, for the first time, the differential interactions of any botanical agent with kinases involved in melanoma growth and demonstrate that fisetin inhibits mTOR and p70S6K through direct binding while the observed inhibitory effect of fisetin on AKT is mediated indirectly, through targeting interrelated pathways. PMID:24675012

  9. Time-restricted role for dendritic activation of the mTOR-p70S6K pathway in the induction of late-phase long-term potentiation in the CA1

    PubMed Central

    Cammalleri, Maurizio; Lütjens, Robert; Berton, Fulvia; King, Alvin R.; Simpson, Cindy; Francesconi, Walter; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of translational capacity. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin can prevent forms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity such as long-term facilitation in Aplysia and late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of rodents. In the latter model, two issues remain to be addressed: defining the L-LTP phase sensitive to rapamycin and identifying the site of rapamycin-sensitive protein synthesis. Here, we show that L-LTP is sensitive to application of rapamycin only during the induction paradigm, whereas rapamycin application after the establishment of L-LTP was ineffective. Second, we observed that Thr-389-phosphorylated p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), the main active phosphoform of the mTOR effector p70S6K, was induced in an N-methyl-d-aspartateand phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner throughout the dendrites but not in the cell bodies of CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices after L-LTP induction. A similar dendrite-wide activation of p70S6K was induced in primary hippocampal neurons by depolarization with KCL or glutamate. In primary hippocampal neurons, the sites of dendritic activation of p70S6K appeared as discrete compartments along dendritic shafts like the hotspots for fast dendritic translation. Conversely, only a subset of dendritic spines also displayed activated p70S6K. Taken together, the present data suggest that the N-methyl-d-aspartate-, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent dendritic activation of the mTOR-p70S6K pathway is necessary for the induction phase of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity. Newly synthesized proteins in dendritic shafts could be targeted selectively to activity-tagged synapses. Thus, coordinated activation of dendrite-wide translation and synaptic-specific activation is likely to be necessary for long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:14623952

  10. Time-restricted role for dendritic activation of the mTOR-p70S6K pathway in the induction of late-phase long-term potentiation in the CA1.

    PubMed

    Cammalleri, Maurizio; Lütjens, Robert; Berton, Fulvia; King, Alvin R; Simpson, Cindy; Francesconi, Walter; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2003-11-25

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of translational capacity. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin can prevent forms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity such as long-term facilitation in Aplysia and late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of rodents. In the latter model, two issues remain to be addressed: defining the L-LTP phase sensitive to rapamycin and identifying the site of rapamycin-sensitive protein synthesis. Here, we show that L-LTP is sensitive to application of rapamycin only during the induction paradigm, whereas rapamycin application after the establishment of L-LTP was ineffective. Second, we observed that Thr-389-phosphorylated p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), the main active phosphoform of the mTOR effector p70S6K, was induced in an N-methyl-D-aspartate and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner throughout the dendrites but not in the cell bodies of CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices after L-LTP induction. A similar dendrite-wide activation of p70S6K was induced in primary hippocampal neurons by depolarization with KCL or glutamate. In primary hippocampal neurons, the sites of dendritic activation of p70S6K appeared as discrete compartments along dendritic shafts like the hotspots for fast dendritic translation. Conversely, only a subset of dendritic spines also displayed activated p70S6K. Taken together, the present data suggest that the N-methyl-d-aspartate-, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent dendritic activation of the mTOR-p70S6K pathway is necessary for the induction phase of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity. Newly synthesized proteins in dendritic shafts could be targeted selectively to activity-tagged synapses. Thus, coordinated activation of dendrite-wide translation and synaptic-specific activation is likely to be necessary for long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:14623952

  11. Role of p70S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of eIF4B and PDCD4 proteins in the regulation of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Michael D; Jefferson, Leonard S; Kimball, Scot R

    2012-12-14

    Modulation of mRNA binding to the 40 S ribosomal subunit during translation initiation controls not only global rates of protein synthesis but also regulates the pattern of protein expression by allowing for selective inclusion, or exclusion, of mRNAs encoding particular proteins from polysomes. The mRNA binding step is modulated by signaling through a protein kinase known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 directly phosphorylates the translational repressors eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 2, releasing them from the mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E, thereby promoting assembly of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex. mTORC1 also phosphorylates the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), which subsequently phosphorylates eIF4B, and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which sequesters eIF4A from the eIF4E·eIF4G complex, resulting in repressed translation of mRNAs with highly structured 5'-untranslated regions. In the present study, we compared the role of the 4E-BPs in the regulation of global rates of protein synthesis to that of eIF4B and PDCD4. We found that maintenance of eIF4E interaction with eIF4G was not by itself sufficient to sustain global rates of protein synthesis in the absence of mTORC1 signaling to p70S6K1; phosphorylation of both eIF4B and PDCD4 was additionally required. We also found that the interaction of eIF4E with eIF4G was maintained in the liver of fasted rats as well as in serum-deprived mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking both 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2, suggesting that the interaction of eIF4G with eIF4E is controlled primarily through the 4E-BPs. PMID:23105104

  12. Negative Localized Relationship Among p70S6 with Smad1, 2, 3 and p38 in Three Treated Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wang; Minghu Jiang; Stefan Wolfl; Yinghua Lu

    2007-01-01

    P70S6 with Smad1, 2, 3 and p38 as very hot and important multi-function proteins are widely studied now. Protein localization\\u000a is fundamentally important to eukaryotic protein function and cell regulation. In this paper, the relationship among p70S6\\u000a with Smad1, 2, 3 and p38 in Three Treated Human Cancer Cell Lines was studied using western blot, FACS and nano-gold phospho-antibody\\u000a microarray

  13. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1? protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Magae, Junji [Magae Bioscience Institute, 49-4 Fujimidai, Tsukuba 300-1263 (Japan); Lee, In-Kyu [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun-Gyu, E-mail: kpark@knu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young-Chae, E-mail: ycchang@cu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1? protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1?. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1?. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1? protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1? through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1? protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1? expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1? protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  14. Heparin-Binding EGF-Like Growth Factor Induces Heart Interstitial Fibrosis via an Akt/mTor/p70s6k Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Hong; Ma, Yuanwu; Feng, Juan; Dong, Wei; Yang, Qing; Lu, Dan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is essential for maintaining normal function of the adult heart and is known to play an important role in myocardial remodeling. In the present study, we observed that heart-specific HB-EGF transgenic (TG) mice had systolic dysfunction with decreased fractional shortening (FS%), increased end-systolic diameter (LVIDs) at 5 months of age, increased heart fibrosis, and increased mRNA expression of Col1?1 and Col3?1 at 1, 3, 5 and 7 months of age compared to nontransgenic (NTG) littermates. However, the left ventricular anterior wall thickness at end-systole (LVAWs) of the TG mice was not different than the NTG mice. Phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTor and p70s6k were increased due to HB-EGF expression in TG mice compared with the NTG mice at 3 and 7 months of age. Additionally, activated Akt, mTor and p70s6k were co-localized with vimentin to cardiac fibroblasts isolated from TG mice. Furthermore, HB-EGF significantly increased phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTor and p70s6k and increased expression of type I collagen in cultured primary cardiac fibroblasts. Rapamycin (Rapa) and CRM197, inhibitors of mTor and HB-EGF respectively, could inhibit the expression of type I collagen in the cultured primary cardiac fibroblasts and Rapa suppressed interstitial fibrosis of the heart tissues in vivo. In addition, a BrdU assay showed that HB-EGF increased proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts by 30% compared with cells without HB-EGF treatment. HB-EGF-induced proliferation was completely diminished in the presence of Rapa. These results suggest that HB-EGF induced heart fibrosis and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts occurs through activation of the Akt/mTor/p70s6k pathway. PMID:22984591

  15. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor induces heart interstitial fibrosis via an Akt/mTor/p70s6k pathway.

    PubMed

    Lian, Hong; Ma, Yuanwu; Feng, Juan; Dong, Wei; Yang, Qing; Lu, Dan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is essential for maintaining normal function of the adult heart and is known to play an important role in myocardial remodeling. In the present study, we observed that heart-specific HB-EGF transgenic (TG) mice had systolic dysfunction with decreased fractional shortening (FS%), increased end-systolic diameter (LVIDs) at 5 months of age, increased heart fibrosis, and increased mRNA expression of Col1?1 and Col3?1 at 1, 3, 5 and 7 months of age compared to nontransgenic (NTG) littermates. However, the left ventricular anterior wall thickness at end-systole (LVAWs) of the TG mice was not different than the NTG mice. Phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTor and p70s6k were increased due to HB-EGF expression in TG mice compared with the NTG mice at 3 and 7 months of age. Additionally, activated Akt, mTor and p70s6k were co-localized with vimentin to cardiac fibroblasts isolated from TG mice. Furthermore, HB-EGF significantly increased phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTor and p70s6k and increased expression of type I collagen in cultured primary cardiac fibroblasts. Rapamycin (Rapa) and CRM197, inhibitors of mTor and HB-EGF respectively, could inhibit the expression of type I collagen in the cultured primary cardiac fibroblasts and Rapa suppressed interstitial fibrosis of the heart tissues in vivo. In addition, a BrdU assay showed that HB-EGF increased proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts by 30% compared with cells without HB-EGF treatment. HB-EGF-induced proliferation was completely diminished in the presence of Rapa. These results suggest that HB-EGF induced heart fibrosis and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts occurs through activation of the Akt/mTor/p70s6k pathway. PMID:22984591

  16. Peroxiredoxin 1 promotes tumorigenesis through regulating the activity of mTOR/p70S6K pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fanghua; Hou, Guiqin; Liu, Hongtao; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The biological function of Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) in cancer is still ambiguous, and its mechanism has not been elucidated so far. Previous studies have shown that Prdx1 functions as tumor suppressor in several types of cancers, but other studies have indicated that it is overexpressed in some types of human cancers, and inhibition of Prdx1 by shRNA contributes to radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity. In this study, a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line EC9706 and noncancerous esophageal epithelial cell line Het-1A was constructed, and 11 tumorigenesis-associated genes including Prdx1 were isolated. In addition, we further confirmed that Prdx1 was overexpressed in ESCC cells at the level of protein compared with Het-1A (P < 0.05). Inhibition of Prdx1 by shRNA lentivirus decreased cell proliferation and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis, but did not affect cell cycle distribution of EC9706 cells (P > 0.05). Importantly, the total proteins of mTOR and p70S6K, as well as the activity of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway, were decreased in Prdx1-depletion EC9706 cells. Furthermore, the activity of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway was increased in Prdx1-overexpressing Het-1A cells. These findings mentioned above demonstrate that Prdx1 may be involved in tumorigenesis through regulation of mTOR/p70S6K pathway in ESCC. PMID:25579166

  17. Association of sirolimus adverse effects with m-TOR, p70S6K or Raptor polymorphisms in kidney transplant recipients

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Association of sirolimus adverse effects with m-TOR, p70S6K or Raptor polymorphisms in kidney.picard@unilim.fr Running head: sirolimus and m-TOR pathway polymorphisms This study was partly funded by Roche;22(10):725-32" DOI : 10.1097/FPC.0b013e328357359d #12;2 Abstract The m-TOR inhibitor sirolimus

  18. mTOR/p70S6K signaling distinguishes routine, maintenance-level autophagy from autophagic cell death during influenza A infection

    PubMed Central

    Datan, Emmanuel; Matassov, Demetrius; Tinari, Antonella; Malorni, Walter; Lockshin, Richard A.; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Zakeri, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, a stress response activated in influenza A virus infection helps the cell avoid apoptosis. However, in the absence of apoptosis infected cells undergo vastly expanded autophagy and nevertheless die in the presence of necrostatin but not of autophagy inhibitors. Combinations of inhibitors indicate that the controls of protective and lethal autophagy are different. Infection that triggers apoptosis also triggers canonical autophagy signaling exhibiting transient PI3K and mTORC1 activity. In terminal autophagy phospho-mTOR(Ser2448) is suppressed while mTORC1, PI3K and mTORC2 activities increase. mTORC1 substrate p70S6K becomes highly phosphorylated while its activity, now regulated by mTORC2, is required for LC3-II formation. Inhibition of mTORC2/p70S6K, unlike that of PI3K/mTORC1, blocks expanded autophagy in the absence of apoptosis but not moderate autophagy. Inhibitors of expanded autophagy limit virus reproduction. Thus expanded, lethal autophagy is activated by a signaling mechanism different from autophagy that helps cells survive toxic or stressful episodes. PMID:24606695

  19. Collaboration of geldanamycin-activated P70S6K and Hsp70 against beta-amyloid-induced hippocampal apoptosis: an approach to long-term memory and learning.

    PubMed

    Zare, Nayereh; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2015-03-01

    One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (A?) in senile plaques. A?-induced oxidative stress is believed to be responsible for degeneration and apoptosis of neurons and consequent cognitive and memory deficits. Here, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) against amyloid pathogenesis in adult male Wistar rats. GA or vehicle was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricles of rats 24 h before injection of A? (1-42) in CA1 area of hippocampus. The learning and memory of the rats were assessed 7 days after injection of A? using passive avoidance (PA) task. As potential contributing factors in A?-induced memory decline, we evaluated apoptotic markers and also used terminal-transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique to detect apoptosis in the hippocampus of A?-injected rats. Our behavioral data suggest that GA pretreatment can significantly suppress memory deficits in A?-injected rats. There was also not only a marked increase in Hsp70 level but also upregulated 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in the hippocampus of GA-treated groups with a reduction in apoptotic factors including caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and TUNEL-positive cells as well. Thus, we conclude that GA exerts its protective effects against A? (1-42) toxicity and memory deficits, at least in part, by upregulating of Hsp70 and P70S6K. PMID:25576151

  20. Dose?dependent increases in p70S6K phosphorylation and intramuscular branched?chain amino acids in older men following resistance exercise and protein intake

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Randall F.; Markworth, James F.; Figueiredo, Vandre C.; Della Gatta, Paul A.; Petersen, Aaron C.; Mitchell, Cameron J.; Cameron?Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Resistance exercise and whey protein supplementation are effective strategies to activate muscle cell anabolic signaling and ultimately promote increases in muscle mass and strength. In the current study, 46 healthy older men aged 60–75 (69.0 ± 0.55 years, 85.9 ± 1.8 kg, 176.8 ± 1.0 cm) performed a single bout of unaccustomed lower body resistance exercise immediately followed by ingestion of a noncaloric placebo beverage or supplement containing 10, 20, 30, or 40 g of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Intramuscular amino acid levels in muscle biopsy samples were measured by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC?MS) at baseline (before exercise and WPC supplementation) plus at 2 h and 4 h post exercise. Additionally, the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation at Thr389 in muscle biopsy homogenates was assessed by western blot. Resistance exercise alone reduced intramuscular branch chain amino acid (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) content. Supplementation with increasing doses of whey protein prevented this fall in muscle BCAAs during postexercise recovery and larger doses (30 g and 40 g) significantly augmented postexercise muscle BCAA content above that observed following placebo ingestion. Additionally, the fold change in the phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389) at 2 h post exercise was correlated with the dose of whey protein consumed (r = 0.51, P < 001) and was found to be significantly correlated with intramuscular leucine content (r = 0.32, P = 0.026). Intramuscular BCAAs, and leucine in particular, appear to be important regulators of anabolic signaling in aged human muscle during postexercise recovery via reversal of exercise?induced declines in intramuscular BCAAs. PMID:25107987

  1. Dose-dependent increases in p70S6K phosphorylation and intramuscular branched-chain amino acids in older men following resistance exercise and protein intake.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Randall F; Marworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Della Gatta, Paul A; Petersen, Aaron C; Mitchell, Cameron J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-08-01

    Resistance exercise and whey protein supplementation are effective strategies to activate muscle cell anabolic signaling and ultimately promote increases in muscle mass and strength. In the current study, 46 healthy older men aged 60-75 (69.0 ± 0.55 years, 85.9 ± 1.8 kg, 176.8 ± 1.0 cm) performed a single bout of unaccustomed lower body resistance exercise immediately followed by ingestion of a noncaloric placebo beverage or supplement containing 10, 20, 30, or 40 g of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Intramuscular amino acid levels in muscle biopsy samples were measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) at baseline (before exercise and WPC supplementation) plus at 2 h and 4 h post exercise. Additionally, the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation at Thr389 in muscle biopsy homogenates was assessed by western blot. Resistance exercise alone reduced intramuscular branch chain amino acid (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) content. Supplementation with increasing doses of whey protein prevented this fall in muscle BCAAs during postexercise recovery and larger doses (30 g and 40 g) significantly augmented postexercise muscle BCAA content above that observed following placebo ingestion. Additionally, the fold change in the phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389) at 2 h post exercise was correlated with the dose of whey protein consumed (r = 0.51, P < 001) and was found to be significantly correlated with intramuscular leucine content (r = 0.32, P = 0.026). Intramuscular BCAAs, and leucine in particular, appear to be important regulators of anabolic signaling in aged human muscle during postexercise recovery via reversal of exercise-induced declines in intramuscular BCAAs. PMID:25107987

  2. S6 kinase signaling: tamoxifen response and prognostic indication in two breast cancer cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bostner, Josefine; Karlsson, Elin; Eding, Cecilia Bivik; Perez-Tenorio, Gizeh; Franzén, Hanna; Konstantinell, Aelita; Fornander, Tommy; Nordenskjöld, Bo; Stål, Olle

    2015-06-01

    Detection of signals in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) pathways may be a future clinical tool for the prediction of adjuvant treatment response in primary breast cancer. Using immunohistological staining, we investigated the value of the mTOR targets p70-S6 kinase (S6K) 1 and 2 as biomarkers for tamoxifen benefit in two independent clinical trials comparing adjuvant tamoxifen with no tamoxifen or 5 years versus 2 years of tamoxifen treatment. In addition, the prognostic value of the S6Ks was evaluated. We found that S6K1 correlated with proliferation, HER2 status, and cytoplasmic AKT activity, whereas high protein expression levels of S6K2 and phosphorylated (p) S6K were more common in ER-positive, and low-proliferative tumors with pAKT-s473 localized to the nucelus. Nuclear accumulation of S6K1 was indicative of a reduced tamoxifen effect (hazard ratio (HR): 1.07, 95% CI: 0.53-2.81, P=0.84), compared with a significant benefit from tamoxifen treatment in patients without tumor S6K1 nuclear accumulation (HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.29-0.62, P<0.00001). Also S6K1 and S6K2 activation, indicated by pS6K-t389 expression, was associated with low benefit from tamoxifen (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.50-1.87, P=0.92). In addition, high protein expression of S6K1, independent of localization, predicted worse prognosis in a multivariate analysis, P=0.00041 (cytoplasm), P=0.016 (nucleus). In conclusion, the mTOR-activated kinases S6K1 and S6K2 interfere with proliferation and response to tamoxifen. Monitoring their activity and intracellular localization may provide biomarkers for breast cancer treatment, allowing the identification of a group of patients less likely to benefit from tamoxifen and thus in need of an alternative or additional targeted treatment. PMID:25972244

  3. Tanshinone IIA inhibits HIF-1? and VEGF expression in breast cancer cells via mTOR/p70S6K/RPS6/4E-BP1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Guobing; Shan, Changyu; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Xiaoye; Chen, Yibiao; Cui, Hongjuan; Gao, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play important roles in angiogenesis and tumor growth. Tanshinone IIA (T2A) is a novel antiangiogenic agent with promising antitumor effects; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic effects of T2A remains unclear. In the present study, we provided evidence showing that T2A inhibited angiogenesis and breast cancer growth by down-regulating VEGF expression. Specifically, T2A repressed HIF-1? expression at the translational level and inhibited the transcriptional activity of HIF-1?, which led to the down-regulation of VEGF expression. Suppression of HIF-1? synthesis by T2A correlated with strong dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its effectors ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), a pathway regulating HIF-1? expression at the translational level. In addition, we also found that T2A inhibited the angiogenesis and growth of human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice through suppression of HIF-1? and VEGF. Our study provides novel perspectives and potential targets for the treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:25659153

  4. Secalonic Acid-D Represses HIF1?/VEGF-Mediated Angiogenesis by Regulating the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling Cascade.

    PubMed

    Guru, Santosh Kumar; Pathania, Anup Singh; Kumar, Suresh; Ramesh, Deshidi; Kumar, Manjeet; Rana, Satiander; Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz; Sharma, P R; Chandan, B K; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, J P; Shah, Bhahwal Ali; Tasduq, Sheikh Abdullah; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Faruk, Abdul; Saxena, A K; Vishwakarma, R A; Bhushan, Shashi

    2015-07-15

    Tumor angiogenesis is a validated target for therapeutic intervention, but agents that are more disease selective are needed. Here, we report the isolation of secalonic acid-D (SAD), a mycotoxin from a novel source that exhibits potent antiangiogenic antitumor activity. SAD inhibited multiple HIF1?/VEGF-arbitrated angiogenesis dynamics as scored in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells and human MCF-7 breast tumor xenografts. Similarly, SAD suppressed VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from rat aortic ring and blood vessel formation in the Matrigel plug assay in C57/BL6J mice. Under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, SAD inhibited cell survival through the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, with attendant effects on key proangiogenesis factors, including HIF1?, VEGFR, and MMP-2/MMP-9. These effects were reversed by cotreatment with the Akt inhibitors perifosine and GSK69069 or by the addition of neutralizing VEGF antibodies. The apoptotic properties of SAD were determined to be both extrinsic and intrinsic in nature, whereas the cell-cycle inhibitory effects were mediated by altering the level of key G1-S transition-phase proteins. In experimental mouse models of breast cancer, SAD dosing produced no apparent toxicities (either orally or intraperitoneal) at levels that yielded antitumor effects. Taken together, our findings offered a preclinical validation and mechanistic definition of the antiangiogenic activity of a novel mycotoxin, with potential application as a cancer-selective therapeutic agent. Cancer Res; 75(14); 2886-96. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25977334

  5. Identification and characterization of a mitogen-activated S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Jenö, P; Ballou, L M; Novak-Hofer, I; Thomas, G

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of Swiss mouse 3T3 cells with epidermal growth factor, orthovanadate, or serum results in the activation of a kinase that phosphorylates protein S6 of the 40S ribosomal subunit in vitro. This kinase is eluted as a single peak of activity from either a Mono Q anion-exchange column at 0.34 M NaCl or a Mono S cation-exchange column at 0.20 M NaCl. Treatment of the peak fraction from the Mono S column with phosphatase 2A completely abolishes the activity of the enzyme. The kinase appears to be distinct from protein kinase C, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and two protease-activated kinases, PAK II and H4P. The kinase has been purified to apparent homogeneity and migrates as a single band at Mr 70,000 in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels. The kinase exhibits the ability to autophosphorylate, and this activity directly parallels S6 phosphorylation activity on the final step of purification. In vitro, the kinase incorporates up to 5 mol of phosphate into S6, and the tryptic phosphopeptide maps obtained are equivalent to those from S6 phosphorylated in vivo. Most important, treatment of the purified kinase with phosphatase 2A results in complete inactivation of the enzyme, arguing that the activity of the kinase is directly controlled by phosphorylation. PMID:3257566

  6. Identification and characterization of a mitogen-activated S6 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Jenö, P; Ballou, L M; Novak-Hofer, I; Thomas, G

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of Swiss mouse 3T3 cells with epidermal growth factor, orthovanadate, or serum results in the activation of a kinase that phosphorylates protein S6 of the 40S ribosomal subunit in vitro. This kinase is eluted as a single peak of activity from either a Mono Q anion-exchange column at 0.34 M NaCl or a Mono S cation-exchange column at 0.20 M NaCl. Treatment of the peak fraction from the Mono S column with phosphatase 2A completely abolishes the activity of the enzyme. The kinase appears to be distinct from protein kinase C, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and two protease-activated kinases, PAK II and H4P. The kinase has been purified to apparent homogeneity and migrates as a single band at Mr 70,000 in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels. The kinase exhibits the ability to autophosphorylate, and this activity directly parallels S6 phosphorylation activity on the final step of purification. In vitro, the kinase incorporates up to 5 mol of phosphate into S6, and the tryptic phosphopeptide maps obtained are equivalent to those from S6 phosphorylated in vivo. Most important, treatment of the purified kinase with phosphatase 2A results in complete inactivation of the enzyme, arguing that the activity of the kinase is directly controlled by phosphorylation. Images PMID:3257566

  7. Minocycline attenuates hypoxia-inducible factor-1? expression correlated with modulation of p53 and AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway in ovarian cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Ataie-Kachoie, Parvin; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Bahrami-B, Farnaz; Badar, Samina; Morris, David L

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? is the key cellular survival protein under hypoxia, and is associated with tumor progression and angiogenesis. We have recently shown the inhibitory effects of minocycline on ovarian tumor growth correlated with attenuation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and herein report a companion laboratory study to test if these effects were the result of HIF-1? inhibition. In vitro, human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (A2780, OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3) were utilized to examine the effect of minocycline on HIF-1 and its upstream pathway components to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action of minocycline. Mice harboring OVCAR-3 xenografts were treated with minocycline to assess the in vivo efficacy of minocycline in the context of HIF-1. Minocycline negatively regulated HIF-1? protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner and induced its degradation by a mechanism that is independent of prolyl-hydroxylation. The inhibition of HIF-1? was found to be associated with up-regulation of endogenous p53, a tumor suppressor with confirmed role in HIF-1? degradation. Further studies demonstrated that the effect of minocycline was not restricted to proteasomal degradation and that it also caused down-regulation of HIF-1? translation by suppressing the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. Minocycline treatment of mice bearing established ovarian tumors, led to suppression of HIF-1? accompanied by up-regulation of p53 protein levels and inactivation of AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway. These data reveal the therapeutic potential of minocycline in ovarian cancer as an agent that targets the pro-oncogenic factor HIF-1? through multiple mechanisms. PMID:25973298

  8. A Protein Kinase from Xenopus Eggs Specific for Ribosomal Protein S6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleanor Erikson; James L. Maller

    1985-01-01

    A protein kinase specific for ribosomal protein S6 has been purified from eggs of Xenopus laevis. As visualized on a silver-stained polyacrylamide gel, the major protein in the preparation migrated with a Mr of 90,000. Incubation of the enzyme preparation with [gamma -32P]ATP led to phosphorylation of this protein on serine residues. Upon glycerol gradient centrifugation, the S6 kinase activity

  9. Drosophila S6 Kinase like inhibits neuromuscular junction growth by downregulating the BMP receptor thickveins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoli; Wu, Yingga; Du, Li; Li, Wenhua; Xiong, Ying; Yao, Aiyu; Wang, Qifu; Zhang, Yong Q

    2015-03-01

    Synaptic connections must be precisely controlled to ensure proper neural circuit formation. In Drosophila melanogaster, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) promotes growth of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by binding and activating the BMP ligand receptors wishful thinking (Wit) and thickveins (Tkv) expressed in motor neurons. We report here that an evolutionally conserved, previously uncharacterized member of the S6 kinase (S6K) family S6K like (S6KL) acts as a negative regulator of BMP signaling. S6KL null mutants were viable and fertile but exhibited more satellite boutons, fewer and larger synaptic vesicles, larger spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potential (mEJP) amplitudes, and reduced synaptic endocytosis at the NMJ terminals. Reducing the gene dose by half of tkv in S6KL mutant background reversed the NMJ overgrowth phenotype. The NMJ phenotypes of S6KL mutants were accompanied by an elevated level of Tkv protein and phosphorylated Mad, an effector of the BMP signaling pathway, in the nervous system. In addition, Tkv physically interacted with S6KL in cultured S2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of S6KL enhanced Tkv expression, while S6KL overexpression downregulated Tkv in cultured S2 cells. This latter effect was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Our results together demonstrate for the first time that S6KL regulates synaptic development and function by facilitating proteasomal degradation of the BMP receptor Tkv. PMID:25748449

  10. IL-6 Impairs Myogenic Differentiation by Downmodulation of p90RSK/eEF2 and mTOR/p70S6K Axes, without Affecting AKT Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Michele; De Rossi, Manuela; Barberi, Laura; Musarò, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    IL-6 is a multifaceted pleiotropic cytokine, which is produced by a variety of cell types and targets different cells and tissues. In physiological conditions, IL-6 can be locally and transiently produced by skeletal muscle and plays an important role in muscle homeostasis. Circulating IL-6 levels are normally very low or undetectable but are dramatically increased in several pathologic conditions. In this study, we aimed to define the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of IL-6 on myogenic program. We explored the molecular mechanisms through which exogenous IL-6, or the conditioned medium from the murine C-26 adenocarcinoma cells (a cellular model that secretes high levels of IL-6 and induces cancer cachexia in mice), interferes with the myogenic program. Our study revealed that IL-6 induces the activation of the Stat3 signaling and promotes the downmodulation of the p90RSK/eEF2 and mTOR/p70S6K axes, while it does not affect the activation of AKT. We thus identified potential molecular mediators of the inhibitory effects of IL-6 on myogenic program. PMID:24967341

  11. Phenformin Induces Cell Cycle Change, Apoptosis, and Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition and Regulates the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Ren, Lidong; Liu, Chenghao; Xia, Tiansong; Zha, Xiaoming; Wang, Shui

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a world-wide challenge, and additional anti-cancer therapies are still urgently needed. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the potent anti-tumor effect of biguanides, among which phenformin was reported to potentially be a more active anti-cancer agent than metformin. However, little attention has been given to the role of phenformin in breast cancer. In this study, we reveal the role of phenformin in cell death of the MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 breast cancer cell lines. The respective IC50 values of phenformin in MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 cells were 1.184±0.045 mM, 0.665±0.007 mM, 2.347±0.010 mM and 1.885±0.015 mM (mean± standard error). Phenformin induced cell cycle change and apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK pathways. Interestingly, phenformin induced MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition) and decreased the migration rate in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, our results suggest that phenformin inhibits breast cancer cell metastasis after intracardiac injection into nude mice. Taken together, our study further confirms the potential benefit of phenformin in breast cancer treatment and provides novel mechanistic insight into its anti-cancer activity in breast cancer. PMID:26114294

  12. Role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase\\/Akt and mTOR\\/P70S6-kinase pathways in the proliferation and apoptosis in multiple myeloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Pene; Yann-Erick Claessens; Odile Muller; Franck Viguié; Patrick Mayeux; François Dreyfus; Catherine Lacombe; Didier Bouscary

    2002-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy preliminary localized in the bone marrow and characterized by its capacity to disseminate. IL-6 and IGF-1 have been shown to mediate proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals in plasmocytes. However, in primary plasma-cell leukemia (PCL) and in end-stage aggressive extramedullar disease, the cytokine requirement for both effects may be not mandatory. This suggests that

  13. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Induce Autophagy through S6 Kinase Inhibition of the Insulin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pereboom, Tamara C.; Goos, Yvonne J.; Seinen, Cor W.; van Oirschot, Brigitte A.; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H.; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Gazda, Hanna T.; Bierings, Marc B.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies. PMID:24875531

  14. An ShRNA Based Genetic Screen Identified Sesn2 as a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Lung Cancer via Suppression of Akt-mTOR-p70S6K Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Liu, Jiawei; Fan, Fangfang; Li, Yilan; Ning, Xuelian; Sun, Yue; Dai, Shaochun; Liu, Baogang; Gao, Min; Fu, Songbin; Zhou, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is emerging rapidly as the leading death cause in Chinese cancer patients. The causal factors for Chinese lung cancer development remain largely unclear. Here we employed an shRNA library-based loss-of-function screen in a genome-wide and unbiased manner to interrogate potential tumor suppressor candidates in the immortalized human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Methods/Results Soft agar assays were conducted for screening BEAS-2B cells infected with the retroviral shRNA library with the acquired feature of anchorage-independent growth, large (>0.5mm in diameter) and well—separated colonies were isolated for proliferation. PCRs were performed to amplify the integrated shRNA fragment from individual genomic DNA extracted from each colony, and each PCR product is submitted for DNA sequencing to reveal the integrated shRNA and its target gene. A total of 6 candidate transformation suppressors including INPP4B, Sesn2, TIAR, ACRC, Nup210, LMTK3 were identified. We validated Sesn2 as the candidate of lung cancer tumor suppressor. Knockdown of Sesn2 by an shRNA targeting 3’ UTR of Sesn2 transcript potently stimulated the proliferation and malignant transformation of lung bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B via activation of Akt-mTOR-p70S6K signaling, whereas ectopic expression of Sens2 re-suppressed the malignant transformation elicited by the Sesn2 shRNA. Moreover, knockdown of Sesn2 in BEAS-2B cells promoted the BEAS-2B cell-transplanted xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Lastly, DNA sequencing indicated mutations of Sesn2 gene are rare, the protein levels of Sesn2 of 77 Chinese lung cancer patients varies greatly compared to their adjacent normal tissues, and the low expression level of Sesn2 associates with the poor survival in these examined patients by Kaplan Meier analysis. Conclusions Our shRNA-based screen has demonstrated Sesn2 is a potential tumor suppressor in lung epithelial cells. The expression level of Sesn2 may serve as a prognostic marker for Chinese lung cancer patients in the clinic. PMID:25962159

  15. Anchored p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 3 is Required for Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinliang; Kritzer, Michael D.; Carlisle Michel, Jennifer J.; Le, Andrew; Thakur, Hrishikesh; Gayanilo, Marjorie; Passariello, Catherine; Negro, Alejandra; Danial, Joshua B.; Oskouei, Behzad; Sanders, Michael; Hare, Joshua M.; Hanauer, Andre; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Kapiloff, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy is the main compensatory response to chronic stress on the heart. p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) family members are effectors for extracellular signal-regulated kinases that induce myocyte growth. Although increased RSK activity has been observed in stressed myocytes, the functions of individual RSK family members have remained poorly defined, despite being potential therapeutic targets for cardiac disease. Objective To demonstrate that type 3 RSK (RSK3) is required for cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Methods and Results RSK3 contains a unique N-terminal domain that is not conserved in other RSK family members. We show that this domain mediates the regulated binding of RSK3 to the muscle A-kinase anchoring protein (mAKAP) scaffold, defining a novel kinase anchoring event. Disruption of both RSK3 expression using RNA interference and RSK3 anchoring using a competing mAKAP peptide inhibited the hypertrophy of cultured myocytes. In vivo, RSK3 gene deletion in the mouse attenuated the concentric myocyte hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and catecholamine infusion. Conclusions Taken together, these data demonstrate that anchored RSK3 transduces signals that modulate pathologic myocyte growth. Targeting of signaling complexes that contain select kinase isoforms should provide an approach for the specific inhibition of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and for the development of novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of heart failure. PMID:22997248

  16. Vanadium salts stimulate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and ribosomal S6 kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay K. Pandey; Jean-Louis Chiasson; Ashok K. Srivastava

    1995-01-01

    Effect of several vanadium salts, sodium orthovanadate, vanadyl sulfate and sodium metavanadate on protein tyrosine phosphorylation and serine\\/threonine kinases in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing a normal human insulin receptor was examined. All the compounds stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation of two major proteins with molecular masses of 42 kDa (p42) and 44 kDa (p44). The phosphorylation of p42 and

  17. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of S6K1 in Cashmere Goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Manlin, Wu; Wenlei, Bao; Xiyan, Hao; Xu, Zheng; Yanfeng, Wang; Zhigang, Wang

    2013-01-01

    p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) can integrate nutrient and growth factor signals to promote cell growth and survival. We report our molecular characterization of the complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes the goat p70S6K gene 40S ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) (GenBank accession GU144017) and its 3? noncoding sequence in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus). Goat S6K1 cDNA was 2,272 bp and include an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,578 bp, corresponding to a polypeptide of 525 amino acids, and a 694-residue 3? noncoding sequence with a polyadenylation signal at nucleotides 2,218 to 2,223. The relative abundance of S6K1 mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in 6 tissues, and p70S6K expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in heart and testis. The phosphorylation of p70S6K is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in fetal fibroblasts. PMID:25049885

  18. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of S6K1 in Cashmere Goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Manlin, Wu; Wenlei, Bao; Xiyan, Hao; Xu, Zheng; Yanfeng, Wang; Zhigang, Wang

    2013-08-01

    p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) can integrate nutrient and growth factor signals to promote cell growth and survival. We report our molecular characterization of the complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes the goat p70S6K gene 40S ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) (GenBank accession GU144017) and its 3' noncoding sequence in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus). Goat S6K1 cDNA was 2,272 bp and include an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,578 bp, corresponding to a polypeptide of 525 amino acids, and a 694-residue 3' noncoding sequence with a polyadenylation signal at nucleotides 2,218 to 2,223. The relative abundance of S6K1 mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in 6 tissues, and p70S6K expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in heart and testis. The phosphorylation of p70S6K is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in fetal fibroblasts. PMID:25049885

  19. PDGF- and insulin-dependent pp70S6k activation mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3OH kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongkyeong Chung; Katherine P. Lemon; Andrius Kazlauskas; John Blenis

    1994-01-01

    PLATELET-DERIVED growth factor receptor (PDGF-R) phosphory-lation at tyrosines 740\\/751 and insulin receptor phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 effects the recruitment and activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PIK)1-5. Changes in PI(3)K activity correlate with cell growth but its downstream signal transducers are unknown4,5. Activation of the 70\\/85K S6 kinases (pp70S6k) by serine phosphorylation6,7 results in 40S ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and is

  20. Protein phosphatase 2A inactivates the mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase from Swiss mouse 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ballou, L M; Jenö, P; Thomas, G

    1988-01-25

    Treatment of quiescent 3T3 cells with sodium orthovanadate induces a 10-fold stimulation of a kinase that phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6. The kinase in crude extracts is extremely labile and rapidly loses activity when incubated at 37 degrees C. This reaction is blocked by phosphatase inhibitors such as p-nitrophenyl phosphate and beta-glycerophosphate, suggesting that dephosphorylation of the kinase leads to its inactivation (Novak-Hofer, I., and Thomas, G. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 10314-10319). After three steps of purification the kinase can be separated from greater than 99% of the cellular phosphorylase a phosphatases. At this stage the kinase preparation is almost completely stable but can be inactivated by readdition of specific column fractions that contain both phosphorylase phosphatase and protease activity. However, employing a number of specific inhibitors it is shown that the inactivating agent in these fractions is a protein phosphatase. Furthermore, the physical and enzymatic properties of the kinase inactivator argue that it can be classified as a type 2A phosphatase. These results are consistent with the finding that the purified catalytic subunits of phosphatase type 1 and type 2A also inactivate the kinase. At equivalent phosphorylase a phosphatase activities, the type 2A catalytic subunit is 3 times more potent than the type 1 enzyme in carrying out this reaction. These data indicate that the major S6 kinase inactivator in 3T3 cell extracts is a type 2A phosphatase, supporting the hypothesis that the orthovanadate-stimulated S6 kinase is regulated in vivo by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism. PMID:2826472

  1. Altered Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling and Glycogen Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle from p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 Knockout Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT D. DUFRESNE; C. Bjorbak; KARIM EL-HASCHIMI; YI ZHAO; WILLIAM G. ASCHENBACH; DAVID E. MOLLER; LAURIE J. GOODYEAR

    2001-01-01

    The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), a cytosolic substrate for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), is involved in transcriptional regulation, and one isoform (RSK2) has been implicated in the activation of glycogen synthase by insulin. To determine RSK2 function in vivo, mice lacking a functional rsk2 gene were generated and studied in response to insulin and exercise, two potent stimulators

  2. Involvement of 90-kuD ribosomal S6 kinase in collagen type I expression in rat hepatic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miao-Fang Yang; Jun Xie; Xiao-Yi Gu; Xiao-Hua Zhang; Andrew K Davey; Shuang-Jie Zhang; Ji-Ping Wang; Ren-Min Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between 90-kuD ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and collagen type ? expression during the development of hepatic fibrosis in vivo and in vitro . METHODS: Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine. The protein expression and cell location of p90RSK and their relationship with collagen type ? were determined by co-immunofluoresence and confocal

  3. Control of Paip1-Eukayrotic Translation Initiation Factor 3 Interaction by Amino Acids through S6 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Yvan; Wang, Xiaoshan; Alain, Tommy; Petroulakis, Emmanuel; Shahbazian, David; Fabre, Bertrand; Bousquet-Dubouch, Marie-Pierre; Monsarrat, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous interaction of poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and the mRNA 3? poly(A) tail promotes translation initiation. We previously showed that the interaction of PABP-interacting protein 1 (Paip1) with PABP and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3; via the eIF3g subunit) further stimulates translation. Here, we demonstrate that the interaction of eIF3 with Paip1 is regulated by amino acids through the mTORC1 signaling pathway. The Paip1-eIF3 interaction is impaired by the mTORC1 inhibitors, rapamycin and PP242. We show that ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 and 2 (S6K1/2) promote the interaction of eIF3 with Paip1. The enhancement of Paip1-eIF3 interaction by amino acids is abrogated by an S6K inhibitor or shRNA against S6K1/2. S6K1 interacts with eIF3f and, in vitro, phosphorylates eIF3. Finally, we show that S6K inhibition leads to a reduction in translation by Paip1. We propose that S6K1/2 phosphorylate eIF3 to stimulate Paip1-eIF3 interaction and consequent translation initiation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that eIF3 is a new translation target of the mTOR/S6K pathway. PMID:24396066

  4. Target of rapamycin-dependent activation of S6 kinase is a central step in the transduction of nutritional signals during egg development in a mosquito.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Immo A; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Roy, Saurabh G; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2005-05-27

    Female mosquitoes are effective disease vectors, because they take blood from vertebrate hosts to obtain nutrients for egg development. Amino acid signaling via the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway has been identified as a key requirement for the activation of egg development after a blood meal. We report the characterization of the TOR kinase and one of its major downstream targets, S6 kinase, of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti during egg development in adult females. Both TOR and S6K mRNA are expressed at high levels in the ovaries and in lower levels in fat body and other tissues. After a blood meal, the subcellular localization of TOR shifts from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane of fat body cells. By detecting phosphothreonine 388 of mosquito S6 kinase, we show that TOR activity strongly increases in fat body and ovaries after a blood meal in vivo. Furthermore, phosphorylation of S6 kinase increases in in vitro cultured fat bodies after stimulation with amino acids. This increase is sensitive to the TOR inhibitor rapamycin in a concentration-dependent manner but not to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase inhibitor LY294002, the MAPK inhibitor PD98059, or the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. RNA interference-mediated reduction of S6 kinase strongly inhibits the amino acid-induced up-regulation of the major yolk protein vitellogenin in vitro and effectively disrupts egg development after a blood meal in vivo. Our data show that TOR-dependent activation of S6 kinase is a central step in the transduction of nutritional information during egg development in mosquitoes. PMID:15788394

  5. Involvement of Polo-like Kinase 1 (Plk1) in Mitotic Arrest by Inhibition of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase-Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (MEK-ERK-RSK1) Cascade*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Chen, Dian-Fu; Zhou, Rong; Jia, Sheng-Nan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Clegg, James S.; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Cell division is controlled through cooperation of different kinases. Of these, polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) play key roles. Plk1 acts as a G2/M trigger, and RSK1 promotes G1 progression. Although previous reports show that Plk1 is suppressed by RSK1 during meiosis in Xenopus oocytes, it is still not clear whether this is the case during mitosis or whether Plk1 counteracts the effects of RSK1. Few animal models are available for the study of controlled and transient cell cycle arrest. Here we show that encysted embryos (cysts) of the primitive crustacean Artemia are ideal for such research because they undergo complete cell cycle arrest when they enter diapause (a state of obligate dormancy). We found that Plk1 suppressed the activity of RSK1 during embryonic mitosis and that Plk1 was inhibited during embryonic diapause and mitotic arrest. In addition, studies on HeLa cells using Plk1 siRNA interference and overexpression showed that phosphorylation of RSK1 increased upon interference and decreased after overexpression, suggesting that Plk1 inhibits RSK1. Taken together, these findings provide insights into the regulation of Plk1 during cell division and Artemia diapause cyst formation and the correlation between the activity of Plk1 and RSK1. PMID:22427657

  6. Interactions between the Regulatory Subunit of Type I Protein Kinase A and p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase1 Regulate Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Brian; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes toward the loss of muscle mass in myocardial pathologies. Previous reports have implicated type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the precise mechanisms and the isoform of RSK involved in this process remain undefined. Using adult rat ventricular myocytes and mouse-derived cardiac HL-1 cardiomyocytes, we demonstrate that hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced apoptosis is accompanied by a decrease in the type I PKA regulatory subunit (PKARI?) and activation of RSK1. As previously described by us for other cell types, in cardiomyocytes, inactive RSK1 also interacts with PKARI?, whereas the active RSK1 interacts with the catalytic subunit of PKA. Additionally, small interfering (siRNA)-mediated silencing of PKARI? or disrupting the RSK1/PKARI? interactions with a small, cell-permeable peptide activates RSK1 and recapitulates the H/R-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of RSK1 or siRNA-mediated silencing of RSK1 attenuates H/R-induced apoptosis, demonstrating the role of RSK1 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, silencing of RSK1 decreases the H/R-induced phosphorylation of sodium–hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1), and inhibition of NHE1 with 5?-N-ethyl-N-isopropyl-amiloride blocks H/R induced apoptosis, indicating the involvement of NHE1 in apoptosis. Overall, our findings demonstrate that H/R-mediated decrease in PKARI? protein levels leads to activation of RSK1, which via phosphorylation of NHE1 induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PMID:24307699

  7. Two p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase Isoforms Are Involved in the Regulation of Mitotic and Meiotic Arrest in Artemia*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ru-Bing; Zhang, Li; Chen, Dian-Fu; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple isoforms of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), which regulate diverse cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, maturation, and motility. However, the relationship between the structures and functions of RSK isoforms remains undetermined. Artemia is a useful model in which to study cell cycle arrest because these animals undergo prolonged diapauses, a state of obligate dormancy. A novel RSK isoform was identified in Artemia, which was termed Ar-Rsk2. This isoform was compared with an RSK isoform that we previously identified in Artemia, termed Ar-Rsk1. Ar-Rsk2 has an ERK-docking motif, whereas Ar-Rsk1 does not. Western blot analysis revealed that Ar-Rsk1 was activated by phosphorylation, which blocked meiosis in oocytes. Knockdown of Ar-Rsk1 reduced the level of phosphorylated cdc2 and thereby suppressed cytostatic factor activity. This indicates that Ar-Rsk1 regulates the cytostatic factor in meiosis. Expression of Ar-Rsk2 was down-regulated in Artemia cysts in which mitosis was arrested. Knockdown of Ar-Rsk2 resulted in decreased levels of cyclin D3 and phosphorylated histone H3, and the production of pseudo-diapause cysts. This indicates that Ar-Rsk2 regulates mitotic arrest. PLK and ERK RNAi showed that Ar-Rsk2, but not Ar-Rsk1, could be activated by PLK-ERK in Artemia. This is the first study to report that RSK isoforms with and without an ERK-docking motif regulate mitosis and meiosis, respectively. This study provides insight into the relationship between the structures and functions of RSK isoforms. PMID:24755224

  8. Tumor Suppressor PDCD4 Represses Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Translation of Antiapoptotic Proteins and Is Regulated by S6 Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Liwak, Urszula; Thakor, Nehal; Jordan, Lindsay E.; Roy, Rajat; Lewis, Stephen M.; Pardo, Olivier E.; Seckl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis can be regulated by extracellular signals that are communicated by peptides such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) that have important roles in tumor cell proliferation. The prosurvival effects of FGF-2 are transduced by the activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2), which increases the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins X chromosome-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) and Bcl-xL. We now show that the FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling is mediated by the tumor suppressor programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). We demonstrate that PDCD4 specifically binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements of both the XIAP and Bcl-xL messenger RNAs and represses their translation by inhibiting the formation of the 48S translation initiation complex. Phosphorylation of PDCD4 by activated S6K2 leads to the degradation of PDCD4 and thus the subsequent derepression of XIAP and Bcl-xL translation. Our results identify PDCD4 as a specific repressor of the IRES-dependent translation of cellular mRNAs (such as XIAP and Bcl-xL) that mediate FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling and provide further insight into the role of PDCD4 in tumor suppression. PMID:22431522

  9. Purification and characterization of a 40 S ribosomal protein S6 kinase from vanadate-stimulated Swiss 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Jenö, P; Jäggi, N; Luther, H; Siegmann, M; Thomas, G

    1989-01-15

    Recently we have identified a mitogen-activated S6 kinase from Swiss 3T3 cells (Jenö, P., Ballou, L. M., Novak-Hofer, I., and Thomas, G. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 406-410). Here we describe the detailed purification of this enzyme from high-speed supernatants (400,000 x g) of vanadate-treated cell extracts. The enzyme is purified through six sequential steps including cation- and anion-exchange, sizing, and affinity chromatography. At each step, the enzyme behaves as one entity and, on the final step of purification, is revealed on silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels as a single protein of Mr 70,000. As reported earlier, the overall purification factor is 3,000-fold, and the specific activity of the homogeneously purified enzyme is 0.6 mumol/min/mg of protein. However, recovery of total activity is only 0.2%. This large loss of activity appears to be due to freeze-thawing the enzyme between each step of purification. The purified kinase does not phosphorylate casein, histones 2A and 3S, or phosvitin. It has a Km for ATP of 28 microM and a broad optimum for Mg2+ between 5 and 20 mM. Mn2+ does not affect the basal level of kinase activity, and at concentrations as low as 1 mM, it completely suppresses the effect of 20 mM Mg2+ on kinase activity. The relationship of this enzyme to two other purified S6 kinases is discussed. PMID:2910854

  10. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  11. PAS kinase is a nutrient and energy sensor in hypothalamic areas required for the normal function of AMPK and mTOR/S6K1.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Carneiro, Verónica; Roncero, Isabel; Egger, Sascha S; Wenger, Roland H; Blazquez, Enrique; Sanz, Carmen; Alvarez, Elvira

    2014-10-01

    The complications caused by overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes are one of the main problems that increase morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Hypothalamic metabolic sensors play an important role in the control of feeding and energy homeostasis. PAS kinase (PASK) is a nutrient sensor proposed as a regulator of glucose metabolism and cellular energy. The role of PASK might be similar to other known metabolic sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). PASK-deficient mice resist diet-induced obesity. We have recently reported that AMPK and mTOR/S6K1 pathways are regulated in the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus in response to nutritional states, being modulated by anorexigenic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/exendin-4 in lean and obese rats. We identified PASK in hypothalamic areas, and its expression was regulated under fasting/re-feeding conditions and modulated by exendin-4. Furthermore, PASK-deficient mice have an impaired activation response of AMPK and mTOR/S6K1 pathways. Thus, hypothalamic AMPK and S6K1 were highly activated under fasted/re-fed conditions. Additionally, in this study, we have observed that the exendin-4 regulatory effect in the activity of metabolic sensors was lost in PASK-deficient mice, and the anorexigenic properties of exendin-4 were significantly reduced, suggesting that PASK could be a mediator in the GLP-1 signalling pathway. Our data indicated that the PASK function could be critical for preserving the nutrient effect on AMPK and mTOR/S6K1 pathways and maintain the regulatory role of exendin-4 in food intake. Some of the antidiabetogenic effects of exendin-4 might be modulated through these processes. PMID:24445950

  12. Current Biology, Vol. 14, 15401549, September 7, 2004, 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2004.08.061 SKAR Is a Specific Target of S6 Kinase 1

    E-print Network

    and S6K2, lie downstream of mTOR the development of tumors is revealed by its positionand PI3K-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, as Akt (which is activated by PI3K) phosphory- lates and inactivates TSC) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signal- TOR has been linked to nutrient sensing through theing pathways promote

  13. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits protein synthesis associated with hypertrophy in the cardiac myocyte.

    PubMed

    Chan, Anita Y M; Soltys, Carrie-Lynn M; Young, Martin E; Proud, Christopher G; Dyck, Jason R B

    2004-07-30

    A necessary mediator of cardiac myocyte enlargement is protein synthesis, which is controlled at the levels of both translation initiation and elongation. Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) mediates the translocation step of peptide-chain elongation and is inhibited through phosphorylation by eEF2 kinase. In addition, p70S6 kinase can regulate protein synthesis by phosphorylating eEF2 kinase or via phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. We have recently shown that eEF2 kinase is also controlled by phosphorylation by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. Moreover, the mammalian target of rapamycin has also been shown to be inhibited, indirectly, by AMPK, thus leading to the inhibition of p70S6 kinase. Although AMPK activation has been shown to modulate protein synthesis, it is unknown whether AMPK could also be a regulator of cardiac hypertrophic growth. Therefore, we investigated the role of AMPK activation in regulating protein synthesis during both phenylephrine- and Akt-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Metformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside were used to activate AMPK in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Activation of AMPK significantly decreased protein synthesis induced by phenylephrine treatment or by expression of constitutively active Akt. Activation of AMPK also resulted in decreased p70S6 kinase phosphorylation and increased phosphorylation of eEF2, suggesting that inhibition of protein synthesis involves the eEF2 kinase/eEF2 axis and/or the p70S6 kinase pathway. Together, our data suggest that the inhibition of protein synthesis by pharmacological activation of AMPK may be a key regulatory mechanism by which hypertrophic growth can be controlled. PMID:15159410

  14. RhoA Kinase (Rock) and p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (p90Rsk) phosphorylation of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) is required for lysophosphatidic acid-induced transport, cytoskeletal organization and migration.

    PubMed

    Wallert, Mark A; Hammes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tony; Kiefer, Lea; Berthelsen, Nick; Kern, Andrew; Anderson-Tiege, Kristina; Shabb, John B; Muhonen, Wallace W; Grove, Bryon D; Provost, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    The sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform one (NHE1) plays a critical role coordinating asymmetric events at the leading edge of migrating cells and is regulated by a number of phosphorylation events influencing both the ion transport and cytoskeletal anchoring required for directed migration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activation of RhoA kinase (Rock) and the Ras-ERK growth factor pathway induces cytoskeletal reorganization, activates NHE1 and induces an increase in cell motility. We report that both Rock I and II stoichiometrically phosphorylate NHE1 at threonine 653 in vitro using mass spectrometry and reconstituted kinase assays. In fibroblasts expressing NHE1 alanine mutants for either Rock (T653A) or ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk; S703A) we show that each site is partially responsible for the LPA-induced increase in transport activity while NHE1 phosphorylation by either Rock or Rsk at their respective site is sufficient for LPA stimulated stress fiber formation and migration. Furthermore, mutation of either T653 or S703 leads to a higher basal pH level and a significantly higher proliferation rate. Our results identify the direct phosphorylation of NHE1 by Rock and suggest that both RhoA and Ras pathways mediate NHE1-dependent ion transport and migration in fibroblasts. PMID:25578862

  15. Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 Directly Phosphorylates the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) Serotonin Receptor, Thereby Modulating 5-HT2A Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Ryan T.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Willard, Belinda; Kinter, Michael; Kiselar, Janna G.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily (GPCR) and plays a key role in transducing a variety of cellular signals elicited by 5-hydroxytryptamine in both peripheral and central tissues. Despite its broad physiological importance, our current understanding of 5-HT2A receptor regulation is incomplete. We recently reported the novel finding that the multifunctional ERK effector ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) physically interacts with the 5-HT2A receptor third intracellular (i3) loop and modulates receptor signaling (Sheffler, D. J., Kroeze, W. K., Garcia, B. G., Deutch, A. Y., Hufeisen, S. J., Leahy, P., Bruning, J. C., and Roth, B. L. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103, 4717–4722). We report here that RSK2 directly phosphorylates the 5-HT2A receptor i3 loop at the conserved residue Ser-314, thereby modulating 5-HT2A receptor signaling. Furthermore, these studies led to the discovery that RSK2 is required for epidermal growth factor-mediated heterologous desensitization of the 5-HT2A receptor. We arrived at these conclusions via multiple lines of evidence, including in vitro kinase experiments, tandem mass spectrometry, and site-directed mutagenesis. Our findings were further validated using phospho-specific Western blot analysis, metabolic labeling studies, and whole-cell signaling experiments. These results support a novel regulatory mechanism in which a downstream effector of the ERK/MAPK pathway directly interacts with, phosphorylates, and modulates signaling of the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to demonstrate that a downstream member of the ERK/MAPK cascade phosphorylates a GPCR as well as mediates cross-talk between a growth factor and a GPCR. PMID:19103592

  16. The effect of the protein level in a pre-starter diet on the post-hatch performance and activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase in muscle of neonatal broilers.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Nadia; Swennen, Quirine; Coustard, Sonia Métayer; Willemsen, Hilke; Careghi, Christine; Buyse, Johan; Bruggeman, Veerle; Decuypere, Eddy; Tesseraud, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    The cytoplasmic serine/threonine ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) plays a critical role in controlling protein translation. There is evidence that amino acids regulate S6K1 and protein synthesis in avian species, but the effect of dietary protein level on the activation of S6K1 in neonatal chicks is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of different protein levels, supplied during the first 5 d post-hatch, on body growth, breast muscle development and on the activation of S6K1 and its downstream target, the S6, in neonatal chicks. Chicks were fed a pre-starter diet during the first 5 d post-hatch containing low (19.6 % crude protein (CP); LP), medium (23.1 % CP; MP) or high (26.7 % CP) levels (HP) of protein. Weight gain of chicks fed the HP diet was higher (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the LP diet during day (d)3-d5 and the numerical advantage of this group was maintained from d2 to d7. On d2 and d3, greater levels of S6K1 and S6 phosphorylation and/or activity were observed in chicks receiving the HP diet compared with LP and MP diets, without differences between results of the latter two dietary treatments. In conclusion, the present results suggest that early protein nutrition impacts the development of broiler chicks. PMID:19747420

  17. Hydroxychloroquine Destabilizes Phospho-S6 in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Ok; Mustafa, Aladdin; Hudes, Gary R.; Kruger, Warren D.

    2015-01-01

    mTOR inhibitors are used to treat metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC), but most patients eventually become resistant. One possible mechanism for resistance is upregulation of autophagy, a pathway that helps recycle intracellular proteins and promotes cell survival. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a potent autophagy inhibitor used to treat malaria and autoimmune disorders, is currently being studied in the context of cancer treatment. Here, we have investigated the effects of HCQ on three different renal carcinoma derived cell lines. We found that HCQ treatment inhibits RCC cell growth, promotes apoptosis, inhibits mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and increases rates of glycolysis. To understand the molecular mechanism behind these effects, we examined various nodes in the mTOR pathway and compared the effects of HCQ with the effects of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001. A key downstream readout of the pathway, phospho-S6 protein, was inhibited by both HCQ and RAD001. However, the upstream kinase, P70S6K was only inhibited by RAD001 and not HCQ, suggesting that the block by HCQ was downstream of P70S6K. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib restored phospho-S6 levels, suggesting that the reduction of phospho-S6 is caused by increased degradation of phospho-S6, but not total S6. Surprisingly, treatment with other autophagy inhibitors did not exhibit the same effects. Our findings suggest that HCQ causes the down-regulation of phospho-S6 in RCC cell lines via a novel mechanism that is not shared with other autophagy inhibitors. PMID:26134285

  18. FMRP S499 Is Phosphorylated Independent of mTORC1-S6K1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Christopher M.; O’Keefe, Rachel A.; Bordey, Angélique

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with cognitive deficits in several neurological disorders including tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The phosphorylation of the mRNA-binding protein FMRP reportedly depends on mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity via p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Because this phosphorylation is thought to regulate the translation of messages important for synaptic plasticity, we explored whether FMRP phosphorylation of the S6K1-dependent residue (S499) is altered in TSC and states of dysregulated TSC-mTORC1 signaling. Surprisingly, we found that FMRP S499 phosphorylation was unchanged in heterozygous and conditional Tsc1 knockout mice despite significantly elevated mTORC1-S6K1 activity. Neither up- nor down-regulation of the mTORC1-S6K1 axis in vivo or in vitro had any effect on phospho-FMRP S499 levels. In addition, FMRP S499 phosphorylation was unaltered in S6K1-knockout mice. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that FMRP S499 phosphorylation is independent of mTORC1-S6K1 activity and is not altered in TSC. PMID:24806451

  19. Amino Acid-Induced Translation of TOP mRNAs Is Fully Dependent on Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Mediated Signaling, Is Partially Inhibited by Rapamycin, and Is Independent of S6K1 and rpS6 Phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HUA TANG; ERAN HORNSTEIN; MIRI STOLOVICH; GALIT LEVY; MARK LIVINGSTONE; DENNIS TEMPLETON; JOSEPH AVRUCH; ODED MEYUHAS

    2001-01-01

    Vertebrate TOP mRNAs contain an oligopyrimidine tract at their 5 termini (5TOP) and encode compo- nents of the translational machinery. Previously it has been shown that they are subject to selective transla- tional repression upon growth arrest and that their translational behavior correlates with the activity of S6K1. We now show that the translation of TOP mRNAs is rapidly repressed

  20. Haloperidol Regulates the State of Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 via Activation of PKA and Phosphorylation of DARPP-32

    PubMed Central

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Bowling, Heather; Lopez, Sébastien; Santini, Emanuela; Matamales, Miriam; Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Hervé, Denis; Hoeffer, Charles; Klann, Eric; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Fisone, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Administration of typical antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol, promotes cAMP-dependent signaling in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum. In this study, we have examined the effect of haloperidol on the state of phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit. We found that haloperidol increases the phosphorylation of rpS6 at the dual site Ser235/236, which is involved in the regulation of mRNA translation. This effect was exerted in the MSNs of the indirect pathway, which express specifically dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and adenosine A2 receptors (A2ARs). The effect of haloperidol was decreased by blockade of A2ARs or by genetic attenuation of the G?olf protein, which couples A2ARs to activation of adenylyl cyclase. Moreover, stimulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) increased Ser235/236 phosphorylation in cultured striatal neurons. The ability of haloperidol to promote rpS6 phosphorylation was abolished in knock-in mice deficient for PKA activation of the protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32?kDa. In contrast, pharmacological or genetic inactivation of p70 rpS6 kinase 1, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases did not affect haloperidol-induced rpS6 phosphorylation. These results identify PKA as a major rpS6 kinase in neuronal cells and suggest that regulation of protein synthesis through rpS6 may be a potential target of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21814187

  1. Sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in port-wine stain blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbin; Chernova, Margarita; Gao, Lin; Sun, Victor; Liu, Huaxu; Jia, Wangcun; Langer, Stephanie; Wang, Gang; Mihm, Martin C.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Background Port-wine stain (PWS) is a congenital, progressive vascular malformation but the pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Objective We sought to investigate the activation status of various kinases, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AKT, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, P70 ribosomal S6 kinase, and phosphoinositide phospholipase C ? subunit, in PWS biopsy tissues. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on 19 skin biopsy samples from 11 patients with PWS. Results c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and P70 ribosomal S6 kinase in pediatric and adult PWS blood vessels were consecutively activated. Activation of AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was found in many adult hypertrophic PWS blood vessels but not in infants. Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ? subunit showed strong activation in nodular PWS blood vessels. Limitation Infantile PWS sample size was small. Conclusion Our data suggest a subsequent activation profile of various kinases during different stages of PWS: (1) c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases are firstly and consecutively activated in all PWS tissues, which may contribute to both the pathogenesis and progressive development of PWS; (2) AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are subsequently activated, and are involved in the hypertrophic development of PWS blood vessels; and (3) phosphoinositide phospholipase C ? subunit is activated in the most advanced stage of PWS and may participate in nodular formation. PMID:25135651

  2. Metformin Impairs Vascular Endothelial Recovery After Stent Placement in the Setting of Locally Eluted Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors Via S6 Kinase-Dependent Inhibition of Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Anwer; Karmali, Vinit; Polavarapu, Rohini; Akahori, Hirokuni; Nakano, Masataka; Yazdani, Saami; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Pachura, Kim; Davis, Talina; Narula, Jagat; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu; Finn, Aloke V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to examine the effect of oral metformin (Mf) therapy on endothelialization in the setting of drug-eluting stents (DES). Background Mf is a commonly used therapy in diabetic patients receiving DES. Mf and locally eluted mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors used in DES have convergent molecular signaling; however, the impact of this drug interaction on stent endothelialization is unknown. Methods We examined human endothelial aortic cells (HAECs) and a rabbit model of stenting to determine points on molecular convergence between these 2 agents and their impact on stent endothelialization. Results Western blotting of HAECs treated with Mf and the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus and 14-day rabbit iliacs treated with the combination of zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) and oral Mf demonstrated greater inhibition of S6 kinase (S6K), a downstream effector of mTOR complex 1, than either treatment alone. HAEC proliferation was significantly inhibited by Mf or sirolimus treatments alone and further reduced when they were combined. Knockdown of S6K via short interfering RNA in HAECs impaired cell proliferation via a cyclin D1–dependent mechanism, whereas its overexpression rescued the antiproliferative effects of both agents. Last, endothelialization and endothelial cell proliferation at 14 days were assessed in rabbits receiving ZES or bare-metal stents and Mf or placebo by scanning electron microscopy and bromodeoxyuridine/CD31 labeling, respectively. Both endpoints were inhibited by ZES treatment alone and were further reduced by the combination of Mf and ZES. Conclusions Significant convergence of signaling occurs between Mf and locally delivered mTOR inhibitors at S6K. This further impairs endothelial recovery/proliferation via an S6K-dependent mechanism. Patients receiving Mf in combination with stents that elute mTOR inhibitors are potentially at increased risk of delayed endothelial healing and stent thrombosis. PMID:23449430

  3. TGF? enforces activation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) via inactivation of eEF2 kinase by p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90Rsk) to induce mesangial cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2010-10-01

    eEF2 phosphorylation is under tight control to maintain mRNA translation elongation. We report that TGF? activates eEF2 by decreasing eEF2 phosphorylation and simultaneously increasing eEF2 kinase phosphorylation. Remarkably, inhibition of Erk1/2 blocked the TGF?-induced dephosphorylation and phosphorylation of eEF2 and eEF2 kinase. TGF? increased phosphorylation of p90Rsk in an Erk1/2-dependent manner. Inactive p90Rsk reversed TGF?-inhibited phosphorylation of eEF2 and suppressed eEF2 kinase activity. Finally, inactive p90Rsk significantly attenuated TGF?-induced protein synthesis and hypertrophy of mesangial cells. These results present the first evidence that TGF? utilizes the two layered kinase module Erk/p90Rsk to activate eEF2 for increased protein synthesis during cellular hypertrophy. PMID:20837011

  4. Effects of contraction and insulin on protein synthesis, AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation state of translation factors in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lisa; Horman, Sandrine; De Potter, Isabelle; Hue, Louis; Jensen, Jørgen; Rider, Mark H

    2008-03-01

    In rat epitrochlearis skeletal muscle, contraction inhibited the basal and insulin-stimulated rates of protein synthesis by 75 and 70%, respectively, while increasing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Insulin, on the other hand, stimulated protein synthesis (by 30%) and increased p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) Thr389, 40S ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) Ser235/236, rpS6 Ser240/244 and eukaryotic initiation factor-4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) Thr37/46 phosphorylation over basal values. Electrical stimulation had no effect on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling, as reflected by the lack of reduction in basal levels of p70S6K, rpS6 Ser235/236, rpS6 Ser240/244 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, but did antagonize mTORC1 signalling after stimulation of the pathway by insulin. Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) Thr56 phosphorylation increased rapidly on electrical stimulation reaching a maximum at 1 min, whereas AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation slowly increased to reach threefold after 30 min. Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) was not activated after 30 min of contraction when AMPK was activated. This could not be explained by the expression of a tissue-specific isoform of eEF2K in skeletal muscle lacking the Ser398 AMPK phosphorylation site. Therefore, in this skeletal muscle system, the contraction-induced inhibition of protein synthesis could not be attributed to a reduction in mTORC1 signalling but could be due to an increase in eEF2 phosphorylation independent of AMPK activation. PMID:17957382

  5. Glyceollin, a novel regulator of mTOR/p70S6 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An estimated 70% of breast cancer tumors utilize estrogen receptor (ER) signaling to maintain tumorigenesis, and targeting of the estrogen receptor is a common method of treatment for these tumor types. However, ER-positive (+) breast cancers often acquire drug resistant or altered ER activity in r...

  6. ?-Terpineol induces fatty liver in mice mediated by the AMP-activated kinase and sterol response element binding protein pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Sim, Woo-Cheol; Choi, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The use of herbal medicines in disease prevention and treatment is growing rapidly worldwide, without careful consideration of safety issues. ?-Terpineol is a monoterpene alcoholic component of Melaleuca alternifolia, Salvia officinalis and Carthamus tinctorius that is used widely as a flavor and essential oil in food. The present study showed that ?-terpineol induces fatty liver via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mTOR-sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) pathway. ?-Terpineol-treated hepatocytes had significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation. ?-Terpineol suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, and increased p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and SREBP-1 activation. It also increased luciferase activity in cells transfected with LXRE-tk-Luc and SRE-tk-Luc. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by co-treatment with rapamycin or co-transfection with dominant negative p70S6K blocked completely the effects of ?-terpineol. ?-Terpineol oral administration to mice for 2weeks led to decreased AMPK phosphorylation and increased SREBP-1 activation in the liver, followed by hepatic lipid accumulation. Conversely, rapamycin co-treatment reversed ?-terpineol-induced SREBP-1 activation and fatty liver in mice. These data provide evidence that ?-terpineol causes fatty liver, an effect mediated by the AMPK/mTOR/SREBP-1 pathway. PMID:23274539

  7. Mutation of the PDK1 PH Domain Inhibits Protein Kinase B/Akt, Leading to Small Size and Insulin Resistance? †

    PubMed Central

    Bayascas, Jose R.; Wullschleger, Stephan; Sakamoto, Kei; García-Martínez, Juan M.; Clacher, Carol; Komander, David; van Aalten, Daan M. F.; Boini, Krishna M.; Lang, Florian; Lipina, Christopher; Logie, Lisa; Sutherland, Calum; Chudek, John A.; van Diepen, Janna A.; Voshol, Peter J.; Lucocq, John M.; Alessi, Dario R.

    2008-01-01

    PDK1 activates a group of kinases, including protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K), and serum and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK), that mediate many of the effects of insulin as well as other agonists. PDK1 interacts with phosphoinositides through a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. To study the role of this interaction, we generated knock-in mice expressing a mutant of PDK1 incapable of binding phosphoinositides. The knock-in mice are significantly small, insulin resistant, and hyperinsulinemic. Activation of PKB is markedly reduced in knock-in mice as a result of lower phosphorylation of PKB at Thr308, the residue phosphorylated by PDK1. This results in the inhibition of the downstream mTOR complex 1 and S6K1 signaling pathways. In contrast, activation of SGK1 or p90 ribosomal S6 kinase or stimulation of S6K1 induced by feeding is unaffected by the PDK1 PH domain mutation. These observations establish the importance of the PDK1-phosphoinositide interaction in enabling PKB to be efficiently activated with an animal model. Our findings reveal how reduced activation of PKB isoforms impinges on downstream signaling pathways, causing diminution of size as well as insulin resistance. PMID:18347057

  8. Luteolin is a novel p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor that suppresses Notch4 signaling by blocking the activation of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1)

    PubMed Central

    Reipas, Kristen M.; Law, Jennifer H.; Couto, Nicole; Islam, Sumaiya; Li, Yvonne; Li, Huifang; Cherkasov, Artem; Jung, Karen; Cheema, Amarpal S.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Hassell, John A.; Dunn, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are notoriously difficult to treat because they lack hormone receptors and have limited targeted therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is essential for TNBC growth and survival indicating it as a target for therapeutic development. RSK phosphorylates Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), an oncogenic transcription/translation factor, highly expressed in TNBC (~70% of cases) and associated with poor prognosis, drug resistance and tumor initiation. YB-1 regulates the tumor-initiating cell markers, CD44 and CD49f however its role in Notch signaling has not been explored. We sought to identify novel chemical entities with RSK inhibitory activity. The Prestwick Chemical Library of 1120 off-patent drugs was screened for RSK inhibitors using both in vitro kinase assays and molecular docking. The lead candidate, luteolin, inhibited RSK1 and RSK2 kinase activity and suppressed growth in TNBC, including TIC-enriched populations. Combining luteolin with paclitaxel increased cell death and unlike chemotherapy alone, did not enrich for CD44+ cells. Luteolin’s efficacy against drug-resistant cells was further indicated in the primary x43 cell line, where it suppressed monolayer growth and mammosphere formation. We next endeavored to understand how the inhibition of RSK/YB-1 signaling by luteolin elicited an effect on TIC-enriched populations. ChIP-on-ChIP experiments in SUM149 cells revealed a 12-fold enrichment of YB-1 binding to the Notch4 promoter. We chose to pursue this because there are several reports indicating that Notch4 maintains cells in an undifferentiated, TIC state. Herein we report that silencing YB-1 with siRNA decreased Notch4 mRNA. Conversely, transient expression of Flag:YB-1WT or the constitutively active mutant Flag:YB-1D102 increased Notch4 mRNA. The levels of Notch4 transcript and the abundance of the Notch4 intracellular domain (N4ICD) correlated with activation of P-RSKS221/7 and P-YB-1S102 in a panel of TNBC cell lines. Silencing YB-1 or RSK reduced Notch4 mRNA and this corresponded with loss of N4ICD. Likewise, the RSK inhibitors, luteolin and BI-D1870, suppressed P-YB-1 S102 and thereby reduced Notch4. In conclusion, inhibiting the RSK/YB-1 pathway with luteolin is a novel approach to blocking Notch4 signaling and as such provides a means of inhibiting TICs. PMID:23593654

  9. Polycystin-1 Regulates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Dependent Phosphorylation of Tuberin To Control Cell Size through mTOR and Its Downstream Effectors S6K and 4EBP1 ?

    PubMed Central

    Distefano, Gianfranco; Boca, Manila; Rowe, Isaline; Wodarczyk, Claas; Ma, Li; Piontek, Klaus B.; Germino, Gregory G.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Boletta, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease characterized by bilateral renal cyst formation. Both hyperproliferation and hypertrophy have been previously observed in ADPKD kidneys. Polycystin-1 (PC-1), a large orphan receptor encoded by the PKD1 gene and mutated in 85% of all cases, is able to inhibit proliferation and apoptosis. Here we show that overexpression of PC-1 in renal epithelial cells inhibits cell growth (size) in a cell cycle-independent manner due to the downregulation of mTOR, S6K1, and 4EBP1. Upregulation of the same pathway leads to increased cell size, as found in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Pkd1?/? mice. We show that PC-1 controls the mTOR pathway in a Tsc2-dependent manner, by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated phosphorylation of tuberin in Ser664. We provide a detailed molecular mechanism by which PC-1 can inhibit the mTOR pathway and regulate cell size. PMID:19255143

  10. Development of Organometallic S6K1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Salami, Jemilat; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Domsic, John; Reyes-Uribe, Patricia; Liu, Haiying; Dang, Weiwei; Berger, Shelley L.; Villanueva, Jessie; Meggers, Eric; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is found in many diseases, including diabetes, aging, and cancer. We developed ATP competitive organometallic kinase inhibitors, EM5 and FL772, which are inspired by the structure of the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine, to specifically inhibit S6K1 using a strategy previously used to target other kinases. Biochemical data demonstrate that EM5 and FL772 inhibit the kinase with IC50 value in the low nanomolar range at 100 ?M ATP and that the more potent FL772 compound has a greater than 100-fold specificity over S6K2. The crystal structures of S6K1 bound to staurosporine, EM5, and FL772 reveal that the EM5 and FL772 inhibitors bind in the ATP binding pocket and make S6K1-specific contacts, resulting in changes to the p-loop, ?C helix, and ?D helix when compared to the staurosporine-bound structure. Cellular data reveal that FL772 is able to inhibit S6K phosphorylation in yeast cells. Together, these studies demonstrate that potent, selective, and cell permeable S6K1 inhibitors can be prepared and provide a scaffold for future development of S6K inhibitors with possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25356520

  11. The association of PI3 kinase signaling and chemoresistance in advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Carden, Craig P; Stewart, Adam; Thavasu, Parames; Kipps, Emma; Pope, Lorna; Crespo, Mateus; Miranda, Susana; Attard, Gerhardt; Garrett, Michelle D; Clarke, Paul A; Workman, Paul; de Bono, Johann S; Gore, Martin; Kaye, Stan B; Banerji, Udai

    2012-07-01

    Evidence that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is deregulated in ovarian cancer is largely based on the analysis of surgical specimens sampled at diagnosis and may not reflect the biology of advanced ovarian cancer. We aimed to investigate PI3K signaling in cancer cells isolated from patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Ascites samples were analyzed from 88 patients, of whom 61 received further treatment. Cancer cells were immunomagnetically separated from ascites, and the signaling output of the PI3K pathway was studied by quantifying p-AKT, p-p70S6K, and p-GSK3? by ELISA. Relevant oncogenes, such as PIK3CA and AKT, were sequenced by PCR-amplified mass spectroscopy detection methods. In addition, PIK3CA and AKT2 amplifications and PTEN deletions were analyzed by FISH. p-p70S6K levels were significantly higher in cells from 37 of 61 patients who did not respond to subsequent chemotherapy (0.7184 vs. 0.3496; P = 0.0100), and this difference was greater in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. PIK3CA and AKT mutations were present in 5% and 0% of samples, respectively. Amplification of PIK3CA and AKT2 and deletion of PTEN was seen in 10%, 10%, and 27% of samples, respectively. Mutations of PIK3CA and amplification of PIK3CA/AKT2 or deletion of PTEN did not correlate with levels of p-AKT, p-p70S6K, and p-GSK3?. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer, there is an association between levels of p-p70S6K and response to subsequent chemotherapy. There is no clear evidence that this is driven specifically by PIK3CA or AKT mutations or by amplifications or deletion of PTEN. PMID:22556379

  12. AZD1208, a potent and selective pan-Pim kinase inhibitor, demonstrates efficacy in preclinical models of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Keeton, Erika K.; McEachern, Kristen; Dillman, Keith S.; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Cao, Yichen; Grondine, Michael R.; Kaur, Surinder; Wang, Suping; Chen, Yuching; Wu, Allan; Shen, Minhui; Gibbons, Francis D.; Lamb, Michelle L.; Zheng, Xiaolan; Stone, Richard M.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Dakin, Les A.; Chen, Huawei; Lyne, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Upregulation of Pim kinases is observed in several types of leukemias and lymphomas. Pim-1, -2, and -3 promote cell proliferation and survival downstream of cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways. AZD1208 is a potent, highly selective, and orally available Pim kinase inhibitor that effectively inhibits all three isoforms at <5 nM or <150 nM in enzyme and cell assays, respectively. AZD1208 inhibited the growth of 5 of 14 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines tested, and sensitivity correlates with Pim-1 expression and STAT5 activation. AZD1208 causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MOLM-16 cells, accompanied by a dose-dependent reduction in phosphorylation of Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death, 4EBP1, p70S6K, and S6, as well as increases in cleaved caspase 3 and p27. Inhibition of p4EBP1 and p-p70S6K and suppression of translation are the most representative effects of Pim inhibition in sensitive AML cell lines. AZD1208 inhibits the growth of MOLM-16 and KG-1a xenograft tumors in vivo with a clear pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic relationship. AZD1208 also potently inhibits colony growth and Pim signaling substrates in primary AML cells from bone marrow that are Flt3 wild-type or Flt3 internal tandem duplication mutant. These results underscore the therapeutic potential of Pim kinase inhibition for the treatment of AML. PMID:24363397

  13. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I up-regulate GLUT4 gene expression in fetal brown adipocytes, in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner.

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, A M; Navarro, P; Teruel, T; Conejo, R; Benito, M; Lorenzo, M

    1999-01-01

    Fetal brown adipocytes cultured in a serum-free medium, containing 5 mM glucose, expressed both GLUT4 and GLUT1 glucose transporters at the mRNA and protein level. Treatment with either insulin or insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I at physiological concentrations up-regulates the expression of the GLUT4 gene, producing a time-dependent mRNA accumulation (7-fold increase at 24 h) and a 2.5-fold increase in the amount of protein in the total membrane fraction. However, insulin treatment down-regulates GLUT1 mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, either insulin or IGF-I transactivates a full-promoter GLUT4-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (CAT) construct transiently transfected to the cells, without affecting GLUT1-CAT activity. In consequence, insulin treatment for 24 h increased by 3-fold the basal glucose uptake. Inhibition of phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase activity with chemical agents such as wortmannin or LY294002 partially blocked insulin-induced GLUT4 mRNA accumulation, insulin-induced GLUT4 protein content, GLUT4-CAT transactivation and glucose uptake. Furthermore, co-transfection of brown adipocytes with a dominant-negative form of PI 3-kinase precluded the transactivation of the GLUT4 promoter by insulin. However, inhibition of p70S6 kinase (p70(s6k)) with rapamycin or of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) with PD098059 does not preclude insulin effects on GLUT4 gene expression or glucose uptake. Our results show for the first time a positive effect of insulin on GLUT4 gene expression in fetal brown adipocytes, suggesting the existence of insulin response element(s) in its promoter. Moreover, PI 3-kinase, but not p70(s6k) or MAPK, is an essential requirement for insulin regulation of GLUT4 gene expression. PMID:9895282

  14. Strangeness s = -6 dibaryon

    E-print Network

    Dai Lian-Rong; Zhang Zong-Ye; Yu You-Wen

    2006-05-24

    The structure of $(\\Omega\\Omega)_{0^+}$ dibaryon with strangeness $s=-6$ is studied in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model, in which vector meson exchange dominates the short range interaction. The resonating group method (RGM) is adopted, in which the $\\Omega\\Omega$ and $CC$ (hidden color) channels are involved. The color screening effect and the effects of mixing of scalar mesons on $(\\Omega\\Omega)_{0^+}$ are also investigated.

  15. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibits IGF-I Signaling and Protein Synthesis in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Stimulation of Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 S794 and Tuberous Sclerosis 2 S1345 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Junyu; Clemmons, David R.

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits IGF-I actions, but the mechanism by which AMPK functions is undefined. This study identified signaling events that were induced by AMPK that mediated inhibition of IGF-I-stimulated phosphoinosotide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation. The AMPK activator metformin stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation and inhibited IGF-I-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt/tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K). Expression of constitutively active forms of AMPK suppressed IGF-I-stimulated activation of Akt/TSC2/mTOR/p70S6K and protein synthesis, whereas AMPK knockdown resulted in enhanced responses to IGF-I. To determine the mechanism by which AMPK inhibited IGF-I signaling, the role of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was examined. Both metformin and constitutively activated AMPK enhanced phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser794, which led to decreased IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment of the p85 subunit of PI3K. Overexpression of IRS-1 S794A was associated with increased IGF-I-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, p85 association, and protein synthesis. To determine whether other signaling molecules mediated the effect of AMPK, TSC2 function was examined. Cells overexpressing TSC2/S1345A (the site of AMPK phosphorylation) were less responsive to metformin-induced inhibition of p70S6 kinase. These findings are relevant to whole animal physiology because administration of metformin to mice resulted in inhibition of IGF-I-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K. In conclusion, AMPK functions to inhibit IGF-I-stimulated PI3K pathway activation through stimulation of IRS-1 serine 794 phosphorylation. Because IGF-I is an important stimulant of the anabolic response, this effect of AMPK could account for part of its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis, thus allowing more efficient energy use by other cellular processes. PMID:20363874

  16. MNK2 inhibits eIF4G activation through a pathway involving serine-arginine-rich protein kinase in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shou-Ih; Katz, Mark; Chin, Sherry; Qi, Xiaoqing; Cruz, Joseph; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Zhao, Shanchuan; Chen, Amy; Glass, David J

    2012-02-14

    Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by activity, metabolism, and the availability of nutrients. During muscle atrophy, MNK2 expression increases. We found that MNK2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase 2), but not MNK1, inhibited proteins involved in promoting protein synthesis, including eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Phosphorylation at serine 1108 (Ser¹¹??) of eIF4G, which is associated with enhanced protein translation, is promoted by insulin-like growth factor 1 and inhibited by rapamycin or starvation, suggesting that phosphorylation of this residue is regulated by mTOR. In cultured myotubes, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of MNK2 increased eIF4G Ser¹¹?? phosphorylation and overcame rapamycin's inhibitory effect on this phosphorylation event. Phosphorylation of Ser¹¹?? in eIF4G, in gastrocnemius muscle, was increased in mice lacking MNK2, but not those lacking MNK1, and this increased phosphorylation was maintained in MNK2-null animals under atrophy conditions and upon starvation. Conversely, overexpression of MNK2 decreased eIF4G Ser¹¹?? phosphorylation. An siRNA screen revealed that serine-arginine-rich protein kinases linked increased MNK2 activity to decreased eIF4G phosphorylation. In addition, we found that MNK2 interacted with mTOR and inhibited phosphorylation of the mTOR target, the ribosomal kinase p70S6K (70-kD ribosomal protein S6 kinase), through a mechanism independent of the kinase activity of MNK2. These data indicate that MNK2 plays a unique role, not shared by its closest paralog MNK1, in limiting protein translation through its negative effect on eIF4G Ser¹¹?? phosphorylation and p70S6K activation. PMID:22337810

  17. IFN-? activated JAK1 shifts CD40-induced cytokine profiles in human antigen-presenting cells toward high IL-12p70 and low IL-10 production.

    PubMed

    Conzelmann, Michael; Wagner, Andreas H; Hildebrandt, Anke; Rodionova, Elena; Hess, Michael; Zota, Annika; Giese, Thomas; Falk, Christine S; Ho, Anthony D; Dreger, Peter; Hecker, Markus; Luft, Thomas

    2010-12-15

    CD40Ligand (CD40L) represents a strong endogenous danger signal associated with chronic inflammatory disease. CD40L induces activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as DCs, monocytes, B-cells and endothelial cells. However, CD40 activation alone, whilst inducing IL-10 production, is insufficient to induce interleukin (IL)-12p70 release in human APCs suggesting that additional cytokine signals (e.g. GM-CSF, IL-4 or IFN-?) are required for the induction of a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. We demonstrate that IFN-?-induced Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) enhances CD40-induced IL-12p70 release whilst simultaneously inhibiting IL-10 synthesis, resulting in a pro-inflammatory phenotype of CD40L-activated dendritic cells (DCs). JAK2 mediated enhancing effects on IL-12p70 but did not inhibit IL-10 release, whereas Tyk2 mediated inhibitory effects on IL-12p70 release in this system. The mechanism by which complementary IFN-?/JAK activities affect IL-12p70 production involves STAT1 activation and de novo induction of interferon-responsive factors (IRF)-1 and IRF-8. Simultaneously, JAK1 was unique in inhibiting IL-10 synthesis via STAT1 and IRF-8 with both transcription factors binding to the IL-10 promoter. We demonstrate that CD40- and JAK/STAT/IRF-signalling pathways are strictly complementary for the induction of a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in human APCs. This suggests that a number of CD40 effects in chronic inflammatory diseases might be weakened by targeting JAK/STAT. PMID:20709027

  18. Translational Control of Myelin Basic Protein Expression by ERK2 MAP Kinase Regulates Timely Remyelination in the Adult Brain.

    PubMed

    Michel, Kelly; Zhao, Tianna; Karl, Molly; Lewis, Katherine; Fyffe-Maricich, Sharyl L

    2015-05-20

    Successful myelin repair in the adult CNS requires the robust and timely production of myelin proteins to generate new myelin sheaths. The underlying regulatory mechanisms and complex molecular basis of myelin regeneration, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of ERK MAP kinase signaling in this process. Conditional deletion of Erk2 from cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage resulted in delayed remyelination following demyelinating injury to the adult mouse corpus callosum. The delayed repair occurred as a result of a specific deficit in the translation of the major myelin protein, MBP. In the absence of ERK2, activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target, ribosomal protein S6 (S6RP), was impaired at a critical time when premyelinating oligodendrocytes were transitioning to mature cells capable of generating new myelin sheaths. Thus, we have described an important link between the ERK MAP kinase signaling cascade and the translational machinery specifically in remyelinating oligodendrocytes in vivo. These results suggest an important role for ERK2 in the translational control of MBP, a myelin protein that appears critical for ensuring the timely generation of new myelin sheaths following demyelinating injury in the adult CNS. PMID:25995471

  19. Haloperidol promotes mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 via dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa and inhibition of protein phosphatase-1.

    PubMed

    Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Pallottino, Simone; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel; Fisone, Gilberto

    2013-09-01

    The ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit, involved in multiple physiological functions. Here, we examined the effects produced by haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic drug, on the phosphorylation of rpS6 at Ser240/244 in the striatum, a brain region involved in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. We found that administration of haloperidol increased Ser240/244 phosphorylation in a subpopulation of GABA-ergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which preferentially express dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). This effect was abolished by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), or by PF470867, a selective inhibitor of the p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). We also found that the effect of haloperidol on Ser240/244 phosphorylation was prevented by functional inactivation of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1). In line with this observation, incubation of striatal slices with okadaic acid and calyculin A, two inhibitors of PP-1, increased Ser240/244 phosphorylation. These results show that haloperidol promotes mTORC1- and S6K1-dependent phosphorylation of rpS6 at Ser240/244, in a subpopulation of striatal MSNs expressing D2Rs. They also indicate that this effect is exerted by suppressing dephosphorylation at Ser240/244, through PKA-dependent activation of DARPP-32 and inhibition of PP-1. PMID:23643747

  20. High-frequency electrically stimulated skeletal muscle contractions increase p70 s6k phosphorylation independent of known IGF-I sensitive signaling pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Witkowski; Richard M. Lovering; Espen E. Spangenburg

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) is hypothesized to be a critical upstream regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-regulated protein synthesis with muscle contraction. We utilized a mouse model that expresses a skeletal muscle specific dominant-negative IGF-I receptor to investigate the role of IGF-I signaling of protein synthesis in response to unilateral lengthening contractions (10 sets, 6 repetitions, 100Hz) at 0

  1. IL-12p70–producing patient DC vaccine elicits Tc1-polarized immunity

    PubMed Central

    Carreno, Beatriz M.; Becker-Hapak, Michelle; Huang, Alexander; Chan, Megan; Alyasiry, Amer; Lie, Wen-Rong; Aft, Rebecca L.; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Trinkaus, Kathryn M.; Linette, Gerald P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Systemic administration of IL-12p70 has demonstrated clinical activity in cancer patients, but dose-limiting toxicities have hindered its incorporation in vaccine formulations. Here, we report on the immunological and clinical outcomes upon vaccination with CD40L/IFN-?–matured, IL-12p70–producing DCs. Methods. 7 HLA-A*0201+ newly diagnosed stage IV melanoma patients were immunized against the gp100 melanoma antigen using autologous peptide-pulsed, CD40L/IFN-?–matured DCs. PBMCs were taken weekly for immune monitoring by tetramer analysis and functional assays. CT imaging was performed at baseline, week 9, and week 18 for clinical assessment using RECIST. Results. 6 of 7 treated patients developed sustained T cell immunity to all 3 melanoma gp100 antigen–derived peptides. 3 of the 6 immunological responders developed confirmed clinical responses (1 complete remission >4 years, 2 partial response). Importantly, DC vaccine–derived IL-12p70 levels positively correlated with time to progression (P = 0.019, log-rank), as did T-cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) immunity, as assessed by IFN-?/IL-13 and IFN-?/IL-5 ratios (P = 0.035 and P = 0.030, respectively, log-rank). In contrast, a pathway-specific defect in IL-12p35 transcription was identified upon CD40L/IFN-? activation in clinical nonresponder patient DCs, and gp100-specific T cells from these patients displayed a Tc2 phenotype. Incorporation of TLR3 and TLR8 agonists into the CD40L/IFN-? activation protocol corrected the IL-12p70 production defect in DCs derived from clinical nonresponder patients. Conclusion. These findings underscore the essential role of IL-12p70 in the development of therapeutic type 1 antigen–specific CD8+ T cell immunity in humans with cancer. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00683670. Funding. Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation, Siteman Cancer Frontier Fund, Washington University/JNJ Translational Medicine Award, and NCI (P30 CA91842). PMID:23867552

  2. MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Stokoe, D; Campbell, D G; Nakielny, S; Hidaka, H; Leevers, S J; Marshall, C; Cohen, P

    1992-01-01

    A novel protein kinase, which was only active when phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), has been purified 85,000-fold to homogeneity from rabbit skeletal muscle. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, was distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence. MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylated glycogen synthase at Ser7 and the equivalent serine (*) in the peptide KKPLNRTLS*VASLPGLamide whose sequence is similar to the N terminus of glycogen synthase. MAPKAP kinase-2 was resolved into two monomeric species of apparent molecular mass 60 and 53 kDa that had similar specific activities and substrate specificities. Peptide sequences of the 60 and 53 kDa species were identical, indicating that they are either closely related isoforms or derived from the same gene. MAP kinase activated the 60 and 53 kDa forms of MAPKAP kinase-2 by phosphorylating the first threonine residue in the sequence VPQTPLHTSR. Furthermore, Mono Q chromatography of extracts from rat phaeochromocytoma and skeletal muscle demonstrated that two MAP kinase isoforms (p42mapk and p44mapk) were the only enzymes in these cells that were capable of reactivating MAPKAP kinase-2. These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates. Images PMID:1327754

  3. Oxidants induce phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6.

    PubMed

    Larsson, R; Cerutti, P

    1988-11-25

    We have investigated the phosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 protein which may be on the pathway of mitogenic stimulation in response to oxidants. Mouse epidermal cells JB6 (clone 41) were exposed to active oxygen generated extracellularly by glucose/glucose oxidase (producing H2O2) or xanthine oxidase (producing H2O2 plus superoxide) or active oxygen produced intracellularly by the metabolism of menadione (producing mostly superoxide). All three sources of active oxygen induced rapidly a protein kinase activity which phosphorylated S6 in cellular extracts prepared in the presence of the phosphatase inhibitor beta-glycerophosphate. Maximal activity was reached within 15 min of exposure, and phosphorylation occurred specifically at serine residues. Strong activation of the protein kinase activity was also observed by diamide which selectively oxidizes SH functions. The following observations characterize the reaction: 1) Extracellular addition of catalase but not Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase was inhibitory, implicating H2O2 rather than superoxide as the active species. 2) Exposure of JB6 cells to reagent H2O2 or H2O2 released by glucose/glucose oxidase resulted in a measurable increase in intracellular free Ca2+. 3) The intracellular Ca2+ complexer quin 2 suppressed the reaction. 4) The calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine prevented the activation of the protein kinase. 5) Exposure of cells to Mn2+ and La3+, which stimulate calmodulin-dependent activities, potently increased the S6 kinase activity of the cell extracts. 6) Desalted extracts strictly required the addition of Mg2+ and their activity was inhibited by Mn2+. In contrast, the phosphorylation of a 95-kDa protein was strongly stimulated by Mn2+. 7) For several agonists, i.e. active oxygen, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and serum, tryptic peptide analysis yielded the same phosphopeptides, suggesting that a common S6 kinase is involved in these reactions. From these data we propose that oxidants induce an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ which activates a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and, as a consequence, an S6 kinase. PMID:3141421

  4. Activation loop sequences confer substrate specificity to phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha (PI3Kalpha ). Functions of lipid kinase-deficient PI3Kalpha in signaling.

    PubMed

    Pirola, L; Zvelebil, M J; Bulgarelli-Leva, G; Van Obberghen, E; Waterfield, M D; Wymann, M P

    2001-06-15

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are dual specificity lipid and protein kinases. While the lipid-dependent PI3K downstream signaling is well characterized, little is known about PI3K protein kinase signaling and structural determinants of lipid substrate specificity across the various PI3K classes. Here we show that sequences C-terminal to the PI3K ATP-binding site determine the lipid substrate specificity of the class IA PI3Kalpha (p85/p110alpha). Transfer of such activation loop sequences from class II PI3Ks, class III PI3Ks, and a related mammalian target of rapamycin (FRAP) into p110alpha turns the lipid substrate specificity of the resulting hybrid protein into that of the donor protein, while leaving the protein kinase activity unaffected. All resulting hybrids lacked the ability to produce phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in intact cells. Amino acid substitutions and structure modeling showed that two conserved positively charged (Lys and Arg) residues in the activation loop are crucial for the functionality of class I PI3Ks as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate kinases. By transient transfecion of 293 cells, we show that p110alpha hybrids, although unable to support lipid-dependent PI3K signaling, such as activation of protein kinase B/Akt and p70(S6k), retain the capability to associate with and phosphorylate insulin receptor substrate-1, with the same specificity and higher efficacy than wild type PI3Kalpha. Our data lay the basis for the understanding of the class I PI3K substrate selectivity and for the use of PI3Kalpha hybrids to dissect PI3Kalpha function as lipid and protein kinase. PMID:11278889

  5. Increased expression of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor beta chain (p70) on CD56+ natural killer cells after in vivo IL-2 therapy: p70 expression does not alone predict the level of intermediate affinity IL- 2 binding

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The expression of the 70-kD beta subunit of the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) has been examined on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) obtained from patients receiving systemic infusions of IL-2. Using monoclonal antibodies directed against p70, flow cytometric analyses revealed a greater than threefold increase in expression of the IL-2R beta chain on CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells from post-IL-2 therapy PBL relative to pre-therapy cells. The level of p70 expression on the post-therapy cells was three- to fourfold greater (based on fluorescence intensity) than the level of p70 expression on YT cells, an NK-like cell line that expresses approximately 12,000 intermediate affinity IL-2 binding sites/cell. Despite the high level of p70 expression, in 125I-IL-2 binding assays only 790-1,290 intermediate affinity IL-2 binding sites/cell were detected on post-therapy cells from six patients. These data represent the first report of increased p70 expression after in vivo IL-2 administration and suggest a requirement for at least one additional subunit for the formation of functional intermediate affinity IL-2Rs. Furthermore, the presence on the surface of post-therapy NK cells of excess p70 that does not bind IL-2 with intermediate affinity implies that the formation of intermediate affinity IL-2Rs is not solely determined by the level of p70 expression, and that the response of NK cells to IL-2 might be regulated by altering the expression of p70 or some other IL-2R subunit. PMID:1698909

  6. Cardiac Restricted Overexpression of Kinase-dead Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Mutant Impairs the mTOR-mediated Signaling and Cardiac Function*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-Hua; Chen, Zhuang; Shi, Shu; Chen, Hanying; Zhu, Wuqiang; Penner, Anne; Bu, Guixue; Li, Wei; Boyle, David W.; Rubart, Michael; Field, Loren J.; Abraham, Robert; Liechty, Edward A.; Shou, Weinian

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator for cell growth through modulating components of the translation machinery. Previously, numerous pharmacological studies using rapamycin suggested that mTOR has an important role in regulating cardiac hypertrophic growth. To further investigate this assumption, we have generated two lines of cardiac specific mTOR transgenic mice, kinase-dead (kd) mTOR and constitutively active (ca) mTOR, using ?-myosin heavy chain promoter. ?-Myosin heavy chain (?MHC)-mTORkd mice had a near complete inhibition of p70 S6k and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, whereas ?MHC-mTORca had a significant increase in p70 S6k and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Although the cardiac function of ?MHC-mTORkd mice was significantly altered, the cardiac morphology of these transgenic mice was normal. The cardiac hypertrophic growth in response to physiological and pathological stimuli was not different in ?MHC-mTORkd and ?MHC-mTORca transgenic mice when compared with that of nontransgenic littermates. These findings suggest that the mTOR-mediated signaling pathway is not essential to cardiac hypertrophic growth but is involved in regulating cardiac function. Additional analysis of cardiac responses to fasting-refeeding or acute insulin administration indicated that ?MHC-mTORkd mice had a largely impaired physiological response to nutrient energy supply and insulin stimulation. PMID:18326485

  7. S6K1 controls pancreatic ? cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Um, Sung Hee; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Chau, Gia Cac; Vintersten, Kristina; Mueller, Matthias; Gangloff, Yann-Gael; Adams, Ralf H; Spetz, Jean-Francois; Elghazi, Lynda; Pfluger, Paul T; Pende, Mario; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Tauler, Albert; Tschöp, Matthias H; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide heath problem that is characterized by insulin resistance and the eventual loss of ? cell function. As recent studies have shown that loss of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases systemic insulin sensitivity, S6K1 inhibitors are being pursued as potential agents for improving insulin resistance. Here we found that S6K1 deficiency in mice also leads to decreased ? cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and impaired placental development. IUGR is a common complication of human pregnancy that limits the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, leading to diminished embryonic ? cell growth and the onset of T2DM later in life. However, restoration of placental development and the rescue of IUGR by tetraploid embryo complementation did not restore ? cell size or insulin levels in S6K1-/- embryos, suggesting that loss of S6K1 leads to an intrinsic ? cell lesion. Consistent with this hypothesis, reexpression of S6K1 in ? cells of S6K1-/- mice restored embryonic ? cell size, insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and RPS6 phosphorylation, without rescuing IUGR. Together, these data suggest that a nutrient-mediated reduction in intrinsic ? cell S6K1 signaling, rather than IUGR, during fetal development may underlie reduced ? cell growth and eventual development of T2DM later in life. PMID:26075820

  8. Identification of Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantigens and analysis of anti-Ki autoantibody reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Francoeur, A.M.; Peebles, C.L.; Gompper, P.T.; Tan, E.M.

    1986-03-01

    Anti-Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantibodies, named after the prototype patient Kikuta by Tojo et al., occur in approximately 10% of patients with SLE, often in association with anti-Sm autoantibodies. Anti-Ki sera specifically immunoprecipitated two protein antigens, Ki/sub 86/ (M/sub r/ 86,000) and Ki/sub 66/ (M/sub r/ 66,000), from radiolabeled cell extracts. The Ki system was found to be immunologically identical to the Ku system described by Mimori et al. and the p70/p80 system described by Reeves. The Ki primary in vitro translation products were identified and proved similar in size to the cellular antigens. The Ki antigens were purified from human spleen by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. The purified Ki antigens proved to be closely related by amino acid composition, and did not appear to be phosphorylated, glycosylated, or associated with RNA. The Ki antigens were found to bind to DNA, in agreement with the observations on the Ku and p70/p80 antigens. They were found to be widely conserved in mammals and were coordinately expressed in all tissues tested.

  9. Efficacy of the dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in combination with nilotinib against BCR-ABL-positive leukemia cells involves the ABL kinase domain mutation

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Seiichi; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Yuko; Kitahara, Toshihiko; Kimura, Shinya; Maekawa, Taira; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2014-01-01

    Imatinib, an ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has shown clinical efficacy against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, a substantial number of patients develop resistance to imatinib treatment due to the emergence of clones carrying mutations in the protein BCR-ABL. The phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates various processes, including cell proliferation, cell survival, and antiapoptosis activity. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of NVP-BEZ235, a dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor, using BCR-ABL-positive cell lines. Treatment with NVP-BEZ235 for 48 h inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis. The phosphorylation of the AKT kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 4-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and p70 S6 kinase were decreased after NVP-BEZ235 treatment. The combination of NVP-BEZ235 with a BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor, imatinib, or nilotinib, induced a more pronounced colony growth inhibition, whereas the combination of NVP-BEZ235 and nilotinib was more effective in inducing apoptosis and reducing the phosphorylation of AKT, 4E-BP1, and S6 kinase. NVP-BEZ235 in combination with nilotinib also inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model and inhibited the growth of primary T315I mutant cells and ponatinib-resistant cells. Taken together, these results suggest that administration of the dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 may be an effective strategy against BCR-ABL mutant cells and may enhance the cytotoxic effects of nilotinib in ABL TKI-resistant BCR-ABL mutant cells. PMID:24100660

  10. The Circadian Protein BMAL1 Regulates Translation in Response to S6K1-Mediated Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Jonathan O; Yuan, Elizabeth D; Boyle, Lara M; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Kwiatkowski, Erica; Nathan, Ashwin; Güttler, Thomas; Davis, Fred; Asara, John M; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-05-21

    The circadian timing system synchronizes cellular function by coordinating rhythmic transcription via a transcription-translational feedback loop. How the circadian system regulates gene expression at the translational level remains a mystery. Here, we show that the key circadian transcription factor BMAL1 associates with the translational machinery in the cytosol and promotes protein synthesis. The mTOR-effector kinase, ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1), an important regulator of translation, rhythmically phosphorylates BMAL1 at an evolutionarily conserved site. S6K1-mediated phosphorylation is critical for BMAL1 to both associate with the translational machinery and stimulate protein synthesis. Protein synthesis rates demonstrate circadian oscillations dependent on BMAL1. Thus, in addition to its critical role in circadian transcription, BMAL1 is a translation factor that links circadian timing and the mTOR signaling pathway. More broadly, these results expand the role of the circadian clock to the regulation of protein synthesis. PMID:25981667

  11. Specificity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: Transient versus sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Marshall

    1995-01-01

    A number of different intracellular signaling pathways have been shown to be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases. These activation events include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, 70 kDa S6 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C-?, and the Jak\\/STAT pathways. The precise role of each of these pathways in cell signaling remains to be resolved, but studies on the differentiation of mammalian

  12. S6k1 is not required for Pten-deficient neuronal hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chalhoub, Nader; Kozma, Sara C; Baker, Suzanne J

    2006-07-19

    The tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of the mammalian nervous system. Effects of inherited mutation of PTEN are highly variable and include macrocephaly, Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) caused by a hamartomatous enlargement of the cerebellum, ataxia, seizures and autism, in addition to cancer predisposition. In the mouse, selective inactivation of Pten in post-mitotic granule neurons of the cerebellum and dentate gyrus showed that Pten was required for proper regulation of neuronal nuclear and soma size. Hypertrophy of Pten-deficient neurons required the activity of the serine-threonine kinase mTor. mTor is a master regulator of cell and organ growth which can trigger a cascade of downstream signaling pathways involving, in part, components of the translational machinery, including S6k1 and its substrate the ribosomal protein S6. Deletion of S6k1 in mice results in decreased size. Therefore, to determine the relative contribution of S6k1 to Pten-deficient neuronal hypertrophy in vivo, we crossed Pten brain-conditional knockouts with S6k1 null mice. Double mutant mice show no reversion or improvement in their Pten-related size and neurological defects including enlarged cerebella and dentate gyri with increased size of neuronal nuclei and somata, ataxia, and premature death. The hypertrophic Pten/S6k1-deficient neurons contained high levels of phosphorylated S6, similar to Pten-deficient neurons, suggesting that the mTor/S6k/S6 branch of the pathway was still active. Thus, we conclude that S6k1 is not required to cause hypertrophy of Pten-deficient neurons. This study reveals a cell type-dependent role for S6k1 in PI3K-dependent hypertrophy. PMID:16777079

  13. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Ribosomal Protein S6 Gene in the Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Wenlei, Bao; Xiyan, Hao; Xu, Zheng; Yan, Liang; Yuhao, Chen; Yanfeng, Wang; Zhigang, Wang

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomal protein (rp) S6 is the substrate of ribosomal protein S6K (S6 kinase) and is involved in protein synthesis by mTOR/S6K/S6 signaling pathway. Some S6 cDNA have been cloned in mammals in recent years but has not been identified in the goat. To facilitate such studies, we cloned the cDNA encoding Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) S6 (GenBank accession GU131122) and then detected mRNA expression in seven tissues by real time PCR and protein expression in testis tissue by immunohistochemisty. Sequence analysis indicated that the obtained goat S6 was a 808 bp product, including a 3' untranslated region of 58 bp and an open reading frame of 750 bp which predicted a protein of 249 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence was highly homologous to cattle, human, mouse and rat S6. Expression analysis indicated S6 mRNA was expressed extensively in detected tissues and S6 protein was expressed in testis tissue. PMID:25049753

  14. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Ribosomal Protein S6 Gene in the Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Wenlei, Bao; Xiyan, Hao; Xu, Zheng; Yan, Liang; Yuhao, Chen; Yanfeng, Wang; Zhigang, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal protein (rp) S6 is the substrate of ribosomal protein S6K (S6 kinase) and is involved in protein synthesis by mTOR/S6K/S6 signaling pathway. Some S6 cDNA have been cloned in mammals in recent years but has not been identified in the goat. To facilitate such studies, we cloned the cDNA encoding Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) S6 (GenBank accession GU131122) and then detected mRNA expression in seven tissues by real time PCR and protein expression in testis tissue by immunohistochemisty. Sequence analysis indicated that the obtained goat S6 was a 808 bp product, including a 3? untranslated region of 58 bp and an open reading frame of 750 bp which predicted a protein of 249 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence was highly homologous to cattle, human, mouse and rat S6. Expression analysis indicated S6 mRNA was expressed extensively in detected tissues and S6 protein was expressed in testis tissue. PMID:25049753

  15. Sirtuin 1 Is a Key Regulator of the Interleukin-12 p70/Interleukin-23 Balance in Human Dendritic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Mario; Municio, Cristina; Hugo, Etzel; Alonso, Sara; Ibarrola, Nieves; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of human dendritic cells with the fungal surrogate zymosan produces IL-23 and a low amount of IL-12 p70. Trans-repression of il12a transcription, which encodes IL-12 p35 chain, by proteins of the Notch family and lysine deacetylation reactions have been reported as the underlying mechanisms, but a number of questions remain to be addressed. Zymosan produced the location of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to the nucleus, enhanced its association with the il12a promoter, increased the nuclear concentration of the SIRT1 co-substrate NAD+, and decreased chromatin accessibility in the nucleosome-1 of il12a, which contains a ?B-site. The involvement of deacetylation reactions in the inhibition of il12a transcription was supported by the absence of Ac-Lys-14-histone H3 in dendritic cells treated with zymosan upon coimmunoprecipitation of transducin-like enhancer of split. In contrast, we did not obtain evidence of a possible effect of SIRT1 through the deacetylation of c-Rel, the central element of the NF-?B family involved in il12a regulation. These data indicate that an enhancement of SIRT1 activity in response to phagocytic stimuli may reduce the accessibility of c-Rel to the il12a promoter and its transcriptional activation, thus regulating the IL-12 p70/IL-23 balance and modulating the ongoing immune response. PMID:22893703

  16. Macrophage-produced IL-12p70 mediates hemorrhage-induced damage in a complement-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hylton, Diana J; Hoffman, Sara M; Van Rooijen, N; Tomlinson, Stephen; Fleming, Sherry D

    2011-02-01

    Hemorrhage and hemorrhagic shock instigate intestinal damage and inflammation. Multiple components of the innate immune response, including complement and neutrophil infiltration, are implicated in this pathology. To investigate the interaction of complement activation and other components of the innate immune response during hemorrhage, we treated mice after hemorrhage with CR2-fH, a targeted inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway and assessed intestinal damage and inflammation 2 h after hemorrhage. In wild-type mice, CR2-fH attenuated hemorrhage-induced, midjejunal damage and inflammation as determined by decreased mucosal damage, macrophage infiltration, leukotriene B4, IL-12p40, and TNF-[alpha] production. The critical nature of intestinal macrophage infiltration and activation in the response to hemorrhage was further determined using mice pretreated with clodronate-containing liposomes. The absence of either macrophages or IL-12p70 attenuated intestinal damage. These data suggest that complement activation and macrophage infiltration with IL-12p70 production are critical to hemorrhage-induced midjejunal damage and inflammation. PMID:20577145

  17. Salicylate acutely stimulates 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Yasuhiro; Oshima, Rieko; Yoshida, Mitsuki; Sakon, Ichika; Kitani, Kazuto; Goto, Ayumi; Tsuda, Satoshi; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2014-10-10

    Salicylate (SAL) has been recently implicated in the antidiabetic effect in humans. We assessed whether 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle is involved in the effect of SAL on glucose homeostasis. Rat fast-twitch epitrochlearis and slow-twitch soleus muscles were incubated in buffer containing SAL. Intracellular concentrations of SAL increased rapidly (<5 min) in both skeletal muscles, and the Thr(172) phosphorylation of the ? subunit of AMPK increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SAL increased both AMPK?1 and AMPK?2 activities. These increases in enzyme activity were accompanied by an increase in the activity of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport, and decreases in ATP, phosphocreatine, and glycogen contents. SAL did not change the phosphorylation of insulin receptor signaling including insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase. These results suggest that SAL may be transported into skeletal muscle and may stimulate AMPK and glucose transport via energy deprivation in multiple muscle types. Skeletal muscle AMPK might be part of the mechanism responsible for the metabolic improvement induced by SAL. PMID:25256746

  18. Simultaneous inhibition of pan-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases and MEK as a potential therapeutic strategy in peripheral T-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Sánchez, Esperanza; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro M.; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Lombardía, Luis; Domínguez-González, Beatriz; Romero, Diana; Odqvist, Lina; García-Sanz, Pablo; Wozniak, Magdalena B.; Kurz, Guido; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Mollejo, Manuela; Alves, F. Javier; Menárguez, Javier; González-Palacios, Fernando; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; García, Juan F.; Bischoff, James R.; Piris, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are very aggressive hematologic malignancies for which there is no targeted therapy. New, rational approaches are necessary to improve the very poor outcome in these patients. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase is one of the most important pathways in cell survival and proliferation. We hypothesized that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitors could be rationally selected drugs for treating peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Several phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase isoforms were inhibited genetically (using small interfering RNA) and pharmacologically (with CAL-101 and GDC-0941 compounds) in a panel of six peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines. Cell viability was measured by intracellular ATP content; apoptosis and cell cycle changes were checked by flow cytometry. Pharmacodynamic biomarkers were assessed by western blot. The PIK3CD gene, which encodes the ? isoform of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, was overexpressed in cell lines and primary samples, and correlated with survival pathways. However, neither genetic nor specific pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase ? affected cell survival. In contrast, the pan-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor GDC-0941 arrested all T-cell lymphoma cell lines in the G1 phase and induced apoptosis in a subset of them. We identified phospho-GSK3? and phospho-p70S6K as potential biomarkers of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitors. Interestingly, an increase in ERK phosphorylation was observed in some GDC -0941-treated T-cell lymphoma cell lines, suggesting the presence of a combination of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and MEK inhibitors. A highly synergistic effect was found between the two inhibitors, with the combination enhancing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in all T-cell lymphoma cell lines, and reducing cell viability in primary tumor T cells ex vivo. These results suggest that the combined treatment of pan-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase + MEK inhibitors could be more effective than single phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor treatment, and therefore, that this combination could be of therapeutic value for treating peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. PMID:22801959

  19. ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase network inhibition radiosensitizes carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Contessa, Joseph N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA (United States)]. E-mail: jcontess@med.umich.edu; Abell, Angela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA (United States); Valerie, Kristoffer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA (United States); Lin, Peck-Sun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA (United States); Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-CD533, a truncation mutant of the wild-type EGFR, radiosensitizes carcinoma and malignant glioma cell lines. This deletion mutant disrupts EGFR activation and downstream signaling through the formation of inhibitory dimerizations. In this study, the effects of EGFR-CD533 on other ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family members were quantified to better understand the mechanism of EGFR-CD533-mediated radiosensitization. Methods and Materials Breast carcinoma cell lines with different ErbB RTK expression profiles were transduced with EGFR or ErbB2 deletion mutants (EGFR-CD533 and ErbB2-CD572) using an adenoviral vector. ErbB RTK activation, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/p70S6K signaling, and clonogenic survival were determined for expression of each deletion mutant. Results EGFR-CD533 radiosensitizes carcinoma cells with either high EGFR expression (MDA-MB231) or low EGFR expression (T47D) through significant blockade of the ErbB RTK network. Analysis of clonogenic survival demonstrate significant enhancement of the {alpha}/{beta} ratios, as determined by the linear-quadratic model. Split-dose survival experiments confirm that EGFR-CD533 reduces the repair of cellular damage after ionizing radiation. Conclusion Expression of EGFR-CD533 inhibits the ErbB RTK network and radiosensitizes carcinoma cells irrespective of the ErbB RTK expression patterns, and ErbB2-CD572 does not radiosensitize cells with low EGFR expression. These studies demonstrate that the mechanism of action for EGFR-CD533-mediated radiosensitization is inhibition of the ErbB RTK network, and is an advantage for radiosensitizing multiple malignant cell types.

  20. Honokiol activates AMP-activated protein kinase in breast cancer cells via an LKB1-dependent pathway and inhibits breast carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Honokiol, a small-molecule polyphenol isolated from magnolia species, is widely known for its therapeutic potential as an antiinflammatory, antithrombosis, and antioxidant agent, and more recently, for its protective function in the pathogenesis of carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to examine the effectiveness of honokiol in inhibiting migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Clonogenicity and three-dimensional colony-formation assays were used to examine breast cancer cell growth with honokiol treatment. The effect of honokiol on invasion and migration of breast cancer cells was evaluated by using Matrigel invasion, scratch-migration, spheroid-migration, and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS)-based migration assays. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis were used to examine activation of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis. Isogenic LKB1-knockdown breast cancer cell line pairs were developed. Functional importance of AMPK activation and LKB1 overexpression in the biologic effects of honokiol was examined by using AMPK-null and AMPK-wild type (WT) immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and isogenic LKB1-knockdown cell line pairs. Finally, mouse xenografts, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of tumors were used. Results Analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that honokiol treatment increases AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and activity, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the downstream target of AMPK, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and inhibition of phosphorylation of p70S6kinase (pS6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1). By using AMPK-null and AMPK-WT (MEFs), we found that AMPK is required for honokiol-mediated modulation of pACC-pS6K. Intriguingly, we discovered that honokiol treatment increased the expression and cytoplasmic translocation of tumor-suppressor LKB1 in breast cancer cells. LKB1 knockdown inhibited honokiol-mediated activation of AMPK and, more important, inhibition of migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, honokiol treatment resulted in inhibition of breast tumorigenesis in vivo. Analysis of tumors showed significant increases in the levels of cytoplasmic LKB1 and phospho-AMPK in honokiol-treated tumors. Conclusions Taken together, these data provide the first in vitro and in vivo evidence of the integral role of the LKB1-AMPK axis in honokiol-mediated inhibition of the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. In conclusion, honokiol treatment could potentially be a rational therapeutic strategy for breast carcinoma. PMID:22353783

  1. Preclinical Pharmacological Evaluation of a Novel Multiple Kinase Inhibitor, ON123300, in Brain Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Hua; Zhou, Qingyu; Elkholi, Rana; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Gallo, James M.

    2014-01-01

    ON123300 is a low molecular weight multi-kinase inhibitor identified through a series of screens that supported further analyses for brain tumor chemotherapy. Biochemical assays indicated ON123300 was a strong inhibitor of Ark5 and CDK4 as well as growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases such as Beta-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGFR?]. ON123300 inhibited U87 glioma cell proliferation with an IC50 = 3.4 ± 0.1 ?M and reduced phosphorylation of Akt, yet it also unexpectedly induced Erk activation; both in a dose- and time-dependent manner that subsequently was attributed to relieving Akt-mediated C-Raf S259 inactivation and activating a p70S6K initiated PI3K negative feedback loop. Co-treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib [GFN] produced synergistic cytotoxic effects. Pursuant to the in vitro studies, in vivo pharmacokinetic [PK] and pharmacodynamic [PD] studies of ON123300 were completed in mice bearing intracerebral U87 tumors following IV doses of 5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg alone, and also at the higher dose concurrently with GFN. ON123300 showed high brain and brain tumor accumulation based on brain partition coefficient values of at least 2.5. Consistent with the in vitro studies, single agent ON123300 caused a dose-dependent suppression of phosphorylation of Akt as well as activation of Erk in brain tumors, whereas addition of GFN to the ON123300 regimen significantly enhanced p-Akt inhibition and prevented Erk activation. In summary, ON123300 demonstrated favorable PK characteristics and future development for brain tumor therapy would require use of combinations, such as GFN, that mitigated its Erk activation and enhanced its activity. PMID:24568969

  2. Phosphorylation of translation factors in response to anoxia in turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans: role of the AMP-activated protein kinase and target of rapamycin signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rider, Mark H; Hussain, Nusrat; Dilworth, Stephen M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2009-12-01

    Long-term survival of oxygen deprivation by animals with well-developed anoxia tolerance depends on multiple biochemical adaptations including strong metabolic rate depression. We investigated whether the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) could play a regulatory role in the suppression of protein synthesis that occurs when turtles experience anoxic conditions. AMPK activity and the phosphorylation state of ribosomal translation factors were measured in liver, heart, red muscle and white muscle of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) subjected to 20 h of anoxic submergence. AMPK activity increased twofold in white muscle of anoxic turtles compared with aerobic controls but remained unchanged in liver and red muscle, whereas in heart AMPK activity decreased by 40%. Immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies revealed that eukaryotic elongation factor-2 phosphorylation at the inactivating Thr56 site increased six- and eightfold in red and white muscles from anoxic animals, respectively, but was unchanged in liver and heart. The phosphorylation state of the activating Thr389 site of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase was reduced under anoxia in red muscle and heart but was unaffected in liver and white muscle. Exposure to anoxia decreased 40S ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in heart and promoted eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) dephosphorylation in red muscle, but surprisingly increased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in white muscle. The changes in phosphorylation state of translation factors suggest that organ-specific patterns of signalling and response are involved in achieving the anoxia-induced suppression of protein synthesis in turtles. PMID:19579060

  3. Serum Adiponectin, TNF-?, IL12p70, and IL13 Levels in Multiple Sclerosis and the Effects of Different Therapy Regimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ugur Musabak; Seref Demirkaya; Gencer Genç; Rahsan Sagkan Ilikci; Zeki Odabasi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the human central nervous system. In the present study, we aimed to determine adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-12p70, and IL-13 levels in the sera of patients with MS and to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN), glatiramer acetate (GA), and immunosuppressive treatment regimens on these parameters. Methods: Fifty-seven patients

  4. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Paula, E-mail: paula.kinsella@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Howley, Rachel, E-mail: rhowley@rcsi.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Doolan, Padraig, E-mail: padraig.doolan@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clarke, Colin, E-mail: colin.clarke@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Madden, Stephen F., E-mail: maddens@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clynes, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Clynes@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Farrell, Michael, E-mail: michaelfarrell@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Amberger-Murphy, Verena, E-mail: Verena.Murphy@icorg.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland) [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  5. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase enhances isoflurane-induced protection against myocardial infarction during early reperfusion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Paul S; Krolikowski, John G; Neff, Donald A; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Bienengraeber, Martin; Kersten, Judy R; Warltier, David C

    2006-05-01

    Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-beta protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Brief exposure to isoflurane before and during early reperfusion after coronary artery occlusion also protects against infarction. Whether GSK-beta mediates this action is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that GSK inhibition enhances isoflurane-induced postconditioning. Rabbits (n = 88; 6 to 7 per group) subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 3 h reperfusion received saline, isoflurane (0.5 or 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) administered for 3 min before and 2 min after reperfusion, the selective GSK inhibitor SB216763 (SB21; 0.2 or 0.6 mg/kg), or 0.5 MAC isoflurane plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21. Other groups of rabbits pretreated with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin (0.6 mg/kg), 70-kDa ribosomal protein s6 kinase (p70s6K) inhibitor rapamycin (0.25 mg/kg), or mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opener atractyloside (5 mg/kg) received 0.6 mg/kg SB21 or 0.5 MAC isoflurane plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21. Additional groups received the mPTP inhibitor, cyclosporin A (5 mg/kg), plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21 with or without atractyloside pretreatment. Isoflurane (1.0 but not 0.5 MAC) and SB21 (0.6 but not 0.2 mg/kg) reduced (P < 0.05) infarct size (21% +/- 5%, 44% +/- 7%, 23% +/- 4%, and 46% +/- 2%, respectively, of left ventricular area at risk, mean+/- sd; triphenyltetrazolium staining) as compared with control (42% +/- 6%). Isoflurane (0.5 MAC) plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21 and cyclosporin A plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21 produced similar degrees of protection (24% +/- 4% and 27% +/- 6%, respectively). Atractyloside but not wortmannin or rapamycin abolished protection produced by 0.6 mg/kg SB21 and 0.5 MAC isoflurane plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21. Thus, GSK inhibition enhances isoflurane-induced protection against infarction during early reperfusion via a mPTP-dependent mechanism. PMID:16632807

  6. Glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance of protein synthesis is independent of the rapamycin-sensitive pathways in rat skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Dardevet; C Sornet; J Grizard

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the role of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K ), p90 S6 kinase (p90RSK) and mitogen- activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways in the insulin resistance of muscle protein synthesis observed during glucocorticoid treatment. Dexamethasone treatment decreased the eVect of insulin on protein synthesis (-35·2%) in epitrochlearis muscle incubated in vitro. This resistance is associated with a

  7. A p70 killer cell inhibitory receptor specific for several HLA-B allotypes discriminates among peptides bound to HLA-B*2705

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells express a repertoire of killer cell inhibitory receptors (KIR) for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. KIR specificity for MHC class I can be broad, as in the case of a single p70 KIR that can recognize several HLA-B allotypes, including HLA-B*2705. On the other hand, recognition of MHC class I can also be highly specific, as in the case of NK clones that recognize HLA-B*2705 in a peptide-specific manner. Most NK cells express multiple KIR sequences. To determine whether the broad and specific types of HLA-B recognition by NK cells reflect the use of different receptors or a property of a single KIR we analyzed the recognition of HLA-B*2705 by the p70 KIR-11, known to recognize several HLA-B allotypes. Vaccinia virus-mediated expression of KIR-11 in NK clones resulted in inhibition by HLA-B*2705 molecules on wild type but not on target cells deficient in the transporter for antigen presentation (TAP). Two peptides (FRYNGLIHR and RRSKEITVR) loaded onto HLA-B*2705 molecules on TAP-deficient cells provided protection from lysis by NK cells expressing KIR-11 but three other B27-specific peptides did not. As the five peptides bound to HLA-B*2705 with similar stability, these data demonstrate that a single KIR specific for several HLA-B allotypes recognizes a subset of peptides bound to HLA- B*2705. PMID:8879234

  8. Elongation factor-2 kinase regulates autophagy in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Yang, Jin-Ming; Jin, Shengkan; Zhang, Haiyan; Hait, William N

    2006-03-15

    Elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase), also known as Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase III, regulates protein synthesis by controlling the rate of peptide chain elongation. The activity of eEF-2 kinase is increased in glioblastoma and other malignancies, yet its role in neoplasia is uncertain. Recent evidence suggests that autophagy plays an important role in oncogenesis and that this can be regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because eEF-2 kinase lies downstream of mTOR, we studied the role of eEF-2 kinase in autophagy using human glioblastoma cell lines. Knockdown of eEF-2 kinase by RNA interference inhibited autophagy in glioblastoma cell lines, as measured by light chain 3 (LC3)-II formation, acidic vesicular organelle staining, and electron microscopy. In contrast, overexpression of eEF-2 kinase increased autophagy. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy markedly decreased the viability of glioblastoma cells grown under conditions of nutrient depletion. Nutrient deprivation increased eEF-2 kinase activity and decreased the activity of S6 kinase, suggesting an involvement of mTOR pathway in the eEF-2 kinase regulation of autophagy. These results suggest that eEF-2 kinase plays a regulatory role in the autophagic process in tumor cells; and eEF-2 kinase is a downstream member of the mTOR signaling; eEF-2 kinase may promote cancer cell survival under conditions of nutrient deprivation through regulating autophagy. Therefore, eEF-2 kinase may be a part of a survival mechanism in glioblastoma and targeting this kinase may represent a novel approach to cancer treatment. PMID:16540650

  9. Faraday effect in Sn2P2S6 crystals.

    PubMed

    Krupych, Oleh; Adamenko, Dmytro; Mys, Oksana; Grabar, Aleksandr; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2008-11-10

    We have revealed a large Faraday rotation in tin thiohypodiphosphate (Sn(2)P(2)S(6)) crystals, which makes this material promising for magneto-optics. The effective Faraday tensor component and the Verdet constant for the direction of the optic axis have been determined by measuring the pure Faraday rotation in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals with both the single-ray and small-angular polarimetric methods at the normal conditions and a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The effective Verdet constant is found to be equal to 115 rad/T x m. PMID:19002228

  10. TOR Action in Mammalian Cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Long; F. Müller; J. Avruch

    \\u000a The p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K) was the first signaling element in mammalian cells shown to be inhibited by rapamycin. The activity\\u000a of the p70 S6K in mammalian cell is upregulated by extracellular amino acids (especially leucine) and by signals from receptor\\u000a tyrosine kinases (RTKs), primarily through activation of the type 1A PI-3 kinase. The amino acid-\\/rapamycin-sensitive input\\u000a and the

  11. mTOR-Dependent Regulation of Ribosomal Gene Transcription Requires S6K1 and Is Mediated by Phosphorylation of the Carboxy-Terminal Activation Domain of the Nucleolar Transcription Factor UBF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine M. Hannan; Yves Brandenburger; Anna Jenkins; Kerith Sharkey; Alice Cavanaugh; Lawrence Rothblum; Tom Moss; Gretchen Poortinga; Grant A. McArthur; Richard B. Pearson; Ross D. Hannan

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell growth acting via two independent targets, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and 4EBP1. While each is known to regulate translational efficiency, the mechanism by which they control cell growth remains unclear. In addition to increased initiation of transla- tion, the accelerated synthesis and accumulation of ribosomes are fundamental

  12. ERK and p38 MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases: a Family of Protein Kinases with Diverse Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Philippe P.; Blenis, John

    2004-01-01

    Conserved signaling pathways that activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in relaying extracellular stimulations to intracellular responses. The MAPKs coordinately regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival, which are functions also known to be mediated by members of a growing family of MAPK-activated protein kinases (MKs; formerly known as MAPKAP kinases). The MKs are related serine/threonine kinases that respond to mitogenic and stress stimuli through proline-directed phosphorylation and activation of the kinase domain by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and p38 MAPKs. There are currently 11 vertebrate MKs in five subfamilies based on primary sequence homology: the ribosomal S6 kinases, the mitogen- and stress-activated kinases, the MAPK-interacting kinases, MAPK-activated protein kinases 2 and 3, and MK5. In the last 5 years, several MK substrates have been identified, which has helped tremendously to identify the biological role of the members of this family. Together with data from the study of MK-knockout mice, the identities of the MK substrates indicate that they play important roles in diverse biological processes, including mRNA translation, cell proliferation and survival, and the nuclear genomic response to mitogens and cellular stresses. In this article, we review the existing data on the MKs and discuss their physiological functions based on recent discoveries. PMID:15187187

  13. Supersymmetric AdS_6 Solutions of Type IIB Supergravity

    E-print Network

    Kim, Hyojoong; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-01-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS$_6$ solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et. al. \\cite{Apruzzi:2014qva} which used the pure spinor technique. We also obtained the four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS$_6$. This effective action is essentially a nonlinear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing $\\textrm{SL}(3,\\mathbb{R})/\\textrm{SO}(2,1)$, modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) $\\subset\\textrm{SL}(3,\\mathbb{R})$ in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  14. Improved protocol to purify untagged amelogenin - Application to murine amelogenin containing the equivalent P70?T point mutation observed in human amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Buchko, Garry W; Shaw, Wendy J

    2014-10-13

    Amelogenin is the predominant extracellular protein responsible for converting carbonated hydroxyapatite into dental enamel, the hardest and most heavily mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Despite much effort, the precise mechanism by which amelogenin regulates enamel formation is not fully understood. To assist efforts aimed at understanding the biochemical mechanism of enamel formation, more facile protocols to purify recombinantly expressed amelogenin, ideally without any tag to assist affinity purification, are advantageous. Here we describe an improved method to purify milligram quantities of amelogenin that exploits its high solubility in 2% glacial acetic acid under conditions of low ionic strength. The method involves heating the frozen cell pellet for two 15min periods at ?70°C with 2min of sonication in between, dialysis twice in 2% acetic acid (1:250 v/v), and reverse phase chromatography. A further improvement in yield is obtained by resuspending the frozen cell pellet in 6M guanidine hydrochloride in the first step. The acetic acid heating method is illustrated with a murine amelogenin containing the corresponding P70?T point mutation observed in an human amelogenin associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (P71T), while the guanidine hydrochloride heating method is illustrated with wild type murine amelogenin (M180). The self-assembly properties of P71T were probed by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies as a function of protein (0.1-1.8mM) and NaCl (0-367mM) concentration. Relative to similar studies with wild type murine amelogenin, P71T self-associates at lower protein or salt concentrations with the interactions initiated near the N-terminus. PMID:25306873

  15. Alpha-synuclein overexpression negatively regulates insulin receptor substrate 1 by activating mTORC1/S6K1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanshan; Duan, Chunli; Gao, Ge; Wang, Xiaoming; Yang, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Alpha-synuclein (?-Syn) is a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological feature of Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as synucleinopathies. Among the possible mechanisms of ?-Syn-mediated neurotoxicity is interference with cytoprotective pathways such as insulin signaling. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 is a docking protein linking IRs to downstream signaling pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K)1; the latter exerts negative feedback control on insulin signaling, which is impaired in Alzheimer's disease. Our previous study found that ?-Syn overexpression can inhibit protein phosphatase (PP)2A activity, which is involved in the protective mechanism of insulin signaling. In this study, we found an increase in IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser636 and decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation, which accelerated IRS-1 turnover and reduced insulin-Akt signaling in ?-Syn-overexpressing SK-N-SH cells and transgenic mice. The mTOR complex (C)1/S6K1 blocker rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser636 in cells overexpressing ?-Syn, suggesting that mTORC1/S6K1 activation by ?-Syn causes feedback inhibition of insulin signaling via suppression of IRS-1 function. ?-Syn overexpression also inhibited PP2A activity, while the PP2A agonist C2 ceramide suppressed both S6K1 activation and IRS-1 Ser636 phosphorylation upon ?-Syn overexpression. Thus, ?-Syn overexpression negatively regulated IRS-1 via mTORC1/S6K1 signaling while activation of PP2A reverses this process. These results provide evidence for a link between ?-Syn and IRS-1 that may represent a novel mechanism for ?-Syn-associated pathogenesis. PMID:25813876

  16. Total serum IL-12 and IL-12p40, but not IL-12p70, are increased in the serum of older subjects; relationship to CD3(+)and NK subsets.

    PubMed

    Rea, I M; McNerlan, S E; Alexander, H D

    2000-02-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12), a central cytokine acting on T and natural killer (NK) cells, directs proliferation of activated T lymphocytes towards a Th1 phenotype. The heterodimeric molecule IL-12p70, equates with IL-12 biological activity, while IL-12p40 may antagonize IL-12 and inhibit cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in vitro. This study characterizes age-related changes in serum total IL-12, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 relating them with CD3(+), NK and related subsets from subjects, aged 30-96 years. Total IL-12, IL-12p40 and the IL-12p40/IL-12p70 ratio, but not IL-12p70, increased significantly with age (P<0.0001). Increases in total IL-12 and IL-12p40 were negatively associated with CD3(+)(P=0.003, P=0.002), CD3(+)CD4(+)(P=0.004, P=0.003), CD3(+)CD8(+)(P=0.04;P=0. 04) and CD4(+)45RA(+)(P=0.0003;P=0.0007) subsets, respectively. Conversely, increases in IL-12p40 showed a non-significant trend for association with increases in NK(P=0.07) and a related CD8(+low)CD57(+)(P=0.07) subset. These findings may have important implications for understanding the functional activity of IL-12 and its p40 and p70 subunits in vivo and with respect to T-or NK-cell activation in aging. PMID:10671301

  17. Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ochratoxin A Tumourigenesis in Rats and Urinary Tract Carcinoma in Humans; Mechanistic Significance of p-S6 Ribosomal Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gazinska, Patrycja; Herman, Diana; Gillett, Cheryl; Pinder, Sarah; Mantle, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is considered to be a possible human urinary tract carcinogen, based largely on a rat model, but no molecular genetic changes in the rat carcinomas have yet been defined. The phosphorylated-S6 ribosomal protein is a marker indicating activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a serine/threonine kinase with a key role in protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, transcription, cellular metabolism and apoptosis, while being functionally deregulated in cancer. To assess p-S6 expression we performed immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumours and normal tissues. Marked intensity of p-S6 expression was observed in highly proliferative regions of rat renal carcinomas and a rare angiosarcoma, all of which were attributed to prolonged exposure to dietary OTA. Only very small OTA-generated renal adenomas were negative for p-S6. Examples of rat subcutaneous fibrosarcoma and testicular seminoma, as well as of normal renal tissue, showed no or very weak positive staining. In contrast to the animal model, human renal cell carcinoma, upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were negative for p-S6. The combined findings are reminiscent of constitutive changes in the rat tuberous sclerosis gene complex in the Eker strain correlated with renal neoplasms, Therefore rat renal carcinogenesis caused by OTA does not obviously mimic human urinary tract tumourigenesis. PMID:23105973

  18. An ent-kaurane diterpenoid from Croton tonkinensis induces apoptosis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase in SK-HEP1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sul, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sun; Cha, Eun Young; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Song, In Sang

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with high mortality worldwide. Traditional chemotherapy for HCC is not widely accepted by clinical practitioners because of its toxic side effects. Thus, there is a need to identify chemotherapeutic drugs against HCC. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a biologic sensor for cellular energy status that acts a tumor suppressor and a potential cancer therapeutic target. The traditional Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis shows cytotoxicity in various cancer cells; however, its anticancer mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we determined whether the ent-kaurane diterpenoid ent-18-acetoxy-7?-hydroxy kaur-15-oxo-16-ene (CrT1) isolated from this plant plays a role as a chemotherapeutic drug targeting AMPK. CrT1 blocked proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manners in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP1 cells. CrT1 induced sub-G(1) arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. CrT1 activated caspase-3, -7, -8, -9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and its effect was inhibited by z-VAD-fmk suppressing caspase-3 cleavage. CrT1 induced increases in p53 and Bax levels but decreased Bcl(2) levels. In addition, CrT1 resulted in increased translocation of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. We showed that CrT1-activated AMPK activation was followed by modulating the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K pathway and was inactivated by treating cells with compound C. Treatment with CrT1 and aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) synergistically activated AMPK. CrT1-induced AMPK activation regulated cell viability and apoptosis. These results suggest that CrT1 is a novel AMPK activator and that AMPK activation in SK-HEP1 cells is responsible for CrT1-induced anticancer activity including apoptosis. PMID:23302650

  19. AKT/mTOR and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ziying; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Zhou, Xu; Li, Donghong; Yang, Lawei; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is closely associated with excess mortality from pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Although multiple mechanisms in which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, the role of autophagy in human lung epithelial cells has not been examined. In this study, we evaluated whether chrysotile asbestos induces autophagy in A549 human lung epithelial cells and then analyzed the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Chrysotile asbestos induced autophagy in A549 cells based on a series of biochemical and microscopic autophagy markers. We observed that asbestos increased expression of A549 cell microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II), an autophagy marker, in conjunction with dephosphorylation of phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-p70S6K. Notably, AKT1/AKT2 double-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) had negligible asbestos-induced LC3-II expression, supporting a crucial role for AKT signaling. Chrysotile asbestos also led to the phosphorylation/activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK, but not p38 MAPK, dramatically inhibited the protein expression of LC3-II. Moreover, JNK2(-/-) MEFs but not JNK1(-/-) MEFs blocked LC3-II levels induced by chrysotile asbestos. In addition, N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, attenuated chrysotile asbestos-induced dephosphorylation of P-AKT and completely abolished phosphorylation/activation of JNK. Finally, we demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos-induced apoptosis was not affected by the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or autophagy-related gene 5 siRNA, indicating that the chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy may be adaptive rather than prosurvival. Our findings demonstrate that AKT/mTOR and JNK2 signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy. These data provide a mechanistic basis for possible future clinical applications targeting these signaling pathways in the management of asbestos-induced lung disease. PMID:24735948

  20. Prokaryotic Diacylglycerol Kinase and Undecaprenol Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Wade D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) and undecaprenol kinase (UDPK) are the lone members of a family of multispan membrane enzymes that are very small, lack relationships to any other family of proteins—including water soluble kinases, and that exhibit an unusual structure and active site architecture. Escherichia coli DAGK plays an important role in recycling diacylglycerol produced as a byproduct of biosynthesis of molecules located in the periplasmic space. UDPK seems to play an analogous role in Gram-positive bacteria, where its importance is evident by the fact that UDPK is essential for biofilm formation by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. DAGK has also long served as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, folding, stability, and structure. This review explores our current understanding of the microbial physiology, enzymology, structural biology, and folding of the prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family, which is based on over 40 years of studies. PMID:22224599

  1. A new family of protein kinases— The mitochondrial protein kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Harris; Kirill M. Popov; Yu Zhao; Natalia Y. Kedishvili; Yoshiharu Shimomura; David W. Crabb

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cloning has provided evidence for a new family of protein kinases in eukaryotic cells. These kinases show no sequence similarity with other eukaryotic protein kinases, but are related by sequence to the histidine protein kinases found in prokaryotes. These protein kinases, responsible for phosphorylation and inactivation of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes, are located exclusively in

  2. Hyperactive S6K1 mediates oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in aging: inhibition by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Angana G; Yepuri, Gautham; Carvas, João M; Stein, Sokrates; Matter, Christian M; Scerri, Isabelle; Ruffieux, Jean; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K1 signalling emerges as a critical regulator of aging. Yet, a role of mTOR/S6K1 in aging-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of S6K1 in aging-associated endothelial dysfunction and effects of the polyphenol resveratrol on S6K1 in aging endothelial cells. We show here that senescent endothelial cells displayed higher S6K1 activity, increased superoxide production and decreased bioactive nitric oxide (NO) levels than young endothelial cells, which is contributed by eNOS uncoupling. Silencing S6K1 in senescent cells reduced superoxide generation and enhanced NO production. Conversely, over-expression of a constitutively active S6K1 mutant in young endothelial cells mimicked endothelial dysfunction of the senescent cells through eNOS uncoupling and induced premature cellular senescence. Like the mTOR/S6K1 inhibitor rapamycin, resveratrol inhibited S6K1 signalling, resulting in decreased superoxide generation and enhanced NO levels in the senescent cells. Consistent with the data from cultured cells, an enhanced S6K1 activity, increased superoxide generation, and decreased bioactive NO levels associated with eNOS uncoupling were also detected in aortas of old WKY rats (aged 20-24 months) as compared to the young animals (1-3 months). Treatment of aortas of old rats with resveratrol or rapamycin inhibited S6K1 activity, oxidative stress, and improved endothelial NO production. Our data demonstrate a causal role of the hyperactive S6K1 in eNOS uncoupling leading to endothelial dysfunction and vascular aging. Resveratrol improves endothelial function in aging, at least in part, through inhibition of S6K1. Targeting S6K1 may thus represent a novel therapeutic approach for aging-associated vascular disease. PMID:21544240

  3. Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) activation in breast cancer: requirement for mTORC1 activity associates with ER-alpha expression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ben A; Kim, Tae Yeon; Skor, Maxwell N; Conzen, Suzanne D

    2012-09-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an attractive target for cancer treatment. While rapamycin and its derivatives (e.g., everolimus) have been shown to inhibit mTOR signaling and cell proliferation in preclinical models of breast cancer, mTOR inhibition has demonstrated variable clinical efficacy with a trend toward better responses in estrogen receptor alpha positive (ER?+) compared to ER? negative (ER?-) tumors. Recently, serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) was identified as a substrate of mTOR kinase activity. Previous studies have alternatively suggested that either mTORC1 or mTORC2 is exclusively required for SGK1's Ser422 phosphorylation and activation in breast cancer cells. We investigated the effect of rapamycin on the growth of several ER?+ and ER?- breast cancer cell lines and examined differences in the phosphorylation of mTOR substrates (SGK1, p70S6K, and Akt) that might account for the differing sensitivity of these cell lines to rapamycin. We also examined which mTOR complex contributes to SGK1-Ser422 phosphorylation in ER?+ versus ER?- breast cell lines. We then assessed whether inhibiting SGK1 activity added to rapamycin-mediated cell growth inhibition by either using the SGK1 inhibitor GSK650394A or expressing an SGK1 shRNA. We observed sensitivity to rapamycin-mediated growth inhibition and inactivation of insulin-mediated SGK1-Ser422 phosphorylation in ER?+ MCF-7 and T47D cells, but not in ER?- MDA-MB-231 or MCF10A-Myc cells. In addition, either depleting SGK1 with shRNA or inhibiting SGK1 with GSK650394A preferentially sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to rapamycin. Finally, we found that rapamycin-sensitive SGK1-Ser422 phosphorylation required ER? expression in MCF-7 derived cell lines. Therefore, targeting SGK1 activity may improve the efficacy of rapamycin and its analogs in the treatment of ER?- breast cancer. PMID:22842983

  4. Planar dicyclic B6S6, B6S6-, and B6S62- clusters: Boron sulfide analogues of naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-Zhi; Bai, Hui; Ou, Ting; Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of current interest in chemistry. Based upon global structural searches and B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, we present herein the perfectly planar dicyclic boron sulfide clusters: D2h B6S6 (1, 1Ag), D2h B6S6- (2, 2B3u), and D2h B6S62- (3, 1Ag). These are the global minima of the systems, being at least 0.73, 0.81, and 0.53 eV lower in energy, respectively, than their alternative isomers at the CCSD(T) level. The D2h structures feature twin B3S2 five-membered rings, which are fused together via a B2 unit and terminated by two BS groups. Bonding analyses show that the closed-shell B6S62- (3) cluster possesses 10 delocalized ? electrons, closely analogous to the bonding pattern of the aromatic naphthalene C10H8. The B6S6- (2) and B6S6 (1) species are readily obtained upon removal of one or two ? electrons from B6S62- (3). The results build a new analogous relationship between boron sulfide clusters and their PAH counterparts. The B6S6- (2) monoanion and B6S62- (3) dianion can be effectively stabilized in neutral LiB6S6 and Li2B6S6 salts, respectively.

  5. Aberrant mTOR activation in senescence and aging: A mitochondrial stress response?

    PubMed

    Nacarelli, Timothy; Azar, Ashley; Sell, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Unexpected activation of mTOR signaling, measured by ribosomal S6 phosphorylation or ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) activity, has been reported in aging-related settings. Evidence of elevated mTOR activity has been reported in the heart and muscle tissue in aged mice and humans, mouse models of progeria, and senescent human fibroblasts. We explore these reports and the possibility that activation of the mTOR/p70S6K kinase pathway may represent a ROS-mediated response to mitochondrial stress leading to the activation of senescence. This activation is a hallmark of both aged tissue and senescent human cells. PMID:25449851

  6. Exercise stimulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, D; Violan, M A; Dufresne, S D; Zangen, D; Fielding, R A; Goodyear, L J

    1997-01-01

    Physical exercise can cause marked alterations in the structure and function of human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about the specific signaling molecules and pathways that enable exercise to modulate cellular processes in skeletal muscle. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a major signaling system by which cells transduce extracellular signals into intracellular responses. We tested the hypothesis that a single bout of exercise activates the MAPK signaling pathway. Needle biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle were taken from nine subjects at rest and after 60 min of cycle ergometer exercise. In all subjects, exercise increased MAPK phosphorylation, and the activity of its downstream substrate, the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2. Furthermore, exercise increased the activities of the upstream regulators of MAPK, MAP kinase kinase, and Raf-1. When two additional subjects were studied using a one-legged exercise protocol, MAPK phosphorylation and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2, MAP kinase kinase 1, and Raf-1 activities were increased only in the exercising leg. These studies demonstrate that exercise activates the MAPK cascade in human skeletal muscle and that this stimulation is primarily a local, tissue-specific phenomenon, rather than a systemic response to exercise. These findings suggest that the MAPK pathway may modulate cellular processes that occur in skeletal muscle in response to exercise. PMID:9077533

  7. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank van Drogen; Matthias Peter

    2001-01-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to

  8. Chiral Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jian-kang; Shen, Min; Thomas, Craig J.; Boxer, Mathew B.

    2011-01-01

    Small molecule kinase inhibitors are important tools for studying cellular signaling pathways, phenotypes and are, occasionally, useful clinical agents. With stereochemistry pervasive throughout the molecules of life it is no surprise that a single stereocenter can bestow a ligand with distinct binding affinities to various protein targets. While the majority of small molecule kinase inhibitors reported to date are achiral, a number of asymmetric compounds show great utility as tools for probing kinase-associated biomolecular events as well as promising therapeutic leads. The mechanism by which chirality is introduced varies but includes screening of chiral libraries, incorporation of chiral centers during optimization efforts and the rational installation of a chiral moiety as guided by structural and modeling efforts. Here we discuss several advanced chiral small molecule kinase inhibitors where stereochemistry plays an important role in terms of potency and selectivity. PMID:21291394

  9. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... break down faster than normal, a condition called hemolytic anemia . This test helps diagnose pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) . ... Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 32. Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias: red cell membrane and metabolic defects In: Goldman ...

  10. S6K1 promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a model of metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khotskaya, Yekaterina B; Goverdhan, Aarthi; Shen, Jia; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Chang, Shih-Shin; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Wei, Yongkun; Xia, Weiya; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of oncology-related death in US women. Of all invasive breast cancers, patients with tumors lacking expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have the poorest clinical prognosis. These referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represent an aggressive form of disease that is marked by early-onset metastasis, high tumor recurrence rate, and low overall survival during the first three years post-diagnosis. In this report, we discuss a novel model of early-onset TNBC metastasis to bone and lungs, derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast cancer cells injected intravenously produced rapid, osteolytic metastases in long bones and spines of athymic nude mice, with concurrent metastasis to lungs, liver, and soft tissues. From the bone metastases, we developed a highly metastatic luciferase-tagged cell line variant named MDA-231-LUC Met. In this report, we demonstrate that the Akt/mTOR/S6K1 axis is hyperactivated in these cells, leading to a dramatic increase in phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein at Ser235/236. Lastly, we provide evidence that inhibition of the furthest downstream kinase in the mTOR pathway, S6K1, with a highly specific inhibitor PF-4708671 inhibits cell migration, and thus may provide a potent anti-metastatic adjuvant therapy approach. PMID:25075253

  11. S6K1 promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a model of metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Khotskaya, Yekaterina B; Goverdhan, Aarthi; Shen, Jia; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Chang, Shih-Shin; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Wei, Yongkun; Xia, Weiya; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of oncology-related death in US women. Of all invasive breast cancers, patients with tumors lacking expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have the poorest clinical prognosis. These referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represent an aggressive form of disease that is marked by early-onset metastasis, high tumor recurrence rate, and low overall survival during the first three years post-diagnosis. In this report, we discuss a novel model of early-onset TNBC metastasis to bone and lungs, derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast cancer cells injected intravenously produced rapid, osteolytic metastases in long bones and spines of athymic nude mice, with concurrent metastasis to lungs, liver, and soft tissues. From the bone metastases, we developed a highly metastatic luciferase-tagged cell line variant named MDA-231-LUC Met. In this report, we demonstrate that the Akt/mTOR/S6K1 axis is hyperactivated in these cells, leading to a dramatic increase in phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein at Ser235/236. Lastly, we provide evidence that inhibition of the furthest downstream kinase in the mTOR pathway, S6K1, with a highly specific inhibitor PF-4708671 inhibits cell migration, and thus may provide a potent anti-metastatic adjuvant therapy approach. PMID:25075253

  12. Activity-based kinase profiling of approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daisuke; Yokota, Koichi; Gouda, Masaki; Narumi, Yugo; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Nishiwaki, Eiji; Akita, Kensaku; Kirii, Yasuyuki

    2013-02-01

    The specificities of nine approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib) were determined by activity-based kinase profiling using a large panel of human recombinant active kinases. This panel consisted of 79 tyrosine kinases, 199 serine/threonine kinases, three lipid kinases, and 29 disease-relevant mutant kinases. Many potential targets of each inhibitor were identified by kinase profiling at the K(m) for ATP. In addition, profiling at a physiological ATP concentration (1 mm) was carried out, and the IC(50) values of the inhibitors against each kinase were compared with the estimated plasma-free concentration (calculated from published pharmacokinetic parameters of plasma C(trough) and C(max) values). This analysis revealed that the approved kinase inhibitors were well optimized for their target kinases. This profiling also implicates activity at particular off-target kinases in drug side effects. Thus, large-scale kinase profiling at both K(m) and physiological ATP concentrations could be useful in characterizing the targets and off-targets of kinase inhibitors. PMID:23279183

  13. Augmentation of antitumor immunity by fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dendritic cells stimulated via dual TLRs through TGF-?1 blockade and IL-12p70 production.

    PubMed

    Koido, Shigeo; Homma, Sadamu; Okamoto, Masato; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Takakura, Kazuki; Takahara, Akitaka; Odahara, Shunichi; Tsukinaga, Shintaro; Yukawa, Toyokazu; Mitobe, Jimi; Matsudaira, Hiroshi; Nagatsuma, Keisuke; Kajihara, Mikio; Uchiyama, Kan; Arihiro, Seiji; Imazu, Hiroo; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kan, Shin; Hayashi, Kazumi; Komita, Hideo; Kamata, Yuko; Ito, Masaki; Hara, Eiichi; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Gong, Jianlin; Tajiri, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of fusion cell (FC)-based cancer vaccine generated with whole tumor cells and dendritic cells (DCs) requires the improved immunogenicity of both cells. Treatment of whole tumor cells with ethanol resulted in blockade of immune-suppressive soluble factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and IL-10 without decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and the MUC1 tumor-associated antigen. Moreover, the ethanol-treated tumor cells expressed "eat-me" signals such as calreticulin (CRT) on the cell surface and released immunostimulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP)90? and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). A dual stimulation of protein-bound polysaccharides isolated from Coriolus versicolor (TLR2 agonist) and penicillin-inactivated Streptococcus pyogenes (TLR4 agonist) led human monocyte-derived DCs to produce HSP90? and multiple cytokines such as IL-12p70 and IL-10. Interestingly, incorporating ethanol-treated tumor cells and TLRs-stimulated DCs during the fusion process promoted fusion efficiency and up-regulated MHC class II molecules on a per fusion basis. Moreover, fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs (E-tumor/FCs) inhibited the production of multiple immune-suppressive soluble factors including TGF-?1 and up-regulated the production of IL-12p70 and HSP90?. Most importantly, E-tumor/FCs activated T cells capable of producing high levels of IFN-?, resulting in augmented MUC1-specific CTL induction. Collectively, our results illustrate the synergy between ethanol-treated whole tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs in inducing augmented CTL responses in vitro by FC preparations. The alternative system is simple and may provide a platform for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:23717436

  14. Orphan kinases turn eccentric

    PubMed Central

    Mikolcevic, Petra; Rainer, Johannes; Geley, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK) are a highly conserved, but poorly characterized, subgroup of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions that are involved in cyclin binding. Vertebrate genomes contain three highly similar PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK1,2,3, a.k.a., CDK16,17,18), which are most abundant in post-mitotic cells in brain and testis. Consistent with this restricted expression pattern, PCTK1 (CDK16) has recently been shown to be essential for spermatogenesis. PCTAIREs are activated by cyclin Y (CCNY), a highly conserved single cyclin fold protein. By binding to N-myristoylated CCNY, CDK16 is targeted to the plasma membrane. Unlike conventional cyclin-CDK interactions, binding of CCNY to CDK16 not only requires the catalytic domain, but also domains within the N-terminal extension. Interestingly, phosphorylation within this domain blocks CCNY binding, providing a novel means of cyclin-CDK regulation. By using these functional characteristics, we analyzed “PCTAIRE” sequence containing protein kinase genes in genomes of various organisms and found that CCNY and CCNY-dependent kinases are restricted to eumetazoa and possibly evolved along with development of a central nervous system. Here, we focus on the structure and regulation of PCTAIREs and discuss their established functions. PMID:22895054

  15. Electronic Structure and Phase Transition in Ferroelectic Sn2P2S6 Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Glukhov, Konstantin; Fedyo, Kristina; Banys, Juras; Vysochanskii, Yulian

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the P2S6 cluster electronic structure and its comparison with the crystal valence band in the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases has been done by first-principles calculations for Sn2P2S6 ferroelectrics. The origin of ferroelectricity has been outlined. It was established that the spontaneous polarization follows from the stereochemical activity of the electron lone pair of tin cations, which is determined by hybridization with P2S6 molecular orbitals. The chemical bonds covalence increase and rearrangement are related to the valence band changes at transition from the paraelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase. PMID:23203069

  16. PAK family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhuo-shen; Manser, Ed

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that are represented by six genes in humans (PAK 1–6), and are found in all eukaryotes sequenced to date. Genetic and knockdown experiments in frogs, fish and mice indicate group I PAKs are widely expressed, required for multiple tissue development, and particularly important for immune and nervous system function in the adult. The group II PAKs (human PAKs 4–6) are more enigmatic, but their restriction to metazoans and presence at cell-cell junctions suggests these kinases emerged to regulate junctional signaling. Studies of protozoa and fungal PAKs show that they regulate cell shape and polarity through phosphorylation of multiple cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule binding proteins, myosins and septins. This chapter discusses what we know about the regulation of PAKs and their physiological role in different model organisms, based primarily on gene knockout studies. PMID:23162738

  17. Drug Design: Protein Kinases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students "review protein structure and hydrophilic/phobic interactions, and then study kinases, small proteins that regulate numerous cell processes." The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment of demonstrations and simulations which allow them to print reports of data captured. There are six pages: an Introduction, Inter/intramolecular attractions: Types of Bonds, Inter/intramolecular attractions: Hydrophobic Interactions, Inter/intramolecular attractions: Hydrophilic Interactions, Protein Kinase Example: Tertiary Structure, and Protein Kinase Example: Ligand Bonding and Drug Design.

  18. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase as protein histidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Paul V; Wieland, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Like phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues in many organisms, reversible histidine phosphorylation is a well-known regulatory signal in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes. In vertebrates, phosphohistidine has been mainly described as a phosphorylated intermediate in enzymatic reactions, and it was believed that regulatory histidine phosphorylation is of minor importance. During the last decade, it became evident however, that nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), an ubiquitously expressed enzyme required for nucleotide homeostasis, can additionally act as a protein histidine kinase. Especially for the isoform NDPK B, at least three defined substrates, the ? subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins (G?), the intermediate conductance potassium channel KCa3.1, and the Ca(2+)-conducting TRP channel family member, TRPV5, have been identified. In all three proteins, the phosphorylation of a specific histidine residue is of regulatory importance for protein function, and these phosphohistidines are cleaved by a counteracting 14 kDa phosphohistidine phosphatase (PHP). This article will therefore give an overview of our current knowledge on protein histidine phosphorylation in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes and compare it with the regulatory phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of histidine residues in vertebrates by NDPK and PHP, respectively. PMID:24961462

  19. Kinase Inhibitors from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Skropeta, Danielle; Pastro, Natalie; Zivanovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinases play a critical role in cell regulation and their deregulation is a contributing factor in an increasing list of diseases including cancer. Marine sponges have yielded over 70 novel compounds to date that exhibit significant inhibitory activity towards a range of protein kinases. These compounds, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, and ordered based upon the kinase that they inhibit. Relevant synthetic studies on the marine natural product kinase inhibitors have also been included. PMID:22073013

  20. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  1. Regulation of protein kinase C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra C Newton

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinase C has been in the spotlight since the discovery two decades ago that is activated by the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol. Despite protein kinase C's enduring stage presence, the regulation and specific roles of its isozymes in defined cellular processes are still under intense investigation. Elucidation of the structures of protein kinase C's regulatory modules, the discovery that

  2. Structure of the S15,S6,S18-rRNA Complex

    E-print Network

    Stout, Charles D.

    , and the ribosomal proteins S15, S6, and S18. S15 binds the ribosomal RNA early in the assembly of the 30S ribosomal-subunit ribosom- al proteins, designated S1, S2, . . . S21, and the 1542-nucleotide 16S ribosomal RNA, the 30SStructure of the S15,S6,S18-rRNA Complex: Assembly of the 30S Ribosome Central Domain Sultan C

  3. Screening of kinase substrates using kinase knockout mutants.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases are widely known to be major regulators of various signaling processes, particularly in eukaryotes, including plants. To understand their role in signal transduction pathways, it is necessary to determine which proteins are phosphorylated by these enzymes. Recent studies have applied a comparative phosphoproteomic approach to identify protein kinase substrates in plants. The results demonstrated that kinase knockout mutants are useful for screening protein kinase substrates via such a comparative analysis. Here some technical points are described for the experimental design and comparative analysis using kinase knockout mutants. PMID:25930693

  4. Auxin stimulates S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation in maize thereby affecting protein synthesis regulation.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Peña, Elda; Aguilar, Raúl; Ortíz-López, Adriana; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; De Jiménez, Estela Sánchez

    2002-06-01

    Auxin is known to stimulate protein synthesis in many plant tissues, but the mechanisms involved in this process are unknown. The present research inquires whether auxin might regulate selective translation of mRNAs by inducing S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation on the 40S ribosomal subunit in maize (Zea mays L.). Maize embryonic axes auxin-stimulated by natural (IAA) or synthetic (Dicamba or 1-NAA) auxins, selectively increased ribosomal protein synthesis. This effect was not reproduced by auxin inactive analogue 2-NAA. Enhanced S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation on the 40S ribosomal subunit was also observed after auxin stimulation, as measured by [32P] incorporation into this protein. This increment did not occur when stimulation was performed with the inactive auxin analogue. Further, increased recruitment into polysomes of two 5'TOP-like mRNAs, encoding for the initiation translation factor eIF-iso4E and the S6 ribosomal protein, was also found after auxin stimulation of maize axes. A positive correlation was established between the levels of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation and the S6 ribosomal protein transcript recruitment into polysomes by means of okadaic acid or heat shock application to maize axes. These data indicate that auxin stimulates S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation on maize ribosomes, concomitant to the recruitment of specific mRNAs (5'TOP-like mRNAs) into polysomes for translation. It is proposed that by this mechanism auxin regulate the synthesis of specific proteins in maize tissues. PMID:12060248

  5. Cyclin dependent kinase regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Lees

    1995-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of the cell cycle and their activities are consequently tightly regulated. Recent developments in the field of CDK regulation have included the discovery and characterization of CDK inhibitors. These developments have had an impact on our understanding of how other signalling pathways may be linked to the cell cycle machinery.

  6. Plant 5-Methylthioribose Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, Andrzej

    1983-01-01

    Activity of 5-methylthioribose kinase, the enzyme which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose, has been revealed in the extracts from various higher plant species. Almost 2,000-fold-purified enzyme has been obtained from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv Topaz) seed extract. Molecular weight of the native enzyme is 70,000 as judged by gel filtration. The lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase exhibits a strict requirement for divalent metal ions. Among the ions tested, only Mg2+ and Mn2+ acted as cofactors. The curve of kinase initial velocity versus pH reaches plateau at pH 10 to 10.5. The Km values calculated for 5-methylthioribose and ATP are 4.3 and 8.3 micromolar, respectively. Among nucleoside triphosphates tested as potential phosphate donors, only dATP could substitute in the reaction for ATP. 5-Isobutylthioribose, an analog of 5-methylthioribose, proved to be the ?-ATP-phosphate acceptor, too. The compound inhibits competitively synthesis of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose (Ki = 1.4 micromolar). Lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase is completely and irreversibly inhibited by the antisulfhydryl reagent, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. As in bacteria (Ferro, Barrett, Shapiro 1978 J Biol Chem 253: 6021-6025), the enzyme may be involved in a new, alternative pathway of methionine synthesis in plant tissues. PMID:16662931

  7. A Novel Function of eIF2? Kinases as Inducers of the Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Shirin; Mounir, Zineb; Baltzis, Dionissios; Raven, Jennifer F.; Wang, Shuo; Krishnamoorthy, Jothi-Latha; Pluquet, Olivier; Pelletier, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) plays an important role in signal transduction in response to a wide range of cellular stimuli involved in cellular processes that promote cell proliferation and survival. Phosphorylation of the ? subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2 at Ser51 takes place in response to various types of environmental stress and is essential for regulation of translation initiation. Herein, we show that a conditionally active form of the eIF2? kinase PKR acts upstream of PI3K and turns on the Akt/PKB-FRAP/mTOR pathway leading to S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Also, induction of PI3K signaling antagonizes the apoptotic and protein synthesis inhibitory effects of the conditionally active PKR. Furthermore, induction of the PI3K pathway is impaired in PKR?/? or PERK?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in response to various stimuli that activate each eIF2? kinase. Mechanistically, PI3K signaling activation is indirect and requires the inhibition of protein synthesis by eIF2? phosphorylation as demonstrated by the inactivation of endogenous eIF2? by small interfering RNA or utilization of MEFs bearing the eIF2? Ser51Ala mutation. Our data reveal a novel property of eIF2? kinases as activators of PI3K signaling and cell survival. PMID:17596516

  8. S6K1 Plays a Critical Role in Early Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carnevalli, Larissa S.; Masuda, Kouhei; Frigerio, Francesca; Le Bacquer, Olivier; Um, Sung Hee; Gandin, Valentina; Topisirovic, Ivan; Sonenberg, Nahum; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Earlier, we reported that S6K1?/? mice have reduced body fat mass, elevated rates of lipolysis, severely decreased adipocyte size, and are resistant to high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Here we report that adipocytes of S6K1?/? mice on a HFD, have the capacity to increase in size to a degree comparable to that of wild-type (WT) mice, but not in number, indicating an unexpected lesion in adipogenesis. Tracing this lesion revealed that S6K1 is dispensable for terminal adipocyte differentiation, but is involved in the commitment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to early adipocyte progenitors. We further show that absence of S6K1 attenuates the upregulation of transcription factors critical for commitment to adipogenesis. These results led to the conclusion that a lack of S6K1 impairs the generation of de novo adipocytes when mice are challenged with a HFD, consistent with a reduction in early adipocyte progenitors. PMID:20493810

  9. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 confers PARP inhibitor resistance in BRCA1-deficient cancers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chong-kui; Zhang, Fan; Xiang, Tao; Chen, Qianming; Pandita, Tej K; Huang, Yuping; Hu, Mickey C T; Yang, Qin

    2014-05-30

    Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a promising therapeutic strategy for BRCA1 deficient cancers, however, the development of drug resistance limits clinical efficacy. Previously we found that the BRCA1-AKT1 pathway contributes to tumorigenesis and that the AKT1/mTOR is a novel therapeutic target for BRCA1-deficient cancers. Here, we report that phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, a mTOR downstream effector, is greatly increased in BRCA1 deficient cells resistant to PARP inhibition. Phosphorylation of S6 is associated with DNA damage and repair signaling during PARP inhibitor treatment. In BRCA1 deficient cells, expression of S6 lacking all five phosphorylatable sites renders the cells sensitive to PARP inhibitor and increases DNA damage signals. In addition, the S6 mutations reduce tumor formation induced by Brca1-deficiency in mice. Inhibition of S6 phosphorylation by rapamycin restores PARP sensitivity to resistant cells. Combined treatment with rapamycin and PARP inhibitor effectively suppresses BRCA1-deficient tumor growth in mice. These results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which BRCA1 deficient cancers acquire drug resistance and suggest a new therapeutic strategy to circumvent resistance. PMID:24831086

  10. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  11. Cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  12. Proteomic and biochemical analyses reveal the activation of unfolded protein response, ERK-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 signaling in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rat model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis underlying myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM)-induced heart failure rat model that represents T cell mediated postinflammatory heart disorders. Results By performing unbiased 2-dimensional electrophoresis of protein extracts from control rat heart tissues and EAM rat heart tissues, followed by nano-HPLC-ESI-QIT-MS, 67 proteins were identified from 71 spots that exhibited significantly altered expression levels. The majority of up-regulated proteins were confidently associated with unfolded protein responses (UPR), while the majority of down-regulated proteins were involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria. Although there was no difference in AKT signaling between EAM rat heart tissues and control rat heart tissues, the amounts and activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) were significantly increased. By comparing our data with the previously reported myocardial proteome of the Coxsackie viruses of group B (CVB)-mediated myocarditis model, we found that UPR-related proteins were commonly up-regulated in two murine myocarditis models. Even though only two out of 29 down-regulated proteins in EAM rat heart tissues were also dysregulated in CVB-infected rat heart tissues, other proteins known to be involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria were also dysregulated in CVB-mediated myocarditis rat heart tissues, suggesting that impairment of mitochondrial functions may be a common underlying mechanism of the two murine myocarditis models. Conclusions UPR, ERK-1/2 and S6RP signaling were activated in both EAM- and CVB-induced myocarditis murine models. Thus, the conserved components of signaling pathways in two murine models of acute myocarditis could be targets for developing new therapeutic drugs or methods aimed at treating enigmatic myocarditis. PMID:22014063

  13. Anisotropic diffraction from photorefractive gratings and Pockels tensor of Sn2P2S6.

    PubMed

    Odoulov, Serguey; Volkov, Alexandr; Shumelyuk, Alexandr; Evans, Dean R; Cook, Gary

    2008-10-13

    The first observation of anisotropic diffraction and anisotropic self diffraction in low symmetry photorefractive crystal Sn(2)P(2)S(6) is reported. From comparison of the diffraction efficiency of isotropic and anisotropic diffraction the ratios of the Pockels tensor components are deduced, including some nondiagonal components that have never been evaluated until now. The particular orientation of the optical indicatrix in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) (roughly at 45 degrees to z- and x-axes at ambient temperature) has a paradoxical consequence: The efficiency of anisotropic diffraction depends solely on diagonal components of the Pockels tensor, while the efficiency of the isotropic diffraction is considerably affected by nondiagonal components. With already known results and data presented in this article we can state that all 10 nonvanishing Pockels tensor components of the m-symmetry class crystal like Sn(2)P(2)S(6) do manifest themselves in various types of nonlinear wave mixing. PMID:18852800

  14. Mutations in the Drosophila gene encoding ribosomal protein S6 cause tissue overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M J; Denell, R

    1993-01-01

    We have characterized two P-element-induced, lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster which affect the larval hemocytes, mediators of the insect immune response. Each mutant displays larval melanotic tumors characteristic of mutations affecting the insect cellular immune system, and the moribund animals develop grossly hypertrophied hematopoietic organs because of increased cell proliferation and extra rounds of endoreduplication in some hematopoietic cells. Surprisingly, these mutations are due to P element insertions in the 5' regulatory region of the Drosophila gene encoding ribosomal protein S6 and cause a reduction of S6 transcript abundance in mutant larvae. Images PMID:8384310

  15. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Peter, M

    2001-09-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

  16. The Ste20 group kinases as regulators of MAP kinase cascades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ippeita Dan; Norinobu M. Watanabe; Akihiro Kusumi

    2001-01-01

    Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) is a putative yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase (MAP4K) involved in the mating pathway. Its homologs in mammals, Drosophila, Caenorhabditiselegans and other organisms make up a large emerging group of protein kinases including 28 members in human. The Ste20 group kinases are further divided into the p21-activated kinase (PAK) and germinal center kinase (GCK)

  17. Mechanism of rhodopsin kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Palczewski, K; Buczy?ko, J; Kaplan, M W; Polans, A S; Crabb, J W

    1991-07-15

    The role of the cytoplasmic loops and C-terminal region of bovine rhodopsin (Rho) in binding and activating rhodopsin kinase was investigated. The ability of various enzymatically truncated forms of photolyzed rhodopsin (Rho*) to stimulate rhodopsin kinase activity was quantified. Following endopeptidase Asp-N cleavage of all phosphorylation sites on the C-terminal, the resulting truncated Rho* (329G-Rho*) was not phosphorylated by rhodopsin kinase. This suggests that rhodopsin kinase only phosphorylates C-terminal sites of Rho*. However 329G-Rho* could bind rhodopsin kinase and stimulate phosphorylation of exogenous peptide. Kinase stimulation was investigated for other truncated forms of Rho* in which the C-terminal region was either partially or completely eliminated, and the V-VI loop was either cleaved or left intact (339K-Rho*, 341E239E-Rho*, 329G239E-Rho*, 327P240S-Rho*). Results suggest that the V-VI loop is crucial for kinase binding (similar to the binding of GT). Mastoparan, a model peptide for G-protein-coupled receptors, was found to stimulate rhodopsin kinase in a mechanism similar to that of truncated Rho*. We conclude that rhodopsin kinase binds to the cytoplasmic loops of Rho* to cause a stimulation of its catalytic activity. PMID:2071581

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase associates with an insulin receptor substrate-1 serine kinase distinct from its intrinsic serine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, K A; Kason, R E; Freund, G G

    1998-01-01

    Serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has been proposed as a counter-regulatory mechanism in insulin and cytokine signalling. Here we report that IRS-1 is phosphorylated by a wortmannin insensitive phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-associated serine kinase (PAS kinase) distinct from PI 3-kinase serine kinase. We found that PI 3-kinase immune complexes contain 5-fold more wortmannin-insensitive serine kinase activity than SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and IRS-1 immune complexes. Affinity chromatography of cell lysates with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein for the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase showed that PAS kinase associated with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. This interaction required unoccupied SH2 domain(s) but did not require the PI 3-kinase p110 subunit binding domain. In terms of function, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 and, after insulin stimulation, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 in PI 3-kinase-IRS-1 complexes. Phosphopeptide mapping showed that insulin-dependent in vivo sites of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation were comparable to those of PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1. More importantly, PAS kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IRS-1 reduced by 4-fold the ability of IRS-1 to act as an insulin receptor substrate. Taken together, these findings indicate that: (a) PAS kinase is distinct from the intrinsic serine kinase activity of PI 3-kinase, (b) PAS kinase associates with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase through SH2 domain interactions, and (c) PAS kinase is an IRS-1 serine kinase that can reduce the ability of IRS-1 to serve as an insulin receptor substrate. PMID:9761740

  19. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in suspension cultured HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Lastick, S M; Nielsen, P J; McConkey, E H

    1977-04-29

    HeLa cell ribosomal protein S6, and the increase in its phosphorylation level that occurs after resuspending cells in fresh medium plus serum, were studied using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The maximum level of S6 phosphorylation occurs about 2 h after adding fresh medium and seum to cells that have been allowed to grow to high density; this results in an almost complete shift of the spot representing S6 in two-dimensional polacrylamide gels to a new location. Mixing experiments showed that the differences in the level of phosphorylation occur in vivo and are not an artifact of in vitro sample preparation. This method of stimulating S6 phosphorylation provides a convenient system for studying the functional significance of the phenomenon. Only one other ribosomal protein was detectably phosphorylated using [32P]-labeling and autoradiography of dried two-dimensional gels. The level of phosphorylation of this protein, L14, does not change after serum stimulation. PMID:876026

  20. Mechanical stretch activates signaling events for protein translation initiation and elongation in C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Naoya; Kawano, Fuminori; Oke, Yoshihiko; Nomura, Sachiko; Ohira, Takashi; Fujita, Ryo; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2010-12-01

    It has been proposed that mechanically induced tension is the critical factor in the induction of muscle hypertrophy. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still under investigation. In the present study, the effect of mechanical stretch on intracellular signaling for protein translation initiation and elongation was studied in C2C12 myoblasts. Cells were grown on a silicone elastomer chamber and subjected to 30-min of 5 or 15% constant static or cyclic (60 cycles/min) uniaxial stretch. Western blot analyses revealed that p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which are the markers for translation initiation and peptide chain elongation, respectively, were activated by both static and cyclic stretch. The magnitude of activation was greater in response to the 15% cyclic stretch. Cyclic stretch also increased the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK). However, the pharmacological inhibition of MAP kinases did not block the stretch-induced activation of p70S6K and eEF2. An inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) blocked the stretch-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K but did not affect the eEF2 activation. A broad-range tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, blocked the stretch-induced activation of p70S6K and eEF2, whereas Src tyrosine kinase and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors did not. These results suggest that the stretch-induced activation of protein translation initiation and elongation in mouse myoblast cell lines is mediated by tyrosine kinase(s), except for Src kinase or JAK. PMID:20957453

  1. The immunosuppressant tributyltin oxide blocks the mTOR pathway, like rapamycin, albeit by a different mechanism.

    PubMed

    Osman, Ahmed M; van Loveren, Henk

    2014-12-01

    We treated the thymoma cell line (EL4) with two model immunosuppressants, rapamycin and tributyltin oxide (TBTO), and compared their effects on the expression levels of proteins that are downstream targets of mTOR kinase 1 (mammalian target of rapamycin, known also as mechanistic target of rapamycin): p70 ribosomal S6 kinase1 and 4E-binding protein 1, a repressor of the cap-binding protein eIF4E. In addition, we evaluated the levels of ribosomal protein S6, p-eIF4B, substrates of p70S6 kinase1, matrin 3 and ribonucleotide reductase, subunit RRM2. The levels of these proteins were evaluated in cell lysates by immunoblot. We found that both compounds inhibited the phosphorylation state of p70S6 kinase 1 and its substrates; however, TBTO, in contrast to rapamycin, reduced the level of the total p70S6k1. Besides, we detected a band with a molecular weight of c. 32?kDa only in the TBTO-treated lysates. This band was detected with a monoclonal antibody specific for S6k1, suggesting that this band might be a degradation product of the kinase. Further, TBTO and rapamycin differentially affected 4E-binding protein 1; the former compound stimulated its phosphorylation state whereas the latter inhibited it. The two immunosuppressants did not affect the level of ribonucleotide reductase, but TBTO downregulated matrin3, in agreement with a previous report, whereas rapamycin had no effect on the expression level of this latter protein. We conclude that TBTO inhibits, like rapamycin, the p70 S6 kinase 1 pathway, but with a different mechanism. However, in contrast to rapamycin, which inhibits the cap-dependent translation, TBTO increases the phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein1. PMID:24375594

  2. p21-Activated kinase 5: a pleiotropic kinase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yi-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Pei, Dong-Sheng; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2013-12-15

    The PAKs (p21-activated kinases) are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases which comprise six mammalian PAKs. PAK5 (p21-activated kinase 5) is the least understood member of PAKs that regulate many intracellular processes when they are stimulated by activated forms of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. PAK5 takes an important part in multiple signal pathways in mammalian cells and controls a variety of cellular functions including cytoskeleton organization, cell motility and apoptosis. The main goal of this review is to describe the structure, mechanisms underlying its activity regulation, its role in apoptosis and the likely directions of further research. PMID:24215894

  3. Collisionally induced transfer of orientation and alignment between 6s6d levels of mercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lukaszewski; D. Lecler

    1978-01-01

    Mercury atoms are stepwise excited to the 6s6d levels by means of a mercury lamp (61S0 to 61P1) and a CW tunable dye laser (61P1 to 61D2 or 63D2). The transfer of coherence (orientation and alignment) between these levels induced in collisions with noble-gas (helium and xenon) atoms is studied in a weak magnetic field by means of the Hanle

  4. Drugging sphingosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Santos, Webster L; Lynch, Kevin R

    2015-01-16

    The transfer of the gamma phosphate from ATP to sphingosine (Sph) to generate a small signaling molecule, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), is catalyzed by sphingosine kinases (SphK), which exist as two isoforms, SphK1 and SphK2. SphK is a key regulator of S1P and the S1P:Sph/ceramide ratio. Increases in S1P levels have been linked to diseases including sickle cell disease, cancer, and fibrosis. Therefore, SphKs are potential targets for drug discovery. However, the current chemical biology toolkit needed to validate these enzymes as drug targets is inadequate. With this review, we survey in vivo active SphK inhibitors and highlight the need for developing more potent and selective inhibitors. PMID:25384187

  5. Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan activates ERK and p38 MAP kinase and induces production of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages through TLR2 and TLR4.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Bernabé, A; Garcia-Hernández, O; Maldonado-Bernal, C; Delegado-Dominguez, J; Ortega, E; Gutiérrez-Kobeh, L; Becker, I; Aguirre-Garcia, M

    2014-05-01

    Protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Leishmania promastigotes primarily infect macrophages in the host, where they transform into amastigotes and multiply. Lipophosphoglycan (LPG), the most abundant surface molecule of the parasite, is a virulence determinant that regulates the host immune response. Promastigotes are able to modulate this effect through LPG, creating a favourable environment for parasite survival, although the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain unknown. We analysed the participation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the production of cytokines and explored the possible phosphorylation of ERK and/or p38 MAP kinase signalling cascades in human macrophages stimulated with Leishmania mexicana LPG. The results show that LPG induced the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-12p40, IL-12p70 and IL-10 and led to phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAP kinase. Specific inhibitors of ERK or p38 MAP kinases and mAbs against TLR2 and TLR4 reduced cytokine production and phosphorylation of both kinases. Our results suggest that L. mexicana LPG binds TLR2 and TLR4 receptors in human macrophages, leading to ERK and MAP kinase phosphorylation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24512642

  6. The application of ICH S6 to the preclinical safety evaluation of plasma derivative therapeutic products.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard M; Cavagnaro, Joy

    2010-07-01

    The ICH S6 guidance was developed to describe a rational science-based flexible approach to the preclinical evaluation for biotechnology-derived pharmaceutical products. It also suggested that some of the principles described may be suitable for plasma-derived therapeutics. Some of the specific concerns unique to protein-based therapeutics include complexity in structure and potential immunogenicity. S6 has been interpreted by some industry and regulatory authorities, often due to lack of experience with these types of products, as encouraging a broader or more conventional toxicology program similar to that normally conducted for small molecules. The guidance does encourage important and necessary preclinical evaluations but also recognizes the limitations of studies in non-relevant animal species because they are without pharmacological interaction with the biologic. In addition, studies of human proteins are often limited in useful chronic, reproductive and carcinogenic toxicity evaluations by the immunological response in animals. Thus the safety evaluation of biopharmaceuticals and plasma derivatives in animals has limitations that cannot be adequately addressed by the use of testing paradigms used for small molecule pharmaceuticals. S6 focuses evaluations on well-designed studies in relevant species for reasonable time periods to make the best use of available resources and enable clinical trials. PMID:20359910

  7. The DAP-kinase interactome.

    PubMed

    Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

    2014-02-01

    DAP-kinase (DAPK) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin regulated Ser/Thr kinase that activates a diverse range of cellular activities. It is subject to multiple layers of regulation involving both intramolecular signaling, and interactions with additional proteins, including other kinases and phosphatases. Its protein stability is modulated by at least three distinct ubiquitin-dependent systems. Like many kinases, DAPK participates in several signaling cascades, by phosphorylating additional kinases such as ZIP-kinase and protein kinase D (PKD), or Pin1, a phospho-directed peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that regulates the function of many phosphorylated proteins. Other substrate targets have more direct cellular effects; for example, phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory chain and tropomyosin mediate some of DAPK's cytoskeletal functions, including membrane blebbing during cell death and cell motility. DAPK induces distinct death pathways of apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis. Among the substrates implicated in these processes, phosphorylation of PKD, Beclin 1, and the NMDA receptor has been reported. Interestingly, not all cellular effects are mediated by DAPK's catalytic activity. For example, by virtue of protein-protein interactions alone, DAPK activates pyruvate kinase isoform M2, the microtubule affinity regulating kinases and inflammasome protein NLRP3, to promote glycolysis, influence microtubule dynamics, and enhance interleukin-1? production, respectively. In addition, a number of other substrates and interacting proteins have been identified, the physiological significance of which has not yet been established. All of these substrates, effectors and regulators together comprise the DAPK interactome. By presenting the components of the interactome network, this review will clarify both the mechanisms by which DAPK function is regulated, and by which it mediates its various cellular effects. PMID:24220855

  8. PI 3-kinase, Akt and cell survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Downward

    2004-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI 3-kinase) provides cells with a survival signal that allows them to withstand apoptotic stimuli. Many tumour cells display elevated levels of PI 3-kinase products as a result of deletion of the phosphatase PTEN, activation of Ras or expression of autocrine growth factors. As a result they are relatively resistant to apoptosis. The mechanisms for PI 3-kinase

  9. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNF?) that contribute to the biological activity of TNF?. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNF? receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNF?. PMID:24647229

  10. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Hsu, Peggy P.; Awad, Mark M.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as ‘druggable’ targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours. PMID:24132104

  11. Ponderosa pine Current Figure S6a. Projected habitat of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C.

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Andreas

    Ponderosa pine ­ Current Figure S6a. Projected habitat of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa-2006 Recent Average1961-1990 Climate Normal #12;Ponderosa Pine ­ 2020s Figure S6b. Projected habitat of ponderosa pine for the 2011­2040 normal period according to 18 climate change

  12. Two Mammalian Mitotic Aurora Kinases: Who's Who?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Simon Descamps (Universite de Rennes I; Groupe Cycle Cellulaire and Genetique et Developpement REV)

    2001-03-13

    Several serine-threonine kinases related to the Ipl1p kinase in budding yeast, termed aurora kinases, have been cloned recently. Their characterization revealed them to be important regulators of mitotic functions, including (i) the separation of the centrosome, (ii) assembly of the spindles, and (iii) segregation of the chromosomes. The Perspective by Descamps and Prigent delves into the latest observations on aurora kinases in humans and the specific roles of each kinase within the process of mitosis.

  13. The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) downregulates HIF-1? protein expression through inhibition of PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in manganese-stimulated A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-03-01

    High exposure of manganese is suggested to be a risk factor for many lung diseases. Evidence suggests anticancerous and antiangiogenic effects by products derived from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. In this study, we investigated the effect of noni fruit juice (NFJ) on the expression of HIF-1?, a tumor angiogenic transcription factor in manganese-chloride (manganese)-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Treatment with manganese largely induced expression of HIF-1? protein but did not affect HIF-1? mRNA expression in A549 cells, suggesting the metal-mediated co- and/or post-translational HIF-1? upregulation. Manganese treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1), protein kinase B (PKB), S6 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? (eIF-2?) in A549 cells. Of note, the exposure of NFJ inhibited the manganese-induced HIF-1? protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, as assessed by results of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA transfection studies, the effect of NFJ on HIF-1? protein downregulation seemed to be largely associated with the ability of NFJ to interfere with the metal's signaling to activate PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in A549 cells. It was further shown that NFJ could repress the induction of HIF-1? protein by desferoxamine or interleukin-1? (IL-1?), another HIF-1? inducer in A549 cells. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NFJ has the ability to strongly downregulate manganese-induced HIF-1? protein expression in A549 human lung cancer cells, which may suggest the NFJ-mediated beneficial effects on lung pathologies in which manganese and HIF-1? overexpression play pathogenic roles. PMID:22179285

  14. Functionally distinct PI 3-kinase pathways regulate myelination in the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Heller, Bradley A; Ghidinelli, Monica; Voelkl, Jakob; Einheber, Steven; Smith, Ryan; Grund, Ethan; Morahan, Grant; Chandler, David; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Giancotti, Filippo; King, Rosalind H; Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray; Fejes-Toth, Gerard; Feltri, Maria Laura; Lang, Florian; Salzer, James L

    2014-03-31

    The PI 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling pathway is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Here we have characterized PI 3-K effectors activated during myelination by probing myelinating cultures and developing nerves with an antibody that recognizes phosphorylated substrates for this pathway. We identified a discrete number of phospho-proteins including the S6 ribosomal protein (S6rp), which is down-regulated at the onset of myelination, and N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), which is up-regulated strikingly with myelination. We show that type III Neuregulin1 on the axon is the primary activator of S6rp, an effector of mTORC1. In contrast, laminin-2 in the extracellular matrix (ECM), signaling through the ?6?4 integrin and Sgk1 (serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1), drives phosphorylation of NDRG1 in the Cajal bands of the abaxonal compartment. Unexpectedly, mice deficient in ?6?4 integrin signaling or Sgk1 exhibit hypermyelination during development. These results identify functionally and spatially distinct PI 3-K pathways: an early, pro-myelinating pathway driven by axonal Neuregulin1 and a later-acting, laminin-integrin-dependent pathway that negatively regulates myelination. PMID:24687281

  15. Functionally distinct PI 3-kinase pathways regulate myelination in the peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Bradley A.; Ghidinelli, Monica; Voelkl, Jakob; Einheber, Steven; Smith, Ryan; Grund, Ethan; Morahan, Grant; Chandler, David; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Giancotti, Filippo; King, Rosalind H.; Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray; Fejes-Toth, Gerard; Feltri, Maria Laura; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The PI 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling pathway is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Here we have characterized PI 3-K effectors activated during myelination by probing myelinating cultures and developing nerves with an antibody that recognizes phosphorylated substrates for this pathway. We identified a discrete number of phospho-proteins including the S6 ribosomal protein (S6rp), which is down-regulated at the onset of myelination, and N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), which is up-regulated strikingly with myelination. We show that type III Neuregulin1 on the axon is the primary activator of S6rp, an effector of mTORC1. In contrast, laminin-2 in the extracellular matrix (ECM), signaling through the ?6?4 integrin and Sgk1 (serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1), drives phosphorylation of NDRG1 in the Cajal bands of the abaxonal compartment. Unexpectedly, mice deficient in ?6?4 integrin signaling or Sgk1 exhibit hypermyelination during development. These results identify functionally and spatially distinct PI 3-K pathways: an early, pro-myelinating pathway driven by axonal Neuregulin1 and a later-acting, laminin–integrin-dependent pathway that negatively regulates myelination. PMID:24687281

  16. Differential regulation of rice mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) by abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kundan; Rao, Kudupudi Prabhakara; Sharma, Pallavi; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2008-10-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase cascade plays a crucial role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormones, cell division and developmental processes. MAP kinase kinase being integral part of this cascade performs an important function of integrating upstream signals to mitogen activated protein kinase for further appropriate cellular responses. We here report cloning of five MAP kinase kinase members from Oryza sativa indica cultivar var. Pusa Basmati 1, namely MAP kinase kinases 1, 3, 4, 6 and 10-2. All these members, except MKK10-2 possess fully canonical motif structures of MAP kinase kinase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed changes at certain position within japonica and indica variety of rice. Analysis of transcript regulation by quantitative real time PCR revealed that these five members are differentially regulated by cold, heat, salinity and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinases 4 and 6 are strongly regulated by cold and salt stresses while MAP kinase kinase 1 is regulated by salt and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinase 10-2 is regulated only by cold stress. The study provides the indication of involvement of specific MAP kinase kinase in different abiotic stress signaling and also possible cross talks that exist during the signaling processes. PMID:18619847

  17. Identification of insulin-induced sites of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Radimerski, T; Mini, T; Schneider, U; Wettenhall, R E; Thomas, G; Jenö, P

    2000-05-16

    Insulin treatment of Drosophila melanogaster Kc 167 cells induces the multiple phosphorylation of a Drosophila ribosomal protein, as judged by its decreased electrophoretic mobility on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. The extent to which insulin induces this response is potentiated by cycloheximide and blocked by pretreatment with rapamycin. Isolation and mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the multiply phosphorylated protein was the larger of two Drosophila melanogaster orthologues of mammalian 40S ribosomal protein S6, termed here DS6A. Proteolytic cleavage of DS6A derived from stimulated Kc 167 cells with the endoproteinase Lys-C released a number of peptides, one of which contained all the putative phosphorylation sites. Conversion of phosphoserines to dehydroalanines with Ba(OH)(2) showed that the sites of phosphorylation reside at the carboxy terminus of DS6A. The sites of phosphorylation were identified by Edman degradation after conversion of the phosphoserine residues to S-ethylcysteine as Ser(233), Ser(235), Ser(239), Ser(242), and Ser(245). Finally, phosphopeptide mapping of individual phosphoderivatives, isolated from two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels, indicated that DS6A phosphorylation, in analogy to mammalian S6 phosphorylation, appears to proceed in an ordered fashion. The importance of these observations in cell growth and development is discussed. PMID:10801327

  18. MTSET modification of D4S6 cysteines stabilize the fast inactivated state of Nav1.5 sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Michael E.; Chahine, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The transmembrane S6 segments of Na+ sodium channels form the cytoplasmic entrance of the channel and line the internal aspects of the aqueous pore. This region of the channel has been implicated in Na+ channel permeation, gating, and pharmacology. In this study we utilized cysteine substitutions and methanethiosulfonate reagent (MTSET) to investigate the role of the S6 segment of homologous domain 4 (D4S6) in the gating of the cardiac (Nav1.5) channel. D4S6 cysteine mutants were heterologously expressed in tsA201 cells and currents recorded using whole-cell patch clamp. Internal MTSET reduced the peak Na+ currents, induced hyperpolarizing shifts in steady-state inactivation and slowed the recovery of mutant channels with cysteines inserted near the middle (F1760C, V1763C) and C-terminus (Y1767C) of the D4S6. These findings suggested a link between the MTSET inhibition and fast inactivation. This was confirmed by expressing the V1763C and Y1767C mutations in non-inactivating Nav1.5 channels. Removing inactivation abolished the MTSET inhibition of the V1763C and Y1767C mutants. The data indicate that the MTSET-induced reduction in current primarily results from slower recovery from inactivation that produces hyperpolarizing shifts in fast inactivation and decreases the steady-state availability of the channels. This contrasted with a cysteine inserted near the C-terminus of the D4S6 (I1770C) where MTSET increased the persistent Na+ current at depolarized voltages consistent with impaired fast inactivation. Covalent modification of D4S6 cysteines with MTSET adduct appears to reduce the mobility of the D4S6 segment and stabilize the channels in the fast inactivated state. These findings indicate that residues located near the middle and C-terminus of the D4S6 play an important role in fast inactivation. PMID:26150789

  19. Shp2 negatively regulates growth in cardiomyocytes by controlling focal adhesion kinase/Src and mTOR pathways.

    PubMed

    Marin, Talita M; Clemente, Carolina F M Z; Santos, Aline M; Picardi, Paty K; Pascoal, Vinícius D B; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Saad, Mário J A; Franchini, Kleber G

    2008-10-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Shp2 (Src homology region 2, phosphatase 2) controls focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity and its trophic actions in cardiomyocytes. We show that low phosphorylation levels of FAK in nonstretched neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) coincided with a relatively high basal association of FAK with Shp2 and Shp2 phosphatase activity. Cyclic stretch (15% above initial length) enhanced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr397 and reduced FAK/Shp2 association and phosphatase activity in anti-Shp2 precipitates. Recombinant Shp2 C-terminal protein tyrosine phosphatase domain (Shp2-PTP) interacted with nonphosphorylated recombinant FAK and dephosphorylated FAK immunoprecipitated from NRVMs. Depletion of Shp2 by specific small interfering RNA increased the phosphorylation of FAK Tyr397, Src Tyr418, AKT Ser473, TSC2 Thr1462, and S6 kinase Thr389 and induced hypertrophy of nonstretched NRVMs. Inhibition of FAK/Src activity by PP2 {4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine} abolished the phosphorylation of AKT, TSC2, and S6 kinase, as well as the hypertrophy of NRVMs induced by Shp2 depletion. Inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) with rapamycin blunted the hypertrophy in NRVMs depleted of Shp2. NRVMs treated with PP2 or depleted of FAK by specific small interfering RNA were defective in FAK, Src, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, AKT, TSC2, and S6 kinase phosphorylation, as well as in the hypertrophic response to prolonged stretch. The stretch-induced hypertrophy of NRVMs was also prevented by rapamycin. These findings demonstrate that basal Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase activity controls the size of cardiomyocytes by downregulating a pathway that involves FAK/Src and mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:18757826

  20. p21-activated kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Joachim; Crawford, James J; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are Ser/Thr kinases in the STE20 kinase family with important roles in regulating cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, and signaling. The PAK enzyme family comprises six members subdivided into two groups: Group I, represented by PAK1, 2, and 3, and Group II, represented by PAK 4, 5, and 6, based on sequence and structural homology. Individual PAK isoforms were found to be overexpressed and amplified in a variety of human cancers, and in vitro and in vivo studies using genetically engineered systems as well as small-molecule tool compounds have suggested therapeutic utility of PAKs as oncology targets. The identification of potent and kinome-selective ATP-competitive PAK inhibitors has proven challenging, likely caused by the openness and unique plasticity of the ATP-binding site of PAK enzymes. Progress in achieving increased kinase selectivity has been achieved with certain inhibitors but at the expense of increased molecular weight. Allosteric inhibitors, such as IPA-3, leverage the unique Group I PAK autoregulatory domain for selective inhibition, and this approach might provide an outlet to evade the kinase selectivity challenges observed with ATP-competitive PAK inhibitors. PMID:25034104

  1. DAP-kinase and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Levin-Salomon, Vered; Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

    2014-02-01

    DAP-kinase (DAPK) is a Ca(2+)-calmodulin regulated kinase with various, diverse cellular activities, including regulation of apoptosis and caspase-independent death programs, cytoskeletal dynamics, and immune functions. Recently, DAPK has also been shown to be a critical regulator of autophagy, a catabolic process whereby the cell consumes cytoplasmic contents and organelles within specialized vesicles, called autophagosomes. Here we present the latest findings demonstrating how DAPK modulates autophagy. DAPK positively contributes to the induction stage of autophagosome nucleation by modulating the Vps34 class III phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase complex by two independent mechanisms. The first involves a kinase cascade in which DAPK phosphorylates protein kinase D, which then phosphorylates and activates Vps34. In the second mechanism, DAPK directly phosphorylates Beclin 1, a necessary component of the Vps34 complex, thereby releasing it from its inhibitor, Bcl-2. In addition to these established pathways, we will discuss additional connections between DAPK and autophagy and potential mechanisms that still remain to be fully validated. These include myosin-dependent trafficking of Atg9-containing vesicles to the sites of autophagosome formation, membrane fusion events that contribute to expansion of the autophagosome membrane and maturation through the endocytic pathway, and trafficking to the lysosome on microtubules. Finally, we discuss how DAPK's participation in the autophagic process may be related to its function as a tumor suppressor protein, and its role in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24264886

  2. The ScFRK2 MAP kinase kinase kinase from Solanum chacoense aVects pollen development and viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin O'Brien; Madoka Gray-Mitsumune; Christelle Kapfer; Charles Bertrand; Daniel P. Matton

    2007-01-01

    We have previously described the FERTIL- IZATION-RELATED KINASE 2 (ScFRK2), a MAP kinase kinase kinase from Solanum chacoense that is predominantly expressed in reproductive tissues. Overexpression of the ScFRK2 gene modiWes the cell fate of ovule initials and induces homeotic transforma- tion of ovules into carpelloid structures. Since the ScFRK2 gene is normally expressed also in anthers, we now further

  3. The ScFRK2 MAP kinase kinase kinase from Solanum chacoense affects pollen development and viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin O’Brien; Madoka Gray-Mitsumune; Christelle Kapfer; Charles Bertrand; Daniel P. Matton

    2007-01-01

    We have previously described the FERTILIZATION-RELATED KINASE 2 (ScFRK2), a MAP kinase kinase kinase from Solanum chacoense that is predominantly expressed in reproductive tissues. Overexpression of the ScFRK2 gene modifies the cell fate of ovule initials and induces homeotic transformation of ovules into carpelloid structures. Since\\u000a the ScFRK2 gene is normally expressed also in anthers, we now further our observations

  4. Diabetes Diminishes Phosphatidic Acid in the Retina: A Putative Mediator for Reduced mTOR Signaling and Increased Neuronal Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Todd E.; Young, Megan M.; Pedersen, Michelle M.; Han, Xianlin; Gardner, Thomas W.; Kester, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We demonstrated previously that pro-survival insulin receptor, PI3K-Akt, and p70 S6K signaling is diminished in models of diabetic retinopathy. As mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an upstream activator of p70 S6Kinase is, in part, regulated by lipid-derived second messengers, such as phosphatidic acid (PA), we sought to determine if diminished mTOR/p70 S6Kinase signaling in diabetic retinas may reflect diminished PA levels. Methods. Alterations in PA mass from retinas of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were determined by mass spectrometry. The biochemical and biophysical mechanisms underlying the actions of PA on insulin-activated mTOR/p70 S6Kinase signaling were determined using R28 retinal neuronal cells. Results. We demonstrate a significant decrease in PA in R28 retinal neuronal cells exposed to hyperglycemia as well as in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retinas. Exogenous PA augmented insulin–induced protection from interleukin-1?-induced apoptosis. Moreover, exogenous PA and insulin cooperatively activated mTOR survival pathways in R28 neuronal cultures. Exogenous PA colocalized with activated mTOR/p70 S6kinase signaling elements within lipid microdomains. The biochemical consequences of this biophysical mechanism is reflected by differential phosphorylation of tuberin at threonine 1462 and serine 1798, respectively, by PA and insulin, which reduce this suppressor of mTOR/S6Kinase signaling within lipid microdomains. Conclusions. These results identify PA-enriched microdomains as a putative lipid-based signaling element responsible for mTOR-dependent retinal neuronal survival. Moreover, diabetic retinal neuronal apoptosis may reflect diminished PA mass. Elevating PA concentrations and restoring mTOR signaling may be an effective therapeutic modality to reduce neuronal cell death in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:22952117

  5. Experimental Investigation of 126-Gb/s 6PolSK-QPSK signals.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Molle, Lutz; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja

    2012-12-10

    We experimentally generate 28-GBd 6-ary polarization-shift keying quadrature phase-shift keying (6PolSK-QPSK) signals by utilizing a high-speed 4-channel digital-to-analog converter and an integrated dual-polarization I/Q modulator. In WDM transmission experiments over up to 4800 km standard single-mode fiber, we compare the performance of 126-Gb/s 6PolSK-QPSK and 112-Gb/s polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) QPSK signals. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of applying an inner Reed-Solomon RS(511,455) forward error correction code in order to correct burst errors due to the anti-Gray mapping of 6PolSK-QPSK. PMID:23262856

  6. Frank Masci (1)MIPS D/L Review (S6), August 7, 2001 24m SUR-mode Saturation Flagging

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    Frank Masci (1)MIPS D/L Review (S6), August 7, 2001 24µm SUR-mode Saturation Flagging: SATMASK values are now returned, a pixel is flagged as saturated in a D-mask (DCE-mask) if: 1. first difference" "mid-ramp saturation" #12;Frank Masci (5)MIPS D/L Review (S6), August 7, 2001 Cosmic Ray Flagging? 1

  7. A DESCRIPTION OF THE OUTER AUTOMORPHISM OF S6, AND THE INVARIANTS OF SIX POINTS IN PROJECTIVE SPACE

    E-print Network

    Vakil, Ravi

    -trivial verification. 1. THE OUTER AUTOMORPHISM OF S6 1.1. First description of the outer automorphism: the mystic hence the other color) form a 5-cycle, see Figure 1. We dub these the six mystic pentagons. Then S5 acts on the six mystic pentagons by permuting the vertices, giving a map i : S5 = S{1,...,5} S{a,...,f} = S6

  8. Redox regulation of Janus kinase

    PubMed Central

    Duhé, Roy J

    2013-01-01

    The redox regulation of Janus kinases (JAKs) is a complex subject. Due to other redox-sensitive kinases in the kinome, redox-sensitive phosphatases, and cellular antioxidant systems and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production systems, the net biological outcomes of oxidative stress on JAK-dependent signal transduction vary according to the specific biological system examined. This review begins with a discussion of the biochemical evidence for a cysteine-based redox switch in the catalytic domain of JAKs, proceeds to consider direct and indirect regulatory mechanisms involved in biological experiments, and ends with a discussion of the role(s) of redox regulation of JAKs in various diseases. PMID:24416654

  9. Labeling and Identification of Direct Kinase Substrates

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Scott M.

    Identifying kinase substrates is an important step in mapping signal transduction pathways, but it remains a difficult and time-consuming process. Analog-sensitive (AS) kinases have been used to selectively tag and identify ...

  10. MAP kinase cascades: scaffolding signal specificity.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, Frank; Peter, Matthias

    2002-01-22

    Scaffold proteins organize many MAP kinase pathways by interacting with several components of these cascades. Recent studies suggest that scaffold proteins provide local activation platforms that contribute to signal specificity by insulating different MAP kinase pathways. PMID:11818078

  11. MAP Kinase Cascades: Scaffolding Signal Specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank van Drogen; Matthias Peter

    2002-01-01

    Scaffold proteins organize many MAP kinase pathways by interacting with several components of these cascades. Recent studies suggest that scaffold proteins provide local activation platforms that contribute to signal specificity by insulating different MAP kinase pathways.

  12. Phosphoinositol 3-kinase, a novel target molecule for the inhibitory effects of juglone on TPA-induced cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Kyung-Ae; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Nam, Hae-Seon; Woo, Kee-Min; Lee, Sang-Han; Shim, Jung-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione) from black walnut trees induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of various malignant cells. Here, we investigated whether juglone affects 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell transformation through the phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. The results showed that TPA- and endothelial growth factor (EGF)-induced anchorage-independent colony formation were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by treatment of JB6 CI41 mouse skin epidermal cells with juglone (2.5 and 5 µM). We demonstrated that juglone suppressed PI3K activity via direct binding to PI3K by sepharose 4B pull-down assay and western blot analysis. Juglone significantly suppressed TPA-induced protein kinase B (AKT) and c-Jun phosphorylation and c-fos activation, but not mitogen-activated protein-kinase kinase (MEK), extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) or 90 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK) phosphorylation. Juglone significantly blocked activator protein-1 (AP-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activation more than the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. Overall, these results showed the anticancer efficacy of juglone targeting PI3K to prevent TPA-induced tumorigenesis. PMID:22505246

  13. MAP kinase phosphorylation of plant profilin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apinun Limmongkon; Concetta Giuliani; Rudolf Valenta; Irene Mittermann; Erwin Heberle-Bors; Cathal Wilson

    2004-01-01

    Profilin is a small actin-binding protein and is expressed at high levels in mature pollen where it is thought to regulate actin filament dynamics upon pollen germination and tube growth. The majority of identified plant profilins contain a MAP kinase phosphorylation motif, P–X–T–P, and a MAP kinase interaction motif (KIM). In in vitro kinase assays, the tobacco MAP kinases p45Ntf4

  14. Structure and function of phosphoinositide 3-kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias P Wymann; Luciano Pirola

    1998-01-01

    Phosphoinositide kinases (PI3Ks) play an important role in mitogenic signaling and cell survival, cytoskeletal remodeling, metabolic control and vesicular trafficking. Here we summarize the structure–function relationships delineating the activation process of class I PI3Ks involving various domains of adapter subunits, Ras, and interacting proteins. The resulting product, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, targets Akt\\/protein kinase B (PKB), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), phosphoinositide-dependent kinases (PDK),

  15. SnapShot: Kinase Inhibitors I.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhua; Gray, Nathanael S

    2015-05-21

    Selective small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases can serve as powerful tools to elucidate biological function. Efforts to develop potential drug candidates have yielded a wealth of kinase inhibitors. However, selecting the optimal kinase inhibitor for a particular application can be challenging. While the optimal inhibitor will be application specific, we have attempted to summarize some of the best reported inhibitors for various kinases. PMID:26000854

  16. SnapShot: Kinase Inhibitors II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhua; Gray, Nathanael S

    2015-05-21

    Selective small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases can serve as powerful tools to elucidate biological function. Efforts to develop potential drug candidates have yielded a wealth of kinase inhibitors. However, selecting the optimal kinase inhibitor for a particular application can be challenging. While the optimal inhibitor will be application specific, we have attempted to summarize some of the best reported inhibitors for various kinases. PMID:26000855

  17. A quantitative analysis of kinase inhibitor selectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mazen W Karaman; Sanna Herrgard; Daniel K Treiber; Paul Gallant; Corey E Atteridge; Brian T Campbell; Katrina W Chan; Pietro Ciceri; Mindy I Davis; Philip T Edeen; Raffaella Faraoni; Mark Floyd; Jeremy P Hunt; Daniel J Lockhart; Zdravko V Milanov; Michael J Morrison; Gabriel Pallares; Hitesh K Patel; Stephanie Pritchard; Lisa M Wodicka; Patrick P Zarrinkar

    2008-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors are a new class of therapeutics with a propensity to inhibit multiple targets. The biological consequences of multi-kinase activity are poorly defined, and an important step toward understanding the relationship between selectivity, efficacy and safety is the exploration of how inhibitors interact with the human kinome. We present interaction maps for 38 kinase inhibitors across a panel of

  18. Targeting cancer with small molecule kinase inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianming Zhang; Priscilla L. Yang; Nathanael S. Gray

    2009-01-01

    Deregulation of kinase activity has emerged as a major mechanism by which cancer cells evade normal physiological constraints on growth and survival. To date, 11 kinase inhibitors have received US Food and Drug Administration approval as cancer treatments, and there are considerable efforts to develop selective small molecule inhibitors for a host of other kinases that are implicated in cancer

  19. Proximal protein tyrosine kinases in immunoreceptor signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Latour; André Veillette

    2001-01-01

    Immunoreceptor engagement results in the sequential activation of several classes of protein tyrosine kinases, including the Src and Syk\\/Zap-70 families. Recent progress has been made in our understanding of the regulation and function of these molecules. First, it was revealed that membrane compartmentation of protein tyrosine kinases may be essential for their proper biological function. Second, Src family kinases were

  20. Latest progress in tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pospelova, Tatiana V.; Pospelov, Valery A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the latest progress in development of some kinase inhibitors such as inhibitors of c-MET, LIM and Bcr-Abl kinases. Importantly, many oncogenic kinases signal via the mTOR pathway, suggesting a common target for drug combinations. PMID:24727648

  1. Protein kinase C in melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Oka; Ushio Kikkawa

    2005-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by diacylglycerol generated by receptor-mediated hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to mediate signals for cell growth and plays as a target of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in malignant transformation. PKC is a family of enzymes and their expression profiles have been examined in the normal melanocytes and melanoma cells, and studies have been carried out on

  2. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1100 Florida Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70119 (United States)]. E-mail: biocrr@lsuhsc.edu

    2005-05-27

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTP{alpha}, PTP{epsilon}, and PTP{lambda}. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined.

  3. Current Biology 22, 15, September 11, 2012 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.06.074 Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase

    E-print Network

    Verheyen, Esther M.

    the phenotype obtained when inhibiting Hippo (Hpo) signaling by reducing warts (wts) or by overex- pressing://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.06.074 Report Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase Regulates Yorkie Activity and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada Summary The Hippo (Hpo) tumor

  4. The role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in mood modulation.

    PubMed

    Einat, Haim; Yuan, Peixiong; Gould, Todd D; Li, Jianling; Du, JianHua; Zhang, Lei; Manji, Husseini K; Chen, Guang

    2003-08-13

    The neurobiological underpinnings of mood modulation, molecular pathophysiology of manic-depressive illness, and therapeutic mechanism of mood stabilizers are largely unknown. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is activated by neurotrophins and other neuroactive chemicals to produce their effects on neuronal differentiation, survival, regeneration, and structural and functional plasticity. We found that lithium and valproate, commonly used mood stabilizers for the treatment of manic-depressive illness, stimulated the ERK pathway in the rat hippocampus and frontal cortex. Both drugs increased the levels of activated phospho-ERK44/42, activated phospho-ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 (RSK1) (a substrate of ERK), phospho-CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) and phospho-B cell lymphoma protein-2 antagonist of cell death (substrates of RSK), and BDNF. Inhibiting the ERK pathway with the blood-brain barrier-penetrating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase)/ERK kinase (MEK) kinase inhibitor SL327, but not with the nonblood-brain barrier-penetrating MEK inhibitor U0126, decreased immobility time and increased swimming time of rats in the forced-swim test. SL327, but not U0126, also increased locomotion time and distance traveled in a large open field. The behavioral changes in the open field were prevented with chronic lithium pretreatment. SL327-induced behavioral changes are qualitatively similar to the changes induced by amphetamine, a compound that induces relapse in remitted manic patients and mood elevation in normal subjects. These data suggest that the ERK pathway may mediate the antimanic effects of mood stabilizers. PMID:12917364

  5. The Origin and Evolution of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Mushegian, Arcady; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play key role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. GRKs phosphorylate activated receptors, promoting high affinity binding of arrestins, which precludes G protein coupling. Direct binding to active GPCRs activates GRKs, so that they selectively phosphorylate only the activated form of the receptor regardless of the accessibility of the substrate peptides within it and their Ser/Thr-containing sequence. Mammalian GRKs were classified into three main lineages, but earlier GRK evolution has not been studied. Here we show that GRKs emerged at the early stages of eukaryotic evolution via an insertion of a kinase similar to ribosomal protein S6 kinase into a loop in RGS domain. GRKs in Metazoa fall into two clades, one including GRK2 and GRK3, and the other consisting of all remaining GRKs, split into GRK1-GRK7 lineage and GRK4-GRK5-GRK6 lineage in vertebrates. One representative of each of the two ancient clades is found as early as placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. Several protists, two oomycetes and unicellular brown algae have one GRK-like protein, suggesting that the insertion of a kinase domain into the RGS domain preceded the origin of Metazoa. The two GRK families acquired distinct structural units in the N- and C-termini responsible for membrane recruitment and receptor association. Thus, GRKs apparently emerged before animals and rapidly expanded in true Metazoa, most likely due to the need for rapid signalling adjustments in fast-moving animals. PMID:22442725

  6. CuInP2S6 Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Belianinov, A; He, Q; Dziaugys, A; Maksymovych, P; Eliseev, E; Borisevich, A; Morozovska, A; Banys, J; Vysochanskii, Y; Kalinin, S V

    2015-06-10

    We explore ferroelectric properties of cleaved 2-D flakes of copper indium thiophosphate, CuInP2S6 (CITP), and probe size effects along with limits of ferroelectric phase stability, by ambient and ultra high vacuum scanning probe microscopy. CITP belongs to the only material family known to display ferroelectric polarization in a van der Waals, layered crystal at room temperature and above. Our measurements directly reveal stable, ferroelectric polarization as evidenced by domain structures, switchable polarization, and hysteresis loops. We found that at room temperature the domain structure of flakes thicker than 100 nm is similar to the cleaved bulk surfaces, whereas below 50 nm polarization disappears. We ascribe this behavior to a well-known instability of polarization due to depolarization field. Furthermore, polarization switching at high bias is also associated with ionic mobility, as evidenced both by macroscopic measurements and by formation of surface damage under the tip at a bias of 4 V-likely due to copper reduction. Mobile Cu ions may therefore also contribute to internal screening mechanisms. The existence of stable polarization in a van-der-Waals crystal naturally points toward new strategies for ultimate scaling of polar materials, quasi-2D, and single-layer materials with advanced and nonlinear dielectric properties that are presently not found in any members of the growing "graphene family". PMID:25932503

  7. Bioinformatic mining of kinase inhibitors that regulate autophagy through kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Biao; Jin, Ye; Ben, Wei; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Keping; Feng, Shujun; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Jianhua

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the kinase inhibitors that may regulate autophagy. A total of 62 kinases were obtained through text mining by importing the keyword 'autophagy' and a 'protein kinase' Excel file to PubMed. Subsequently, 146 kinases were derivated through screening in the PubMed database by importing the 'autophagy?associated gene' and 'protein kinase' files. Following intersection of the above two methods, 54 candidate autophagy?associated kinases were obtained. Enrichment analysis indicated that these candidate autophagy?associated kinases were mainly enriched in pathways such as the calcium, Wnt, HIF?1 and mTOR signaling pathways. Among the 54 kinases, 24 were identified through text mining to have specific kinase inhibitors that regulate the corresponding functions; a total of 56 kinase inhibitors were found to be involved in the regulation of these 24 kinases. In total, nine of these 56 kinase inhibitors identified had been widely reported in autophagy regulation studies, 23 kinase inhibitors had been seldom reported and 24 had never been reported. Therefore, introducing these kinases into autophagy regulation analysis in subsequent studies may produce important results. PMID:25323421

  8. Induced fit in arginine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, G; Ellington, W R; Chapman, M S

    2000-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) and arginine kinase (AK) are related enzymes that reversibly transfer a phosphoryl group between a guanidino compound and ADP. In the buffering of ATP energy levels, they are central to energy metabolism and have been paradigms of classical enzymology. Comparison of the open substrate-free structure of CK and the closed substrate-bound structure of AK reveals differences that are consistent with prior biophysical evidence of substrate-induced conformational changes. Large and small domains undergo a hinged 13 degrees rotation. Several loops become ordered and adopt different positions in the presence of substrate, including one (residues 309-319) that moves 15 A to fold over the substrates. The conformational changes appear to be necessary in aligning the two substrates for catalysis, in configuring the active site only when productive phosphoryl transfer is possible, and excluding water from the active site to avoid wasteful ATP hydrolysis. PMID:10692338

  9. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  10. Structure of mitochondrial creatine kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Fritz-Wolf; Thomas Schnyder; Theo Wallimann; Wolfgang Kabsch

    1996-01-01

    CREATINE kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2), an enzyme important for energy metabolism in cells of high and fluctuating energy requirements, catalyses the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl goup from phosphocreatine to ADP1-3. We have solved the structure of the octameric mitochondrial isoform, Mib-CK, which is located in the intermembrane compartment and along the cristae membranes. Mib-CK consumes ATP produced in the

  11. Dual inhibition of EGFR and MET induces synthetic lethality in triple-negative breast cancer cells through downregulation of ribosomal protein S6.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yong Weon; You, Kyusic; Bae, Edward Jeong; Kwak, Sahng-June; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Bae, Insoo

    2015-07-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) exhibits innate resistance to the EGFR inhibition despite high level expression of EGFR. Recently, we found that the proliferation of basal-like (BL) subtype TNBC cells is synergistically inhibited by combination of EGFR and PI3K/AKT inhibitors. On the contrary, TNBC cells of mesenchymal stem-like (MSL) subtype are resistant to these combinations. To identify potential synthetic lethal interaction of compounds for treatment of MSL subtype TNBC cells, we performed MTT screening of MDA-MB?231 cells with a small library of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) in the presence of gefitinib, an EGFR inhibitor. We identified MET inhibitors as potent RTKIs that caused synthetic lethality in combination with gefitinib in MDA-MB?231 cells. We demonstrated that combination of a MET inhibitor SU11274 with various EGFR inhibitors resulted in synergistic suppression of cell viability (in MTT assay) and cell survival (in colony formation assay) of MSL subtype TNBC cells. We further demonstrated that SU11274 alone induced G2 arrest and gefitinib/SU11274 combination sustained the SU11274-induced G2 arrest in these cells. In addition, SU11274/gefitinib combination synergistically reduced the level of ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in MSL subtype TNBC cells. In addition, knockdown of RPS6 itself, in both HS578T and MDA-MB?231, markedly reduced the proliferation of these cells. Taken together, our data suggest that dual targeting of EGFR and MET inhibits the proliferation of MSL subtype TNBC cells through downregulation of RPS6. PMID:25955731

  12. The distribution and clearance of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine, an active ketamine metabolite, in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Moaddel, Ruin; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Dossou, Katina Sourou Sylvestre; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Green, Carol; Bupp, James; Swezey, Robert; O’Loughlin, Kathleen; Wainer, Irving W

    2015-01-01

    The distribution, clearance, and bioavailability of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine has been studied in the Wistar rat. The plasma and brain tissue concentrations over time of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were determined after intravenous (20 mg/kg) and oral (20 mg/kg) administration of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine (n = 3). After intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis and the half-life of drug elimination during the terminal phase (t1/2) was 8.0 ± 4.0 h and the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 7352 ± 736 mL/kg, clearance (Cl) was 704 ± 139 mL/h per kg, and the bioavailability was 46.3%. Significant concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were measured in brain tissues at 10 min after intravenous administration, ?30 ?g/mL per g tissue which decreased to 6 ?g/mL per g tissue at 60 min. The plasma and brain concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were also determined after the intravenous administration of (S)-ketamine, where significant plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were observed 10 min after administration. The (S)-ketamine metabolites (S)-norketamine, (S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6R)-hydroxynorketamine, (2S,5S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,4S)-hydroxynorketamine were also detected in both plasma and brain tissue. The enantioselectivity of the conversion of (S)-ketamine and (R)-ketamine to the respective (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites was also investigated over the first 60 min after intravenous administration. (S)-Ketamine produced significantly greater plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine relative to the (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine observed after the administration of (R)-ketamine. However, the relative brain tissue: plasma concentrations of the enantiomeric (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites were not significantly different indicating that the penetration of the metabolite is not enantioselective.

  13. The distribution and clearance of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine, an active ketamine metabolite, in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moaddel, Ruin; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Dossou, Katina Sourou Sylvestre; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Green, Carol; Bupp, James; Swezey, Robert; O'Loughlin, Kathleen; Wainer, Irving W

    2015-08-01

    The distribution, clearance, and bioavailability of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine has been studied in the Wistar rat. The plasma and brain tissue concentrations over time of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were determined after intravenous (20 mg/kg) and oral (20 mg/kg) administration of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine (n = 3). After intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis and the half-life of drug elimination during the terminal phase (t 1/2) was 8.0 ± 4.0 h and the apparent volume of distribution (V d) was 7352 ± 736 mL/kg, clearance (Cl) was 704 ± 139 mL/h per kg, and the bioavailability was 46.3%. Significant concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were measured in brain tissues at 10 min after intravenous administration, ?30 ?g/mL per g tissue which decreased to 6 ?g/mL per g tissue at 60 min. The plasma and brain concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were also determined after the intravenous administration of (S)-ketamine, where significant plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were observed 10 min after administration. The (S)-ketamine metabolites (S)-norketamine, (S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6R)-hydroxynorketamine, (2S,5S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,4S)-hydroxynorketamine were also detected in both plasma and brain tissue. The enantioselectivity of the conversion of (S)-ketamine and (R)-ketamine to the respective (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites was also investigated over the first 60 min after intravenous administration. (S)-Ketamine produced significantly greater plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine relative to the (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine observed after the administration of (R)-ketamine. However, the relative brain tissue: plasma concentrations of the enantiomeric (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites were not significantly different indicating that the penetration of the metabolite is not enantioselective. PMID:26171236

  14. Staurosporine induces dopaminergic neurite outgrowth through AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Seiko; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshie; Adachi, Kanami; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Akaike, Akinori

    2014-02-01

    Axonal degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is one of the pathological features in the early stages of Parkinson disease. Promotion of axonal outgrowth of the remaining dopaminergic neurons leads to the recovery of the nigrostriatal pathway. Staurosporine (STS), a wide-spectrum kinase inhibitor, induces neurite outgrowth in various cell types, although its mechanism of action remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed which protein kinase is involved in STS-induced neurite outgrowth. We have previously established the method to measure the length of dopaminergic neurites that extend from a mesencephalic cell region, which is formed on a coverslip by an isolation wall. By means of this method, we clarified that STS treatment causes dopaminergic axonal outgrowth in mesencephalic primary cultures. Among the specific protein kinase inhibitors we tested, compound C (C.C), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, promoted dopaminergic neurite outgrowth. STS as well as C.C elevated the phosphorylation level of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, a downstream target of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The STS- and C.C-induced dopaminergic neurite outgrowth was suppressed by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor. Furthermore, the application of C.C rescued 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurite degeneration. These results suggest that STS induces dopaminergic axonal outgrowth through mTOR signaling pathway activation as a consequence of AMPK inhibition. PMID:24067927

  15. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  16. The diphosphoinositide kinase of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Kai, M.; Salway, J. G.; Hawthorne, J. N.

    1968-01-01

    1. The supernatant fraction of adult rat brain contains a diphosphoinositide kinase. 2. Formation of triphosphoinositide by the enzyme in the presence of ATP and Mg2+ ions was shown with labelled ATP or labelled diphosphoinositide. 3. The kinase was also activated by Ca2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ ions, but to a smaller extent than by Mg2+ ions. 4. In the presence of optimum Mg2+ ion concentration the enzyme was inhibited by Ca2+ ions. 5. Activity did not depend on thiol groups and the pH optimum was 7·3. 6. The dialysed supernatant fraction had no diglyceride kinase activity and negligible phosphatidylinositol kinase activity. 7. Triphosphoinositide phosphomonoesterase was present but showed little activity under the conditions used to assay the kinase. 8. Diphosphoinositide kinase was purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation, ethanol treatment and chromatography on Sephadex G-200. 9. This purification removed much of the triphosphoinositide phosphomonoesterase. PMID:4295336

  17. Frank Masci (1)IRAC D/L Review (S6), August 24, 2001 Latent-Image Flagging

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    Frank Masci (1)IRAC D/L Review (S6), August 24, 2001 Latent-Image Flagging Frank Masci August 24-consistently flag pixels containing a latent by predicting forward in time which pixel intensities in an ensemble.. Step 2: l Flag all "suspected" latent pixels in each image of the ensemble by flagging those pixels

  18. Frank Masci (1)MIPS D/L Review (S6), August 7, 2001 24m Latent-Image Flagging

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    Frank Masci (1)MIPS D/L Review (S6), August 7, 2001 24µm Latent-Image Flagging Frank Masci August 7-consistently flag pixels containing a latent by tracing their count level backwards in time in an ensemble of images condition is satisfied, the pixel is flagged as a latent. l The predicted latent intensity is from

  19. A DESCRIPTION OF THE OUTER AUTOMORPHISM OF S 6 , AND THE INVARIANTS OF SIX POINTS IN PROJECTIVE SPACE

    E-print Network

    Vakil, Ravi

    ­trivial verification. 1. THE OUTER AUTOMORPHISM OF S 6 1.1. First description of the outer automorphism: the mystic hence the other color) form a 5­cycle, see Figure 1. We dub these the six mystic pentagons. Then S 5 acts on the six mystic pentagons by permuting the vertices, giving a map i : S 5 = S {1,...,5} # S {a

  20. A DESCRIPTION OF THE OUTER AUTOMORPHISM OF S 6 , AND THE INVARIANTS OF SIX POINTS IN PROJECTIVE SPACE

    E-print Network

    Vakil, Ravi

    AUTOMORPHISM OF S 6 1.1. First description of the outer automorphism: the mystic pentagons. Consider a complete the other color) form a 5­cycle, see Figure 1. We dub these the six mystic pentagons. Then S 5 acts on the six mystic pentagons by permuting the vertices, giving a map i : S 5 = S {1,...,5} # S {a

  1. Primary structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase establishes a new family of eukaryotic protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Popov, K M; Kedishvili, N Y; Zhao, Y; Shimomura, Y; Crabb, D W; Harris, R A

    1993-12-15

    We recently reported molecular cloning of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, the first mitochondrial protein kinase to be cloned (Popov, K. M., Zhao, Y., Shimomura, Y., Kuntz, M. J., and Harris, R. A. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 13127-13130). From a search for proteins related to the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, a cDNA encoding the 434 amino acid residues corresponding to pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase has been cloned from a rat heart cDNA library. Evidence that the clone codes for pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase includes: (a) the deduced amino acid sequence is identical to the partial sequence of the kinase determined by direct sequencing; (b) expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli resulted in synthesis of a protein that phosphorylated and inactivated the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; (c) kinase activity of the recombinant protein is sensitive to inhibition by a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase; and (d) antiserum raised against the recombinant protein recognized the protein subunit known to correspond to pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in a highly purified preparation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Like the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase lacks motifs usually associated with eukaryotic Ser/Thr-protein kinases. Considerable sequence similarity exists between these mitochondrial protein kinases and members of the prokaryotic histidine kinase family, a diverse set of sensing and response systems important in the regulation of bacterial processes. Thus, molecular cloning of these proteins establishes a new eukaryotic family of protein kinases that is related to a prokaryotic family of protein kinases. PMID:8253790

  2. The MAP kinase kinase NtMEK2 is involved in tobacco pollen germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viktor Voronin; Tatiana Aionesei; Apinun Limmongkon; Ioulia Barinova; Alisher Touraev; Christiane Laurière; Mar??a-José Coronado; Pilar S Testillano; Maria-Carmen Risueño; Erwin Heberle-Bors; Cathal Wilson

    2004-01-01

    The tobacco ntf4 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase gene (and its encoded protein p45Ntf4) is expressed at later stages of pollen maturation. We have found that the highly related MAP kinase SIPK is also expressed in pollen and, like p45Ntf4, is activated upon pollen hydration. The MAP kinase kinase NtMEK2 activates SIPK, and here we show that it can also activate

  3. Regulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases by a Calcium\\/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Cascade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herve Enslen; Hiroshi Tokumitsu; Philip J. S. Stork; Roger J. Davis; Thomas R. Soderling

    1996-01-01

    Membrane depolarization of NG108 cells gives rapid (<5 min) activation of Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-KIV), as well as activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). To investigate whether the Ca2+-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38) might be mediated by the CaM kinase cascade, we have transfected PC12 cells, which lack CaM-KIV, with constitutively active mutants of

  4. SAP kinase-3, a new member of the family of mammalian stress-activated protein kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Mertens; Molly Craxton; Michel Goedert

    1996-01-01

    Stress-activated protein kinases are MAP kinase homologues that are activated by cellular stresses, bacterial endotoxin and inflammatory cytokines. They are activated by a dual threonine\\/tyrosine phosphorylation within a TPY sequence in the case of stress-activated protein kinase-1 and its isoforms (also called JNKs) or a TGY sequence in the case of stress-activated protein kinase-2 and its isoforms (also called p38,

  5. Tyrosine kinases in inflammatory dermatologic disease

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Ricardo T.; Fiorentino, David; Chung, Lorinda; Robinson, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on protein substrates. They are key components of signaling pathways that drive an array of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Specific tyrosine kinases have recently been identified as critical to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases are emerging as a novel class of therapy that may provide benefit in certain patient subsets. In this review, we highlight tyrosine kinase signaling implicated in inflammatory dermatologic diseases, evaluate strategies aimed at inhibiting these aberrant signaling pathways, and discuss prospects for future drug development. PMID:20584561

  6. Compartment-specific, differential regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 and its kinase within Aplysia sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Weatherill, Daniel B; McCamphill, Patrick K; Pethoukov, Eugenia; Dunn, Tyler W; Fan, Xiaotang; Sossin, Wayne S

    2011-06-01

    Long-term facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia is a leading model for elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning. LTF requires translational control downstream of target of rapamycin complex 1. Our lab has previously shown that treatment with the facilitating neurotransmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), causes a target of rapamycin complex 1-mediated decrease in phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) within the neurites of sensory neurons involved in LTF. Here, we characterize the Aplysia orthologue of eEF2 kinase (eEF2K). We show that the Aplysia eEF2K orthologue contains an S6 kinase phosphorylation site and that a serine-to-alanine mutation at this site blocks the ability of 5-HT to decrease eEF2 phosphorylation in neurites. We also show that within the soma, 5-HT has the opposite effect, decreasing eEF2K phosphorylation at the S6 kinase site and, concomitantly, increasing eEF2 phosphorylation. Surprisingly, while eEF2K over-expression inhibits translation of a marker for internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation, it stimulates the translation of a marker for cap-dependent translation. This study demonstrates that eEF2 is differentially regulated in separate compartments and contributes to a growing body of evidence that inhibition of elongation can stimulate the translation of certain transcripts. PMID:21426346

  7. SIRT1 overexpression antagonizes cellular senescence with activated ERK/S6k1 signaling in human diploid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Gan, Qini; Han, Limin; Li, Jian; Zhang, Hai; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Zongyu; Tong, Tanjun

    2008-01-01

    Sir2, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, modulates lifespan in yeasts, worms and flies. The SIRT1, mammalian homologue of Sir2, regulates signaling for favoring survival in stress. But whether SIRT1 has the function to influence cell viability and senescence under non-stressed conditions in human diploid fibroblasts is far from unknown. Our data showed that enforced SIRT1 expression promoted cell proliferation and antagonized cellular senescence with the characteristic features of delayed Senescence-Associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal) staining, reduced Senescence-Associated Heterochromatic Foci (SAHF) formation and G1 phase arrest, increased cell growth rate and extended cellular lifespan in human fibroblasts, while dominant-negative SIRT1 allele (H363Y) did not significantly affect cell growth and senescence but displayed a bit decreased lifespan. Western blot results showed that SIRT1 reduced the expression of p16(INK4A) and promoted phosphorylation of Rb. Our data also exposed that overexpression of SIRT1 was accompanied by enhanced activation of ERK and S6K1 signaling. These effects were mimicked in both WI38 cells and 2BS cells by concentration-dependent resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator. It was noted that treatment of SIRT1-.transfected cells with Rapamycin, a mTOR inhibitor, reduced the phosphorylation of S6K1 and the expression of Id1, implying that SIRT1-induced phosphorylation of S6K1 may be partly for the decreased expression of p16(INK4A) and promoted phosphorylation of Rb in 2BS. It was also observed that the expression of SIRT1 and phosphorylation of ERK and S6K1 was declined in senescent 2BS. These findings suggested that SIRT1-promoted cell proliferation and antagonized cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts may be, in part, via the activation of ERK/ S6K1 signaling. PMID:18320031

  8. Roscovitine blocks leukocyte extravasation by inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 and 9

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Nina; Uhl, Bernd; Joore, Jos; Schmerwitz, Ulrike K; Mayer, Bettina A; Reichel, Christoph A; Krombach, Fritz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Fürst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that induces tumour cell death, is under evaluation as an anti-cancer drug. By triggering leukocyte apoptosis, roscovitine can also enhance the resolution of inflammation. Beyond death-inducing properties, we tested whether roscovitine affects leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, a vital step in the onset of inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were evaluated in venules of mouse cremaster muscle, using intravital microscopy. In primary human endothelial cells, we studied the influence of roscovitine on adhesion molecules and on the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway. A cellular kinome array, in vitro CDK profiling and RNAi methods were used to identify targets of roscovitine. KEY RESULTS In vivo, roscovitine attenuated the tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced leukocyte adherence to and transmigration through, the endothelium. In vitro, roscovitine strongly inhibited TNF-?-evoked expression of endothelial adhesion molecules (E-selectin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule). Roscovitine blocked NF-?B-dependent gene transcription, but not the NF-?B activation cascade [inhibitor of ?B (I?B) kinase activity, I?B-? degradation, p65 translocation]. Using a cellular kinome array and an in vitro CDK panel, we found that roscovitine inhibited protein kinase A, ribosomal S6 kinase and CDKs 2, 5, 7 and 9. Experiments using kinase inhibitors and siRNA showed that the decreased endothelial activation was due solely to blockade of CDK5 and CDK9 by roscovitine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our study highlights a novel mode of action for roscovitine, preventing endothelial activation and leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction by inhibition of CDK5 and 9. This might expand its usage as a promising anti-inflammatory compound. PMID:21391976

  9. Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1 Michael J of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD by phosphatases. AMPK is found in all eukaryotes. Yeast AMPK is more commonly known as SNF1 [1,6,7]. SNF1 has

  10. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lewis Cantley (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School and Division of Signal Transduction)

    2002-05-31

    Phosphorylated lipids are produced at cellular membranes during signaling events and contribute to the recruitment and activation of various signaling components. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), which catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, in cell survival pathways; the regulation of gene expression and cell metabolism; and cytoskeletal rearrangements are highlighted. The PI3K pathway is implicated in human diseases including diabetes and cancer, and understanding the intricacies of this pathway may provide new avenues for therapuetic intervention.

  11. MAPping genomic organization and organ-specific expression profiles of poplar MAP kinases and MAP kinase kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Claude Nicole; Louis-Philippe Hamel; Marie-Josée Morency; Nathalie Beaudoin; Brian E Ellis; Armand Séguin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As in other eukaryotes, plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are composed of three classes of hierarchically organized protein kinases, namely MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKs. These modules rapidly amplify and transduce extracellular signals into various appropriate intracellular responses. While extensive work has been conducted on the post-translational regulation of specific MAPKKs and MAPKs in various plant species, there has

  12. Original article Serum creatine kinase activity as a selection

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Serum creatine kinase activity as a selection criterion for stress susceptibility July 1991) Summary ― Estimation of serum creatine kinase isoenzyme activity was used sensitivity. creatine kinase isoenzymes / pig / standardized stress / halothane anaesthesia / ACTH / syn

  13. Novel library of selenocompounds as kinase modulators.

    PubMed

    Plano, Daniel; Ibáñez, Elena; Calvo, Alfonso; Palop, Juan Antonio; Sanmartín, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Although the causes of cancer lie in mutations or epigenic changes at the genetic level, their molecular manifestation is the dysfunction of biochemical pathways at the protein level. The 518 protein kinases encoded by the human genome play a central role in various diseases, a fact that has encouraged extensive investigations on their biological function and three dimensional structures. Selenium (Se) is an important nutritional trace element involved in different physiological functions with antioxidative, antitumoral and chemopreventive properties. The mechanisms of action for selenocompounds as anticancer agents are not fully understood, but kinase modulation seems to be a possible pathway. Various organosulfur compounds have shown antitumoral and kinase inhibition effects but, in many cases, the replacement of sulfur by selenium improves the antitumoral effect of compounds. Although Se atom possesses a larger atomic volume and nucleophilic character than sulfur, Se can also formed interactions with aminoacids of the catalytic centers of proteins. So, we propose a novel chemical library that includes organoselenium compounds as kinase modulators. In this study thirteen selenocompounds have been evaluated at a concentration of 3 or 10 µM in a 24 kinase panel using a Caliper LabChip 3000 Drug Discover Platform. Several receptor (EGFR, IGFR1, FGFR1…) and non-receptor (Abl) kinases have been selected, as well as serine/threonine/lipid kinases (AurA, Akt, CDKs, MAPKs…) implicated in main cancer pathways: cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, angiogenesis regulation among them. The obtained results showed that two compounds presented inhibition values higher than 50% in at least four kinases and seven derivatives selectively inhibited one or two kinases. Furthermore, three compounds selectively activated IGF-1R kinase with values ranging from -98% to -211%. In conclusion, we propose that the replacement of sulfur by selenium seems to be a potential and useful strategy in the search of novel chemical compound libraries against cancer as kinase modulators. PMID:21796074

  14. The Biological and Molecular Analysis of a Tick-Encoded Serine Protease Inhibitor (S6) and its Role in the Feeding Cycle of the Lone Star Tick, Amblyomma americanum (L) (Acari: ixodidae) 

    E-print Network

    Chalaire, Katelyn Cox

    2011-10-21

    the relationship of Amblyomma americanum serpin 6 (S6) to tick feeding regulation, this study attempted to define the biological significance of this molecule through transcription and protein expression profiles, biochemical characterization of recombinant s6 (rS6...

  15. An X-ray structural study of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase: A eukaryotic serine kinase with a prokaryotic histidine-kinase fold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvin Nicklaus Steussy Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase is an enzyme that controls the flow of glucose through the eukaryotic cell and contributes to the pathology of diabetes mellitus. Early work on this kinase demonstrated that it has an amino acid sequence much like bacterial histidine kinases, but an activity similar to that of modern serine\\/threonine kinases. This project utilized the techniques of X-ray crystallography

  16. Crosstalk between casein kinase II and Ste20-related kinase Nak1

    PubMed Central

    Cipak, Lubos; Gupta, Sneha; Rajovic, Iva; Jin, Quan-Wen; Anrather, Dorothea; Ammerer, Gustav; McCollum, Dannel; Gregan, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    Although the sterile 20 (Ste20) serine/threonine protein kinase was originally identified as a component of the S. cerevisiae mating pathway, it has homologs in higher eukaryotes and is part of a larger family of Ste20-like kinases. Ste20-like kinases are involved in multiple cellular processes, such as cell growth, morphogenesis, apoptosis and immune response. Carrying out such a diverse array of biological functions requires numerous regulatory inputs and outputs in the form of protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Hence, a thorough knowledge of Ste20-like kinase binding partners and phosphorylation sites will be essential for understanding the various roles of these kinases. Our recent study revealed that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Nak1 (a conserved member of the GC-kinase sub-family of Ste20-like kinases) is in a complex with the leucine-rich repeat-containing protein Sog2. Here, we show a novel and unexpected interaction between the Nak1-Sog2 kinase complex and Casein kinase 2 (Cka1, Ckb1 and Ckb2) using tandem-affinity purification followed by mass spectrometric analysis. In addition, we identify unique phosphosites on Nak1, Sog2 and the catalytic subunit of casein kinase 2, Cka1. Given the conserved nature of these kinases, we expect this work will shed light on the functions of these proteins both in yeast and higher eukaryotes. PMID:23462181

  17. Molecular mechanisms of protein kinase regulation by calcium/calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Simon, Bertrand; Huart, Anne-Sophie; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2015-06-15

    Many human protein kinases are regulated by the calcium-sensor protein calmodulin, which binds to a short flexible segment C-terminal to the enzyme's catalytic kinase domain. Our understanding of the molecular mechanism of kinase activity regulation by calcium/calmodulin has been advanced by the structures of two protein kinases-calmodulin kinase II and death-associated protein kinase 1-bound to calcium/calmodulin. Comparison of these two structures reveals a surprising level of diversity in the overall kinase-calcium/calmodulin arrangement and functional readout of activity, as well as complementary mechanisms of kinase regulation such as phosphorylation. PMID:25963826

  18. Optochemical Activation of Kinase Function in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karginov, Andrei V.; Hahn, Klaus M.; Deiters, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Manipulation of protein kinase activity is widely used to dissect signaling pathways controlling physiological and pathological processes. Common methods often cannot provide the desired spatial and temporal resolution in control of kinase activity. Regulation of kinase activity by photocaged kinase inhibitors has been successfully used to achieve tight temporal and local control, but inhibitors are limited to inactivation of kinases, and often do not provide the desired specificity. Here we report detailed methods for light-mediated activation of kinases in living cells using engineered rapamycin-regulated kinases (RapR-kinases) in conjunction with a photocaged analog of rapamycin. PMID:24718793

  19. Binding of adenylate kinase to RNA.

    PubMed

    Schlattner, U; Wagner, E; Greppin, H; Bonzon, M

    1995-12-14

    Adenylate kinase (ATP:AMP transphosphorylase) is a key enzyme in energy metabolism. The activity of its isoforms is subjected to multiple regulations. It is shown here that a specific fraction consisting of all adenylate kinase isoforms from tobacco leaves and tissue cultures does not bind to the anionic exchange-resin Mono Q. Sample pretreatment with ribonuclease could restore full binding to Mono Q, suggesting an association of adenylate kinase with RNA similar to the enzyme of Chenopodium rubrum (J. Chromatogr. 625: 13-19). We propose here that at least in vitro adenylate kinase can behave as an RNA-binding protein and that RNA-binding of adenylate kinase isoforms may be related to regulatory mechanisms. PMID:7503729

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Ag8(Ge1-x,Snx )(S6-y ,Sey) colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Xing, Yedi; Miao, Shu; Li, Mingrun; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Li, Can

    2014-09-22

    A facile colloidal approach to synthesize Ag8 (Ge1-x ,Snx )(S6-y ,Sey ) nanocrystals (NCs) in a highly controlled way across the entire compositional ranges (0?x?1, 0?y?6) has been developed. The NCs exhibit a uniform size distribution, highly crystalline structure, over 1?g scalable synthesis, and tunable band gaps in the range of 0.88-1.45?eV by varying their chemical compositions. The Ag8 GeS6 NCs with a band gap of approximately 1.45?eV were employed as a model light harvester to assess their applicability in solar cells by a full solution-processing device, yielding an efficiency of 0.28?% under AM1.5 illumination, demonstrating their application potential in solar energy utilization. PMID:25116162

  1. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MEKK4) results in enhanced apoptosis and defective neural tube development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongbo Chi; Matthew R. Sarkisian; Pasko Rakic; Richard A. Flavell

    2005-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are prevalent human birth defects. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), are implicated in facilitating neural tube closure, yet upstream regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that MAP kinase kinase kinase 4 (MEKK4) is strongly expressed in the developing neuroepithelium. Mice deficient in MEKK4 develop highly penetrant NTDs that cannot

  2. N E W S AN D V I E W S 6 VOLUME 9 | NUMBER 8 | AUGUST 2003 NATURE MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    N E W S AN D V I E W S 6 VOLUME 9 | NUMBER 8 | AUGUST 2003 NATURE MEDICINE Figure 1 Anthrax toxin on figure?] MAPKK MAPKK cAMP ATP EF LF H+ LF or EF Furin PA 20PA 63PA Anthrax delivers a lethal blow to host immunity Michael N Starnbach & R John Collier Anthrax toxin is known to impair key signaling pathways

  3. Photorefractive splicing device with double phase conjugate mirror using Sn2P2S6:Sb crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuta Wakayama; Atsushi Okamoto; Kohei Shimayabu; Yasunori Kojima; Alexander A. Grabar

    2009-01-01

    We develop a splicing device for photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) based on a double phase conjugate mirror (DPCM) using a novel photorefractive (PR) Sn2P2S6:Sb 1.5% crystal. This PR splicer has many attractive characteristics including modal field compensation and the automatic reconfiguration of the optical path. Utilizing a DPCM as the splicer, our device can adapt to misalignments automatically since the

  4. mTORC1 Phosphorylates the ULK1-mAtg13-FIP200 Autophagy Regulatory Complex

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edmond Y. Chan (University of Strathclyde; Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences REV)

    2009-08-18

    High nutrient availability stimulates the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) to coordinately activate anabolic processes, such as protein synthesis, while inhibiting the cellular catabolism of autophagy. Positive regulation of protein synthesis through the mTORC1 substrates p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) has been well characterized. The complementary inhibitory mechanism in which mTORC1 phosphorylates the autophagy regulatory complex containing unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), the mammalian Atg13 protein, and focal adhesion kinase interacting protein of 200 kD (FIP200) has also been elucidated.

  5. Proline Scan of the hERG Channel S6 Helix Reveals the Location of the Intracellular Pore Gate

    PubMed Central

    Thouta, Samrat; Sokolov, Stanislav; Abe, Yuki; Clark, Sheldon J.; Cheng, Yen M.; Claydon, Tom W.

    2014-01-01

    In Shaker-like channels, the activation gate is formed at the bundle crossing by the convergence of the inner S6 helices near a conserved proline-valine-proline motif, which introduces a kink that allows for electromechanical coupling with voltage sensor motions via the S4-S5 linker. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels lack the proline-valine-proline motif and the location of the intracellular pore gate and how it is coupled to S4 movement is less clear. Here, we show that proline substitutions within the S6 of hERG perturbed pore gate closure, trapping channels in the open state. Performing a proline scan of the inner S6 helix, from Ile655 to Tyr667 revealed that gate perturbation occurred with proximal (I655P-Q664P), but not distal (R665P-Y667P) substitutions, suggesting that Gln664 marks the position of the intracellular gate in hERG channels. Using voltage-clamp fluorimetry and gating current analysis, we demonstrate that proline substitutions trap the activation gate open by disrupting the coupling between the voltage-sensing unit and the pore of the channel. We characterize voltage sensor movement in one such trapped-open mutant channel and demonstrate the kinetics of what we interpret to be intrinsic hERG voltage sensor movement. PMID:24606930

  6. A secreted Plasmodium falciparum kinase reveals a signature motif for classification of tyrosine kinase-like kinases.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Abdirahman I; Carvalho, Teresa G; Wilkes, Jonathan M; Doerig, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Thorough bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses of Plasmodium falciparum tyrosine kinase-like kinase (TKL) sequences revealed a clear evolutionary relationship of PF3D7_1121300 (thereafter called PfTKL2) to the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)/receptor-like kinase (RLK)/Pelle protein family. We identified a novel conserved motif that is unique to this family, as well as an insertion whose length allows distribution of its members into two distinct subfamilies, in a way that matches exactly the dichotomy between 'Tube/Tube-like kinases' (TTLKs) and 'Pelle-like kinases' (PLKs) distinguished previously on the basis of features in accessory domains. The PfTKL2 protein is expressed ubiquitously in asexual blood stages and in gametocytes, and the recombinant enzyme displays kinase activity in vitro. The protein is exported to the host erythrocyte; furthermore, in accordance with data from a previous study of the extracellular proteome of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes, we show that PfTKL2 is secreted into the culture medium. Considering the functions of other members of the RLK/Pelle family in immunity, and its secretion to the extracellular medium, we speculate that PfTKL2 functions may include an immunomodulatory role promoting parasite survival in the human host. PMID:24045796

  7. A new family of protein kinases--the mitochondrial protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Harris, R A; Popov, K M; Zhao, Y; Kedishvili, N Y; Shimomura, Y; Crabb, D W

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cloning has provided evidence for a new family of protein kinases in eukaryotic cells. These kinases show no sequence similarity with other eukaryotic protein kinases, but are related by sequence to the histidine protein kinases found in prokaryotes. These protein kinases, responsible for phosphorylation and inactivation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes, are located exclusively in mitochondrial matrix space and have most likely evolved from genes originally present in respiration-dependent bacteria endocytosed by primitive eukaryotic cells. Long-term regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of the activities of these two kinases are of considerable interest. Dietary protein deficiency increases the activity of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase associated with the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The amount of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase protein associated with the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex and the message level for branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase are both greatly increased in the liver of rats starved for protein, suggesting increased expression of the gene encoding branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase. The increase in branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase activity results in greater phosphorylation and lower activity of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The metabolic consequence is conservation of branched chain amino acids for protein synthesis during periods of dietary protein deficiency. Two isoforms of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase have been identified and cloned. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, the first isoform cloned, corresponds to the 48 kDa subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isolated from rat heart tissue. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2, the second isoform cloned, corresponds to the 45 kDa subunit of this enzyme. In addition, it also appears to correspond to a possibly free or soluble form of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase that was originally named kinase activator protein. Assuming that differences in kinetic and/or regulatory properties of these isoforms exist, tissue specific expression of these enzymes and/or control of their association with the complex will probably prove to be important for the long term regulation of the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Starvation and the diabetic state are known to greatly increase activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in the liver, heart and muscle of the rat. This contributes in these states to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and conservation of pyruvate and lactate for gluconeogenesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7572341

  8. [Mitogen-activated protein kinases in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Bryk, Dorota; Olejarz, Wioletta; Zapolska-Downar, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They may mediate inflammatory processes, endothelial cell activation, monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and T-lymphocyte differentiation, all of which represent crucial mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The specific inhibition of an activity of the respective MAP kinases may prove a new therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaque formation in the future. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge concerning MAP kinase-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:24491891

  9. Dynamic architecture of a protein kinase.

    PubMed

    McClendon, Christopher L; Kornev, Alexandr P; Gilson, Michael K; Taylor, Susan S

    2014-10-28

    Protein kinases are dynamically regulated signaling proteins that act as switches in the cell by phosphorylating target proteins. To establish a framework for analyzing linkages between structure, function, dynamics, and allostery in protein kinases, we carried out multiple microsecond-scale molecular-dynamics simulations of protein kinase A (PKA), an exemplar active kinase. We identified residue-residue correlated motions based on the concept of mutual information and used the Girvan-Newman method to partition PKA into structurally contiguous "communities." Most of these communities included 40-60 residues and were associated with a particular protein kinase function or a regulatory mechanism, and well-known motifs based on sequence and secondary structure were often split into different communities. The observed community maps were sensitive to the presence of different ligands and provide a new framework for interpreting long-distance allosteric coupling. Communication between different communities was also in agreement with the previously defined architecture of the protein kinase core based on the "hydrophobic spine" network. This finding gives us confidence in suggesting that community analyses can be used for other protein kinases and will provide an efficient tool for structural biologists. The communities also allow us to think about allosteric consequences of mutations that are linked to disease. PMID:25319261

  10. Structure and function of phosphoinositide 3-kinases.

    PubMed

    Wymann, M P; Pirola, L

    1998-12-01

    Phosphoinositide kinases (PI3Ks) play an important role in mitogenic signaling and cell survival, cytoskeletal remodeling, metabolic control and vesicular trafficking. Here we summarize the structure-function relationships delineating the activation process of class I PI3Ks involving various domains of adapter subunits, Ras, and interacting proteins. The resulting product, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, targets Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), phosphoinositide-dependent kinases (PDK), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), atypical protein kinases C (PKC), phospholipase Cgamma and more. Surface receptor-activated PI3Ks function in mammals, insects, nematodes and slime mold, but not yeast. While many members of the class II family have been identified and characterized biochemically, it is presently unknown how these C2-domain containing PI3Ks are activated, and which PI substrate they phosphorylate in vivo. PtdIns 3-P is produced by Vps34p/class III PI3Ks and operates via the PtdIns 3-P-binding proteins early endosomal antigen (EEA1), yeast Vac1p, Vps27p, Pip1p in lysosomal protein targeting. Besides the production of D3 phosphorylated lipids, PI3Ks have an intrinsic protein kinase activity. For trimeric GTP-binding protein-activated PI3Kgamma, protein kinase activity seems to be sufficient to trigger mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Recent disruption of PI3K genes in slime mold, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mice further underlines the importance of PI3K signaling systems and elucidates the role of PI3K signaling in multicellular organisms. PMID:9838078

  11. Viral Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases ?

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Thary; Van den Broeke, Céline; Favoreel, Herman W.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation represents one the most abundant and important posttranslational modifications of proteins, including viral proteins. Virus-encoded serine/threonine protein kinases appear to be a feature that is unique to large DNA viruses. Although the importance of these kinases for virus replication in cell culture is variable, they invariably play important roles in virus virulence. The current review provides an overview of the different viral serine/threonine protein kinases of several large DNA viruses and discusses their function, importance, and potential as antiviral drug targets. PMID:21084474

  12. Kv channel gating requires a compatible S4-S5 linker and bottom part of S6, constrained by non-interacting residues.

    PubMed

    Labro, Alain J; Raes, Adam L; Grottesi, Alessandro; Van Hoorick, Diane; Sansom, Mark S P; Snyders, Dirk J

    2008-12-01

    Voltage-dependent K(+) channels transfer the voltage sensor movement into gate opening or closure through an electromechanical coupling. To test functionally whether an interaction between the S4-S5 linker (L45) and the cytoplasmic end of S6 (S6(T)) constitutes this coupling, the L45 in hKv1.5 was replaced by corresponding hKv2.1 sequence. This exchange was not tolerated but could be rescued by also swapping S6(T). Exchanging both L45 and S6(T) transferred hKv2.1 kinetics to an hKv1.5 background while preserving the voltage dependence. A one-by-one residue substitution scan of L45 and S6(T) in hKv1.5 further shows that S6(T) needs to be alpha-helical and forms a "crevice" in which residues I422 and T426 of L45 reside. These residues transfer the mechanical energy onto the S6(T) crevice, whereas other residues in S6(T) and L45 that are not involved in the interaction maintain the correct structure of the coupling. PMID:19029374

  13. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition: An Approach to Drug Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Levitzki; Aviv Gazit

    1995-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and signaling processes in the cells of the immune system. Uncontrolled signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to inflammatory responses and to diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and psoriasis. Thus, inhibitors that block the activity of tyrosine kinases and the signaling pathways they activate may provide

  14. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  15. Lethal weapons: DAP-kinase, autophagy and cell death: DAP-kinase regulates autophagy.

    PubMed

    Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

    2010-04-01

    Recently, DAP-kinase was identified as one of the essential regulators of autophagy, activated by signals such as cytokines and ER stress. DAP-kinase is a tumor suppressor that mediates several cell death pathways, such as apoptosis and programmed necrosis. Likewise, functional studies suggest that DAP-kinase may direct autophagy specifically towards autophagic cell death. Several recent studies have mapped DAP-kinase function to distinct stages in autophagy signaling. These include the Beclin-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) complex, which is necessary for autophagosome formation, and an interaction with the LC3 binding protein, MAP1B, which may regulate vesicle trafficking. This review will summarize the functional and mechanistic studies that have linked DAP-kinase to the regulation of autophagy in general, and autophagic cell death, in particular. PMID:20005690

  16. CCK activates p90rsk in rat pancreatic acini through protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Bragado, M J; Dabrowski, A; Groblewski, G E; Williams, J A

    1997-03-01

    The presence of the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p90(rsk)) in isolated rat pancreatic acini was demonstrated by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation with anti-p90(rsk). Cholecystokinin (CCK) activated p90(rsk) activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and increased its phosphorylation. The threshold concentration of CCK was 10 pM and the maximal effect was seen at 1 nM. An increase in p90(rsk) was observed 1 min after 1 nM CCK stimulation, reaching a maximum at 10 min, when p90(rsk) activity was increased 5.4-fold. Carbachol and bombesin, but not vasoactive intestinal peptide, also activated p90(rsk). CCK-induced activation of p90(rsk) appears to be mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), since 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate increased p90(rsk) activity 5.3-fold. GF-109293X, a potent inhibitor of PKC, strongly inhibited CCK-evoked p90(rsk) activity. Treatment of acini with ionomycin or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid had no effect, indicating that mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ by CCK is not important in p90(rsk) activation. Although there were some quantitative differences in the extent of inhibition, the specific inhibitors [rapamycin, wortmannin, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor PD98059, and GF-109293X] had parallel effects on p90(rsk) and p42(mapk) activities, consistent with a model in which p90(rsk) can be regulated in acini by MAPK. PMID:9124559

  17. Protein kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates ?-adrenergic receptor endocytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sathyamangla V. Naga Prasad; Arundathi Jayatilleke; Aasakiran Madamanchi; Howard A. Rockman

    2005-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI(3)K) is a unique enzyme characterized by both lipid and protein kinase activities. Here, we demonstrate a requirement for the protein kinase activity of PI(3)K in agonist-dependent ?-adrenergic receptor (?AR) internalization. Using PI(3)K mutants with either protein or lipid phosphorylation activity, we identify the cytoskeletal protein non-muscle tropomyosin as a substrate of PI(3)K, which is phosphorylated in a

  18. Activation of -diacylglycerol kinase is critical for the mitogenic properties of anaplastic lymphoma kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Bacchiocchi; Gianluca Baldanzi; Damiano Carbonari; Catia Capomagi; Emanuela Colombo; Wim J. van Blitterswijk; Andrea Graziani; Francesca Fazioli

    Oncogenic rearrangements of the ty- rosine kinase receptor anaplastic lym- phoma kinase (ALK), most commonly rep- resented by the nucleophosmin\\/ALK fusion protein (NPM\\/ALK), are involved in the pathogenesis of anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs). In an effort to iden- tify new intracellular transducers opera- tive in ALK-positive malignancies, we have investigated the potential involve- ment of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). Here we

  19. Inhibition of Phosphoinositide 3Kinase Related Kinases by the Radiosensitizing Agent Wortmannin1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jann N. Sarkaria; Randal S. Tibbetts; Ericka C. Busby; Amy P. Kennedy; David E. Hill; Robert T. Abraham

    1998-01-01

    Members of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase related kina.se (PIKK) family function in both cell cycle progression and DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints. The fungal metabolite, wortmannin, is an effective radiosensitizer that irreversibly inhibits certain members of the PIKK family. Based on their roles in DNA damage responses, several PIKKs, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the ataxia- and

  20. The Crystal Structure of Cancer Osaka Thyroid Kinase Reveals an Unexpected Kinase Domain Fold.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Sascha; Hinniger, Alexandra; Fendrich, Gabriele; Drückes, Peter; Antz, Sylvie; Mattes, Henri; Möbitz, Henrik; Ofner, Silvio; Schmiedeberg, Niko; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Rieffel, Sebastien; Strauss, André; Troxler, Thomas; Glatthar, Ralf; Sparrer, Helmut

    2015-06-12

    Macrophages are important cellular effectors in innate immune responses and play a major role in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cancer Osaka thyroid (COT) kinase, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8) and tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl-2), is a serine-threonine (ST) kinase and is a key regulator in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Due to its pivotal role in immune biology, COT kinase has been identified as an attractive target for pharmaceutical research that is directed at the discovery of orally available, selective, and potent inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and cancer. The production of monomeric, recombinant COT kinase has proven to be very difficult, and issues with solubility and stability of the enzyme have hampered the discovery and optimization of potent and selective inhibitors. We developed a protocol for the production of recombinant human COT kinase that yields pure and highly active enzyme in sufficient yields for biochemical and structural studies. The quality of the enzyme allowed us to establish a robust in vitro phosphorylation assay for the efficient biochemical characterization of COT kinase inhibitors and to determine the x-ray co-crystal structures of the COT kinase domain in complex with two ATP-binding site inhibitors. The structures presented in this study reveal two distinct ligand binding modes and a unique kinase domain architecture that has not been observed previously. The structurally versatile active site significantly impacts the design of potent, low molecular weight COT kinase inhibitors. PMID:25918157

  1. A Molecular Brake in the Kinase Hinge Region Regulates the Activity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,H.; Ma, J.; Li, W.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Miller, W.; Mohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) cause cancer and skeletal disorders. Comparison of the crystal structures of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated wild-type FGFR2 kinase domains with those of seven unphosphorylated pathogenic mutants reveals an autoinhibitory 'molecular brake' mediated by a triad of residues in the kinase hinge region of all FGFRs. Structural analysis shows that many other RTKs, including PDGFRs, VEGFRs, KIT, CSF1R, FLT3, TEK, and TIE, are also subject to regulation by this brake. Pathogenic mutations activate FGFRs and other RTKs by disengaging the brake either directly or indirectly.

  2. Emerging structural insights into bacterial tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel C; Jia, Zongchao

    2009-07-01

    Bacterial protein tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation emerged as an exciting new field of research in the last decade. Of known bacterial Tyr (BY) kinases, most regulate the production of pathogenic capsular and extracellular polysaccharide in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The recent publications of the first two BY kinase structures, Etk from Escherichia coli and CapB from Staphylococcus aureus, reveal that the 3D folds bear no resemblance to their mammalian counterparts but instead are similar to those of the MinD ATPases from the P-loop NTPase superfamily. These structural studies provided the first glimpse into the functional machinery of BY kinases, including their enzymatic specificity and unique activation mechanisms, which are unlike anything observed in mammalian tyrosine kinases. PMID:19525115

  3. How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Stephen B

    2004-01-01

    This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

  4. Protein kinase networks that limit TLR signalling.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kristopher

    2014-02-01

    TLRs (Toll-like receptors) detect invading micro-organisms which triggers the production of pro-inflammatory mediators needed to combat infection. Although these signalling networks are required to protect the host against invading pathogens, dysregulation of TLR pathways contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders. Molecular mechanisms have therefore evolved to restrict the strength of TLR signalling. In the present review, I highlight recent advances in our understanding of the protein kinase networks required to suppress the innate immune response by negatively regulating TLR signalling and/or promoting the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. I present my discoveries on the key roles of the IKK (inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B kinase)-related kinases and the SIKs (salt-inducible kinases) in limiting innate immunity within the greater context of the field. PMID:24450622

  5. Cell cycle-related kinase in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Wan, Han; Tan, Guang

    2012-10-01

    Cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK) is a novel protein kinase homologous to both cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (Cdk7) and Cak1p groups of CDK-activating kinase (CAK). CCRK activates Cdk2, which controls the cell-cycle progression by phosphorylating a threonine residue conserved in Cdk2. Previous studies have indicated that the CCRK protein levels were elevated by more than 1.5-fold in tumor tissue, and that the overexpression of CCRK is associated with poor prognosis of the patients. Moreover, recent studies have shown that CCRK is involved in the Wnt signaling pathway associated with the genesis and evolution of cancer. This review aims to systematically present the information currently available on CCRK obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies and highlight its significance to tumorigenesis. PMID:23205069

  6. Systems Biology of AGC Kinases in Fungi

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Sobko (Ontario; Iogen Corporation, Ottawa REV)

    2006-09-12

    This STKE Review discusses the evidence that Sch9 is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevesiae homolog of mammalian protein kinase B. Protein kinase B and Sch9 are members of the AGC family of protein kinases, which are involved in diverse cellular functions, including nutrient-sensitive signaling that affects cell survival, cell size, cell cycle progression, and cellular response to stress. With 3 figures, 1 table, and 55 citations, this review provides a discussion of the methods for investigating AGC kinase function, with special emphasis on the challenges presented by the essential nature of these enzymes and their functional redundancy. There is also a discussion of how yeast cells can be used to study aging and longevity, with a description of the evidence for a role for Sch9 in aging and nutrient-sensitive processes.

  7. Dietary resveratrol prevents development of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplastic lesions: involvement of SIRT1/S6K axis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiming; Rivas, Paul; Bedolla, Roble; Thapa, Dinesh; Reddick, Robert L; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki P

    2013-01-01

    SIRT1 (mammalian ortholog of the yeast silent information regulator 2) is a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase belonging to the multigene family of sirtuins. Anecdotal and epidemiologic observations provide evidence for beneficial effects of the calorie restriction mimetic resveratrol (RES), a SIRT1 activator in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Although SIRT1 possesses both tumorigenic and antitumorigenic potential, the molecular mechanisms underlying SIRT1-mediated tumor progression or inhibition are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1 in multiple human prostate cancer cell lines and prostate-specific PTEN knockout mouse model using resveratrol. Androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines (C42B, PC3, and DU145) express higher levels of SIRT1 than androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and nontumorigenic prostate cells (RWPE-1). Resveratrol enhanced this expression without any significant effect on SIRT1 enzymatic activity. Inhibition of SIRT1 expression using shRNA enhanced cell proliferation and inhibited autophagy by repressing phosphorylation of S6K and 4E-BP1. These biologic correlates were reversed in the presence of resveratrol. Analysis of prostates from dietary intervention with resveratrol showed a significant reduction in prostate weight and reduction in the incidence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplastic (HGPIN) lesions by approximately 54% with no significant change in body weight. Consistent with the in vitro findings, resveratrol intervention in the PTEN knockout mouse model was associated with reduction in the prostatic levels of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity and increased expression of SIRT1. These data suggest that SIRT1/S6K-mediated inhibition of autophagy drives prostate tumorigenesis. Therefore, modulation of SIRT1/S6K signaling represents an effective strategy for prostate cancer prevention. PMID:23248098

  8. A Structural Basis for Substrate Specificities of Protein Ser\\/Thr Kinases: Primary Sequence Preference of Casein Kinases I and II, NIMA, Phosphorylase Kinase, Calmodulin Dependent Kinase II, CDK5, and Erk1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. SONGYANG; KUN PING LU; YOUNG T. KWON; LI-HUEI TSAI; ODILE FILHOL; CLAUDE COCHET; DEBRA A. BRICKEY; THOMAS R. SODERLING; CHERYL BARTLESON; DONALD J. GRAVES; ANTHONY J. DEMAGGIO; MERL F. HOEKSTRA; JOHN BLENIS; TONY HUNTER; ANDLEWIS C. CANTLEY

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a method to study the primary sequence specificities of protein kinases by using an orienteddegeneratepeptidelibrary.WereportherethesubstratespecificitiesofeightproteinSer\\/Thrkinases. All of the kinases studied selected distinct optimal substrates. The identified substrate specificities of these kinases, together with known crystal structures of protein kinase A, CDK2, Erk2, twitchin, and casein kinase I, provide a structural basis for the substrate recognition of protein

  9. Different Protein Tyrosine Kinases Are Required for B Cell Antigen Receptor-mediated Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated kinase, c-Jun NH 2 -terminal Kinase 1, and p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aimin Jiang; Andrew Craxton; Tomohiro Kurosaki; Edward A. Clark

    Summary B cell antigen receptor (BCR) cross-linking activates three distinct families of nonreceptor pro- tein tyrosine kinases (PTKs): src-family kinases, Syk, and Btk; these PTKs are responsible for initiating downstream events. BCR cross-linking in the chicken DT40 B cell line also activates three distinct mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs): extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)2, c-jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK)1, and p38

  10. Protein kinase mediators of integrin signal transduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Hannigan; Shoukat Dedhar

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinases are important mediators of signal transduction initiated by soluble growth factors and cytokines. Cellular\\u000a interactions with the extracellular matrix are mediated largely by members of the integrin class of cell adhesion molecules,\\u000a which also subsume signal transduction functions required for cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Here we review the\\u000a involvement of protein kinases in mediating integrin intracellular signal

  11. Phosphoinositide3OH Kinase-Dependent Regulation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 and Protein Kinase B \\/ AKT by the Integrin-Linked Kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Delcommenne; Clara Tan; Virginia Gray; Laurent Rue; James Woodgett; Shoukat Dedhar

    1998-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an ankyrin-repeat containing serine-threonine protein kinase capable of interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of integrin beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 subunits. Overexpression of ILK in epithelial cells disrupts cell-extracellular matrix as well as cell-cell interactions, suppresses suspension-induced apoptosis (also called Anoikis), and stimulates anchorage-independent cell cycle progression. In addition, ILK induces nuclear translocation of

  12. MAP kinase signaling during pollen development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Heberle-Bors; Viktor Voronin; Alisher Touraev; Pilar Sanchez Testillano; Maria Carmen Risueño; Cathal Wilson

    2001-01-01

    The stereotypical events of pollen grain maturation and its coordinated development with other flower tissues requires the\\u000a interplay of different signalling pathways in order to ensure efficient fertilisation and, eventually, seed set. In recent\\u000a years evidence has accumulated that members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) family are expressed in pollen\\u000a and may function as regulators of both pollen

  13. Emerging roles for WNK kinases in cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sónia Moniz; Peter Jordan

    2010-01-01

    The subfamily of WNK protein kinases is composed of four human genes and is characterised by a typical sequence variation\\u000a within the conserved catalytic domain. Although most research has focussed on the role of WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4 in regulating\\u000a different ion transporters in both the kidney and extrarenal tissues, there is growing evidence for additional roles of WNK\\u000a kinases

  14. Purification and characterization of a fatty acid-activated protein kinase (PKN) from rat testis.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, M; Mukai, H; Shibata, H; Ono, Y

    1995-09-01

    PKN, a novel protein kinase with a catalytic domain homologous to that of the protein kinase C (PKC) family and unique N-terminal leucine-zipper-like sequences, was identified by molecular cloning from a human hippocampus cDNA library [Mukai and Ono (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199, 897-904]. Recently we partially purified recombinant PKN from COS7 cells transfected with the cDNA construct encoding human PKN, and demonstrated that the recombinant PKN was activated by unsaturated fatty acids and limited proteolysis [Mukai, Kitagawa, Shibata et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 204, 348-356]. The present work has focused on the further purification and characterization of PKN from native rat tissue. Immunochemical measurement revealed that PKN was found in every tissue, and was especially abundant in testis, spleen and brain; subcellular fractionation of rat brain showed that half of the PKN was localized in the soluble cytosolic fraction. PKN was purified approx. 8000-fold to apparent homogeneity from the cytosolic fraction of rat testis by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, ammonium sulphate fractionation and chromatography on butyl-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, Mono Q and protamine-CH-Sepharose. The enzyme migrates as a band of apparent molecular mass 120 kDa. Using serine-containing peptides based on the pseudosubstrate sequence of PKC-delta as phosphate acceptors, the kinase activity was stimulated several-fold by 40 microM unsaturated fatty acids or by detergents such as 0.04% sodium deoxycholate and 0.004% SDS. In the absence of modifiers, protamine sulphate, myelin basic protein and synthetic peptides based on the pseudosubstrate site of PKCs or ribosomal S6 protein were good substrates for phosphorylation by the kinase. In the presence of 40 microM arachidonic acid the kinase activity of PKN for these phosphate acceptors was increased 2-18-fold. The autophosphorylation activity of purified PKN was partially inhibited by pretreatment with alkaline phosphatase. These properties appear to distinguish PKN from many protein kinases isolated previously. PMID:7654208

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2.

    PubMed Central

    Waskiewicz, A J; Flynn, A; Proud, C G; Cooper, J A

    1997-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases bind tightly to many of their physiologically relevant substrates. We have identified a new subfamily of murine serine/threonine kinases, whose members, MAP kinase-interacting kinase 1 (Mnk1) and Mnk2, bind tightly to the growth factor-regulated MAP kinases, Erk1 and Erk2. MNK1, but not Mnk2, also binds strongly to the stress-activated kinase, p38. MNK1 complexes more strongly with inactive than active Erk, implying that Mnk and Erk may dissociate after mitogen stimulation. Erk and p38 phosphorylate MNK1 and Mnk2, which stimulates their in vitro kinase activity toward a substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF-4E). Initiation factor eIF-4E is a regulatory phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation is increased by insulin in an Erk-dependent manner. In vitro, MNK1 rapidly phosphorylates eIF-4E at the physiologically relevant site, Ser209. In cells, Mnk1 is post-translationally modified and enzymatically activated in response to treatment with either peptide growth factors, phorbol esters, anisomycin or UV. Mitogen- and stress-mediated MNK1 activation is blocked by inhibitors of MAP kinase kinase 1 (Mkk1) and p38, demonstrating that Mnk1 is downstream of multiple MAP kinases. MNK1 may define a convergence point between the growth factor-activated and one of the stress-activated protein kinase cascades and is a candidate to phosphorylate eIF-4E in cells. PMID:9155017

  16. Kinase-Independent Mechanisms of Resistance of Leukemia Stem Cells to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib mesylate have changed the clinical course of chronic myeloid leukemia; however, the observation that these inhibitors do not target the leukemia stem cell implies that patients need to maintain lifelong therapy. The mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear: the question of whether tyrosine kinase inhibitors are inactive inside leukemia stem cells or whether leukemia stem cells do not require breakpoint cluster region (Bcr)-Abl signaling is currently under debate. Herein, I propose an alternative model: perhaps the leukemia stem cell requires Bcr-Abl, but is dependent on its kinase-independent functions. Kinases such as epidermal growth factor receptor and Janus kinase 2 possess kinase-independent roles in regulation of gene expression; it is worth investigating whether Bcr-Abl has similar functions. Mechanistically, Bcr-Abl is able to activate the Ras, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and/or the Src-kinase Hck/Stat5 pathways in a scaffolding-dependent manner. Whereas the scaffolding activity of Bcr-Abl with Grb2 is dependent on autophosphorylation, kinases such as Hck can use Bcr-Abl as substrate, inducing phosphorylation of Y177 to enable scaffolding ability in the absence of Bcr-Abl catalytic activity. It is worth investigating whether leukemia stem cells exclusively express kinases that are able to use Bcr-Abl as substrate. A kinase-independent role for Bcr-Abl in leukemia stem cells would imply that drugs that target Bcr-Abl’s scaffolding ability or its DNA-binding ability should be used in conjunction with current therapeutic regimens to increase their efficacy and eradicate the stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia PMID:24598782

  17. Huaier Extract Induces Autophagic Cell Death by Inhibiting the mTOR/S6K Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaming; Zhang, Ning; Dong, Lun; Sun, Mingjuan; Cun, Jinjing; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Shangge; Yang, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    Huaier extract is attracting increased attention due to its biological activities, including antitumor, anti-parasite and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in Huaier-induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Huaier treatment inhibited cell viability in all three cell lines and induced various large membranous vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In addition, electron microscopy, MDC staining, accumulated expression of autophagy markers and flow cytometry revealed that Huaier extract triggered autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy attenuated Huaier-induced cell death. Furthermore, Huaier extract inhibited the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K pathway in breast cancer cells. After implanting MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously into the right flank of BALB/c nu/nu mice, Huaier extract induced autophagy and effectively inhibited xenograft tumor growth. This study is the first to show that Huaier-induced cytotoxicity is partially mediated through autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells through suppression of the mTOR/S6K pathway. PMID:26134510

  18. Ln3GaS6 (Ln = Dy, Y): new infrared nonlinear optical materials with high laser induced damage thresholds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Li, Bing-Xuan; Liu, Bin-Wen; Fan, Yu-Hang; Li, Xiao-Guo; Zeng, Hi-Yi; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2013-10-21

    Two new ternary rare earth chalcogenides, Dy3GaS6 (1) and Y3GaS6 (2), are reported here. They both crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cmc21 (no. 36). Both are synthesized in pure phase and show phase-matchable second harmonic generation (SHG) of about 0.2 and 0.5 times, respectively for 1 and 2, as strong as that of KTiOPO4 (KTP) based on the powder SHG measurement at the wavelength of 1910 nm. They possess high powder laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs), respectively, about 14 and 18 times that of AgGaS2 (AGS) based on the powder LIDT measurements under 1064 nm laser irradiation. They both exhibit wide transparency in the IR region (2.5–25 ?m). It is believed that the title compounds are new candidates for nonlinear optical (NLO) materials in the IR region. To gain further insights into the NLO and LIDT properties of 1 and 2, the calculations of second-order NLO susceptibility and lattice energy density (LED) were also performed to explain their SHG efficiencies and high LIDTs. PMID:23945826

  19. KIDFamMap: a database of kinase-inhibitor-disease family maps for kinase inhibitor selectivity and binding mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yi-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Ta; Huang, Jhang-Wei; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Tseng, Jen-Hu; You, Syuan-Ren; Yang, Jinn-Moon

    2013-01-01

    Kinases play central roles in signaling pathways and are promising therapeutic targets for many diseases. Designing selective kinase inhibitors is an emergent and challenging task, because kinases share an evolutionary conserved ATP-binding site. KIDFamMap (http://gemdock.life.nctu.edu.tw/KIDFamMap/) is the first database to explore kinase-inhibitor families (KIFs) and kinase-inhibitor-disease (KID) relationships for kinase inhibitor selectivity and mechanisms. This database includes 1208 KIFs, 962 KIDs, 55 603 kinase-inhibitor interactions (KIIs), 35 788 kinase inhibitors, 399 human protein kinases, 339 diseases and 638 disease allelic variants. Here, a KIF can be defined as follows: (i) the kinases in the KIF with significant sequence similarity, (ii) the inhibitors in the KIF with significant topology similarity and (iii) the KIIs in the KIF with significant interaction similarity. The KIIs within a KIF are often conserved on some consensus KIDFamMap anchors, which represent conserved interactions between the kinase subsites and consensus moieties of their inhibitors. Our experimental results reveal that the members of a KIF often possess similar inhibition profiles. The KIDFamMap anchors can reflect kinase conformations types, kinase functions and kinase inhibitor selectivity. We believe that KIDFamMap provides biological insights into kinase inhibitor selectivity and binding mechanisms. PMID:23193279

  20. The kinase-inhibitory domain of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) inhibits cell cycle progression independent of PAK1 kinase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Thullberg; A Gad; A Beeser; J Chernoff; S Strömblad

    2007-01-01

    p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is a mediator of downstream signaling from the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42. In its inactive state, PAK1 forms a homodimer where two kinases inhibit each other in trans. The kinase inhibitory domain (KID) of one molecule of PAK1 binds to the kinase domain of its counterpart and keeps it inactive. Therefore, the isolated KID of

  1. Assembly of Cyclin D-Dependent Kinase and Titration of p27Kip1 Regulated by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (MEK1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mangeng Cheng; Veronika Sexl; Charles J. Sherr; Martine F. Roussel

    1998-01-01

    A constitutively active form of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1) was synthesized under control of a zinc-inducible promoter in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Zinc treatment of serum-starved cells activated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) and induced expression of cyclin D1. Newly synthesized cyclin D1 assembled with cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) to form holoenzyme complexes that phosphorylated the retinoblastoma protein inefficiently. Activation of

  2. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2–kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr–Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2–kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2–kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  3. Cardioprotection by St. Thomas’ solution is mediated by protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasim Hedayati; Steve J Schomisch; Joseph L Carino; J Timothy Sherwood; Edward J Lesnefsky; Brian L Cmolik

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundIntracellular signaling pathways, specifically the activation of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase, are essential to the cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning. We proposed that activation of PKC and TK contribute to the myocardial protection of St. Thomas’ No. 2 cardioplegia solution (STC).

  4. Co-inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and Aurora kinases promotes mitotic catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Hong, Myung Jin; Chow, Jeremy P.H.; Man, Wing Yu; Mak, Joyce P.Y.; Ma, Hoi Tang; Poon, Randy Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Mitosis is choreographed by a number of protein kinases including polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases. As these kinases are frequently dysregulated in cancers, small-molecule inhibitors have been developed for targeted anticancer therapies. Given that PLK1 and Aurora kinases possess both unique functions as well as co-regulate multiple mitotic events, whether pharmacological inhibition of these kinases together can enhance mitotic catastrophe remains an outstanding issue to be determined. Using concentrations of inhibitors that did not induce severe mitotic defects on their own, we found that both the metaphase arrest and mitotic slippage induced by inhibitors targeting Aurora A and Aurora B (MK-5108 and Barasertib respectively) were enhanced by a PLK1 inhibitor (BI 2536). We found that PLK1 is overexpressed in cells from nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a highly invasive cancer with poor prognosis, in comparison to normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were more sensitive to BI 2536 as a single agent and co-inhibition with Aurora kinases than normal cells. These observations underscore the mechanism and potential benefits of targeting PLK1 and Aurora kinases to induce mitotic catastrophe in cancer cells. PMID:25871386

  5. The protein interaction landscape of the human CMGC kinase group.

    PubMed

    Varjosalo, Markku; Keskitalo, Salla; Van Drogen, Audrey; Nurkkala, Helka; Vichalkovski, Anton; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias

    2013-04-25

    Cellular information processing via reversible protein phosphorylation requires tight control of the localization, activity, and substrate specificity of protein kinases, which to a large extent is accomplished by complex formation with other proteins. Despite their critical role in cellular regulation and pathogenesis, protein interaction information is available for only a subset of the 518 human protein kinases. Here we present a global proteomic analysis of complexes of the human CMGC kinase group. In addition to subgroup-specific functional enrichment and modularity, the identified 652 high-confidence kinase-protein interactions provide a specific biochemical context for many poorly studied CMGC kinases. Furthermore, the analysis revealed a kinase-kinase subnetwork and candidate substrates for CMGC kinases. Finally, the presented interaction proteome uncovered a large set of interactions with proteins genetically linked to a range of human diseases, including cancer, suggesting additional routes for analyzing the role of CMGC kinases in controlling human disease pathways. PMID:23602568

  6. Protein Kinase C and Src Family Kinases Mediate Angiotensin II-Induced Protein Kinase D Activation and Acute Aldosterone Production

    PubMed Central

    Olala, Lawrence O.; Shapiro, Brian A.; Merchen, Todd C.; Wynn, James J.; Bollag, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown a role for the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) in the regulation of acute aldosterone secretion upon angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation. However, the mechanism by which AngII activates PKD remains unclear. In this study, using both pharmacological and molecular approaches, we demonstrate that AngII-induced PKD activation is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) and Src family kinases in primary bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells and leads to increased aldosterone production. The pan PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 and the Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-1 inhibited both PKD activation and acute aldosterone production. Additionally, like the dominant-negative serine-738/742-to-alanine PKD mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PKC, the dominant-negative tyrosine-463-tophenylalanine PKD mutant, which is not phosphorylatable by the Src/Abl pathway, inhibited acute AngII-induced aldosterone production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AngII activates PKD via a mechanism involving Src family kinases and PKC, to underlie increased aldosterone production. PMID:24859649

  7. Molecular Cell, Vol. 4, 275280, August, 1999, Copyright 1999 by Cell Press MOM-4, a MAP Kinase Kinase KinaseRelated Protein,

    E-print Network

    Lin, Rueyling

    in both the MOM-2 and LIN-44 Wnt/WGdefined effector of polarity signaling, encodes a MAP signaling systems Kinase Kinase­Related Protein, Activates WRM-1/LIT-1 Kinase to Transduce Anterior/Posterior Polarity Signals in C. elegans enhancer factor) transcription factors, POP-1 (Lin et al., 1995). In vertebrates

  8. Mirk kinase inhibition targets ovarian cancer ascites

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaobing; Hu, Jing; Cunningham, Mary J.; Friedman, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The Mirk/dyrk1B gene is commonly amplified or upregulated in ovarian cancers, and Mirk is an active kinase in these cancers. Mirk mediates cancer cell survival by decreasing toxic ROS levels through maintaining expression of a series of antioxidant genes, possibly through its transcriptional activator functions. Mirk has the unusual property of being most active in quiescent cancer cells because of marked transcriptional downregulation by Akt/mTOR signaling and by MEK/erk signaling in cycling cells. Metastatic ovarian cancer cells form ascites, non-adherent multicellular aggregates floating within the peritoneal fluid. Most ascites cancer cells are in a reversible quiescent, dormant state, suggesting that Mirk might be expressed in these quiescent cells and thus a therapeutic target. The current studies show that ovarian cancer cell line spheroids that mimic ascites cancer spheroids were largely quiescent in G0/G1, and enriched in Mirk and the quiescence proteins, p130/Rb2 and the CDKI p27. Mirk kinase inhibition in spheroids made from established cell lines and in patient-derived ascites cancer cell spheroids reduced spheroid volume, disrupted spheroid structure to single cells, increased apoptosis, and decreased cell numbers. Earlier studies had shown that the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 increased transcription of the Mirk/dyrk1B gene, so treatments combined RAD001 with the most active Mirk kinase inhibitor. The number of ascites cells from 9 patients was reduced a similar amount by cisplatin, Mirk kinase inhibition or RAD001, but reduced substantially more, about 90%, by concurrent treatment with both the Mirk kinase inhibitor EHT5372 and RAD001. Addition of RAD001 increased the amount of toxic ROS induced by Mirk kinase inhibition. Two ascites samples taken one month apart gave similar drug responses, showing reproducibility of the techniques. Thus Mirk/dyrk1B kinase may be a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer ascites. PMID:25061503

  9. Mixed Lineage Kinase–c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Axis

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Basabi; Mishra, Rajakishore; Sondarva, Gautam; Rangasamy, Velusamy; Das, Subhasis; Viswakarma, Navin; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

    2013-01-01

    Mixed lineage kinases (MLKs) are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family and are reported to activate MAP kinase pathways. There have been at least 9 members of the MLK family identified to date, although the physiological functions of all the family members are yet unknown. However, MLKs in general have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. Recent reports suggest that some of the MLK members could play a role in cancer via modulating cell migration, invasion, cell cycle, and apoptosis. This review article will first describe the biology of MLK members and then discuss the current progress that relates to their functions in cancer. PMID:24349631

  10. Diacylglycerol kinase ?: Regulation and stability

    PubMed Central

    Tu-Sekine, Becky; Goldschmidt, Hana; Petro, Elizabeth; Raben, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the well-established roles of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) in a variety of signaling cascades, it is not surprising that there is an increasing interest in understanding their physiological roles and mechanisms that regulate their cellular levels. One class of enzymes capable of coordinately regulating the levels of these two lipids is the diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs). These enzymes catalyze the transfer of the ?-phosphate of ATP to the hydroxyl group of DAG, which generates PtdOH while reducing DAG. As these enzymes reciprocally modulate the relative levels of these two signaling lipids, it is essential to understand the regulation and roles of these enzymes in various tissues. One system where these enzymes play important roles is the nervous system. Of the ten mammalian DGKs, eight of them are readily detected in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS): DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, and DGK-?. Despite the increasing interest in DGKs, little is known about their regulation. We have focused some attention on understanding the enzymology and regulation of one of these DGK isoforms, DGK-?. We recently showed that DGK-? is regulated by an accessory protein containing polybasic regions. We now report that this accessory protein is required for the previously reported broadening of the pH profile observed in cell lysates in response to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Our data further reveal DGK-? is regulated by magnesium and zinc, and sensitive to the known DGK inhibitor R599022. These data outline new parameters involved in regulating DGK-?. PMID:23266086

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid is a major serum noncytokine survival factor for murine macrophages which acts via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Koh, J S; Lieberthal, W; Heydrick, S; Levine, J S

    1998-08-15

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the smallest and structurally simplest of all the glycerophospholipids. It occurs normally in serum and binds with high affinity to albumin, while retaining its biological activity. The effects of LPA are pleiotropic and range from mitogenesis to stress fiber formation. We show a novel role for LPA: as a macrophage survival factor with potency equivalent to serum. Administration of LPA protects macrophages from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation, and protection is equivalent to that with conventional survival factors such as macrophage colony stimulating factor. The ability of LPA to act as a survival factor is mediated by the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), since LPA activated both the p85-p110 and p110gamma isoforms of PI3K and macrophage survival was blocked completely by wortmannin or LY294002, two mechanistically dissimilar inhibitors of PI3K. pp70(s6k), a downstream kinase activated by PI3K, also contributes to survival, because inhibitors of pp70(s6k), such as rapamycin, blocked macrophage survival in the presence of LPA. Modified forms of LPA and phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, had no survival effect, thereby showing the specificity of LPA. These results show that LPA acts as a potent macrophage survival factor. Based on striking similarities between our LPA and serum data, we suggest that LPA is a major noncytokine survival factor in serum. PMID:9710440

  12. Myosin 3A Kinase Activity Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Activation Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Omar A.; Unrath, William C.; Stevens, Stanley M.; Manor, Uri; Kachar, Bechara; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Class III myosins are unique members of the myosin superfamily in that they contain both a motor and kinase domain. We have found that motor activity is decreased by autophosphorylation, although little is known about the regulation of the kinase domain. We demonstrate by mass spectrometry that Thr-178 and Thr-184 in the kinase domain activation loop and two threonines in the loop 2 region of the motor domain are autophosphorylated (Thr-908 and Thr-919). The kinase activity of MYO3A 2IQ with the phosphomimic (T184E) or phosphoblock (T184A) mutations demonstrates that kinase activity is reduced 30-fold as a result of the T184A mutation, although the Thr-178 site only had a minor impact on kinase activity. Interestingly, the actin-activated ATPase activity of MYO3A 2IQ is slightly reduced as a result of the T178A and T184A mutations suggesting coupling between motor and kinase domains. Full-length GFP-tagged T184A and T184E MYO3A constructs transfected into COS7 cells do not disrupt the ability of MYO3A to localize to filopodia structures. In addition, we demonstrate that T184E MYO3A reduces filopodia elongation in the presence of espin-1, whereas T184A enhances filopodia elongation in a similar fashion to kinase-dead MYO3A. Our results suggest that as MYO3A accumulates at the tips of actin protrusions, autophosphorylation of Thr-184 enhances kinase activity resulting in phosphorylation of the MYO3A motor and reducing motor activity. The differential regulation of the kinase and motor activities allows for MYO3A to precisely self-regulate its concentration in the actin bundle-based structures of cells. PMID:24214986

  13. Budding and fission yeast casein kinase I isoforms have dual-specificity protein kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, M F; Dhillon, N; Carmel, G; DeMaggio, A J; Lindberg, R A; Hunter, T; Kuret, J

    1994-01-01

    We have examined the activity and substrate specificity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hrr25p and the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hhp1, Hhp2, and Cki1 protein kinase isoforms. These four gene products are isotypes of casein kinase I (CKI), and the sequence of these protein kinases predicts that they are protein serine/threonine kinases. However, each of these four protein kinases, when expressed in Escherichia coli in an active form, was recognized by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Phosphoamino acid analysis of 32P-labeled proteins showed phosphorylation on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues. The E. coli produced forms of Hhp1, Hhp2, and Cki1 were autophosphorylated on tyrosine, and both Hhp1 and Hhp2 were capable of phosphorylating the tyrosine-protein kinase synthetic peptide substrate polymer poly-E4Y1. Immune complex protein kinases assays from S. pombe cells showed that Hhp1-containing precipitates were associated with a protein-tyrosine kinase activity, and the Hhp1 present in these immunoprecipitates was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. Although dephosphorylation of Hhp1 and Hhp2 by Ser/Thr phosphatase had little effect on the specific activity, tyrosine dephosphorylation of Hhp1 and Hhp2 caused a 1.8-to 3.1-fold increase in the Km for poly-E4Y1 and casein. These data demonstrate that four different CKI isoforms from two different yeasts are capable of protein-tyrosine kinase activity and encode dual-specificity protein kinases. Images PMID:7803855

  14. Hepatoma Cells from Mice Deficient in Glycine N-Methyltransferase Have Increased RAS Signaling and Activation of Liver Kinase B1

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, Nuria; García-Rodríguez, Juan L; Varela-Rey, Marta; Gutiérrez, Virginia; Fernández-Ramos, David; Beraza, Naiara; Aransay, Ana M; Schlangen, Karin; Lozano, Juan Jose; Aspichueta, Patricia; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Evert, Matthias; Calvisi, Diego F; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, José M; Martínez-Chantar, María L

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Patients with cirrhosis are at high risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and their liver tissues have abnormal levels of adenosylmethionine (SAMe). Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) catabolizes SAMe but its expression is downregulated in HCC cells. Mice that lack GNMT develop fibrosis and hepatomas and have alterations in signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis. We investigated the role of GNMT in human HCC cell lines and in liver carcinogenesis in mice. Methods We studied hepatoma cells from GNMT knockout mice and analyzed the roles of liver kinase B1 (LKB1, STK11) signaling via 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Ras in regulating proliferation and transformation. Results Hepatoma cells from GNMT mice had defects in LKB1 signaling to AMPK, making them resistant to induction of apoptosis by cAMP activation of protein kinase A and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-2. Ras-mediated hyperactivation of LKB1 promoted proliferation of GNMT-deficient hepatoma cells, and required mitogen-activated protein kinase-2 (ERK) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase polypeptide-2 (p90RSK). Ras activation of LKB1 required expression of RAS guanyl releasing protein-3 (RASGRP3). Reduced levels of GNMT and phosphorylation of AMPK? at Thr172 and increased levels of Ras, LKB1, and RASGRP3 in HCC samples from patients were associated with shorter survival times. Conclusions Reduced expression of GNMT in mouse hepatoma cells and human HCC cells appears to increase activity of LKB1 and RAS; activation of RAS signaling to LKB1 and RASGRP3, via ERK and p90RSK, might be involved in liver carcinogenesis and be used as a prognostic marker. Reagents that disrupt this pathway might be developed to treat patients with HCC. PMID:22687285

  15. The Ca 2+–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R Soderling

    1999-01-01

    The Ca2+–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) cascade includes three kinases: CaM-kinase kinase (CaMKK); and the CaM kinases CaMKI and CaMKIV, which are phosphorylated and activated by CaMKK. Members of this cascade respond to elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and are particularly abundant in brain and in T cells. CaMKK and CaMKIV localize both to the nucleus and to the cytoplasm,

  16. Kinase cascades regulating entry into apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1997-01-01

    All cells are constantly exposed to conflicting environment cues that signal cell survival or cell death. Survival signals are delivered by autocrine or paracrine factors that actively suppress a default death pathway. In addition to survival factor withdrawal, cell death can be triggered by environmental stresses such as heat, UV light, and hyperosmolarity or by dedicated death receptors (e.g., FAS/APO-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptors) that are counterparts of growth factor or survival receptors at the cell surface. One of the ways that cells integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli is by phosphorylation (or dephosphorylation) of cellular constituents by interacting cascades of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases (and phosphatases). Survival factors (e.g., growth factors and mitogens) activate receptor tyrosine kinases and selected mitogen-activated, cyclin-dependent, lipid-activated, nucleic acid-dependent, and cyclic AMP-dependent kinases to promote cell survival and proliferation, whereas environmental stress (or death factors such as FAS/APO-1 ligand and TNF-alpha) activates different members of these kinase families to inhibit cell growth and, under some circumstances, promote apoptotic cell death. Because individual kinase cascades can interact with one another, they are able to integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli and provide a link between cell surface receptors and the biochemical pathways leading to cell proliferation or cell death. PMID:9106363

  17. Gibberellin-regulated expression in oat aleurone cells of two kinases that show homology to MAP kinase and a ribosomal protein kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison K. Huttly; Andrew L. Phillips

    1995-01-01

    cDNA fragments from ten different protein kinases expressed in Avena sativa aleurone cells were amplified from mRNA by RT-PCR with degenerate primers. These could be classified into five groups: Aspk1-3 showed homology to the Snf1-related protein kinases, Aspk4-5 to a wheat ABA up-regulated protein kinase, Aspk6-8 to the Ca-dependent, calmodulin-independent protein kinase family, Aspk9 encoded a MAP kinase and Aspk10

  18. Interlayer Magnetoresistance due to Chiral Soliton Lattice Formation in Hexagonal Chiral Magnet CrNb3S6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togawa, Y.; Kousaka, Y.; Nishihara, S.; Inoue, K.; Akimitsu, J.; Ovchinnikov, A. S.; Kishine, J.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the interlayer magnetoresistance (MR) along the chiral crystallographic axis in the hexagonal chiral magnet CrNb3S6. In a region below the incommensurate-commensurate phase transition between the chiral soliton lattice and the forced ferromagnetic state, a negative MR is obtained in a wide range of temperature, while a small positive MR is found very close to the Curie temperature. Normalized data of the negative MR almost falls into a single curve and is well fitted by a theoretical equation of the soliton density, meaning that the origin of the MR is ascribed to the magnetic scattering of conduction electrons by a nonlinear, periodic, and countable array of magnetic soliton kinks.

  19. A PI3-Kinase–Mediated Negative Feedback Regulates Neuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Eric; Lin, Curtis Chun-Jen; Lavery, William; Stern, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Use-dependent downregulation of neuronal activity (negative feedback) can act as a homeostatic mechanism to maintain neuronal activity at a particular specified value. Disruption of this negative feedback might lead to neurological pathologies, such as epilepsy, but the precise mechanisms by which this feedback can occur remain incompletely understood. At one glutamatergic synapse, the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, a mutation in the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor gene (DmGluRA) increased motor neuron excitability by disrupting an autocrine, glutamate-mediated negative feedback. We show that DmGluRA mutations increase neuronal excitability by preventing PI3 kinase (PI3K) activation and consequently hyperactivating the transcription factor Foxo. Furthermore, glutamate application increases levels of phospho-Akt, a product of PI3K signaling, within motor nerve terminals in a DmGluRA-dependent manner. Finally, we show that PI3K increases both axon diameter and synapse number via the Tor/S6 kinase pathway, but not Foxo. In humans, PI3K and group II mGluRs are implicated in epilepsy, neurofibromatosis, autism, schizophrenia, and other neurological disorders; however, neither the link between group II mGluRs and PI3K, nor the role of PI3K-dependent regulation of Foxo in the control of neuronal excitability, had been previously reported. Our work suggests that some of the deficits in these neurological disorders might result from disruption of glutamate-mediated homeostasis of neuronal excitability. PMID:19043547

  20. [Dangerous fortune: creatine kinase and blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Brewster, Lizzy M; van Montfrans, Gert A

    2012-01-01

    The thrifty gene hypothesis describes characteristics of 'thrifty' genes that were historically advantageous for survival, but may have become detrimental in modern times. We propose that a high tissue activity of the enzyme creatine kinase is a striking example of such 'dangerous fortune'. High creatine kinase activity, which occurs with greater frequency in people of West African descent, facilitates burst activity of the skeletal muscle. Here, the available energy is maximally used in order to survive. However, in times of abundance with excessive salt intake or continuous stress, high creatine kinase activity may result in hypertension. This is caused by an increased contractility of the arterioles and enhanced salt retention, leading to enhanced pressor responses. The enzyme that once improved the chance of survival has thus become a risk factor for premature cardiovascular mortality. PMID:23249518

  1. PAK family kinases: Physiological roles and regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuo-Shen; Manser, Ed

    2012-04-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that are represented by six genes in humans (PAK 1-6), and are found in all eukaryotes sequenced to date. Genetic and knockdown experiments in frogs, fish and mice indicate group I PAKs are widely expressed, required for multiple tissue development, and particularly important for immune and nervous system function in the adult. The group II PAKs (human PAKs 4-6) are more enigmatic, but their restriction to metazoans and presence at cell-cell junctions suggests these kinases emerged to regulate junctional signaling. Studies of protozoa and fungal PAKs show that they regulate cell shape and polarity through phosphorylation of multiple cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule binding proteins, myosins and septins. This chapter discusses what we know about the regulation of PAKs and their physiological role in different model organisms, based primarily on gene knockout studies. PMID:23162738

  2. Screening of kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF for regulating autophagy based on kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingmei; Xue, Dongbo; Wang, Xiaochun; Lu, Ming; Gao, Bo; Qiao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify agents that regulate autophagy. A total of 544 differentially expressed genes were screened from the intersection set of GSE2435 and GSE31040, which was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and 19 differentially expressed kinases were selected according to a 'protein kinase database'. Gene ontology?biological process (GO-BP) enrichment analysis revealed that the 19 kinases were mainly associated with phosphorylation. The protein-protein interaction network exhibited 30 differentially expressed genes that interacted with BRAF, and GO-BP enrichment analysis showed the function of these genes were mainly involved in cell death and apoptosis. The kinase-kinase inhibitor regulatory network identified16 kinase inhibitors that specifically inhibited BRAF. Previous studies indicated that sorafenib is capable of regulating autophagy and regorafenib has also been reported; however, there have been no studies regarding the regulation of autophagy by afatinib, selumetinib, PD318088, axitinib, TAK-733, GDC-0980, GSK2126458, PLX-4720, AS703026, trametinib, GDC-0941 and PF-04217903. Thus, these kinase inhibitors are potential targets for further study on the regulation of autophagy in the future. PMID:24213221

  3. Identification and characterization of plant Haspin kinase as a histone H3 threonine kinase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Haspin kinases are mitotic kinases that are well-conserved from yeast to human. Human Haspin is a histone H3 Thr3 kinase that has important roles in chromosome cohesion during mitosis. Moreover, phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3 by Haspin in fission yeast, Xenopus, and human is required for accumulation of Aurora B on the centromere, and the subsequent activation of Aurora B kinase activity for accurate chromosome alignment and segregation. Although extensive analyses of Haspin have been carried out in yeast and animals, the function of Haspin in organogenesis remains unclear. Results Here, we identified a Haspin kinase, designated AtHaspin, in Arabidopsis thaliana. The purified AtHaspin phosphorylated histone H3 at both Thr3 and Thr11 in vitro. Live imaging of AtHaspin-tdTomato and GFP-?-tubulin in BY-2 cells showed that AtHaspin-tdTomato localized on chromosomes during prometaphase and metaphase, and around the cell plate during cytokinesis. This localization of AtHaspin overlapped with that of phosphorylated Thr3 and Thr11 of histone H3 in BY-2 cells. AtHaspin-GFP driven by the native promoter was expressed in root meristems, shoot meristems, floral meristems, and throughout the whole embryo at stages of high cell division. Overexpression of a kinase domain mutant of AtHaspin decreased the size of the root meristem, which delayed root growth. Conclusions Our results indicated that the Haspin kinase is a histone H3 threonine kinase in A. thaliana. AtHaspin phosphorylated histone H3 at both Thr3 and Thr11 in vitro. The expression and dominant-negative analysis showed that AtHaspin may have a role in mitotic cell division during plant growth. Further analysis of coordinated mechanisms involving Haspin and Aurora kinases will shed new light on the regulation of chromosome segregation in cell division during plant growth and development. PMID:21527018

  4. Growth factors induce nuclear translocation of MAP kinases (p42mapk and p44mapk) but not of their activator MAP kinase kinase (p45mapkk) in fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42mapk and p44mapk) are serine/threonine kinases that are activated rapidly in cells stimulated with various extracellular signals. This activation is mediated via MAP kinase kinase (p45mapkk), a dual specificity kinase which phosphorylates two key regulatory threonine and tyrosine residues of MAP kinases. We reported previously that the persistent phase of MAP kinase activation is essential for mitogenically stimulated cells to pass the "restriction point" of the cell cycle. Here, using specific polyclonal antibodies and transfection of epitope-tagged recombinant MAP kinases we demonstrate that these signaling protein kinases undergo distinct spatio-temporal localization in growth factor-stimulated cells. In G0-arrested hamster fibroblasts the activator p45mapkk and MAP kinases (p42mapk, p44mapk) are mainly cytoplasmic. Subsequent to mitogenic stimulation by serum or alpha-thrombin both MAP kinase isoforms translocate into the nucleus. This translocation is rapid (seen in 15 min), persistent (at least during the entire G1 period up to 6 h), reversible (by removal of the mitogenic stimulus) and apparently 'coupled' to the mitogenic potential; it does not occur in response to nonmitogenic agents such as alpha-thrombin-receptor synthetic peptides and phorbol esters that fail to activate MAP kinases persistently. When p42mapk and p44mapk are expressed stably at high levels, they are found in the nucleus of resting cells; this nuclear localization is also apparent with kinase-deficient mutants (p44mapk T192A or Y194F). In marked contrast the p45mapkk activator remains cytoplasmic even during prolonged growth factor stimulation and even after high expression levels achieved by transfection. We propose that the rapid and persistent nuclear transfer of p42mapk and p44mapk during the entire G0-G1 period is crucial for the function of these kinases in mediating the growth response. PMID:8394845

  5. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION: Routing MAP Kinase Cascades

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elaine A. Elion (Harvard Medical School; Department of Biological Chemistry)

    1998-09-11

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Cells need to convey information from signals on their surface to a variety of intracellular targets, including transcription factors, contractile proteins, and enzymes. To do so efficiently, they construct information pathways with enzymes called kinases, using the same enzymes over and over. But what prevents cross talk between pathways? In her Perspective, Elion discusses new results in this issue by Whitmarsh et al. and Schaeffer et al., who identify proteins that act as scaffolds in mouse cells, binding certain kinases to make a pathway for a specific function that is insulated from the rest of the cell.

  6. Lipid activators of protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, V.P.S.; Chauhan, A.; Deshmukh, D.S.; Brockerhoff, H. (New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Among the many reported lipid activators of protein kinase C only those of high affinity can be considered true physiological effectors, at present the tumor promoters, e.g., phorbol esters; 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols; and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Many other compounds (including arachidonic acid) are activators at high, unphysiological concentrations only, and they seem to be sterically unsuited for bonding to the enzyme. Such pseudoactivators possibly act by scrambling the structure of the regulatory moiety of the kinase.

  7. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    of amino acids in cell culture11 , we prepared lysates from HeLa cells grown in either heavy isotopic 13 C the activity of pyruvate kinase has been controversial. Pyruvate kinase as well as several other enzymes

  8. The stress-activated protein kinase subfamily of c-Jun kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Kyriakis; Papia Banerjee; Eleni Nikolakaki; Tianang Dai; Elizabeth A. Rubie; Mir F. Ahmad; Joseph Avruch; James R. Woodgett

    1994-01-01

    THE mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Erk-1 and Erk-2 are proline-directed kinases that are themselves activated through concomitant phosphorylation of tyrosine and threonine residues1-4. The kinase p54 (Mr 54,000), which was first isolated from cycloheximide-treated rats, is proline-directed like Erks-1\\/2, and requires both Tyr and Ser\\/Thr phosphorylation3,5,6 for activity. p54 is, however, distinct from Erks-1\\/2 in its substrate specificity, being unable

  9. The rapamycin-sensitive phosphoproteome reveals that TOR controls protein kinase A toward some but not all substrates.

    PubMed

    Soulard, Alexandre; Cremonesi, Alessio; Moes, Suzette; Schütz, Frédéric; Jenö, Paul; Hall, Michael N

    2010-10-01

    Regulation of cell growth requires extensive coordination of several processes including transcription, ribosome biogenesis, translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. In yeast, the protein kinases Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and protein kinase A (PKA) regulate these processes and are thereby the main activators of cell growth in response to nutrients. How TOR, PKA, and their corresponding signaling pathways are coordinated to control the same cellular processes is not understood. Quantitative analysis of the rapamycin-sensitive phosphoproteome combined with targeted analysis of PKA substrates suggests that TOR complex 1 (TORC1) activates PKA but only toward a subset of substrates. Furthermore, we show that TORC1 signaling impinges on BCY1, the negative regulatory subunit of PKA. Inhibition of TORC1 with rapamycin leads to BCY1 phosphorylation on several sites including T129. Phosphorylation of BCY1 T129 results in BCY1 activation and inhibition of PKA. TORC1 inhibits BCY1 T129 phosphorylation by phosphorylating and activating the S6K homolog SCH9 that in turn inhibits the MAP kinase MPK1. MPK1 phosphorylates BCY1 T129 directly. Thus, TORC1 activates PKA toward some substrates by preventing MPK1-mediated activation of BCY1. PMID:20702584

  10. The Rapamycin-sensitive Phosphoproteome Reveals That TOR Controls Protein Kinase A Toward Some But Not All Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Soulard, Alexandre; Cremonesi, Alessio; Moes, Suzette; Schütz, Frédéric; Jenö, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth requires extensive coordination of several processes including transcription, ribosome biogenesis, translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. In yeast, the protein kinases Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and protein kinase A (PKA) regulate these processes and are thereby the main activators of cell growth in response to nutrients. How TOR, PKA, and their corresponding signaling pathways are coordinated to control the same cellular processes is not understood. Quantitative analysis of the rapamycin-sensitive phosphoproteome combined with targeted analysis of PKA substrates suggests that TOR complex 1 (TORC1) activates PKA but only toward a subset of substrates. Furthermore, we show that TORC1 signaling impinges on BCY1, the negative regulatory subunit of PKA. Inhibition of TORC1 with rapamycin leads to BCY1 phosphorylation on several sites including T129. Phosphorylation of BCY1 T129 results in BCY1 activation and inhibition of PKA. TORC1 inhibits BCY1 T129 phosphorylation by phosphorylating and activating the S6K homolog SCH9 that in turn inhibits the MAP kinase MPK1. MPK1 phosphorylates BCY1 T129 directly. Thus, TORC1 activates PKA toward some substrates by preventing MPK1-mediated activation of BCY1. PMID:20702584

  11. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Matthew S.; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1 pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing.

  12. Src and Syk kinases: key regulators of phagocytic cell activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Berton; Attila Mócsai; Clifford A. Lowell

    2005-01-01

    Src-family kinases and Syk tyrosine kinases have crucial roles in multiple leukocyte intracellular signaling path- ways. In immunoreceptor-related pathways, these enzymes work together sequentially, with Src-family kinases phosphorylating specific protein substrates, which in turn recruit and activate Syk. Recent evidence indicates that several non-immunoreceptors also use Src-family kinases and Syk in this same fashion. In leukocyte integrin signaling, the interaction

  13. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Matthew S.; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-01-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1?pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing. PMID:23918992

  14. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Matthew S; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1?pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing. PMID:23918992

  15. Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The Arabidopsis Calcium protein kinase activities occur through calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). These novel calcium provides a valuable opportunity to understand the plant calcium-signaling network. Calcium is a ubiquitous

  16. Issues and progress with protein kinase inhibitors for cancer treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Dancey; Edward A. Sausville

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the key roles of protein kinases in cancer has led to extensive efforts to develop kinase inhibitors for the treatment of a wide range of cancers, and more than 30 such agents are now in clinical trials. Here, we consider the crucial issues in the development of kinase inhibitors for cancer, and discuss strategies to address the challenges

  17. Sequence and structural analysis of kinase ATP pocket residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Vulpetti; Roberta Bosotti

    2004-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest known families of enzymes. Most kinases bind ATP and most synthetic kinase inhibitors are ATP-competitive, which makes selectivity a potential problem. However, despite the high sequence similarity in the ATP binding pocket, several groups including ours have been able to develop highly potent and selective ATP-competitive inhibitors. To systematically aid the design of

  18. Mnk kinase pathway: Cellular functions and biological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C

    2014-08-26

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) interacting protein kinases 1 and 2 (Mnk1 and Mnk2) play important roles in controlling signals involved in mRNA translation. In addition to the MAPKs (p38 or Erk), multiple studies suggest that the Mnk kinases can be regulated by other known kinases such as Pak2 and/or other unidentified kinases by phosphorylation of residues distinct from the sites phosphorylated by the MAPKs. Several studies have established multiple Mnk protein targets, including PSF, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, Sprouty 2 and have lead to the identification of distinct biological functions and substrate specificity for the Mnk kinases. In this review we discuss the pathways regulating the Mnk kinases, their known substrates as well as the functional consequences of engagement of pathways controlled by Mnk kinases. These kinases play an important role in mRNA translation via their regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and their functions have important implications in tumor biology as well as the regulation of drug resistance to anti-oncogenic therapies. Other studies have identified a role for the Mnk kinases in cap-independent mRNA translation, suggesting that the Mnk kinases can exert important functional effects independently of the phosphorylation of eIF4E. The role of Mnk kinases in inflammation and inflammation-induced malignancies is also discussed. PMID:25225600

  19. Nephrin mediates actin reorganization via phosphoinositide 3-kinase in podocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Zhu; N Sun; L Aoudjit; H Li; H Kawachi; S Lemay; T Takano

    2008-01-01

    Nephrin is a slit diaphragm protein critical for structural and functional integrity of visceral glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) and is known to be tyrosine phosphorylated by Src family kinases. We studied the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), activated via the phosphorylation of nephrin, in actin cytoskeletal reorganization of cultured rat podocytes. Phosphorylation of rat nephrin by the Fyn kinase markedly

  20. Problem-Solving Test: "In Vitro" Protein Kinase A Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is an important mechanism in the regulation of protein activity. Among hundreds of protein kinases present in human cells, PKA, the first kinase discovered, belongs to the most important and best characterized group of these enzymes. The author presents an experiment that analyzes the "in vitro"…

  1. A Framework for Classification of Prokaryotic Protein Kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidhi Tyagi; Krishanpal Anamika; Narayanaswamy Srinivasan; Alan Ruttenberg

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundOverwhelming majority of the Serine\\/Threonine protein kinases identified by gleaning archaeal and eubacterial genomes could not be classified into any of the well known Hanks and Hunter subfamilies of protein kinases. This is owing to the development of Hanks and Hunter classification scheme based on eukaryotic protein kinases which are highly divergent from their prokaryotic homologues. A large dataset of

  2. Article original Biodisponibilit de la cratine kinase musculaire

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of skeletal muscle creatine kinase in sheep. Application to the assessment of local tolerance to veterinary by vacutainer and hemolysis may in fact have con- siderable effects on the measurement of creatine kinase administration (123 38 Ulkg) of creatine kinase, was fitted by a biexponential model. The mean volume

  3. Protein kinase affinity reagents based on a 5-aminoindazole scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurty, Ratika; Brock, Amanda M.; Maly, Dustin J.

    2014-01-01

    Affinity reagents that target protein kinases are powerful tools for signal transduction research. Here, we describe a general set of kinase ligands based on a 5-aminoindazole scaffold. This scaffold can readily be derivatized with diverse binding elements and immobilized analogues allow selective enrichment of protein kinases from complex mixtures. PMID:21078554

  4. Muscle Atrophy and Hypertrophy Signaling in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marieve Doucet; Aaron P. Russell; Bertrand Leger; Richard Debigare; Denis R. Joanisse; Pierre LeBlanc; Francois Maltais

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. In wasted animals, muscle mass is regulated by several AKT-related signaling pathways. Objectives: To measure the protein expression of AKT, forkhead box class O (FoxO)-1 and -3, atrogin-1, the phosphophrylated form of AKT, p70 S6K glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E

  5. The S4-S5 Linker of KCNQ1 Channels Forms a Structural Scaffold with the S6 Segment Controlling Gate Closure*

    PubMed Central

    Labro, Alain J.; Boulet, Inge R.; Choveau, Frank S.; Mayeur, Evy; Bruyns, Tine; Loussouarn, Gildas; Raes, Adam L.; Snyders, Dirk J.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo, KCNQ1 ?-subunits associate with the ?-subunit KCNE1 to generate the slowly activating cardiac potassium current (IKs). Structurally, they share their topology with other Kv channels and consist out of six transmembrane helices (S1–S6) with the S1–S4 segments forming the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). The opening or closure of the intracellular channel gate, which localizes at the bottom of the S6 segment, is directly controlled by the movement of the VSD via an electromechanical coupling. In other Kv channels, this electromechanical coupling is realized by an interaction between the S4-S5 linker (S4S5L) and the C-terminal end of S6 (S6T). Previously we reported that substitutions for Leu353 in S6T resulted in channels that failed to close completely. Closure could be incomplete because Leu353 itself is the pore-occluding residue of the channel gate or because of a distorted electromechanical coupling. To resolve this and to address the role of S4S5L in KCNQ1 channel gating, we performed an alanine/tryptophan substitution scan of S4S5L. The residues with a “high impact” on channel gating (when mutated) clustered on one side of the S4S5L ?-helix. Hence, this side of S4S5L most likely contributes to the electromechanical coupling and finds its residue counterparts in S6T. Accordingly, substitutions for Val254 resulted in channels that were partially constitutively open and the ability to close completely was rescued by combination with substitutions for Leu353 in S6T. Double mutant cycle analysis supported this cross-talk indicating that both residues come in close contact and stabilize the closed state of the channel. PMID:21059661

  6. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Is Required for Regulation during Dark-Light Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Horim

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development are coordinately orchestrated by environmental cues and phytohormones. Light acts as a key environmental factor for fundamental plant growth and physiology through photosensory phytochromes and underlying molecular mechanisms. Although phytochromes are known to possess serine/threonine protein kinase activities, whether they trigger a signal transduction pathway via an intracellular protein kinase network remains unknown. In analyses of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK, also called MKK) mutants, the mkk3 mutant has shown both a hypersensitive response in plant hormone gibberellin (GA) and a less sensitive response in red light signaling. Surprisingly, light-induced MAPK activation in wild-type (WT) seedlings and constitutive MAPK phosphorylation in dark-grown mkk3 mutant seedlings have also been found, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that MKK3 acts in negative regulation in darkness and in light-induced MAPK activation during dark-light transition. PMID:26082029

  7. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways Mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 Protein Kinases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gary Johnson (University of Colorado Health Sciences Center; Department of Pharmacology)

    2002-12-06

    Multicellular organisms have three well-characterized subfamilies of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that control a vast array of physiological processes. These enzymes are regulated by a characteristic phosphorelay system in which a series of three protein kinases phosphorylate and activate one another. The extracellular signalâ??regulated kinases (ERKs) function in the control of cell division, and inhibitors of these enzymes are being explored as anticancer agents. The c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) are critical regulators of transcription, and JNK inhibitors may be effective in control of rheumatoid arthritis. The p38 MAPKs are activated by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses and may contribute to diseases like asthma and autoimmunity.

  8. Regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-1 by NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Yeung, F; Ramsey, C S; Popko-Scibor, A E; Allison, D F; Gray, L G; Shin, M; Kumar, M; Li, D; McCubrey, J A; Mayo, M W

    2015-02-01

    Sirtuins are class III deacetylases that regulate many essential processes, including cellular stress, genome stability and metabolism. Although these NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases control adaptive cellular responses, identification of sirtuin-regulated signaling targets remain under-studied. Here, we demonstrate that acetylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MEK1) stimulates its kinase activity, and that acetylated MEK1 is under the regulatory control of the sirtuin family members SIRT1 and SIRT2. Treatment of cells with sirtuin inhibitors, or siRNA knockdown of SIRT1 or SIRT2 proteins, increases MEK1 acetylation and subsequent phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Generation of an acetyl-specific MEK1 antibody demonstrates that endogenous acetylated MEK1 is extensively enriched in the nucleus following epidermal growth factor  stimulation. An acetyl-mimic of MEK1 increases inappropriate growth properties, suggesting that acetylation of MEK1 has oncogenic potential. PMID:24681949

  9. Regulation of ion channels by CAMP-dependent protein kinase and A-kinase anchoring proteins

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    -kinase anchoring protein AMPA a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid C catalytic subunit Kca calcium to calcium channels and enhances their regulation in multiple cell types. Addresses *$Department

  10. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I.

    PubMed Central

    Grose, C; Jackson, W; Traugh, J A

    1989-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, we investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an in vitro assay containing [gamma-32P]ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when [32P]GTP was substituted for [32P]ATP in the protein kinase assay. We also tested whether VZV gpI was phosphorylated by two other ubiquitous mammalian protein kinases--casein kinase I and cyclic AMP-dependent kinase--and found that only casein kinase I modified gpI. When the predicted 623-amino-acid sequence of gpI was examined, two phosphorylation sites known to be optimal for casein kinase II were observed. Immediately upstream from each of the casein kinase II sites was a potential casein kinase I phosphorylation site. In summary, this study showed that VZV gpI was phosphorylated by each of two mammalian protein kinases (casein kinase I and casein kinase II) and that potential serine-threonine phosphorylation sites for each of these two kinases were present in the viral glycoprotein. Images PMID:2548005

  11. Biology of the protein kinase C family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine A. O'Brian; Nancy E. Ward

    1989-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is composed of a family of isozymes that transduce signals of certain hormones, growth factors, lectins, and neurotransmitters. This review addresses the role of PKC in the regulation of cellular proliferation and its disorders. PKC is directly activated in vivo by the second messenger diacylglycecrol, a lipid produced by phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol and polyphosphoinositides.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

  13. Polo-like kinases and oncogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Eckerdt; Juping Yuan; Klaus Strebhardt

    2005-01-01

    Polo-like kinases (Plks) play pivotal roles in the regulation of cell cycle progression. Plk1, the best characterized family member among mammalian Plks, strongly promotes the progression of cells through mitosis. Furthermore, Plk1 is found to be overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and its expression correlates with cellular proliferation and prognosis of tumor patients. Although all Plks share two

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan J Robinson; Melanie H Cobb

    1997-01-01

    Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of signal transduction mechanisms. Recent advances in the study of such cascades include the cloning of genes encoding novel members of the cascades, further definition of the roles of the cascades in responses to extracellular signals, and examination of cross-talk between different

  15. Src kinase inhibition promotes the chondrocyte phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Bursell; Anita Woods; Claudine G James; Daphne Pala; Andrew Leask; Frank Beier

    2007-01-01

    Regulated differentiation of chondrocytes is essential for both normal skeletal development and maintenance of articular cartilage. The intracellular pathways that control these events are incompletely understood, and our ability to modulate the chondrocyte phenotype in vivo or in vitro is therefore limited. Here we examine the role played by one prominent group of intracellular signalling proteins, the Src family kinases,

  16. Predicting response to HER2 kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Settleman, Jeff

    2015-01-20

    Comment on: Takagi S, Banno H, Hayashi A, Tamura T, Ishikawa T, Ohta Y. HER2 and HER3 cooperatively regulate cancer cell growth and determine sensitivity to the novel investigational EGFR/HER2 kinase inhibitor TAK-285. Oncoscience. 2014; 1:196-204. PMID:25655645

  17. Phosphorylase b Kinase Inheritance in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Lyon Jr.; Jean Porter; Mary Robertson

    1967-01-01

    The gene for phosphorylase b kinase, a skeletal muscle enzyme, has been located on the X chromosome of mice. The inheritance of the enzyme through two generations from original matings between one inbred strain of mice, the I, which lacks the enzyme, and another strain, the C57, follows the classical Mendelian pattern.

  18. Ins and outs of kinase DFG motifs.

    PubMed

    Treiber, Daniel K; Shah, Neil P

    2013-06-20

    In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Hari and colleagues show that two positions in kinase active sites, including the well-known "gatekeeper" residue, regulate "in" versus "out" conformations of the conserved "DFG" motif. These findings suggest yet another role for the gatekeeper residue. PMID:23790484

  19. Polo-like kinases (Plks) and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyuki Takai; Ryoji Hamanaka; Jun Yoshimatsu; Isao Miyakawa

    2005-01-01

    Deregulated centrosome duplication or maturation often results in increased centrosome size and\\/or centrosome number, both of which show a positive and significant correlation with aneuploidy and chromosomal instability, thus contributing to cancer formation. Given the role of Polo-like kinases (Plks) in the centrosome cycle, it is not unexpected that deregulated expression of Plks is detected in many types of cancer

  20. Regulation of Myosin Phosphatase by Rho and RhoAssociated Kinase (Rho Kinase)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazushi Kimura; Masaaki Ito; Mutsuki Amano; Kazuyasu Chihara; Yuko Fukata; Masato Nakafuku; Bunpei Yamamori; Jianhua Feng; Takeshi Nakano; Katsuya Okawa; Akihiro Iwamatsu; Kozo Kaibuchi

    1996-01-01

    The small guanosine triphosphatase Rho is implicated in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which results in contraction of smooth muscle and interaction of actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound, active form of RhoA (GTP\\\\cdotRhoA) specifically interacted with the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase, which regulates the extent of phosphorylation of MLC. Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which

  1. Mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase induced gene regulation in brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Valjent; Jocelyne Caboche; Peter Vanhoutte

    2001-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling\\u000a cascade involved in a plethora of physiological responses, including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and, in\\u000a neuronal cells, synaptic plasticity. Increasing evidence now implicates this pathway in cognitive functions, such as learning\\u000a and memory formation, and also in behavioral responses to addictive drugs. Although multiple intracellular substrates can

  2. Protein-tyrosine kinase and protein-serine\\/threonine kinase expression in human gastric cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyh-Shi Lin; Chi-Wei Lu; Chang-Jen Huang; Peng-Fyn Wu; Daniel Robinson; Hsing-Jien Kung; Chin-Wen Chi; Chew-Wun Wu; Wen-Kang Yang; Jacqueline J. K. Whang-Peng; Wen-chang Lin

    1998-01-01

    Protein kinases play key roles in cellular functions. They are involved in many cellular functions including; signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell division, and cell differentiation. Alterations of protein kinase by gene amplification, mutation or viral factors often induce tumor formation and tumor progression toward malignancy. The identification and cloning of kinase genes can provide a better understanding of the

  3. Protein-Tyrosine Kinase and Protein-Serine\\/Threonine Kinase Expression in Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyh-Shi Lin; Chi-Wei Lu; Chang-Jen Huang; Peng-Fyn Wu; Daniel Robinson; Hsing-Jien Kung; Chin-Wen Chi; Chew-Wun Wu; Wen-Kang Yang; Jacqueline J. K. Whang-Peng; Wen-chang Lin

    1998-01-01

    Protein kinases play key roles in cellular functions. They are involved in many cellular functions including; signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell division, and cell differentiation. Alterations of protein kinase by gene amplification, mutation or viral factors often induce tumor formation and tumor progression toward malignancy. The identification and cloning of kinase genes can provide a better understanding of the

  4. Protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 involved in Ca2+-induced regulation of ion channel and MAP kinase functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lev; H. Moreno; R. Martinez; P. Canoll; E. Peles; J. M. Musacchio; G. D. Plowman; B. Rudy; J. Schlessinger

    1995-01-01

    The protein tyrosine kinase PYK2, which is highly expressed in the central nervous system, is rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to various stimuli that elevate the intracellular calcium concentration, as well as by protein kinase C activation. Activation of PYK2 leads to modulation of ion channel function and activation of the MAP kinase signalling pathway. PYK2 activation may

  5. Extended kinase profile and properties of the protein kinase inhibitor nilotinib.

    PubMed

    Manley, Paul W; Drueckes, Peter; Fendrich, Gabriele; Furet, Pascal; Liebetanz, Janis; Martiny-Baron, Georg; Mestan, Jürgen; Trappe, Jörg; Wartmann, Markus; Fabbro, Doriano

    2010-03-01

    As a drug used to treat imatinib-resistant and -intolerant, chronic and advanced phase chronic myelogenous leukaemia, nilotinib is well characterised as a potent inhibitor of the Abl tyrosine kinase activity of wild-type and imatinib-resistant mutant forms of BCR-Abl. Here we review the profile of nilotinib as a protein kinase inhibitor. Although an ATP-competitive inhibitor of Abl, nilotinib binds to a catalytically inactive conformation (DFG-out) of the activation loop. As a consequence of this, nilotinib exhibits time-dependent inhibition of Abl kinase in enzymatic assays, which can be extrapolated to other targets to explain differences between biochemical activity and cellular assays. Although these differences confound assessment of kinase selectivity, as assessed using a combination of protein binding and transphosphorylation assays, together with cellular autophosporylation and proliferation assays, well established kinase targets of nilotinib in rank order of inhibitory potency are DDR-1>DDR-2>BCR-Abl (Abl)>PDGFRalpha/beta>KIT>CSF-1R. In addition nilotinib has now been found to bind to both MAPK11 (p38beta) and MAPK12 (p38alpha), as well as with very high affinity to ZAK kinase. Although neither enzymatic nor cellular data are yet available to substantiate the drug as an inhibitor of ZAK phosphorylation, modeling predicts that it binds in an ATP-competitive fashion. PMID:19922818

  6. Kinases and kinase signaling pathways: potential therapeutic targets in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Pan, Jing; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2012-08-01

    Complex molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are gradually being elucidated. Accumulating genetic evidence implicates dysfunction of kinase activities and phosphorylation pathways in the pathogenesis of PD. Causative and risk gene products associated with PD include protein kinases (such as PINK1, LRRK2 and GAK) and proteins related phosphorylation signaling pathways (such as SNCA, DJ-1). PINK1, LRRK2 and several PD gene products have been associated with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) and protein kinase B (AKT) kinase signaling pathways. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38, signaling pathways downstream of MAP, are particularly important in PD. JNK and p38 play an integral role in neuronal death. Targeting JNK or p38 signaling may offer an effective therapy for PD. Inhibitors of the ERK signaling pathway, which plays an important role in the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), have been shown to attenuate this condition in animal models. In this review, we summarize experimental evidence gathered over the last decade on the role of PINK1, LRRK2 and GAK and their related phosphorylation signaling pathways (JNK, ERK, p38 and PI3K/AKT) in PD. It is speculated that improvement or modulation of these signaling pathways will reveal potential therapeutic targets for attenuation of the cardinal symptoms and motor complications in patients with PD in the future. PMID:22709943

  7. Inhibition of v-Mos kinase activity by protein kinase A.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y; Herrmann, C H; Arlinghaus, R B; Singh, B

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA ) on v-Mos kinase activity. Increase in PKA activity in vivo brought about either by forskolin treatment or by overexpression of PKA catalytic subunit resulted in a significant inhibition of v-Mos kinase activity. The purified PKA catalytic subunit was able to phosphorylate recombinant p37v-mos in vitro, suggesting that the mechanism of in vivo inhibition of v-Mos kinase involves direct phosphorylation by PKA. Combined tryptic phosphopeptide two-dimensional mapping analysis and in vitro mutagenesis studies indicated that Ser-56 is the major in vivo phosphorylation site on v-Mos. In vivo phosphorylation at Ser-56 correlated with slower migration of the v-Mos protein during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, even though Ser-56 was phosphorylated by PKA, this phosphorylation was not involved in the inhibition of v-Mos kinase. The alanine-for-serine substitution at residue 56 did not affect the ability of v-Mos to autophosphorylate in vitro or, more importantly, to activate MEK1 in transformed NIH 3T3 cells. We identified Ser-263 phosphorylation, the Ala-263 mutant of v-Mos was not inhibited by forskolin treatment. From our results, we propose that the known inhibitory role of PKA in the initiation of oocyte maturation in mice could be explained at least in part by its inhibition of Mos kinase. PMID:8622681

  8. Multiple phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 during transition of quiescent 3T3 cells into early G1, and cellular compartmentalization of the phosphate donor.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G; Siegmann, M; Gordon, J

    1979-01-01

    At 5 min after quiescent cells are induced to enter G1 there is a large increase in the amount of 32P incorporated into 40S ribosomal protein S6. Here we show that changes in the specific activities of 32Pi and [gamma-32P]ATP in stimulated as compared to quiescent cultures do not account for this large increase. Instead, we demonstrate by decreased electrophoretic mobility on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels that this increase is due to a quantitative increase in the total amount of phosphate incorporated into S6. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments show that the phosphate that is incorporated into S6 is metabolically stable during at least the first 60 min of induction and that the incorporation of 32P into S6 responds immediately to the replacement of 32Pi by Pi in the medium, in contrast to [gamma-32P]ATP which changes very slowly. Thus, the S6 phosphate donor must be a compartment separate from that of the total cellular ATP. Images PMID:291054

  9. Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

    2015-02-01

    The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

  10. Nanointerfaces in InAs-Sn2S6 nanocrystal-ligand networks: atomistic and electronic structure from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, Emilio; Wippermann, Stefan; Galli, Giulia

    2015-03-01

    Semiconducting nanocomposites - consisting of nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in a host matrix - offer exciting prospects for solar energy conversion, light emission and electronic applications. Recent advances in wet chemical techniques allow for the synthesis of NCs, their assembly into superlattices and embedding into a host matrix using only inexpensive solution processing. However, the atomistic details of such composites are poorly understood, due to the complexity of the synthesis conditions and the unavailability of robust experimental techniques to probe nanointerfaces at the microscopic level. Here we present a density functional theory investigation of the interaction of Sn2S6 ligands with InAs NCs. Employing a grand canonical approach, we considered a multitude of structures possibly realized at the NC-ligand interface, such as surface termination, reconstructions, passivation, substitution of subsurface atoms, ligand dissociation, NC core-shell formation and the adsorption of the ligands on NCs with different structures. This study provides guidance about the experimental conditions which lead to specific structural motifs and highlights the impact of structural details on the composite's electronic properties. S. W. acknowledges BMBF NanoMatFutur Grant No. 13N12972.

  11. Magnetically stabilized Fe8(?4-S)6S8 clusters in Ba6Fe25S27.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Timothy E; Borg, Christopher K H; Zavalij, Peter J; Rodriguez, Efrain E

    2014-10-21

    We have prepared Ba6Fe25S27, and studied its magnetic properties and electronic structure. Single crystal diffraction revealed a cubic phase (Pm3[combining macron]m) with a = 10.2057(9) Å and Z = 1. Within the large cubic cell, tetrahedrally coordinated Fe atoms arrange into octonuclear Fe8(?4-S)6(S8) clusters, which can be described as a cube of Fe atoms with six face-capping and eight terminal S atoms. SQUID magnetometry measurements reveal an antiferromagnetic transition at 25 K and anomalous high-temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility that is non-Curie like-two magnetic signatures which mimic behavior seen in the parent phases of Fe-based superconductors. Using a combined DFT and molecular orbital based approach, we provide an interpretation of the bonding and stability within Ba6M25S27 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) and related M9S8 phases. Through a ?-bonding molecular orbital model of the transition metal coordination environments, we illustrate how the local stability can be enhanced through addition of Ba. In addition, we perform spin-polarized DFT calculations on Ba6Fe25S27 to determine the effect of adopting an antiferromagnetic spin state on its electronic structure. By studying the magnetic properties from an empirical and computational perspective, we hope to elucidate what aspects of the magnetic structure are significant to bonding. PMID:25140897

  12. Rapamycin reverses NPM-ALK-induced glucocorticoid resistance in lymphoid tumor cells by inhibiting mTOR signaling pathway, enhancing G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gu, L; Gao, J; Li, Q; Zhu, Y P; Jia, C S; Fu, R Y; Chen, Y; Liao, Q K; Ma, Z

    2008-11-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is an oncogene product involved in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic malignancies. Recent studies have demonstrated that nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, originated from the fusion of NPM and ALK genes, causes cell transformation through diverse mechanisms. Here, we show a novel mechanism by which NPM-ALK transforms lymphoid tumor cells to become resistant to glucocorticoid (GC) or dexamethasone (Dex) treatment. Transformed BaF3 cells by NPM-ALK were much more resistant to Dex compared with their parental cells, and concurrently had a constitutive activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, as evidenced by hyperphosphorylation of its downstream effectors, p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin suppressed activation of p70S6K in BaF3/NPM-ALK cells and reversed GC resistance by synergistically inhibiting mTOR signaling pathway, enhancing cell cycle arrest at G(1) phase and promoting apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, our data indicate that the ALK fusion kinase, NPM-ALK, induces GC resistance by activating mTOR signaling, and addition of mTOR inhibitors to the chemotherapeutic regimen of ALK+ lymphomas may improve the prognosis. PMID:18685609

  13. Monocytic Activation of Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Protein Kinase A and Protein Kinase C Induced by Porins Isolated from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Galdiero; M. D'Isanto; M. Vitiello; E. Finamore; L. Peluso

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: In the present study a monocytic cell line, U937, was used to investigate the possible involvement of protein tyrosine kinases (NT-PTKs), protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in cell signaling pathways following Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium porin stimulation.Methods: Different concentrations of porins and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analysed to evaluate changes in PTK activity by a non

  14. Raised concentration of plasma creatine kinase BB isoenzyme in myelodysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Crook, M; Williams, A; Sankaralingam, A; Tutt, P

    1994-01-01

    A 72 year old woman presented with a suspected myocardial infarction. An echocardiograph showed no acute changes but her plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was increased at 343 U/l (< 175 normal range). The apparent creatine kinase-MB activity by a CK-M subunit immunoinhibition assay was 350 U/l. In view of the discrepancy between the total creatine kinase and CK-MB activity plasma creatine kinase electrophoresis studies were performed which showed not only a band of creatine kinase-MM but also a band of creatine kinase-BB, 53% of the total creatine kinase activity. No band of CK-MB was seen. It later transpired that the woman had myelodysplasia. It is suggested that premalignant and malignant haematological conditions should be considered in patients with an unexplained increase in plasma CK-BB. PMID:8063940

  15. Activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK) and Ras by cholecystokinin in rat pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Duan, R D; Zheng, C F; Guan, K L; Williams, J A

    1995-06-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) has recently been shown to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in rat pancreatic acini [Duan and Williams, Am. J. Physiol. 267 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 30): G401-G408, 1994]. To evaluate the mechanism of MAP kinase activation, we studied the effects of CCK on MAP kinase kinase (MEK) in rat pancreatic acini. Two forms of MEK were identified by immunoblotting, using antibodies specific to MEK1 and MEK2. MEK activity in acinar extracts and after immunoprecipitation with anti-MEK was detected using a recombinant fusion protein, glutathione S-transferase-MAP kinase, as a substrate. MEK activity rapidly increased after stimulation of acini by CCK, with significant stimulation at 1 min and a maximal effect at 5 min, followed by a slow decline to slightly above control levels after 30 min. The threshold concentration of CCK was approximately 10 pM, and the maximal effect was induced by 1 nM CCK, which increased MEK activity by 120%. In addition to CCK, bombesin and carbachol, but not secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide, enhanced MEK activity. Phorbol ester mimicked the effect of CCK, whereas ionomycin and thapsigargin failed to activate MEK. We further studied the activation of Ras, an important component leading to activation of MEK by growth factors. Ras in acini was immunoprecipitated and identified by Western blotting. CCK and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate stimulated the incorporation of GTP into Ras, a requirement for its activation, reaching a maximum at 10 min of approximately 120% over control. In conclusion, the activation of MAP kinase by CCK can be explained by activation of MEK and may involve the activation of Ras by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. PMID:7611406

  16. Branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase. Molecular cloning, expression, and sequence similarity with histidine protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Popov, K M; Zhao, Y; Shimomura, Y; Kuntz, M J; Harris, R A

    1992-07-01

    A cDNA for branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase was cloned from a rat heart cDNA library. The cDNA had an open reading frame encoding a protein of 382 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 43,280. The clone codes for the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase based on the following: 1) the deduced amino acid sequence contained the partial sequence of the kinase determined by direct sequencing; 2) expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli resulted in synthesis of a 43,000-Da protein that was recognized specifically by kinase antibodies; and 3) enzyme activity that phosphorylated and inactivated the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex was found in extracts of E. coli expressing the protein. Northern blot analysis indicated the mRNA for the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase was more abundant in rat heart than in rat liver, as expected from the relative amounts of kinase activity expressed in these tissues. The deduced sequence of the kinase aligned with a high degree of similarity within subdomains characteristic of procaryotic histidine protein kinases. This first mitochondrial protein kinase to be cloned appears more closely related in sequence to procaryotic histidine protein kinases than to eucaryotic serine/threonine protein kinases. PMID:1377677

  17. Conservation and Early Expression of Zebrafish Tyrosine Kinases Support the Utility of Zebrafish as a Model for Tyrosine Kinase Biology

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tyrosine kinases have significant roles in cell growth, apoptosis, development, and disease. To explore the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model for tyrosine kinase signaling and to better understand their roles, we have identified all of the tyrosine kinases encoded in the zebrafish genome and quantified RNA expression of selected tyrosine kinases during early development. Using profile hidden Markov model analysis, we identified 122 zebrafish tyrosine kinase genes and proposed unambiguous gene names where needed. We found them to be organized into 39 nonreceptor and 83 receptor type, and 30 families consistent with human tyrosine kinase family assignments. We found five human tyrosine kinase genes (epha1, bmx, fgr, srm, and insrr) with no identifiable zebrafish ortholog, and one zebrafish gene (yrk) with no identifiable human ortholog. We also found that receptor tyrosine kinase genes were duplicated more often than nonreceptor tyrosine kinase genes in zebrafish. We profiled expression levels of 30 tyrosine kinases representing all families using direct digital detection at different stages during the first 24 hours of development. The profiling experiments clearly indicate regulated expression of tyrosine kinases in the zebrafish, suggesting their role during early embryonic development. In summary, our study has resulted in the first comprehensive description of the zebrafish tyrosine kinome. PMID:23234507

  18. Dichloroacetate Stimulates Glycogen Accumulation in Primary Hepatocytes through an Insulin-Independent Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lingohr, Melissa K.(Washington State University) [Washington State University; Bull, Richard J.(SELF-EMPLOYED CONSULTANTS) [SELF-EMPLOYED CONSULTANTS; Kato-Weinstein, Junko (UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS) [UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS; Thrall, Brian D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

    2002-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA), a by-product of water chlorination, causes liver cancer in B6C3F1 mice. A hallmark response observed in mice exposed to carcinogenic doses of DCA is an accumulation of hepatic glycogen content. To distinguish whether the in vivo glycogenic effect of DCA was dependent on insulin and insulin signaling proteins, experiments were conducted in isolated hepatocytes where insulin concentrations could be controlled. In hepatocytes isolated from male B6C3F1 mice, DCA increased glycogen levels in a dose-related manner, independently of insulin. The accumulation of hepatocellular glycogen induced by DCA was not the result of decreased glycogenolysis, since DCA had no effect on the rate of glucagon-stimulated glycogen breakdown. Glycogen accumulation caused by DCA treatment was not hindered by inhibitors of extracellular-regulated protein kinase kinase (Erk1/2 kinase or MEK) or p70 kDa S6 protein kinase (p70(S6K)), but was completely blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin. Similarly, insulin-stimulated glycogen deposition was not influenced by the Erk1/2 kinase inhibitor, PD098509, or the p70(S6K) inhibitor, rapamycin. Unlike DCA-stimulated glycogen deposition, PI3K-inhibition only partially blocked the glycogenic effect of insulin. DCA did not cause phosphorylation of the downstream PI3K target protein, protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). The phosphorylation of PKB/Akt did not correlate to insulin-stimulated glycogenesis either. Similar to insulin, DCA in the medium decreased IR expression in isolated hepatocytes. The results indicate DCA increases hepatocellular glycogen accumulation through a PI3K-dependent mechanism that does not involve PKB/Akt and is, at least in part, different from the classical insulin-stimulated glycogenesis pathway. Somewhat surprisingly, insulin-stimulated glycogenesis also appears not to involve PKB/Akt in isolated murine hepatocytes.

  19. The role of Mott-Schottky heterojunctions in Ag-Ag8SnS6 as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Qingquan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan; Liang, Na; Xu, Miao; Chen, Wenlong; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2015-03-01

    Well-defined uniform pyramidal Ag-Ag8SnS6 heterodimers are prepared via a one-pot method. A plausible formation mechanism for the unique structures based on a seed-growth process and an etching effect due to oleylamine is proposed. The formed metal-semiconductor Mott-Schottky heterojunction promotes electron transfer from semiconducting Ag8 SnS6 to metallic Ag, which catalyzes the reduction of I3 (-) to I(-). When used as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells, the heterodimers show comparable performance to platinum. PMID:25619568

  20. SIS8, a putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, regulates sugar-resistant seedling development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yadong; Li, Chun Yao; Qi, Yiping; Park, Sungjin; Gibson, Susan I

    2014-02-01

    Sugar signaling pathways have been evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and are postulated to help regulate plant growth, development and responses to environmental cues. Forward genetic screens have identified sugar signaling or response mutants. Here we report the identification and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana sugar insensitive8 (sis8) mutants, which display a sugar-resistant seedling development phenotype. Unlike many other sugar insensitive mutants, sis8 mutants exhibit wild-type responses to the inhibitory effects of abscisic acid and paclobutrazol (an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis) on seed germination. Positional cloning of the SIS8 gene revealed that it encodes a putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK; At1g73660). SIS8mRNA is expressed ubiquitously among Arabidopsis organs. A UDP-glucosyltransferase, UGT72E1 (At3g50740), was identified as an interacting partner of SIS8 based on a yeast two-hybrid screen and in planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Both SIS8-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and UGT72E1-YFP fusion proteins localize to the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco leaf cells. T-DNA insertions in At3g50740 cause a sugar-insensitive phenotype. These results indicate that SIS8, a putative MAPKKK, is a regulator of sugar response in Arabidopsis and interacts with a UDP-glucosyltransferase in the nucleus. PMID:24320620

  1. Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 66 Protein Kinase and Its Relationship to Alphaherpesvirus US3 Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Erazo, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame (ORF) 66 encodes a basophilic kinase orthologous to the US3 protein kinases found in all alphaherpesviruses. This review summarizes current information on the ORF66 kinase, and outlines apparent differences from other US3 kinases, as well as some of the conserved functions. One critical difference is the VZV ORF66 kinase targeting of the major regulatory VZV IE62 protein to control its nuclear import and assembly into the VZV virion, which is so far unprecedented in the alphaherpesviruses. However, ORF66 targets some cellular targets which are also targeted by US3 kinases of other herpesviruses, including the histone deacetylase-1 and 2 proteins, pathways that lead to changes in actin dynamics, and the targeting of substrates of protein kinase A, including the nuclear matrix protein matrin 3. PMID:20186610

  2. Varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 66 protein kinase and its relationship to alphaherpesvirus US3 kinases.

    PubMed

    Erazo, Angela; Kinchington, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame (ORF) 66 encodes a basophilic kinase orthologous to the US3 protein kinases found in all alphaherpesviruses. This review summarizes current information on the ORF66 kinase, and outlines apparent differences from other US3 kinases, as well as some of the conserved functions. One critical difference is the VZV ORF66 kinase targeting of the major regulatory VZV IE62 protein to control its nuclear import and assembly into the VZV virion, which is so far unprecedented in the alphaherpesviruses. However, ORF66 targets some cellular targets which are also targeted by US3 kinases of other herpesviruses, including the histone deacetylase-1 and 2 proteins, pathways that lead to changes in actin dynamics, and the targeting of substrates of protein kinase A, including the nuclear matrix protein matrin 3. PMID:20186610

  3. Pharmacological and Genetic Evaluation of Proposed Roles of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase (MEK), Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK), and p90RSK in the Control of mTORC1 Protein Signaling by Phorbol Esters*

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Bruno D.; Alain, Tommy; Finestone, Leona K.; Huang, Brandon P. H.; Rolfe, Mark; Jiang, Tian; Yao, Zhong; Hernandez, Greco; Bennett, Christopher F.; Proud, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) links the control of mRNA translation, cell growth, and metabolism to diverse stimuli. Inappropriate activation of mTORC1 can lead to cancer. Phorbol esters are naturally occurring products that act as potent tumor promoters. They activate isoforms of protein kinase C (PKCs) and stimulate the oncogenic MEK/ERK signaling cascade. They also activate mTORC1 signaling. Previous work indicated that mTORC1 activation by the phorbol ester PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) depends upon PKCs and may involve MEK. However, the precise mechanism(s) through which they activate mTORC1 remains unclear. Recent studies have implicated both the ERKs and the ERK-activated 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (p90RSK) in activating mTORC1 signaling via phosphorylation of TSC2 (a regulator of mTORC1) and/or the mTORC1 component raptor. However, the relative importance of each of these kinases and phosphorylation events for the activation of mTORC1 signaling is unknown. The recent availability of MEK (PD184352) and p90RSK (BI-D1870) inhibitors of improved specificity allowed us to address the roles of these protein kinases in controlling mTORC1 in a variety of human and rodent cell types. In parallel, we used specific shRNAs against p90RSK1 and p90RSK2 to further test their roles in regulating mTORC1 signaling. Our data indicate that p90RSKs are dispensable for the activation of mTORC1 signaling by phorbol esters in all cell types tested. Our data also reveal striking diversity in the requirements for MEK/ERK in the control of mTORC1 between different cell types, pointing to additional signaling connections between phorbol esters and mTORC1, which do not involve MEK/ERK. This study provides important information for the design of efficient strategies to combat the hyperactivation of mTORC1 signaling by oncogenic pathways. PMID:21659537

  4. Purification, characterization, regulation and molecular cloning of mitochondrial protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Harris, R A; Popov, K M; Shimomura, Y; Zhao, Y; Jaskiewicz, J; Nanaumi, N; Suzuki, M

    1992-01-01

    The mitochondrial kinases responsible for the phosphorylation and inactivation of rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the rat liver and heart branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes have been purified to homogeneity. The branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase is composed of one subunit with a molecular weight of 44 kDa; pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase has two subunits with molecular weights of 48 (alpha) and 45 kDa (beta). Proteolysis maps of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase and the two subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase are different, suggesting that all subunits are different entities. The alpha subunit of the rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was selectively cleaved by chymotrypsin with concomitant loss of kinase activity, as previously shown for the bovine kidney enzyme, suggesting that the catalytic activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase resides in this subunit. Polyclonal antibodies against branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, purified by an epitope selection method, bound only to the 44 kDa polypeptide of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, substantiating that the 44 kDa protein corresponds to the kinase for this complex. Both kinases exhibited strong substrate specificity toward their respective complexes and would not inactivate heterologous complexes. The kinases possessed slightly different substrate specificities toward histones. Phosphorylation and inactivation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex by its purified kinase was inhibited by alpha-chloroisocaproate and dichloroacetate, established inhibitors of the phosphorylation of the complex. cDNAs encoding the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase have been isolated from rat heart and rat liver lambda gt11 libraries. This represents the first successful cloning of a mitochondrial protein kinase. Preliminary data suggest that two different isoforms of the kinase may exist in different ratios in various tissues. No evidence was found for induction of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex nor its kinase by clofibric acid. Rather, clofibric acid is a potent inhibitor of the activity of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase and this may be the molecular mechanism responsible for the myotonic effects of clofibric acid in man. PMID:1496922

  5. Crystalline 3-phosphoglycerate kinase from skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Scopes, R. K.

    1969-01-01

    1. A procedure for preparing crystalline 3-phosphoglycerate kinase from rabbit or pig skeletal muscle is presented. 2. The preparation phosphorylates up to 975?moles of 3-phosphoglycerate/min./mg. at 30° and is not contaminated with myokinase. 3. The enzyme has an estimated molecular weight of 36500±1000, and contains three residues each of tyrosine and tryptophan. 4. The preparation is suitable for use in the enzymic procedures for determining ATP, phosphocreatine and 3-phosphoglycerate. PMID:5807214

  6. The riddle of MAP kinase signaling specificity.

    PubMed

    Madhani, H D; Fink, G R

    1998-04-01

    Cells encounter an enormous variety of signals in their environments and must respond to each stimulus appropriately with changes in their genetic programs. Many of these external signals are transduced by a highly conserved eukaryotic signaling mechanism, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. How are the myriad of inputs transduced accurately so that each evokes a specific response? One mechanism would be to have a distinct MAPK cascade for each signal; however, the situation appears to be more complicated. PMID:9594663

  7. Functional Aspects of Creatine Kinase in Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram Hemmer; Theo Wallimann

    1993-01-01

    The distinct isoenzyme-specific localization of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes found recently in brain suggests an important function for CK in brain energetics and points to adaptation of the CK system to the special energy requirements of different neuronal and glial cell types. For example, the presence of brain-type B-CK in Bergmann glial cells and astrocytes is very likely related to

  8. Cellular trafficking of the IL-1RI-associated kinase-1 requires intact kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Boel, Gaby-Fleur [German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Biochemistry of Micronutrients, 14558 Nuthetal (Germany)]. E-mail: boel@mail.dife.de; Jurrmann, Nadine [German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Biochemistry of Micronutrients, 14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, 14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Brigelius-Flohe, Regina [German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Biochemistry of Micronutrients, 14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, 14558 Nuthetal (Germany)

    2005-06-24

    Upon stimulation of cells with interleukin-1 (IL-1) the IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) transiently associates to and dissociates from the IL-1RI and thereafter translocates into the nucleus. Here we show that nuclear translocation of IRAK-1 depends on its kinase activity since translocation was not observed in EL-4 cells overexpressing a kinase negative IRAK-1 mutant (EL-4{sup IRAK-1-K239S}). IRAK-1 itself, an endogenous substrate with an apparent molecular weight of 24 kDa (p24), and exogenous substrates like histone and myelin basic protein are phosphorylated by nuclear located IRAK-1. Phosphorylation of p24 cannot be detected in EL-4{sup IRAK-1-K239S} cells. IL-1-dependent recruitment of IRAK-1 to the IL-1RI and subsequent phosphorylation of IRAK-1 is a prerequisite for nuclear translocation of IRAK-1. It is therefore concluded that intracellular localization of IRAK-1 depends on its kinase activity and that IRAK-1 may also function as a kinase in the nucleus as shown by a new putative endogenous substrate.

  9. A-kinase Anchoring Protein 79/150 Recruits Protein Kinase C to Phosphorylate Roundabout Receptors.

    PubMed

    Samelson, Bret K; Gore, Bryan B; Whiting, Jennifer L; Nygren, Patrick J; Purkey, Alicia M; Colledge, Marcie; Langeberg, Lorene K; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Zweifel, Larry S; Scott, John D

    2015-05-29

    Anchoring proteins direct protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases toward selected substrates to control the efficacy, context, and duration of neuronal phosphorylation events. The A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP79/150 interacts with protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin) to modulate second messenger signaling events. In a mass spectrometry-based screen for additional AKAP79/150 binding partners, we have identified the Roundabout axonal guidance receptor Robo2 and its ligands Slit2 and Slit3. Biochemical and cellular approaches confirm that a linear sequence located in the cytoplasmic tail of Robo2 (residues 991-1070) interfaces directly with sites on the anchoring protein. Parallel studies show that AKAP79/150 interacts with the Robo3 receptor in a similar manner. Immunofluorescent staining detects overlapping expression patterns for murine AKAP150, Robo2, and Robo3 in a variety of brain regions, including hippocampal region CA1 and the islands of Calleja. In vitro kinase assays, peptide spot array mapping, and proximity ligation assay staining approaches establish that human AKAP79-anchored PKC selectively phosphorylates the Robo3.1 receptor subtype on serine 1330. These findings imply that anchored PKC locally modulates the phosphorylation status of Robo3.1 in brain regions governing learning and memory and reward. PMID:25882844

  10. Computational identification of protein kinases and kinase-specific substrates in plants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han; Wang, Yongbo; Liu, Zexian; Xue, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases (PKs) plays an essential role in almost all biological progresses in plants. Thus, the identification of PKs and kinase-specific substrates is fundamental for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of protein phosphorylation especially in controlling plant growth and development. In this chapter, we describe the computational methods and protocols for the identification of PKs and kinase-specific substrates in plants, by using Vitis vinifera as an example. First, the proteome sequences and experimentally identified phosphorylation sites (p-sites) in Vitis vinifera were downloaded. The potential PKs were computationally identified based on preconstructed Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles and ortholog searches, whereas the kinase-specific p-sites, or site-specific kinase-substrate relations (ssKSRs) were initially predicted by the software package of Group-based Prediction System (GPS) and further processed by the iGPS algorithm (in vivo GPS) to filter potentially false positive hits. All primary data sets and prediction results of Vitis vinifera are available at: http://ekpd.biocuckoo.org/protocol.php . PMID:25930704

  11. G protein-coupled receptor kinases: more than just kinases and not only for GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Gurevich, Eugenia V.; Tesmer, John J. G.; Mushegian, Arcady; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are best known for their role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. GRKs phosphorylate activated receptors and promote high affinity binding of arrestins, which precludes G protein coupling. GRKs have a multidomain structure, with the kinase domain inserted into a loop of a regulator of G protein signaling homology domain. Unlike many other kinases, GRKs do not need to be phosphorylated in their activation loop to achieve an activated state. Instead, they are directly activated by docking with active GPCRs. In this manner they are able to selectively phosphorylate Ser/Thr residues on only the activated form of the receptor, unlike related kinases such as protein kinase A. GRKs also phosphorylate a variety of non-GPCR substrates and regulate several signaling pathways via direct interactions with other proteins in a phosphorylation-independent manner. Multiple GRK subtypes are present in virtually every animal cell, with the highest expression levels found in neurons, with their extensive and complex signal regulation. Insufficient or excessive GRK activity was implicated in a variety of human disorders, ranging from heart failure to depression to Parkinson’s disease. As key regulators of GPCR-dependent and -independent signaling pathways, GRKs are emerging drug targets and promising molecular tools for therapy. Targeted modulation of expression and/or of activity of several GRK isoforms for therapeutic purposes was recently validated in cardiac disorders and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:21903131

  12. Targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Ottmann, Oliver G.; Deininger, Michael; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway represents an important anticancer target because it has been implicated in cancer cell growth, survival, and motility. Recent studies show that PI3K may also play a role in the development of resistance to currently available therapies. In a broad range of cancers, various components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling axis are genetically modified, and the pathway can be activated through many different mechanisms. The frequency of genetic alterations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway, coupled with the impact in oncogenesis and disease progression, make this signaling axis an attractive target in anticancer therapy. A better understanding of the critical function of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in leukemias and lymphomas has led to the clinical evaluation of novel rationally designed inhibitors in this setting. Three main categories of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors have been developed so far: agents that target phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (dual inhibitors), pan-phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors that target all class I isoforms, and isoform-specific inhibitors that selectively target the ?, -?, -?, or -? isoforms. Emerging data highlight the promise of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in combination with other therapies for the treatment of patients with hematologic malignancies. Further evaluation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in first-line or subsequent regimens may improve clinical outcomes. This article reviews the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in hematologic malignancies and the potential clinical utility of inhibitors that target this pathway. PMID:24425689

  13. Mechanism of inhibition of Raf-1 by protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Häfner, S; Adler, H S; Mischak, H; Janosch, P; Heidecker, G; Wolfman, A; Pippig, S; Lohse, M; Ueffing, M; Kolch, W

    1994-10-01

    The cytoplasmic Raf-1 kinase is essential for mitogenic signalling by growth factors, which couple to tyrosine kinases, and by tumor-promoting phorbol esters such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activate protein kinase C (PKC). Signalling by the Raf-1 kinase can be blocked by activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). The molecular mechanism of this inhibition is not precisely known but has been suggested to involve attenuation of Raf-1 binding to Ras. Using purified proteins, we show that in addition to weakening the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras, PKA can inhibit Raf-1 function directly via phosphorylation of the Raf-1 kinase domain. Phosphorylation by PKA interferes with the activation of Raf-1 by either PKC alpha or the tyrosine kinase Lck and even can downregulate the kinase activity of Raf-1 previously activated by PKC alpha or amino-terminal truncation. This type of inhibition can be dissociated from the ability of Raf-1 to associate with Ras, since (i) the isolated Raf-1 kinase domain, which lacks the Ras binding domain, is still susceptible to inhibition by PKA, (ii) phosphorylation of Raf-1 by PKC alpha alleviates the PKA-induced reduction of Ras binding but does not prevent the downregulation of Raf-1 kinase activity by PKA and (iii) cAMP agonists antagonize transformation by v-Raf, which is Ras independent. PMID:7935389

  14. Unveiling the Novel Dual Specificity Protein Kinases in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Gunjan; Sajid, Andaleeb; Arulanandh, Mary Diana; Singhal, Anshika; Mattoo, Abid R.; Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Maiti, Souvik; Singh, Yogendra

    2012-01-01

    Dual specificity protein kinases (DSPKs) are unique enzymes that can execute multiple functions in the cell, which are otherwise performed exclusively by serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases. In this study, we have characterized the protein kinases Bas2152 (PrkD) and Bas2037 (PrkG) from Bacillus anthracis. Transcriptional analyses of these kinases showed that they are expressed in all phases of growth. In a serendipitous discovery, both kinases were found to be DSPKs. PrkD was found to be similar to the eukaryotic dual specificity Tyr phosphorylation-regulated kinase class of dual specificity kinases, which autophosphorylates on Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues and phosphorylates Ser and Thr residues on substrates. PrkG was found to be a bona fide dual specificity protein kinase that mediates autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation on Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues. The sites of phosphorylation in both of the kinases were identified through mass spectrometry. Phosphorylation on Tyr residues regulates the kinase activity of PrkD and PrkG. PrpC, the only known Ser/Thr protein phosphatase, was also found to possess dual specificity. Genistein, a known Tyr kinase inhibitor, was found to inhibit the activities of PrkD and PrkG and affect the growth of B. anthracis cells, indicating a possible role of these kinases in cell growth and development. In addition, the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase was found to be phosphorylated by PrkD on Ser and Thr residues but not by PrkG. Thus, this study provides the first evidence of DSPKs in B. anthracis that belong to different classes and have different modes of regulation. PMID:22711536

  15. Diacylglycerol Kinase Inhibition and Vascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyehun; Allahdadi, Kyan J.; Tostes, Rita C.A.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2010-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), a family of lipid kinases, convert diacylglycerol (DG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). Acting as a second messenger, DG activates protein kinase C (PKC). PA, a signaling lipid, regulates diverse functions involved in physiological responses. Since DGK modulates two lipid second messengers, DG and PA, regulation of DGK could induce related cellular responses. Currently, there are 10 mammalian isoforms of DGK that are categorized into five groups based on their structural features. These diverse isoforms of DGK are considered to activate distinct cellular functions according to extracellular stimuli. Each DGK isoform is thought to play various roles inside the cell, depending on its subcellular localization (nuclear, ER, Golgi complex or cytoplasm). In vascular smooth muscle, vasoconstrictors such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and norepinephrine stimulate contraction by increasing inositol trisphosphate (IP3), calcium, DG and PKC activity. Inhibition of DGK could increase DG availability and decrease PA levels, as well as alter intracellular responses, including calcium-mediated and PKC-mediated vascular contraction. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate a role of DGK in vascular function. Selective inhibition of DGK isoforms may represent a novel therapeutic approach in vascular dysfunction. PMID:21547002

  16. Elastic Electron Scattering by Laser-Excited (sup 138)Ba (...6s6p (sup 1)P(sub 1)) Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csanak, G.

    1997-01-01

    The result of a joint experimental and theoretical study concerning elastic electron scattering by laser-excited (sup 138)Ba (...6s6p (sup 1)P(sub 1)) atoms are presented. From these studies, we extracted differential scattering cross sections (DCS's) and collision parameters for elastic scattering by the coherently prepared (sup 1)P(sub 1) atoms.

  17. Evodiamine Induces Apoptosis and Enhances TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells through mTOR/S6K1-Mediated Downregulation of Mcl-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Qu, Shanna; Shi, Qi; He, Dalin; Jin, Xunbo

    2014-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer agents, has been considered as a new strategy for anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that evodiamine, a quinolone alkaloid isolated from the fruit of Evodia fructus, induced apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we found that evodiamine significantly reduced the protein levels of Mcl-1 in 253J and T24 bladder cancer cells, and overexpression of this molecule attenuated the apoptosis induced by evodiamine alone, or in combination with TRAIL. Further experiments revealed that evodiamine did not affect the mRNA level, proteasomal degradation and protein stability of Mcl-1. On the other hand, evodiamine inhibited the mTOR/S6K1 pathway, which usually regulates protein translation; moreover, knockdown of S6K1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively reduced Mcl-1 levels, indicating evodiamine downregulates c-FLIP through inhibition of mTOR/S6K1 pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that evodiamine induces apoptosis and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis possibly through mTOR/S6K1-mediated downregulation of Mcl-1; furthermore, these findings provide a rationale for the combined application of evodiamine with TRAIL in the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:24566141

  18. Ceramide inhibits insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation through activation of Rheb/mTORC1/S6K signaling in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-Ting; Chuang, Jen-Hua; Yang, Wen-Chin; Yin, Yi; Lin, Yenshou

    2014-07-01

    Ceramide is a negative regulator of insulin activity. At the molecular level, it causes a decrease in insulin-stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes. Interestingly, we found that the phosphorylation of S6K at Thr389 was increased under the same conditions. Utilizing both rapamycin to inhibit mTORC1 activity and shRNA to knock down Rheb, we demonstrated that the decrease in Akt Ser473 phosphorylation stimulated by insulin after C2-ceramide incubation can be prevented. The mechanism by which C2-ceramide impairs signaling would seem to involve a negative feedback of activated S6K via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 at Ser636/639, since S6K inhibitor can block this phenomenon. Finally, rapamycin treatment was found not to affect C2-ceramide-induced PKC? activation, suggesting that the pathway revealed in this study is parallel to the one involving PKC? activation. We proposed a novel pathway/mechanism involving Rheb/mTORC1/S6K signaling to explain how C2-ceramide impairs insulin signaling via Akt phosphorylation. The existence of multiple pathways involved in insulin signaling impairment by C2-ceramide treatment implies that different strategies might be needed to ameliorate insulin resistance caused by C2-ceramide. PMID:24650522

  19. Dissecting kinase profiling data to predict activity and understand cross-reactivity of kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Niijima, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Akira; Okuno, Yasushi

    2012-04-23

    The development of selective and multitargeted kinase inhibitors has received much attention, because cross-reactivity with unintended targets may cause toxic side effects, while it can also give rise to efficacious multitargeted drugs. Here we describe a deconvolution approach to dissecting kinase profiling data in order to gain knowledge about cross-reactivity of inhibitors from large-scale profiling data. This approach not only enables activity predictions of given compounds on a kinome-wide scale, but also allows to extract residue-fragment pairs that are associated with activity. We demonstrate its effectiveness using a large-scale public chemogenomics data set and also apply our proposed model to a recently published bioactivity data set. We further illustrate that the preference of given compounds for kinases of interest is better understood by residue-fragment pairs, which could provide both biological and chemical insights into cross-reactivity. PMID:22414491

  20. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? mediates microglial phagocytosis via lipid kinase-independent control of cAMP.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Schneble, N; Müller, J P; Bauer, R; Perino, A; Marone, R; Rybalkin, S D; Wymann, M P; Hirsch, E; Wetzker, R

    2013-03-13

    Microglial phagocytosis plays a key role in neuroprotective and neurodegenerative responses of the innate immune system in the brain. Here we investigated the regulatory function of phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? (PI3K?) in phagocytosis of bacteria and Zymosan particles by mouse brain microglia in vitro and in vivo. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches our data revealed PI3K? as an essential mediator of microglial phagocytosis. Unexpectedly, microglia expressing lipid kinase deficient mutant PI3K? exhibited similar phagocytosis as wild-type cells. These data suggest kinase-independent stimulation of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity by PI3K? as a crucial mediator of phagocytosis. In sum our findings indicate PI3K?-dependent suppression of cAMP signaling as a critical regulatory element of microglial phagocytosis. PMID:23276671

  1. Phosphorylation of WASP by the Cdc42-associated kinase ACK1: dual hydroxyamino acid specificity in a tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Noriko; Lougheed, Julie; Miller, W Todd

    2005-12-23

    ACK1 is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that associates specifically with Cdc42. Relatively few ACK1 substrates and interacting proteins have been identified. In this study, we demonstrated that ACK1 phosphorylates the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), a Cdc42 effector that plays an important role in the formation of new actin filaments. ACK1 and WASP interact in intact cells, and overexpression of ACK1 promotes WASP phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of WASP in vitro was enhanced by the addition of Cdc42 or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate, presumably due to release of the autoinhibitory interactions in WASP. Surprisingly, when we mapped the sites of WASP phosphorylation, we found that ACK1 possesses significant serine kinase activity toward WASP (directed at Ser-242), as well as tyrosine kinase activity directed at Tyr-256. A serine peptide derived from the Ser-242 WASP phosphorylation site is also a substrate for ACK1. ACK1 expressed in bacteria retained its serine kinase activity, eliminating the possibility of contamination with a copurifying kinase. Serine phosphorylation of WASP enhanced the ability of WASP to stimulate actin polymerization in mammalian cell lysates. Thus, the tyrosine kinase ACK1 acts as a dual specificity kinase toward this substrate. In contrast to other dual specificity kinases that more closely resemble Ser/Thr kinases, ACK1 is a tyrosine kinase with an active site that can accommodate both types of hydroxyamino acids in substrates. PMID:16257963

  2. Coiled-coil interactions modulate multimerization, mitochondrial binding and kinase activity of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase splice isoforms.

    PubMed

    van Herpen, René E M A; Tjeertes, Jorrit V; Mulders, Susan A M; Oude Ophuis, Ralph J A; Wieringa, Bé; Wansink, Derick G

    2006-03-01

    The myotonic dystrophy protein kinase polypeptide repertoire in mice and humans consists of six different splice isoforms that vary in the nature of their C-terminal tails and in the presence or absence of an internal Val-Ser-Gly-Gly-Gly motif. Here, we demonstrate that myotonic dystrophy protein kinase isoforms exist in high-molecular-weight complexes controlled by homo- and heteromultimerization. This multimerization is mediated by coiled-coil interactions in the tail-proximal domain and occurs independently of alternatively spliced protein segments or myotonic dystrophy protein kinase activity. Complex formation was impaired in myotonic dystrophy protein kinase mutants in which three leucines at positions a and d in the coiled-coil heptad repeats were mutated to glycines. These coiled-coil mutants were still capable of autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation of peptides, but the rates of their kinase activities were significantly lowered. Moreover, phosphorylation of the natural myotonic dystrophy protein kinase substrate, myosin phosphatase targeting subunit, was preserved, even though binding of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase to the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit was strongly reduced. Furthermore, the association of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase isoform C to the mitochondrial outer membrane was weakened when the coiled-coil interaction was perturbed. Our findings indicate that the coiled-coil domain modulates myotonic dystrophy protein kinase multimerization, substrate binding, kinase activity and subcellular localization characteristics. PMID:16519679

  3. L-Glutamine enhances enterocyte growth via activation of the mTOR signaling pathway independently of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dan; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Ouyang, Wanjin; Long, Minhui; Zhao, Di; Ding, Binying; Liu, Yulan; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-01-01

    Neonates (including human infants) require L-glutamine (Gln) for optimal intestinal health. This study tested the hypothesis that Gln enhances enterocyte growth via both mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1) were cultured for 3 days in Gln-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing 0 or 2 mM Gln. To determine the role of mTOR and AMPK on cell growth, additional experiments were conducted where medium contained 2 mM Gln and 10 nM rapamycin (Rap, an inhibitor of mTOR) or 1 ?M compound C (an inhibitor of AMPK). IPEC-1 cell growth increased with increasing concentrations of Gln from 0 to 2 mM. Compared with 0 mM Gln, 2 mM Gln increased (P < 0.05) the amounts of phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase) proteins but did not affect abundances of total or phosphorylated AMPK protein. Gln also increased mRNA levels for Bcl-2, mTOR, p70S6 kinase, 4E-BP1, COX7C, ASCT2, ODC, SGLT-1, CFTR, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, HSP70, and ZO-1. Similarly, cells cultured with Rap and Gln exhibited higher (P < 0.05) abundances of phosphorylated 4E-BP1 and p70S6 kinase proteins than the Rap-only group, whereas abundances of phosphorylated mTOR and 4E-BP1 proteins were increased when AMPK was inhibited by compound C. Conversely, the amount of phosphorylated AMPK increased when mTOR was inhibited by Rap, suggesting a negative cross-talk between mTOR and AMPK. Collectively, these results indicate that Gln stimulates enterocyte growth by activating the mTOR signaling pathway independently of AMPK. PMID:25280462

  4. A Fluorescence-Based Thermal Shift Assay Identifies Inhibitors of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Sankar N.; Luan, Chi-Hao; Mishra, Rama K.; Xu, Li; Scheidt, Karl A.; Anderson, Wayne F.; Bergan, Raymond C.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second highest cause of cancer death in United States males. If the metastatic movement of PCa cells could be inhibited, then mortality from PCa could be greatly reduced. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4) has previously been shown to activate pro-invasion signaling pathways in human PCa. Recognizing that MAP2K4 represents a novel and validated therapeutic target, we sought to develop and characterize an efficient process for the identification of small molecules that target MAP2K4. Using a fluorescence-based thermal shift assay (FTS) assay, we first evaluated an 80 compound library of known kinase inhibitors, thereby identifying 8 hits that thermally stabilized MAP2K4 in a concentration dependent manner. We then developed an in vitro MAP2K4 kinase assay employing the biologically relevant downstream substrates, JNK1 and p38 MAPK, to evaluate kinase inhibitory function. In this manner, we validated the performance of our initial FTS screen. We next applied this approach to a 2000 compound chemically diverse library, identified 7 hits, and confirmed them in the in vitro kinase assay. Finally, by coupling our structure-activity relationship data to MAP2K4's crystal structure, we constructed a model for ligand binding. It predicts binding of our identified inhibitory compounds to the ATP binding pocket. Herein we report the creation of a robust inhibitor-screening platform with the ability to inform the discovery and design of new and potent MAP2K4 inhibitors. PMID:24339940

  5. Sequence and structural analysis of kinase ATP pocket residues.

    PubMed

    Vulpetti, Anna; Bosotti, Roberta

    2004-10-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest known families of enzymes. Most kinases bind ATP and most synthetic kinase inhibitors are ATP-competitive, which makes selectivity a potential problem. However, despite the high sequence similarity in the ATP binding pocket, several groups including ours have been able to develop highly potent and selective ATP-competitive inhibitors. To systematically aid the design of specific inhibitors in our protein kinase projects, we aligned all known three-dimensional structures and all known sequences of human protein kinases. We identified a set of 38 residues that make up the ATP pocket and analyzed the variability among these residues. The most variable residues in the ATP pocket are targeted to design specificity into inhibitors in our various kinase projects. PMID:15474052

  6. Autophosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Dorado, J; Almaula, N; Inouye, S; Inouye, M

    1993-01-01

    The nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase) from Myxococcus xanthus has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized (J. Munoz-Dorado, M. Inouye, and S. Inouye, J. Biol. Chem. 265:2702-2706, 1990). In the presence of ATP, the NDP kinase was autophosphorylated. Phosphoamino acid analysis was carried out after acid and base hydrolyses of phosphorylated NDP kinase. It was found that the protein was phosphorylated not only at a histidine residue but also at a serine residue. Replacement of histidine 117 with a glutamine residue completely abolished the autophosphorylation and nucleotide-binding activity of the NDP kinase. Since histidine 117 is the only histidine residue that is conserved in all known NDP kinases so far characterized, the results suggest that the phosphohistidine intermediate is formed at this residue during the transphosphorylation reaction from nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. Preliminary mutational analysis of putative ATP-binding sites is also presented. Images PMID:8381783

  7. Lessons learned from the development of an Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor for chronic myelogenous leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. Druker; Nicholas B. Lydon

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinases are a large family of homologous pro- teins comprising 2 major subfamilies, the protein ser- ine\\/threonine kinases and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). Protein kinases function as components of sig- nal transduction pathways, playing a central role in diverse biological processes such as control of cell growth, metabolism, differentiation, and apoptosis. The development of selective protein kinase inhibitors that

  8. Discovery of a Potent And Selective Aurora Kinase Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Oslob, J.D.; Romanowski, M.J.; Allen, D.A.; Baskaran, S.; Bui, M.; Elling, R.A.; Flanagan, W.M.; Fung, A.D.; Hanan, E.J.; Harris, S.; Heumann, S.A.; Hoch, U.; Jacobs, J.W.; Lam, J.; Lawrence, C.E.; McDowell, R.S.; Nannini, M.A.; Shen, W.; Silverman, J.A.; Sopko, M.M.; Tangonan, B.T.

    2009-05-21

    This communication describes the discovery of a novel series of Aurora kinase inhibitors. Key SAR and critical binding elements are discussed. Some of the more advanced analogues potently inhibit cellular proliferation and induce phenotypes consistent with Aurora kinase inhibition. In particular, compound 21 (SNS-314) is a potent and selective Aurora kinase inhibitor that exhibits significant activity in pre-clinical in vivo tumor models.

  9. JAK Kinases in Leukemias, Lymphomas, and Multiple Myeloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Burger; Martin Gramatzki

    The Janus kinase or just another kinase (JAK) family comprises cytoplasmic receptor-associated protein tyrosine kinases that\\u000a are involved in signal transduction pathways mediated by many cytokines and cytokine-like hormones (1–4). Physiologically, these cytokines play a critical role in regulating normal cellular functions such as proliferation, survival,\\u000a and differentiation. The importance of JAKs derives from the fact that they are the

  10. Protein kinases are potential targets to treat inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Yan, Yutao

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the two main forms of which are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. In this article, we will review the mechanisms of involvement of protein kinases in the pathogenesis of and intervention against IBD, in terms of their effects on genetics, microbiota, mucous layer and tight junction, and the potential of protein kinases as therapeutic targets against IBD. PMID:25374761

  11. Overriding Imatinib Resistance with a Novel ABL Kinase Inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil P. Shah; Chris Tran; Francis Y. Lee; Ping Chen; Derek Norris; Charles L. Sawyers

    2004-01-01

    Resistance to the ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib (STI571 or Gleevec) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) occurs through selection for tumor cells harboring BCR-ABL kinase domain point mutations that interfere with drug binding. Crystallographic studies predict that most imatinib-resistant mutants should remain sensitive to inhibitors that bind ABL with less stringent conformational requirements. BMS-354825 is an orally bioavailable ABL kinase inhibitor

  12. Interacting Protein Kinases Involved in the Regulation of Flagellar Length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Erdmann; Anne Scholz; Inga M. Melzer; Christel Schmetz; Martin Wiese

    2006-01-01

    A striking difference of the life stages of the protozoan parasite Leishmania is a long flagellum in the insect stage promastigotes and a rudimentary organelle in the mammalian amastigotes. LmxMKK, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase from Leishmania mexicana, is required for growth of a full-length flagellum. We identified LmxMPK3, a MAP kinase homologue, with a similar expression pattern as

  13. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling – which way to target?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias P Wymann; Marketa Zvelebil; Muriel Laffargue

    2003-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are central to the control of cell growth, proliferation and survival, and drive the progression of tumours by activating phosphoinositide-dependent kinase, protein kinase B and the target of rapamycin. Other downstream effectors link PI3K to cell motility and the control of cardiovascular parameters. Current knowledge indicates that PI3Ks might qualify as drug targets for the treatment of

  14. Hypothermia differentially increases extracellular signal-regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun terminal kinase activation in the hippocampus during reperfusion after asphyxial cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Hicks, S D; Parmele, K T; DeFranco, D B; Klann, E; Callaway, C W

    2000-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases are signal transduction mediators that have been implicated in cell survival and cell death. This study characterized the activation of pathways in the hippocampus during reperfusion after global cerebral ischemia, as well as the influence of a regimen of hypothermia that reduces ischemic cell death in the hippocampus. Circulatory arrest was induced in rats by 8 min of asphyxia. Relative levels of phosphorylated and total extracellular signal-regulated kinase, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were measured in the hippocampus after 6, 12 or 24h of reperfusion using immunoblotting. Asphyxia induced a progressive increase in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but no change in phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Induction of mild hypothermia (33 degrees C) during reperfusion increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and produced a smaller increase in stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation at 24h. Hypothermia did not alter extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in rats not subjected to ischemia. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, and was inhibited by administration of the specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor SL327. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in active extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the CA1, CA2, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus after ischemia and reperfusion. In contrast, active stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase immunoreactivity was most intense in the CA3 and dentate gyrus regions. These data demonstrate that both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways are activated during the first 24h of reperfusion after global cerebral ischemia, and that hypothermia increases the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase relative to stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Thus, an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation may be associated with improved neuronal survival after ischemic injury. PMID:10891611

  15. Opposing Effects of Age and Calorie Restriction on Molecular Determinants of Myocardial Ischemic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    See Hoe, Louise; Pepe, Salvatore; Johnson, Peter; Headrick, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We test the hypothesis that moderate calorie restriction (CR) reverses negative influences of age on molecular determinants of myocardial stress resistance. Postischemic contractile dysfunction, cellular damage, and expression of regulators of autophagy/apoptosis and of prosurvival and prodeath kinases were assessed in myocardium from young adult (YA; 2- to 4-month-old) and middle-aged (MA; 12-month-old) mice, and MA mice subjected to 14 weeks of 40% CR (MA-CR). Ventricular dysfunction after 25%±2%), as was cell death indicated by troponin I (TnI) efflux (1,701±214?ng vs. 785±102?ng in YA). MA hearts exhibited 30% and 65% reductions in postischemic Beclin1 and Parkin, respectively, yet 50% lower proapoptotic Bax and 85% higher antiapoptotic Bcl2, increasing the Bcl2/Bax ratio. Age did not influence Akt or p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression; reduced expression of increasingly phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), increased expression of dephosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) and enhanced postischemic p38-MAPK phosphorylation. CR countered the age-related decline in ischemic tolerance, improving contractile recovery (60%±4%) and reducing cell death (123±22?ng of TnI). Protection was not associated with changes in Parkin or Bax, whereas CR partially limited the age-related decline in Beclin1 and further increased Bcl2. CR counteracted age-related changes in p70S6K, increased Akt levels, and reduced p38-MAPK (albeit increasing preischemic phosphorylation), and paradoxically reduced postischemic GSK3? phosphorylation. In summary, moderate age worsens cardiac ischemic tolerance; this is associated with reduced expression of autophagy regulators, dysregulation of p70S6K and GSK3?, and postischemic p38-MAPK activation. CR counters age effects on postischemic dysfunction/cell death; this is associated with reversal of age effects on p70S6K, augmentation of Akt and Bcl2 levels, and preischemic p38-MAPK activation. Age and CR thus impact on distinct determinants of ischemic tolerance, although p70S6K signaling presents a point of convergence. PMID:22236144

  16. Developing irreversible inhibitors of the protein kinase cysteinome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingsong; Sabnis, Yogesh; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Tinghu; Buhrlage, Sara J.; Jones, Lyn H.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinases are a large family of approximately 530 highly conserved enzymes that transfer a ?-phosphate group from ATP to a variety of amino acid residues such as tyrosine, serine and threonine which serves as a ubiquitous mechanism for cellular signal transduction. The clinical success of a number of kinase-directed drugs and the frequent observation of disease causing mutations in protein kinases suggest that a large number of kinases may represent therapeutically relevant targets. To-date the majority of clinical and preclinical kinase inhibitors are ATP-competitive, non-covalent inhibitors that achieve selectivity through recognition of unique features of particular protein kinases. Recently there has been renewed interest in the development of irreversible inhibitors that form covalent bonds with cysteine or other nucleophilic residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Irreversible kinase inhibitors have a number of potential advantages including prolonged pharmacodynamics, suitability for rational design, high potency and ability to validate pharmacological specificity through mutation of the reactive cysteine residue. Here we review recent efforts to develop cysteine-targeted irreversible protein kinase inhibitors and discuss their modes of recognizing the ATP-binding pocket and their biological activity profiles. In addition, we provided an informatics assessment of the potential ‘kinase-cysteinome’ and discuss strategies for the efficient development of new covalent inhibitors. PMID:23438744

  17. Human cytomegalovirus virion-associated protein with kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Britt, W J; Auger, D

    1986-01-01

    Protein kinase activity was detected in immunoprecipitates of human cytomegalovirus virions and infected cells by using a monoclonal antibody directed against an abundant 68,000-dalton virion structural protein. Purification of this protein by electrophoresis confirmed that the kinase activity was associated with this protein. The kinase activity was dependent on divalent cations (Mg2+, Mn2+) and cyclic nucleotide independent and exhibited optimal activity at pH 7 to 8. The kinase phosphorylated threonine and serine but not tyrosine. Images PMID:3012117

  18. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition: An Approach to Drug Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitzki, Alexander; Gazit, Aviv

    1995-03-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and signaling processes in the cells of the immune system. Uncontrolled signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to inflammatory responses and to diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and psoriasis. Thus, inhibitors that block the activity of tyrosine kinases and the signaling pathways they activate may provide a useful basis for drug development. This article summarizes recent progress in the development of PTK inhibitors and demonstrates their potential use in the treatment of disease.

  19. Aurora Kinases as Targets in Drug-Resistant Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rothweiler, Florian; Löschmann, Nadine; Nüsse, Benedikt; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Zehner, Richard; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2014-01-01

    Aurora kinase inhibitors displayed activity in pre-clinical neuroblastoma models. Here, we studied the effects of the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor tozasertib (VX680, MK-0457) and the aurora kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) that shows some specificity for aurora kinase A over aurora kinase B in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired drug resistance. Both compounds displayed anti-neuroblastoma activity in the nanomolar range. The anti-neuroblastoma mechanism included inhibition of aurora kinase signalling as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of the aurora kinase substrate histone H3, cell cycle inhibition in G2/M phase, and induction of apoptosis. The activity of alisertib but not of tozasertib was affected by ABCB1 expression. Aurora kinase inhibitors induced a p53 response and their activity was enhanced in combination with the MDM2 inhibitor and p53 activator nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type cells. In conclusion, aurora kinases are potential drug targets in therapy-refractory neuroblastoma, in particular for the vast majority of p53 wild-type cases. PMID:25268132

  20. Constitutive Activity in an Ancestral Form of Abl Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    The c-abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is found in all metazoans, and is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues. The Abl tyrosine kinase plays important roles in the regulation of mammalian cell physiology. Abl-like kinases have been identified in the genomes of unicellular choanoflagellates, the closest relatives to the Metazoa, and in related unicellular organisms. Here, we have carried out the first characterization of a premetazoan Abl kinase, MbAbl2, from the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. The enzyme possesses SH3, SH2, and kinase domains in a similar arrangement to its mammalian counterparts, and is an active tyrosine kinase. MbAbl2 lacks the N-terminal myristoylation and cap sequences that are critical regulators of mammalian Abl kinase activity, and we show that MbAbl2 is constitutively active. When expressed in mammalian cells, MbAbl2 strongly phosphorylates cellular proteins on tyrosine, and transforms cells much more potently than mammalian Abl kinase. Thus, MbAbl2 appears to lack the autoinhibitory mechanism that tightly constrains the activity of mammalian Abl kinases, suggesting that this regulatory apparatus arose more recently in metazoan evolution. PMID:26090675

  1. Molecular Physiology of Protein Kinases (and Phosphatases): Molecules, mechanisms, medicines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Eck (Harvard University)

    2011-04-09

    This powerpoint presentation from the 2011 EB Refresher Course on CellPhysiology:Intracellular Signaling addressed protein kinase structure, conformational changes, molecular domains, activation, and inhibition.

  2. Molecular Physiology of Protein Kinases (and Phosphatases): Molecules, mechanisms, medicines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Eck (Harvard University)

    2011-04-09

    This recorded presentation from the 2011 EB Refresher Course on CellPhysiology:Intracellular Signaling addressed protein kinase structure, conformational changes, molecular domains, activation, and inhibition.

  3. Multivariate studies of receptor tyrosine kinase function in cancer

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Joel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are critical regulators of cellular homeostasis in multicellular organisms. They influence cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and transcriptional activation, among other ...

  4. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase: moving towards therapy.

    PubMed

    Marone, Romina; Cmiljanovic, Vladimir; Giese, Bernd; Wymann, Matthias P

    2008-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) orchestrate cell responses including mitogenic signaling, cell survival and growth, metabolic control, vesicular trafficking, degranulation, cytoskeletal rearrangement and migration. Deregulation of the PI3K pathway occurs by activating mutations in growth factor receptors or the PIK3CA locus coding for PI3Kalpha, by loss of function of the lipid phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome ten (PTEN/MMAC/TEP1), by the up-regulation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), or the impairment of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC1/2). All these events are linked to growth and proliferation, and have thus prompted a significant interest in the pharmaceutical targeting of the PI3K pathway in cancer. Genetic targeting of PI3Kgamma (p110gamma) and PI3Kdelta (p110delta) in mice has underlined a central role of these PI3K isoforms in inflammation and allergy, as they modulate chemotaxis of leukocytes and degranulation in mast cells. Proof-of-concept molecules selective for PI3Kgamma have already successfully alleviated disease progress in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus. As targeting PI3K moves forward to therapy of chronic, non-fatal disease, safety concerns for PI3K inhibitors increase. Many of the present inhibitor series interfere with target of rapamycin (TOR), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK(cs)) and activity of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene product (ATM). Here we review the current disease-relevant knowledge for isoform-specific PI3K function in the above mentioned diseases, and review the progress of >400 recent patents covering pharmaceutical targeting of PI3K. Currently, several drugs targeting the PI3K pathway have entered clinical trials (phase I) for solid tumors and suppression of tissue damage after myocardial infarction (phases I,II). PMID:17997386

  5. Activation of alpha-diacylglycerol kinase is critical for the mitogenic properties of anaplastic lymphoma kinase.

    PubMed

    Bacchiocchi, Roberta; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Carbonari, Damiano; Capomagi, Catia; Colombo, Emanuela; van Blitterswijk, Wim J; Graziani, Andrea; Fazioli, Francesca

    2005-09-15

    Oncogenic rearrangements of the tyrosine kinase receptor anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), most commonly represented by the nucleophosmin/ALK fusion protein (NPM/ALK), are involved in the pathogenesis of anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs). In an effort to identify new intracellular transducers operative in ALK-positive malignancies, we have investigated the potential involvement of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). Here we show that alphaDGK is constitutively activated in the NPM/ALK-positive ALCL-derived cell line Karpas 299 and in NPM/ALK-infected 32D hematopoietic cells. These results were further validated in fibroblastic NIH-3T3 cells expressing a previously described chimeric epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ALK molecule that allows dissection of ALK enzymatic function under conditions of controlled ligand-induced activation. In this cell system, we also show that ALK-mediated alphaDGK activation is dependent on p60src tyrosine kinase, with which alphaDGK forms a complex. The specific inhibition of alphaDGK, obtained by cell treatment with R59949, significantly reduced cellular growth in all cell lines. This result was further confirmed in Karpas 299 cells following specific down-regulation of alphaDGK by RNA interference. Overall, our data indicate that alphaDGK activation is involved in the control of ALK-mediated mitogenic properties. PMID:15928040

  6. Structure of rat BCKD kinase: Nucleotide-induced domain communication in a mitochondrial protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Machius, Mischa; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Wynn, R. Max; Tomchick, Diana R.; Chuang, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein kinases (mPKs) are molecular switches that down-regulate the oxidation of branched-chain ?-ketoacids and pyruvate. Elevated levels of these metabolites are implicated in disease states such as insulin-resistant Type II diabetes, branched-chain ketoaciduria, and primary lactic acidosis. We report a three-dimensional structure of a member of the mPK family, rat branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCK). BCK features a characteristic nucleotide-binding domain and a four-helix bundle domain. These two domains are reminiscent of modules found in protein histidine kinases (PHKs), which are involved in two-component signal transduction systems. Unlike PHKs, BCK dimerizes through direct interaction of two opposing nucleotide-binding domains. Nucleotide binding to BCK is uniquely mediated by both potassium and magnesium. Binding of ATP induces disorder–order transitions in a loop region at the nucleotide-binding site. These structural changes lead to the formation of a quadruple aromatic stack in the interface between the nucleotide-binding domain and the four-helix bundle domain, where they induce a movement of the top portion of two helices. Phosphotransfer induces further ordering of the loop region, effectively trapping the reaction product ADP, which explains product inhibition in mPKs. The BCK structure is a prototype for all mPKs and will provide a framework for structure-assisted inhibitor design for this family of kinases. PMID:11562470

  7. Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation interaction network in Bacillus subtilis reveals new substrates, kinase activators and kinase cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Ventroux, Magali; Derouiche, Abderahmane; Bidnenko, Vladimir; Mijakovic, Ivan; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Signal transduction in eukaryotes is generally transmitted through phosphorylation cascades that involve a complex interplay of transmembrane receptors, protein kinases, phosphatases and their targets. Our previous work indicated that bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases may exhibit similar properties, since they act on many different substrates. To capture the complexity of this phosphorylation-based network, we performed a comprehensive interactome study focused on the protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The resulting network identified many potential new substrates of kinases and phosphatases, some of which were experimentally validated. Our study highlighted the role of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases in DNA metabolism, transcriptional control and cell division. This interaction network reveals significant crosstalk among different classes of kinases. We found that tyrosine kinases can bind to several modulators, transmembrane or cytosolic, consistent with a branching of signaling pathways. Most particularly, we found that the division site regulator MinD can form a complex with the tyrosine kinase PtkA and modulate its activity in vitro. In vivo, it acts as a scaffold protein which anchors the kinase at the cell pole. This network highlighted a role of tyrosine phosphorylation in the spatial regulation of the Z-ring during cytokinesis. PMID:25374563

  8. Pyruvate kinase M2 at a glance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiwei; Lu, Zhimin

    2015-05-01

    Reprogrammed metabolism is a key feature of cancer cells. The pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform, which is commonly upregulated in many human cancers, has been recently shown to play a crucial role in metabolism reprogramming, gene transcription and cell cycle progression. In this Cell Science at a glance article and accompanying poster, we provide a brief overview of recent advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of PKM2 expression, enzymatic activity, metabolic functions and subcellular location. We highlight the instrumental role of the non-metabolic functions of PKM2 in tumorigenesis and evaluate the potential to target PKM2 for cancer treatment. PMID:25770102

  9. Exploring phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase function

    PubMed Central

    Bulley, Simon J.; Clarke, Jonathan H.; Droubi, Alaa; Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Irvine, Robin F.

    2015-01-01

    The family of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) is emerging from a comparative backwater in inositide signalling into the mainstream, as is their substrate, phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P). Here we review some of the key questions about the PI5P4Ks, their localisation, interaction, and regulation and also we summarise our current understanding of how PI5P is synthesised and what its cellular functions might be. Finally, some of the evidence for the involvement of PI5P4Ks in pathology is discussed. PMID:25311266

  10. Chaperones as thermodynamic sensors of drug-target interactions reveal kinase inhibitor specificities in living cells

    E-print Network

    Taipale, Mikko

    The interaction between the HSP90 chaperone and its client kinases is sensitive to the conformational status of the kinase, and stabilization of the kinase fold by small molecules strongly decreases chaperone interaction. ...

  11. Lipid kinase and protein kinase activities of G-protein-coupled phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma: structure-activity analysis and interactions with wortmannin.

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanova, S; Bulgarelli-Leva, G; Kirsch, C; Hanck, T; Klinger, R; Wetzker, R; Wymann, M P

    1997-01-01

    Signalling via seven transmembrane helix receptors can lead to a massive increase in cellular PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, which is critical for the induction of various cell responses and is likely to be produced by a trimeric G-protein-sensitive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kgamma). We show here that PI3Kgamma is a bifunctional lipid kinase and protein kinase, and that both activities are inhibited by wortmannin at concentrations equal to those affecting the p85/p110alpha heterodimeric PI3K (IC50 approx. 2 nM). The binding of wortmannin to PI3Kgamma, as detected by anti-wortmannin antisera, closely followed the inhibition of the kinase activities. Truncation of more than the 98 N-terminal amino acid residues from PI3Kgamma produced proteins that were inactive in wortmannin binding and kinase assays. This suggests that regions apart from the core catalytic domain are important in catalysis and inhibitor interaction. The covalent reaction of wortmannin with PI3Kgamma was prevented by preincubation with phosphoinositides, ATP and its analogues adenine and 5'-(4-fluorosulphonylbenzoyl)adenine. Proteolytic analysis of wortmannin-prelabelled PI3Kgamma revealed candidate wortmannin-binding peptides around Lys-799. Replacement of Lys-799 by Arg through site-directed mutagenesis aborted the covalent reaction with wortmannin and the lipid kinase and protein kinase activities completely. The above illustrates that Lys-799 is crucial to the phosphate transfer reaction and wortmannin reactivity. Parallel inhibition of the PI3Kgamma-associated protein kinase and lipid kinase by wortmannin and by the Lys-799-->Arg mutation reveals that both activities are inherent in the PI3Kgamma polypeptide. PMID:9182708

  12. Protein Kinase A Contributes to the Negative Control of Snf1 Protein Kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, LaKisha; Orlova, Marianna; Maziarz, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Snf1 protein kinase regulates responses to glucose limitation and other stresses. Snf1 activation requires phosphorylation of its T-loop threonine by partially redundant upstream kinases (Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1). Under favorable conditions, Snf1 is turned off by Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase. The reg1 mutation causes increased Snf1 activation and slow growth. To identify new components of the Snf1 pathway, we searched for mutations that, like snf1, suppress reg1 for the slow-growth phenotype. In addition to mutations in genes encoding known pathway components (SNF1, SNF4, and SAK1), we recovered “fast” mutations, designated fst1 and fst2. Unusual morphology of the mutants in the ?1278b strains employed here helped us identify fst1 and fst2 as mutations in the RasGAP genes IRA1 and IRA2. Cells lacking Ira1, Ira2, or Bcy1, the negative regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), exhibited reduced Snf1 pathway activation. Conversely, Snf1 activation was elevated in cells lacking the Gpr1 sugar receptor, which contributes to PKA signaling. We show that the Snf1-activating kinase Sak1 is phosphorylated in vivo on a conserved serine (Ser1074) within an ideal PKA motif. However, this phosphorylation alone appears to play only a modest role in regulation, and Sak1 is not the only relevant target of the PKA pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that PKA, which integrates multiple regulatory inputs, could contribute to Snf1 regulation under various conditions via a complex mechanism. Our results also support the view that, like its mammalian counterpart, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), yeast Snf1 participates in metabolic checkpoint control that coordinates growth with nutrient availability. PMID:22140226

  13. Novel recurrent mutations in ethanolamine kinase 1 (ETNK1) gene in systemic mastocytosis with eosinophilia and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lasho, T L; Finke, C M; Zblewski, D; Patnaik, M; Ketterling, R P; Chen, D; Hanson, C A; Tefferi, A; Pardanani, A

    2015-01-01

    Although KITD816V occurs universally in adult systemic mastocytosis (SM), the clinical heterogeneity of SM suggests presence of additional phenotype-patterning mutations. Because up to 25% of SM patients have KITD816V-positive eosinophilia, we undertook whole-exome sequencing in a patient with aggressive SM with eosinophilia to identify novel genetic alterations. We conducted sequencing of purified eosinophils (clone/tumor sample), with T-lymphocytes as the matched control/non-tumor sample. In addition to KITD816V, we identified a somatic missense mutation in ethanolamine kinase 1 (ETNK1N244S) that was not present in 50 healthy controls. Targeted resequencing of 290 patients showed ETNK1 mutations to be distributed as follows: (i) SM (n=82; 6% mutated); (ii) chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML; n=29; 14% mutated); (iii) idiopathic hypereosinophilia (n=137; <1% mutated); (iv) primary myelofibrosis (n=32; 0% mutated); and (v) others (n=10; 0% mutated). Of the 82 SM cases, 25 had significant eosinophilia; of these 20% carried ETNK1 mutations. The ten mutations (N244S=6, N244T=1, N244K=1, G245A=2) targeted two contiguous amino acids in the ETNK1 kinase domain, and are predicted to be functionally disruptive. In summary, we identified novel somatic missense ETNK1 mutations that were most frequent in SM with eosinophilia and CMML; this suggests a potential pathogenetic role for dysregulated cytidine diphosphate-ethanolamine pathway metabolites in these diseases. PMID:25615281

  14. Keratins regulate protein biosynthesis through localization of GLUT1 and -3 upstream of AMP kinase and Raptor

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraj, Preethi; Kröger, Cornelia; Reuter, Ursula; Windoffer, Reinhard; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2009-01-01

    Keratin intermediate filament proteins form cytoskeletal scaffolds in epithelia, the disruption of which affects cytoarchitecture, cell growth, survival, and organelle transport. However, owing to redundancy, the global function of keratins has not been defined in full. Using a targeted gene deletion strategy, we generated transgenic mice lacking the entire keratin multiprotein family. In this study, we report that without keratins, embryonic epithelia suffer no cytolysis and maintain apical polarity but display mislocalized desmosomes. All keratin-null embryos die from severe growth retardation at embryonic day 9.5. We find that GLUT1 and -3 are mislocalized from the apical plasma membrane in embryonic epithelia, which subsequently activates the energy sensor adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK). Analysis of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway reveals that AMPK induction activates Raptor, repressing protein biosynthesis through mTORC1's downstream targets S6 kinase and 4E-binding protein 1. Our findings demonstrate a novel keratin function upstream of mTOR signaling via GLUT localization and have implications for pathomechanisms and therapy approaches for keratin disorders and the analysis of other gene families. PMID:19841136

  15. Phosphorylation of a Ras-Related GTP-Binding Protein, Rap1b, by a Neuronal Ca2+\\/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase, CaM Kinase Gr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naji Sahyoun; O. Bradley McDonald; Francis Farrell; Eduardo G. Lapetina

    1991-01-01

    A neuron-specific Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, CaM kinase Gr, phosphorylates selectively a Ras-related GTP-binding protein (Rap-1b) that is enriched in brain tissue. The phosphorylation reaction achieves a stoichiometry of about 1 and involves a serine residue near the carboxyl terminus of the substrate. Both CaM kinase Gr and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but not CaM kinase II, phosphorylate identical or contiguous serine

  16. Differential Phosphorylation of Translation Initiation Regulators 4EBP1, S6k1, and Erk 1\\/2 Following Inhibition of Alcohol Metabolism in Mouse Heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Vary; Charles H. Lang

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication leads to an inhibition of protein synthesis in heart that results in part through altered phosphorylation\\u000a of protein factors controlling mRNA translation initiation. The purpose of the present set of experiments was designed to\\u000a examine the effects of inhibitors of ethanol metabolism on the phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein (4EBP1) and S6k1(Thr389), two factors regulating mRNA translation initiation.

  17. Preferential formation of (5S,6R)-thymine glycol for oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthesis and analysis of drug binding to thymine glycol-containing DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuhiko Shimizu; Koichiro Manabe; Shinya Yoshikawa; Yusuke Kawasaki; Shigenori Iwai

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides containing thymine glycol, a major form of oxidative DNA damage. In the preparation of the phosphoramidite building block, the predom- inant product of the osmium tetroxide oxidation of protected thymidine was (5R,6S)-thymidine glycol. To obtain the building block of the other isomer, (5S,6R)-thymidine glycol, in an amount sufficient for oligonucleotide synthesis, the

  18. Structural analysis and interpretation of the surface deformation associated with the Ning’er, Yunnan Province, China M S 6.4 earthquake of June 3, 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Ping Yang; Li-Chun Chen; Wen-Tao Ma; Hui Chen; Zhi Zhou; Yan-Feng Li; Ying-Qing Xie; Wei-Hua Shi; Zu-Feng Chang

    2008-01-01

    The seismogenic fault and the dynamic mechanism of the Ning’er, Yunnan Province M\\u000a S6.4 earthquake of June 3, 2007 are studied on the basis of the observation data of the surface fissures, sand blow and water\\u000a eruption, landslide and collapse associated with the earthquake, incorporating with the data of geologic structures, focal\\u000a mechanism solutions and aftershock distribution for the earthquake

  19. Adenosine kinase from bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Rotllan, P; Miras Portugal, M T

    1985-09-01

    Adenosine kinase from bovine adrenal medulla was purified 1600-fold by using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and affinity chromatography. Gel filtration yielded a relative molecular mass around 42000 and Michaelis constants were 0.2 microM for adenosine and 20 microM for MgATP. The enzyme showed a broad specificity for purine nucleoside triphosphate as phosphate donors. Both free Mg2+ and ATP were inhibitors. AMP was a competitive inhibitor with regard to adenosine and a non-competitive inhibitor versus MgATP, while ADP was a uncompetitive inhibitor with regard to adenosine and a non-competitive inhibitor versus MgATP. Adenosine kinase was strongly inhibited by the bis(adenylyl) polyphosphates Ap4A and Ap5A. These compounds inhibited the enzyme competitively versus MgATP (Ki = 0.06 microM for Ap4A and 0.4 microM for Ap5A) and uncompetitively with regard to adenosine. The results of the kinetic analysis suggest an ordered bi-bi mechanism, adenosine being the first substrate. The phosphorylation of adenosine was unaffected in the presence of vanadate ions. PMID:2992963

  20. The chemical biology of phosphoinositide 3-kinases.

    PubMed

    Wymann, Matthias P; Schultz, Carsten

    2012-09-24

    Since its discovery in the late 1980s, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and its isoforms have arguably reached the forefront of signal transduction research. Regulation of this lipid kinase, its functions, its effectors, in short its entire signaling network, has been extensively studied. PI3K inhibitors are frequently used in biochemistry and cell biology. In addition, many pharmaceutical companies have launched drug-discovery programs to identify modulators of PI3Ks. Despite these efforts and a fairly good knowledge of the PI3K signaling network, we still have only a rudimentary picture of the signaling dynamics of PI3K and its lipid products in space and time. It is therefore essential to create and use novel biological and chemical tools to manipulate the phosphoinositide signaling network with spatial and temporal resolution. In this review, we discuss the current and potential future tools that are available and necessary to unravel the various functions of PI3K and its isoforms. PMID:22965647

  1. PURIFICATION AND ISOLATION OF THE PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE ENZYME

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    PURIFICATION AND ISOLATION OF THE PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE ENZYME IN RICE PLANTS Cynthia Bach (NADH). The enzyme, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGKase), catalyzes the reaction that results to purify the enzyme from developing rice seeds. Isolation of the enzyme was obtained by obtaining a crude

  2. Rho kinase, a promising drug target for neurological disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Mack; Nicole Teusch; Bernhard K. Mueller

    2005-01-01

    Rho kinases (ROCKs), the first Rho effectors to be described, are serine\\/threonine kinases that are important in fundamental processes of cell migration, cell proliferation and cell survival. Abnormal activation of the Rho\\/ROCK pathway has been observed in various disorders of the central nervous system. Injury to the adult vertebrate brain and spinal cord activates ROCKs, thereby inhibiting neurite growth and

  3. Cell cycle kinases as therapeutic targets for cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Lapenna; Antonio Giordano

    2009-01-01

    Several families of protein kinases orchestrate the complex events that drive the cell cycle, and their activity is frequently deregulated in hyperproliferative cancer cells. Although several molecules that inhibit cell cycle kinases have been developed and clinically screened as potential anticancer agents, none of these has been approved for commercial use and an effective strategy to specifically control malignant cell

  4. Original article Insulin receptor binding and tyrosine kinase activity

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Insulin receptor binding and tyrosine kinase activity in liver and skeletal muscle Group, Clermont-Ferrand, 25-27 May 1988) Summary ― Insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor have been measu- red in the liver and muscles of rats fed or submitted to a 72-h

  5. PATTERNS & PHENOTYPES Asator, a Tau-Tubulin Kinase Homolog in

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Jorgen

    PATTERNS & PHENOTYPES Asator, a Tau-Tubulin Kinase Homolog in Drosophila Localizes to the Mitotic have used a yeast two-hybrid interaction assay to identify Asator, a tau-tubulin kinase homolog by an Asator-specific mAb as well as by transgenic expression of a GFP-labeled Asator construct, we show

  6. Improving the Prediction of Kinase Binding Affinity Using Homology Models

    E-print Network

    Moll, Mark

    pressure regulation [5]. As a result, developing inhibitors for protein kinases is a popular issue in drug@rice.edu ABSTRACT Kinases are a class of proteins very important to drug design; they play a pivotal role in many. As a result, computational prediction methods have been developed to aid in this drug design problem

  7. Src kinases: a hub for NMDA receptor regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine V. Kalia; Michael W. Salter

    2004-01-01

    In the central nervous system, synaptic strength is regulated partly by changes in the function and number of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. The NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) subtype of glutamate receptor (NMDAR) is regulated in part by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphotyrosine phosphatases. Members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases upregulate NMDAR function, thereby gating the production

  8. Dispatch R271 Cytokinin receptor: Just another histidine kinase

    E-print Network

    Estelle, Mark

    Dispatch R271 Cytokinin receptor: Just another histidine kinase Mark Estelle The cytokinin family. Two groups have recently shown that a two-component histidine kinase functions as a cytokinin receptor requires a protein that appears to function as a receptor for the plant hormone cytokinin. The story starts

  9. Strategies for overcoming resistance to EGFR family tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Giaccone; Yisong Wang

    2011-01-01

    The first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib have been incorporated into treatment paradigms for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. These agents are particularly effective in a subset of patients whose tumors harbor activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. However, most patients do not respond to these tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and those who do

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in apoptosis regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teiji Wada; Josef M Penninger

    2004-01-01

    Cells are continuously exposed to a variety of environmental stresses and have to decide ‘to be or not to be’ depending on the types and strength of stress. Among the many signaling pathways that respond to stress, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members are crucial for the maintenance of cells. Three subfamilies of MAPKs have been identified: extracellular signal-regulated kinases

  11. Docking domains and substrate-specificity determination for MAP kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D Sharrocks; Shen-His Yang; Alex Galanis

    2000-01-01

    Signalling specificity in eukaryotic cells is maintained by several mechanisms. One mechanism by which mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ensure their specificity of action is by interacting with their substrates through docking domains. These docking domains recruit the kinases to the correct substrates and enhance their fidelity and efficiency of action. Additional specificity determinants in the substrates serve to enhance the

  12. The Potential Role of Aurora Kinase Inhibitors in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Sherif S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aurora kinases play an important role in the control of the cell cycle and have been implicated in tumourigenesis in a number of cancers. Among the haematological malignancies, overexpression of Aurora kinases has been reported in acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, multiple myeloma, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. A large number of Aurora kinase inhibitors are currently in different stages of clinical development. In addition to varying in their selectivity for the different Aurora kinases, some also have activity directed at other cellular kinases involved in important molecular pathways in cancer cells. This review summarizes the biology of Aurora kinases and discusses why they may be good therapeutic targets in different haematological cancers. We describe preclinical data that has served as the rationale for investigating Aurora kinase inhibitors in different haematological malignancies, and summarize published results from early phase clinical trials. While the anti-tumour effects of Aurora kinase inhibitors appear promising, we highlight important issues for future clinical research and suggest that the optimal use of these inhibitors is likely to be in combination with cytotoxic agents already in use for the treatment of various haematological cancers. PMID:21980926

  13. The specificities of protein kinase inhibitors: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jenny; McLauchlan, Hilary; Elliott, Matthew; Cohen, Philip

    2003-01-01

    We have previously examined the specificities of 28 commercially available compounds, reported to be relatively selective inhibitors of particular serine/threonine-specific protein kinases [Davies, Reddy, Caivano and Cohen (2000) Biochem. J. 351, 95-105]. In the present study, we have extended this analysis to a further 14 compounds. Of these, indirubin-3'-monoxime, SP 600125, KT 5823 and ML-9 were found to inhibit a number of protein kinases and conclusions drawn from their use in cell-based assays are likely to be erroneous. Kenpaullone, Alsterpaullone, Purvalanol, Roscovitine, pyrazolopyrimidine 1 (PP1), PP2 and ML-7 were more specific, but still inhibited two or more protein kinases with similar potency. Our results suggest that the combined use of Roscovitine and Kenpaullone may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, whereas the combined use of Kenpaullone and LiCl may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3. The combined use of SU 6656 and either PP1 or PP2 may be useful for identifying substrates of Src family members. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate, one of the main polyphenolic constituents of tea, inhibited two of the 28 protein kinases in the panel, dual-specificity, tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A; IC(50)=0.33 microM) and p38-regulated/activated kinase (PRAK; IC(50)=1.0 microM). PMID:12534346

  14. Original article Compared kinetics of plasma creatine kinase activity

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Compared kinetics of plasma creatine kinase activity in rabbits after intravenous 1993) Summary ― The purpose of this study was to compare the disposition parameters of creatine muscle damage. creatine kinase / kinetics / muscle damage / rabbit Résumé ― Cinétiques comparées

  15. Human Red Cell Adenylate Kinase Polymorphism in Srbija, Yugoslavia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Stojanov; I. Berkeš

    1982-01-01

    Red cell adenylate kinase (AK) phenotypes were determined in 283 unrelated adults in Srbija (Yugoslavia). The gene frequencies observed were: AK1 0.961 and AK20.039. The adenylate kinase activity was estimated in all haemolysates; no significant differences were found between individuals of different phenotypes.Copyright © 1982 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Ancestral resurrection reveals evolutionary mechanisms of kinase plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Conor J; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Kennedy, Kristopher J; Miller, Chad J; Lou, Hua Jane; Johnson, Alexander D; Turk, Benjamin E; Holt, Liam J

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases have evolved diverse specificities to enable cellular information processing. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying kinase diversification, we studied the CMGC protein kinases using ancestral reconstruction. Within this group, the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) require proline at the +1 position of their substrates, while Ime2 prefers arginine. The resurrected common ancestor of CDKs, MAPKs, and Ime2 could phosphorylate substrates with +1 proline or arginine, with preference for proline. This specificity changed to a strong preference for +1 arginine in the lineage leading to Ime2 via an intermediate with equal specificity for proline and arginine. Mutant analysis revealed that a variable residue within the kinase catalytic cleft, DFGx, modulates +1 specificity. Expansion of Ime2 kinase specificity by mutation of this residue did not cause dominant deleterious effects in vivo. Tolerance of cells to new specificities likely enabled the evolutionary divergence of kinases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04126.001 PMID:25310241

  17. Kinase Regulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Variations on a Theme.

    PubMed

    Reckel, Sina; Hantschel, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    In this issue of Structure, Lisa et al. (2015) examine how the PknG protein kinase of M. tuberculosis efficiently binds and phosphorylates substrates. The work highlights interesting parallels between PknG and eukaryotic protein kinases. PMID:26039345

  18. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase signalling in neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savraj S Grewal; Randall D York; Philip JS Stork

    1999-01-01

    Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are emerging as important regulators of neuronal function. Recent advances have increased our understanding of ERK signalling at the molecular level. In particular, it has become evident that multiple second messengers, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, protein kinase A, calcium, and diacylglycerol, can control ERK signalling via the small G proteins Ras and Rap1. These findings may

  19. Multiple regulatory domains on the Byr2 protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Tu, H; Barr, M; Dong, D L; Wigler, M

    1997-10-01

    Byr2 protein kinase, a homolog of mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEKK) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE11, is required for pheromone-induced sexual differentiation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Byr2 functions downstream of Ste4, Ras1, and the membrane-associated receptor-coupled heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunit, Gpa1. Byr2 has a distinctive N-terminal kinase regulatory domain and a characteristic C-terminal kinase catalytic domain. Ste4 and Ras1 interact with the regulatory domain of Byr2 directly. Here, we define the domains of Byr2 that bind Ste4 and Ras1 and show that the Byr2 regulatory domain binds to the catalytic domain in the two-hybrid system. Using Byr2 mutants, we demonstrate that these direct physical interactions are all required for proper signaling. In particular, the physical association between Byr2 regulatory and catalytic domains appears to result in autoinhibition, the loss of which results in kinase activation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Shk1, the S. pombe homolog of the STE20 protein kinase, can directly antagonize the Byr2 intramolecular interaction, possibly by phosphorylating Byr2. PMID:9315645

  20. Interrogating Signaling Nodes Involved in Cellular Transformations Using Kinase Activity Probes

    E-print Network

    Stains, Cliff I.

    Protein kinases catalyze protein phosphorylation and thereby control the flow of information through signaling cascades. Currently available methods for concomitant assessment of the enzymatic activities of multiple kinases ...

  1. Inhibition of ERK1/2 Worsens Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Kechen; Peng, Zhanglong; Kozar, Rosemary A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been well investigated. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of inhibition of the ERK pathway in an in vitro and in vivo model of intestinal I/R injury. Methods ERK1/2 activity was inhibited using the specific inhibitor, U0126, in intestinal epithelial cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions and in mice subjected to 1 hour of intestinal ischemia followed by 6 hours reperfusion. In vitro, cell proliferation was assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, apoptosis by DNA fragmentation, and migration using an in vitro model of intestinal wound healing. Cells were also transfected with a p70S6K plasmid and the effects of overexpression similarly analyzed. In vivo, the effects of U0126 on intestinal cell proliferation and apoptosis, intestinal permeability, lung and intestinal neutrophil infiltration and injury, and plasma cytokine levels were measured. Survival was also assessed after U0126. Activity of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) was measured by Western blot. Results In vitro, inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 significantly decreased cell proliferation and migration but enhanced cell apoptosis. Overexpression of p70S6K promoted cell proliferation and decreased cell apoptosis. In vivo, U0126 significantly increased cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in the intestine, increased intestinal permeability, intestinal and lung neutrophil infiltration, and injury, as well as systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1?. Mortality was also significantly increased by U0126. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 also abolished activity of p70S6K both in vitro and in vivo models. Conclusion Pharmacologic inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 worsens intestinal IR injury. The detrimental effects are mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of p70S6K, the major effector of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. PMID:24073294

  2. Minimal unitary representation of 5d superconformal algebra F (4) and AdS6 /CFT5 higher spin (super)-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Sudarshan; Günaydin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    We study the minimal unitary representation (minrep) of SO (5 , 2), obtained by quantization of its geometric quasiconformal action, its deformations and supersymmetric extensions. The minrep of SO (5 , 2) describes a massless conformal scalar field in five dimensions and admits a unique "deformation" which describes a massless conformal spinor. Scalar and spinor minreps of SO (5 , 2) are the 5d analogs of Dirac's singletons of SO (3 , 2). We then construct the minimal unitary representation of the unique 5d superconformal algebra F (4) with the even subalgebra SO (5 , 2) × SU (2). The minrep of F (4) describes a massless conformal supermultiplet consisting of two scalar and one spinor fields. We then extend our results to the construction of higher spin AdS6 /CFT5 (super)-algebras. The Joseph ideal of the minrep of SO (5 , 2) vanishes identically as operators and hence its enveloping algebra yields the AdS6 /CFT5 bosonic higher spin algebra directly. The enveloping algebra of the spinor minrep defines a "deformed" higher spin algebra for which a deformed Joseph ideal vanishes identically as operators. These results are then extended to the construction of the unique higher spin AdS6 /CFT5 superalgebra as the enveloping algebra of the minimal unitary realization of F (4) obtained by the quasiconformal methods.

  3. Emerging Roles of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yu-Ling; Chen, Lih-Chyang; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that enables activation by growth factor receptors or integrins in various types of human cancers. The kinase-dependent and kinase-independent scaffolding functions of FAK modulate the authentic signaling and fundamental functions not only in cancer cells but also in tumor microenvironment to facilitate cancer progression and metastasis. The overexpression and activation of FAK are usually investigated in primary or metastatic cancers and correlated with the poor clinical outcome, highlighting FAK as a potential prognostic marker and anticancer target. Small molecule inhibitors targeting FAK kinase activity or FAK-scaffolding functions impair cancer development in preclinical or clinical trials. In this review, we give an overview for FAK signaling in cancer cells as well as tumor microenvironment that provides new strategies for the invention of cancer development and malignancy. PMID:25918719

  4. Pyruvate kinase isozymes in adult and fetal tissues of chicken.

    PubMed

    Strandholm, J J; Cardenas, J M; Dyson, R D

    1975-05-20

    Tissues of fetal and adult chickens were examined for pyruvate kinase activity. Two electrophoretically distinguishable and noninterconvertible isozymes were found. One of these, designated as type K (for kidney), is the sole pyruvate kinase in the early fetus and is found in appreciable quantities in all adult tissues except striated muscle. The second isozyme, type M, appears shortly before hatching in striated muscle and brain. These two isozymes correspond in their developmental pattern, tissue distribution, electrophoretic, immunological, and kinetic propertiesto similarly designated mammalian pyruvate kinases. However, no kinetic, immunological, or electrophoretic evidence could be found for a chicken isozyme corresponding to the mammalian type L pyruvate kinase. As the latter isozyme seems to be limited in its distribution mostly to highly differentiated gluconeogenic tissues (notable liver, kidney, and small intestine), our results support the proposition that the mammalian type L pyruvate kinase is a specilized isozyme that is present in mammals but not in birds. PMID:1148168

  5. Selective kinase inhibition by exploiting differential pathway sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kung, Charles; Kenski, Denise M; Krukenberg, Kristin; Madhani, Hiten D; Shokat, Kevan M

    2006-04-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors are optimized to have high affinity for their intended target(s) to elicit the desired cellular effects. Here, we asked whether differences in inhibitory sensitivity between two kinase signaling pathways, controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Pho85, can be sufficient to allow for selective targeting of one pathway over the other. We show the oxindole inhibitor GW297361 elicits a Pho85-selective response in cells despite having a 20-fold greater biochemical potency for Cdk1 in vitro. We provide evidence that partial inhibition of Pho85 is sufficient to activate Pho85-dependent signaling, but partial inhibition of Cdk1 is not sufficient to block Cdk1-dependent cell proliferation. Identification of highly sensitive kinases may provide a means to achieve selective perturbation of kinase signaling pathways complementary to efforts to achieve maximal differences between in vitro IC50 values. PMID:16632252

  6. Selective Kinase Inhibition by Exploiting Differential Pathway Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Charles; Kenski, Denise M.; Krukenberg, Kristin; Madhani, Hiten D.; Shokat, Kevan M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Protein kinase inhibitors are optimized to have high affinity for their intended target(s) to elicit the desired cellular effects. Here, we asked whether differences in inhibitory sensitivity between two kinase signaling pathways, controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Pho85, can be sufficient to allow for selective targeting of one pathway over the other. We show the oxindole inhibitor GW297361 elicits a Pho85-selective response in cells despite having a 20-fold greater biochemical potency for Cdk1 in vitro. We provide evidence that partial inhibition of Pho85 is sufficient to activate Pho85-dependent signaling, but partial inhibition of Cdk1 is not sufficient to block Cdk1-dependent cell proliferation. Identification of highly sensitive kinases may provide a means to achieve selective perturbation of kinase signaling pathways complementary to efforts to achieve maximal differences between in vitro IC50 values. PMID:16632252

  7. Will the Real LHC II Kinase Please Step Forward?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John F. Allen (Lund University; Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering REV)

    2002-10-22

    Many laboratories have searched for the protein kinase responsible for phosphorylation of the chloroplast light-harvesting complex of photosynthesis, LHC II. The LHC II kinase provides a vital link in a redox signaling pathway of ecological, developmental, and evolutionary significance. Various candidates for the LHC II kinase, some stronger than others, have come and gone. Recently, a family of three thylakoid-associated kinases (TAKs) has been identified and purified; they too catalyze in vitro phosphorylation of LHC II. The LHC II kinase is part of an integrated network of signal transduction to which input is provided by a number of environmental factors. The implications of understanding these processes stretch beyond the important, central question of how plants adapt their photosynthetic machinery to changing wavelengths of light.

  8. A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, M; Enders, G H; Wu, C L; Su, L K; Gorka, C; Nelson, C; Harlow, E; Tsai, L H

    1992-01-01

    The p34cdc2 protein kinase is known to regulate important transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. We have identified 10 human protein kinases based on their structural relation to p34cdc2. Seven of these kinases are novel and the products of five share greater than 50% amino acid sequence identity with p34cdc2. The seven novel genes are broadly expressed in human cell lines and tissues with each displaying some cell type or tissue specificity. The cdk3 gene, like cdc2 and cdk2, can complement cdc28 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that all three of these protein kinases can play roles in the regulation of the mammalian cell cycle. The identification of a large family of cdc2-related kinases opens the possibility of combinatorial regulation of the cell cycle together with the emerging large family of cyclins. Images PMID:1639063

  9. AKT Kinase Pathway: A Leading Target in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Vidya; Sethumadhavan, Rao

    2013-01-01

    AKT1, a serine/threonine-protein kinase also known as AKT kinase, is involved in the regulation of various signalling downstream pathways including metabolism, cell proliferation, survival, growth, and angiogenesis. The AKT kinases pathway stands among the most important components of cell proliferation mechanism. Several approaches have been implemented to design an efficient drug molecule to target AKT kinases, although the promising results have not been confirmed. In this paper we have documented the detailed molecular insight of AKT kinase protein and proposed a probable doxorubicin based approach in inhibiting miR-21 based cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, the inhibition of miR-21 activation by raising the FOXO3A concentration seems promising in reducing miR-21 mediated cancer activation in cell. Furthermore, the use of next generation sequencing and computational drug design approaches will greatly assist in designing a potent drug molecule against the associated cancer cases. PMID:24327805

  10. Identification and characterization of two wheat Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/ SHAGGY-like kinases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/ SHAGGY-like kinases (GSKs) have been implicated in numerous biological processes ranging from embryonic, flower, stomata development to stress and wound responses. They are key regulators of brassinosteroid signaling and are also involved in the cross-talk between auxin and brassinosteroid pathways. In contrast to the human genome that contains two genes, plant GSKs are encoded by a multigene family. Little is known about Liliopsida resp. Poaceae in comparison to Brassicaceae GSKs. Here, we report the identification and structural characterization of two GSK homologs named TaSK1 and TaSK2 in the hexaploid wheat genome as well as a widespread phylogenetic analysis of land plant GSKs. Results Genomic and cDNA sequence alignments as well as chromosome localization using nullisomic-tetrasomic lines provided strong evidence for three expressed gene copies located on homoeolog chromosomes for TaSK1 as well as for TaSK2. Predicted proteins displayed a clear GSK signature. In vitro kinase assays showed that TaSK1 and TaSK2 possessed kinase activity. A phylogenetic analysis of land plant GSKs indicated that TaSK1 and TaSK2 belong to clade II of plant GSKs, the Arabidopsis members of which are all involved in Brassinosteroid signaling. Based on a single ancestral gene in the last common ancestor of all land plants, paralogs were acquired and retained through paleopolyploidization events, resulting in six to eight genes in angiosperms. More recent duplication events have increased the number up to ten in some lineages. Conclusions To account for plant diversity in terms of functionality, morphology and development, attention has to be devoted to Liliopsida resp Poaceae GSKs in addition to Arabidopsis GSKs. In this study, molecular characterization, chromosome localization, kinase activity test and phylogenetic analysis (1) clarified the homologous/paralogous versus homoeologous status of TaSK sequences, (2) pointed out their affiliation to the GSK multigene family, (3) showed a functional kinase activity, (4) allowed a classification in clade II, members of which are involved in BR signaling and (5) allowed to gain information on acquisition and retention of GSK paralogs in angiosperms in the context of whole genome duplication events. Our results provide a framework to explore Liliopsida resp Poaceae GSKs functions in development. PMID:23594413

  11. Intrinsic Protein Kinase Activity in Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Darci; Aponte, Angel M.; Covian, Raul Garcia; Balaban, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein phosphorylation is a well-recognized metabolic control mechanism, with the classical example of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) regulation by specific kinases and phosphatases of bacterial origin. However, despite the growing number of reported mitochondrial phosphoproteins, identity of the protein kinases mediating these phosphorylation events remains largely unknown. The detection of mitochondrial protein kinases is complicated by the low concentration of kinase relative to target protein, lack of specific antibodies and contamination from associated, but non-matrix, proteins. In this study we used blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) to isolate rat and porcine heart mitochondrial complexes for screening of protein kinase activity. To detect kinase activity, 1D BN-PAGE gels were exposed to ?-32P-ATP and then followed by SDS gel electrophoresis (2D BN/SDS-PAGE). 32P-labeled dozen of mitochondrial proteins in this setting, including all five complexes of oxidative phosphorylation and several citric acid cycle enzymes. The near ubiquitous 32P protein labeling demonstrates protein kinase activity within each mitochondrial protein complex. The validity of this 2D-BN-PAGE method was demonstrated by detecting the known PDH kinases and phosphatases within the PDH complex band using Western blots and mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, these same approaches detected only a few additional conventional protein kinases suggesting a major role for autophosphorylation in mitochondrial proteins. Studies on purified Complex V and creatine kinase confirmed that these proteins undergo autophosphorylation, and, to a lesser degree, tenacious 32P-metabolite association. In-gel Complex IV activity was shown to be inhibited by ATP, and partially reversed by phosphatase activity, consistent with an inhibitory role for protein phosphorylation in this complex. Collectively, this study proposes that many of the mitochondrial complexes contain an autophosphorylation mechanism, which may play a functional role in the regulation of these multi-protein units. PMID:21329348

  12. Stimulus Perception in Bacterial Signal-Transducing Histidine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Mascher, Thorsten; Helmann, John D.; Unden, Gottfried

    2006-01-01

    Two-component signal-transducing systems are ubiquitously distributed communication interfaces in bacteria. They consist of a histidine kinase that senses a specific environmental stimulus and a cognate response regulator that mediates the cellular response, mostly through differential expression of target genes. Histidine kinases are typically transmembrane proteins harboring at least two domains: an input (or sensor) domain and a cytoplasmic transmitter (or kinase) domain. They can be identified and classified by virtue of their conserved cytoplasmic kinase domains. In contrast, the sensor domains are highly variable, reflecting the plethora of different signals and modes of sensing. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of stimulus perception by bacterial histidine kinases, we here survey sensor domain architecture and topology within the bacterial membrane, functional aspects related to this topology, and sequence and phylogenetic conservation. Based on these criteria, three groups of histidine kinases can be differentiated. (i) Periplasmic-sensing histidine kinases detect their stimuli (often small solutes) through an extracellular input domain. (ii) Histidine kinases with sensing mechanisms linked to the transmembrane regions detect stimuli (usually membrane-associated stimuli, such as ionic strength, osmolarity, turgor, or functional state of the cell envelope) via their membrane-spanning segments and sometimes via additional short extracellular loops. (iii) Cytoplasmic-sensing histidine kinases (either membrane anchored or soluble) detect cellular or diffusible signals reporting the metabolic or developmental state of the cell. This review provides an overview of mechanisms of stimulus perception for members of all three groups of bacterial signal-transducing histidine kinases. PMID:17158704

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling determines kidney size.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Kang; Nagai, Kojiro; Chen, Jianchun; Plieth, David; Hino, Masayo; Xu, Jinxian; Sha, Feng; Ikizler, T Alp; Quarles, C Chad; Threadgill, David W; Neilson, Eric G; Harris, Raymond C

    2015-06-01

    Kidney size adaptively increases as mammals grow and in response to the loss of 1 kidney. It is not clear how kidneys size themselves or if the processes that adapt kidney mass to lean body mass also mediate renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX). Here, we demonstrated that mice harboring a proximal tubule-specific deletion of Pten (PtenptKO) have greatly enlarged kidneys as the result of persistent activation of the class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT pathway and an increase of the antiproliferative signals p21Cip1/WAF and p27Kip1. Administration of rapamycin to PtenptKO mice diminished hypertrophy. Proximal tubule-specific deletion of Egfr in PtenptKO mice also attenuated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling and reduced the size of enlarged kidneys. In PtenptKO mice, UNX further increased mTORC1 activation and hypertrophy in the remaining kidney; however, mTORC2-dependent AKT phosphorylation did not increase further in the remaining kidney of PtenptKO mice, nor was it induced in the remaining kidney of WT mice. After UNX, renal blood flow and amino acid delivery to the remaining kidney rose abruptly, followed by increased amino acid content and activation of a class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 pathway. Thus, our findings demonstrate context-dependent roles for EGFR-modulated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling in the normal adaptation of kidney size and PTEN-independent, nutrient-dependent class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 signaling in the compensatory enlargement of the remaining kidney following UNX. PMID:25985273

  14. A Quantitative Mass Spectrometry-based Approach for Identifying Protein Kinase-Clients and Quantifying Kinase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes are believed to encode >500 and >1,000 protein kinases, respectively. Despite this abundance, few bona fide kinase-client relationships have been described in detail. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches have been integral to the large-scale mapp...

  15. Novel detection method for chemiluminescence derived from the Kinase-Glo luminescent kinase assay platform: Advantages over traditional microplate luminometers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ryan A.V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of cellular signal transduction is of paramount importance for the proper functioning of a cell and an organism as a whole. Protein kinases are responsible for much of this transmission and thus have been the focal point of extensive research. While there are numerous commercially available protein kinase assays, the Kinase-Glo luminescent kinase assay (Promega) provides an easy-to-use and high throughput platform for determining protein kinase activity. This assay is said to require the use of a microplate spectrophotometer capable of detecting a luminescent signal. This study shows that:•The ChemiGenius Bioimaging system (Syngene), typically used for visualizing chemiluminescence from Western blots, provides an alternative detection system for Kinase-Glo luminescence.•The novel detection system confers an advantage over traditional luminometers, in that it allows visualization of the luminescent wells, which allows for the real-time analysis and correction of experimental errors (i.e. bubble formation).•Determining kinase kinetics using this detection system produced comparable results to previous studies on the same enzyme (i.e. glycogen synthase kinase 3).

  16. Rho-kinase regulates human platelet activation induced by thromboxane A2 independently of p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yuko; Doi, Tomoaki; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Enomoto, Yukiko; Tanabe, Kumiko; Otsuka, Takanobu; Iwama, Toru; Ogura, Shinji; Kozawa, Osamu; Iida, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ristocetin, an activator of GPIb/IX/V, induces the release of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) via thromboxane A2 production in human platelets. It has been shown that thromboxane A2 induces the activation of Rho-kinase, a downstream effector of Rho, in human platelets. In the present study, we investigated the exact roles of Rho-kinase in thromboxane A2-induced platelet activation. We found that U46619, a thromboxane receptor (TP) agonist, induced the phosphorylation of cofilin, a target of Rho-kinase signaling, and that the cofilin phosphorylation by U46619 was suppressed by Y27632 or fasudil, specific inhibitors of Rho-kinase. Y27632 and fasudil markedly decreased large platelet aggregate formation by U46619. The release of sCD40L and secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB stimulated by U46619 were inhibited by Y27632 and fasudil. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, reduced the sCD40L release and PDGF-AB secretion. Y27632 and fasudil failed to affect the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase whereas SB203580 had little effect on the phosphorylation of cofilin induced by U46619. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that Rho-kinase regulates thromboxane A2-induced human platelet activation independently of p38 MAP kinase. PMID:25500336

  17. Death-associated protein kinase 1 promotes growth of p53-mutant cancers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Dekuang; Poage, Graham M; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Zhang, Yun; Hill, Jamal L; Hartman, Zachary C; Savage, Michelle I; Mills, Gordon B; Brown, Powel H

    2015-07-01

    Estrogen receptor-negative (ER-negative) breast cancers are extremely aggressive and associated with poor prognosis. In particular, effective treatment strategies are limited for patients diagnosed with triple receptor-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which also carries the worst prognosis of all forms of breast cancer; therefore, extensive studies have focused on the identification of molecularly targeted therapies for this tumor subtype. Here, we sought to identify molecular targets that are capable of suppressing tumorigenesis in TNBCs. Specifically, we found that death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is essential for growth of p53-mutant cancers, which account for over 80% of TNBCs. Depletion or inhibition of DAPK1 suppressed growth of p53-mutant but not p53-WT breast cancer cells. Moreover, DAPK1 inhibition limited growth of other p53-mutant cancers, including pancreatic and ovarian cancers. DAPK1 mediated the disruption of the TSC1/TSC2 complex, resulting in activation of the mTOR pathway. Our studies demonstrated that high DAPK1 expression causes increased cancer cell growth and enhanced signaling through the mTOR/S6K pathway; evaluation of multiple breast cancer patient data sets revealed that high DAPK1 expression associates with worse outcomes in individuals with p53-mutant cancers. Together, our data support targeting DAPK1 as a potential therapeutic strategy for p53-mutant cancers. PMID:26075823

  18. Conserved in vivo phosphorylation of calnexin at casein kinase II sites as well as a protein kinase C/proline-directed kinase site.

    PubMed

    Wong, H N; Ward, M A; Bell, A W; Chevet, E; Bains, S; Blackstock, W P; Solari, R; Thomas, D Y; Bergeron, J J

    1998-07-01

    Calnexin is a lectin-like chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that couples temporally and spatially N-linked oligosaccharide modifications with the productive folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins. Calnexin was originally identified as a major type I integral membrane protein substrate of kinase(s) associated with the ER. Casein kinase II (CK2) was subsequently identified as an ER-associated kinase responsible for the in vitro phosphorylation of calnexin in microsomes (Ou, W-J., Thomas, D. Y., Bell, A. W., and Bergeron, J. J. M. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 23789-23796). We now report on the in vivo sites of calnexin phosphorylation. After 32PO4 labeling of HepG2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, immunoprecipitated calnexin was phosphorylated exclusively on serine residues. Using nonradiolabeled cells, we subjected calnexin immunoprecipitates to in gel tryptic digestion followed by nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry employing selective scans specific for detection of phosphorylated fragments. Mass analyses identified three phosphorylated sites in calnexin from either HepG2 or Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The three sites were localized to the more carboxyl-terminal half of the cytosolic domain: S534DAE (CK2 motif), S544QEE (CK2 motif), and S563PR. We conclude that CK2 is a kinase that phosphorylates calnexin in vivo as well as in microsomes in vitro. Another yet to be identified kinase (protein kinase C and/or proline-directed kinase) is directed toward the most COOH-terminal serine residue. Elucidation of the signaling cascade responsible for calnexin phosphorylation at these sites in vivo may define a novel regulatory function for calnexin in cargo folding and transport to the ER exit sites. PMID:9642293

  19. Direct Kinase-to-Kinase Signaling Mediated by the FHA Phosphoprotein Recognition Domain of the Dun1 DNA Damage Checkpoint Kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir I. Bashkirov; Elena V. Bashkirova; Edwin Haghnazari; Wolf-Dietrich Heyer

    2003-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase Dun1 contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain and functions in the DNA damage checkpoint pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It belongs to the Chk2 family of checkpoint kinases, which includes S. cerevisiae Rad53 and Mek1, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cds1, and human Chk2. Dun1 is required for DNA damage-induced transcription of certain target genes, transient G2\\/M arrest after DNA damage, and

  20. Activity-Dependent Synaptogenesis: Regulation by a CaM-Kinase Kinase\\/CaM-Kinase I\\/?PIX Signaling Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeo Saneyoshi; Gary Wayman; Dale Fortin; Monika Davare; Naoto Hoshi; Naohito Nozaki; Tohru Natsume; Thomas R. Soderling

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Neuronal activity augments maturation of mush- room-shaped spines to form excitatory synapses, thereby strengthening synaptic transmission. We have delineated a Ca2+-signaling pathway down- stream of the NMDA receptor that stimulates cal- modulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) and CaMKI to promote formation of spines and synapses in hippocampal neurons. CaMKK and CaMKI form a multiprotein signaling complex with the guanine nucleotide

  1. Identification and functional analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yun; Wang, Chen; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades, consisting of three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases (MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK), are involved in important processes including plant immunity and hormone responses. The MAPKKKs comprise the largest family in the MAPK cascades, yet only a few of these genes have been associated with physiological functions, even in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China and worldwide. To explore MAPKKK functions in biotic and abiotic stress responses in canola, 66 MAPKKK genes were identified and 28 of them were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis of these canola MAPKKKs with homologous genes from representative species classified them into three groups (A–C), comprising four MAPKKKs, seven ZIKs, and 17 Raf genes. A further 15 interaction pairs between these MAPKKKs and the downstream BnaMKKs were identified through a yeast two-hybrid assay. The interactions were further validated through bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. In addition, by quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR, it was further observed that some of these BnaMAPKKK genes were regulated by different hormone stimuli, abiotic stresses, or fungal pathogen treatments. Interestingly, two novel BnaMAPKKK genes, BnaMAPKKK18 and BnaMAPKKK19, which could elicit hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, were successfully identified. Moreover, it was found that BnaMAPKKK19 probably mediated cell death through BnaMKK9. Overall, the present work has laid the foundation for further characterization of this important MAPKKK gene family in canola. PMID:24604738

  2. A human homolog of the yeast Ssk2/Ssk22 MAP kinase kinase kinases, MTK1, mediates stress-induced activation of the p38 and JNK pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Takekawa, M; Posas, F; Saito, H

    1997-01-01

    A human homolog of the yeast Ssk2 and Ssk22 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKK) was cloned by functional complementation of the osmosensitivity of the yeast ssk2delta ssk22delta sho1delta triple mutant. This kinase, termed MTK1 (MAP Three Kinase 1), is 1607 amino acids long and is structurally highly similar to the yeast Ssk2 and Ssk22 MAPKKKs. In mammalian cells (COS-7 and HeLa), MTK1 overexpression stimulated both the p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways, but not the ERK pathway. MTK1 overexpression also activated the MKK3, MKK6 and SEK1 MAPKKs, but not the MEK1 MAPKK. Furthermore, MTK1 phosphorylated and activated MKK6 and SEK1 in vitro. Overexpression of a dominant-negative MTK1 mutant [MTK1(K/R)] strongly inhibited the activation of the p38 pathway by environmental stresses (osmotic shock, UV and anisomycin), but not the p38 activation by the cytokine TNF-alpha. The dominant-negative MTK1(K/R) had no effect on the activation of the JNK pathway or the ERK pathway. These results indicate that MTK1 is a major mediator of environmental stresses that activate the p38 MAPK pathway, and is also a minor mediator of the JNK pathway. PMID:9305639

  3. Cyclin-Dependent kinase 5 targeting prevents ?-Amyloid aggregation involving glycogen synthase kinase 3? and phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alvarez, John Fredy; Uribe-Arias, Alejandro; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Inappropriate activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) resulting from proteolytic release of the activator fragment p25 from the membrane contributes to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, ?-amyloid (?A) aggregation, and chronic neurodegeneration. At 18 months of age, 3× Tg-AD mice were sacrificed after either 3 weeks (short term) or 1 year (long term) of CDK5 knockdown. In short-term-treated animals, CDK5 knockdown reversed ?A aggregation in the hippocampi via inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? Ser9 and activation of phosphatase PP2A. In long-term-treated animals, CDK5 knockdown induced a persistent reduction in CDK5 and prevented ?A aggregation, but the effect on amyloid precursor protein processing was reduced, suggesting that yearly booster therapy would be required. These findings further validate CDK5 as a target for preventing or blocking amyloidosis in older transgenic mice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25711385

  4. The NDR kinase scaffold HYM1/MO25 is essential for MAK2 map kinase signaling in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Dettmann, Anne; Illgen, Julia; März, Sabine; Schürg, Timo; Fleissner, Andre; Seiler, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    Cell communication is essential for eukaryotic development, but our knowledge of molecules and mechanisms required for intercellular communication is fragmentary. In particular, the connection between signal sensing and regulation of cell polarity is poorly understood. In the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa, germinating spores mutually attract each other and subsequently fuse. During these tropic interactions, the two communicating cells rapidly alternate between two different physiological states, probably associated with signal delivery and response. The MAK2 MAP kinase cascade mediates cell-cell signaling. Here, we show that the conserved scaffolding protein HYM1/MO25 controls the cell shape-regulating NDR kinase module as well as the signal-receiving MAP kinase cascade. HYM1 functions as an integral part of the COT1 NDR kinase complex to regulate the interaction with its upstream kinase POD6 and thereby COT1 activity. In addition, HYM1 interacts with NRC1, MEK2, and MAK2, the three kinases of the MAK2 MAP kinase cascade, and co-localizes with MAK2 at the apex of growing cells. During cell fusion, the three kinases of the MAP kinase module as well as HYM1 are recruited to the point of cell-cell contact. hym-1 mutants phenocopy all defects observed for MAK2 pathway mutants by abolishing MAK2 activity. An NRC1-MEK2 fusion protein reconstitutes MAK2 signaling in hym-1, while constitutive activation of NRC1 and MEK2 does not. These data identify HYM1 as a novel regulator of the NRC1-MEK2-MAK2 pathway, which may coordinate NDR and MAP kinase signaling during cell polarity and intercellular communication. PMID:23028357

  5. The NDR Kinase Scaffold HYM1/MO25 Is Essential for MAK2 MAP Kinase Signaling in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Dettmann, Anne; Illgen, Julia; März, Sabine; Schürg, Timo; Fleissner, Andre; Seiler, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Cell communication is essential for eukaryotic development, but our knowledge of molecules and mechanisms required for intercellular communication is fragmentary. In particular, the connection between signal sensing and regulation of cell polarity is poorly understood. In the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa, germinating spores mutually attract each other and subsequently fuse. During these tropic interactions, the two communicating cells rapidly alternate between two different physiological states, probably associated with signal delivery and response. The MAK2 MAP kinase cascade mediates cell–cell signaling. Here, we show that the conserved scaffolding protein HYM1/MO25 controls the cell shape-regulating NDR kinase module as well as the signal-receiving MAP kinase cascade. HYM1 functions as an integral part of the COT1 NDR kinase complex to regulate the interaction with its upstream kinase POD6 and thereby COT1 activity. In addition, HYM1 interacts with NRC1, MEK2, and MAK2, the three kinases of the MAK2 MAP kinase cascade, and co-localizes with MAK2 at the apex of growing cells. During cell fusion, the three kinases of the MAP kinase module as well as HYM1 are recruited to the point of cell–cell contact. hym-1 mutants phenocopy all defects observed for MAK2 pathway mutants by abolishing MAK2 activity. An NRC1-MEK2 fusion protein reconstitutes MAK2 signaling in hym-1, while constitutive activation of NRC1 and MEK2 does not. These data identify HYM1 as a novel regulator of the NRC1-MEK2-MAK2 pathway, which may coordinate NDR and MAP kinase signaling during cell polarity and intercellular communication. PMID:23028357

  6. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin mediated by protein kinase B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren A. E. Cross; Dario R. Alessi; Philip Cohen; Mirjana Andjelkovich; Brian A. Hemmings

    1995-01-01

    GLYCOGEN synthase kinase-3 (GSK3)1 is implicated in the regulation of several physiological processes, including the control of glycogen2 and protein3 synthesis by insulin, modulation of the transcription factors AP-1 and CREB4-6, the specification of cell fate in Drosophila7 and dorsoventral patterning in Xenopus embryos8. GSK3 is inhibited by serine phosphorylation in response to insulin or growth factors3,9-11 and in vitro

  7. Phosphorylation of Farnesol in Rat Liver Microsomes: Properties of Farnesol Kinase and Farnesyl Phosphate Kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus Bentinger; Jacob Grünler; Elisabeth Peterson; Ewa Swiezewska; Gustav Dallner

    1998-01-01

    As farnesol may serve as a nonsterol endogenous regulator of the mevalonate pathway, the possibility that a kinase specific for its phosphorylation is present in the rat liver was investigated. In the 10,000gsupernatant of rat liver, farnesyl monophosphate was synthesized in the presence of ATP. TheKmvalue for farnesol was 2.3 ?M. Various detergents inhibited the activity of the enzyme. The

  8. Activation of protein kinase C-? and Src kinase increases urea transporter A1 ?-2, 6 sialylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuechen; Yang, Baoxue; Chen, Minguang; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M; Chen, Guangping

    2015-04-01

    The urea transporter A1 (UT-A1) is a glycosylated protein with two glycoforms: 117 and 97 kD. In diabetes, the increased abundance of the heavily glycosylated 117-kD UT-A1 corresponds to an increase of kidney tubule urea permeability. We previously reported that diabetes not only causes an increase of UT-A1 protein abundance but also, results in UT-A1 glycan changes, including an increase of sialic acid content. Because activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway is elevated in diabetes and PKC-? regulates UT-A1 urea transport activity, we explored the role of PKC in UT-A1 glycan sialylation. We found that activation of PKC specifically promotes UT-A1 glycan sialylation in both UT-A1-MDCK cells and rat kidney inner medullary collecting duct suspensions, and inhibition of PKC activity blocks high glucose-induced UT-A1 sialylation. Overexpression of PKC-? promoted UT-A1 sialylation and membrane surface expression. Conversely, PKC-?-deficient mice had significantly less sialylated UT-A1 compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, the effect of PKC-?-induced UT-A1 sialylation was mainly mediated by Src kinase but not Raf-1 kinase. Functionally, increased UT-A1 sialylation corresponded with enhanced urea transport activity. Thus, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which PKC regulates UT-A1 function by increasing glycan sialylation through Src kinase pathways, which may have an important role in preventing the osmotic diuresis caused by glucosuria under diabetic conditions. PMID:25300290

  9. Cbk1 kinase and Bck2 control MAP kinase activation and inactivation during heat shock

    PubMed Central

    Kuravi, Venkata K.; Kurischko, Cornelia; Puri, Manasi; Luca, Francis C.

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cbk1 kinase is a LATS/NDR tumor suppressor orthologue and component of the Regulation of Ace2 and Morphogenesis signaling network. Cbk1 was previously implicated in regulating polarized morphogenesis, gene expression, and cell integrity. Here we establish that Cbk1 is critical for heat shock and cell wall stress signaling via Bck2, a protein associated with the Pkc1-Mpk1 cell integrity pathway. We demonstrate that cbk1 and bck2 loss-of-function mutations prevent Mpk1 kinase activation and Mpk1-dependent gene expression but do not disrupt Mpk1 Thr-190/Tyr-192 phosphorylation. Bck2 overexpression partially restores Mpk1-dependent Rlm1 transcription factor activity in cbk1 mutants, suggesting that Bck2 functions downstream of Cbk1. We demonstrate that Bck2 precisely colocalizes with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase Sdp1. During heat shock, Bck2 and Sdp1 transiently redistribute from nuclei and the cytosol to mitochondria and other cytoplasmic puncta before returning to their pre-stressed localization patterns. Significantly, Cbk1 inhibition delays the return of Bck2 and Sdp1 to their pre-stressed localization patterns and delays Mpk1 Thr-190/Tyr-192 dephosphorylation upon heat shock adaptation. We conclude that Cbk1 and Bck2 are required for Mpk1 activation during heat shock and cell wall stress and for Mpk1 dephosphorylation during heat shock adaptation. These data provide the first evidence that Cbk1 kinase regulates MAPK-dependent stress signaling and provide mechanistic insight into Sdp1 phosphatase regulation. PMID:22031291

  10. PBK/TOPK, a proliferating neural progenitor-specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, J D; Garcia, A D R; Nakano, I; Livingstone, M; Norris, B; Polakiewicz, R; Wexler, E M; Sofroniew, M V; Kornblum, H I; Geschwind, D H

    2005-11-16

    We performed genomic subtraction coupled to microarray-based gene expression profiling and identified the PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1)-binding kinase/T-LAK (lymphokine-activated killer T cell) cell originating protein kinase (PBK/TOPK) as a gene highly enriched in neural stem cell cultures. Previous studies have identified PBK/TOPK as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase that phosphorylated P38 MAPK but with no known expression or function in the nervous system. First, using a novel, bioinformatics-based approach to assess cross-correlation in large microarray datasets, we generated the hypothesis of a cell-cycle-related role for PBK/TOPK in neural cells. We then demonstrated that both PBK/TOPK and P38 are activated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner in neuronal progenitor cells in vitro, and inhibition of this pathway disrupts progenitor proliferation and self-renewal, a core feature of progenitors. In vivo, PBK/TOPK is expressed in rapidly proliferating cells in the adult subependymal zone (SEZ) and early postnatal cerebellar external granular layer. Using an approach based on transgenically targeted ablation and lineage tracing in mice, we show that PBK/TOPK-positive cells in the SEZ are GFAP negative but arise from GFAP-positive neural stem cells during adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, ablation of the adult stem cell population leads to concomitant loss of PBK/TOPK-positive cells in the SEZ. Together, these studies demonstrate that PBK/TOPK is a marker for transiently amplifying neural progenitors in the SEZ. Additionally, they suggest that PBK/TOPK plays an important role in these progenitors, and further implicates the P38 MAPK pathway in general, as an important regulator of progenitor proliferation and self-renewal. PMID:16291951

  11. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase and Kinase Specificity in Regulation of SRC and Breast Tumor Kinase.

    PubMed

    Fan, Gaofeng; Aleem, Saadat; Yang, Ming; Miller, W Todd; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2015-06-26

    Despite significant evidence to the contrary, the view that phosphatases are "nonspecific" still pervades the field. Systems biology approaches to defining how signal transduction pathways are integrated at the level of whole organisms also often downplay the contribution of phosphatases, defining them as "erasers" that serve merely to restore the system to its basal state. Here, we present a study that counteracts the idea of "nonspecific phosphatases." We have characterized two structurally similar and functionally related kinases, BRK and SRC, which are regulated by combinations of activating autophosphorylation and inhibitory C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated specificity at the level of the kinases in that SRMS phosphorylated the C terminus of BRK, but not SRC; in contrast, CSK is the kinase responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of SRC, but not BRK. For the phosphatases, we observed that RNAi-mediated suppression of PTP1B resulted in opposing effects on the activity of BRK and SRC and have defined the mechanisms underlying this specificity. PTP1B inhibited BRK by directly dephosphorylating the Tyr-342 autophosphorylation site. In contrast, PTP1B potentiated SRC activity, but not by dephosphorylating SRC itself directly; instead, PTP1B regulated the interaction between CBP/PAG and CSK. SRC associated with, and phosphorylated, the transmembrane protein CBP/PAG at Tyr-317, resulting in CSK recruitment. We identified PAG as a substrate of PTP1B, and dephosphorylation abolished recruitment of the inhibitory kinase CSK. Overall, these findings illustrate how the combinatorial effects of PTKs and PTPs may be integrated to regulate signaling, with both classes of enzymes displaying exquisite specificity. PMID:25897081

  12. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase testing conundrum.

    PubMed

    Conde, Esther; Taniere, Philippe; Lopez-Rios, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Given the excellent results of the clinical trials with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors, the importance of accurately identifying ALK-positive lung carcinoma patients has never been greater. It brings with it a pressing need for harmonized development of companion diagnostics, for economic, scientific and medical reasons. Therefore, it is crucial that ALK testing assays become more standardized both in performance (analytical phase) and interpretation (post-analytical phase). We find that both methods currently recommended by College of American Pathologists/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines (FISH and Immunohistochemistry) are reasonable approaches for primary routine ALK testing, if at least 50 tumor cells are scored and protocols are strictly followed. Moreover, due to the high demand to study multiple predictive biomarkers on different assay platforms, quick and reliable approaches to achieve this are essential to guide treatment decisions. PMID:25579121

  13. Focal adhesion kinase function in neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ana I; Rico, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    During the development and maturation of the adult nervous system, several consecutive events, from neural induction to axon-dendrite arborization and synapse formation, contribute to the final exquisite specificity of neuronal networks. To accomplish this precise and healthy brain architecture, a coordinated rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in response to extracellular cues is essential. In this review, we propose focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as a key intracellular component for this command, and summarize different studies that support this hypothesis. We will discuss how FAK interacts with different extracellular molecules and the cytoskeleton and how FAK functions as a sort of "orchestra conductor" coordinating a broad range of signaling pathways during neuronal motility. PMID:24705242

  14. Protein Scaffolds in MAP Kinase Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew D.; Sacks, David B.

    2009-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway allows cells to interpret external signals and respond in an appropriate way. Diverse cellular functions, ranging from differentiation and proliferation to migration and inflammation, are regulated by MAPK signalling. Therefore, cells have developed mechanisms by which this single pathway modulates numerous cellular responses from a wide range of activating factors. This specificity is achieved by several mechanisms, including temporal and spatial control of MAPK signalling components. Key to this control are protein scaffolds, which are multidomain proteins that interact with components of the MAPK cascade in order to assemble signalling complexes. Studies conducted on different scaffolds, in different biological systems, have shown that scaffolds exert substantial control over MAPK signalling, influencing the signal intensity, time course and, importantly, the cellular responses. Protein scaffolds, therefore, are integral elements in the modulation of the MAPK network in fundamental physiological processes. PMID:19091303

  15. Next generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI): afatinib.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Agrawal, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    Afatinib is a recently introduced new tyrosine kinase inhibitor, approved by the USFDA on July 12, 2013. Afatinib is marketed under the trade name Gilotrif and developed by Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH. It is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying EGFR exon 19 deletions or exon 21 (L858R) mutations. Afatinib is a covalent, irreversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and HER4. Chemically afatinib is a 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative, having an acrylamide warhead. Gilotrif is the formulation of Afatinib di-meleate salt. Presently, afatinib has been approved in the USA, the European Union, Taiwan and Mexico. In this review, we have summarized the chemical characterization of afatinib, its synthesis, patent status, marketed formulation, available crystalline form and current clinical trials. PMID:24844234

  16. p21-activated kinases and gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Baldwin, Graham S

    2013-01-01

    p21-activated kinases (PAKs) were initially identified as effector proteins downstream from GTPases of the Rho family. To date, six members of the PAK family have been discovered in mammalian cells. PAKs play important roles in growth factor signalling, cytoskeletal remodelling, gene transcription, cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation. A large body of research has demonstrated that PAKs are up-regulated in several human cancers, and that their overexpression is linked to tumour progression and resistance to therapy. Structural and biochemical studies have revealed the mechanisms involved in PAK signalling, and opened the way to the development of PAK-targeted therapies for cancer treatment. Here we summarise recent findings from biological and clinical research on the role of PAKs in gastrointestinal cancer, and discuss the current status of PAK-targeted anticancer therapies. PMID:23092728

  17. Receptor tyrosine kinase targeting in multicellular spheroids.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Susan; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    While growing cells as a monolayer is the traditional method for cell culture, the incorporation of multicellular spheroids into experimental design is becoming increasingly popular. This is due to the understanding that cells grown as spheroids tend to replicate the in vivo situation more reliably than monolayer cells. Thus, the use of multicellular spheroids may be more clinically relevant than monolayer cell cultures. Here, we describe methods for multicellular 3D spheroid generation that may be used to provide samples for receptor tyrosine kinase (and other protein) detection. Methods described include the forced-floating poly-HEMA method, the hanging-drop method, and the use of ECM to form multicellular 3D spheroids. PMID:25319898

  18. MAP Kinase Cascades in Arabidopsis Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Magnus W; Roux, Milena; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2012-01-01

    Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades generally transduce extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. These stimuli include the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by host transmembrane pattern recognition receptors which trigger MAPK-dependent innate immune responses. In the model Arabidopsis, molecular genetic evidence implicates a number of MAPK cascade