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Sample records for p70 s6 kinase

  1. P70 S6 kinase mediates tau phosphorylation and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jin-Jing; An, Wen-Lin; Zhou, Xin-Wen; Nishimura, Takeshi; Norberg, Jan; Benedikz, Eirikur; Götz, Jürgen; Winblad, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Currently, we found that the 70-kDa p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) directly phosphorylates tau at S262, S214, and T212 sites in vitro. By immunoprecipitation, p-p70S6K (T421/S424) showed a close association with p-tau (S262 and S396/404). Zinc-induced p70S6K activation could only upregulate translation of total S6 and tau but not global proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. The requirement of p70S6K activation was confirmed in the SH-SY5Y cells that overexpress wild-type htau40. Level of p-p70S6K (T421/S424) was only significantly correlated with p-tau at S262, S214, and T212, but not T212/S214, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. These suggested that p70S6K might contribute to tau related pathologies in AD brains. PMID:16364302

  2. Structural Basis of Human p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase-1 Regulation by Activation Loop Phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Tomoko; Byrne, Noel; Diehl, Ronald E.; Funabashi, Kaoru; Hall, Dawn L.; Ikuta, Mari; Patel, Sangita B.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Smith, Robert F.; Takahashi, Ikuko; Zugay-Murphy, Joan; Iwasawa, Yoshikazu; Lumb, Kevin J.; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Sharma, Sujata

    2010-03-04

    p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) is a downstream effector of the mTOR signaling pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell-cycle progression, and glucose homeostasis. Multiple phosphorylation events within the catalytic, autoinhibitory, and hydrophobic motif domains contribute to the regulation of p70S6K. We report the crystal structures of the kinase domain of p70S6K1 bound to staurosporine in both the unphosphorylated state and in the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-phosphorylated state in which Thr-252 of the activation loop is phosphorylated. Unphosphorylated p70S6K1 exists in two crystal forms, one in which the p70S6K1 kinase domain exists as a monomer and the other as a domain-swapped dimer. The crystal structure of the partially activated kinase domain that is phosphorylated within the activation loop reveals conformational ordering of the activation loop that is consistent with a role in activation. The structures offer insights into the structural basis of the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-induced activation of p70S6K and provide a platform for the rational structure-guided design of specific p70S6K inhibitors.

  3. P70S6 Kinase Phosphorylation: A New Site to Assess Pharmacodynamy of Sirolimus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Yu; Fan, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: The phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) represents an important target for sensitive detection on pharmacodynamic effects of sirolimus, but the methods of assessing p70S6K phosphorylation are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate p70S6K phosphorylation located down-stream of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of liver transplant patients through different methods. Methods: Seventy-five liver transplant recipients from Beijing Chaoyang Hospital of the Capital Medical University were analyzed in this study. Patients were divided into three groups, patient treated with sirolimus (n = 22), patient treated with tacrolimus (n = 30), patient treated with cyclosporine (n = 23). The p70S6K phosphorylation of PBMCs in patients and healthy control (HC, n = 12) were analyzed by phospho-flow cytometry and Western blotting. A correlation analysis of data from phospho-flow cytometry and Western blotting was performed. Intra-assay variability of p70S6K phosphorylation in HC and different patients were measured. Results: Intra-assay variability of p70S6K phosphorylation in phospho-flow cytometry was from 4.1% to 8.4% and in Western blotting was from 8.2% to 18%. The p70S6K phosphorylation in patients receiving a sirolimus (19.5 ± 7.7) was significantly lower than in HC (50.1 ± 11.3, P < 0.001), tacrolimus (37.7 ± 15.7, P < 0.001) or cyclosporine treated patients (41.7 ± 11.7, P < 0.001). The p70S6K phosphorylation in HC (50.1 ± 11.3) was significantly higher than in tacrolimus (37.7 ± 15.7, P < 0.01) or cyclosporine-treated patients (41.7 ± 11.7, P < 0.01). There was correlation between data from phospho-flow cytometry and data from Western blotting (r = 0.88, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The degree of mTOR inhibition by assessing p70S6K phosphorylation was established by phospho-flow cytometry and Western blotting. Assessment of p70S6K phosphorylation may play an adjunct role to on pharmacodynamically guide and individualize sirolimus based on immunosuppression. PMID:25698201

  4. Vascular tumors have increased p70 S6-kinase activation and are inhibited by topical rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Du, Wa; Gerald, Damien; Perruzzi, Carole A; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Enayati, Ladan; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Edmonds, Joseph; Hochman, Marcelo L; Lev, Dina C; Phung, Thuy L

    2013-10-01

    Vascular tumors are endothelial cell neoplasms whose cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to tumor formation, are poorly understood, and current therapies have limited efficacy with significant side effects. We have investigated mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in benign and malignant vascular tumors, and the effects of mTOR kinase inhibitor as a potential therapy for these lesions. Human vascular tumors (infantile hemangioma and angiosarcoma) were analyzed by immunohistochemical stains and western blot for the phosphorylation of p70 S6-kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6), which are activated downstream of mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1). To assess the function of S6K, tumor cells with genetic knockdown of S6K were analyzed for cell proliferation and migration. The effects of topical rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, on mTORC1 and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) activities, as well as on tumor growth and migration, were determined. Vascular tumors showed increased activation of S6K and S6. Genetic knockdown of S6K resulted in reduced tumor cell proliferation and migration. Rapamycin fully inhibited mTORC1 and partially inhibited mTORC2 activities, including the phosphorylation of Akt (serine 473) and PKCα, in vascular tumor cells. Rapamycin significantly reduced vascular tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. As a potential localized therapy for cutaneous vascular tumors, topically applied rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth with limited systemic drug absorption. These findings reveal the importance of mTOR signaling pathways in benign and malignant vascular tumors. The mTOR pathway is an important therapeutic target in vascular tumors, and topical mTOR inhibitors may provide an alternative and well-tolerated therapy for the treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. PMID:23938603

  5. Cloning and expression of two human p70 S6 kinase polypeptides differing only at their amino termini

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, J.R.; Banerjee, P.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Price, D.J.; Avruch, J. ); Coffer, P.J.; Woodgett, J.R. )

    1991-11-01

    Two classes of human cDNA encoding the insulin/mitogen-activated p70 S6 kinase have been isolated; the two classes differ only in the 5{prime} region, such that the longer polypeptide consists of 525 amino acids, of which the last 502 longer residues are identical in sequence to the entire polypeptide encoded by the second cDNA. Both p70 S6 kinase polypeptides predicted by these cDNAs are present in p70 S6 kinase purified from rat liver, and each is thus expressed in vivo. Moreover, both polypeptides are expressed from a single mRNA transcribed from the (longer) p70 S6 kinase {alpha}I cDNA through the utilization of different translational start sites. Transient expression of p70 {alpha}I and {alpha}II S6 kinase cDNA in COA cells results in a 2.5- to 4-fold increase in overall S6 kinase activity. Transfection with the {alpha}II cDNA yields only the smaller set of bands, while transfection with the {alpha}I cDNA generates both sets of bands. Mutation of Met-24 in the {alpha}I cDNA to Leu or Thr suppresses synthesis of the {alpha}II polypeptides. Only the p70 {alpha}I and {alpha}II polypeptides of slowest mobility on SDS-PAGE comigrate with the 70-and 90-kDa proteins observed in purified rat liver S6 kinase. The recombinant p70 S6 kinase undergoes multiple phosphorylation and partial activation in COS cells. Acquisition of S6 protein kinase catalytic function, however, is apparently restricted to the most extensively phosphorylated recombinant polypeptides.

  6. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle hypertrophy: roles of glycogen synthase kinase-3? and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huan; Hershenson, Marc B.; Lei, Jing; Anyanwu, Anuli C.; Pinsky, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased medial arterial thickness is a structural change in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The role of smooth muscle hypertrophy in this process has not been well studied. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), and endothelin (ET)-1 have been implicated in PAH pathogenesis. We examined the effect of these mediators on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, and contractile function, as well on the roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), two proteins involved in translational control, in this process. Unlike epidermal growth factor, BMP-4, TGF-?1, 5-HT, and ET-1 each increased smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, fractional cell shortening, and GSK-3? phosphorylation. GSK-3? inhibition by lithium or SB-216763 increased cell size, protein synthesis, and contractile protein expression. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable GSK-3? mutant blocked BMP-4-, TGF-?1-, 5-HT-, and ET-1-induced cell size enlargement, suggesting that GSK-3? phosphorylation is required and sufficient for cellular hypertrophy. However, BMP-4, TGF-?1, 5-HT, and ET-1 stimulation was accompanied by an increase in serum response factor transcriptional activation but not eIF2 phosphorylation, suggesting that GSK-3?-mediated hypertrophy occurs via transcriptional, not translational, control. Finally, BMP-4, TGF-?1, 5-HT, and ET-1 treatment induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and ribosomal protein S6, and siRNAs against p70S6K and S6 blocked the hypertrophic response. We conclude that mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH induce pulmonary arterial smooth muscle hypertrophy. Identification of the signaling pathways regulating vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy may define new therapeutic targets for PAH. PMID:20190034

  7. Regulation of elongation factor 2 kinase by p90(RSK1) and p70 S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, W; Williams, M; Terada, N; Alessi, D R; Proud, C G

    2001-08-15

    Elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2k) phosphorylates and inactivates eEF2. Insulin induces dephosphorylation of eEF2 and inactivation of eEF2 kinase, and these effects are blocked by rapamycin, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR. However, the signalling mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Regulation of eEF2 phosphorylation and eEF2k activity is lost in cells in which phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) has been genetically knocked out. This is not due to loss of mTOR function since phosphorylation of another target of mTOR, initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, is not defective. PDK1 is required for activation of members of the AGC kinase family; we show that two such kinases, p70 S6 kinase (regulated via mTOR) and p90(RSK1) (activated by Erk), phosphorylate eEF2k at a conserved serine and inhibit its activity. In response to insulin-like growth factor 1, which activates p70 S6 kinase but not Erk, regulation of eEF2 is blocked by rapamycin. In contrast, regulation of eEF2 by stimuli that activate Erk is insensitive to rapamycin, but blocked by inhibitors of MEK/Erk signalling, consistent with the involvement of p90(RSK1). PMID:11500364

  8. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and p70S6 kinase is not correlated with cerebellar granule cell survival.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn-Moore, F J; Williams, A G; Toms, N J; Tavaré, J M

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in the survival of cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin, but not epidermal growth factor (EGF), promoted the survival of P6 cerebellar granule neurons. BDNF promoted a sustained activation of MAP kinase, whereas that induced by EGF was only transient. Insulin promoted a small but transient activation of MAP kinase that was completely blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase activation. PD98059 had no effect on the insulin- or BDNF-induced survival of cerebellar granule cells. We also investigated the role of p70S6 kinase in survival. The activation of p70S6 kinase by EGF was transient, whereas BDNF and insulin promoted a sustained activation of p70S6 kinase. Rapamycin, which blocked p70S6 kinase activation, had no effect on the BDNF- or insulin-induced survival of cerebellar granule cells. We conclude that sustained activation of MAP kinase is not correlated with the survival response of cerebellar granule cells; indeed insulin-mediated survival is independent of MAP kinase. Survival of cerebellar granule cells is also independent of the activation of p70S6 kinase. PMID:9182692

  9. p70 ribosomal S6 kinase regulates subpleural fibrosis following transforming growth factor-α expression in the lung.

    PubMed

    Madala, Satish K; Thomas, George; Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Davidson, Cynthia; Schmidt, Stephanie; Schehr, Angelica; Hardie, William D

    2016-01-15

    The p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) is a downstream substrate that is phosphorylated and activated by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex and regulates multiple cellular processes associated with fibrogenesis. Recent studies demonstrate that aberrant mTORC1-S6K signaling contributes to various pathological conditions, but a direct role in pulmonary fibroproliferation has not been established. Increased phosphorylation of the S6K pathway is detected immediately following transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) expression in a transgenic model of progressive lung fibrosis. To test the hypothesis that the S6K directly regulates pulmonary fibroproliferative disease we determined the cellular sites of S6K phosphorylation during the induction of fibrosis in the TGF-α model and tested the efficacy of specific pharmacological inhibition of the S6K pathway to prevent and reverse fibrotic disease. Following TGF-α expression increased phosphorylation of the S6K was detected in the airway and alveolar epithelium and the mesenchyme of advanced subpleural fibrotic regions. Specific inhibition of the S6K with the small molecule inhibitor LY-2584702 decreased TGF-α and platelet-derived growth factor-β-induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts in vitro. Administration of S6K inhibitors to TGF-α mice prevented the development of extensive subpleural fibrosis and alterations in lung mechanics, and attenuated the increase in total lung hydroxyproline. S6K inhibition after fibrosis was established attenuated the progression of subpleural fibrosis. Together these studies demonstrate targeting the S6K pathway selectively modifies the progression of pulmonary fibrosis in the subpleural compartment of the lung. PMID:26566903

  10. Specific activation of p85-p110 phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase stimulates DNA synthesis by ras- and p70 S6 kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, J; Chen, D; Wjasow, C; Michaeli, T; Backer, J M

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a polyclonal antibody that activates the heterodimeric p85-p110 phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase in vitro and in microinjected cells. Affinity purification revealed that the activating antibody recognized the N-terminal SH2 (NSH2) domain of p85, and the antibody increased the catalytic activity of recombinant p85-p110 dimers threefold in vitro. To study the role of endogenous PI 3'-kinase in intact cells, the activating anti-NSH2 antibody was microinjected into GRC + LR73 cells, a CHO cell derivative selected for tight quiescence during serum withdrawal. Microinjection of anti-NSH2 antibodies increased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation fivefold in quiescent cells and enhanced the response to serum. These data reflect a specific activation of PI 3'-kinase, as the effect was blocked by coinjection of the appropriate antigen (glutathione S-transferase-NSH2 domains from p85 alpha), coinjection of inhibitory anti-p110 antibodies, or treatment of cells with wortmannin. We used the activating antibodies to study signals downstream from PI 3'-kinase. Although treatment of cells with 50 nM rapamycin only partially decreased anti-NSH2-stimulated BrdU incorporation, coinjection with an anti-p70 S6 kinase antibody effectively blocked anti-NSH2-stimulated DNA synthesis. We also found that coinjection of inhibitory anti-ras antibodies blocked both serum- and anti-NSH2-stimulated BrdU incorporation by approximately 60%, and treatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of MEK abolished antibody-stimulated BrdU incorporation. We conclude that selective activation of physiological levels of PI 3'-kinase is sufficient to stimulate DNA synthesis in quiescent cells. PI 3'-kinase-mediated DNA synthesis requires both p70 S6 kinase and the P21ras/MEK pathway. PMID:8972205

  11. Expression and clinical significance of mammalian target of rapamycin/P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase signaling pathway in human colorectal carcinoma tissue

    PubMed Central

    LU, QINGJUN; WANG, JIESHU; YU, GANG; GUO, TIANHUA; HU, CHUN; REN, PENG

    2015-01-01

    The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported in tumor development, but the role of mTOR in colorectal carcinomas remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of mTOR and its downstream effector 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70S6K) in human colorectal carcinomas. The phosphorylated (p-)mTOR and p-P70S6K proteins were examined by immunohistochemistry performed on tissue microarray containing tissue samples obtained from colorectal carcinoma (n=111), adenomatous polyps (n=40) and normal colonic mucosa (n=40), with a comparison between the expression of these proteins and the clinicopathological parameters of patients with carcinomas. The positive expression rates of p-mTOR and p-P70S6k were 60.4 and 65.8%, respectively, in colorectal carcinoma tissue, which was significantly increased compared with the tissue from adenomatous polyps (27.5 and 20%, respectively) and normal colonic mucosa (10.0 and 5.0%, respectively) (P<0.05). Overexpression of the p-mTOR and p-P70S6K proteins was significantly associated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage, the occurrence of distal and lymph node metastasis and the degree of differentiation. Aberrant expression of p-mTOR and p-P70S6K may contribute to the pathogenesis, growth, invasion and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. The phosphorylation of these proteins was considered to be a promising marker to indicate the aggressive behaviors and prognosis of colorectal carcinomas. The overexpression of the mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway may play an important role in colorectal carcinoma carcinogenesis. The expression of p-mTOR and p-P70S6K was considered as a promising marker to indicate the aggressive behaviors and prognosis of human colorectal carcinomas. PMID:26171014

  12. Effect of insulin-like growth factor II on protecting myoblast cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis through p70 S6 kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaolin; Helman, Lee J

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II) is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and has both mitogenic and antiapoptotic activity. Although the mechanisms of IGF-II-induced proliferation have been well studied, the mechanisms underlying its survival signaling have been less well characterized. In this report, we investigated the role of IGF-II on cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We found that IGF-II overexpression was associated with an increase in p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70 S6K). Cisplatin treatment of C2C12 mouse myoblasts led to cell death associated with an inhibition of p70 S6K activity. Endogenous or exogenous IGF-II addition to C2C12 cells caused protection to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. This protection was associated in both cases with an increase in p70 S6K basal activity as well as resistance to cisplatin-induced decreased activity. Blockade of p70 S6K activation by rapamycin abrogated the IGF-II-mediated protection of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of IGF-II-overexpressing Rh30 and CTR rhabdomyosarcoma cells with rapamycin restored sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. These data together suggest that IGF-II-associated protection to cisplatin-induced apoptosis is mediated through an activation of the p70 S6K pathway. Thus, inhibition of the p70 S6 pathway may enhance chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in the treatment of IGF-II-overexpressing tumors. PMID:12192598

  13. Activation of S6K1 (p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1) requires an initial calcium-dependent priming event involving formation of a high-molecular-mass signalling complex.

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Katherine M; Thomas, George; Pearson, Richard B

    2003-01-01

    The mitogen-stimulated protein kinase p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a key enzyme in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Activation of S6K1 requires a complex, ordered series of conformational changes and phosphorylation reactions. While the role of sequential, multi-site phosphorylation has been extensively detailed, characterization of the priming step required to initiate this cascade has remained elusive. In the present study we show for the first time that this priming process is dependent on calcium. Calcium-dependent regulation of S6K1 did not specifically target Thr-229 and Thr-389, the key regulatory phosphorylation sites; rather, calcium chelation resulted in a global inhibition of S6K1 phosphorylation. Mutation of individual phosphorylation sites in the auto-inhibitory and hydrophobic domains to acidic residues (to mimic phosphorylation) yields a kinase that remains sensitive to calcium chelation, while the combined mutations alleviate the requirement for calcium. Furthermore, deletion of the C-terminal residues (398-502) also renders the kinase insensitive to calcium. We hypothesize that the initial calcium-dependent process is required to release an inhibitory interaction between the C- and N-termini of S6K1, thus allowing phosphorylation of these key domains. The requirement for this priming step can only be overcome by mutations mimicking the phosphorylation of both the auto-inhibitory and hydrophobic domains. We further propose that the priming event involves formation of a calcium-dependent protein complex that releases the interaction between the N- and C-termini. S6K1 is then accessible for activation by the kinases that target the known regulatory phosphorylation sites. Consistent with this hypothesis, serum stimulation of S6K1 activity is associated with its incorporation into a calcium-dependent high-molecular-mass complex. PMID:12429015

  14. A first-in-human phase I trial of LY2780301, a dual p70 S6 kinase and Akt Inhibitor, in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Azaro, Analia; Rodon, Jordi; Calles, Antonio; Braña, Irene; Hidalgo, Manuel; Lopez-Casas, Pedro P; Munoz, Manuel; Westwood, Paul; Miller, Joel; Moser, Brian A; Ohnmacht, Ute; Bumgardner, William; Benhadji, Karim A; Calvo, Emiliano

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this phase I study of LY2780301, a dual p70 S6 kinase and Akt inhibitor, was to determine the recommended phase II dose as a single agent in patients with advanced cancer. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic analyses, and co-clinical analyses in Avatar models. Eligible patients received total daily doses of LY2780301 100-500 mg, given orally as a single dose or divided into 2 doses for 28-day cycles. Dose escalation followed 3 + 3 design. The primary pharmacodynamic endpoint was inhibition of S6 assessed by skin and tumor biopsy. Thirty-two patients were treated. Common toxicities possibly related to treatment included constipation (19 %), fatigue (13 %), nausea (9 %), and diarrhea (9 %). Grade 3/4 toxicities potentially related to treatment were anemia (n = 2), increased alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) (n = 1), and increased gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (n = 1). One patient experienced best overall response of prolonged stable disease for 6 cycles. Plasma exposures of LY2780301 exceeded predicted efficacious exposures, but were not dose proportional. Among patients receiving 500 mg daily >50 % exhibited reduced S6 in skin biopsies at Day 8 of treatment, but the effect was not maintained. Plasma concentrations of LY2780301 and/or its metabolites were not correlated with S6 expression in the epidermis. There was minimal antitumor activity against the model, CRC 019. Avatar models showed minimal pharmacodynamic effects consistent with the observed antitumor effects. This study suggests a dose of LY2780301 500 mg QD for future studies. PMID:25902900

  15. P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Shi, Zhumei; Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} P70S6K1 regulates VEGF expression; {yields} P70S6K1 induces transcriptional activation through HIF-1{alpha} binding site; {yields} P70S6K1 regulates HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression; {yields} P70S6K1 mediates tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression. -- Abstract: The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN-negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1{alpha} binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

  16. Prostaglandin F2alpha represses IGF-I-stimulated IRS1/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT signaling in the corpus luteum: role of ERK and P70 ribosomal S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Arvisais, Edward; Hou, Xiaoying; Wyatt, Todd A; Shirasuna, Koumei; Bollwein, Heinrich; Miyamoto, Akio; Hansen, Thomas R; Rueda, Bo R; Davis, John S

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about the early intracellular events that contribute to corpus luteum regression. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in the corpus luteum in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of midluteal-phase cows with a luteolytic dose of PGF2alpha resulted in a rapid increase in ERK and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K1) signaling and a rapid suppression of Akt phosphorylation in luteal tissue. In vitro treatment of primary cultures of luteal cells with PGF2alpha also resulted in an increase in ERK and mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling and a diminished capacity of IGF-I to stimulate PI3K, Akt, and protein kinase C zeta activation. Accounting for the reductions in PI3K and Akt activation observed in response to PGF2alpha treatment, we found that PGF2alpha promoted the phosphorylation of serine residues (307, 612, 636) in the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) peptide sequence in vivo and in vitro. Serine phosphorylation of IRS1 was associated with reduced formation of IGF-I-stimulated IRS1/PI3Kp85 complexes. Furthermore, treatment with inhibitors of the MAPK kinase 1/ERK or mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling pathways prevented PGF2alpha-induced serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and abrogated the inhibitory actions of PGF2alpha on Akt activation. Taken together, these experiments provide compelling evidence that PGF2alpha treatment stimulates IRS1 serine phosphorylation, which may contribute to a diminished capacity to respond to IGF-I. It seems likely that the rapid changes in phosphorylation events are among the early events that mediate PGF2alpha-induced corpus luteum regression. PMID:20160123

  17. PF-4708671 Activates AMPK Independently of p70S6K1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Vainer, Gilad W.; Saada, Ann; Kania-Almog, Juliane; Amartely, Adir; Bar-Tana, Jacob; Hertz, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (P70S6K1) is activated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1) and regulates proliferation, growth, and metabolism. PF-4708671 is a novel, cell-permeable, has been proposed to be a highly specific inhibitor of p70S6K1. It is used in micromolar concentration range to dissect signaling pathways downstream of mTORC1 and to study the function of p70S6K1. Here we show that PF-4708671 induces AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and activation in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) independently of p70S6K1, due to specific inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I. PMID:25202971

  18. The Drosophila p70s6k homolog exhibits conserved regulatory elements and rapamycin sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M J; Berry, C O; Zilberman, F; Thomas, G; Kozma, S C

    1996-01-01

    The protein p70s6k/p85s6k lies on a mitogen-stimulated signaling pathway and plays a key role in G1 progression of the cell cycle. Activation of this enzyme is mediated by a complex set of phosphorylation events, which has largely contributed to the difficulty in identifying the upstream kinases that mediate p70s6k activation. Genetics has proved a powerful complementary approach for such problems, providing an alternative means to identify components of signaling cascades and their functional end targets. As a first step toward implementing such an approach, we have cloned cDNAs encoding the Drosophila melanogaster p70s6k homolog (Dp70s6k). Dp70s6k is encoded by a single gene, which generates three mRNA transcripts and exhibits an overall identity of 78% in the catalytic domain with its mammalian counterpart. Importantly, this high identity extends beyond the catalytic domain to the N terminus, linker region, and the autoinhibitory domain. Furthermore, all the critical phosphorylation sites required for mammalian p70s6k activation are conserved within these same domains of Dp70s6k. Chief amongst these conserved sites are those associated with the selective rapamycin-induced p70s6k dephosphorylation and inactivation. Consistent with this observation, analysis of total S6 kinase activity in fractionated Drosophila Schneider line 2 cell extracts reveals two peaks of activity, only one of which is rapamycin sensitive. By employing a monospecific polyclonal antibody generated against Dp70s6k, we show that the cloned DP70s6k cDNA has identity with only the rapamycin sensitive peak, suggesting that this biological system would be useful in determining not only the mechanism of p70s6k activation, but also in elucidating the mechanism by which rapamycin acts to inhibit cell growth. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8855259

  19. A hexane fraction of guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) induces anticancer activity by suppressing AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including β-eudesmol (11.98%), α-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), α-patchoulene (3.76%), β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), α-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:22280146

  20. A Hexane Fraction of Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) Induces Anticancer Activity by Suppressing AKT/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin/Ribosomal p70 S6 Kinase in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including β-eudesmol (11.98%), α-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), α-patchoulene (3.76%), β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), α-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:22280146

  1. The p70S6K Specific Inhibitor PF-4708671 Impedes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Xian-Ming; Li, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background As a serine/threonine protein kinase, p70S6K plays an important role in tumor cells. Evidence has revealed overexpression of p70S6K and phosphorylated p70S6K (p-p70S6K) in various tumor tissues, with these proteins identified as independent prognostic markers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we explored the role of the p70S6K specific inhibitor PF-4708671 in NSCLC. Methods Three NSCLC cell lines (A549, SK-MES-1, and NCI-H460) were treated with PF-4708671 at five different concentrations, including 0.1μM, 0.3μM, 1μM, 3μM and 10μM, and protein levels were determined by Western-blot. Then, PF-4708671’s effects were assessed both in vitro (cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and invasion) and in vivo. Results The expression levels of p-p70S6K and the downstream effector S6 were significantly reduced by PF-4708671. Diametrically opposite, the downstream protein levels of BAD, Caspase3 and ERK had increased after treatment with PF-4708671. In addition, PF-4708671 drastically inhibited cell proliferation and invasion ability in A549, SK-MES-1 and NCI-H460 cells in vitro, causing cell cycle arrest in G0-G1 phase. Limited effects of PF-4708671 were observed on apoptosis in the three NSCLC cell lines assessed. Importantly, PF-4708671 could inhibit tumorigenesis in nude mice in vivo. Conclusion These findings demonstrated that the p70S6K specific inhibitor PF-4708671 has inhibitory effects on NSCLC tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, P70S6K should be considered a new potential therapeutic target, and PF-470867 may be used as targeted drug for cancer treatment. PMID:26771549

  2. Resistance to Selumetinib (AZD6244) in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines is Mediated by p70S6K and RPS6 Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Silvina; Tristante, Elena; Saceda, Miguel; Carbonell, Pablo; Mayor-Lpez, Leticia; Carballo-Santana, Mar; Carrasco-Garca, Estefana; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Garca-Morales, Pilar; Carballo, Fernando; Ferragut, Jos A.; Martnez-Lacaci, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a MEK1/2 inhibitor that has gained interest as an anti-tumour agent. We have determined the degree of sensitivity/resistance to Selumetinib in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines using cell proliferation and soft agar assays. Sensitive cell lines underwent G1 arrest, whereas Selumetinib had no effect on the cell cycle of resistant cells. Some of the resistant cell lines showed high levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of serum. Selumetinib inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and RSK and had no effect on AKT phosphorylation in both sensitive and resistant cells. Furthermore, mutations in KRAS, BRAF, or PIK3CA were not clearly associated with Selumetinib resistance. Surprisingly, Selumetinib was able to inhibit phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in sensitive cell lines. However, p70S6K and RPS6 phosphorylation remained unaffected or even increased in resistant cells. Moreover, in some of the resistant cell lines p70S6K and RPS6 were phosphorylated in the absence of serum. Interestingly, colorectal primary cultures derived from tumours excised to patients exhibited the same behaviour than established cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of p70S6K using the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, the specific mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin and the specific p70S6K inhibitor PF-4708671 potentiated Selumetinib effects in resistant cells. In addition, biological inhibition of p70S6K using siRNA rendered responsiveness to Selumetinib in resistant cell lines. Furthermore, combination of p70S6K silencing and PF-47086714 was even more effective. We can conclude that p70S6K and its downstream target RPS6 are potential biomarkers of resistance to Selumetinib in colorectal cancer. PMID:25379021

  3. Roles of oxidative stress and the ERK1/2, PTEN and p70S6K signaling pathways in arsenite-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2015-12-15

    Studies show that arsenite induces oxidative stress and modifies cellular function via phosphorylation of proteins and inhibition of DNA repair enzymes. Autophagy, which has multiple physiological and pathological roles in cellular function, is initiated by oxidative stress and is regulated by the signaling pathways of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and extracellular signaling-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) that play important roles in oncogenesis. However, the effects of arsenite-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and on expression of related proteins are not fully understood. This study found that cells treated with sodium arsenite had reduced 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) and increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 in SV-40 immortalized human uroepithelial (SV-HUC-1) cells. Arsenite also increased the number of autophagosomes and increased levels of the autophagy markers Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B. Reactive oxygen species scavenger decreased arsenite-induced autophagy in SV-HUC-1 cells. Our previous work showed that arsenite induced phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study further showed that arsenite decreased phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) levels and increased phospho-p70S6 kinase (p-p70S6K) in SV-HUC-1 cells. However, both kinase inhibitor U0126 and the DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor 5-aza-deoxycytidine abolished the effect of arsenite on expressions of PTEN and p-p70S6K. These results show that autophagy induced by arsenite exposure is mediated by oxidative stress, which regulates activation of the PTEN, p70S6K and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Thus, this study clarifies the role of autophagy in arsenite-induced urothelial carcinogenesis. PMID:26432159

  4. D-Glucosamine inhibits proliferation of human cancer cells through inhibition of p70S6K

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Hyun-Ji; Lee, Jason S.; Song, Dae-Kyu; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Suh, Seong-Il; Park, Jong-Wook; Suh, Min-Ho; Baek, Won-Ki . E-mail: wonki@dsmc.or.kr

    2007-09-07

    Although D-glucosamine has been reported as an inhibitor of tumor growth both in vivo and in vitro, the mechanism for the anticancer effect of D-glucosamine is still unclear. Since there are several reports suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits protein synthesis, we examined whether D-glucosamine affects p70S6 K activity, an important signaling molecule involved in protein translation. In the present study, we found D-glucosamine inhibited the activity of p70S6K and the proliferation of DU145 prostate cancer cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. D-Glucosamine decreased phosphorylation of p70S6K, and its downstream substrates RPS6, and eIF-4B, but not mTOR and 4EBP1 in DU145 cells, suggesting that D-glucosamine induced inhibition of p70S6K is not through the inhibition of mTOR. In addition, D-glucosamine enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR. These findings suggest that D-glucosamine can inhibit growth of cancer cells through dephosphorylation of p70S6K.

  5. mTOR/P70S6K promotes spermatogonia proliferation and spermatogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Shen, Lianju; Chen, Xuemei; Ding, Yubin; He, Junlin; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing

    2016-02-01

    Spermatogenesis is a critical process for maintaining male fertility. Sustained spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal and differentiation ensures constant spermatogenesis, and several signalling pathways regulate this process. An increasing number of studies have suggested that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway plays an important role in spermatogenesis; however, the mechanism remains unknown. Our study showed that mTOR was positively related with spermatogenesis by detecting mTOR expression and the expression of its target p70s6k, rps6 and 4e-bp1 at different developmental stages. Phosphorylated p70s6k, rps6 and 4ebp1 levels were independently and gradually down-regulated with age. Subsequently, we showed in vivo and in vitro that, upon mTOR inactivation by rapamycin, the number of sperm significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and spermatogonia proliferation was blocked. Phosphorylated p70s6k and rps6 levels were down-regulated, but the levels of phosphorylated 4e-bp1 did not change. Spermatogonia were treated with the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and p70s6k, rps6 and 4ebp1 phosphorylation overtly decreased. Therefore, we suggest that mTOR plays an important role in spermatogenesis by regulating p70s6k activation and that 4e-bp1 is either directly or indirectly regulated by PI3K. PMID:26706460

  6. Mechanical stimuli of skeletal muscle: implications on mTOR/p70s6k and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Nelo Eidy; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2008-02-01

    The skeletal muscle is a tissue with adaptive properties which are essential to the survival of many species. When mechanically stimulated it is liable to undergo remodeling, namely, changes in its mass/volume resulting mainly from myofibrillar protein accumulation. The mTOR pathway (mammalian target of rapamycin) via its effector p70s6k (ribosomal protein kinase S6) has been reported to be of importance to the control of skeletal muscle mass, particularly under mechanical stimulation. However, not all mechanical stimuli are capable of activating this pathway, and among those who are, there are differences in the activation magnitude. Likewise, not all skeletal muscle fibers respond to the same extent to mechanical stimulation. Such evidences suggest specific mechanical stimuli through appropriate cellular signaling to be responsible for the final physiological response, namely, the accumulation of myofibrillar protein. Lately, after the mTOR signaling pathway has been acknowledged as of importance for remodeling, the interest for the mechanical/chemical mediators capable of activating it has increased. Apart from the already known MGF (mechano growth factor), some other mediators such as phosphatidic acid (PA) have been identified. This review article comprises and discusses relevant information on the mechano-chemical transduction of the pathway mTOR, with special emphasis on the muscle protein synthesis. PMID:17940791

  7. FOXP1 regulation via the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    HALACLI, SEVIL OSKAY; DOGAN, AYSE LALE

    2015-01-01

    Loss of Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) protein expression confers a poor prognosis in sporadic and familial breast cancer patients, and the FOXP1 gene maps to a tumor suppressor locus at chromosome 3p14. Although correlation studies have indicated that FOXP1 has a role in tumor suppression, determination of the regulatory mechanism of FOXP1 is required to establish its function in breast cancer. It has previously been identified that FOXP1 is regulated by estrogen in breast cancer and that treatment with bisphenol A is effective for regulating the transformation of the normal human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10F. In addition, FOXO-regulated activation of FOXP1 inhibits the apoptosis of MCF-10F cells following tamoxifen and Akt inhibitor VIII administration. The present study indicates that FOXP1 regulation occurs via a PI3K/Akt/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathway. Following treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells demonstrated decreased FOXP1 protein expression levels; this result was also observed in the small interfering (si)RNA silencing of Akt. By contrast, overexpression of Akt resulted in increased FOXP1 protein expression levels in the MDA-MB-231 cells compared with the control cell lysates. Furthermore, treatment with rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K cascade, resulted in decreased FOXP1 expression in the MCF7 cells, but not in the MDA-MB-231 cells, which were resistant to rapamycin-induced inhibition. In addition, silencing of p70S6K using siRNA produced a marked decrease in FOXP1 expression. These data indicate that FOXP1 protein expression is regulated by a PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling cascade in breast cancer. PMID:25663935

  8. PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway Is Involved in Aβ25-35-Induced Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengnuo; Zhang, Bei; Luan, Ping; Gu, Beibei; Wan, Qing; Huang, Xiaoyun; Liao, Wang; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Disruption or deregulation of the autophagy system has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ plays an important role in this autophagic system. In many cases, autophagy is regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K) signaling pathway. However, whether this signaling pathway is involved in Aβ-induced autophagy in neuronal cells is not known. Here, we studied whether Aβ25-35 induces autophagy in HT22 cells and C57 mice and investigated whether PI3K is involved in the autophagy induction. We found that Aβ25-35 inhibited HT22 cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aβ25-35 induced autophagosome formation, the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), and the suppression of the mTOR pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Aβ25-35 impaired the learning abilities of C57 mice. Our study suggests that Aβ25-35 induces autophagy and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K pathway is involved in the process, which improves our understanding of the pathogenesis of AD and provides an additional model for AD research. PMID:26583091

  9. Phosphorylated p-70S6K predicts tamoxifen resistance in postmenopausal breast cancer patients randomized between adjuvant tamoxifen versus no systemic treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways results in anti-estrogen resistance in vitro, but a biomarker with clinical validity to predict intrinsic resistance has not been identified. In metastatic breast cancer patients with previous exposure to endocrine therapy, the addition of a mammalian target of rapamycine (mTOR) inhibitor has been shown to be beneficial. Whether or not patients on adjuvant endocrine treatment might benefit from these drugs is currently unclear. A biomarker that predicts intrinsic resistance could potentially be used as companion diagnostic in this setting. We tested the clinical validity of different downstream-activated proteins in the PI3K and/or MAPK pathways to predict intrinsic tamoxifen resistance in postmenopausal primary breast cancer patients. Methods We recollected primary tumor tissue from patients who participated in a randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen (1–3 years) versus observation. After constructing a tissue micro-array, cores from 563 estrogen receptor α positive were immunostained for p-AKT(Thr308), p-AKT(Ser473), p-mTOR, p-p706SK and p-ERK1/2. Cox proportional hazard models for recurrence free interval were used to assess hazard ratios and interactions between these markers and tamoxifen treatment efficacy. Results Interactions were identified between tamoxifen and p-AKT(Thr308), p-mTOR, p-p70S6K and p-ERK1/2. Applying a conservative level of significance, p-p70S6K remained significantly associated with tamoxifen resistance. Patients with p-p70S6K negative tumors derived significant benefit from tamoxifen (HR 0.24, P < 0.0001), while patients whose tumor did express p-p70S6K did not (HR = 1.02, P =0.95), P for interaction 0.004. In systemically untreated breast cancer patients, p-p70S6K was associated with a decreased risk for recurrence. Conclusions Patients whose tumor expresses p-p70S6K, as a marker of downstream PI3K and/or MAPK pathway activation, have a favorable prognosis, but do not benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen. A potential benefit from inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in these patients needs to be further explored. PMID:24447434

  10. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  11. AKT/mTOR substrate P70S6K is frequently phosphorylated in gallbladder cancer tissue and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Pamela; Garcia, Patricia; Sandoval, Alejandra; Buchegger, Kurt; Weber, Helga; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor and a public health problem in some parts of the world. It is characterized by a poor prognosis and its resistance to radio and chemotherapy. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is activated in about 50% of human malignancies, and its role in gallbladder carcinoma has previously been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the phosphorylation status of the mTOR substrate p70S6K in preneoplastic and neoplastic gallbladder tissues and evaluated the effect of three mTOR inhibitors on cell growth and migration in gallbladder carcinoma cell lines. Methods Immunohistochemical staining of phospho-p70S6K was analyzed in 181 gallbladder carcinoma cases, classified according to lesion type as dysplasia, early carcinoma, or advanced carcinoma. Protein expression of AKT/mTOR members was also evaluated in eight gallbladder carcinoma cell lines by Western blot analysis. We selected two gallbladder carcinoma cell lines (G415 and TGBC-2TKB) to evaluate the effect of rapamycin, RAD001, and AZD8055 on cell viability, cell migration, and protein expression. Results Our results showed that phospho-p70S6K is highly expressed in dysplasia (66.7%, 12/18), early cancer (84.6%, 22/26), and advanced cancer (88.3%, 121/137). No statistical correlation was observed between phospho-p70S6K status and any clinical or pathological features, including age, gender, ethnicity, wall infiltration level, or histological differentiation (P < 0.05). In vitro treatment with rapamycin, RAD001, and AZD8055 reduced cell growth, cell migration, and phospho-p70S6K expression significantly in G-415 and TGBC-2TKB cancer cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings confirm the upregulation of this signaling pathway in gallbladder carcinoma and provide a rationale for the potential use of mTOR inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for human gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:24124380

  12. Quercetin Inhibits Angiogenesis Mediated Human Prostate Tumor Growth by Targeting VEGFR- 2 Regulated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Zhuo; Ding, Songze; Wang, Lei; Hitron, Andrew; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Xu, Mei; Chen, Gang; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a crucial step in the growth and metastasis of cancers, since it enables the growing tumor to receive oxygen and nutrients. Cancer prevention using natural products has become an integral part of cancer control. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of quercetin using ex vivo, in vivo and in vitro models. Rat aortic ring assay showed that quercetin at non-toxic concentrations significantly inhibited microvessel sprouting and exhibited a significant inhibition in the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are key events in the process of angiogenesis. Most importantly, quercetin treatment inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis as revealed by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and matrigel plug assay. Western blot analysis showed that quercetin suppressed VEGF induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and their downstream protein kinases AKT, mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase in HUVECs. Quercetin (20 mg/kg/d) significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model, indicating that quercetin inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. Furthermore, quercetin reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, mTOR and P70S6K expressions. Collectively the findings in the present study suggest that quercetin inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis by targeting VEGF-R2 regulated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway, and could be used as a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:23094058

  13. Sulforaphane induces apoptosis in adipocytes via Akt/p70s6k1/Bad inhibition and ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Anjun; Shen, Yingzhuo; Wang, Anshi; Chen, Shiyong; Zhang, Huiqin; Chen, Fen; Chen, Zhongming; Wei, Hua; Zou, Zuquan; Shan, Yujuan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate isolated from cruciferous vegetables, possesses anti-oxidant and anti-cancer bioactivities. Moreover, SFN exerts its pro-apoptotic effects in some cancer lines. However, the effects and mechanisms of SFN on the regulation of apoptosis of adipocytes are still unknown. In this study, we found that SFN induced significant apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and markedly decreased the cellular lipid content. Western blot demonstrated that SFN-induced apoptosis was mediated via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway based on increased cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP), release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, and activation of caspase-3, as well as decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, SFN markedly decreased phosphorylation of Akt and downstream proteins, p70s6k1 and Bad, and increased phosphorylation of ERK. Therefore, our findings clarified that SFN could induce 3T3-L1 adipocyte apoptosis via down-regulation of the Akt/p70s6k1/Bad pathway and up-regulation of the ERK pathway, suggesting SFN may be a promising agent for the treatment or prevention of obesity. PMID:26296464

  14. Increased p70s6k phosphorylation during intake of a protein-carbohydrate drink following resistance exercise in the fasted state.

    PubMed

    Deldicque, Louise; De Bock, Katrien; Maris, Michael; Ramaekers, Monique; Nielens, Henri; Francaux, Marc; Hespel, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at comparing the responses of myogenic regulatory factors and signaling pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis after a resistance training session performed in either the fasted or fed state. According to a randomized crossover study design, six young male subjects participated in two experimental sessions separated by 3 weeks. In each session, they performed a standardized resistance training. After the sessions, they received during a 4-h recovery period 6 ml/kg b.w. h of a solution containing carbohydrates (50 g/l), protein hydrolysate (33 g/l), and leucine (16.6 g/l). On one occasion, the resistance exercise session was performed after the intake of a carbohydrate-rich breakfast (B), whereas in the other session they remained fasted (F). Needle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were obtained before (Rest), and 1 h (+1h) and 4 h (+4h) after exercise. Myogenin, MRF4, and MyoD1 mRNA contents were determined by RT-PCR. Phosphorylation of PKB (protein kinase B), GSK3, p70(s6k) (p70 ribosomal S6 kinase), eIF2B, eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2), ERK1/2, and p38 was measured via western blotting. Compared with F, the pre-exercise phosphorylation states of PKB and p70(s6k) were higher in B, whereas those of eIF2B and eEF2 were lower. During recovery, the phosphorylation state of p70(s6k) was lower in B than in F (p = 0.02). There were no differences in basal mRNA contents between B and F. However, compared with F at +1h, MyoD1 and MRF4 mRNA contents were lower in B (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that prior fasting may stimulate the intramyocellular anabolic response to ingestion of a carbohydrate/protein/leucine mixture following a heavy resistance training session. PMID:20187284

  15. Apelin-13 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Liu, Wei; Feng, Fen; Li, Xin; He, Lu; Lv, Deguan; Qin, Xuping; Li, Lifang; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2015-12-01

    Apelin is highly expressed in rat left ventricular hypertrophy Sprague Dawley rat models, and it plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular system. The aim this study was to clarify whether apelin-13 promotes hypertrophy in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes and to investigate its underlying mechanism. The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed by measuring the diameter, volume, and protein content of H9c2 cells. The activation of autophagy was evaluated by observing the morphology of autophagosomes by transmission electron microscopy, observing the subcellular localization of LC3 by light microscopy, and detecting the membrane-associated form of LC3 by western blot analysis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway was identified and the proteins expression was detected using western blot analysis. The results revealed that apelin-13 increased the diameter, volume, and protein content of H9c2 cells and promoted the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, and p70S6K. Apelin-13 activated the PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K pathway. PI3K inhibitor LY294002, Akt inhibitor 1701-1, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the increase of the cell diameter, volume, protein content induced by apelin-13. Apelin-13 increased the autophagosomes and up-regulated the expressions of beclin 1 and LC3-II/I both transiently and stably. The autophagy inhibitor 3MA ameliorated the increase of cell diameter, volume, and protein content that were induced by apelin-13. These results suggested that apelin-13 promotes H9c2 rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy. PMID:26607438

  16. Overexpression of the lily p70(s6k) gene in Arabidopsis affects elongation of flower organs and indicates TOR-dependent regulation of AP3, PI and SUP translation.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Tsai-Yu; Kong, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chun-Hung; Shaw, Chih-Chi; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2009-09-01

    The p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70(s6k)) signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating the cell cycle via translational regulation of specific 5'TOP mRNAs. However, the function of this signaling pathway is still poorly understood in plants. Ectopic expression of the lily putative p70(s6k) gene, LS6K1, resulted in up-regulation of NAP (NAC-LIKE, ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI) and PISTILLATA (PI) expression, and significantly inhibited cell expansion for petals and stamens, resulting in the male sterility phenotype in transgenic Arabidopsis. Sequence analysis revealed that the genes involved in petal and stamen development, such as APETALA3 (AP3), PI and SUPERMAN (SUP), probably encode 5'TOP mRNAs. Green fluorescent protein (GFP), fused to oligopyrimidine tract sequences that were identified in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of AP3, PI and SUP, was translationally regulated in human cells in response to mitogen stimulation and inhibition by the macrolide antibiotic rapamycin. Furthermore, 35S::LS6K1 significantly up-regulated beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in the flower buds of transgenic plants carrying the GUS transgene fused to the AP3 promoter and the 5' UTR. These results have identified a novel role for the p70(s6k) gene in regulating cell division and the expansion of petals and stamens by translational regulation of the 5'TOP mRNAs once ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis. PMID:19651701

  17. Rapamycin restores p14, p15 and p57 expression and inhibits the mTOR/p70S6K pathway in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Huibo; Kong, Xiaolin; Cui, Gang; Ren, Cuicui; Fan, Shengjin; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Yingjie; Cao, Rongyi; Li, Yinghua; Zhou, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin and its underlying mechanisms on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. We found that the p14, p15, and p57 genes were not expressed in ALL cell lines (Molt-4 and Nalm-6) and adult ALL patients, whereas mTOR, 4E-BP1, and p70S6K were highly expressed. In Molt-4 and Nalm-6 cells exposed to rapamycin, cell viability decreased and the cell cycle was arrested at the G1/S phase. Rapamycin restored p14, p15, and p57 gene expression through demethylation of the promoters of these genes. As expected, rapamycin also increased p14 and p15 protein expression in both Molt-4 and Nalm-6 cells, as well as p57 protein expression in Nalm-6 cells. Rapamycin additionally decreased mTOR and p70S6K mRNA levels, as well as p70S6K and p-p70S6K protein levels. However, depletion of mTOR by siRNA did not alter the expression and promoter methylation states of p14, p15, and p57. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of rapamycin may be due mainly to increased p14, p15, and p57 expression via promoter demethylation and decreased mTOR and p70S6K expression in ALL cell lines. These results suggest a potential role for rapamycin in the treatment of adult ALL. PMID:26362858

  18. Metformin Increases Sensitivity of Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Gemcitabine by Reducing CD133+ Cell Populations and Suppressing ERK/P70S6K Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Xinqun; Chu, Hongpeng; Yang, Xuan; Meng, Yuanpu; Shi, Pengfei; Gou, Shanmiao

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains dismal, with little advance in chemotherapy because of its high frequency of chemoresistance. Metformin is widely used to treat type II diabetes, and was shown recently to inhibit pancreatic cancer stem cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated the role of metformin in chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, and its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms. Metformin increases sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. The mechanism involves, at least in part, the inhibition of CD133+ cells proliferation and suppression of P70S6K signaling activation via inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. Studies of primary tumor samples revealed a relationship between P70S6K signaling activation and the malignancy of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of clinical data revealed a trend of the benefit of metformin for pancreatic cancer patients with diabetes. The results suggested that metformin has a potential clinical use in overcoming chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26391180

  19. Fibrin supports human fetal islet-epithelial cell differentiation via p70(s6k) and promotes vascular formation during transplantation.

    PubMed

    Riopel, Matthew; Li, Jinming; Trinder, Mark; Fellows, George F; Wang, Rennian

    2015-08-01

    The human fetal pancreas expresses a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) binding receptors known as integrins. A provisional ECM protein found in blood clots that can bind to integrin receptors and promote β cell function and survival is fibrin. However, its role in support of human fetal pancreatic cells is unknown. We investigated how fibrin promotes human fetal pancreatic cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Human fetal pancreata were collected from 15 to 21 weeks of gestation and collagenase digested. Cells were then plated on tissue-culture polystyrene, or with 2D or 3D fibrin gels up to 2 weeks, or subcutaneously transplanted in 3D fibrin gels. The human fetal pancreas contained rich ECM proteins and expressed integrin αVβ3. Fibrin-cultured human fetal pancreatic cells had significantly increased expression of PDX-1, glucagon, insulin, and VEGF-A, along with increased integrin αVβ3 and phosphorylated FAK and p70(s6k). Fibrin-cultured cells treated with rapamycin, the mTOR pathway inhibitor, had significantly decreased phospho-p70(s6k) and PDX-1 expression. Transplanting fibrin-mixed cells into nude mice improved vascularization compared with collagen controls. These results suggest that fibrin supports islet cell differentiation via p70(s6k) and promotes vascularization in human fetal islet-epithelial clusters in vivo. PMID:26006020

  20. MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer and modulates cell growth and invasion by targeting p70S6K1 and MUC1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huijuan; Xiao, ZhengHua; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer. •MiR-145 targets p70S6K1 and MUC1. •p70S6K1 and MUC1 are involved in miR-145 mediated tumor cell growth and cell invasion, respectively. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Previous studies have shown that miR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer; however, the roles of miR-145 in ovarian cancer growth and invasion have not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that miR-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as in serum samples of ovarian cancer, compared to healthy ovarian tissues, cell lines and serum samples. Functional studies suggest that miR-145 overexpression leads to the inhibition of colony formation, cell proliferation, cell growth viability and invasion, and the induction of cell apoptosis. In accordance with the effect of miR-145 on cell growth, miR-145 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. MiR-145 is found to negatively regulate P70S6K1 and MUC1 protein levels by directly targeting their 3′UTRs. Importantly, the overexpression of p70S6K1 and MUC1 can restore the cell colony formation and invasion abilities that are reduced by miR-145, respectively. MiR-145 expression is increased after 5-aza-CdR treatment, and 5-aza-CdR treatment results in the same phenotype as the effect of miR-145 overexpression. Our study suggests that miR-145 modulates ovarian cancer growth and invasion by suppressing p70S6K1 and MUC1, functioning as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, our data imply that miR-145 has potential as a miRNA-based therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  1. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1β. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1α protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1α through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1α expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1α protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  2. MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer and modulates cell growth and invasion by targeting p70S6K1 and MUC1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huijuan; Xiao, Zhenghua; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2013-11-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Previous studies have shown that miR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer; however, the roles of miR-145 in ovarian cancer growth and invasion have not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that miR-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as in serum samples of ovarian cancer, compared to healthy ovarian tissues, cell lines and serum samples. Functional studies suggest that miR-145 overexpression leads to the inhibition of colony formation, cell proliferation, cell growth viability and invasion, and the induction of cell apoptosis. In accordance with the effect of miR-145 on cell growth, miR-145 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. MiR-145 is found to negatively regulate P70S6K1 and MUC1 protein levels by directly targeting their 3'UTRs. Importantly, the overexpression of p70S6K1 and MUC1 can restore the cell colony formation and invasion abilities that are reduced by miR-145, respectively. MiR-145 expression is increased after 5-aza-CdR treatment, and 5-aza-CdR treatment results in the same phenotype as the effect of miR-145 overexpression. Our study suggests that miR-145 modulates ovarian cancer growth and invasion by suppressing p70S6K1 and MUC1, functioning as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, our data imply that miR-145 has potential as a miRNA-based therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:24157791

  3. Berberine regulates proliferation, collagen synthesis and cytokine secretion of cardiac fibroblasts via AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Fen; Chen, Manhua; Yu, Bo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Guizhong; Gui, Feng; Liu, Zhenxing; Bai, Xiangyan; Chen, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The traditional Chinese medicinal berberine has long been used to treat cardiovascular diseases; however, the mechanism underlying its effects remains unclear. Here, this study would to investigate the effects of berberine on proliferation, collagen synthesis and cytokine secretion of cardiac fibroblasts. Methods: We assessed proliferation, collagen synthesis and cytokine secretion in cardiac fibroblasts subjected to angiotensin II (Ang II) subsequent to the consumption of berberine or a control treatment. And then we detected the role of AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in berberine treatment of cardiac fibroblasts. Results: In the present study, the cellular behaviors of cardiac fibroblasts induced by Ang II were significantly activated including proliferation, transformation into myofibroblasts and collagen synthesis. Additionally, the ability of cytokine secretion was enhanced obviously. It was demonstrated that treatment of cardiac fibroblasts with berberine resulted in deceased proliferation, and attenuated fibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression and collagen synthesis. And the protein secretion of TGFβ1 was inhibited; however, the protein secretion of IL-10 was increased in cardiac fibroblasts with berberine treatment. Mechanistically, the phosphorylation level of AMPK was increased; and the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and p70S6K were decreased in berberine treatment group. Conclusion: These results illustrated that the protective effects of berberine on cellular behaviors of cardiac fibroblasts were at least in part due to activate AMPK signaling pathway and downregulate mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. Berberine might become a new strategy for treating cardiac fibrosis in the future. PMID:26722438

  4. MiR-497 decreases cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells by targeting mTOR/P70S6K1

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhen; OuYang, Jun; Kong, Fanfei; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Wan, Xiaoping; Chen, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer is not clearly understood. In the present investigation, we found that the expression levels of miR-497 were reduced in chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cells and tumor tissues due to hypermethylation of miR-497 promoter. Low miR-497 expression levels were associated with chemo-resistant phonotype of ovarian cancer. By analyzing the expression levels of miR-497, mTOR and p70S6K1 in a clinical gene-expression array dataset, we found that mTOR and p70S6K1, two proteins correlated to chemotherapy-resistance in multiple types of human cancers, were inversely correlated with miR-497 levels in ovarian cancer tissues. By using an orthotopic ovarian tumor model and a Tet-On inducible miR-497 expression system, our results demonstrated that overexpression of miR-497 sensitizes the resistant ovarian tumor to cisplatin treatment. Therefore, we suggest that miR-497 might be used as a therapeutic supplement to increase ovarian cancer treatment response to cisplatin. PMID:26238185

  5. M2698 is a potent dual-inhibitor of p70S6K and Akt that affects tumor growth in mouse models of cancer and crosses the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Machl, Andreas; Wilker, Erik W; Tian, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong; Schroeder, Patricia; Clark, Anderson; Huck, Bayard R

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR (PAM) pathway signaling occurs in ~30% of human cancers, making it a rational target for new therapies; however, the effectiveness of some PAM pathway inhibitors, such as mTORC rapalogs, may be compromised by a compensatory feedback loop leading to Akt activation. In this study, the p70S6K/Akt dual inhibitor, M2698 (previously MSC2363318A), was characterized as a potential anti-cancer agent through examination of its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and metabolic properties, and anti-tumor activity. M2698 was highly potent in vitro (IC50 1 nM for p70S6K, Akt1 and Akt3 inhibition; IC50 17 nM for pGSK3β indirect inhibition) and in vivo (IC50 15 nM for pS6 indirect inhibition), and relatively selective (only 6/264 kinases had an IC50 within 10-fold of p70S6K). Orally administered M2698 crossed the blood-brain barrier in rats and mice, with brain tumor exposure 4-fold higher than non-disease brain. Dose-dependent inhibition of target substrate phosphorylation was observed in vitro and in vivo, indicating that M2698 blocked p70S6K to provide potent PAM pathway inhibition while simultaneously targeting Akt to overcome the compensatory feedback loop. M2698 demonstrated dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in mouse xenograft models derived from PAM pathway-dysregulated human triple-negative (MDA-MB-468) and Her2-expressing breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-453 and JIMT-1), and reduced brain tumor burden and prolonged survival in mice with orthotopically implanted U251 glioblastoma. These findings highlight M2698 as a promising PAM pathway inhibitor whose unique mechanism of action and capacity to pass the blood-brain barrier warrant clinical investigation in cancers with PAM pathway dysregulation, and those with central nervous system involvement. PMID:27186432

  6. Dose‐dependent increases in p70S6K phosphorylation and intramuscular branched‐chain amino acids in older men following resistance exercise and protein intake

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Randall F.; Markworth, James F.; Figueiredo, Vandre C.; Della Gatta, Paul A.; Petersen, Aaron C.; Mitchell, Cameron J.; Cameron‐Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Resistance exercise and whey protein supplementation are effective strategies to activate muscle cell anabolic signaling and ultimately promote increases in muscle mass and strength. In the current study, 46 healthy older men aged 60–75 (69.0 ± 0.55 years, 85.9 ± 1.8 kg, 176.8 ± 1.0 cm) performed a single bout of unaccustomed lower body resistance exercise immediately followed by ingestion of a noncaloric placebo beverage or supplement containing 10, 20, 30, or 40 g of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Intramuscular amino acid levels in muscle biopsy samples were measured by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC‐MS) at baseline (before exercise and WPC supplementation) plus at 2 h and 4 h post exercise. Additionally, the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation at Thr389 in muscle biopsy homogenates was assessed by western blot. Resistance exercise alone reduced intramuscular branch chain amino acid (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) content. Supplementation with increasing doses of whey protein prevented this fall in muscle BCAAs during postexercise recovery and larger doses (30 g and 40 g) significantly augmented postexercise muscle BCAA content above that observed following placebo ingestion. Additionally, the fold change in the phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389) at 2 h post exercise was correlated with the dose of whey protein consumed (r = 0.51, P < 001) and was found to be significantly correlated with intramuscular leucine content (r = 0.32, P = 0.026). Intramuscular BCAAs, and leucine in particular, appear to be important regulators of anabolic signaling in aged human muscle during postexercise recovery via reversal of exercise‐induced declines in intramuscular BCAAs. PMID:25107987

  7. Dose-dependent increases in p70S6K phosphorylation and intramuscular branched-chain amino acids in older men following resistance exercise and protein intake.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Randall F; Marworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Della Gatta, Paul A; Petersen, Aaron C; Mitchell, Cameron J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-08-01

    Resistance exercise and whey protein supplementation are effective strategies to activate muscle cell anabolic signaling and ultimately promote increases in muscle mass and strength. In the current study, 46 healthy older men aged 60-75 (69.0 ± 0.55 years, 85.9 ± 1.8 kg, 176.8 ± 1.0 cm) performed a single bout of unaccustomed lower body resistance exercise immediately followed by ingestion of a noncaloric placebo beverage or supplement containing 10, 20, 30, or 40 g of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Intramuscular amino acid levels in muscle biopsy samples were measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) at baseline (before exercise and WPC supplementation) plus at 2 h and 4 h post exercise. Additionally, the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation at Thr389 in muscle biopsy homogenates was assessed by western blot. Resistance exercise alone reduced intramuscular branch chain amino acid (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) content. Supplementation with increasing doses of whey protein prevented this fall in muscle BCAAs during postexercise recovery and larger doses (30 g and 40 g) significantly augmented postexercise muscle BCAA content above that observed following placebo ingestion. Additionally, the fold change in the phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389) at 2 h post exercise was correlated with the dose of whey protein consumed (r = 0.51, P < 001) and was found to be significantly correlated with intramuscular leucine content (r = 0.32, P = 0.026). Intramuscular BCAAs, and leucine in particular, appear to be important regulators of anabolic signaling in aged human muscle during postexercise recovery via reversal of exercise-induced declines in intramuscular BCAAs. PMID:25107987

  8. The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal causes protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes via activated mTORC1-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling.

    PubMed

    Calamaras, Timothy D; Lee, Charlie; Lan, Fan; Ido, Yasuo; Siwik, Deborah A; Colucci, Wilson S

    2015-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are elevated in the heart in response to hemodynamic and metabolic stress and promote hypertrophic signaling. ROS also mediate the formation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes that may promote myocardial hypertrophy. One lipid peroxidation by-product, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), is a reactive aldehyde that covalently modifies proteins thereby altering their function. HNE adducts directly inhibit the activity of LKB1, a serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating cellular growth in part through its interaction with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but whether this drives myocardial growth is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that HNE promotes myocardial protein synthesis and if this effect is associated with impaired LKB1-AMPK signaling. In adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, exposure to HNE (10 μM for 1h) caused HNE-LKB1 adduct formation and inhibited LKB1 activity. HNE inhibited the downstream kinase AMPK, increased hypertrophic mTOR-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling, and stimulated protein synthesis by 27.1 ± 3.5%. HNE also stimulated Erk1/2 signaling, which contributed to RPS6 activation but was not required for HNE-stimulated protein synthesis. HNE-stimulated RPS6 phosphorylation was completely blocked using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. To evaluate if LKB1 inhibition by itself could promote the hypertrophic signaling changes observed with HNE, LKB1 was depleted in adult rat ventricular myocytes using siRNA. LKB1 knockdown did not replicate the effect of HNE on hypertrophic signaling or affect HNE-stimulated RPS6 phosphorylation. Thus, in adult cardiac myocytes HNE stimulates protein synthesis by activation of mTORC1-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling most likely mediated by direct inhibition of AMPK. Because HNE in the myocardium is commonly increased by stimuli that cause pathologic hypertrophy, these findings suggest that therapies that prevent activation of mTORC1-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling may be of therapeutic value. PMID:25617592

  9. The mTORC1 signaling repressors REDD1/2 are rapidly induced and activation of p70S6K1 by leucine is defective in skeletal muscle of an immobilized rat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Andrew R; Kimball, Scot R; Dennis, Michael D; Schilder, Rudolf J; Jefferson, Leonard S

    2013-01-15

    Limb immobilization, limb suspension, and bed rest cause substantial loss of skeletal muscle mass, a phenomenon termed disuse atrophy. To acquire new knowledge that will assist in the development of therapeutic strategies for minimizing disuse atrophy, the present study was undertaken with the aim of identifying molecular mechanisms that mediate control of protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral hindlimb immobilization for 1, 2, 3, or 7 days or served as nonimmobilized controls. Following an overnight fast, rats received either saline or L-leucine by oral gavage as a nutrient stimulus. Hindlimb skeletal muscles were extracted 30 min postgavage and analyzed for the rate of protein synthesis, mRNA expression, phosphorylation state of key proteins in the mTORC1 signaling pathway, and mTORC1 signaling repressors. In the basal state, mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis were repressed within 24 h in the soleus of an immobilized compared with a nonimmobilized hindlimb. These responses were accompanied by a concomitant induction in expression of the mTORC1 repressors regulated in development and DNA damage responses (REDD) 1/2. The nutrient stimulus produced an elevation of similar magnitude in mTORC1 signaling in both the immobilized and nonimmobilized muscle. In contrast, phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1) on Thr(229) and Thr(389) in response to the nutrient stimulus was severely blunted. Phosphorylation of Thr(229) by PDK1 is a prerequisite for phosphorylation of Thr(389) by mTORC1, suggesting that signaling through PDK1 is impaired in response to immobilization. In conclusion, the results show an immobilization-induced attenuation of mTORC1 signaling mediated by induction of REDD1/2 and defective p70S6K1 phosphorylation. PMID:23193052

  10. Collaboration of geldanamycin-activated P70S6K and Hsp70 against beta-amyloid-induced hippocampal apoptosis: an approach to long-term memory and learning.

    PubMed

    Zare, Nayereh; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2015-03-01

    One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in senile plaques. Aβ-induced oxidative stress is believed to be responsible for degeneration and apoptosis of neurons and consequent cognitive and memory deficits. Here, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) against amyloid pathogenesis in adult male Wistar rats. GA or vehicle was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricles of rats 24 h before injection of Aβ (1-42) in CA1 area of hippocampus. The learning and memory of the rats were assessed 7 days after injection of Aβ using passive avoidance (PA) task. As potential contributing factors in Aβ-induced memory decline, we evaluated apoptotic markers and also used terminal-transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique to detect apoptosis in the hippocampus of Aβ-injected rats. Our behavioral data suggest that GA pretreatment can significantly suppress memory deficits in Aβ-injected rats. There was also not only a marked increase in Hsp70 level but also upregulated 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in the hippocampus of GA-treated groups with a reduction in apoptotic factors including caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and TUNEL-positive cells as well. Thus, we conclude that GA exerts its protective effects against Aβ (1-42) toxicity and memory deficits, at least in part, by upregulating of Hsp70 and P70S6K. PMID:25576151

  11. Identification of Ras, Pten and p70S6K homologs in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and diet control of insulin pathway.

    PubMed

    Jouaux, A; Franco, A; Heude-Berthelin, C; Sourdaine, P; Blin, J L; Mathieu, M; Kellner, K

    2012-03-01

    Insulin pathways were demonstrated from invertebrates to vertebrates to be involved in the regulation of numerous processes including storage metabolism and reproduction. In addition, insulin system may integrate variations of environmental conditions like dietary restrictions. In the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, reproductive and storage compartments are closely intricated in the gonadal area and their respective development was found to be dependant of trophic conditions. For these reasons, C. gigas is an original and interesting model for investigating the role of insulin control in the balance between storage and reproduction and the integration of environmental parameters. On the basis of sequence conservation, we identified three potential elements of the oyster insulin pathway, Ras, Pten and p70S6K and we investigated their expression levels in various tissues. In the gonadal area, we used laser microdissection in order to precise the targeted contribution of insulin signaling to the restoration of storage tissue and to the control of vitellogenesis. Food deprivation during gametogenesis reinitiation stage led to reduced proliferations of gonia and also to modulate insulin signal by transcriptional activation of insulin pathway elements. PMID:22202600

  12. Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates S6 phosphorylation and induced activation of S6 protein kinase in rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, C.; Okabayashi, Y.; Williams, J.

    1987-05-01

    CCK and insulin stimulate pancreatic protein synthesis at a post transcriptional step. To better understand this regulation the authors evaluated the phosphorylation state of ribosomal protein S6 and the presence of a specific S6 protein kinase in pancreatic acini from diabetic rats. Both CCK and insulin increased S6 phosphorylation by up to 400% in intact TSP-labelled acini. The phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate also stimulated both protein synthesis and S6 phosphorlyation suggesting a role for protein kinase C in mediating the effect of CCK. By contrast, the CaS ionophore ionomycin had no effect on either parameter. Recently, insulin has been shown to activate a unique S6 kinase in various cells. To test for its presence, cytosolic extracts were prepared from acini stimulated with CCK and insulin by homogenization in US -glycerophosphate buffer and assayed for the kinase using el-TSP ATP and rat pancreatic ribosomes followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. CCK and insulin both increased S6 kinase activity which required neither CaS or phospholipid. The dose response for CCk was similar to S6 phosphorlyation in the intact acini. TPA did not stimulate the S6 kinase. Thus, CCK may induce S6 phosphorylation both via C kinase and by activation of a unique S6 kinase.

  13. Loss-of-Function of HtrA1 Abrogates All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mouse Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Through Deficiencies in p70S6K Activation.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Stephan; Mirsaidi, Ali; López-Fagundo, Cristina; Filliat, Gladys; Tiaden, André N; Richards, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a potent inducer of osteogenic differentiation in mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (mASCs), although the underlying mechanisms responsible for its mode of action have yet to be completely elucidated. High temperature requirement protease A1 (HtrA1) is a newly recognized modulator of human multipotent stromal cell (MSC) osteogenesis and as such, may play a role in regulating ATRA-dependent osteogenic differentiation of mASCs. In this study, we assessed the influence of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced repression of HtrA1 production on mASC osteogenesis and examined its effects on ATRA-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Inhibition of HtrA1 production in osteogenic mASCs resulted in a significant reduction of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation. Western blot analyses revealed the rapid activation of Akt (Ser473) and p70S6K (Thr389) in ATRA-treated mASCs, and that levels of phosphorylated p70S6K were noticeably reduced in HtrA1-deficient mASCs. Further studies using mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and siRNA specific for the p70S6K gene Rps6kb1 confirmed ATRA-mediated mASC osteogenesis as being dependent on p70S6K activation. Finally, transfection of cells with a constitutively active rapamycin-resistant p70S6K mutant could restore the mineralizing capacity of HtrA1-deficient mASCs. These findings therefore lend further support for HtrA1 as a positive mediator of MSC osteogenesis and provide new insights into the molecular mode of action of ATRA in regulating mASC lineage commitment. PMID:26950191

  14. The discovery of potent ribosomal S6 kinase inhibitors by high-throughput screening and structure-guided drug design.

    PubMed

    Couty, Sylvain; Westwood, Isaac M; Kalusa, Andrew; Cano, Celine; Travers, Jon; Boxall, Kathy; Chow, Chiau Ling; Burns, Sam; Schmitt, Jessica; Pickard, Lisa; Barillari, Caterina; McAndrew, P Craig; Clarke, Paul A; Linardopoulos, Spiros; Griffin, Roger J; Aherne, G Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I; Workman, Paul; Jones, Keith; van Montfort, Rob L M

    2013-10-01

    The ribosomal P70 S6 kinases play a crucial role in PI3K/mTOR regulated signalling pathways and are therefore potential targets for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes and cancer. In this study we describe the identification of three series of chemically distinct S6K1 inhibitors. In addition, we report a novel PKA-S6K1 chimeric protein with five mutations in or near its ATP-binding site, which was used to determine the binding mode of two of the three inhibitor series, and provided a robust system to aid the optimisation of the oxadiazole-substituted benzimidazole inhibitor series. We show that the resulting oxadiazole-substituted aza-benzimidazole is a potent and ligand efficient S6 kinase inhibitor, which blocks the phosphorylation of RPS6 at Ser235/236 in TSC negative HCV29 human bladder cancer cells by inhibiting S6 kinase activity and thus provides a useful tool compound to investigate the function of S6 kinases. PMID:24072592

  15. Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway is Involved in S100A4-induced Viability and Migration in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyan; Duan, Liang; Zou, Zhengyu; Li, Huan; Yuan, Shimei; Chen, Xian; Zhang, Yunyuan; Li, Xueru; Sun, Hui; Zha, He; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Lan

    2014-01-01

    The S100 protein family member S100A4 regulates various cellular functions. Previous studies have shown that elevated expression of S100A4 is associated with progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about whether and how S100A4 contributes to CRC development. In our present study, the elevated expression of S100A4 in CRC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Adenovirus-mediated S100A4 overexpression obviously enhanced viability and migration of CRC cells, which was detected by MTT assay and transwell assay, respectively. Additionally, S100A4 overexpression increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K. These effects of S100A4 were abolished by treatment with either the specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002, or the specific mTOR/p70S6K inhibitor rapamycin. Furthermore, overexpression of S100A4 resulted in upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin, which were strongly reversed by either LY294002 or rapamycin. Altogether, our results demonstrate that activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway is involved in S100A4-induced viability, migration, upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin in CRC cells. PMID:24936148

  16. Phosphorylated S6 Kinase and S6 Ribosomal Protein are Diagnostic Markers of Antibody Mediated Rejection in Heart Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Nicole M.; Lai, Chi; Zhang, Qiuheng; Gjertson, David; Fishbein, Michael C; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Deng, Mario; Reed, Elaine F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-MHC class I alloantibodies have been implicated in the processes of acute and chronic rejection. These antibodies (Ab) bind to endothelial cells (EC) and transduce signals leading to the activation of cell survival and proliferation pathways, including Src, FAK, mTOR, and downstream targets ERK, S6 kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). We tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of S6K, S6RP and ERK in capillary endothelium may serve as an adjunct diagnostic tool for antibody mediated rejection (AMR) in heart allografts. Methods Diagnosis of AMR was based on histology or immunoperoxidase staining of paraffin-embedded tissue consistent with 2013 ISHLT criteria. Diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR) was based on ISHLT criteria. Endomyocardial biopsies from 67 heart transplant recipients diagnosed with acute rejection [33 with pAMR, 18 with ACR (15 with grade 1R, 3 with grade >2R), 16 with pAMR+ACR (13 with 1R and 3 with >2R)] and 40 age- and gender-matched recipients without rejection were tested for the presence of phosphorylated forms of ERK, S6RP and S6K by immunohistochemistry. Results Immunostaining of endomyocardial biopsies with evidence of pAMR showed significant increase in expression of p-S6K and p-S6RP in capillary EC compared to controls. A weaker association was observed between pAMR and p-ERK. Conclusions Biopsies diagnosed with pAMR often showed phosphorylation of S6K and S6RP, indicating that staining for p-S6K and p-S6RP is useful for the diagnosis of AMR. Our findings support a role for antibody-mediated HLA signaling in the process of graft injury. PMID:25511749

  17. Autophagy is involved in regulating influenza A virus RNA and protein synthesis associated with both modulation of Hsp90 induction and mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ge; Zhong, Meigong; Guo, Chaowan; Komatsu, Masaaki; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yifei; Kitazato, Kaio

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection triggers autophagosome formation, but inhibits the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. However, the role of autophagy in IAV replication is still largely unclarified. In this study, we aim to reveal the role of autophagy in IAV replication and the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation. By using autophagy-deficient (Atg7(-/-)) MEFs, we demonstrated that autophagy deficiency significantly reduced the levels of viral proteins, mRNA and genomic RNAs (vRNAs) without affecting viral entry. We further found that autophagy deficiency lead to a transient increase in phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream targets including 4E-BP1 and S6 at a very early stage of IAV infection, and markedly suppressed p70S6K phosphorylation at the late stage of IAV infection. Furthermore, autophagy deficiency resulted in impairment of Hsp90 induction in response to IAV infection. These results indicate that IAV regulates autophagy to benefit the accumulation of viral elements (synthesis of viral proteins and genomic RNA) during IAV replication. This regulation is associated with modulation of Hsp90 induction and mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. Our results provide important evidence for the role of autophagy in IAV replication and the mechanisms underlying the regulation. PMID:26794463

  18. Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C activity is required for alpha1-adrenergic-receptor-mediated regulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases in adult cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Rolfe, Mark; Proud, Christopher G

    2003-01-01

    The alpha(1)-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (PE), exerts hypertrophic effects in the myocardium and activates protein synthesis. Both Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C (PKC, PKCalpha) and Ca(2+)-independent PKC isoforms (PKCdelta and epsilon ) are detectably expressed in adult rat cardiomyocytes. Stimulation of the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor by PE results in activation of Ca(2+)-independent PKCs, as demonstrated by translocation of the delta and epsilon isoenzymes from cytosol to membrane fractions. PE also induces activation of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (S6K1 and 2) in adult cardiomyocytes. We have studied the role of Ca(2+)-independent PKCs in the regulation of S6K activity by PE. Activation of S6K1/2 by PE was blocked by the broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM) I, whereas Gö6976, a compound that only inhibits Ca(2+)-dependent PKCs, did not inhibit S6K activation. Rottlerin, which selectively inhibits PKCdelta, also prevented PE-induced S6K activation. The isoform-specific PKC inhibitors had similar effects on the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1, a translation repressor that, like the S6Ks, lies downstream of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Infection of cells with adenoviruses encoding dominant-negative PKCdelta or epsilon inhibited the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by PE, and also inhibited the activation and/or phosphorylation of S6Ks 1 and 2. The PE-induced activation of protein synthesis was abolished by BIM I and markedly attenuated by rottlerin. Our data thus suggest that Ca(2+)-independent PKC isoforms play an important role in coupling the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor to mTOR signalling and protein synthesis in adult cardiomyocytes. PMID:12720544

  19. Minocycline attenuates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression correlated with modulation of p53 and AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway in ovarian cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Ataie-Kachoie, Parvin; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Bahrami-B, Farnaz; Badar, Samina; Morris, David L

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is the key cellular survival protein under hypoxia, and is associated with tumor progression and angiogenesis. We have recently shown the inhibitory effects of minocycline on ovarian tumor growth correlated with attenuation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and herein report a companion laboratory study to test if these effects were the result of HIF-1α inhibition. In vitro, human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (A2780, OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3) were utilized to examine the effect of minocycline on HIF-1 and its upstream pathway components to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action of minocycline. Mice harboring OVCAR-3 xenografts were treated with minocycline to assess the in vivo efficacy of minocycline in the context of HIF-1. Minocycline negatively regulated HIF-1α protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner and induced its degradation by a mechanism that is independent of prolyl-hydroxylation. The inhibition of HIF-1α was found to be associated with up-regulation of endogenous p53, a tumor suppressor with confirmed role in HIF-1α degradation. Further studies demonstrated that the effect of minocycline was not restricted to proteasomal degradation and that it also caused down-regulation of HIF-1α translation by suppressing the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. Minocycline treatment of mice bearing established ovarian tumors, led to suppression of HIF-1α accompanied by up-regulation of p53 protein levels and inactivation of AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway. These data reveal the therapeutic potential of minocycline in ovarian cancer as an agent that targets the pro-oncogenic factor HIF-1α through multiple mechanisms. PMID:25973298

  20. C. elegans S6K Mutants Require a Creatine Kinase-Like Effector for Lifespan Extension

    PubMed Central

    McQuary, Philip R.; Liao, Chen-Yu; Chang, Jessica T.; Kumsta, Caroline; She, Xingyu; Davis, Andrew; Chu, Chu-Chiao; Gelino, Sara; Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L.; Petrascheck, Michael; Brill, Laurence M.; Ladiges, Warren C.; Kennedy, Brian K.; Hansen, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of S6 kinase (S6K) extends the lifespan of multiple species, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To discover potential effectors of S6K-mediated longevity, we performed a proteomics analysis of long-lived rsks-1/S6K C. elegans mutants compared to wild-type animals. We identified the arginine kinase ARGK-1 as the most significantly enriched protein in rsks-1/S6K mutants. ARGK-1 is an ortholog of mammalian creatine kinase, which maintains cellular ATP levels. We found that argk-1 is a selective effector of rsks-1/S6K-mediated longevity, and overexpression of ARGK-1 extends C. elegans lifespan, in part by activating the energy sensor AAK-2/AMPK. argk-1 is also required for the reduced body size and increased stress resistance observed in rsks-1/S6K mutants. Finally, creatine kinase levels are increased in the brains of S6K1 knockout mice. Our study identifies ARGK-1 as a longevity effector in C. elegans with reduced RSKS-1/S6K levels. PMID:26923601

  1. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid inhibits invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells through the inactivation of p70S6K and Akt activity: Involvement of p53 in differential regulation of signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    In, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Oh, Joa Sub; Seo, Dong-Wan

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanism of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), a natural phenolic compound isolated from Ligularia fischeri, on cell invasion, proliferation and adhesion in p53 wild-type A549 and p53-deficient H1299 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. 5-CQA abrogated mitogen-stimulated invasion, but not proliferation, in both A549 and H1299 cells. In addition, 5-CQA inhibited mitogen-stimulated adhesion in A549 cells only. Anti-invasive activity of 5-CQA in A549 cells was mediated by the inactivation of p70S6K-dependent signaling pathway. In contrast, in H1299 cells the inactivation of Akt was found to be involved in 5-CQA-mediated inhibition of cell invasion. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the pharmacological roles and molecular targets of 5-CQA in regulating NSCLC cell fate, and suggest further evaluation and development of 5-CQA as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of lung cancer. PMID:26984670

  2. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Hyun . E-mail: ihpark@uiuc.edu; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-09-10

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector.

  3. Cordycepin, 3'-deoxyadenosine, prevents rat hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury via activation of Akt/GSK-3β/p70S6K signaling pathway and HO-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Do-Hyun; Yang, Min-Kyu; Kang, Jun Chul; Jang, Yong Chang; Park, Jong Seok; Kim, Si-Kwan; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2014-03-01

    Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) isolated from Cordyceps militaris, a species of the fungal genus Cordyceps, has been shown to exhibit many pharmacological functions, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the preventive role of cordycepin in ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury of isolated rat hearts and anesthetized rats. After Sprague-Dawley rats received cordycepin (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) or control (0.5 % carboxyl methylcellulose) orally once a day for a week, hearts were isolated and mounted on Langendorff heart perfusion system. Isolated hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 15-min pre-ischemic stabilization period and subjected to 30-min global ischemia and 30-min reperfusion. Cordycepin administration (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased left ventricular developed pressure during the reperfusion period compared to that in the control group, but without any effect on coronary flow. Cordycepin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK-3β/p70S6K pathways, which are known to modulate multiple survival pathways. In addition, cordycepin decreased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression while increasing Bcl-2 expression, Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and heme oxygenase (HO-1) expression in isolated rat hearts. In anesthetized rats subjected to 30 min occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery/2.5-h reperfusion, cordycepin (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, i.v.) administered 15 min before the onset of ischemia dose-dependently decreased the infarct size in left ventricle. In conclusion, cordycepin could be an attractive therapeutic candidate with oral activity against I/R-associated heart diseases such as myocardial infarction. PMID:24178833

  4. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Induce Autophagy through S6 Kinase Inhibition of the Insulin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pereboom, Tamara C.; Goos, Yvonne J.; Seinen, Cor W.; van Oirschot, Brigitte A.; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H.; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Gazda, Hanna T.; Bierings, Marc B.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies. PMID:24875531

  5. Ribosomal protein mutations induce autophagy through S6 kinase inhibition of the insulin pathway.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Harry F; van Wijk, Richard; Pereboom, Tamara C; Goos, Yvonne J; Seinen, Cor W; van Oirschot, Brigitte A; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W; Gazda, Hanna T; Bierings, Marc B; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W

    2014-01-01

    Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies. PMID:24875531

  6. Celastrol stimulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activity in tumor cells by initiating the ROS/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway and enhancing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoxi; Sun, Shengkun; Zhao, Ming; Cheng, Xiang; Chen, Guozhu; Lin, Song; Guan, Yifu; Yu, Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    Celastrol, a tripterine derived from the traditional Chinese medicine plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. ("Thunder of God Vine"), has been reported to have multiple effects, such as anti-inflammation, suppression of tumor angiogenesis, inhibition of tumor growth, induction of apoptosis and protection of cells against human neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms that underlie these functions are not well defined. In this study, we reported for the first time that Celastrol could induce HIF-1α protein accumulation in multiple cancer cell lines in an oxygen-independent manner and that the enhanced HIF-1α protein entered the nucleus and promoted the transcription of the HIF-1 target genes VEGF and Glut-1. Celastrol did not influence HIF-1α transcription. Instead, Celastrol induced the accumulation of the HIF-1α protein by inducing ROS and activating Akt/p70S6K signaling to promote HIF-1α translation. In addition, we found that the activation of Akt by Celastrol was transient. With increased exposure time, inhibition of Hsp90 chaperone function by Celastrol led to the subsequent depletion of the Akt protein and thus to the suppression of Akt activity. Moreover, in HepG2 cells, the accumulation of HIF-1α increased the expression of BNIP3, which induced autophagy. However, HIF-1α and BNIP3 did not influence the cytotoxicity of Celastrol because the main mechanism by which Celastrol kills cancer cells is through stimulating ROS-mediated JNK activation and inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, our data showed that the dose required for Celastrol to induce HIF-1α protein accumulation and enhance HIF-1α transcriptional activation was below its cytotoxic threshold. A cytotoxic dose of Celastrol for cancer cells did not display cytotoxicity in LO2 normal human liver cells, which indicated that the novel functions of Celastrol in regulating HIF-1 signaling and inducing autophagy might be used in new applications, such as in anti-inflammation and protection of cells against human neurodegenerative diseases. Future studies regarding these applications are required. PMID:25383959

  7. An ShRNA Based Genetic Screen Identified Sesn2 as a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Lung Cancer via Suppression of Akt-mTOR-p70S6K Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Liu, Jiawei; Fan, Fangfang; Li, Yilan; Ning, Xuelian; Sun, Yue; Dai, Shaochun; Liu, Baogang; Gao, Min; Fu, Songbin; Zhou, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is emerging rapidly as the leading death cause in Chinese cancer patients. The causal factors for Chinese lung cancer development remain largely unclear. Here we employed an shRNA library-based loss-of-function screen in a genome-wide and unbiased manner to interrogate potential tumor suppressor candidates in the immortalized human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Methods/Results Soft agar assays were conducted for screening BEAS-2B cells infected with the retroviral shRNA library with the acquired feature of anchorage-independent growth, large (>0.5mm in diameter) and wellseparated colonies were isolated for proliferation. PCRs were performed to amplify the integrated shRNA fragment from individual genomic DNA extracted from each colony, and each PCR product is submitted for DNA sequencing to reveal the integrated shRNA and its target gene. A total of 6 candidate transformation suppressors including INPP4B, Sesn2, TIAR, ACRC, Nup210, LMTK3 were identified. We validated Sesn2 as the candidate of lung cancer tumor suppressor. Knockdown of Sesn2 by an shRNA targeting 3 UTR of Sesn2 transcript potently stimulated the proliferation and malignant transformation of lung bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B via activation of Akt-mTOR-p70S6K signaling, whereas ectopic expression of Sens2 re-suppressed the malignant transformation elicited by the Sesn2 shRNA. Moreover, knockdown of Sesn2 in BEAS-2B cells promoted the BEAS-2B cell-transplanted xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Lastly, DNA sequencing indicated mutations of Sesn2 gene are rare, the protein levels of Sesn2 of 77 Chinese lung cancer patients varies greatly compared to their adjacent normal tissues, and the low expression level of Sesn2 associates with the poor survival in these examined patients by Kaplan Meier analysis. Conclusions Our shRNA-based screen has demonstrated Sesn2 is a potential tumor suppressor in lung epithelial cells. The expression level of Sesn2 may serve as a prognostic marker for Chinese lung cancer patients in the clinic. PMID:25962159

  8. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/S6 Kinase 1 Signals Influence T Cell Activation Independently of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Salmond, Robert J; Brownlie, Rebecca J; Meyuhas, Oded; Zamoyska, Rose

    2015-11-15

    Ag-dependent activation of naive T cells induces dramatic changes in cellular metabolism that are essential for cell growth, division, and differentiation. In recent years, the serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a key integrator of signaling pathways that regulate these metabolic processes. However, the role of specific downstream effectors of mTOR function in T cells is poorly understood. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is an essential component of the ribosome and is inducibly phosphorylated following mTOR activation in eukaryotic cells. In the current work, we addressed the role of phosphorylation of rpS6 as an effector of mTOR function in T cell development, growth, proliferation, and differentiation using knockin and TCR transgenic mice. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that rpS6 phosphorylation is not required for any of these processes either in vitro or in vivo. Indeed, rpS6 knockin mice are completely sensitive to the inhibitory effects of rapamycin and an S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)-specific inhibitor on T cell activation and proliferation. These results place the mTOR complex 1-S6K1 axis as a crucial determinant of T cell activation independently of its ability to regulate rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26453749

  9. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/S6 Kinase 1 Signals Influence T Cell Activation Independently of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, Robert J.; Brownlie, Rebecca J.; Meyuhas, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Ag-dependent activation of naive T cells induces dramatic changes in cellular metabolism that are essential for cell growth, division, and differentiation. In recent years, the serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a key integrator of signaling pathways that regulate these metabolic processes. However, the role of specific downstream effectors of mTOR function in T cells is poorly understood. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is an essential component of the ribosome and is inducibly phosphorylated following mTOR activation in eukaryotic cells. In the current work, we addressed the role of phosphorylation of rpS6 as an effector of mTOR function in T cell development, growth, proliferation, and differentiation using knockin and TCR transgenic mice. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that rpS6 phosphorylation is not required for any of these processes either in vitro or in vivo. Indeed, rpS6 knockin mice are completely sensitive to the inhibitory effects of rapamycin and an S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)–specific inhibitor on T cell activation and proliferation. These results place the mTOR complex 1-S6K1 axis as a crucial determinant of T cell activation independently of its ability to regulate rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26453749

  10. Constitutively active Akt1 expression in mouse pancreas requires S6 kinase 1 for insulinoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Alliouachene, Samira; Tuttle, Robyn L.; Boumard, Stephanie; Lapointe, Thomas; Berissi, Sophie; Germain, Stephane; Jaubert, Francis; Tosh, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pende, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Factors that promote pancreatic β cell growth and function are potential therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus. In mice, genetic experiments suggest that signaling cascades initiated by insulin and IGFs positively regulate β cell mass and insulin secretion. Akt and S6 kinase (S6K) family members are activated as part of these signaling cascades, but how the interplay between these proteins controls β cell growth and function has not been determined. Here, we found that although transgenic mice overexpressing the constitutively active form of Akt1 under the rat insulin promoter (RIP-MyrAkt1 mice) had enlarged β cells and high plasma insulin levels, leading to improved glucose tolerance, a substantial proportion of the mice developed insulinomas later in life, which caused decreased viability. This oncogenic transformation tightly correlated with nuclear exclusion of the tumor suppressor PTEN. To address the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate S6K1 in the MyrAkt1-mediated phenotype, we crossed RIP-MyrAkt1 and S6K1-deficient mice. The resulting mice displayed reduced insulinemia and glycemia compared with RIP-MyrAkt1 mice due to a combined effect of improved insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, although the increase in β cell size in RIP-MyrAkt1 mice was not affected by S6K1 deficiency, the hyperplastic transformation required S6K1. Our results therefore identify S6K1 as a critical element for MyrAkt1-induced tumor formation and suggest that it may represent a useful target for anticancer therapy downstream of mTOR. PMID:18846252

  11. Neutral Sphingomyelinase-2 Mediates Growth Arrest by Retinoic Acid through Modulation of Ribosomal S6 Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Christopher J.; Mediwala, Krutika; Jenkins, Russell W.; Sutton, Che A.; Tholanikunnel, Baby G.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2011-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induces growth arrest of many cell types. Previous studies have reported that ATRA can modulate cellular sphingolipids, but the role of sphingolipids in the ATRA response is not clear. Using MCF-7 cells as a model system, we show that ATRA stimulates an increase in ceramide levels followed by G0/G1 growth arrest. Notably, induction of nSMase2 was the primary effect of ATRA on the sphingolipid network and was both time- and dose-dependent. Importantly, pretreatment with nSMase2 siRNA significantly inhibited ATRA effects on ceramide levels and growth arrest. In contrast, nSMase2 overexpression was sufficient to increase ceramide levels and induce G0/G1 growth arrest of asynchronous MCF-7 cells. Surprisingly, neither ATRA stimulation nor nSMase2 overexpression had significant effects on classical cell cycle regulators such as p21/WAF1 or retinoblastoma. In contrast, ATRA suppressed phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) and its downstream targets S6 and eIF4B. Importantly, these effects were significantly inhibited by nSMase2 siRNA. Reciprocally, nSMase2 overexpression was sufficient to suppress S6K phosphorylation and signaling. Notably, neither ATRA effects nor nSMase2 effects on S6K phosphorylation required the ceramide-activated protein phosphatase PP2A, previously identified as important for S6K regulation. Finally, nSMase2 overexpression was sufficient to decrease translation as measured by methionine incorporation and analysis of polyribosome profiles. Taken together, these results implicate nSMase2 as a major component of ATRA-induced growth arrest of MCF-7 cells and identify S6K as a novel downstream target of nSMase2. PMID:21536668

  12. MEK1-independent activation of MAPK and MEK1-dependent activation of p70 S6 kinase by stem cell factor (SCF) in ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lian; Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 ; Zhang, Xin; Du, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoning; Hou, Nan; Zhao, Di; Sun, Jianzhi; Li, Li; Wang, Xiuwen; Ma, Chunhong

    2009-05-01

    We discovered a stem cell factor (SCF)-triggered, MEK1-independent, and PI3K-dependent MAPK activation pathway in the Kit-expressing ovarian cancer cell line HEY. When we knocked down MEK1 with RNA interference (RNAi) to study the function of MEK1 on the proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells, we found that impaired cell growth still occurred after MEK1 expression had been suppressed, although MAPK activation remained intact. This suggests that there is MEK1-independent activation of MAPK in the SCF-induced ovarian cancer cell growth process, and that MEK1 still plays a crucial role in maintaining the malignant properties of ovarian cancer cells even when it fails to activate MAPK as expected.

  13. Requirement for ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 to mediate glycolysis and apoptosis resistance induced by Pten deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Preeti; Gallo, Catherine A.; Khatri, Shikha; Barger, Jennifer F.; Yepiskoposyan, Hasmik; Plas, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Pten inactivation promotes cell survival in leukemia cells by activating glycolytic metabolism. We found that targeting ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in Pten-deficient cells suppressed glycolysis and induced apoptosis. S6K1 knockdown decreased expression of HIF-1α, and HIF-1α was sufficient to restore glycolysis and survival of cells lacking S6K1. In the Ptenfl/fl Mx1-Cre+ mouse model of leukemia, S6K1 deletion delayed the development of leukemia. Thus, S6K1 is a critical mediator of glycolytic metabolism, cell survival, and leukemogenesis in Pten-deficient cells. PMID:21262837

  14. C. elegans S6K Mutants Require a Creatine-Kinase-like Effector for Lifespan Extension.

    PubMed

    McQuary, Philip R; Liao, Chen-Yu; Chang, Jessica T; Kumsta, Caroline; She, Xingyu; Davis, Andrew; Chu, Chu-Chiao; Gelino, Sara; Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Petrascheck, Michael; Brill, Laurence M; Ladiges, Warren C; Kennedy, Brian K; Hansen, Malene

    2016-03-01

    Deficiency of S6 kinase (S6K) extends the lifespan of multiple species, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To discover potential effectors of S6K-mediated longevity, we performed a proteomics analysis of long-lived rsks-1/S6K C. elegans mutants compared to wild-type animals. We identified the arginine kinase ARGK-1 as the most significantly enriched protein in rsks-1/S6K mutants. ARGK-1 is an ortholog of mammalian creatine kinase, which maintains cellular ATP levels. We found that argk-1 is possibly a selective effector of rsks-1/S6K-mediated longevity and that overexpression of ARGK-1 extends C. elegans lifespan, in part by activating the energy sensor AAK-2/AMPK. argk-1 is also required for the reduced body size and increased stress resistance observed in rsks-1/S6K mutants. Finally, creatine kinase levels are increased in the brains of S6K1 knockout mice. Our study identifies ARGK-1 as a longevity effector in C. elegans with reduced RSKS-1/S6K levels. PMID:26923601

  15. S6 Kinase is essential for MYC-dependent rDNA transcription in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Naomi C; Tchoubrieva, Elissaveta B; Chahal, Arjun; Woods, Simone; Lee, Amanda; Lin, Jane I; Parsons, Linda; Jastrzebski, Katarzyna; Poortinga, Gretchen; Hannan, Katherine M; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D; Quinn, Leonie M

    2015-10-01

    Increased rates of ribosome biogenesis and biomass accumulation are fundamental properties of rapidly growing and dividing malignant cells. The MYC oncoprotein drives growth predominantly via its ability to upregulate the ribosome biogenesis program, in particular stimulating the activity of the RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) machinery to increase ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription. Although MYC function is known to be highly dependent on the cellular signalling context, the pathways interacting with MYC to regulate transcription of ribosomal genes (rDNA) in vivo in response to growth factor status, nutrient availability and cellular stress are only beginning to be understood. To determine factors critical to MYC-dependent stimulation of rDNA transcription in vivo, we performed a transient expression screen for known oncogenic signalling pathways in Drosophila. Strikingly, from the broad range of pathways tested, we found that ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (S6K) activity, downstream of the TOR pathway, was the only factor rate-limiting for the rapid induction of rDNA transcription due to transiently increased MYC. Further, we demonstrated that one of the mechanism(s) by which MYC and S6K cooperate is through coordinate activation of the essential Pol I transcription initiation factor TIF-1A (RRN 3). As Pol I targeted therapy is now in phase 1 clinical trials in patients with haematological malignancies, including those driven by MYC, these data suggest that therapies dually targeting Pol I transcription and S6K activity may be effective in treating MYC-driven tumours. PMID:26215099

  16. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase: a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Poomakkoth, Noufira; Issa, Aya; Abdulrahman, Nabeel; Abdelaziz, Somaia Gamal; Mraiche, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    A global survey of cancer has shown that lung cancer is the most common cause of the new cancer cases and cancer deaths in men worldwide. The mortality from lung cancer is more than the combined mortality from breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. The two major histological types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for about 85 % of cases and small cell lung cancer accounting for 15 % of cases. NSCLC, the more prevalent form of lung cancer, is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a very poor prognosis. Many factors have been shown to contribute to the development of lung cancer in humans including tobacco smoking, exposure to environmental carcinogens (asbestos, or radon) and genetic factors. Despite the advances in treatment, lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Interestingly, the overall 5 year survival from lung cancer has not changed appreciably in the past 25 years. For this reason, novel and more effective treatments and strategies for NSCLC are critically needed. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), a serine threonine kinase that lies downstream of the Ras-MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) cascade, has been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in various malignancies through indirect (e.g., modulation of transcription factors) or direct effects on the cell-cycle machinery. Increased expression of RSK has been demonstrated in various cancers, including lung cancer. This review focuses on the role of RSK in lung cancer and its potential therapeutic application. PMID:26791782

  17. A gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase is induced simultaneously with genes for a mitogen-activated protein kinase and an S6 ribosomal protein kinase by touch, cold, and water stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, T; Irie, K; Hirayama, T; Hayashida, N; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Matsumoto, K; Shinozaki, K

    1996-01-01

    We describe here the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a protein kinase that has high sequence homology to members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MEKK) family; this cDNA is named cATMEKKI (Arabidopsis thaliana MAP kinase or ERK kinase kinase 1). The catalytic domain of the putative ATMEKK1 protein shows approximately 40% identity with the amino acid sequences of the catalytic domains of MAPKKKs (such as Byr2 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Ste11 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bck1 from S. cerevisiae, MEKK from mouse, and NPK1 from tobacco). In yeast cells that overexpress ATMEKK1, the protein kinase replaces Ste11 in responding to mating pheromone. In this study, the expression of three protein kinases was examined by Northern blot analyses: ATMEKK1 (structurally related to MAPKKK), ATMPK3 (structurally related to MAPK), and ATPK19 (structurally related to ribosomal S6 kinase). The mRNA levels of these three protein kinases increased markedly and simultaneously in response to touch, cold, and salinity stress. These results suggest that MAP kinase cascades, which are thought to respond to a variety of extracellular signals, are regulated not only at the posttranslational level but also at the transcriptional level in plants and that MAP kinase cascades in plants may function in transducing signals in the presence of environmental stress. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8570631

  18. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase1 coordinates with TOR-Raptor2 to regulate thylakoid membrane biosynthesis in rice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linxiao; Yu, Yonghua; Hu, Weiqin; Min, Qiming; Kang, Huiling; Li, Yilu; Hong, Yue; Wang, Xuemin; Hong, Yueyun

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) functions as a key component in the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway involved in multiple processes in eukaryotes. The role and regulation of TOR-S6K in lipid metabolism remained unknown in plants. Here we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that TOR-Raptor2-S6K1 is important for thylakoid galactolipid biosynthesis and thylakoid grana modeling in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genetic suppression of S6K1 caused pale yellow-green leaves, defective thylakoid grana architecture. S6K1 directly interacts with Raptor2, a core component in TOR signaling, and S6K1 activity is regulated by Raptor2 and TOR. Plants with suppressed Raptor2 expression or reduced TOR activity by inhibitors mimicked the S6K1-deficient phenotype. A significant reduction in galactolipid content was found in the s6k1, raptor2 mutant or TOR-inhibited plants, which was accompanied by decreased transcript levels of the set of genes such as lipid phosphate phosphatase α5 (LPPα5), MGDG synthase 1 (MGD1), and DGDG synthase 1 (DGD1) involved in galactolipid synthesis, compared to the control plants. Moreover, loss of LPPα5 exhibited a similar phenotype with pale yellow-green leaves. These results suggest that TOR-Raptor2-S6K1 is important for modulating thylakoid membrane lipid biosynthesis, homeostasis, thus enhancing thylakoid grana architecture and normal photosynthesis ability in rice. PMID:27102613

  19. TORC1 Promotes Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 via the AGC Kinase Ypk3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Merle, David Adrian; Pendl, Tobias; Hall, Michael N.; Moustafa, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of nutrient availability. Genetic and pharmacological studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided mechanistic insights on the regulation of TORC1 signaling in response to nutrients. Using a highly specific antibody that recognizes phosphorylation of the bona fide TORC1 target ribosomal protein S6 (Rps6) in yeast, we found that nutrients rapidly induce Rps6 phosphorylation in a TORC1-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ypk3, an AGC kinase which exhibits high homology to human S6 kinase (S6K), is required for the phosphorylation of Rps6 in vivo. Rps6 phosphorylation is completely abolished in cells lacking Ypk3 (ypk3Δ), whereas Sch9, previously reported to be the yeast ortholog of S6K, is dispensable for Rps6 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation-deficient mutations in regulatory motifs of Ypk3 abrogate Rps6 phosphorylation, and complementation of ypk3Δ cells with human S6 kinase restores Rps6 phosphorylation in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Our findings demonstrate that Ypk3 is a critical component of the TORC1 pathway and that the use of a phospho-S6 specific antibody offers a valuable tool to identify new nutrient-dependent and rapamycin-sensitive targets in vivo. PMID:25767889

  20. S6 kinase in quiescent Swiss mouse 3T3 cells is activated by phosphorylation in response to serum treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, L.M.; Siegmann, M.; Thomas, G. )

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorylation in the activation of S6 kinase, the enzyme was isolated from {sup 32}P-labeled Swiss mouse 3T3 cells before and after stimulation with serum. The kinase activity was followed through several purification steps, and a radioactive protein of M{sub r} 70,000 was obtained from the stimulated cells. This band was not detected in resting cells. The M{sub r} 70,000 protein exhibited the same size upon NaDodSO{sub 4}/PAGE as the homogeneous kinase, and it comigrated with the in vitro autophosphorylated form of the enzyme. Treatment of the in vivo-labeled material with phosphatase 2A led to a loss of kinase activity concomitant with a release of {sup 32}P{sub i} from the M{sub r} 70,000 protein. The partially dephosphorylated protein migrated faster during PAGE, displaying distinct species of M{sub r} 69,000 and 68,000. Most importantly, phospho amino acid analysis of the labeled S6 kinase showed only phosphoserine and phosphothreonine. These results argue that the S6 kinase is phosphorylated at multiple sites in vivo and that it is activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  1. Cloning of the mitogen-activated S6 kinase from rat liver reveals an enzyme of the second messenger subfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Kozma, S.C.; Ferrari, S. Bassand, P.; Siegmann, M.; Thomas, G. ); Totty, N. )

    1990-10-01

    Recently the authors reported the purification of a mitogen-activated S6 kinase from Swiss mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat liver. The rat liver protein was cleaved with cyanogen bromide or trypsin and 17 of the resulting peptides were sequenced. DNA primers were generated from 3 peptides that had homology to sequences of the conserved catalytic domain of protein kinases. These primers were used in the polymerase chain reaction to obtain a 0.4-kilobase DNA fragment. This fragment was either radioactively labeled and hybridized to Northern blots of poly(A){sup {sup plus}} mRNA or used to screen a rat liver cDNA library. Northern blot analysis revealed four transcripts of 2.5, 3.2, 4.0, and 6.0 kilobases, and five S6 kinase clones were obtained by screening the library. Only two of the clones, which were identical, encoded a full-length protein. This protein had a molecular weight of 56,160, which correlated closely to that of the dephosphorylated kinase determined by SDS/PAGE. The catalytic domain of the kinase resembles that of other serine/threonine kinases belonging to the second messenger subfamily of protein kinases.

  2. S6 Kinase- and β-TrCP2-Dependent Degradation of p19Arf Is Required for Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tadashi; Araki, Takaaki; Nakagawa, Makiko; Hirao, Atsushi; Unno, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    The kinase mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) promotes translation as well as cell survival and proliferation under nutrient-rich conditions. Whereas mTOR activates translation through ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP), how it facilitates cell proliferation has remained unclear. We have now identified p19Arf, an inhibitor of cell cycle progression, as a novel substrate of S6K that is targeted to promote cell proliferation. Serum stimulation induced activation of the mTOR-S6K axis and consequent phosphorylation of p19Arf at Ser75. Phosphorylated p19Arf was then recognized by the F-box protein β-TrCP2 and degraded by the proteasome. Ablation of β-TrCP2 thus led to the arrest of cell proliferation as a result of the stabilization and accumulation of p19Arf. The β-TrCP2 paralog β-TrCP1 had no effect on p19Arf stability, suggesting that phosphorylated p19Arf is a specific substrate of β-TrCP2. Mice deficient in β-TrCP2 manifested accumulation of p19Arf in the yolk sac and died in utero. Our results suggest that the mTOR pathway promotes cell proliferation via β-TrCP2-dependent p19Arf degradation under nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26240281

  3. Control of Paip1-eukayrotic translation initiation factor 3 interaction by amino acids through S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Yvan; Wang, Xiaoshan; Alain, Tommy; Petroulakis, Emmanuel; Shahbazian, David; Fabre, Bertrand; Bousquet-Dubouch, Marie-Pierre; Monsarrat, Bernard; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2014-03-01

    The simultaneous interaction of poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and the mRNA 3' poly(A) tail promotes translation initiation. We previously showed that the interaction of PABP-interacting protein 1 (Paip1) with PABP and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3; via the eIF3g subunit) further stimulates translation. Here, we demonstrate that the interaction of eIF3 with Paip1 is regulated by amino acids through the mTORC1 signaling pathway. The Paip1-eIF3 interaction is impaired by the mTORC1 inhibitors, rapamycin and PP242. We show that ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 and 2 (S6K1/2) promote the interaction of eIF3 with Paip1. The enhancement of Paip1-eIF3 interaction by amino acids is abrogated by an S6K inhibitor or shRNA against S6K1/2. S6K1 interacts with eIF3f and, in vitro, phosphorylates eIF3. Finally, we show that S6K inhibition leads to a reduction in translation by Paip1. We propose that S6K1/2 phosphorylate eIF3 to stimulate Paip1-eIF3 interaction and consequent translation initiation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that eIF3 is a new translation target of the mTOR/S6K pathway. PMID:24396066

  4. Structural Diversity of the Active N-Terminal Kinase Domain of p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Malakhova, Margarita; Kurinov, Igor; Liu, Kangdong; Zheng, Duo; D'Angelo, Igor; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Steinman, Valerie; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2010-10-08

    The p90 ribosomal protein kinase 2 (RSK2) is a highly expressed Ser/Thr kinase activated by growth factors and is involved in cancer cell proliferation and tumor promoter-induced cell transformation. RSK2 possesses two non-identical kinase domains, and the structure of its N-terminal domain (NTD), which is responsible for phosphorylation of a variety of substrates, is unknown. The crystal structure of the NTD RSK2 was determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution in complex with AMP-PNP. The N-terminal kinase domain adopted a unique active conformation showing a significant structural diversity of the kinase domain compared to other kinases. The NTD RSK2 possesses a three-stranded {beta}B-sheet inserted in the N-terminal lobe, resulting in displacement of the {alpha}C-helix and disruption of the Lys-Glu interaction, classifying the kinase conformation as inactive. The purified protein was phosphorylated at Ser227 in the T-activation loop and exhibited in vitro kinase activity. A key characteristic is the appearance of a new contact between Lys216 ({beta}B-sheet) and the {beta}-phosphate of AMP-PNP. Mutation of this lysine to alanine impaired both NTDs in vitro and full length RSK2 ex vivo activity, emphasizing the importance of this interaction. Even though the N-terminal lobe undergoes structural re-arrangement, it possesses an intact hydrophobic groove formed between the {alpha}C-helix, the {beta}4-strand, and the {beta}B-sheet junction, which is occupied by the N-terminal tail. The presence of a unique {beta}B-sheet insert in the N-lobe suggests a different type of activation mechanism for RSK2.

  5. Regulation of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 and protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianmin; Janknecht, Ralf

    2002-11-01

    The ETS transcription factor ER81 is activated in response to many signals via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). However, ER81 is not only phosphorylated on MAPK sites but also at other sites that impact on its transactivation potential. Here we describe that the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), a protein kinase downstream of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) subclass of MAPKs, binds to ER81, phosphorylates it, and enhances ER81-dependent transcription. Two in vivo RSK1 phosphorylation sites within ER81, Ser(191) and Ser(216), were identified, whose mutation to alanine reduces ER81 activity upon ERK-MAPK stimulation. Furthermore, RSK1 activates the ER81 cofactor CREB-binding protein and may thereby augment ER81-dependent transcription. Similar to RSK1, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates ER81 on Ser(191)/Ser(216). Additionally, PKA targets ER81 on Ser(334) in vivo. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of Ser(334) severely reduces the DNA-binding ability of ER81 but also enhances the transactivation potential of ER81. These counteractive effects of PKA phosphorylation on ER81-dependent transcription may cause the selective up-regulation of promoters with high but not low affinity for ER81. Collectively, we have identified mechanisms for how two distinct signaling pathways with different effector protein kinases, RSK1 and PKA, converge on ER81, which may regulate ER81 function during development and tumorigenesis. PMID:12213813

  6. Identification of the Raptor-binding motif on Arabidopsis S6 kinase and its use as a TOR signaling suppressor.

    PubMed

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Hur, Yoon-Sun; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2016-03-25

    TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signaling plays central role as a regulator of growth and proliferation in all eukaryotic cells and its key signaling components and effectors are also conserved in plants. Unlike the mammalian and yeast counterparts, however, we found through yeast two-hybrid analysis that multiple regions of the Arabidopsis Raptor (regulatory associated protein of TOR) are required for binding to its substrate. We also identified that a 44-amino acid region at the N-terminal end of Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) specifically interacted with AtRaptor1, indicating that this region may contain a functional equivalent of the TOS (TOR-Signaling) motif present in the mammalian TOR substrates. Transient over-expression of this 44-amino acid fragment in Arabidopsis protoplasts resulted in significant decrease in rDNA transcription, demonstrating a feasibility of developing a new plant-specific TOR signaling inhibitor based upon perturbation of the Raptor-substrate interaction. PMID:26920057

  7. Identification of the general transcription factor Yin Yang 1 as a novel and specific binding partner for S6 kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Heba M S; Myronova, Olena; Tsuchiya, Yugo; Niewiarowski, Andrew; Tsaneva, Irina; Gout, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    S6 kinase is a member of the AGC family of serine/threonine kinases and plays a key role in diverse cellular processes including cell growth and metabolism. Although, the high degree of homology between S6K family members (S6K1 and S6K2) in kinase and kinase-extension domains, the two proteins are highly divergent in the N- and C-terminal regulatory regions, hinting at differential regulation, downstream signalling and cellular function. Deregulated signalling via S6Ks has been linked to various human pathologies, such as diabetes and cancer. Therefore, S6K has emerged as a promising target for drug development. Much of what we know about S6K signalling in health and disease comes from studies of S6K1, as molecular cloning of this isoform was reported a decade earlier than S6K2. In this study, we report for the first time, the identification of the general transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) as a novel and specific binding partner of S6K2, but not S6K1. The interaction between YY1 and S6K2 was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation of transiently overexpressed and endogenous proteins in a number of cell lines, including HEK293, MCF7 and U937. Furthermore, direct association between S6K2 and YY1 was demonstrated by GST pull-down assay using recombinant proteins. A panel of deletion mutants was used to show that the C-terminal regulatory region of S6K2 mediates the interaction with YY1. Interestingly, the complex formation between S6K2 and YY1 can be detected in serum-starved cells, but the interaction is strongly induced in response to mitogenic stimulation. The induction of S6K2/YY1 complex formation in response to serum stimulation is abolished by pre-treatment of cells with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. Furthermore, mTOR is also detected in complex with YY1 and S6K2 in serum-stimulated cells. We utilized size exclusion chromatography along with co-immunoprecipitation analysis to demonstrate the existence of the mTOR/S6K2/YY1 complex in high molecular weight fractions, which might also involve other cellular proteins. The physiological significance of the mTOR/S6K2/YY1 complex, which is induced in response to mitogenic stimulation, remains to be further investigated. PMID:23403125

  8. Molecular basis for the substrate specificity of NIMA-related kinase-6 (NEK6). Evidence that NEK6 does not phosphorylate the hydrophobic motif of ribosomal S6 protein kinase and serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Jose M; Deak, Maria; Morrice, Nick; Kieloch, Agnieszka; Hastie, C James; Dong, Liying; Schutkowski, Mike; Reimer, Ulf; Alessi, Dario R

    2002-08-01

    The AGC family of protein kinases, which includes isoforms of protein kinase B (also known as Akt), ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K), and serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK) are activated in response to many extracellular signals and play key roles in regulating diverse cellular processes. They are activated by the phosphorylation of the T loop of their kinase domain by the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and by phosphorylation of a residue located C-terminal to the kinase domain in a region termed the hydrophobic motif. Recent work has implicated the NIMA (never in mitosis, gene A)-related kinase-6 (NEK6) as the enzyme that phosphorylates the hydrophobic motif of S6K1 in vivo. Here we demonstrate that in addition to phosphorylating S6K1 and SGK1 at their hydrophobic motif, NEK6 also phosphorylates S6K1 at two other sites and phosphorylates SGK1 at one other site in vitro. Employing the Jerini pepSTAR method in combination with kinetic analysis of phosphorylation of variant peptides, we establish the key substrate specificity determinants for NEK6. Our analysis indicates that NEK6 has a strong preference for Leu 3 residues N-terminal to the site of phosphorylation. Its mutation to either Ile or Val severely reduced the efficacy with which NEK6-phosphorylated peptide substrates, and moreover, mutation of the equivalent Leu residue in S6K1 or SGK1 prevented phosphorylation of their hydrophobic motifs by NEK6 in vitro. However, these mutants of S6K1 or SGK1 still became phosphorylated at their hydrophobic motif following insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulation of transfected 293 cells. This study provides the first description of the basis for the substrate specificity of NEK6 and indicates that NEK6 is unlikely to be responsible for the IGF1-induced phosphorylation of the hydrophobic motif of S6K, SGK, and protein kinase B isoforms in vivo. PMID:12023960

  9. Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1 Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Involves Activation of p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jaballah, Maiy; Mohamed, Iman A.; Alemrayat, Bayan; Al-Sulaiti, Fatima; Mlih, Mohamed; Mraiche, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Studies using pharmacological and genetic approaches have shown that increased activity/expression of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Despite the importance of NHE1 in cardiac hypertrophy, severe cerebrovascular side effects were associated with the use of NHE1 inhibitors when administered to patients with myocardial infarctions. p90 ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK), a downstream regulator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, has also been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. We hypothesized that RSK plays a role in the NHE1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response. Infection of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with the active form of the NHE1 adenovirus induced hypertrophy and was associated with an increase in the phosphorylation of RSK (P<0.05). Parameters of hypertrophy such as cell area, protein content and atrial natriuretic mRNA expression were significantly reduced in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts infected with active NHE1 in the presence of dominant negative RSK (DN-RSK) (P<0.05). These results confirm that NHE1 lies upstream of RSK. Increased phosphorylation and activation of GATA4 at Ser261 was correlated with increased RSK phosphorylation. This increase was reversed upon inhibition of RSK or NHE1. These findings demonstrate for the first time that the NHE1 mediated hypertrophy is accounted for by increased activation and phosphorylation of RSK, which subsequently increased the phosphorylation of GATA4; eventually activating fetal gene transcriptional machinery. PMID:25830299

  10. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 promotes invasion and metastasis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sumin; Elf, Shannon; Lythgoe, Katherine; Hitosugi, Taro; Taunton, Jack; Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Li; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Fan, Songqing; Sun, Shi-Yong; Marcus, Adam I; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Khuri, Fadlo R; Shin, Dong M; Chen, Jing

    2010-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common types of human cancer and frequently metastasizes to LNs. Identifying metastasis-promoting factors is of immense clinical interest, as the prognosis for patients with even a single unilateral LN metastasis is extremely poor. Here, we report that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) promotes human HNSCC cell invasion and metastasis. We determined that RSK2 was overexpressed and activated in highly invasive HNSCC cell lines compared with poorly invasive cell lines. Expression of RSK2 also correlated with metastatic progression in patients with HNSCC. Ectopic expression of RSK2 substantially enhanced the invasive capacity of HNSCC cells, while inhibition of RSK2 activity led to marked attenuation of invasion in vitro. Additionally, shRNA knockdown of RSK2 substantially reduced the invasive and metastatic potential of HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model, respectively. Mechanistically, we determined that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and Hsp27 are phosphorylated and activated by RSK2 and are important for the RSK2-mediated invasive ability of HNSCC cells. Our findings suggest that RSK2 is involved in the prometastatic programming of HNSCC cells, through phosphorylation of proteins in a putative signaling network. Moreover, targeting RSK2 markedly attenuates in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of HNSCC cells, suggesting that RSK2 may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of metastatic HNSCC. PMID:20234090

  11. Reducing Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1 Expression Improves Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Caccamo, Antonella; Branca, Caterina; Talboom, Joshua S.; Shaw, Darren M.; Turner, Dharshaun; Ma, Luyao; Messina, Angela; Huang, Zebing; Wu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the most important risk factor associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the molecular mechanisms linking aging to AD remain unclear. Suppression of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases healthspan and lifespan in several organisms, from nematodes to mammals. Here we show that S6K1 expression is upregulated in the brains of AD patients. Using a mouse model of AD, we found that genetic reduction of S6K1 improved synaptic plasticity and spatial memory deficits, and reduced the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau, the two neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Mechanistically, these changes were linked to reduced translation of tau and the β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, a key enzyme in the generation of amyloid-β. Our results implicate S6K1 dysregulation as a previously unidentified molecular mechanism underlying synaptic and memory deficits in AD. These findings further suggest that therapeutic manipulation of S6K1 could be a valid approach to mitigate AD pathology. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Aging is the most important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about how it contributes to AD pathogenesis. S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a protein kinase involved in regulation of protein translation. Reducing S6K1 activity increases lifespan and healthspan. We report the novel finding that reducing S6K1 activity in 3xTg-AD mice ameliorates synaptic and cognitive deficits. These improvement were associated with a reduction in amyloid-β and tau pathology. Mechanistically, lowering S6K1 levels reduced translation of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and tau, two key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis. These data suggest that S6K1 may represent a molecular link between aging and AD. Given that aging is the most important risk factor for most neurodegenerative diseases, our results may have far-reaching implications into other diseases. PMID:26468204

  12. Altered Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling and Glycogen Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle from p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, Scott D.; Bjørbæk, Christian; El-Haschimi, Karim; Zhao, Yi; Aschenbach, William G.; Moller, David E.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2001-01-01

    The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), a cytosolic substrate for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), is involved in transcriptional regulation, and one isoform (RSK2) has been implicated in the activation of glycogen synthase by insulin. To determine RSK2 function in vivo, mice lacking a functional rsk2 gene were generated and studied in response to insulin and exercise, two potent stimulators of the ERK cascade in skeletal muscle. RSK2 knockout (KO) mice weigh 10% less and are 14% shorter than wild-type (WT) mice. They also have impaired learning and coordination. Hindlimb skeletal muscles were obtained from mice 10, 15, or 30 min after insulin injection or immediately after strenuous treadmill exercise for 60 min. While insulin and exercise significantly increased ERK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle from both WT and KO mice, the increases were twofold greater in the KO animals. This occurred despite 27% lower ERK2 protein expression in skeletal muscle of KO mice. KO mice had 18% less muscle glycogen in the fasted basal state, and insulin increased glycogen synthase activity more in KO than WT mice. The enhanced insulin-stimulated increases in ERK and glycogen synthase activities in KO mice were not associated with higher insulin receptor or with IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation or with IRS1 binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of Akt was significantly higher in the KO animals. c-fos mRNA was increased similarly in muscle from WT and KO mice in response to insulin (2.5-fold) and exercise (15-fold). In conclusion, RSK2 likely plays a major role in feedback inhibition of the ERK pathway in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, RSK2 is not required for activation of muscle glycogen synthase by insulin but may indirectly modulate muscle glycogen synthase activity and/or glycogen content by other mechanisms, possibly through regulation of Akt. RSK2 knockout mice may be a good animal model for the study of Coffin-Lowry syndrome. PMID:11113183

  13. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and S6 Kinase mediate diazoxide preconditioning in primary rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Somhrita; Rutkai, Ibolya; Katakam, Prasad V G; Busija, David W

    2015-09-01

    We examined the role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in delayed diazoxide (DZ)-induced preconditioning of cultured rat primary cortical neurons. Neurons were treated for 3 days with 500 μM DZ or feeding medium and then exposed to 3 h of continuous normoxia in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium with glucose or with 3 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by normoxia and feeding medium. The OGD decreased viability by 50%, depolarized mitochondria, and reduced mitochondrial respiration, whereas DZ treatment improved viability and mitochondrial respiration, and suppressed reactive oxygen species production, but did not restore mitochondrial membrane potential after OGD. Neuroprotection by DZ was associated with increased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), mTOR, and the major mTOR downstream substrate, S6 Kinase (S6K). The mTOR inhibitors rapamycin and Torin-1, as well as S6K-targeted siRNA abolished the protective effects of DZ. The effects of DZ on mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species production were not affected by rapamycin. Preconditioning with DZ also changed mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. We conclude that in addition to reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, DZ protects against OGD by activation of the Akt-mTOR-S6K pathway and by changes in mitochondrial respiration. Ischemic strokes have limited therapeutic options. Diazoxide (DZ) preconditioning can reduce neuronal damage. Using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), we studied Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling and mitochondrial respiration in neuronal preconditioning. We found DZ protects neurons against OGD via the Akt/mTOR/S6K pathway and alters the mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. This suggests that the Akt/mTOR/S6k pathway and mitochondria are novel stroke targets. PMID:26016889

  14. IL-17A and its homologs IL-25/IL-17E recruit the c-RAF/S6 kinase pathway and the generation of pro-oncogenic LMW-E in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mombelli, Sarah; Cochaud, Stéphanie; Merrouche, Yacine; Garbar, Christian; Antonicelli, Frank; Laprevotte, Emilie; Alberici, Gilles; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Eliaou, Jean-François; Bastid, Jérémy; Bensussan, Armand; Giustiniani, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory IL-17 cytokines were initially described for their pathogenic role in chronic inflammatory diseases and subsequent accumulating evidence indicated their involvement in carcinogenesis. In the present study we report that IL-17A and IL-17E receptors subunits mRNA expressions are upregulated in breast cancers versus normal samples. IL-17E, which is undetectable in most normal breast tissues tested, seems more expressed in some tumors. Investigation of the molecular signaling following stimulation of human breast cancer cell lines with IL-17A and IL-17E showed that both cytokines induced the phosphorylation of c-RAF, ERK1/2 and p70 S6 Kinase were involved in the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Accordingly, IL-17A and IL-17E promoted resistance to Docetaxel and failed to induce apoptosis as previously reported for IL-17E. Interestingly, we also revealed that both cytokines induced the generation of tumorogenic low molecular weight forms of cyclin E (LMW-E), which high levels correlated strongly with a poor survival in breast cancer patients. These results show for the first time some of the molecular pathways activated by IL-17A and IL-17E that may participate to their pro-oncogenic activity in breast cancers. PMID:26154409

  15. Immediate-early response 5 (IER5) interacts with protein phosphatase 2A and regulates the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shotaro; Ishita, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Yukio; Sakurai, Hiroshi

    2015-11-30

    Immediate-early response 5 (IER5) is a growth factor-inducible protein with homology to the N-terminus of IER2. Deletion analysis shows that a large region of IER5, including the N-terminal region, is involved in cell growth and stress resistance. The N-terminal region mediates IER5 oligomerization and binding to the B55 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). IER5 physically interacts with the PP2A target proteins ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and the interactions are essential for the reduced phosphorylation of S6K and HSF1. Our data indicate that oligomeric IER5 regulates PP2A activity and cell growth. PMID:26496226

  16. Ha-rasVal-12,Thr-59 activates S6 kinase and p34cdc2 kinase in Xenopus oocytes: evidence for c-mosxe-dependent and -independent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, C B; Schroetke, R M; Van der Hoorn, F A; Nordeen, S K; Maller, J L

    1990-01-01

    Treatment with insulin or progesterone or microinjection of the transforming protein product of Ha-rasVal-12,Thr-59 (p21) is known to induce germinal vesicle breakdown in Xenopus oocytes. We have investigated the effect of p21 on S6 kinase and the H1 histone kinase of maturation-promoting factor in the presence and absence of antisense oligonucleotides against the c-mosxe proto-oncogene. Injection of p21 led to a rapid increase in S6 phosphorylation, with kinetics similar to those previously observed with insulin. Microinjection of c-mosxe antisense oligonucleotides inhibited germinal vesicle breakdown induced by p21 and totally abolished S6 kinase activation by insulin or progesterone but only partially inhibited activation by p21. However, the activation of p34cdc2 protein kinase by all three stimuli was blocked by antisense oligonucleotides. The results suggest that in oocyte maturation c-mosxe functions downstream of p21 but upstream of p34cdc2 and S6 kinase activation, although not all p21-induced events require c-mosxe. Images PMID:2152963

  17. Tumor Suppressor PDCD4 Represses Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Translation of Antiapoptotic Proteins and Is Regulated by S6 Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Liwak, Urszula; Thakor, Nehal; Jordan, Lindsay E.; Roy, Rajat; Lewis, Stephen M.; Pardo, Olivier E.; Seckl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis can be regulated by extracellular signals that are communicated by peptides such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) that have important roles in tumor cell proliferation. The prosurvival effects of FGF-2 are transduced by the activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2), which increases the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins X chromosome-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) and Bcl-xL. We now show that the FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling is mediated by the tumor suppressor programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). We demonstrate that PDCD4 specifically binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements of both the XIAP and Bcl-xL messenger RNAs and represses their translation by inhibiting the formation of the 48S translation initiation complex. Phosphorylation of PDCD4 by activated S6K2 leads to the degradation of PDCD4 and thus the subsequent derepression of XIAP and Bcl-xL translation. Our results identify PDCD4 as a specific repressor of the IRES-dependent translation of cellular mRNAs (such as XIAP and Bcl-xL) that mediate FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling and provide further insight into the role of PDCD4 in tumor suppression. PMID:22431522

  18. Serine 302 Phosphorylation of Mouse Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1) Is Dispensable for Normal Insulin Signaling and Feedback Regulation by Hepatic S6 Kinase.

    PubMed

    Copps, Kyle D; Hançer, Nancy J; Qiu, Wei; White, Morris F

    2016-04-15

    Constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and S6 kinase (mTORC1→ S6K) attenuates insulin-stimulated Akt activity in certain tumors in part through "feedback" phosphorylation of the upstream insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). However, the significance of this mechanism for regulating insulin sensitivity in normal tissue remains unclear. We investigated the function of Ser-302 in mouse IRS1, the major site of its phosphorylation by S6K in vitro, through genetic knock-in of a serine-to-alanine mutation (A302). Although insulin rapidly stimulated feedback phosphorylation of Ser-302 in mouse liver and muscle, homozygous A302 mice (A/A) and their knock-in controls (S/S) exhibited similar glucose homeostasis and muscle insulin signaling. Furthermore, both A302 and control primary hepatocytes from which Irs2 was deleted showed marked inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI3K binding after emetine treatment to raise intracellular amino acids and activate mTORC1 → S6K signaling. To specifically activate mTORC1 in mouse tissue, we deleted hepatic Tsc1 using Cre adenovirus. Although it moderately decreased IRS1/PI3K association and Akt phosphorylation in liver, Tsc1 deletion failed to cause glucose intolerance or promote hyperinsulinemia in mixed background A/A or S/S mice. Moreover, Tsc1 deletion failed to stimulate phospho-Ser-302 or other putative S6K sites within IRS1, whereas ribosomal S6 protein was constitutively phosphorylated. Following acute Tsc1 deletion from hepatocytes, Akt phosphorylation, but not IRS1/PI3K association, was rapidly restored by treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Thus, within the hepatic compartment, mTORC1 → S6K signaling regulates Akt largely through IRS-independent means with little effect upon physiologic insulin sensitivity. PMID:26846849

  19. Focal adhesion kinase is required for IGF-I-mediated growth of skeletal muscle cells via a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-associated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Hannah; Kazi, Abid A.; Lang, Charles H.; Timmons, James A.; Pierre, Philippe; Wilkinson, Daniel J.; Smith, Kenneth; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an attachment complex protein associated with the regulation of muscle mass through as-of-yet unclear mechanisms. We tested whether FAK is functionally important for muscle hypertrophy, with the hypothesis that FAK knockdown (FAK-KD) would impede cell growth associated with a trophic stimulus. C2C12 skeletal muscle cells harboring FAK-targeted (FAK-KD) or scrambled (SCR) shRNA were created using lentiviral transfection techniques. Both FAK-KD and SCR myotubes were incubated for 24 h with IGF-I (10 ng/ml), and additional SCR cells (±IGF-1) were incubated with a FAK kinase inhibitor before assay of cell growth. Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and putative FAK signaling mechanisms (immunoblotting and coimmunoprecipitation) were assessed. IGF-I-induced increases in myotube width (+41 ± 7% vs. non-IGF-I-treated) and total protein (+44 ± 6%) were, after 24 h, attenuated in FAK-KD cells, whereas MPS was suppressed in FAK-KD vs. SCR after 4 h. These blunted responses were associated with attenuated IGF-I-induced FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation and markedly suppressed phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and critical downstream mTOR signaling (ribosomal S6 kinase, eIF4F assembly) in FAK shRNA cells (all P < 0.05 vs. IGF-I-treated SCR cells). However, binding of FAK to TSC2 or its phosphatase Shp-2 was not affected by IGF-I or cell phenotype. Finally, FAK-KD-mediated suppression of cell growth was recapitulated by direct inhibition of FAK kinase activity in SCR cells. We conclude that FAK is required for IGF-I-induced muscle hypertrophy, signaling through a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-dependent pathway via means requiring the kinase activity of FAK but not altered FAK-TSC2 or FAK-Shp-2 binding. PMID:23695213

  20. PAS kinase is a nutrient and energy sensor in hypothalamic areas required for the normal function of AMPK and mTOR/S6K1.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Carneiro, Verónica; Roncero, Isabel; Egger, Sascha S; Wenger, Roland H; Blazquez, Enrique; Sanz, Carmen; Alvarez, Elvira

    2014-10-01

    The complications caused by overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes are one of the main problems that increase morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Hypothalamic metabolic sensors play an important role in the control of feeding and energy homeostasis. PAS kinase (PASK) is a nutrient sensor proposed as a regulator of glucose metabolism and cellular energy. The role of PASK might be similar to other known metabolic sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). PASK-deficient mice resist diet-induced obesity. We have recently reported that AMPK and mTOR/S6K1 pathways are regulated in the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus in response to nutritional states, being modulated by anorexigenic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/exendin-4 in lean and obese rats. We identified PASK in hypothalamic areas, and its expression was regulated under fasting/re-feeding conditions and modulated by exendin-4. Furthermore, PASK-deficient mice have an impaired activation response of AMPK and mTOR/S6K1 pathways. Thus, hypothalamic AMPK and S6K1 were highly activated under fasted/re-fed conditions. Additionally, in this study, we have observed that the exendin-4 regulatory effect in the activity of metabolic sensors was lost in PASK-deficient mice, and the anorexigenic properties of exendin-4 were significantly reduced, suggesting that PASK could be a mediator in the GLP-1 signalling pathway. Our data indicated that the PASK function could be critical for preserving the nutrient effect on AMPK and mTOR/S6K1 pathways and maintain the regulatory role of exendin-4 in food intake. Some of the antidiabetogenic effects of exendin-4 might be modulated through these processes. PMID:24445950

  1. Functional characterization of human RSK4, a new 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase, reveals constitutive activation in most cell types.

    PubMed

    Dümmler, Bettina A; Hauge, Camilla; Silber, Joachim; Yntema, Helger G; Kruse, Lars S; Kofoed, Birte; Hemmings, Brian A; Alessi, Dario R; Frödin, Morten

    2005-04-01

    The 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK1-3) are important mediators of growth factor stimulation of cellular proliferation, survival, and differentiation and are activated via coordinated phosphorylation by ERK and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Here we performed the functional characterization of a predicted new human RSK homologue, RSK4. We showed that RSK4 is a predominantly cytosolic protein with very low expression and several characteristics of the RSK family kinases, including the presence of two functional kinase domains and a C-terminal docking site for ERK. Surprisingly, however, in all cell types analyzed, endogenous RSK4 was maximally (constitutively) activated under serum-starved conditions where other RSKs are inactive due to their requirement for growth factor stimulation. Constitutive activation appeared to result from constitutive phosphorylation of Ser232, Ser372, and Ser389, and the low basal ERK activity in serum-starved cells appeared to be sufficient for induction of approximately 50% of the constitutive RSK4 activity. Finally experiments in mouse embryonic stem cells with targeted deletion of the PDK1 gene suggested that PDK1 was not required for phosphorylation of Ser232, a key regulatory site in the activation loop of the N-terminal kinase domain, that in other RSKs is phosphorylated by PDK1. The unusual regulation and growth factor-independent kinase activity indicate that RSK4 is functionally distinct from other RSKs and may help explain recent findings suggesting that RSK4 can participate in non-growth factor signaling as for instance p53-induced growth arrest. PMID:15632195

  2. Y-box binding protein-1 serine 102 is a downstream target of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase in basal-like breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Stratford, Anna L; Fry, Christopher J; Desilets, Curtis; Davies, Alastair H; Cho, Yong Y; Li, Yvonne; Dong, Zigang; Berquin, Isabelle M; Roux, Philippe P; Dunn, Sandra E

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Basal-like breast cancers (BLBC) frequently overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and subsequently have high levels of signaling through the MAP kinase pathway, which is thought to contribute to their aggressive behavior. While we have previously reported the expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) in 73% of BLBC, it is unclear whether it can be regulated by a component of the MAP kinase signaling pathway. Phosphorylation of YB-1 at the serine 102 residue is required for transcriptional activation of growth-enhancing genes, such as EGFR. Using Motifscan we identified p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) as a potential candidate for activating YB-1. Methods Inhibition of RSK1 and RSK2 was achieved using siRNA and the small molecule SL0101. RSK1, RSK2, activated RSK and kinase-dead RSK were expressed in HCC1937 cells. Kinase assays were performed to illustrate direct phosphorylation of YB-1 by RSK. The impact of inhibiting RSK on YB-1 function was measured by luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Using an in vitro kinase assay, RSK1 and RSK2 were shown to directly phosphorylate YB-1. Interestingly, they were more effective activators of YB-1 than AKT or another novel YB-1 kinase, PKCα. Phosphorylation of YB-1 (serine 102 residue) is blocked by inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway or by perturbing RSK1/RSK2 with siRNA or SL0101. In immortalized breast epithelial cells where RSK is active yet AKT is not, YB-1 is phosphorylated. Supporting this observation, RSK2-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts lose the ability to phosphorylate YB-1 in response to epidermal growth factor. This subsequently interfered with the ability of YB-1 to regulate the expression of EGFR. The RSK inhibitor SL0101 decreased the ability of YB-1 to bind the promoter, transactivate and ultimately reduce EGFR expression. In concordance with these results the expression of constitutively active RSK1 increased YB-1 phosphorylation, yet the kinase-dead RSK did not. Conclusions We therefore conclude that RSK1/RSK2 are novel activators of YB-1, able to phosphorylate the serine 102 residue. This provides a newly described mechanism whereby YB-1 is activated in breast cancer. This implicates the EGFR/RSK/YB-1 pathway as an important component of BLBC, providing an important opportunity for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19036157

  3. S6 kinase 2 is bound to chromatin-nuclear matrix cellular fractions and is able to phosphorylate histone H3 at threonine 45 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Heba M S; Hurd, Paul J; Khalil, Mahmoud I M; Kouzarides, Tony; Bannister, Andrew; Gout, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    The activity of S6 kinases (S6K) is highly induced in cancer cells highlighting an essential role in carcinogenesis. The S6K family has two members: S6K1 and S6K2 which bear common as well as distinct features. In an attempt to identify S6K2 unique sequence features compared to S6K1, we applied extensive bioinformatic analysis and motif search approaches. Interestingly, we identified 14 unique protein signatures which are present in proteins directly connected to chromatin and/or involved in transcription regulation. Using chromatin binding assay, we biochemically showed that S6K2 is bound to chromatin as well as nuclear matrix cellular fractions in HEK293 cells. The presence of S6K2 in chromatin fractions raised the possibility that it may be in close proximity to a number of chromatin substrates. For that, we then searched for S6K phosphorylation consensus sites RXRXXT/S in mammalian proteins using the SWISS-PROT database. Interestingly, we identified some potential phosphorylation sites in histone H3 (Thr45). Using in vitro kinase assays and siRNA-based knockdown strategy; we confirmed that S6K2 but not S6K1 or AKT is essential for histone H3-Thr45 phosphorylation in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, we show that the nuclear localisation sequence in the S6K2 C-terminus is essential for this modification. We have found that, H3-Thr45 phosphorylation correlates to S6K activation in response to mitogens and TPA-induced cell differentiation of leukaemic cell lines U937, HL60 and THP1. Overall, we demonstrate that S6K2 is a novel kinase that can phosphorylate histone H3 at position Thr45, which may play a role during cell proliferation and/or differentiation. PMID:23564320

  4. Mechanical stretch activates mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Naoya; Kawano, Fuminori; Nakata, Ken

    2015-08-01

    Cellular protein synthesis is believed to be antagonistically regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined the relationship between mTOR/p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and AMPK in response to mechanical stretch. C2C12 myoblasts were grown on a silicone elastomer chamber to confluence and further cultured in differentiation medium for 4 days to form multinucleated myotubes. Cells were subjected to 15% cyclic uniaxial stretch for 4 h at a frequency of 1 Hz. Phosphorylation of p70S6K at threonine 389 and AMPK at threonine 172 of the catalytic ? subunit were concomitantly increased by mechanical stretch. Stimulation of the mTOR pathway by adding leucine and insulin increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K without inactivation of AMPK. In contrast, addition of compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K in stretched cells. Activation of AMPK by the addition of 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleoside reduced the phosphorylation of p70S6K in response to mechanical stretch. In conclusion, crosstalk between mTOR and AMPK signaling was not tightly regulated in response to physiological stimuli, such as mechanical stress and/or nutrients. However, pharmacological modulation of AMPK influenced the mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. PMID:25971373

  5. Activation of p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinases by ORF45 of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Is Critical for Optimal Production of Infectious Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bishi; Kuang, Ersheng; Li, Wenwei; Avey, Denis; Li, Xiaojuan; Turpin, Zachary; Valdes, Ahmed; Brulois, Kevin; Myoung, Jinjong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously shown that ORF45, an immediate-early and tegument protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), causes sustained activation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) (E. Kuang, Q. Tang, G. G. Maul, and F. Zhu, J Virol 82:1838–1850, 2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02119-07). We now have identified the critical region of ORF45 that is involved in RSK interaction and activation. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of this region revealed that a single F66A point mutation abolished binding of ORF45 to RSK or ERK and, consequently, its ability to activate the kinases. We introduced the F66A mutation into BAC16 (a bacterial artificial chromosome clone containing the entire infectious KSHV genome), producing BAC16-45F66A. In parallel, we also repaired the mutation and obtained a revertant, BAC16-45A66F. The reconstitution of these mutants in iSLK cells demonstrated that the ORF45-F66A mutant failed to cause sustained ERK and RSK activation during lytic reactivation, resulting in dramatic differences in the phosphoproteomic profile between the wild-type virus-infected cells and the mutant virus-infected cells. ORF45 mutation or deletion also was accompanied by a noticeable decreased in viral gene expression during lytic reactivation. Consequently, the ORF45-F66A mutant produced significantly fewer infectious progeny virions than the wild type or the revertant. These results suggest a critical role for ORF45-mediated RSK activation in KSHV lytic replication. IMPORTANCE KSHV is the causative agent of three human malignancies. KSHV pathogenesis is intimately linked to its ability to modulate the host cell microenvironment and to facilitate efficient production of progeny viral particles. We previously described the mechanism by which the KSHV lytic protein ORF45 activates the cellular kinases ERK and RSK. We now have mapped the critical region of ORF45 responsible for binding and activation of ERK/RSK to a single residue, F66. We mutated this amino acid of ORF45 (F66A) and introduced the mutation into a newly developed bacterial artificial chromosome containing the KSHV genome (BAC16). This system has provided us with a useful tool to characterize the functions of ORF45-activated RSK upon KSHV lytic reactivation. We show that viral gene expression and virion production are significantly reduced by F66A mutation, indicating a critical role for ORF45-activated RSK during KSHV lytic replication. PMID:25320298

  6. Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling.

    PubMed

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; van Hall, Gerrit; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-03-15

    Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3 h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (∼90%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr(389) phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased severalfold immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (∼55 and ∼110%, respectively, P < 0.05) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation was reduced (∼55%, P < 0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P < 0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTOR complex 1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown. PMID:25605643

  7. Loss of striatal 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk) is a key factor for motor, synaptic and transcription dysfunction in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Anglada-Huguet, Marta; Giralt, Albert; Rué, Laura; Alberch, Jordi; Xifró, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor dysfunction due to the expression of mutant huntingtin that promotes degeneration of striatal GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons. Here we explore the role of the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk) in the physiopathology of HD. First, we show a reduction of Rsk1 and 2 protein levels in the striatum of two HD mouse models, R6/1 and Hdh(Q7/Q111) knock-in mice, at ages when they suffer from motor disturbances. Interestingly, the analysis of post-mortem samples from HD patients revealed a significant reduction of both Rsk forms in the putamen and caudate, but not in the cortex. Rsk1 and 2 levels were also reduced in the striatum of BDNF heterozygous mice, and upon BDNF neutralization in striatal cultures, suggesting that striatal loss of BDNF could be involved in the decrease of Rsk levels. Finally, we injected recombinant adeno-associated-virus (AAV5)-Rsk in the striatum of R6/1 mice at the onset of motor symptoms. Four weeks later, we found higher Rsk levels in the striatum accompanied by improvements in motor coordination, enhanced expression of synaptic markers and increased expression of genes related to synaptic plasticity, such as cfos and egr1. Altogether, we identified Rsk as a key factor in striatal alterations associated with motor deficits in HD. PMID:27063456

  8. RhoA Kinase (Rock) and p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (p90Rsk) phosphorylation of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) is required for lysophosphatidic acid-induced transport, cytoskeletal organization and migration.

    PubMed

    Wallert, Mark A; Hammes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tony; Kiefer, Lea; Berthelsen, Nick; Kern, Andrew; Anderson-Tiege, Kristina; Shabb, John B; Muhonen, Wallace W; Grove, Bryon D; Provost, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    The sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform one (NHE1) plays a critical role coordinating asymmetric events at the leading edge of migrating cells and is regulated by a number of phosphorylation events influencing both the ion transport and cytoskeletal anchoring required for directed migration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activation of RhoA kinase (Rock) and the Ras-ERK growth factor pathway induces cytoskeletal reorganization, activates NHE1 and induces an increase in cell motility. We report that both Rock I and II stoichiometrically phosphorylate NHE1 at threonine 653 in vitro using mass spectrometry and reconstituted kinase assays. In fibroblasts expressing NHE1 alanine mutants for either Rock (T653A) or ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk; S703A) we show that each site is partially responsible for the LPA-induced increase in transport activity while NHE1 phosphorylation by either Rock or Rsk at their respective site is sufficient for LPA stimulated stress fiber formation and migration. Furthermore, mutation of either T653 or S703 leads to a higher basal pH level and a significantly higher proliferation rate. Our results identify the direct phosphorylation of NHE1 by Rock and suggest that both RhoA and Ras pathways mediate NHE1-dependent ion transport and migration in fibroblasts. PMID:25578862

  9. Basic anatomy and tumor biology of the RPS6KA6 gene that encodes the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase-4

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Cao, Shousong; Yang, Min; Wu, Sihong; Wang, Zhe; Lin, Xiukun; Song, Xiangrang; Liao, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The RPS6KA6 gene encodes the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase-4 (RSK4) that is still largely uncharacterized. In this study we identified a new RSK4 transcription initiation site and several alternative splice sites with a 5’RACE approach. The resulting mRNA variants encompass four possible first start codons. The first 15 nucleotides (nt) of exon 22 in mouse and the penultimate exon in both human (exon 21) and mouse (exon 24) RSK4 underwent alternative splicing, although the penultimate exon deleted variant appeared mainly in cell clines, but not in most normal tissues. Demethylation agent 5-azacytidine inhibited the deletion of the penultimate exon whereas two indolocarbazole-derived inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinase 4 or 6 induced deletion of the first 39 nt from exon 21 of human RSK4. In all human cancer cell lines studied, the 90-kD wild type RSK4 was sparse but, surprisingly, several isoforms at or smaller than 72-kD were expressed as detected by seven different antibodies. On immunoblots, each of these smaller isoforms often appeared as a duplet or triplet and the levels of these isoforms varied greatly among different cell lines and culture conditions. Cyclin D1 inhibited RSK4 expression and serum starvation enhanced the inhibition, whereas c-Myc and RSK4 inhibited cyclin D1. The effects of RSK4 on cell growth, cell death and chemoresponse depended on the mRNA variant or the protein isoform expressed, on the specificity of the cell lines, as well as on the anchorage-dependent or -independent growth conditions and the in vivo situation. Moreover, we also observed that even a given cDNA might be expressed to multiple proteins; therefore, when using a cDNA, one needs to exclude this possibility before attribution of the biological results from the cDNA to the anticipated protein. Collectively, our results suggest that whether RSK4 is oncogenic or tumor suppressive depends on many factors. PMID:22614021

  10. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Apr, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Bjrn; Rooyackers, Olav; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids (EAAs). Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied EAAs with leucine, EAAs without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ?280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAAs and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly. PMID:26169935

  11. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  12. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many

  13. Rapamycin inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway blocks select stages of VEGF-A164 driven angiogenesis, in part by blocking S6Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qi; Nagy, Janice A.; Manseau, Eleanor J.; Phung, Thuy L.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Benjamin, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the stages of VEGF-A164 driven angiogenesis that are inhibited by therapeutic doses of rapamycin and the potential role of S6K1 in that response. Methods and Results We assessed the effects of rapamycin on the several stages of angiogensis and lymphangiogenesis induced with an adenovirus expressing VEGF-A164 (Ad-VEGF-A164) in the ears of adult nude mice. Rapamycin (0.5mg/kg/day) effectively inhibited mTOR and downstream S6K1 signaling and partially inhibited Akt signaling, likely through effects on TORC2. The earliest stages of angiogenesis, including mother vessel formation and increased vascular permeability, were strikingly inhibited by rapamycin, as was subsequent formation of daughter glomeruloid microvasular proliferations. However, later stage formation of vascular malformations and lymphangiogenesis were unaffected. Retrovirally delivered isoforms and shRNAs demonstrated that S6K1 signaling plays an important role in early VEGF-A164-angiogenesis. Conclusions Rapamycin potently inhibited early and mid stages of VEGF-A164 driven angiogenesis, but not late-stage angiogenesis or lymphangiogenesis. Rapamycin decreased phosphorylation of both Akt and S6, suggesting that both the TORC1 and TORC2 pathways are impacted. Inhibition of S6K1 signaling downstream of mTOR is a major component of rapamycin’s anti-angiogenesis action. PMID:19443844

  14. Hydroxychloroquine Destabilizes Phospho-S6 in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Ok; Mustafa, Aladdin; Hudes, Gary R; Kruger, Warren D

    2015-01-01

    mTOR inhibitors are used to treat metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC), but most patients eventually become resistant. One possible mechanism for resistance is upregulation of autophagy, a pathway that helps recycle intracellular proteins and promotes cell survival. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a potent autophagy inhibitor used to treat malaria and autoimmune disorders, is currently being studied in the context of cancer treatment. Here, we have investigated the effects of HCQ on three different renal carcinoma derived cell lines. We found that HCQ treatment inhibits RCC cell growth, promotes apoptosis, inhibits mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and increases rates of glycolysis. To understand the molecular mechanism behind these effects, we examined various nodes in the mTOR pathway and compared the effects of HCQ with the effects of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001. A key downstream readout of the pathway, phospho-S6 protein, was inhibited by both HCQ and RAD001. However, the upstream kinase, P70S6K was only inhibited by RAD001 and not HCQ, suggesting that the block by HCQ was downstream of P70S6K. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib restored phospho-S6 levels, suggesting that the reduction of phospho-S6 is caused by increased degradation of phospho-S6, but not total S6. Surprisingly, treatment with other autophagy inhibitors did not exhibit the same effects. Our findings suggest that HCQ causes the down-regulation of phospho-S6 in RCC cell lines via a novel mechanism that is not shared with other autophagy inhibitors. PMID:26134285

  15. Hydroxychloroquine Destabilizes Phospho-S6 in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Ok; Mustafa, Aladdin; Hudes, Gary R.; Kruger, Warren D.

    2015-01-01

    mTOR inhibitors are used to treat metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC), but most patients eventually become resistant. One possible mechanism for resistance is upregulation of autophagy, a pathway that helps recycle intracellular proteins and promotes cell survival. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a potent autophagy inhibitor used to treat malaria and autoimmune disorders, is currently being studied in the context of cancer treatment. Here, we have investigated the effects of HCQ on three different renal carcinoma derived cell lines. We found that HCQ treatment inhibits RCC cell growth, promotes apoptosis, inhibits mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and increases rates of glycolysis. To understand the molecular mechanism behind these effects, we examined various nodes in the mTOR pathway and compared the effects of HCQ with the effects of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001. A key downstream readout of the pathway, phospho-S6 protein, was inhibited by both HCQ and RAD001. However, the upstream kinase, P70S6K was only inhibited by RAD001 and not HCQ, suggesting that the block by HCQ was downstream of P70S6K. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib restored phospho-S6 levels, suggesting that the reduction of phospho-S6 is caused by increased degradation of phospho-S6, but not total S6. Surprisingly, treatment with other autophagy inhibitors did not exhibit the same effects. Our findings suggest that HCQ causes the down-regulation of phospho-S6 in RCC cell lines via a novel mechanism that is not shared with other autophagy inhibitors. PMID:26134285

  16. Degradation of Tiam1 by Casein Kinase 1 and the SCFβTrCP Ubiquitin Ligase Controls the Duration of mTOR-S6K Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Magliozzi, Roberto; Kim, Jihoon; Low, Teck Yew; Heck, Albert J. R.; Guardavaccaro, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Tiam1 (T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that specifically controls the activity of the small GTPase Rac, a key regulator of cell adhesion, proliferation, and survival. Here, we report that in response to mitogens, Tiam1 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system via the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase. Mitogenic stimulation triggers the binding of Tiam1 to the F-box protein βTrCP via its degron sequence and subsequent Tiam1 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The proteolysis of Tiam1 is prevented by βTrCP silencing, inhibition of CK1 and MEK, or mutation of the Tiam1 degron site. Expression of a stable Tiam1 mutant that is unable to interact with βTrCP results in sustained activation of the mTOR/S6K signaling and increased apoptotic cell death. We propose that the SCFβTrCP-mediated degradation of Tiam1 controls the duration of the mTOR-S6K signaling pathway in response to mitogenic stimuli. PMID:25124033

  17. Haloperidol Regulates the State of Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 via Activation of PKA and Phosphorylation of DARPP-32

    PubMed Central

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Bowling, Heather; Lopez, Sébastien; Santini, Emanuela; Matamales, Miriam; Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Hervé, Denis; Hoeffer, Charles; Klann, Eric; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Fisone, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Administration of typical antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol, promotes cAMP-dependent signaling in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum. In this study, we have examined the effect of haloperidol on the state of phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit. We found that haloperidol increases the phosphorylation of rpS6 at the dual site Ser235/236, which is involved in the regulation of mRNA translation. This effect was exerted in the MSNs of the indirect pathway, which express specifically dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and adenosine A2 receptors (A2ARs). The effect of haloperidol was decreased by blockade of A2ARs or by genetic attenuation of the Gαolf protein, which couples A2ARs to activation of adenylyl cyclase. Moreover, stimulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) increased Ser235/236 phosphorylation in cultured striatal neurons. The ability of haloperidol to promote rpS6 phosphorylation was abolished in knock-in mice deficient for PKA activation of the protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa. In contrast, pharmacological or genetic inactivation of p70 rpS6 kinase 1, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases did not affect haloperidol-induced rpS6 phosphorylation. These results identify PKA as a major rpS6 kinase in neuronal cells and suggest that regulation of protein synthesis through rpS6 may be a potential target of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21814187

  18. Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4B (EIF4B) by Open Reading Frame 45/p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (ORF45/RSK) Signaling Axis Facilitates Protein Translation during Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) Lytic Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Ersheng; Fu, Bishi; Liang, Qiming; Myoung, Jinjong; Zhu, Fanxiu

    2011-01-01

    Open reading frame 45 (ORF45) of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes sustained activation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), which is crucial for KSHV lytic replication, but the exact functional roles remain to be determined. To characterize the biological consequence of persistent RSK activation by ORF45, we screened known cellular substrates of RSK. We found that ORF45 induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), increased its assembly into translation initiation complex, and subsequently facilitated protein translation. The ORF45/RSK-mediated eIF4B phosphorylation was distinguishable from that caused by the canonical AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal S6 kinase and MEK/ERK/RSK pathways because it was resistant to both rapamycin (an mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor) and U1026 (an MEK inhibitor). The rapamycin and U1026 doubly insensitive eIF4B phosphorylation was induced during KSHV reactivation but was abolished if either ORF45 or RSK1/2 were ablated by siRNA, a pattern that is correlated with reduced lytic gene expression as we observed previously. Ectopic expression of eIF4B but not its phosphorylation-deficient mutant form increased KSHV lytic gene expression and production of progeny viruses. Together, these results indicated that ORF45/RSK axis-induced eIF4B phosphorylation is involved in translational regulation and is required for optimal KSHV lytic replication. PMID:21994950

  19. The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor BI-D1870 prevents gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis and mediates senescence via RSK- and p53-independent accumulation of p21WAF1/CIP1

    PubMed Central

    Neise, D; Sohn, D; Stefanski, A; Goto, H; Inagaki, M; Wesselborg, S; Budach, W; Stühler, K; Jänicke, R U

    2013-01-01

    The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family is a group of highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases that promote cell proliferation, growth, motility and survival. As they are almost exclusively activated downstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), therapeutic intervention by RSK inhibition is less likely to produce such severe side effects as those observed following inhibition of the upstream master regulators Raf, MEK and ERK1/2. Here, we report that BI-D1870, a potent small molecule inhibitor of RSKs, induces apoptosis, although preferentially, in a p21-deficient background. On the other hand, BI-D1870 also induces a strong transcription- and p53-independent accumulation of p21 protein and protects cells from gamma irradiation (γIR)-induced apoptosis, driving them into senescence even in the absence of γIR. Although we identified p21 in in vitro kinase assays as a novel RSK substrate that specifically becomes phosphorylated by RSK1-3 at Ser116 and Ser146, RNA-interference, overexpression and co-immunoprecipitation studies as well as the use of SL0101, another specific RSK inhibitor, revealed that BI-D1870 mediates p21 accumulation via a yet unknown pathway that, besides its off-site targets polo-like kinase-1 and AuroraB, also does also not involve RSKs. Thus, this novel off-target effect of BI-D1870 should be taken into serious consideration in future studies investigating the role of RSKs in cellular signaling and tumorigenesis. PMID:24136223

  20. Glyceollin, a novel regulator of mTOR/p70S6 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An estimated 70% of breast cancer tumors utilize estrogen receptor (ER) signaling to maintain tumorigenesis, and targeting of the estrogen receptor is a common method of treatment for these tumor types. However, ER-positive (+) breast cancers often acquire drug resistant or altered ER activity in r...

  1. Glutamate-dependent translational control through ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in cultured bergmann glial cells.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mndez, Marco; Escalante-Lpez, Miguel; Martnez-Lozada, Zila; Hernndez-Kelly, Luisa C; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Ortega, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Glutamate (Glu) the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system regulates gene expression at different levels through the activation of specific membrane receptors and transporters expressed in neurons and glia cells. A membrane to nucleus signaling cascade triggered by this neurotransmitter has been described in cultured cerebellar Bergmann glia cells isolated from chick embryos. Furthermore, it has also been described that Glu receptors activation is linked to a modulation of [(35)S]-methionine incorporation into newly synthesized polypeptides. In order to gain insight into the signal transduction cascades that participate in this effect, in the present study we characterized the phosphorylation of a critical component of the translational machinery, namely the ribosomal protein S6. The phosphorylation sites in rpS6 have been mapped to five clustered residues, Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, Ser244 and Ser247. Nevertheless, Ser236 phosphorylation is the primary phosphorylation site. The kinases responsible of this modification are p70(S6K) and p90(RSK). rpS6 phosphorylation increases the affinity of 40s subunit for mRNAs and thus facilitates translational initiation. Glutamate exposure of cultured cerebellar Bergmann glia cells results in a time- and dose-dependent increase in rpS6 phosphorylation. This effect is mainly observed at cytoplasm, and involves the phosphoinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B pathway. Our results favor the notion of a continuous neuronal signaling to glia cells that regulates the proteome of these cells not only at the transcriptional level but also at the level of protein synthesis. PMID:25736255

  2. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor family protein 2 is a key mediator of the epidermal growth factor-induced ribosomal S6 kinase 2/cAMP-responsive element-binding protein/Fos protein signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cong; Zhu, Feng; Wen, Weihong; Yao, Ke; Li, Shengqing; Zykova, Tatyana; Liu, Kangdong; Li, Xiang; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2012-07-27

    TRAF2 has an important function in mediating the TNF-R signaling pathway toward activation of NF-κB and JNKs. Here we reveal a novel function of TRAF2 in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRAF2 blocked EGF-induced AP-1 activity and anchorage- independent cell transformation. Notably, we showed that EGF induces ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) ubiquitination, and knocking down TRAF2 suppresses ubiquitination of RSK2 induced by EGF. We also found that TRAF2 affects RSK2 activity through RSK2 ubiquitination. RSK2 plays a critical role in AP-1 activity mediated through CREB and c-Fos, which regulates anchorage-independent cell transformation. In addition, TRAF2 is overexpressed in colon cancer and required for colon cancer development, suggesting that TRAF2 might be a potential molecular target for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:22685297

  3. Diacylglycerol kinase α exacerbates cardiac injury after ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toshiki; Shishido, Tetsuro; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Kitahara, Tatsuro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Katoh, Shigehiko; Funayama, Akira; Netsu, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Tetsu; Goto, Kaoru; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Early coronary reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium is a desired therapeutic goal for the preservation of myocardial function. However, reperfusion itself causes additional myocardium injuries. Activation of the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C (DAG-PKC) cascade has been implicated in the cardioprotective effects occurring after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). DAG kinase (DGK) controls cellular DAG levels by converting DAG to phosphatidic acid, and may act as an endogenous regulator of DAG-PKC signaling. In the present study, we examined the functional role of DGKα in cardiac injury after I/R in in vivo mouse hearts. We generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of DGKα (DGKα-TG). The left anterior descending coronary artery was transiently occluded for 20 min and reperfused for 24 h in DGKα-TG mice and wild-type littermate (WT) mice. The levels of phosphorylation activity of PKCε, extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) were increased after I/R in WT mouse hearts. However, in DGKα-TG mice, activation of PKCε, ERK1/2, and p70S6K was attenuated compared to WT mice. After 24 h, Evans blue/triphenyltetrazolium chloride double staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining showed that DGKα-TG mice had significantly larger myocardial infarctions and larger numbers of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes than WT mice. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization revealed that left ventricular systolic function was more severely depressed in DGKα-TG mice than in WT mice after I/R. These findings suggest that DGKα exacerbates I/R injury by inhibiting the cardioprotective effects of PKCε, ERK1/2, and p70S6K activation. PMID:23719772

  4. Palmatine inhibits growth and invasion in prostate cancer cell: Potential role for rpS6/NF?B/FLIP.

    PubMed

    Hambright, Heather G; Batth, Izhar Singh; Xie, Jianping; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki Pratap

    2015-10-01

    Novel agents are desperately needed for improving the quality of life and 5-year survival to more than 30% for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Previously we showed that Nexrutine, Phellodendron amurense bark extract, inhibits prostate tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently using biochemical fractionation we identified butanol fraction contributes to the observed biological activities. We report here that palmatine, which is present in the butanol fraction, selectively inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells without significant effect on non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. By screening receptor tyrosine kinases in a protein kinase array, we identified ribosomal protein S6, a downstream target of p70S6K and the Akt/mTOR signaling cascade as a potential target. We further show that palmatine treatment is associated with decreased activation of NF?B and its downstream target gene FLIP. These events led to inhibition of invasion. Similar results were obtained using parent extract Nexrutine (Nx) suggesting that palmatine either in the purified form or as one of the components in Nx is a potent cytotoxic agent with tumor invasion inhibitory properties. Synergistic inhibition of rpS6/NF?B/FLIP axis with palmatine may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer and possibly other malignancies with their constitutive activation. These data support a biological link between rpS6/NF?B/FLIP in mediating palmatine-induced inhibitory effects and warrants additional preclinical studies to test its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25043857

  5. Identification of novel FAK and S6K1 dual inhibitors from natural compounds via ADMET screening and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Lin, Shin-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and human p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1) are non-receptor protein tyrosine plays a vital role in cell signaling pathways, such as cell proliferation, survival, and migration. In this study, the 3D structure of FAK (PDB ID: 2AL6) and S6K1 (3A60) were chosen for docking 60 natural compounds attempted to identify novel and specific inhibitors from them. The 30 selected molecules with high scores were further analyzed using DSSTox tools and DS 3.5 ADMET software. Based on a high docking score and energy interaction, 3 of the 9 candidate compounds, neferine B, neferine A, and antroquinonol D, were identified and the inhibitory activity of these compounds were subsequently validated in the C6 glioma cell line. All three selected compounds show potential effects on cell viability by MTT assay. Neferine B, neferine A, and antroquinonol D showed an IC50 value of 10-, 12-, and 16-μM, respectively. Moreover, these compounds decreased the p-FAk and p-S6k1 proteins in a dose-dependent manner. The results of best docked neferine B, neferine A, and antroquinonol D have the potential for further development as a supplement to treat tumorigenesis and metastasis. PMID:27133039

  6. The prometastatic ribosomal S6 kinase 2-cAMP response element-binding protein (RSK2-CREB) signaling pathway up-regulates the actin-binding protein fascin-1 to promote tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Jin, Lingtao; Alesi, Gina N; Kim, Young-Mee; Fan, Jun; Seo, Jae Ho; Wang, Dongsheng; Tucker, Meghan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Lee, Benjamin H; Taunton, Jack; Magliocca, Kelly R; Chen, Zhuo G; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Kang, Sumin

    2013-11-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with breast, lung, and head and neck cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metastases in these cancers remain unclear. We found that the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2)-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway is commonly activated in diverse metastatic human cancer cells, leading to up-regulation of a CREB transcription target Fascin-1. We also observed that the protein expression patterns of RSK2 and Fascin-1 correlate in primary human tumor tissue samples from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Moreover, knockdown of RSK2 disrupts filopodia formation and bundling in highly invasive cancer cells, leading to attenuated cancer cell invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas expression of Fascin-1 significantly rescues these phenotypes. Furthermore, targeting RSK2 with the small molecule RSK inhibitor FMK-MEA effectively attenuated the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Taken together, our findings for the first time link RSK2-CREB signaling to filopodia formation and bundling through the up-regulation of Fascin-1, providing a proinvasive and prometastatic advantage to human cancers. Therefore, protein effectors of the RSK2-CREB-Fascin-1 pathway represent promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the clinical prognosis and treatment of metastatic human cancers. PMID:24085294

  7. PDK1, the master regulator of AGC kinase signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Mora, Alfonso; Komander, David; van Aalten, Daan M F; Alessi, Dario R

    2004-04-01

    The interaction of insulin and growth factors with their receptors on the outside surface of a cell, leads to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and generation of the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) second messenger at the inner surface of the cell membrane. One of the most studied signalling events controlled by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, comprises the activation of a group of AGC family protein kinases, including isoforms of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K), serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK) and protein kinase C (PKC), which play crucial roles in regulating physiological processes relevant to metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. Here, we review recent biochemical, genetic and structural studies on the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and activates the AGC kinase members regulated by PI 3-kinase. We also discuss whether inhibitors of PDK1 might have chemotherapeutic potential in the treatment of cancers in which the PDK1-regulated AGC kinases are constitutively activated. PMID:15209375

  8. Sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in port-wine stain blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbin; Chernova, Margarita; Gao, Lin; Sun, Victor; Liu, Huaxu; Jia, Wangcun; Langer, Stephanie; Wang, Gang; Mihm, Martin C.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Background Port-wine stain (PWS) is a congenital, progressive vascular malformation but the pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Objective We sought to investigate the activation status of various kinases, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AKT, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, P70 ribosomal S6 kinase, and phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit, in PWS biopsy tissues. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on 19 skin biopsy samples from 11 patients with PWS. Results c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and P70 ribosomal S6 kinase in pediatric and adult PWS blood vessels were consecutively activated. Activation of AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was found in many adult hypertrophic PWS blood vessels but not in infants. Phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit showed strong activation in nodular PWS blood vessels. Limitation Infantile PWS sample size was small. Conclusion Our data suggest a subsequent activation profile of various kinases during different stages of PWS: (1) c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases are firstly and consecutively activated in all PWS tissues, which may contribute to both the pathogenesis and progressive development of PWS; (2) AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are subsequently activated, and are involved in the hypertrophic development of PWS blood vessels; and (3) phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit is activated in the most advanced stage of PWS and may participate in nodular formation. PMID:25135651

  9. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-delta and gamma inhibitor, IPI-145 (Duvelisib), overcomes signals from the PI3K/AKT/S6 pathway and promotes apoptosis in CLL.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, K; Peluso, M; Fu, M; Rosin, N Y; Burger, J A; Wierda, W G; Keating, M J; Faia, K; O'Brien, S; Kutok, J L; Gandhi, V

    2015-09-01

    The functional relevance of the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the evolution of protein kinases as therapeutic targets have recently shifted the paradigm for treatment of B-cell malignancies. Inhibition of p110δ with idelalisib has shown clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The dynamic interplay of isoforms p110δ and p110γ in leukocytes support the hypothesis that dual blockade may provide a therapeutic benefit. IPI-145, an oral inhibitor of p110δ and p110γ isoforms, sensitizes BCR-stimulated and/or stromal co-cultured primary CLL cells to apoptosis (median 20%, n=57; P<0.0001) including samples with poor prognostic markers, unmutated IgVH (n=28) and prior treatment (n=15; P<0.0001). IPI-145 potently inhibits the CD40L/IL-2/IL-10 induced proliferation of CLL cells with an IC50 in sub-nanomolar range. A corresponding dose-responsive inhibition of pAKT(Ser473) is observed with an IC50 of 0.36 nM. IPI-145 diminishes the BCR-induced chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 secretion to 17% and 37%, respectively. Pre-treatment with 1 μM IPI-145 inhibits the chemotaxis toward CXCL12; reduces pseudoemperipolesis to median 50%, inferring its ability to interfere with homing capabilities of CLL cells. BCR-activated signaling proteins AKT(Ser473), BAD(Ser112), ERK(Thr202/Tyr204) and S6(Ser235/236) are mitigated by IPI-145. Importantly, for clinical development in hematological malignancies, IPI-145 is selective to CLL B cells, sparing normal B- and T-lymphocytes. PMID:25917267

  10. Changes in growth-related kinases in head, neck and limb muscles with age

    PubMed Central

    Rahnert, Jill A.; Luo, Qingwei; Balog, Edward M.; Sokoloff, Alan J.; Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia coincides with declines in several systemic processes that signal through the MAP kinase and Akt-mTOR-p70S6k cascades typically associated with muscle growth. Effects of aging on these pathways have primarily been examined in limb muscles, which experience substantial activity and neural changes in addition to systemic hormonal and metabolic changes. Head and neck muscles are reported to undergo reduced sarcopenia and disuse with age relative to limb muscles, suggesting muscle activity may contribute to maintaining mass with age. However many head and neck muscles derive from embryonic branchial arches, rather than the somites from which limb muscles originate, suggesting that developmental origin may be important. This study compares the expression and phosphorylation of MAP kinase and mTOR networks in head, neck, tongue, and limb muscles from 8- and 26-month old F344 rats to test the hypothesis that physical activity and developmental origin contribute to preservation of muscle mass with age. Phosphorylation of p38 was exaggerated in aged branchial arch muscles. Phosphorylation of ERK and p70S6k T421/S424 declined with age only in the biceps brachii. Expression of p70S6k declined in all head and neck, tongue and limb muscles although no change in phosphorylation of p70S6k on T389 could be resolved. A systemic change that results in a loss of p70S6k protein expression may reduce the capacity to respond to acute hypertrophic stimuli, while the exaggerated p38 signaling in branchial arch muscles may reflect more active muscle remodeling. PMID:21095226

  11. Application of the [γ-32P] ATP kinase assay to study anabolic signaling in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    McGlory, Chris; White, Amanda; Treins, Caroline; Drust, Barry; Close, Graeme L.; MacLaren, Don P. M.; Campbell, Iain T.; Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon; Morton, James P.

    2014-01-01

    AMPK (AMP-dependant protein kinase)-mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin in complex 1)-p70S6K1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 of 70 kDa) signaling plays a crucial role in muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Understanding this pathway has been advanced by the application of the Western blot (WB) technique. However, because many components of the mTORC1 pathway undergo numerous, multisite posttranslational modifications, solely studying the phosphorylation changes of mTORC1 and its substrates may not adequately represent the true metabolic signaling processes. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a quantitative in vitro [γ-32P] ATP kinase assay (KA) for p70S6K1 to assess kinase activity in human skeletal muscle to resistance exercise (RE) and protein feeding. In an initial series of experiments the assay was validated in tissue culture and in p70S6K1-knockout tissues. Following these experiments, the methodology was applied to assess p70S6K1 signaling responses to a physiologically relevant stimulus. Six men performed unilateral RE followed by the consumption of 20 g of protein. Muscle biopsies were obtained at pre-RE, and 1 and 3 h post-RE. In response to RE and protein consumption, p70S6K1 activity as assessed by the KA was significantly increased from pre-RE at 1 and 3 h post-RE. However, phosphorylated p70S6K1thr389 was not significantly elevated. AMPK activity was suppressed from pre-RE at 3 h post-RE, whereas phosphorylated ACCser79 was unchanged. Total protein kinase B activity also was unchanged after RE from pre-RE levels. Of the other markers we assessed by WB, 4EBP1thr37/46 phosphorylation was the only significant responder, being elevated at 3 h post-RE from pre-RE. These data highlight the utility of the KA to study skeletal muscle plasticity. PMID:24436296

  12. Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Cheol-Hee; Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 ; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389} and phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and phosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K{sup Thr389} and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at Ser{sup 9} and, to a lesser extent, Thr{sup 390}, the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 389}, and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 421} and Ser{sup 424}. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389}; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}, and p-70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our data show that proteasome inhibition regulates p38/GSK{sup Ser9}/p70S6K{sup Thr380} and ERK/GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}/p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} kinase signaling, which is involved in cell survival and cell death.

  13. Development of Organometallic S6K1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is found in many diseases, including diabetes, aging, and cancer. We developed ATP competitive organometallic kinase inhibitors, EM5 and FL772, which are inspired by the structure of the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine, to specifically inhibit S6K1 using a strategy previously used to target other kinases. Biochemical data demonstrate that EM5 and FL772 inhibit the kinase with IC50 value in the low nanomolar range at 100 μM ATP and that the more potent FL772 compound has a greater than 100-fold specificity over S6K2. The crystal structures of S6K1 bound to staurosporine, EM5, and FL772 reveal that the EM5 and FL772 inhibitors bind in the ATP binding pocket and make S6K1-specific contacts, resulting in changes to the p-loop, αC helix, and αD helix when compared to the staurosporine-bound structure. Cellular data reveal that FL772 is able to inhibit S6K phosphorylation in yeast cells. Together, these studies demonstrate that potent, selective, and cell permeable S6K1 inhibitors can be prepared and provide a scaffold for future development of S6K inhibitors with possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25356520

  14. Inhibition of Phospho-S6 Kinase, a Protein Involved in the Compensatory Adaptive Response, Increases the Efficacy of Paclitaxel in Reducing the Viability of Matrix-Attached Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong In; Park, Sang Hi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Dae Woo; Lee, Hae Nam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the proteins involved the compensatory adaptive response to paclitaxel in ovarian cancer cells and to determine whether inhibition of the compensatory adaptive response increases the efficacy of paclitaxel in decreasing the viability of cancer cells. Methods We used a reverse-phase protein array and western blot analysis to identify the proteins involved in the compensatory mechanism induced by paclitaxel in HeyA8 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. We used a cell viability assay to examine whether inhibition of the proteins involved in the compensatory adaptive response influenced the effects of paclitaxel on cancer cell viability. All experiments were performed in three-dimensional cell cultures. Results Paclitaxel induced the upregulation of pS6 (S240/S244) and pS6 (S235/S236) in HeyA8 and SKOV3 cells, and pPRAS40 (T246) in HeyA8 cells. BX795 and CCT128930 were chosen as inhibitors of pS6 (S240/S244), pS6 (S235/S236), and pPRAS40 (T246). BX795 and CCT128930 decreased pS6 (S240/S244) and pS6 (S235/S236) expression in HeyA8 and SKOV3 cells. However, pPRAS40 (T246) expression was inhibited only by BX795 and not by CCT128930 in HeyA8 cells. Compared with paclitaxel alone, addition of BX795 or CCT128930 to paclitaxel was more effective in decreasing the viability of HeyA8 and SKOV3 cells. Conclusion Addition of BX795 or CCT128930 to inhibit pS6 (S240/S244) or pS6 (S235/S236) restricted the compensatory adaptive response to paclitaxel in HeyA8 and SKOV3 cells. These inhibitors increased the efficacy of paclitaxel in reducing cancer cell viability. PMID:27148873

  15. The N-terminal region of p27 inhibits HIF-1α protein translation in ribosomal protein S6-dependent manner by regulating PHLPP-Ras-ERK-p90RSK axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, D; Liu, J; Mi, X; Liang, Y; Li, J; Huang, C

    2014-01-01

    P27 was identified as a tumor suppressor nearly two decades, being implicated in cell-cycle control, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis and motility. Our present study, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, revealed a potential role of p27 in inhibiting S6-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein translation, which contributed to the protection from environmental carcinogen (sodium arsenite)-induced cell transformation. Our findings showed that depletion of p27 expression by knockout and knockdown approaches efficiently enhanced S6 phosphorylation in arsenite response via overactivating Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which consequently resulted in the stimulation of p90RSK (90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase), a direct kinase for S6 phosphorylation. Although PI3K/AKT pathway was also involved in S6 activation, blocking AKT and p70S6K activation did not attenuate arsenite-induced S6 activation in p27−/− cells, suggesting p27 specifically targeted Ras/ERK pathway rather than PI3K/AKT pathway for inhibition of S6 activation in response to arsenite exposure. Further functional studies found that p27 had a negative role in cell transformation induced by chronic low-dose arsentie exposure. Mechanistic investigations showed that HIF-1α translation was upregulated in p27-deficient cells in an S6 phosphorylation-dependent manner and functioned as a driving force in arsenite-induced cell transformation. Knockdown of HIF-1α efficiently reversed arsenite-induced cell transformation in p27-depleted cells. Taken together, our findings provided strong evidence showing that by targeting Ras/ERK pathway, p27 provided a negative control over HIF-1α protein synthesis in an S6-dependent manner, and abrogated arsenite-induced cell transformation via downregulation of HIF-1α translation. PMID:25412313

  16. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Cristiana S B; Reis, Sílvia R L; Pessoa, Ana F M; De Souza, Letícia M I; Stoppiglia, Luiz F; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise A B; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Colodel, Edson M; Arantes, Vanessa C; Latorraca, Márcia Q

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6%) for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC) protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2) was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry. PMID:25860970

  17. Identification of quercitrin as an inhibitor of the p90 S6 ribosomal kinase (RSK): structure of its complex with the N-terminal domain of RSK2 at 1.8 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Derewenda, Urszula; Artamonov, Mykhaylo; Szukalska, Gabriela; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Parikh, Hardik I.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2013-02-01

    The crystal structure of quercitrin, a naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, has been determined in a complex with the N-terminal kinase domain of murine RSK2. The structure revealed that quercitrin inhibits the RSK2 kinase in the same fashion as another known inhibitor, SL0101. Members of the RSK family of kinases constitute attractive targets for drug design, but a lack of structural information regarding the mechanism of selective inhibitors impedes progress in this field. The crystal structure of the N-terminal kinase domain (residues 45–346) of mouse RSK2, or RSK2{sup NTKD}, has recently been described in complex with one of only two known selective inhibitors, a rare naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-(3′′,4′′-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside), known as SL0101. Based on this structure, it was hypothesized that quercitrin (quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside), a related but ubiquitous and inexpensive compound, might also act as an RSK inhibitor. Here, it is demonstrated that quercitrin binds to RSK2{sup NTKD} with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 5.8 µM as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a crystal structure of the binary complex at 1.8 Å resolution is reported. The crystal structure reveals a very similar mode of binding to that recently reported for SL0101. Closer inspection shows a number of small but significant differences that explain the slightly higher K{sub d} for quercitrin compared with SL0101. It is also shown that quercitrin can effectively substitute for SL0101 in a biological assay, in which it significantly suppresses the contractile force in rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle in response to Ca{sup 2+}.

  18. S6K1 in the Central Nervous System Regulates Energy Expenditure via MC4R/CRH Pathways in Response to Deprivation of an Essential Amino Acid

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tingting; Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Guo, Feifan

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that the central nervous system (CNS), especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. We have previously shown that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is critical for stimulating fat loss in response to dietary leucine deprivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the CNS regulation of leucine deprivationstimulated fat loss are, however, still largely unknown. Here, we used intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral vectors to identify a novel role for hypothalamic p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a major downstream effector of the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin, in leucine deprivation stimulation of energy expenditure. Furthermore, we show that the effect of hypothalamic S6K1 is mediated by modulation of Crh expression in a melanocortin-4 receptordependent manner. Taken together, our studies provide a new perspective for understanding the regulation of energy expenditure by the CNS and the importance of cross-talk between nutritional control and regulation of endocrine signals. PMID:22787141

  19. LKB1 is required for adiponectin-mediated modulation of AMPK–S6K axis and inhibition of migration and invasion of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Taliaferro-Smith, L; Nagalingam, A; Zhong, D; Zhou, W; Saxena, NK; Sharma, D

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin is widely known as an adipocytokine with therapeutic potential for its markedly protective function in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders, metabolic syndrome, systemic insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and more recently carcinogenesis. In the present study, we show that adiponectin inhibits adhesion, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Further analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that adiponectin treatment increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and activity as evident by increased phosphorylation of downstream target of AMPK, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and inhibition of p70S6 kinase (S6K). Intriguingly, we discovered that adiponectin treatment increases the expression of tumor suppressor gene LKB1 in breast cancer cells. Overexpression of LKB1 in breast cancer cells further increased adiponectin-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK. Using isogenic LKB1 knockdown cell line pair, we found that LKB1 is required for adiponectin-mediated modulation of AMPK–S6K axis and more importantly, inhibition of adhesion, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Taken together these data present a novel mechanism involving specific upregulation of tumor suppressor gene LKB1 by which adiponectin inhibits adhesion, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Our findings indicate the possibility of using adiponectin analogues to inhibit invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. PMID:19483724

  20. Removal of S6K1 and S6K2 Leads to Divergent Alterations in Learning, Memory, and Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antion, Marcia D.; Merhav, Maayan; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Reis, Gerald; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Schuman Erin M.; Rosenblum, Kobi; Klann, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Protein synthesis is required for the expression of enduring memories and long-lasting synaptic plasticity. During cellular proliferation and growth, S6 kinases (S6Ks) are activated and coordinate the synthesis of de novo proteins. We hypothesized that protein synthesis mediated by S6Ks is critical for the manifestation of learning, memory, and

  1. Removal of S6K1 and S6K2 Leads to Divergent Alterations in Learning, Memory, and Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antion, Marcia D.; Merhav, Maayan; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Reis, Gerald; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Schuman Erin M.; Rosenblum, Kobi; Klann, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Protein synthesis is required for the expression of enduring memories and long-lasting synaptic plasticity. During cellular proliferation and growth, S6 kinases (S6Ks) are activated and coordinate the synthesis of de novo proteins. We hypothesized that protein synthesis mediated by S6Ks is critical for the manifestation of learning, memory, and…

  2. FGF and stress regulate CREB and ATF-1 via a pathway involving p38 MAP kinase and MAPKAP kinase-2.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Y; Rouse, J; Zhang, A; Cariati, S; Cohen, P; Comb, M J

    1996-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activates a protein kinase cascade in SK-N-MC cells that regulates gene expression at a cyclic-AMP response element (CRE) by stimulating the transcriptional activity of CREB. The activation of CREB is prevented by a dominant negative mutant of Ras and triggered via the same site (Ser133) that becomes phosphorylated in response to cyclic AMP and Ca2+. However, the effect of FGF is not mediated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, TPA-sensitive isoforms of protein kinase-C, p70S6K or p90rsk (all of which phosphorylate CREB at Ser133 in vitro). Instead, we identify the FGF-stimulated CREB kinase as MAP kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-2, an enzyme that lies immediately downstream of p38 MAP kinase, in a pathway that is also stimulated by cellular stresses. We show that MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylates CREB at Ser133 in vitro, that the FGF- or stress-induced activation of MAPKAP kinase-2 and phosphorylation of CREB and ATF-1 are prevented by similar concentrations of the specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB 203580, and that MAPKAP kinase-2 is the only detectable SB 203580-sensitive CREB kinase in SK-N-MC cell extracts. We also show that transfection of RK/p38 MAP kinase in SK-N-MC cells, but not transfection of p44 MAP kinase, activates Gal4-CREB-dependent transcription via Ser133. These findings identify a new growth factor and stress-activated signaling pathway that regulates gene expression at the CRE. Images PMID:8887554

  3. Role of antigen selectivity in autoimmune responses to the Ku (p70/p80) antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, W H; Sthoeger, Z M; Lahita, R G

    1989-01-01

    Levels of anti-Ku (p70/p80) antibodies were measured longitudinally in sera from four individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus or related disorders. Antibodies to the native Ku antigen (p70/p80 complex) varied over a range of up to 577-fold. Large fluctuations were also observed in the levels of autoantibodies to several distinct epitopes of the Ku (p70/p80) antigen. Levels of these individual autoantibody populations generally paralleled one another, suggesting that they are coordinately regulated. A similar pattern of anti-DNA antibody fluctuation was seen in some sera. To examine the possibility that these autoantibodies were generated by polyclonal B cell activation, the levels of anti-Ku (p70/p80) and anti-DNA antibodies were compared to the levels of antibodies to Escherichia coli proteins, tetanus toxoid, and bovine insulin, transferrin, cytochrome c, serum albumin, and thyroglobulin. In sera from the same individual, anti-Ku (p70/p80) antibodies were sometimes produced in the complete absence of polyclonal activation, and at other times were accompanied by increased polyclonal activation. Anti-DNA antibody levels more closely paralleled the level of polyclonal activation than did the anti-Ku (p70/p80) levels. These studies suggest that anti-Ku (p70/p80) antibodies are generated by an antigen-selective mechanism, but that polyclonal activation frequently, although not invariably, accompanies autoantibody production. This observation is consistent with the possibility that polyclonal activation might be secondary to autoantibody production. Images PMID:2527251

  4. Mitogen inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in intact cells via serine 9 phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Stambolic, V; Woodgett, J R

    1994-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a protein-serine kinase implicated in cell-fate determination and differentiation, phosphorylates several regulatory proteins that are activated by dephosphorylation in response to hormones or growth factors. GSK-3 beta is phosphorylated in vitro at serine 9 by p70 S6 kinase and p90rsk-1, resulting in its inhibition [Sutherland, Leighton, and Cohen (1993) Biochem. J. 296, 15-19]. Using HeLa cells expressing GSK-3 beta or a mutant containing alanine at residue 9, we demonstrate that serine 9 is modified in intact cells and is targeted specifically by p90rsk-1, and that phosphorylation leads to loss of activity. Since p90rsk-1 is directly activated by mitogen-activated protein kinases, agonists of this pathway, such as insulin, repress GSK-3 function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7980435

  5. Effects of heat exposure on Akt/S6K1 signaling and expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in chicken (Gallus gallus) pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Boussaid-Om Ezzine, S; Everaert, N; Mtayer-Coustard, S; Rideau, N; Berri, C; Joubert, R; Temim, S; Collin, A; Tesseraud, S

    2010-11-01

    In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens. We also explored the protein kinase B (PKB also called Akt)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1)/S6 pathway that mediates anabolic signals thereby regulating metabolism and hypertrophic/atrophic balance. Four-week-old chickens were exposed to 32 or 22 degrees C for 1 week. Chickens from both groups were then fasted for 16 h or left fed, and submitted to an oral administration of glucose-arginine to induce an anabolic response (30-min treatment) or left untreated. High ambient temperature and the associated decrease in feed intake modified the expression of certain energy-related genes (e.g. -40% for PGC-1alpha) and protein metabolism (e.g. about +80% for atrogin-1), but the expression of several muscle metabolism-related genes considered here was unchanged. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratio, was reduced in warm conditions (approximately -20%). Slightly lower activation of S6 induced by glucose-arginine treatment was found at 32 degrees C compared to 22 degrees C, which might indicate somewhat lower efficiency of mRNA translation. Analysis of glucose/insulin balance suggested changes in glucose metabolism under heat exposure. However, this remains to be characterized. PMID:20620217

  6. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase/ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 cascade phosphorylates cAMP response element-binding protein to induce MUC5B gene expression via D-prostanoid receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon Ho; Lee, Sang-Nam; Aoyagi, Hiroki; Yamasaki, Yasundo; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Park, Boryung; Shin, Dong Min; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Yoon, Joo-Heon

    2011-09-30

    Mucus hypersecretion is a prominent feature of respiratory diseases, and MUC5B is a major airway mucin. Mucin gene expression can be affected by inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin (PG) D(2,) an inflammatory mediator synthesized by hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS). PGD(2) binds to either D-prostanoid receptor (DP1) or chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on T-helper type 2 cells (CRTH2). We investigated the mechanisms by which PGD(2) induces MUC5B gene expression in airway epithelial cells. Western blot analysis showed that H-PGDS was highly expressed in nasal polyps. Similar results were obtained for PGD(2) expression. In addition, we could clearly detect the expressions of both H-PGDS and DP1 in nasal epithelial cells but not CRTH2. We demonstrated that PGD(2) increased MUC5B gene expression in normal human nasal epithelial cells as well as in NCI-H292 cells in vitro. S5751, a DP1 antagonist, inhibited PGD(2)-induced MUC5B expression, whereas a CRTH2 antagonist (OC0459) did not. These data suggest that PGD(2) induced MUC5B expression via DP1. Pretreatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059) blocked both PGD(2)-induced ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and MUC5B expression. Proximity ligation assays showed direct interaction between RSK1 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Stimulation with PGD(2) caused an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, whereas intracellular Ca(2+) did not have such an effect. PGD(2)-induced MUC5B mRNA levels were regulated by CREB via direct interaction with two cAMP-response element sites (-921/-914 and -900/-893). Finally, we demonstrated that PGD(2) can induce MUC5B overproduction via ERK MAPK/RSK1/CREB signaling and that DP1 receptor may have suppressive effects in controlling MUC5B overproduction in the airway. PMID:21832046

  7. Revealing Different Roles of the mTOR-Targets S6K1 and S6K2 in Breast Cancer by Expression Profiling and Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Elin; Magić, Ivana; Bostner, Josefine; Dyrager, Christine; Lysholm, Fredrik; Hallbeck, Anna-Lotta; Stål, Olle; Lundström, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Background The AKT/mTORC1/S6K pathway is frequently overstimulated in breast cancer, constituting a promising therapeutic target. The benefit from mTOR inhibitors varies, likely as a consequence of tumour heterogeneity, and upregulation of several compensatory feed-back mechanisms. The mTORC1 downstream effectors S6K1, S6K2, and 4EBP1 are amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer, associated with a poor outcome and divergent endocrine treatment benefit. S6K1 and S6K2 share high sequence homology, but evidence of partly distinct biological functions is emerging. The aim of this work was to explore possible different roles and treatment target potentials of S6K1 and S6K2 in breast cancer. Materials and methods Whole-genome expression profiles were compared for breast tumours expressing high levels of S6K1, S6K2 or 4EBP1, using public datasets, as well as after in vitro siRNA downregulation of S6K1 and/or S6K2 in ZR751 breast cancer cells. In silico homology modelling of the S6K2 kinase domain was used to evaluate its possible structural divergences to S6K1. Results Genome expression profiles were highly different in S6K1 and S6K2 high tumours, whereas S6K2 and 4EBP1 profiles showed significant overlaps, both correlated to genes involved in cell cycle progression, among these the master regulator E2F1. S6K2 and 4EBP1 were inversely associated with IGF1 levels, and their prognostic value was shown to be restricted to tumours positive for IGFR and/or HER2. In vitro, S6K1 and S6K2 silencing resulted in upregulation of genes in the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes. Isoform-specific silencing also showed distinct patterns, e.g. S6K2 downregulation lead to upregulation of several cell cycle associated genes. Structural analyses of the S6K2 kinase domain showed unique structure patterns, deviating from those of S6K1, facilitating the development of isoform-specific inhibitors. Our data support emerging proposals of distinct biological features of S6K1 and S6K2, suggesting their importance as separate oncogenes and clinical markers, where specific targeting in different breast cancer subtypes could facilitate further individualised therapies. PMID:26698305

  8. Haloperidol promotes mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 via dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa and inhibition of protein phosphatase-1.

    PubMed

    Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Pallottino, Simone; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel; Fisone, Gilberto

    2013-09-01

    The ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit, involved in multiple physiological functions. Here, we examined the effects produced by haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic drug, on the phosphorylation of rpS6 at Ser240/244 in the striatum, a brain region involved in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. We found that administration of haloperidol increased Ser240/244 phosphorylation in a subpopulation of GABA-ergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which preferentially express dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). This effect was abolished by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), or by PF470867, a selective inhibitor of the p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). We also found that the effect of haloperidol on Ser240/244 phosphorylation was prevented by functional inactivation of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1). In line with this observation, incubation of striatal slices with okadaic acid and calyculin A, two inhibitors of PP-1, increased Ser240/244 phosphorylation. These results show that haloperidol promotes mTORC1- and S6K1-dependent phosphorylation of rpS6 at Ser240/244, in a subpopulation of striatal MSNs expressing D2Rs. They also indicate that this effect is exerted by suppressing dephosphorylation at Ser240/244, through PKA-dependent activation of DARPP-32 and inhibition of PP-1. PMID:23643747

  9. Short chain fatty acids induce both effector and regulatory T cells by suppression of histone deacetylases and regulation of the mTOR-S6K pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongho; Kim, Myunghoo; Kang, Seung G.; Jannasch, Amber Hopf; Cooper, Bruce; Patterson, John; Kim, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are highly produced in the intestine and potentially regulate the immune system. We studied the function of SCFAs in regulation of T cell differentiation into effector and regulatory T cells. We report that SCFAs can directly promote T cell differentiation into T cells producing IL-17, IFN-γ, and/or IL-10 depending on cytokine milieu. This effect of SCFAs on T cells is independent of GPR41- or GPR43 but dependent on direct histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor activity. Inhibition of HDACs in T cells by SCFAs increased the acetylation of p70 S6 kinase and phosphorylation rS6, regulating the mTOR pathway required for generation of Th17, Th1, and IL-10+ T cells. Acetate (C2) administration enhanced the induction of Th1 and Th17 cells during C. rodentium infection but decreased anti-CD3-induced inflammation in an IL-10-dependent manner. Our results indicate that SCFAs promote T cell differentiation into both effector and regulatory T cells to promote either immunity or immune tolerance depending on immunological milieu. PMID:24917457

  10. Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and their role in regulating kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Hill, M M; Hess, D; Brazil, D P; Hofsteenge, J; Hemmings, B A

    2001-10-01

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a central role in signal transduction pathways that activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Despite its key role as an upstream activator of enzymes such as protein kinase B and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, the regulatory mechanisms controlling PDK1 activity are poorly understood. PDK1 has been reported to be constitutively active in resting cells and not further activated by growth factor stimulation (Casamayor, A., Morrice, N. A., and Alessi, D. R. (1999) Biochem. J. 342, 287-292). Here, we report that PDK1 becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to pervanadate and insulin. Following pervanadate treatment, PDK1 kinase activity increased 1.5- to 3-fold whereas the activity of PDK1 associated with the plasma membrane increased approximately 6-fold. The activity of PDK1 localized to the plasma membrane was also increased by insulin treatment. Three tyrosine phosphorylation sites of PDK1 (Tyr-9 and Tyr-373/376) were identified using in vivo labeling and mass spectrometry. Using site-directed mutants, we show that, although phosphorylation on Tyr-373/376 is important for PDK1 activity, phosphorylation on Tyr-9 has no effect on the activity of the kinase. Both of these residues can be phosphorylated by v-Src tyrosine kinase in vitro, and co-expression of v-Src leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PDK1. Thus, these data suggest that PDK1 activity is regulated by reversible phosphorylation, possibly by a member of the Src kinase family. PMID:11481331

  11. Translational Control of Myelin Basic Protein Expression by ERK2 MAP Kinase Regulates Timely Remyelination in the Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Kelly; Zhao, Tianna; Karl, Molly; Lewis, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Successful myelin repair in the adult CNS requires the robust and timely production of myelin proteins to generate new myelin sheaths. The underlying regulatory mechanisms and complex molecular basis of myelin regeneration, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of ERK MAP kinase signaling in this process. Conditional deletion of Erk2 from cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage resulted in delayed remyelination following demyelinating injury to the adult mouse corpus callosum. The delayed repair occurred as a result of a specific deficit in the translation of the major myelin protein, MBP. In the absence of ERK2, activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target, ribosomal protein S6 (S6RP), was impaired at a critical time when premyelinating oligodendrocytes were transitioning to mature cells capable of generating new myelin sheaths. Thus, we have described an important link between the ERK MAP kinase signaling cascade and the translational machinery specifically in remyelinating oligodendrocytes in vivo. These results suggest an important role for ERK2 in the translational control of MBP, a myelin protein that appears critical for ensuring the timely generation of new myelin sheaths following demyelinating injury in the adult CNS. PMID:25995471

  12. Doxycycline reduces the migration of tuberous sclerosis complex-2 null cells - effects on RhoA-GTPase and focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ho Yin; Oliver, Brian Gregory George; Burgess, Janette Kay; Krymskaya, Vera P; Black, Judith Lee; Moir, Lyn M

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is associated with dysfunction of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) leading to enhanced cell proliferation and migration. This study aims to examine whether doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, can inhibit the enhanced migration of TSC2-deficient cells, identify signalling pathways through which doxycycline works and to assess the effectiveness of combining doxycycline with rapamycin (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor) in controlling cell migration, proliferation and wound closure. TSC2-positive and TSC2-negative mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), 323-TSC2-positive and 323-TSC2-null MEF and Eker rat uterine leiomyoma (ELT3) cells were treated with doxycycline or rapamycin alone, or in combination. Migration, wound closure and proliferation were assessed using a transwell migration assay, time-lapse microscopy and manual cell counts respectively. RhoA-GTPase activity, phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in TSC2-negative MEF treated with doxycycline were examined using ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. The enhanced migration of TSC2-null cells was reduced by doxycycline at concentrations as low as 20 pM, while the rate of wound closure was reduced at 2–59 μM. Doxycycline decreased RhoA-GTPase activity and phosphorylation of FAK in these cells but had no effect on the phosphorylation of p70S6K, ERK1/2 or AKT. Combining doxycycline with rapamycin significantly reduced the rate of wound closure at lower concentrations than achieved with either drug alone. This study shows that doxycycline inhibits TSC2-null cell migration. Thus doxycycline has potential as an anti-migratory agent in the treatment of diseases with TSC2 dysfunction. PMID:26282580

  13. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 as an emerging target in the management of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fyffe, Chanse; Falasca, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It should be noted that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is a protein encoded by the PDPK1 gene, which plays a key role in the signaling pathways activated by several growth factors and hormones. PDK1 is a crucial kinase that functions downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation and activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases, such as protein kinase B (Akt), protein kinase C (PKC), p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases, and serum glucocorticoid-dependent kinase, by phosphorylating serine/threonine residues in the activation loop. AGC kinases are known to play crucial roles in regulating physiological processes relevant to metabolism, growth, proliferation, and survival. Changes in the expression and activity of PDK1 and several AGC kinases have been linked to human diseases including cancer. Recent data have revealed that the alteration of PDK1 is a critical component of oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in breast cancer, suggesting that inhibition of PDK1 can inhibit breast cancer progression. Indeed, PDK1 is highly expressed in a majority of human breast cancer cell lines and both PDK1 protein and messenger ribonucleic acid are overexpressed in a majority of human breast cancers. Furthermore, overexpression of PDK1 is sufficient to transform mammary epithelial cells. PDK1 plays an essential role in regulating cell migration, especially in the context of phosphatase and tensin homologue deficiency. More importantly, downregulation of PDK1 levels inhibits migration and experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Thus, targeting PDK1 may be a valuable anticancer strategy that may improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic strategies in breast cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the evidence that has been reported to support the idea that PDK1 may be a key target in breast cancer management. PMID:24039447

  14. Interleukin-12 p40/p70 ratio and in vivo responsiveness to IFN-alpha treatment in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Piazzolla, G; Tortorella, C; Fiore, G; Fanelli, M; Pisconti, A; Antonaci, S

    2001-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship between cytokine balance and responsiveness to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), we investigated the production of IFN-gamma, interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12 p70, and IL-12 p40 by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) before and after 1 year of IFN-alpha treatment. Before the therapy, responder (R) patients exhibited lower IFN-gamma release, higher IL-10 production, and higher values of the IL12 p40/p70 ratio compared with nonresponders (NR). Increased sensitivity to the effects of IL-12 and IL-10, as well as higher IL-12-dependent IFN-gamma secretion, were also found in the R subset. After IFN-alpha therapy, an increase in IFN-gamma production and a decrease in the IL-12 p40/p70 ratio were observed in R patients, whereas opposite results were obtained in the NR group. Finally, the therapy induced downregulation of IL-10 production and cell responsiveness to recombinant IL-12 in all patients. These findings imply that predominance of a T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine profile in CHC patients favors the beneficial effects of IFN-alpha, thus suggesting a therapeutic role for Th1-driven stimulation of immune response. The findings also stress the primary importance of the IL-12 p40 and p70 balance in the modulation of immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:11506737

  15. T cell reactivity to the purified mycobacterial antigens p65 and p70 in leprosy patients and their household contacts.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E; Garsia, R J; Hellqvist, L; Holt, P; Basten, A

    1990-01-01

    T cell reactivity to the 70 and 65 kD (p70 and p65) protein antigens derived from Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain was studied by measuring the proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from members of an isolated Aboriginal community resident in the Torres Straits islands. In the nine index leprosy cases the pattern of responsiveness to the purified antigens paralleled that to whole sonicates from M. leprae and BCG. In the 40 contacts of the index cases, a high correlation was observed between the responses to p70 and p65 as well as to the crude sonicates. Significant T cell responses to the purified antigens, as well as the crude sonicates, were obtained with cells from the majority of contacts. Limiting dilution analysis of precursor frequencies in the contacts confirmed the immunogenicity of the purified antigens and excluded both a mitogenic component and the presence of suppressor cells in those moderate or low responders whose blood contained sufficient precursors to be tested. p70 appeared to be more potent in stimulating a proliferative response than p65 at equivalent protein concentrations. No correlation between responder status to either antigen and disease type was detected in families. These findings provide confirmation of the importance of p70 and p65 as major T cell immunogens in man and indicate that they are both potential candidates for inclusion in a bivalent vaccine for leprosy and tuberculosis. PMID:2192825

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and selected downstream targets display organ-specific responses in the hibernating ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2005-03-01

    The responses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), the c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38MAPK, during mammalian hibernation were analyzed in five organs of Richardson's ground squirrels, Spermophilus richardsonii. Each kinase subfamily responded differently in torpor and each showed organ-specific patterns of response. ERK1/2 activities increased significantly in muscle and brain during hibernation but decreased in kidney and liver. JNK activity rose in four organs (except brain) during hibernation whereas active, phosphorylated p38MAPK increased only in muscle and heart. Activities of ERK-activated kinases also responded to hibernation: MAPKAPK-1 rose in muscle and brain, MAPKAPK-2 decreased in liver and kidney but rose in the other three organs, and p70S6K kinase activity decreased kidney and heart. Transcription factors, c-Jun and CREB, also showed organ-specific responses during torpor. The data suggest key roles for MAPKs in the regulation of the known organ-specific changes in gene expression and protein phosphorylation that define the hibernation phenotype. PMID:15618024

  17. S6K1 determines the metabolic requirements for BCR-ABL survival

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Jennifer F.; Gallo, Catherine A.; Tandon, Preeti; Liu, Hongqi; Sullivan, Ashley; Grimes, H. Leighton; Plas, David R.

    2012-01-01

    In Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, the constitutive activation of the BCR-ABL kinase transforms cells to an “addicted” state that requires glucose metabolism for survival. We investigated S6K1, a protein kinase that drives glycolysis in leukemia cells, as a target for counteracting glucose-dependent survival induced by BCR-ABL. BCR-ABL potently activated S6K1-dependent signaling and glycolysis. Although S6K1 knockdown or rapamycin treatment suppressed glycolysis in BCR-ABL transformed cells, these treatments did not induce cell death. Instead, loss of S6K1 triggered compensatory activation of fatty acid oxidation, a metabolic program that can support glucose-independent cell survival. Fatty acid oxidation in response to S6K1-inactivation required the expression of the fatty acid transporter Cpt1c, which was recently linked to rapamycin resistance in cancer. Finally, addition of an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation significantly enhanced cytotoxicity in response to S6K1 inactivation. These data indicate that S6K1 dictates the metabolic requirements mediating BCR-ABL survival and provide a rationale for combining targeted inhibitors of signal transduction with strategies to interrupt oncogene-induced metabolism. PMID:22391570

  18. S6K1 controls pancreatic β cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Um, Sung Hee; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Chau, Gia Cac; Vintersten, Kristina; Mueller, Matthias; Gangloff, Yann-Gael; Adams, Ralf H; Spetz, Jean-Francois; Elghazi, Lynda; Pfluger, Paul T; Pende, Mario; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Tauler, Albert; Tschöp, Matthias H; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide heath problem that is characterized by insulin resistance and the eventual loss of β cell function. As recent studies have shown that loss of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases systemic insulin sensitivity, S6K1 inhibitors are being pursued as potential agents for improving insulin resistance. Here we found that S6K1 deficiency in mice also leads to decreased β cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and impaired placental development. IUGR is a common complication of human pregnancy that limits the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, leading to diminished embryonic β cell growth and the onset of T2DM later in life. However, restoration of placental development and the rescue of IUGR by tetraploid embryo complementation did not restore β cell size or insulin levels in S6K1-/- embryos, suggesting that loss of S6K1 leads to an intrinsic β cell lesion. Consistent with this hypothesis, reexpression of S6K1 in β cells of S6K1-/- mice restored embryonic β cell size, insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and RPS6 phosphorylation, without rescuing IUGR. Together, these data suggest that a nutrient-mediated reduction in intrinsic β cell S6K1 signaling, rather than IUGR, during fetal development may underlie reduced β cell growth and eventual development of T2DM later in life. PMID:26075820

  19. S6K1 controls pancreatic β cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Um, Sung Hee; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Chau, Gia Cac; Vintersten, Kristina; Mueller, Matthias; Gangloff, Yann-Gael; Adams, Ralf H.; Spetz, Jean-Francois; Elghazi, Lynda; Pfluger, Paul T.; Pende, Mario; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Tauler, Albert; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide heath problem that is characterized by insulin resistance and the eventual loss of β cell function. As recent studies have shown that loss of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases systemic insulin sensitivity, S6K1 inhibitors are being pursued as potential agents for improving insulin resistance. Here we found that S6K1 deficiency in mice also leads to decreased β cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and impaired placental development. IUGR is a common complication of human pregnancy that limits the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, leading to diminished embryonic β cell growth and the onset of T2DM later in life. However, restoration of placental development and the rescue of IUGR by tetraploid embryo complementation did not restore β cell size or insulin levels in S6K1–/– embryos, suggesting that loss of S6K1 leads to an intrinsic β cell lesion. Consistent with this hypothesis, reexpression of S6K1 in β cells of S6K1–/– mice restored embryonic β cell size, insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and RPS6 phosphorylation, without rescuing IUGR. Together, these data suggest that a nutrient-mediated reduction in intrinsic β cell S6K1 signaling, rather than IUGR, during fetal development may underlie reduced β cell growth and eventual development of T2DM later in life. PMID:26075820

  20. S6K1ing to ResTOR Adipogenesis with Polycomb.

    PubMed

    Juan, Aster H; Sartorelli, Vittorio

    2016-05-01

    Signal-directed chromatin recruitment of mammalian Polycomb complexes is a fundamental component of epigenetic regulation. In this issue, Yi et al. (2016) reveal how mTORC1 activation deploys the ribosomal serine/threonine kinase S6K1 and Polycomb proteins at genomic regulatory regions to repress expression of anti-adipogenic developmental regulators. PMID:27153531

  1. The Circadian Protein BMAL1 Regulates Translation in Response to S6K1-Mediated Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Jonathan O; Yuan, Elizabeth D; Boyle, Lara M; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Kwiatkowski, Erica; Nathan, Ashwin; Gttler, Thomas; Davis, Fred; Asara, John M; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-05-21

    The circadian timing system synchronizes cellular function by coordinating rhythmic transcription via a transcription-translational feedback loop. How the circadian system regulates gene expression at the translational level remains a mystery. Here, we show that the key circadian transcription factor BMAL1 associates with the translational machinery in the cytosol and promotes protein synthesis. The mTOR-effector kinase, ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1), an important regulator of translation, rhythmically phosphorylates BMAL1 at an evolutionarily conserved site. S6K1-mediated phosphorylation is critical for BMAL1 to both associate with the translational machinery and stimulate protein synthesis. Protein synthesis rates demonstrate circadian oscillations dependent on BMAL1. Thus, in addition to its critical role in circadian transcription, BMAL1 is a translation factor that links circadian timing and the mTOR signaling pathway. More broadly, these results expand the role of the circadian clock to the regulation of protein synthesis. PMID:25981667

  2. BRAFV600E Cooperates With PI3’-Kinase Signaling, Independent of AKT, To Regulate Melanoma Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jillian M.; Bulman, Christina; McMahon, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Mutationally activated BRAFV600E cooperates with PTEN silencing in the conversion of normal melanocytes to metastatic melanoma cells, but the mechanism underlying this cooperation is poorly understood. Here the consequences of pharmacological blockade of BRAFV600E or PI3'-kinase signaling were explored using pathway-targeted inhibitors and a panel of human BRAF mutated melanoma-derived cell lines. Blockade of BRAFV600E→MEK1/2→ERK1/2 or class I PI3'-kinases inhibited melanoma proliferation, whereas inhibition of AKT had only modest effects, even in cells with mutated or amplified AKT. Although single-agent inhibition of either BRAFV600E or PI3'-kinase signaling elicited anti-proliferative effects, combinatorial inhibition was more potent. Analysis of signaling downstream of BRAFV600E or PI3'-kinase revealed that these pathways cooperated to regulate protein synthesis through AKT-independent, mTORC1-dependent effects on p70S6K, ribosomal protein S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Moreover, inhibition of mTORC1/2 inhibited cell proliferation as profoundly as single-agent inhibition of either BRAFV600E or PI3'-kinase signaling. These data reveal a mechanism by which BRAFV600E and PI3'-kinase signaling cooperate to regulate melanoma proliferation through AKT-independent effects on protein translation. Furthermore, this study provides a potential foundation for pathway-targeted combination therapy designed to enhance the therapeutic benefit to melanoma patients with combined alterations in BRAF and PI3'-kinase signaling. PMID:24425783

  3. WNK1, the kinase mutated in an inherited high-blood-pressure syndrome, is a novel PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Vitari, Alberto C; Deak, Maria; Collins, Barry J; Morrice, Nick; Prescott, Alan R; Phelan, Anne; Humphreys, Sian; Alessi, Dario R

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that mutations in the gene encoding the WNK1 [with no K (lysine) protein kinase-1] results in an inherited hypertension syndrome called pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. The mechanisms by which WNK1 is regulated or the substrates it phosphorylates are currently unknown. We noticed that Thr-60 of WNK1, which lies N-terminal to the catalytic domain, is located within a PKB (protein kinase B) phosphorylation consensus sequence. We found that PKB phosphorylated WNK1 efficiently compared with known substrates, and both peptide map and mutational analysis revealed that the major PKB site of phosphorylation was Thr-60. Employing a phosphospecific Thr-60 WNK1 antibody, we demonstrated that IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor) stimulation of HEK-293 cells induced phosphorylation of endogenously expressed WNK1 at Thr-60. Consistent with PKB mediating this phosphorylation, inhibitors of PI 3-kinase (phosphoinositide 3-kinase; wortmannin and LY294002) but not inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (rapamycin) or MEK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1) activation (PD184352), inhibited IGF1-induced phosphorylation of endogenous WNK1 at Thr-60. Moreover, IGF1-induced phosphorylation of endogenous WNK1 did not occur in PDK1-/- ES (embryonic stem) cells, in which PKB is not activated. In contrast, IGF1 still induced normal phosphorylation of WNK1 in PDK1(L155E/L155E) knock-in ES cells in which PKB, but not S6K (p70 ribosomal S6 kinase) or SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1), is activated. Our study provides strong pharmacological and genetic evidence that PKB mediates the phosphorylation of WNK1 at Thr-60 in vivo. We also performed experiments which suggest that the phosphorylation of WNK1 by PKB is not regulating its kinase activity or cellular localization directly. These results provide the first connection between the PI 3-kinase/PKB pathway and WNK1, suggesting a mechanism by which this pathway may influence blood pressure. PMID:14611643

  4. Identification of Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantigens and analysis of anti-Ki autoantibody reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Francoeur, A.M.; Peebles, C.L.; Gompper, P.T.; Tan, E.M.

    1986-03-01

    Anti-Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantibodies, named after the prototype patient Kikuta by Tojo et al., occur in approximately 10% of patients with SLE, often in association with anti-Sm autoantibodies. Anti-Ki sera specifically immunoprecipitated two protein antigens, Ki/sub 86/ (M/sub r/ 86,000) and Ki/sub 66/ (M/sub r/ 66,000), from radiolabeled cell extracts. The Ki system was found to be immunologically identical to the Ku system described by Mimori et al. and the p70/p80 system described by Reeves. The Ki primary in vitro translation products were identified and proved similar in size to the cellular antigens. The Ki antigens were purified from human spleen by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. The purified Ki antigens proved to be closely related by amino acid composition, and did not appear to be phosphorylated, glycosylated, or associated with RNA. The Ki antigens were found to bind to DNA, in agreement with the observations on the Ku and p70/p80 antigens. They were found to be widely conserved in mammals and were coordinately expressed in all tissues tested.

  5. S6K1 alternative splicing modulates its oncogenic activity and regulates mTORC1.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hur, Vered; Denichenko, Polina; Siegfried, Zahava; Maimon, Avi; Krainer, Adrian; Davidson, Ben; Karni, Rotem

    2013-01-31

    Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a major mTOR downstream signaling molecule that regulates cell size and translation efficiency. Here, we report that short isoforms of S6K1 are overproduced in breast cancer cell lines and tumors. Overexpression of S6K1 short isoforms induces transformation of human breast epithelial cells. The long S6K1 variant (Iso-1) induced opposite effects. It inhibits Ras-induced transformation and tumor formation, while its knockdown or knockout induces transformation, suggesting that Iso-1 has a tumor-suppressor activity. Furthermore, we found that S6K1 short isoforms bind and activate mTORC1, elevating 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, cap-dependent translation, and Mcl-1 protein levels. Both a phosphorylation-defective 4E-BP1 mutant and the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin partially blocked the oncogenic effects of S6K1 short isoforms, suggesting that these are mediated by mTORC1 and 4E-BP1. Thus, alternative splicing of S6K1 acts as a molecular switch in breast cancer cells, elevating oncogenic isoforms that activate mTORC1. PMID:23273915

  6. Myricetin inhibits UVB-induced angiogenesis by regulating PI-3 kinase in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Keun; Lee, Ki Won; Byun, Sanguine; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2010-01-01

    Myricetin is one of the principal phytochemicals in onions, berries and red wine. Previous studies showed that myricetin exhibits potent anticancer and chemopreventive effects. The present study examined the effect of myricetin on ultraviolet (UV) B-induced angiogenesis in an SKH-1 hairless mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Topical treatment with myricetin inhibited repetitive UVB-induced neovascularization in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The induction of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-13 expression by chronic UVB irradiation was significantly suppressed by myricetin treatment. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed that myricetin inhibited UVB-induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression in mouse skin. Western blot analysis and kinase assay data revealed that myricetin suppressed UVB-induced phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity and subsequently attenuated the UVB-induced phosphorylation of Akt/p70S6K in mouse skin lysates. A pull-down assay revealed the direct binding of PI-3 kinase and myricetin in mouse skin lysates. Our results indicate that myricetin suppresses UVB-induced angiogenesis by regulating PI-3 kinase activity in vivo in mouse skin. PMID:20008033

  7. Basic fibroblast growth factor-induced activation of novel CREB kinase during the differentiation of immortalized hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, J Y; Shin, S W; Ahn, Y S; Chung, K C

    2001-04-27

    Growth factors bind to their specific receptors on the responsive cell surface and thereby initiate dramatic changes in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of their target cells. In the present study we have examined the mechanism by which growth factor-induced signals are propagated to the nucleus, leading to the activation of transcription factor, cis-acting cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB), in immortalized hippocampal progenitor cells (H19-7). During the differentiation of H19-7 cells by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) a critical regulatory Ser(133) residue of CREB was phosphorylated followed by an increase of CRE-mediated gene transcription. Expression of S133A CREB mutants blocked the differentiation of H19-7 cells by bFGF. Although the kinetics of CREB phosphorylation by EGF was transient, bFGF induced a prolonged pattern of CREB phosphorylation. Interestingly, bFGF-induced CREB phosphorylation and subsequent CRE-mediated gene transcription is not likely to be mediated by any of previously known signaling pathways that lead to phosphorylation of CREB, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase A, protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-p70(S6K), calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, and casein kinase 2. By using in vitro in gel kinase assay the presence of a novel 120-kDa bFGF-inducible CREB kinase was identified. These findings identify a new growth factor-activated signaling pathway that regulates gene expression at the CRE. PMID:11278709

  8. Sam68 Regulates S6K1 Alternative Splicing during Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for alternative splicing during adipogenesis is poorly understood. The Sam68 RNA binding protein is a known regulator of alternative splicing, and mice deficient for Sam68 exhibit adipogenesis defects due to defective mTOR signaling. Sam68 null preadipocytes were monitored for alternative splicing imbalances in components of the mTOR signaling pathway. Herein, we report that Sam68 regulates isoform expression of the ribosomal S6 kinase gene (Rps6kb1). Sam68-deficient adipocytes express Rps6kb1-002 and its encoded p31S6K1 protein, in contrast to wild-type adipocytes that do not express this isoform. Sam68 binds an RNA sequence encoded by Rps6kb1 intron 6 and prevents serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1)-mediated alternative splicing of Rps6kb1-002, as assessed by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and minigene assays. Depletion of p31S6K1 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) partially restored adipogenesis of Sam68-deficient preadipocytes. The ectopic expression of p31S6K1 in wild-type 3T3-L1 cells resulted in adipogenesis differentiation defects, showing that p31S6K1 is an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Our findings indicate that Sam68 is required to prevent the expression of p31S6K1 in adipocytes for adipogenesis to occur. PMID:25776557

  9. Sam68 Regulates S6K1 Alternative Splicing during Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingwen; Richard, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    The requirement for alternative splicing during adipogenesis is poorly understood. The Sam68 RNA binding protein is a known regulator of alternative splicing, and mice deficient for Sam68 exhibit adipogenesis defects due to defective mTOR signaling. Sam68 null preadipocytes were monitored for alternative splicing imbalances in components of the mTOR signaling pathway. Herein, we report that Sam68 regulates isoform expression of the ribosomal S6 kinase gene (Rps6kb1). Sam68-deficient adipocytes express Rps6kb1-002 and its encoded p31S6K1 protein, in contrast to wild-type adipocytes that do not express this isoform. Sam68 binds an RNA sequence encoded by Rps6kb1 intron 6 and prevents serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1)-mediated alternative splicing of Rps6kb1-002, as assessed by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and minigene assays. Depletion of p31S6K1 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) partially restored adipogenesis of Sam68-deficient preadipocytes. The ectopic expression of p31S6K1 in wild-type 3T3-L1 cells resulted in adipogenesis differentiation defects, showing that p31S6K1 is an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Our findings indicate that Sam68 is required to prevent the expression of p31S6K1 in adipocytes for adipogenesis to occur. PMID:25776557

  10. Ketogenic diet delays the phase of circadian rhythms and does not affect AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Genzer, Yoni; Dadon, Maayan; Burg, Chen; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren

    2015-12-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is used for weight loss or to treat epilepsy. KD leads to liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which would be expected to inhibit gluconeogenesis. However, KD leads to increased hepatic glucose output. As AMPK and its active phosphorylated form (pAMPK) show circadian oscillation, this discrepancy could stem from wrong-time-of-day sampling. The effect of KD was tested on mouse clock gene expression, AMPK, mTOR, SIRT1 and locomotor activity for 2 months and compared to low-fat diet (LFD). KD led to 1.5-fold increased levels of blood glucose and insulin. Brain pAMPK/AMPK ratio was 40% higher under KD, whereas that in liver was not affected. KD led to 40% and 20% down-regulation of the ratio of pP70S6K/P70S6K, the downstream target of mTOR, in the brain and liver, respectively. SIRT1 levels were 40% higher in the brain, but 40% lower in the liver of KD-fed mice. Clock genes showed delayed rhythms under KD. In the brain of KD-fed mice, amplitudes of clock genes were down-regulated, whereas 6-fold up-regulation was found in the liver. The metabolic state under KD indicates reduced satiety in the brain and reduced anabolism alongside increased gluconeogenesis in the liver. PMID:26408964

  11. Insulin-Mediated Down-Regulation of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Expression through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway: Role of Upstream Stimulatory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Martin, Geneviève; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2005-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been repeatedly implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 is regulated by insulin. Here, we show that cell lines and mice treated with insulin down-regulate APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that insulin decreases human APOA5 promoter activity, and subsequent deletion and mutation analyses uncovered a functional E box in the promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that this APOA5 E box binds upstream stimulatory factors (USFs). Moreover, in transfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity, and the treatment with insulin reduced the binding of USF1/USF2 to the APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway abolished insulin's effect on APOA5 gene expression, while the inhibition of the P70 S6 kinase pathway with rapamycin reversed its effect and increased APOA5 gene expression. Using an oligonucleotide precipitation assay for USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrate that phosphorylated USF1 fails to bind to the APOA5 promoter. Taken together, these data indicate that insulin-mediated APOA5 gene transrepression could involve a phosphorylation of USFs through the PI3K and P70 S6 kinase pathways that modulate their binding to the APOA5 E box and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in men showed a decrease in the plasma ApoAV level. These results suggest a potential contribution of the APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia. PMID:15684402

  12. Decorin activates AMPK, an energy sensor kinase, to induce autophagy in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Atul; Neill, Thomas; Owens, Rick T.; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V.

    2014-01-01

    The highly conserved eukaryotic process of macroautophagy (autophagy) is a non-specific bulk-degradation program critical for maintaining proper cellular homeostasis, and for clearing aged and damaged organelles. This decision is inextricably dependent upon prevailing metabolic demands and energy requirements of the cell. Soluble monomeric decorin functions as a natural tumor repressor that antagonizes a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, we discovered that decorin induces endothelial cell autophagy, downstream of VEGFR2. This process was wholly dependent upon Peg3, a decorin-inducible genomically imprinted tumor suppressor gene. However, the signaling cascades responsible have remained elusive. In this report we discovered that Vps34, a class III phosphoinositide kinase, is an upstream kinase required for Peg3 induction. Moreover, decorin triggered differential formation of Vps34/Beclin 1 complexes with concomitant dissolution of inhibitive Bcl-2/Beclin 1 complexes. Further, decorin inhibited anti-autophagic signaling via suppression of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K activity with the concurrent activation of pro-autophagic AMPK-mediated signaling cascades. Mechanistically, AMPK is downstream of VEGFR2 and inhibition of AMPK signaling abrogated decorin-evoked autophagy. Collectively, these findings hint at the complexity of the underlying molecular relays necessary for decorin-evoked endothelial cell autophagy and reveal important therapeutic targets for augmenting autophagy and combatting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:24472739

  13. Hypophosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is a molecular mechanism underlying ischemic tolerance induced by either hibernation or preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Shin-ichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Bernstock, Joshua D; Castri, Paola; Ruetzler, Christl; Miyake, Junko; Lee, Yang-Ja; Hallenbeck, John M

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) have an extraordinary capacity to withstand prolonged and profound reductions in blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain without incurring any cellular damage. As such, the hibernation torpor of I. tridecemlineatus provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we report that during hibernation torpor, a marked reduction in the phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) occurs within the brains of I. tridecemlineatus. Of note, rpS6 phosphorylation was shown to increase in the brains of rats that underwent an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. However, such an increase was attenuated after the implementation of an ischemic preconditioning paradigm. In addition, cultured cortical neurons treated with the rpS6 kinase (S6K) inhibitors, D-glucosamine or PF4708671, displayed a decrease in rpS6 phosphorylation and a subsequent increase in tolerance to oxygen/glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of ischemic stroke. Collectively, such evidence suggests that the down-regulation of rpS6 signal transduction may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia that occurs during hibernation torpor and after ischemic preconditioning. Further identification and characterization of the mechanisms used by hibernating species to increase ischemic tolerance may eventually clarify how the loss of homeostatic control that occurs during and after cerebral ischemia in the clinic can ultimately be minimized and/or prevented. Mammalian hibernation provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we demonstrate that marked reductions in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), extracellular signal-regulated kinase family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p44/42 (p44/42MAPK) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) occur within the brains of both hibernating squirrels and rats, which have undergone an ischemic preconditioning paradigm. We therefore propose that the down-regulation of rpS6 signal transduction may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia that occurs during hibernation torpor and after ischemic preconditioning, via a suppression of protein synthesis and/or energy consumption. PMID:26375300

  14. Prognostic significance and therapeutic potential of the activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud Activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-mediated tumorigenesis in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and correlated with unfavorable outcome in certain types of other cancers. However, the prognostic value of AKT/mTOR activation in ALCL remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we aim to address this question from a clinical perspective by comparing the expressions of the AKT/mTOR signaling molecules in ALCL patients and exploring the therapeutic significance of targeting the AKT/mTOR pathway in ALCL. Methods A cohort of 103 patients with ALCL was enrolled in the study. Expression of ALK fusion proteins and the AKT/mTOR signaling phosphoproteins was studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The pathogenic role of ALK fusion proteins and the therapeutic significance of targeting the ATK/mTOR signaling pathway were further investigated in vitro study with an ALK?+?ALCL cell line and the NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells. Results ALK expression was detected in 60% of ALCLs, of which 79% exhibited the presence of NPM-ALK, whereas the remaining 21% expressed variant-ALK fusions. Phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), and 70kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (p70S6K1) was detected in 76%, 80%, 91%, and 93% of ALCL patients, respectively. Both phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and p-mTOR were correlated to ALK expression, and p-mTOR was closely correlated to p-AKT. Both p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K1 were correlated to p-mTOR, but were not correlated to the expression of ALK and p-AKT. Clinically, ALK?+?ALCL occurred more commonly in younger patients, and ALK?+?ALCL patients had a much better prognosis than ALK-ALCL cases. However, expression of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1, or p-p70S6K1 did not have an impact on the clinical outcome. Overexpression of NPM-ALK in a nonmalignant murine pro-B lymphoid cell line, BaF3, induced the cells to become cytokine-independent and resistant to glucocorticoids (GCs). Targeting AKT/mTOR inhibited growth and triggered the apoptotic cell death of ALK?+?ALCL cells and NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells, and also reversed GC resistance induced by overexpression of NPM-ALK. Conclusions Overexpression of ALK due to chromosomal translocations is seen in the majority of ALCL patients and endows them with a much better prognosis. The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is highly activated in ALK?+?ALCL patients and targeting the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway might confer a great therapeutic potential in ALCL. PMID:24112608

  15. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits High Glucose-induced Matrix Protein Synthesis by Activating AMP-activated Protein Kinase in Renal Epithelial Cells*♦

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak Joo; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Feliers, Denis; Cavaglieri, Rita C.; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Abboud, Hanna E.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, a signaling gas, affects several cell functions. We hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide modulates high glucose (30 mm) stimulation of matrix protein synthesis in glomerular epithelial cells. High glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis, cellular hypertrophy, and matrix laminin and type IV collagen content was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor. High glucose activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), shown by phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, was inhibited by NaHS. High glucose stimulated mTORC1 to promote key events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation: binding of eIF4A to eIF4G, reduction in PDCD4 expression and inhibition of its binding to eIF4A, eEF2 kinase phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation of eEF2; these events were inhibited by NaHS. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, was examined. NaHS dose-dependently stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and restored AMPK phosphorylation reduced by high glucose. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, abolished NaHS modulation of high glucose effect on events in mRNA translation as well as global and matrix protein synthesis. NaHS induction of AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by siRNA for calmodulin kinase kinase β, but not LKB1, upstream kinases for AMPK; STO-609, a calmodulin kinase kinase β inhibitor, had the same effect. Renal cortical content of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes, was significantly reduced in mice with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, coinciding with renal hypertrophy and matrix accumulation. Hydrogen sulfide is a newly identified modulator of protein synthesis in the kidney, and reduction in its generation may contribute to kidney injury in diabetes. PMID:22158625

  16. S6K-STING interaction regulates cytosolic DNA-mediated activation of the transcription factor IRF3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Alain, Tommy; Szretter, Kristy J; Stephenson, Kyle; Pol, Jonathan G; Atherton, Matthew J; Hoang, Huy-Dung; Fonseca, Bruno D; Zakaria, Chadi; Chen, Lan; Rangwala, Zainab; Hesch, Adam; Chan, Eva Sin Yan; Tuinman, Carly; Suthar, Mehul S; Jiang, Zhaozhao; Ashkar, Ali A; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C; Gale, Michael; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Diamond, Michael S; Mossman, Karen; Sonenberg, Nahum; Wan, Yonghong; Lichty, Brian D

    2016-05-01

    Cytosolic DNA-mediated activation of the transcription factor IRF3 is a key event in host antiviral responses. Here we found that infection with DNA viruses induced interaction of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR downstream effector and kinase S6K1 and the signaling adaptor STING in a manner dependent on the DNA sensor cGAS. We further demonstrated that the kinase domain, but not the kinase function, of S6K1 was required for the S6K1-STING interaction and that the TBK1 critically promoted this process. The formation of a tripartite S6K1-STING-TBK1 complex was necessary for the activation of IRF3, and disruption of this signaling axis impaired the early-phase expression of IRF3 target genes and the induction of T cell responses and mucosal antiviral immunity. Thus, our results have uncovered a fundamental regulatory mechanism for the activation of IRF3 in the cytosolic DNA pathway. PMID:27043414

  17. Activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 on Ser307 and Ser612 and impairs the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin insulin biosynthetic pathway in RIN pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Francesco; D'Alessandris, Cristina; Federici, Massimo; Laratta, Emanuela; Del Guerra, Silvia; Del Prato, Stefano; Marchetti, Piero; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2004-06-01

    Many adverse effects of glucose were attributed to its increased routing through the hexosamine pathway (HBP). There is evidence for an autocrine role of the insulin signaling in beta-cell function. We tested the hypothesis that activation of the HBP induces defects in insulin biosynthesis by affecting the insulin-mediated protein translation signaling. Exposure of human pancreatic islets and RIN beta-cells to glucosamine resulted in reduction in glucose- and insulin-stimulated insulin biosynthesis, which in RIN beta-cells was associated with impairment in insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation at Tyr(608) and Tyr(628), which are essential for engaging phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). These changes were accompanied by impaired activation of PI 3-kinase, and activation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin/phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein-1/p70S6 kinase pathway. RIN beta-cells exposed to high glucose exhibited increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and ERK1/2 activity, which was associated with increased IRS-1 phosphorylation at serine (Ser)(307) and Ser(612), respectively, that inhibits coupling of IRS-1 to the insulin receptor and is upstream of the inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Azaserine reverted the stimulatory effects of high glucose on JNK and ERK1/2 activity and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307) and Ser(612). Glucosamine mimicked the stimulatory effects of high glucose on JNK and ERK1/2 activity and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307) and Ser(612). Inhibition of JNK and MAPK kinase-1 activity reverted the negative effects of glucosamine on insulin-mediated protein synthesis. These results suggest that activation of the HBP accounts, in part, for glucose-induced phosphorylation at Ser(307) and Ser(612) of IRS-1 mediated by JNK and ERK1/2, respectively. These changes result in impaired coupling of IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase, and activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin/phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein-1/p70S6 kinase pathway. PMID:15001544

  18. Mitogenic signals and transforming potential of Nyk, a newly identified neural cell adhesion molecule-related receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Ling, L; Kung, H J

    1995-12-01

    Nyk/Mer is a recently identified receptor tyrosine kinase with neural cell adhesion molecule-like structure (two immunoglobulin G-like domains and two fibronectin III-like domains) in its extracellular region and belongs to the Ufo/Axl family of receptors. The ligand for Nyk/Mer is presently unknown, as are the signal transduction pathways mediated by this receptor. We constructed and expressed a chimeric receptor (Fms-Nyk) composed of the extracellular domain of the human colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (Fms) and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of human Nyk/Mer in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts in order to investigate the mitogenic signaling and biochemical properties of Nyk/Mer. Colony-stimulating factor 1 stimulation of the Fms-Nyk chimeric receptor in transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts leads to a transformed phenotype and generates a proliferative response in the absence of other growth factors. We show that phospholipase C gamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/p70 S6 kinase, Shc, Grb2, Raf-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase are downstream components of the Nyk/Mer signal transduction pathways. In addition, Nyk/Mer weakly activates p90rsk, while stress-activated protein kinase, Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and GAP-associated p62 and p190 proteins are not activated or tyrosine phosphorylated by Nyk/Mer. An analysis comparing the Nyk/Mer signal cascade with that of the epidermal growth factor receptor indicates substrate preferences by these two receptors. Our results provide a detailed description of the Nyk/Mer signaling pathways. Given the structural similarity between the Ufo/Axl family receptors, some of the information may also be applied to other members of this receptor tyrosine kinase family. PMID:8524223

  19. Nocardia farcinica Activates Human Dendritic Cells and Induces Secretion of Interleukin-23 (IL-23) Rather than IL-12p70

    PubMed Central

    Eisenblätter, Martin; Buchal, Ariane; Gayum, Hermine; Jasny, Edith; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Ulrichs, Timo; Schneider, Thomas; Schumann, Ralf R.; Zweigner, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Studying the interaction of dendritic cells (DCs) with bacteria controlled by T-cell-mediated immune responses may reveal novel adjuvants for the induction of cellular immunity. Murine studies and the observation that nocardias infect predominantly immunosuppressed patients have suggested that these bacteria may possess an adjuvant potential. Moreover, adjuvants on the basis of the nocardial cell wall have been applied in clinical studies. Since the handling of adjuvants by DCs may determine the type of immune responses induced by a vaccine, the present study aimed at investigating the interaction of immature human monocyte-derived DCs with live or inactivated Nocardia farcinica in vitro and determining the cellular phenotypic changes as well as alterations in characteristic functions, such as phagocytosis, induction of T-cell proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Human DCs ingested N. farcinica and eradicated the bacterium intracellularly. DCs exposed to inactivated N. farcinica were activated, i.e., they developed a mature phenotype, downregulated their phagocytic capacity, and stimulated allogeneic T cells in mixed leukocyte reactions. Soluble factors were not involved in this process. To elucidate the potential adjuvant effect of N. farcinica on the induction of T-cell-mediated immune responses, we characterized the cytokines produced by nocardia-exposed DCs and detected substantial amounts of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12p40). However, nocardia-treated DCs secreted only small amounts of IL-12p70, which were significantly smaller than the amounts of IL-23. Thus, N. farcinica activates DCs, but adjuvants based on this bacterium may have only a limited capacity to induce Th1 immune responses. PMID:22988018

  20. mTOR inhibitors and the anti-diabetic biguanide metformin: new insights into the molecular management of breast cancer resistance to the HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib (Tykerb).

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martín, Alejandro; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; del Barco, Sonia; Martín-Castillo, Begoña; Menéndez, Javier A

    2009-07-01

    The small molecule HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib (Tykerb) is approved for the therapy of patients with HER2-positive breast carcinomas who have progressed on trastuzumab (Herceptin). Unfortunately, the efficacy of this HER2 TKI is limited by both primary (inherent) and acquired resistance, the latter typically occurring within 12 months of starting therapy. One of the key factors limiting our understanding of the mechanisms involved in lapatinib resistance is the lack of published preclinical models. We herein review lapatinib-refractory models recently developed at the bench and the survival pathways discovered. As hyperactivation of the pharmacologically targetable PI3K/mTOR/p70S6K1 axis appears to be central to the occurrence of lapatinib resistance, preclinical data showing enhanced antitumour effects when combining lapatinib with mTOR inhibitors (e.g., rapamycin analogues and NVP-BEZ235) highlight the importance of translational work to yield clinically useful regimens capable of delaying or treating lapatinib resistance. The unexpected ability of the anti-type II diabetes drug metformin to inactivate mTOR and decrease p70S6K1 activity further reveals that this biguanide, generally considered non-toxic and remarkably inexpensive, might be considered for new combinatorial lapatinib-based protocols in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer patients. PMID:19574203

  1. Interleukin-12 (IL-12p70) Promotes Induction of Highly Potent Th1-Like CD4+CD25+ T Regulatory Cells That Inhibit Allograft Rejection in Unmodified Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Nirupama Darshan; Hall, Bruce Milne; Plain, Karren Michelle; Robinson, Catherine M.; Boyd, Rochelle; Tran, Giang T.; Wang, Chuanmin; Bishop, G. Alex; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J.

    2014-01-01

    In rat models, CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Treg) play a key role in the induction and maintenance of antigen-specific transplant tolerance, especially in DA rats with PVG cardiac allografts (1, 2). We have previously described generation of alloantigen-specific Treg (Ts1), by culture of naïve natural CD4+CD25+ Treg (nTreg) with specific alloantigen and IL-2 for 4 days. These cells express mRNA for IFN-γ receptor (ifngr) and suppress donor but not third party cardiac allograft rejection mediated by alloreactive CD4+ T cells at ratios of <1:10. Here, we show that Ts1 also expressed the IL-12p70 specific receptor (il-12rβ2) and that rIL-12p70 can induce their proliferation. Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-12p70 alone or rIL-12p70 and recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), suppressed proliferation of CD4+ T cells in mixed lymphocyte culture at <1:1024, whereas Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-2 and alloantigen only suppressed at 1:32–64. The rIL-12p70 alloactivated Ts1 cells markedly delayed PVG, but not third party Lewis, cardiac allograft rejection in normal DA recipients. Ts1 cells re-cultured for 4 days with rIL-12p70 alone, but not those re-cultured with rIL-12p70 and rIL-2, expressed more il-12rβ2, t-bet, and ifn-γ, and continued to express the markers of Ts1 cells, foxp3, ifngr, and il-5 indicating Th1-like Treg were induced. Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-2 and alloantigen remained of the Ts1 phenotype and did not suppress cardiac graft rejection in normal DA rats. We induced highly suppressive Th1-like Treg from naïve nTreg in 7 days by culture with alloantigen, first with rIL-2 then with rIL-12p70. These Th1-like Treg delayed specific donor allograft rejection demonstrating therapeutic potential. PMID:24847323

  2. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling Promotes Aberrant Pituitary Growth in a Mouse Model of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Willingham, Mark C.; Furuya, Fumihiko; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2008-01-01

    TSH-secreting pituitary tumors (TSHomas) are pituitary tumors that constitutively secrete TSH. Molecular mechanisms underlying this abnormality are largely undefined. We recently created a knock-in mutant mouse harboring a mutation (denoted as PV) in the thyroid hormone receptor-β gene (TRβPV/PV mouse). As these mice age, they spontaneously develop TSHomas. Using this mouse model, we investigated the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of TSHomas. Concurrent with aberrant growth of pituitaries, AKT and its downstream effectors, mammalian target rapamycin and p70S6K, were activated to contribute to increased cell proliferation and pituitary growth. In addition, activation of AKT led to decreased apoptosis by inhibiting proapoptotic activity of Bcl-2-associated death promoter, further contributing to the aberrant cell proliferation. These results suggest an activated PI3K-AKT pathway could underscore tumorigenesis, raising the possibility that this pathway could be a potential therapeutic target in TSHomas. Indeed, TRβPV/PV mice treated with a PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, showed a significant decrease in pituitary growth. The progrowth signaling via AKT-mammalian target rapamycin-p70S6K and cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase were inhibited, and proapoptotic activity of Bcl-2-associated death promoter was increased by LY294002 treatment. Thus, activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway mediates, at least in part, the aberrant pituitary growth, and the intervention of this signaling pathway presents a novel therapeutic opportunity for TSHomas. PMID:18356276

  3. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 does not correlate with translation efficiency in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Biever, Anne; Puighermanal, Emma; Nishi, Akinori; David, Alexandre; Panciatici, Claire; Longueville, Sophie; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Meyuhas, Oded; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2015-03-11

    Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, is phosphorylated on several residues in response to numerous stimuli. Although commonly used as a marker for neuronal activity, its upstream mechanisms of regulation are poorly studied and its role in protein synthesis remains largely debated. Here, we demonstrate that the psychostimulant d-amphetamine (d-amph) markedly increases rpS6 phosphorylation at Ser235/236 sites in both crude and synaptoneurosomal preparations of the mouse striatum. This effect occurs selectively in D1R-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and requires the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32/PP-1 cascade, whereas it is independent of mTORC1/p70S6K, PKC, and ERK signaling. By developing a novel assay to label nascent peptidic chains, we show that the rpS6 phosphorylation induced in striatonigral MSNs by d-amph, as well as in striatopallidal MSNs by the antipsychotic haloperidol or in both subtypes by papaverine, is not correlated with the translation of global or 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract mRNAs. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic insights into the in vivo regulation of the post-translational modification of rpS6 in the striatum and point out the lack of a relationship between PKA-dependent rpS6 phosphorylation and translation efficiency. PMID:25762659

  4. Regulation of Adipogenesis by Quinine through the ERK/S6 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xiaomin; He, Jingjing; Shi, Xin’e; Yang, Gongshe

    2016-01-01

    Quinine is a bitter tasting compound that is involved in the regulation of body weight as demonstrated in in vivo animal models and in vitro models of the adipogenic system. Arguments exist over the positive or negative roles of quinine in both in vivo animal models and in vitro cell models, which motivates us to further investigate the functions of quinine in the in vitro adipogenic system. To clarify the regulatory functions of quinine in adipogenesis, mouse primary preadipocytes were induced for differentiation with quinine supplementation. The results showed that quinine enhanced adipogenesis in a dose dependent manner without affecting lipolysis. The pro-adipogenic effect of quinine was specific, as other bitter tasting agonists had no effect on adipogenesis. Moreover, the pro-adipogenic effect of quinine was mediated by activation of ERK/S6 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase/Ribosomal protein S6) signaling. Knockdown of bitter taste receptor T2R106 (taste receptor, type 2, member 106) impaired the pro-adipogenic effect of quinine and suppressed the activation of ERK/S6 signaling. Taken together, quinine stimulates adipogenesis through ERK/S6 signaling, which at least partly functions via T2R106. PMID:27089323

  5. Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H. )

    1990-08-15

    We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis.

  6. Saporin-S6: A Useful Tool in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Mercatelli, Daniele; Battelli, Maria Giulia; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) saporin-S6 (also known as saporin) was isolated from Saponaria officinalis L. seeds. Since then, the properties and mechanisms of action of saporin-S6 have been well characterized, and it has been widely employed in the construction of conjugates and immunotoxins for different purposes. These immunotoxins have shown many interesting results when used in cancer therapy, particularly in hematological tumors. The high enzymatic activity, stability and resistance to conjugation procedures and blood proteases make saporin-S6 a very useful tool in cancer therapy. High efficacy has been reported in clinical trials with saporin-S6-containing immunotoxins, at dosages that induced only mild and transient side effects, which were mainly fever, myalgias, hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia and vascular leak syndrome. Moreover, saporin-S6 triggers multiple cell death pathways, rendering impossible the selection of RIP-resistant mutants. In this review, some aspects of saporin-S6, such as the chemico-physical characteristics, the structural properties, its endocytosis, its intracellular routing and the pathogenetic mechanisms of the cell damage, are reported. In addition, the recent progress and developments of saporin-S6-containing immunotoxins in cancer immunotherapy are summarized, including in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. PMID:24105401

  7. Structure of spiral arm S6 in the Andromeda Nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, Y.N.

    1982-05-01

    The star distribution across spiral arm S6 in Baade's M31 field IV is investigated. The brightest stars congregate toward the arm midline, along which maximum star density also occurs. The symmetric structure of S6 may result from its being located near the corotation radius, as indicated by the spiral-pattern rotational velocity ..cap omega../sub p/roughly-equal10 km sec/sup -1/ kpc/sup -1/ derived from the Cepheid age gradient in S4. Arm S6 has features similar to the galactic spiral arms in the solar neighborhood.

  8. Serum IL-12 in systemic lupus erythematosus: absence of p70 heterodimers but presence of p40 monomers correlating with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Lauwerys, B R; Van Snick, J; Houssiau, F A

    2002-01-01

    Biologically active IL-12 is a 70 kDa heterodimeric cytokine (IL-12 p70) mainly produced by antigen-presenting cells (APC) and made of disulfide-linked alpha (p35) and beta (p40) chains. Since the production of the p40 subunit is independently regulated from that of IL-12 p70, we compared levels of p40 and IL-12 p70 in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Sera obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy subjects were used as controls. Serum p40 titers were significantly higher in SLE patients (mean +/- s.e.m.: 348 +/- 40 pg/ml) compared with patients with rheumatoid arthiritis (mean +/- s.e.m.: 116 +/- 18 pg/ml, P < 0.0001) or controls (mean +/- s.e.m.: 0 +/- pg/ml, P < 0.0001). By contrast, IL-12 p70 was not detected in any serum. In SLE patients, serum p40 levels were positively correlated with the SLEDAI (r = + 0.56, P = 0.02) and negatively with serum C3 levels (r = - 0.42, P = 0.03). Follow-up measurements indicated that serum p40 dropped significantly after immunosuppressive therapy. Finally, size exclusion chromatography with p40 immunoprecipitates obtained from SLE sera demonstrated that p40 was present as a monomer, and not as a homodimer, nor as a p19/p40 (IL-23) heterodimer. In conclusion, serum p40 monomers (but not IL-12 p70 titers) are elevated in the sera of SLE patients commensurate with disease activity. While the relevance of these observations needs to be further investigated, our results are consistent with the APC dysfunction described in SLE. PMID:12139377

  9. Supersymmetric AdS6 via T duality.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Y; Colgáin, E Ó; Rodríguez-Gómez, D; Sfetsos, K

    2013-06-01

    We present a new supersymmetric AdS(6) solution of type IIB supergravity with SU(2) isometry. Through the AdS/CFT correspondence, this has potentially very interesting implications for 5D fixed point theories. This solution is the result of a non-Abelian T duality on the known supersymmetric AdS(6) solution of massive IIA. The SU(2) R symmetry is untouched, leading to sixteen supercharges and preserved supersymmetry. PMID:25167481

  10. Faraday effect in Sn2P2S6 crystals.

    PubMed

    Krupych, Oleh; Adamenko, Dmytro; Mys, Oksana; Grabar, Aleksandr; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2008-11-10

    We have revealed a large Faraday rotation in tin thiohypodiphosphate (Sn(2)P(2)S(6)) crystals, which makes this material promising for magneto-optics. The effective Faraday tensor component and the Verdet constant for the direction of the optic axis have been determined by measuring the pure Faraday rotation in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals with both the single-ray and small-angular polarimetric methods at the normal conditions and a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The effective Verdet constant is found to be equal to 115 rad/T x m. PMID:19002228

  11. A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen in Mammalian Cells for Regulators of S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Angela; Rapley, Joseph; Mesirov, Jill P.; Tamayo, Pablo; Avruch, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    mTOR complex1, the major regulator of mRNA translation in all eukaryotic cells, is strongly activated in most cancers. We performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in a human cancer cell line, seeking genes that regulate S6 phosphorylation, readout of mTORC1 activity. Applying a stringent selection, we retrieved nearly 600 genes wherein at least two RNAis gave significant reduction in S6-P. This cohort contains known regulators of mTOR complex 1 and is significantly enriched in genes whose depletion affects the proliferation/viability of the large set of cancer cell lines in the Achilles database in a manner paralleling that caused by mTOR depletion. We next examined the effect of RNAi pools directed at 534 of these gene products on S6-P in TSC1 null mouse embryo fibroblasts. 76 RNAis reduced S6 phosphorylation significantly in 2 or 3 replicates. Surprisingly, among this cohort of genes the only elements previously associated with the maintenance of mTORC1 activity are two subunits of the vacuolar ATPase and the CUL4 subunit DDB1. RNAi against a second set of 84 targets reduced S6-P in only one of three replicates. However, an indication that this group also bears attention is the presence of rpS6KB1 itself, Rac1 and MAP4K3, a protein kinase that supports amino acid signaling to rpS6KB1. The finding that S6 phosphorylation requires a previously unidentified, functionally diverse cohort of genes that participate in fundamental cellular processes such as mRNA translation, RNA processing, DNA repair and metabolism suggests the operation of feedback pathways in the regulation of mTORC1 operating through novel mechanisms. PMID:25790369

  12. Salicylate acutely stimulates 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Yasuhiro; Oshima, Rieko; Yoshida, Mitsuki; Sakon, Ichika; Kitani, Kazuto; Goto, Ayumi; Tsuda, Satoshi; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2014-10-10

    Salicylate (SAL) has been recently implicated in the antidiabetic effect in humans. We assessed whether 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle is involved in the effect of SAL on glucose homeostasis. Rat fast-twitch epitrochlearis and slow-twitch soleus muscles were incubated in buffer containing SAL. Intracellular concentrations of SAL increased rapidly (<5 min) in both skeletal muscles, and the Thr(172) phosphorylation of the α subunit of AMPK increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SAL increased both AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 activities. These increases in enzyme activity were accompanied by an increase in the activity of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport, and decreases in ATP, phosphocreatine, and glycogen contents. SAL did not change the phosphorylation of insulin receptor signaling including insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase. These results suggest that SAL may be transported into skeletal muscle and may stimulate AMPK and glucose transport via energy deprivation in multiple muscle types. Skeletal muscle AMPK might be part of the mechanism responsible for the metabolic improvement induced by SAL. PMID:25256746

  13. Aschantin targeting on the kinase domain of mammalian target of rapamycin suppresses epidermal growth factor-induced neoplastic cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheol-Jung; Jang, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Li, Yan; Ryu, Hyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Il; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Hye Suk; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Surh, Young-Joon; Cho, Yong-Yeon

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine protein kinase, forms two different complexes, complex 1 and 2, and plays a key role in the regulation of Akt signaling-mediated cell proliferation and transformation. This study reveals aschantin, a natural compound abundantly found in Magnolia flos, as a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor. Aschantin directly targeted the active pocket of mTOR kinase domain by competing with adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but not PI3K and PDK1. Aschantin inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced full activation of Akt by phosphorylation at Ser473/Thr308, resulting in inhibition of the mTORC2/Akt and Akt/mTORC1/p70S6K signaling pathways and activation of GSK3β by abrogation of Akt-mediated GSK3β phosphorylation at Ser9. The activated GSK3β inhibited cell proliferation by c-Jun phosphorylation at Ser243, which facilitated destabilization and degradation of c-Jun through the ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation pathway. Notably, aschantin treatment decreased c-Jun stability through inhibition of the mTORC2-Akt signaling pathway, which suppressed EGF-induced anchorage-independent cell transformation in non-malignant JB6 Cl41 and HaCaT cells and colony growth of LNCaP and MIAPaCa-2 cancer cells in soft agar. Altogether, the results show that aschantin targets mTOR kinase and destabilizes c-Jun, which implicate aschantin as a potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agent. PMID:26243309

  14. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  15. Results of chronic dietary toxicity studies of high viscosity (P70H and P100H) white mineral oils in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Gary W; Freeman, James J; Priston, R A J; Urbanus, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Two-year dietary studies were conducted to determine the chronic toxicity and its reversibility, and the carcinogenicity of P70(H) and P100(H) white mineral oils in Fischer-344 rats (F-344). The studies were identical in design and followed the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Guidelines for Testing Chemicals, Guideline 453, 1981. Additional endpoints evaluated were: (1) extent of mineral hydrocarbon deposition in liver, kidneys, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen of female rats at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and (2) reversibility of effects following cessation of exposure. Dietary concentration were 60, 120, 240, and 1,200 mg/kg/day, adjusted periodically to account for bodyweight changes. Study results were consistent with preceding subchronic studies. No treatment-related mortality, neoplastic lesions, or changes in clinical health, hematology, serum chemistry, or urine chemistry were evident in any group administered either white oil. Statistically significant higher food consumption was noted in the 1,200 mg/kg group males and females exposed to either white oil and statistically significant higher body weights were noted in the 1,200-mg/kg males during the latter portion of the P100(H) study. Higher mesenteric lymph node weights were accompanied by increased severity of infiltrating histiocytes. This occurred to a greater extent with the P70(H) than the P100(H) oil. No other histopathology of significance was observed. Mineral hydrocarbons were detected in the liver following exposure to either oil. Maximal concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons in the liver were similar with both oils but occurred more rapidly with the P70(H) oil. Liver mineral hydrocarbon content returned to near-background levels during the reversibility phase. In conclusion, lifetime exposer of F344 rats to P70(H) and P100(H) white oils resulted in only minimal findings and with no consequence to clinical health. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, the No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for these studies was considered to be 1,200 mg/kg/day. PMID:15204967

  16. HIV-1-infected dendritic cells up-regulate cell surface markers but fail to produce IL-12 p70 in response to CD40 ligand stimulation.

    PubMed

    Smed-Sörensen, Anna; Loré, Karin; Walther-Jallow, Lilian; Andersson, Jan; Spetz, Anna-Lena

    2004-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells with the capacity to prime naive T cells for efficient cellular responses against pathogens such as HIV-1. DCs are also susceptible to HIV-1 infection, which may impair their ability to induce immunity. Here, we examined the ability of HIV-1-infected, in vitro-derived DCs to respond to CD40 ligand (CD40L) stimulation with the aim to study events during early HIV-1 infection. HIV-1(BaL)-infected p24(+) DCs were detected after only 3 days of exposure to highly concentrated virus. We show that HIV-1-infected DCs up-regulated costimulatory molecules, but were skewed in their production of effector cytokines in response to CD40L stimulation. CD40L stimulation induced significant secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) p70 from both HIV-1-exposed and unexposed DCs. Intracellular stainings of HIV-1-exposed DCs revealed that TNFalpha could be detected in both the p24(-) and p24(+) DCs, but IL-12 p70 could be found only in the p24(-) DCs. Thus, although p24(+) DCs showed a mature phenotype similar to p24(-) DCs after CD40L stimulation, they appeared to have an impaired cytokine profile. These observations suggest that HIV-1 infection disables DC function, a phenomenon that may be relevant for optimal induction of HIV-1-specific immune responses. PMID:15231570

  17. Combining an mTOR antagonist and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Masiello, David; Mohi, M Golam; McKnight, Nicole C; Smith, Bradley; Neel, Ben G; Balk, Steven P; Bubley, Glenn J

    2007-02-01

    Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a potentially useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However mTOR antagonists used as single agents are not likely to result in dramatic clinical responses, so that it is useful to identify prospective agents that might be useful in combination. We treated CWR22Rv1 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells with an mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, alone, or in combination with either of two receptor protein kinase (RTK) inhibitors. We assessed the effects of these treatments on cell survival and activation of down-stream mTOR target proteins. Treatment with either PD16839, an EGFr antagonist, or imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), a PDGFr, c-kit and bcr/abl antagonist, enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of rapamycin. We therefore assessed the effects of treatment with the RTK antagonist alone and in combination with rapamycin on mTOR targeted proteins. RTK antagonists alone had no effect or paradoxically increased phosphorylation of the mTOR targeted proteins, p70 S6 kinase and ribosomal S6. In contrast, when these cells were treated with either RTK antagonist in the presence of rapamycin, there was a dramatic decrease in phosphorylation of these two mTOR-targeted proteins. These effects were not mediated through phospho-AKT. Since two separate RTK antagonists had additive antiproliferative effects in combination with an mTOR antagonist and were associated with a dramatic decrease in mTOR targeted proteins in cells with or without PTEN expression, the strategy deserves further evaluation for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:17218776

  18. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway. PMID:16397275

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 3/TRIF-Dependent IL-12p70 Secretion Mediated by Streptococcus pneumoniae RNA and Its Priming by Influenza A Virus Coinfection in Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spelmink, Laura; Sender, Vicky; Hentrich, Karina; Kuri, Thomas; Plant, Laura

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A functional immune response is crucial to prevent and limit infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in orchestrating the adaptive and innate immune responses by communicating with other cell types via antigen presentation and secretion of cytokines. In this study, we set out to understand how pneumococci activate human monocyte-derived DCs to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70, an important cytokine during pneumococcal infections. We show that IL-12p70 production requires uptake of bacteria as well as the presence of the adaptor molecule TRIF, which is known to transfer signals of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) or TLR4 from the endosome into the cell. While TLR4 is redundant for IL-12p70 production in DCs, we found that TLR3 is required to induce full IL-12p70 secretion. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection of DCs did not induce IL-12p70 but markedly upregulated TLR3 expression that during coinfection with S. pneumoniae significantly enhanced IL-12p70 secretion. Finally, we show that pneumococcal RNA can act as a bacterial stimulus for TLR3 and that it is a key signal to induce IL-12p70 production during challenge of DCs with pneumococci. PMID:26956584

  20. Consistent N=8 truncation of massive IIA on S 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Adolfo; Varela, Oscar

    2015-12-01

    Massive type IIA supergravity is shown to admit a consistent truncation on the six-sphere to maximal supergravity in four dimensions with a dyonic ISO(7) gauging. We obtain the complete, non-linear embedding of all the D = 4 fields into the IIA metric and form potentials, and show its consistency. We first rewrite the IIA theory in an SO(1 , 3) × SL(7)-covariant way. Then, we employ an N=8 SL(7)-covariant restriction of the D = 4 tensor hierarchy in order to find the full embedding. The redundant D = 4 degrees of freedom introduced by the tensor hierarchy can be eliminated by writing the embedding in terms of the field strengths and exploiting the restricted duality hierarchy. In particular, closed expressions for the Freund-Rubin term are found using this technique which reveal a pattern valid for other truncations. Finally, we show that the present N=8 truncation of massive IIA on S 6 and the N=2 truncation obtained when S 6 is equipped with its nearly-Kähler structure, overlap in the N=1 , G2-invariant sector of the former.

  1. Mice Deficient in Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation Suffer from Muscle Weakness that Reflects a Growth Defect and Energy Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Dreazen, Avigail; Gielchinsky, Yuval; Saada, Ann; Freedman, Nanette; Mishani, Eyal; Zimmerman, Gabriel; Kasir, Judith; Meyuhas, Oded

    2009-01-01

    Background Mice, whose ribosomal protein S6 cannot be phosphorylated due to replacement of all five phosphorylatable serine residues by alanines (rpS6P?/?), are viable and fertile. However, phenotypic characterization of these mice and embryo fibroblasts derived from them, has established the role of these modifications in the regulation of the size of several cell types, as well as pancreatic ?-cell function and glucose homeostasis. A relatively passive behavior of these mice has raised the possibility that they suffer from muscle weakness, which has, indeed, been confirmed by a variety of physical performance tests. Methodology/Principal Findings A large variety of experimental methodologies, including morphometric measurements of histological preparations, high throughput proteomic analysis, positron emission tomography (PET) and numerous biochemical assays, were used in an attempt to establish the mechanism underlying the relative weakness of rpS6P?/? muscles. Collectively, these experiments have demonstrated that the physical inferiority appears to result from two defects: a) a decrease in total muscle mass that reflects impaired growth, rather than aberrant differentiation of myofibers, as well as a diminished abundance of contractile proteins; and b) a reduced content of ATP and phosphocreatine, two readily available energy sources. The abundance of three mitochondrial proteins has been shown to diminish in the knockin mouse. However, the apparent energy deficiency in this genotype does not result from a lower mitochondrial mass or compromised activity of enzymes of the oxidative phosphorylation, nor does it reflect a decline in insulin-dependent glucose uptake, or diminution in storage of glycogen or triacylglycerol (TG) in the muscle. Conclusions/Significance This study establishes rpS6 phosphorylation as a determinant of muscle strength through its role in regulation of myofiber growth and energy content. Interestingly, a similar role has been assigned for ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, even though it regulates myoblast growth in an rpS6 phosphorylation-independent fashion. PMID:19479038

  2. IL-2 suppression of IL-12p70 by a recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-2 induces T-cell auto-reactivity and CNS demyelination.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Mandana; Mott, Kevin R; Allen, Sariah J; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the role of cellular infiltrates in CNS demyelination in immunocompetent mice, we have used a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) in which different strains of mice are infected with a recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-2. Histologic examination of the mice infected with HSV-IL-2 demonstrates that natural killer cells, dendritic cells, B cells, and CD25 (IL-2rα) do not play any role in the HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination. T cell depletion, T cell knockout and T cell adoptive transfer experiments suggest that both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells contribute to HSV-IL-2-induced CNS demyelination with CD8(+) T cells being the primary inducers. In the adoptive transfer studies, all of the transferred T cells irrespective of their CD25 status at the time of transfer were positive for expression of FoxP3 and depletion of FoxP3 blocked CNS demyelination by HSV-IL-2. The expression levels of IL-12p35 relative to IL-12p40 differed in BM-derived macrophages infected with HSV-IL-2 from those infected with wild-type HSV-1. HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination was blocked by injecting HSV-IL-2-infected mice with IL-12p70 DNA. This study demonstrates that suppression of the IL-12p70 function of macrophages by IL-2 causes T cells to become auto-aggressive. Interruption of this immunoregulatory axis results in demyelination of the optic nerve, the spinal cord and the brain by autoreactive T cells in the HSV-IL-2 mouse model of MS. PMID:21364747

  3. IL-12 p40 homodimer, but not IL-12 p70, induces the expression of IL-16 in microglia and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Malabendu; Pahan, Kalipada

    2009-01-01

    IL-16, a leukocyte chemoattractant factor (LCF), is involved in the disease process of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune disorders. However, mechanisms by which this LCF is expressed are poorly understood. The present study underlines the importance of IL-12 p40 homodimer (p402), the so-called biologically inactive molecule, in inducing the expression of IL-16 in primary mouse and human microglia, mouse BV-2 microglial cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages, and RAW264.7 cells. In contrast, IL-12 p70, the bioactive heterodimeric cytokine, was unable to induce the expression of IL-16 in any of these cell types. Similarly IL-12 p402 also induced the activation of IL-16 promoter in microglia. Among various stimuli tested, p402 was the most potent one followed by p40 monomer, IL-16 and IL-23 in inducing the activation of IL-16 promoter in microglial cells. Furthermore, induction of IL-16 mRNA expression by over-expression of p40, but not p35, cDNA and induction of IL-16 expression by p402 in microglia isolated from IL-12p35 (−/−) mice confirm that p40, but not p35, is responsible for the induction of IL-16. Finally, by using primary microglia isolated from IL-12Rβ1 (−/−) and IL-12Rβ2 (−/−) mice, we demonstrate that p402 induces the expression of this LCF via IL-12Rβ1 but not IL-12Rβ2. These results delineate a novel biological function of p402 and raise the possibility that biological function of IL-12 p402 maybe different from IL-12 p70. PMID:19100623

  4. Actin filaments facilitate insulin activation of the src and collagen homologous/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway leading to DNA synthesis and c-fos expression.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, T; Bergman, A; Somwar, R; Taha, C; Aktories, K; Cruz, T F; Klip, A; Downey, G P

    1998-10-23

    The exact mechanism of the spatial organization of the insulin signaling pathway leading to nuclear events remains unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in propagation of insulin signaling events leading to DNA synthesis and expression of the immediate early genes c-fos and c-jun in L6 muscle cells. Insulin reorganized the cellular actin network and increased the rate of DNA synthesis and the levels of c-fos mRNA, but not those of c-jun mRNA, in undifferentiated L6 myoblasts. Similarly, insulin markedly elevated the levels of c-fos mRNA but not of c-jun mRNA in differentiated L6 myotubes. Disassembly of the actin filaments by cytochalasin D, latrunculin B, or botulinum C2 toxin significantly inhibited insulin-mediated DNA synthesis in myoblasts and abolished stimulation of c-fos expression by the hormone in myoblasts and myotubes. Actin disassembly abolished insulin-induced phosphorylation and activation of extracellulor signal-regulated kinases, activation of a 65-kda member of the p21-activated kinases, and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases but did not prevent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and p70(S6k). Under these conditions, insulin-induced Ras activation was also abolished, and Grb2 association with the Src and collogen homologous (Shc) molecule was inhibited without inhibition of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. We conclude that the actin filament network plays an essential role in insulin regulation of Shc-dependent signaling events governing gene expression by facilitating the interaction of Shc with Grb2. PMID:9774456

  5. The novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235, inhibits growth and proliferation in multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Philipp Mandl-Weber, Sonja; Oduncu, Fuat; Schmidmaier, Ralf

    2009-02-01

    NVP-BEZ235 is a new inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3 kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) whose efficacy in advanced solid tumours is currently being evaluated in a phase I/II clinical trial. Here we show that NVP-BEZ235 inhibits growth in common myeloma cell lines as well as primary myeloma cells at nanomolar concentrations in a time and dose dependent fashion. Further experiments revealed induction of apoptosis in three of four cell lines. Inhibition of cell growth was mainly due to inhibition of myeloma cell proliferation, as shown by the BrdU assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, which was due to downregulation of cyclin D1, pRb and cdc25a. NVP-BEZ235 inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), P70S6k and 4E-BP-1. Furthermore we show that the stimulatory effect of CD40-ligand (CD40L), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and conditioned medium of HS-5 stromal cells on myeloma cell growth is completely abrogated by NVP-BEZ235. In addition, synergism studies revealed synergistic and additive activity of NVP-BEZ235 together with melphalan, doxorubicin and bortezomib. Taken together, inhibition of PI3 kinase/mTOR by NVP-BEZ235 is highly effective and NVP-BEZ235 represents a potential new candidate for targeted therapy in multiple myeloma.

  6. Preclinical Pharmacological Evaluation of a Novel Multiple Kinase Inhibitor, ON123300, in Brain Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Hua; Zhou, Qingyu; Elkholi, Rana; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Gallo, James M.

    2014-01-01

    ON123300 is a low molecular weight multi-kinase inhibitor identified through a series of screens that supported further analyses for brain tumor chemotherapy. Biochemical assays indicated ON123300 was a strong inhibitor of Ark5 and CDK4 as well as growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases such as Beta-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGFRβ]. ON123300 inhibited U87 glioma cell proliferation with an IC50 = 3.4 ± 0.1 μM and reduced phosphorylation of Akt, yet it also unexpectedly induced Erk activation; both in a dose- and time-dependent manner that subsequently was attributed to relieving Akt-mediated C-Raf S259 inactivation and activating a p70S6K initiated PI3K negative feedback loop. Co-treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib [GFN] produced synergistic cytotoxic effects. Pursuant to the in vitro studies, in vivo pharmacokinetic [PK] and pharmacodynamic [PD] studies of ON123300 were completed in mice bearing intracerebral U87 tumors following IV doses of 5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg alone, and also at the higher dose concurrently with GFN. ON123300 showed high brain and brain tumor accumulation based on brain partition coefficient values of at least 2.5. Consistent with the in vitro studies, single agent ON123300 caused a dose-dependent suppression of phosphorylation of Akt as well as activation of Erk in brain tumors, whereas addition of GFN to the ON123300 regimen significantly enhanced p-Akt inhibition and prevented Erk activation. In summary, ON123300 demonstrated favorable PK characteristics and future development for brain tumor therapy would require use of combinations, such as GFN, that mitigated its Erk activation and enhanced its activity. PMID:24568969

  7. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Corrupts Coronary Collateral Growth by Activating Adenosine Monophosphate Activated Kinase-α Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Sam, Wai Johnn; Stevanov, Kelly; Enrick, Molly; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Kolz, Christopher; Thakker, Prashanth; Hardwick, James P.; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Dyck, Jason R.B.; Yin, Liya; Chilian, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to determine the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress impairs collateral growth in the heart. Approach and Results Rats were treated with rotenone (mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that increases reactive oxygen species production) or sham-treated with vehicle and subjected to repetitive ischemia protocol for 10 days to induce coronary collateral growth. In control rats, repetitive ischemia increased flow to the collateral-dependent zone; however, rotenone treatment prevented this increase suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress compromises coronary collateral growth. In addition, rotenone also attenuated mitochondrial complex I activity and led to excessive mitochondrial aggregation. To further understand the mechanistic pathway(s) involved, human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with 50 ng/ mL vascular endothelial growth factor, 1 µmol/L rotenone, and rotenone/vascular endothelial growth factor for 48 hours. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced robust tube formation; however, rotenone completely inhibited this effect (P<0.05 rotenone versus vascular endothelial growth factor treatment). Inhibition of tube formation by rotenone was also associated with significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation. Immunoblot analyses of human coronary artery endothelial cells with rotenone treatment showed significant activation of adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK)-α and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase. Activation of AMPK-α suggested impairments in energy production, which was reflected by decrease in O2 consumption and bioenergetic reserve capacity of cultured cells. Knockdown of AMPK-α (siRNA) also preserved tube formation during rotenone, suggesting the negative effects were mediated by the activation of AMPK-α. Conversely, expression of a constitutively active AMPK-α blocked tube formation. Conclusions We conclude that activation of AMPK-α during mitochondrial oxidative stress inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, which impairs phenotypic switching necessary for the growth of blood vessels. PMID:23788766

  8. The nuts and bolts of AGC protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Laura R; Komander, David; Alessi, Dario R

    2010-01-01

    The AGC kinase subfamily of protein kinases contains 60 members, including PKA, PKG and PKC. The family comprises some intensely examined protein kinases (such as Akt, S6K, RSK, MSK, PDK1 and GRK) as well as many less well-studied enzymes (such as SGK, NDR, LATS, CRIK, SGK494, PRKX, PRKY and MAST). Research has shed new light onto the architecture and regulatory mechanisms of these kinases. In addition, AGC kinases mediate diverse and important cellular functions, and their mutation and/or dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and diabetes. PMID:20027184

  9. Follicle-stimulating Hormone Activation of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 by the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT/Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway Is Necessary for Induction of Select Protein Markers of Follicular Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hena; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Park, Youngkyu; Ghaey, Shail; Feiger, Zachary J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2006-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of AKT in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-mediated granulosa cell (GC) differentiation. Our results define a signaling pathway in GCs whereby the inactivating phosphorylation of tuberin downstream of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/AKT activity leads to Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain) and subsequent mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation. mTOR then stimulates translation by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase and, consequently, the 40 S ribosomal protein S6. Activation of this pathway is required for FSH-mediated induction of several follicular differentiation markers, including luteinizing-hormone receptor (LHR), inhibin-α, microtubule-associated protein 2D, and the PKA type IIβ regulatory subunit. FSH also promotes activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). FSH-stimulated HIF-1 activity is inhibited by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, the Rheb inhibitor FTI-277 (farne-syltransferase inhibitor-277), and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Finally, we find that the FSH-mediated up-regulation of reporter activities for LHR, inhibin-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor is dependent upon HIF-1 activity, because a dominant negative form of HIF-1α interferes with the up-regulation of these genes. These results show that FSH enhances HIF-1 activity downstream of the PI 3-kinase/AKT/Rheb/mTOR pathway in GCs and that HIF-1 activity is necessary for FSH to induce multiple follicular differentiation markers. PMID:14982927

  10. The serine-threonine kinase p90RSK is a new target of enzastaurin in follicular lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kheirallah, S; Fruchon, S; Ysebaert, L; Blanc, A; Capilla, F; Marrot, A; AlSaati, T; Frenois, F X; Benhadji, K A; Fourni, J J; Laurent, G; Bezombes, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Follicular lymphoma is the second most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and, despite the introduction of rituximab for its treatment, this disease is still considered incurable. Besides genetic alterations involving Bcl-2, Bcl-6 or c-Myc, follicular lymphoma cells often display altered B-cell receptor signalling pathways including overactive PKC and PI3K/Akt systems. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of enzastaurin, an inhibitor of PKC, was evaluated both in vitro on follicular lymphoma cell lines and in vivo on a xenograft murine model. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA transfection, we determined the different signalling pathways after enzastaurin treatment. KEY RESULTS Enzastaurin inhibited the serine-threonine kinase p90RSK which has downstream effects on GSK3?. Bad and p70S6K. These signalling proteins control follicular lymphoma cell survival and apoptosis; which accounted for the inhibition by enzastaurin of cell survival and its induction of apoptosis of follicular lymphoma cell lines in vitro. Importantly, these results were replicated in vivo where enzastaurin inhibited the growth of follicular lymphoma xenografts in mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The targeting of p90RSK by enzastaurin represents a new therapeutic option for the treatment of follicular lymphoma. PMID:23992368

  11. Venus Kinase Receptors Control Reproduction in the Platyhelminth Parasite Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Cailliau, Katia; Morel, Marion; Hahnel, Steffen; Leutner, Silke; Beckmann, Svenja; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Dissous, Colette

    2014-01-01

    The Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) is a single transmembrane molecule composed of an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptor and an extracellular Venus Flytrap (VFT) structure similar to the ligand binding domain of many class C G Protein Coupled Receptors. This receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) was first discovered in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, then in a large variety of invertebrates. A single vkr gene is found in most genomes, except in S. mansoni in which two genes Smvkr1 and Smvkr2 exist. VKRs form a unique family of RTKs present only in invertebrates and their biological functions are still to be discovered. In this work, we show that SmVKRs are expressed in the reproductive organs of S. mansoni, particularly in the ovaries of female worms. By transcriptional analyses evidence was obtained that both SmVKRs fulfill different roles during oocyte maturation. Suppression of Smvkr expression by RNA interference induced spectacular morphological changes in female worms with a strong disorganization of the ovary, which was dominated by the presence of primary oocytes, and a defect of egg formation. Following expression in Xenopus oocytes, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2 receptors were shown to be activated by distinct ligands which are L-Arginine and calcium ions, respectively. Signalling analysis in Xenopus oocytes revealed the capacity of SmVKRs to activate the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K and Erk MAPK pathways involved in cellular growth and proliferation. Additionally, SmVKR1 induced phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). Activation of JNK by SmVKR1 was supported by the results of yeast two-hybrid experiments identifying several components of the JNK pathway as specific interacting partners of SmVKR1. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the functions of SmVKR in gametogenesis, and particularly in oogenesis and egg formation. By eliciting signalling pathways potentially involved in oocyte proliferation, growth and migration, these receptors control parasite reproduction and can therefore be considered as potential targets for anti-schistosome therapies. PMID:24875530

  12. Venus kinase receptors control reproduction in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Gouignard, Nadège; Cailliau, Katia; Morel, Marion; Hahnel, Steffen; Leutner, Silke; Beckmann, Svenja; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dissous, Colette

    2014-05-01

    The Venus kinase receptor (VKR) is a single transmembrane molecule composed of an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptor and an extracellular Venus Flytrap (VFT) structure similar to the ligand binding domain of many class C G protein coupled receptors. This receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) was first discovered in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, then in a large variety of invertebrates. A single vkr gene is found in most genomes, except in S. mansoni in which two genes Smvkr1 and Smvkr2 exist. VKRs form a unique family of RTKs present only in invertebrates and their biological functions are still to be discovered. In this work, we show that SmVKRs are expressed in the reproductive organs of S. mansoni, particularly in the ovaries of female worms. By transcriptional analyses evidence was obtained that both SmVKRs fulfill different roles during oocyte maturation. Suppression of Smvkr expression by RNA interference induced spectacular morphological changes in female worms with a strong disorganization of the ovary, which was dominated by the presence of primary oocytes, and a defect of egg formation. Following expression in Xenopus oocytes, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2 receptors were shown to be activated by distinct ligands which are L-Arginine and calcium ions, respectively. Signalling analysis in Xenopus oocytes revealed the capacity of SmVKRs to activate the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K and Erk MAPK pathways involved in cellular growth and proliferation. Additionally, SmVKR1 induced phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). Activation of JNK by SmVKR1 was supported by the results of yeast two-hybrid experiments identifying several components of the JNK pathway as specific interacting partners of SmVKR1. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the functions of SmVKR in gametogenesis, and particularly in oogenesis and egg formation. By eliciting signalling pathways potentially involved in oocyte proliferation, growth and migration, these receptors control parasite reproduction and can therefore be considered as potential targets for anti-schistosome therapies. PMID:24875530

  13. Phospho-kinase profile of colorectal tumors guides in the selection of multi-kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Juan Carlos; Corrales-Sanchez, Verónica; Morales, Jorge Carlos; Núñez, Luz-Elena; Morís, Francisco; Pandiella, Atanasio; Ocaña, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases play a central role in the oncogenesis of colorectal tumors and are attractive druggable targets. Detection of activated kinases within a tumor could open avenues for drug selection and optimization of new kinase inhibitors. By using a phosphokinase arrays with human colorectal tumors we identified activated kinases, including the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), components of the PI3K/mTOR pathway (AKT and S6), and STAT, among others. A pharmacological screening with kinase inhibitors against these proteins helped us to identify a new kinase inhibitor, termed EC-70124 that showed the highest anti-proliferative activity in cell lines. EC-70124 also inhibited cell migration and biochemical experiments demonstrated its effect targeting the PI3K/mTOR pathway. This drug also arrested cells at G2/M and induced apoptosis. Experiments in combination with standard chemotherapy used in the clinical setting indicated a synergistic effect. EC-70124 also reduced tumor growth in vivo and inhibited pS6 in the implanted tumors. In conclusion, by studying the kinase profile of colorectal tumors, we identified relevant activated pathways, and a new multi-kinase compound with significant antitumor properties. PMID:26418718

  14. A hepatic amino acid/mTOR/S6K-dependent signalling pathway modulates systemic lipid metabolism via neuronal signals

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kenji; Yamada, Tetsuya; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Imai, Junta; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Sawada, Shojiro; Kaneko, Keizo; Ono, Hiraku; Asano, Tomoichiro; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is coordinated among tissues and organs via neuronal signals. Levels of circulating amino acids (AAs), which are elevated in obesity, activate the intracellular target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1)/S6kinase (S6K) pathway in the liver. Here we demonstrate that hepatic AA/mTORC1/S6K signalling modulates systemic lipid metabolism via a mechanism involving neuronal inter-tissue communication. Hepatic expression of an AA transporter, SNAT2, activates the mTORC1/S6K pathway, and markedly elevates serum triglycerides (TGs), while downregulating adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Hepatic Rheb or active-S6K expression have similar metabolic effects, whereas hepatic expression of dominant-negative-S6K inhibits TG elevation in SNAT2 mice. Denervation, pharmacological deafferentation and β-blocker administration suppress obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia with adipose LPL upregulation, suggesting that signals are transduced between liver and adipose tissue via a neuronal pathway consisting of afferent vagal and efferent sympathetic nerves. Thus, the neuronal mechanism uncovered here serves to coordinate amino acid and lipid levels and contributes to the development of obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:26268630

  15. A hepatic amino acid/mTOR/S6K-dependent signalling pathway modulates systemic lipid metabolism via neuronal signals.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kenji; Yamada, Tetsuya; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Imai, Junta; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Sawada, Shojiro; Kaneko, Keizo; Ono, Hiraku; Asano, Tomoichiro; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is coordinated among tissues and organs via neuronal signals. Levels of circulating amino acids (AAs), which are elevated in obesity, activate the intracellular target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1)/S6kinase (S6K) pathway in the liver. Here we demonstrate that hepatic AA/mTORC1/S6K signalling modulates systemic lipid metabolism via a mechanism involving neuronal inter-tissue communication. Hepatic expression of an AA transporter, SNAT2, activates the mTORC1/S6K pathway, and markedly elevates serum triglycerides (TGs), while downregulating adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Hepatic Rheb or active-S6K expression have similar metabolic effects, whereas hepatic expression of dominant-negative-S6K inhibits TG elevation in SNAT2 mice. Denervation, pharmacological deafferentation and β-blocker administration suppress obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia with adipose LPL upregulation, suggesting that signals are transduced between liver and adipose tissue via a neuronal pathway consisting of afferent vagal and efferent sympathetic nerves. Thus, the neuronal mechanism uncovered here serves to coordinate amino acid and lipid levels and contributes to the development of obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:26268630

  16. Improved protocol to purify untagged amelogenin Application to murine amelogenin containing the equivalent P70 ? T point mutation observed in human amelogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenin is the predominant extracellular protein responsible for converting carbonated hydroxyapatite into dental enamel, the hardest and most heavily mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Despite much effort, the precise mechanism by which amelogenin regulates enamel formation is not fully understood. To assist efforts aimed at understanding the biochemical mechanism of enamel formation, more facile protocols to purify recombinantly expressed amelogenin, ideally without any tag to assist affinity purification, are advantageous. Here we describe an improved method to purify milligram quantities of amelogenin that exploits its high solubility in 2% glacial acetic acid under conditions of low ionic strength. The method involves heating the frozen cell pellet for two 15 min periods at ?70 C with 2 min of sonication in between, dialysis twice in 2% acetic acid (1:250 v/v), and reverse phase chromatography. A further improvement in yield is obtained by resuspending the frozen cell pellet in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride in the first step. The acetic acid heating method is illustrated with a murine amelogenin containing the corresponding P70 ? T point mutation observed in an human amelogenin associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (P71T), while the guanidine hydrochloride heating method is illustrated with wild type murine amelogenin (M180). The self-assembly properties of P71T were probed by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies as a function of protein (0.11.8 mM) and NaCl (0367 mM) concentration. Relative to similar studies with wild type murine amelogenin, P71T self-associates at lower protein or salt concentrations with the interactions initiated near the N-terminus. PMID:25306873

  17. Improved protocol to purify untagged amelogenin - Application to murine amelogenin containing the equivalent P70 → T point mutation observed in human amelogenesis imperfecta

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2015-01-02

    Amelogenin is the predominant extracellular protein responsible for converting carbonated hydroxyapatite into dental enamel, the hardest and most heavily mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Despite much effort, the precise mechanism by which amelogenin regulates enamel formation is not fully understood. To assist efforts aimed at understanding the biochemical mechanism of enamel formation, more facile protocols to purify recombinantly expressed amelogenin, ideally without any tag to assist affinity purification, are advantageous. Here we describe an improved method to purify milligram quantities of amelogenin that exploits its high solubility in 2% glacial acetic acid under conditions of low ionic strength. The method involves heating the frozen cell pellet for two 15 min periods at ~70 ºC with two minutes of sonication in between, dialysis twice in 2% acetic acid (1:250 v/v), and reverse phase chromatography. A further improvement in yield is obtained by resuspending the frozen cell pellet in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride in the first step. The acetic acid heating method is illustrated with a murine amelogenin containing the corresponding P70T point mutation observed in an human amelogenin associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (P71T), while the guanidine hydrochloride heating method is illustrated with wild type murine amelogenin (M180). The self-assembly properties of P71T were probed by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies as a function of protein (0.1 to 1.8 mM) and NaCl (0 to 367 mM) concentration. Relative to similar studies with wild type murine amelogenin, P71T self-associates at lower protein or salt concentrations with the interactions initiated near the N-terminus.

  18. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Paula; Howley, Rachel; Doolan, Padraig; Clarke, Colin; Madden, Stephen F.; Clynes, Martin; Farrell, Michael; Amberger-Murphy, Verena; All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  19. Insulin suppresses transactivation by CAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPbeta). Signaling to p300/CREB-binding protein by protein kinase B disrupts interaction with the major activation domain of C/EBPbeta.

    PubMed

    Guo, S; Cichy, S B; He, X; Yang, Q; Ragland, M; Ghosh, A K; Johnson, P F; Unterman, T G

    2001-03-16

    CAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in insulin-responsive tissues. We have found that a complex containing C/EBPbeta interacts with an insulin response sequence in the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) gene and that a C/EBP-binding site can mediate effects of insulin on promoter activity. Here, we examined mechanisms mediating this effect of insulin. The ability of insulin to suppress promoter activity via a C/EBP-binding site is blocked by LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, but not by rapamycin, which blocks activation of p70(S6 kinase). Dominant negative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B (PKB) block the effect of insulin, while activated PKB suppresses promoter function via a C/EBP-binding site, mimicking the effect of insulin. Coexpression studies indicate that insulin and PKB suppress transactivation by C/EBPbeta, but not C/EBPalpha, and that N-terminal transactivation domains in C/EBPbeta are required. Studies with Gal4 fusion proteins reveal that insulin and PKB suppress transactivation by the major activation domain in C/EBPbeta (AD II), located between amino acids 31 and 83. Studies with E1A protein indicate that interaction with p300/CBP is required for transactivation by AD II and the effect of insulin and PKB. Based on a consensus sequence, we identified a PKB phosphorylation site (Ser(1834)) within the region of p300/CBP known to bind C/EBPbeta. Mammalian two-hybrid studies indicate that insulin and PKB disrupt interactions between this region of p300 and AD II and that Ser(1834) is critical for this effect. Signaling by PKB and phosphorylation of Ser(1834) may play an important role in modulating interactions between p300/CBP and transcription factors and mediate effects of insulin and related growth factors on gene expression. PMID:11116148

  20. Planar dicyclic B6S6, B6S6-, and B6S62- clusters: Boron sulfide analogues of naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-Zhi; Bai, Hui; Ou, Ting; Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of current interest in chemistry. Based upon global structural searches and B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, we present herein the perfectly planar dicyclic boron sulfide clusters: D2h B6S6 (1, 1Ag), D2h B6S6- (2, 2B3u), and D2h B6S62- (3, 1Ag). These are the global minima of the systems, being at least 0.73, 0.81, and 0.53 eV lower in energy, respectively, than their alternative isomers at the CCSD(T) level. The D2h structures feature twin B3S2 five-membered rings, which are fused together via a B2 unit and terminated by two BS groups. Bonding analyses show that the closed-shell B6S62- (3) cluster possesses 10 delocalized π electrons, closely analogous to the bonding pattern of the aromatic naphthalene C10H8. The B6S6- (2) and B6S6 (1) species are readily obtained upon removal of one or two π electrons from B6S62- (3). The results build a new analogous relationship between boron sulfide clusters and their PAH counterparts. The B6S6- (2) monoanion and B6S62- (3) dianion can be effectively stabilized in neutral LiB6S6 and Li2B6S6 salts, respectively.

  1. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. The mTORC1 Effectors S6K1 and 4E-BP Play Different Roles in CNS Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Miao, Linqing; Liang, Feisi; Huang, Haoliang; Teng, Xiuyin; Li, Shaohua; Nuriddinov, Jaloliddin; Selzer, Michael E.; Hu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Using mouse optic nerve (ON) crush as a CNS injury model, we and others have found that activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in mature retinal ganglion cells by deletion of the negative regulators, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and tuberous sclerosis 1, promotes ON regeneration. mTORC1 activation inhibits eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) and activates ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), both of which stimulate translation. We reasoned that mTORC1s regeneration-promoting effects might be separable from its deleterious effects by differential manipulation of its downstream effectors. Here we show that S6K1 activation, but not 4E-BP inhibition, is sufficient to promote axon regeneration. However, inhibition of 4E-BP is required for PTEN deletion-induced axon regeneration. Both activation and inhibition of S6K1 decrease the effect of PTEN deletion on axon regeneration, implicating a dual role of S6K1 in regulating axon growth. PMID:25382660

  3. Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ochratoxin A Tumourigenesis in Rats and Urinary Tract Carcinoma in Humans; Mechanistic Significance of p-S6 Ribosomal Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gazinska, Patrycja; Herman, Diana; Gillett, Cheryl; Pinder, Sarah; Mantle, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is considered to be a possible human urinary tract carcinogen, based largely on a rat model, but no molecular genetic changes in the rat carcinomas have yet been defined. The phosphorylated-S6 ribosomal protein is a marker indicating activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a serine/threonine kinase with a key role in protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, transcription, cellular metabolism and apoptosis, while being functionally deregulated in cancer. To assess p-S6 expression we performed immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumours and normal tissues. Marked intensity of p-S6 expression was observed in highly proliferative regions of rat renal carcinomas and a rare angiosarcoma, all of which were attributed to prolonged exposure to dietary OTA. Only very small OTA-generated renal adenomas were negative for p-S6. Examples of rat subcutaneous fibrosarcoma and testicular seminoma, as well as of normal renal tissue, showed no or very weak positive staining. In contrast to the animal model, human renal cell carcinoma, upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were negative for p-S6. The combined findings are reminiscent of constitutive changes in the rat tuberous sclerosis gene complex in the Eker strain correlated with renal neoplasms, Therefore rat renal carcinogenesis caused by OTA does not obviously mimic human urinary tract tumourigenesis. PMID:23105973

  4. TORC1 and TORC2 work together to regulate ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yerlikaya, Seda; Meusburger, Madeleine; Kumari, Romika; Huber, Alexandre; Anrather, Dorothea; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charles; Ammerer, Gustav; Baranov, Pavel V; Loewith, Robbie

    2016-01-15

    Nutrient-sensitive phosphorylation of the S6 protein of the 40S subunit of the eukaryote ribosome is highly conserved. However, despite four decades of research, the functional consequences of this modification remain unknown. Revisiting this enigma in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that the regulation of Rps6 phosphorylation on Ser-232 and Ser-233 is mediated by both TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TORC2. TORC1 regulates phosphorylation of both sites via the poorly characterized AGC-family kinase Ypk3 and the PP1 phosphatase Glc7, whereas TORC2 regulates phosphorylation of only the N-terminal phosphosite via Ypk1. Cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable variant of Rps6 display a reduced growth rate and a 40S biogenesis defect, but these phenotypes are not observed in cells in which Rps6 kinase activity is compromised. Furthermore, using polysome profiling and ribosome profiling, we failed to uncover a role of Rps6 phosphorylation in either global translation or translation of individual mRNAs. Taking the results together, this work depicts the signaling cascades orchestrating Rps6 phosphorylation in budding yeast, challenges the notion that Rps6 phosphorylation plays a role in translation, and demonstrates that observations made with Rps6 knock-ins must be interpreted cautiously. PMID:26582391

  5. TORC1 and TORC2 work together to regulate ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yerlikaya, Seda; Meusburger, Madeleine; Kumari, Romika; Huber, Alexandre; Anrather, Dorothea; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charles; Ammerer, Gustav; Baranov, Pavel V.; Loewith, Robbie

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient-sensitive phosphorylation of the S6 protein of the 40S subunit of the eukaryote ribosome is highly conserved. However, despite four decades of research, the functional consequences of this modification remain unknown. Revisiting this enigma in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that the regulation of Rps6 phosphorylation on Ser-232 and Ser-233 is mediated by both TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TORC2. TORC1 regulates phosphorylation of both sites via the poorly characterized AGC-family kinase Ypk3 and the PP1 phosphatase Glc7, whereas TORC2 regulates phosphorylation of only the N-terminal phosphosite via Ypk1. Cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable variant of Rps6 display a reduced growth rate and a 40S biogenesis defect, but these phenotypes are not observed in cells in which Rps6 kinase activity is compromised. Furthermore, using polysome profiling and ribosome profiling, we failed to uncover a role of Rps6 phosphorylation in either global translation or translation of individual mRNAs. Taking the results together, this work depicts the signaling cascades orchestrating Rps6 phosphorylation in budding yeast, challenges the notion that Rps6 phosphorylation plays a role in translation, and demonstrates that observations made with Rps6 knock-ins must be interpreted cautiously. PMID:26582391

  6. Regulation of death induction and chemosensitizing action of 3-bromopyruvate in myeloid leukemia cells: energy depletion, oxidative stress, and protein kinase activity modulation.

    PubMed

    Calvio, Eva; Esta, Mara Cristina; Snchez-Martn, Carlos; Brea, Roco; de Blas, Elena; Boyano-Adnez, Mara del Carmen; Rial, Eduardo; Aller, Patricio

    2014-02-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrP) is an alkylating, energy-depleting drug that is of interest in antitumor therapies, although the mechanisms underlying its cytotoxicity are ill-defined. We show here that 3-BrP causes concentration-dependent cell death of HL60 and other human myeloid leukemia cells, inducing both apoptosis and necrosis at 20-30 ?M and a pure necrotic response at 60 ?M. Low concentrations of 3-BrP (10-20 ?M) brought about a rapid inhibition of glycolysis, which at higher concentrations was followed by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. The combination of these effects causes concentration-dependent ATP depletion, although this cannot explain the lethality at intermediate 3-BrP concentrations (20-30 ?M). The oxidative stress caused by exposure to 3-BrP was evident as a moderate overproduction of reactive oxygen species and a concentration-dependent depletion of glutathione, which was an important determinant of 3-BrP toxicity. In addition, 3-BrP caused glutathione-dependent stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K phosphorylation or activation, as well as rapid LKB-1/AMP kinase (AMPK) activation, which was later followed by Akt-mediated inactivation. Experiments with pharmacological inhibitors revealed that p38 MAPK activation enhances 3-BrP toxicity, which is conversely restrained by ERK and Akt activity. Finally, 3-BrP was seen to cooperate with antitumor agents like arsenic trioxide and curcumin in causing cell death, a response apparently mediated by both the generation of oxidative stress induced by 3-BrP and the attenuation of Akt and ERK activation by curcumin. In summary, 3-BrP cytotoxicity is the result of several combined regulatory mechanisms that might represent important targets to improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24307199

  7. Synaptic activation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation occurs locally in activated dendritic domains.

    PubMed

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) induces phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in postsynaptic neurons, but the functional significance of rpS6 phosphorylation is poorly understood. Here, we show that synaptic stimulation that induces perforant path LTP triggers phosphorylation of rpS6 (p-rpS6) locally near active synapses. Using antibodies specific for phosphorylation at different sites (ser235/236 versus ser240/244), we show that strong synaptic activation led to dramatic increases in immunostaining throughout postsynaptic neurons with selectively higher staining for p-ser235/236 in the activated dendritic lamina. Following LTP induction, phosphorylation at ser235/236 was detectable by 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and was maintained for hours. Phosphorylation at both sites was completely blocked by local infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist, APV. Despite robust induction of p-rpS6 following high frequency stimulation, assessment of protein synthesis by autoradiography revealed no detectable increases. Exploration of a novel environment led to increases in the number of p-rpS6-positive neurons throughout the forebrain in a pattern reminiscent of immediate early gene induction and many individual neurons that were p-rpS6-positive coexpressed Arc protein. Our results constrain hypotheses about the possible role of rpS6 phosphorylation in regulating postsynaptic protein synthesis during induction of synaptic plasticity. PMID:27194793

  8. The ribosomal protein S6 in renal cell carcinoma: functional relevance and potential as biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Maximilian; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Kopitz, Jürgen; Duensing, Stefan; Pahernik, Sascha; Hohenfellner, Markus; Schirmacher, Peter; Roth, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the mTOR pathway, such as everolimus, are promising compounds to treat patients with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). However, the precise mechanisms of action are far from clear, and biomarkers predicting the response to mTOR inhibitors are still missing. Here, we provide evidence that in RCCs the rpS6 protein is the major mediator of anti-tumoral effects exerted by everolimus. Inhibition of mTOR signaling results in substantially decreased clonogenicity and proliferation of RCC cells, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. Everolimus effectively blocked protein biosynthesis both in vitro and in a novel ex vivo tissue slice model using fresh vital human RCC tissue. Compared to other components of the mTOR pathway, phosphorylation of rpS6 was most effectively downregulated by everolimus. Importantly, siRNA-mediated downregulation of rpS6, but not of 4ebp1 or p27, abolished the inhibitory effects of everolimus on proliferation and protein synthesis. Moreover, we analyzed the tissue expression of phosphorylated rpS6 (p-rpS6) and non-phosphorylated rpS6 in a large collection of patients with RCCs (n=598 and n=548, respectively). Expression of both proteins qualified as independent negative prognostic markers with a substantially shorter survival of patients with RCCs exhibiting high levels of rpS6 and p-rpS6. Taken together, our functional studies identified rpS6 as a main mediator of the anti-tumoral activity of Everolimus. Therefore, further (pre-)clinical evaluations of rpS6 as a predictive marker for everolimus-based treatment for RCC patients are warranted. Finally, the combined detection of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated rpS6 could represent a robust prognostic marker to identify patients with high risk RCCs. PMID:26506236

  9. The ribosomal protein S6 in renal cell carcinoma: functional relevance and potential as biomarker.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Maximilian; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Kopitz, Jürgen; Duensing, Stefan; Pahernik, Sascha; Hohenfellner, Markus; Schirmacher, Peter; Roth, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the mTOR pathway, such as everolimus, are promising compounds to treat patients with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). However, the precise mechanisms of action are far from clear, and biomarkers predicting the response to mTOR inhibitors are still missing. Here, we provide evidence that in RCCs the rpS6 protein is the major mediator of anti-tumoral effects exerted by everolimus. Inhibition of mTOR signaling results in substantially decreased clonogenicity and proliferation of RCC cells, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. Everolimus effectively blocked protein biosynthesis both in vitro and in a novel ex vivo tissue slice model using fresh vital human RCC tissue. Compared to other components of the mTOR pathway, phosphorylation of rpS6 was most effectively downregulated by everolimus. Importantly, siRNA-mediated downregulation of rpS6, but not of 4ebp1 or p27, abolished the inhibitory effects of everolimus on proliferation and protein synthesis. Moreover, we analyzed the tissue expression of phosphorylated rpS6 (p-rpS6) and non-phosphorylated rpS6 in a large collection of patients with RCCs (n=598 and n=548, respectively). Expression of both proteins qualified as independent negative prognostic markers with a substantially shorter survival of patients with RCCs exhibiting high levels of rpS6 and p-rpS6. Taken together, our functional studies identified rpS6 as a main mediator of the anti-tumoral activity of Everolimus. Therefore, further (pre-)clinical evaluations of rpS6 as a predictive marker for everolimus-based treatment for RCC patients are warranted. Finally, the combined detection of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated rpS6 could represent a robust prognostic marker to identify patients with high risk RCCs. PMID:26506236

  10. A virtual screen identified C96 as a novel inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that displays potent preclinical activity against multiple myeloma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zubin; Chen, Guodong; Zhou, Xiumin; Qiao, Chunhua; Hou, Tingjun; Mao, Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway is emerging as a promising therapeutic target for multiple myeloma (MM). In the present study, we performed a virtual screen against 800,000 of small molecule compounds by targeting PI3Kγ. C96, one of such compounds, inhibited PI3K activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but did not suppress IGF-1R activation. The cell-free assay revealed that C96 preferred to inhibit PI3Kα and δ, but was not active against AKT1, 2, 3 or mTOR. C96 inhibited PI3K activation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with its inhibition on PI3K/AKT, C96 downregulated the activation of mTOR, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, but did not suppress other kinases such as ERK and c-Src. Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by C96 led to MM cell apoptosis which was demonstrated by Annexin V staining and activation of the pro-apoptotic signals. Furthermore, C96 displayed potent anti-myeloma activity in a MM xenograft model in nude mice. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bodyweight almost fully suppressed tumor growth within 16 days, but without gross toxicity. Importantly, AKT activation was suppressed in tumor tissues from C96-treated mice, which was consistent with delayed tumor growth. Thus, we identified a novel PI3K inhibitor with a great potential for MM therapy. PMID:25003534

  11. Delayed Phosphorylation of Classical Protein Kinase C (PKC) Substrates Requires PKC Internalization and Formation of the Pericentrion in a Phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    El-Osta, Mohamad A.; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jola; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2011-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that sustained activation (30–60 min) of protein kinase C (PKC) results in translocation of PKC α and βII to the pericentrion, a dynamic subset of the recycling compartment whose formation is dependent on PKC and phospholipase D (PLD). Here we investigated whether the formation of the pericentrion modulates the ability of PKC to phosphorylate substrates, especially if it reduces substrate phosphorylation by sequestering PKC. Surprisingly, using an antibody that detects phosphosubstrates of classical PKCs, the results showed that the majority of PKC phosphosubstrates are phosphorylated with delayed kinetics, correlating with the time frame of PKC translocation to the pericentrion. Substrate phosphorylation was blocked by PLD inhibitors and was not observed in response to activation of a PKC βII mutant (F663D) that is defective in interaction with PLD and in internalization. Phosphorylation was also inhibited by blocking clathrin-dependent endocytosis, demonstrating a requirement for endocytosis for the PKC-dependent major phosphorylation effects. Serotonin receptor activation by serotonin showed a similar response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, implicating a potential role of delayed kinetics in G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Evaluation of candidate substrates revealed that the phosphorylation of the PKC substrate p70S6K kinase behaved in a similar manner. Gradient-based fractionation revealed that the majority of these PKC substrates reside within the pericentrion-enriched fractions and not in the plasma membrane. Finally, proteomic analysis of the pericentrion-enriched fractions revealed several proteins as known PKC substrates and/or proteins involved in endocytic trafficking. These results reveal an important role for PKC internalization and for the pericentrion as key determinants/amplifiers of PKC action. PMID:21478146

  12. Delayed phosphorylation of classical protein kinase C (PKC) substrates requires PKC internalization and formation of the pericentrion in a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    El-Osta, Mohamad A; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jola; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2011-06-01

    It was previously demonstrated that sustained activation (30-60 min) of protein kinase C (PKC) results in translocation of PKC α and βII to the pericentrion, a dynamic subset of the recycling compartment whose formation is dependent on PKC and phospholipase D (PLD). Here we investigated whether the formation of the pericentrion modulates the ability of PKC to phosphorylate substrates, especially if it reduces substrate phosphorylation by sequestering PKC. Surprisingly, using an antibody that detects phosphosubstrates of classical PKCs, the results showed that the majority of PKC phosphosubstrates are phosphorylated with delayed kinetics, correlating with the time frame of PKC translocation to the pericentrion. Substrate phosphorylation was blocked by PLD inhibitors and was not observed in response to activation of a PKC βII mutant (F663D) that is defective in interaction with PLD and in internalization. Phosphorylation was also inhibited by blocking clathrin-dependent endocytosis, demonstrating a requirement for endocytosis for the PKC-dependent major phosphorylation effects. Serotonin receptor activation by serotonin showed a similar response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, implicating a potential role of delayed kinetics in G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Evaluation of candidate substrates revealed that the phosphorylation of the PKC substrate p70S6K kinase behaved in a similar manner. Gradient-based fractionation revealed that the majority of these PKC substrates reside within the pericentrion-enriched fractions and not in the plasma membrane. Finally, proteomic analysis of the pericentrion-enriched fractions revealed several proteins as known PKC substrates and/or proteins involved in endocytic trafficking. These results reveal an important role for PKC internalization and for the pericentrion as key determinants/amplifiers of PKC action. PMID:21478146

  13. Residues in Na(+) channel D3-S6 segment modulate both batrachotoxin and local anesthetic affinities.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Nau, C; Wang, G K

    2000-09-01

    Batrachotoxin (BTX) alters the gating of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and causes these channels to open persistently, whereas local anesthetics (LAs) block Na(+) conductance. The BTX and LA receptors have been mapped to several common residues in D1-S6 and D4-S6 segments of the Na(+) channel alpha-subunit. We substituted individual residues with lysine in homologous segment D3-S6 of the rat muscle mu1 Na(+) channel from F1274 to N1281 to determine whether additional residues are involved in BTX and LA binding. Two mutant channels, mu1-S1276K and mu1-L1280K, when expressed in mammalian cells, become completely resistant to 5 microM BTX during repetitive pulses. The activation and/or fast inactivation gating of these mutants is substantially different from that of wild type. These mutants also display approximately 10-20-fold reduction in bupivacaine affinity toward their inactivated state but show only approximately twofold affinity changes toward their resting state. These results demonstrate that residues mu1-S1276 and mu1-L1280 in D3-S6 are critical for both BTX and LA binding interactions. We propose that LAs interact readily with these residues from D3-S6 along with those from D1-S6 and D4-S6 in close proximity when the Na(+) channel is in its inactivated state. Implications of this state-dependent binding model for the S6 alignment are discussed. PMID:10969000

  14. 8 CFR 1236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition of classification. As a condition of classification and...

  15. Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation in the Nervous System: From Regulation to Function

    PubMed Central

    Biever, Anne; Valjent, Emmanuel; Puighermanal, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) about four decades ago, much effort has been made to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this post-translational modification. In the field of neuroscience, rpS6 phosphorylation is commonly used as a readout of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling activation or as a marker for neuronal activity. Nevertheless, its biological role in neurons still remains puzzling. Here we review the pharmacological and physiological stimuli regulating this modification in the nervous system as well as the pathways that transduce these signals into rpS6 phosphorylation. Altered rpS6 phosphorylation observed in various genetic and pathophysiological mouse models is also discussed. Finally, we examine the current state of knowledge on the physiological role of this post-translational modification and highlight the questions that remain to be addressed. PMID:26733799

  16. S6 inhibition contributes to isoflurane neurotoxicity in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohui; Xue, Qingsheng; Luo, Yan; Hu, Xiaodong; Yu, Buwei

    2015-03-01

    Postnatal isoflurane exposure leads to neurodegeneration and deficits of spatial learning and memory in the adulthood. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Ribosomal protein S6 is demonstrated to play a pivotal role in control of cell survival, protein synthesis and synaptogenesis for brain development. In this study, the possible role of S6 and its upstream signaling pathways in the developmental neurotoxicity of isoflurane was evaluated using models of primary cultured hippocampal neurons and postnatal day 7 rats. We found that isoflurane decreased IGF-1 level and suppressed activation of IGF-1 receptor, sequentially inhibiting S6 activity via IGF-1/MEK/ERK and IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. S6 inhibition enhanced isoflurane-induced decreased Bcl-xL and increased cleaved caspase-3 and Bad, also reduced PSD95 expression and aggravated deficits of spatial learning and memory. S6 activation could reverse the damages above. These results indicate that S6 inhibition, led by suppression of upstream IGF-1/MEK/ERK and IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, is involved in the neuroapoptosis, synaptogenesis impairment and spatial learning and memory decline caused by postnatal isoflurane exposure. S6 activation may exhibit protective potential against developmental neurotoxicity of isoflurane. PMID:25597859

  17. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation is controlled by TOR and modulated by PKA in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tahmeena; Köhler, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary TOR and PKA signaling pathways control eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation. TOR activity in model fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, responds principally to nutrients, e.g., nitrogen and phosphate sources, which are incorporated into the growing cell mass; PKA signaling responds to the availability of the cells' major energy source, glucose. In the fungal commensal and pathogen, Candida albicans, little is known of how these pathways interact. Here, the signal from phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-S6) was defined as a surrogate marker for TOR-dependent anabolic activity in C. albicans. Nutritional, pharmacologic, and genetic modulation of TOR activity elicited corresponding changes in P-S6 levels. The P-S6 signal corresponded to translational activity of a GFP reporter protein. Contributions of four PKA pathway components to anabolic activation were then examined. In high glucose concentrations, only Tpk2 was required to upregulate P-S6 to physiologic levels, whereas all four tested components were required to downregulate P-S6 in low glucose. TOR was epistatic to PKA components with respect to P-S6. In many host niches inhabited by C. albicans, glucose is scarce, with protein being available as a nitrogen source. We speculate that PKA may modulate TOR-dependent cell growth to a rate sustainable by available energy sources, when monomers of anabolic processes, such as amino acids, are abundant. PMID:26173379

  18. The selectivity of protein kinase inhibitors: a further update

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jenny; Plater, Lorna; Elliott, Matt; Shpiro, Natalia; Hastie, C. James; Mclauchlan, Hilary; Klevernic, Iva; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Alessi, Dario R.; Cohen, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70–80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB 203580/SB202190 and BIRB 0796 to be used in parallel to assess the physiological roles of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) isoforms, PI-103 and wortmannin to be used in parallel to inhibit phosphatidylinositol (phosphoinositide) 3-kinases, PP1 or PP2 to be used in parallel with Src-I1 (Src inhibitor-1) to inhibit Src family members; PD 184352 or PD 0325901 to inhibit MKK1 (MAPK kinase-1) or MKK1 plus MKK5, Akt-I-1/2 to inhibit the activation of PKB (protein kinase B/Akt), rapamycin to inhibit TORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)–raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) complex], CT 99021 to inhibit GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), BI-D1870 and SL0101 or FMK (fluoromethylketone) to be used in parallel to inhibit RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase), D4476 to inhibit CK1 (casein kinase 1), VX680 to inhibit Aurora kinases, and roscovitine as a pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. We have also identified harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase 1A) in vitro. The results have further emphasized the need for considerable caution in using small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases to assess the physiological roles of these enzymes. Despite being used widely, many of the compounds that we analysed were too non-specific for useful conclusions to be made, other than to exclude the involvement of particular protein kinases in cellular processes. PMID:17850214

  19. The selectivity of protein kinase inhibitors: a further update.

    PubMed

    Bain, Jenny; Plater, Lorna; Elliott, Matt; Shpiro, Natalia; Hastie, C James; McLauchlan, Hilary; Klevernic, Iva; Arthur, J Simon C; Alessi, Dario R; Cohen, Philip

    2007-12-15

    The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70-80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB 203580/SB202190 and BIRB 0796 to be used in parallel to assess the physiological roles of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) isoforms, PI-103 and wortmannin to be used in parallel to inhibit phosphatidylinositol (phosphoinositide) 3-kinases, PP1 or PP2 to be used in parallel with Src-I1 (Src inhibitor-1) to inhibit Src family members; PD 184352 or PD 0325901 to inhibit MKK1 (MAPK kinase-1) or MKK1 plus MKK5, Akt-I-1/2 to inhibit the activation of PKB (protein kinase B/Akt), rapamycin to inhibit TORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) complex], CT 99021 to inhibit GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), BI-D1870 and SL0101 or FMK (fluoromethylketone) to be used in parallel to inhibit RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase), D4476 to inhibit CK1 (casein kinase 1), VX680 to inhibit Aurora kinases, and roscovitine as a pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. We have also identified harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase 1A) in vitro. The results have further emphasized the need for considerable caution in using small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases to assess the physiological roles of these enzymes. Despite being used widely, many of the compounds that we analysed were too non-specific for useful conclusions to be made, other than to exclude the involvement of particular protein kinases in cellular processes. PMID:17850214

  20. Electronic Structure and Phase Transition in Ferroelectic Sn2P2S6 Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Glukhov, Konstantin; Fedyo, Kristina; Banys, Juras; Vysochanskii, Yulian

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the P2S6 cluster electronic structure and its comparison with the crystal valence band in the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases has been done by first-principles calculations for Sn2P2S6 ferroelectrics. The origin of ferroelectricity has been outlined. It was established that the spontaneous polarization follows from the stereochemical activity of the electron lone pair of tin cations, which is determined by hybridization with P2S6 molecular orbitals. The chemical bonds covalence increase and rearrangement are related to the valence band changes at transition from the paraelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase. PMID:23203069

  1. The Crosstalk of mTOR/S6K1 and Hedgehog pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Ding, Qingqing; Yen, Chia-Jui; Xia, Weiya; Izzo, Julie G.; Lang, Jing-Yu; Li, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Wang, Xuemei; Lee, Dung-Fang; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Huo, Longfei; LaBaff, Adam M.; Liu, Dong-Ping; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Wei-Chao; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Buttar, Navtej S.; Wang, Kenneth K.; Wu, Yun; Wang, Huamin; Ajani, Jaffer; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most prevalent esophageal cancer type in the United States. TNFα/mTOR pathway is known to mediate the development of EAC. Additionally, aberrant activation of Gli1, downstream effector of hedgehog pathway, has been observed in EAC. In this study, we found that activated mTOR/S6K1 pathway promotes Gli1 transcriptional activity and oncogenic function through S6K1-mediated Gli1 phosphorylation at Ser84, which releases Gli1 from its endogenous inhibitor, SuFu. Moreover, elimination of S6K1 activation by mTOR pathway inhibitor enhances the killing effects of the hedgehog pathway inhibitor. Together, our results established a crosstalk between mTOR/S6K1 and the hedgehog pathways, which provides not only a mechanism for SMO-independent Gli1 activation but also a rationale for combination therapy for EAC. PMID:22439934

  2. 8 CFR 236.4 - Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants... of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.4 Removal of S-5, S-6, and S-7 nonimmigrants. (a) Condition... section 101(a)(15)(S) of the Act, nonimmigrants in S classification must have executed Form I-854, Part...

  3. Sevoflurane inhibits the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in neonatal rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hong; Li, Chang-Lin; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Zhou-Jing; Zhao, Xuan; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Besides neurotoxic effects, inhaled anesthetics might have other adverse effects on the developing brain. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), the first identified ribosomal protein undergoing phosphorylation, has important physiological functions in regulating protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and glucose homeostasis. To date, the function of sevoflurane on rpS6 phosphorylation is unclear. In our present study, we showed that sevoflurane anesthesia inhibited rpS6 phosphorylation in cerebral cortex and CA1 region of the hippocampus. The activity of Akt was detected to be reduced within both cortical and hippocampal regions in the brain with the treatment of sevoflurane. However, the treatment seemed to have no effect on the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream effector of Akt. Sevoflurane had a paradoxical effect on ERK activity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Last but not the least, Sevoflurane increased PP1 activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Thus, the exposure to sevoflurane inhibited dramatically the phosphorylation of rpS6 in neonatal rat brains. The inhibitory effect of sevoflurane on rpS6 phosphorylation might be mediated by the suppression on AKT activity at an mTOR-independent manner and the enhancement of PP1 activity. PMID:26628963

  4. An S6:S18 complex inhibits translation of E. coli rpsF

    PubMed Central

    Babina, Arianne M.; Soo, Mark W.; Fu, Yang; Meyer, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    More than half of the ribosomal protein operons in Escherichia coli are regulated by structures within the mRNA transcripts that interact with specific ribosomal proteins to inhibit further protein expression. This regulation is accomplished using a variety of mechanisms and the RNA structures responsible for regulation are often not conserved across bacterial phyla. A widely conserved mRNA structure preceding the ribosomal protein operon containing rpsF and rpsR (encoding S6 and S18) was recently identified through comparative genomics. Examples of this RNA from both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis were shown to interact in vitro with an S6:S18 complex. In this work, we demonstrate that in E. coli, this RNA structure regulates gene expression in response to the S6:S18 complex. β-galactosidase activity from a lacZ reporter translationally fused to the 5′ UTR and first nine codons of E. coli rpsF is reduced fourfold by overexpression of a genomic fragment encoding both S6 and S18 but not by overexpression of either protein individually. Mutations to the mRNA structure, as well as to the RNA-binding site of S18 and the S6–S18 interaction surfaces of S6 and S18, are sufficient to derepress β-galactosidase activity, indicating that the S6:S18 complex is the biologically active effector. Measurement of transcript levels shows that although reporter levels do not change upon protein overexpression, levels of the native transcript are reduced fourfold, suggesting that the mRNA regulator prevents translation and this effect is amplified on the native transcript by other mechanisms. PMID:26447183

  5. S6K1 promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a model of metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khotskaya, Yekaterina B; Goverdhan, Aarthi; Shen, Jia; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Chang, Shih-Shin; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Wei, Yongkun; Xia, Weiya; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of oncology-related death in US women. Of all invasive breast cancers, patients with tumors lacking expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have the poorest clinical prognosis. These referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represent an aggressive form of disease that is marked by early-onset metastasis, high tumor recurrence rate, and low overall survival during the first three years post-diagnosis. In this report, we discuss a novel model of early-onset TNBC metastasis to bone and lungs, derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast cancer cells injected intravenously produced rapid, osteolytic metastases in long bones and spines of athymic nude mice, with concurrent metastasis to lungs, liver, and soft tissues. From the bone metastases, we developed a highly metastatic luciferase-tagged cell line variant named MDA-231-LUC Met. In this report, we demonstrate that the Akt/mTOR/S6K1 axis is hyperactivated in these cells, leading to a dramatic increase in phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein at Ser235/236. Lastly, we provide evidence that inhibition of the furthest downstream kinase in the mTOR pathway, S6K1, with a highly specific inhibitor PF-4708671 inhibits cell migration, and thus may provide a potent anti-metastatic adjuvant therapy approach. PMID:25075253

  6. Skewed pattern of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated cytokine production in human neonatal blood: Low LPS-induced IL-12p70 and high IL-10 persist throughout the first month of life

    PubMed Central

    Belderbos, M.E.; van Bleek, G.M.; Levy, O.; Blanken, M.O.; Houben, M.L.; Schuijff, L.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bont, L.

    2010-01-01

    Newborns are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, which may be due to impaired immune responses. This study aims to characterize the ontogeny of neonatal TLR-based innate immunity during the first month of life. Cellularity and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist-induced cytokine production were compared between cord blood obtained from healthy neonates born after uncomplicated gestation and delivery (n=18), neonatal venous blood obtained at the age of one month (n=96), and adult venous blood (n=17). Cord blood TLR agonist-induced production of the Th1-polarizing cytokines IL-12p70 and IFN-α was generally impaired, but for TLR3, 7 and 9 agonists, rapidly increased to adult levels during the first month of life. In contrast, TLR4 demonstrated a slower maturation, with low LPS-induced IL-12p70 production and high IL-10 production up until the age of one month. Polarization in neonatal cytokine responses to LPS could contribute to neonatal susceptibility to severe bacterial infection. PMID:19648060

  7. HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses in fractionated γ-irradiated mice by modulating the IL-12p70-STAT4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Choi, Nam-Hee; Jung, Uhee

    2012-05-01

    Whole body irradiated mice appear to experience a down-regulation of the helper T (Th)1-like immune response, and maintain a persistent immunological imbalance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HemoHIM (an herbal product made from Angelica Radix, Cnidium officinale , and Paeonia japonica cultivated in Korea) to ameliorate the immunological imbalance induce in fractionated γ-irradiated mice. The mice were exposed to γ rays twice a week (0.5 Gy fractions) for a total dose of 5 Gy, and HemoHIM was administrated orally from 1 week before the first irradiation to 1 week before the final analysis. All experiments were performed 4 and 6 months after their first exposure. HemoHIM ameliorated the Th1- and Th2-related immune responses normally occur in irradiated mice with or without dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. HemoHIM also restored the natural killer cell activities without changing the percentage of natural killer cells in irradiated mice. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM prevented the reduction in levels of interleukin-12p70 in irradiated mice. Finally, we found that HemoHIM enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4 that was reduced in irradiated mice. Our findings suggest that HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses by modulating the IL-12p70/pSTAT4 signaling pathway. PMID:22439601

  8. Activation and cytokine profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells in leprosy: in vitro stimulation by sonicated Mycobacterium leprae induces decreased level of IL-12p70 in lepromatous leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Braga, André Flores; Moretto, Daniela Ferraz; Gigliotti, Patrícia; Peruchi, Mariela; Vilani-Moreno, Fátima Regina; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Latini, Ana Carla Pereira; Iyer, Anand; Das, Pranab Kumar; de Souza, Vânia Nieto Brito

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the connection of innate and adaptive immunity of hosts to mycobacterial infection. Studies on the interaction of monocyte-derived DCs (MO-DCs) using Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients are rare. The present study demonstrated that the differentiation of MOs to DCs was similar in all forms of leprosy compared to normal healthy individuals. In vitro stimulation of immature MO-DCs with sonicated M. leprae induced variable degrees of DC maturation as determined by the increased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD83, in all studied groups. The production of different cytokines by the MO-DCs appeared similar in all of the studied groups under similar conditions. However, the production of interleukin (IL)-12p70 by MO-DCs from lepromatous (LL) leprosy patients after in vitro stimulation with M. leprae was lower than tuberculoid leprosy patients and healthy individuals, even after CD40 ligation with CD40 ligand-transfected cells. The present cumulative findings suggest that the MO-DCs of LL patients are generally a weak producer of IL-12p70 despite the moderate activating properties ofM. leprae. These results may explain the poor M. leprae-specific cell-mediated immunity in the LL type of leprosy. PMID:26222022

  9. Activation and cytokine profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells in leprosy: in vitro stimulation by sonicated Mycobacterium leprae induces decreased level of IL-12p70 in lepromatous leprosy.

    PubMed

    Braga, André Flores; Moretto, Daniela Ferraz; Gigliotti, Patrícia; Peruchi, Mariela; Vilani-Moreno, Fátima Regina; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Latini, Ana Carla Pereira; Iyer, Anand; Das, Pranab Kumar; Souza, Vânia Nieto Brito de

    2015-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the connection of innate and adaptive immunity of hosts to mycobacterial infection. Studies on the interaction of monocyte-derived DCs (MO-DCs) using Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients are rare. The present study demonstrated that the differentiation of MOs to DCs was similar in all forms of leprosy compared to normal healthy individuals. In vitro stimulation of immature MO-DCs with sonicated M. leprae induced variable degrees of DC maturation as determined by the increased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD83, in all studied groups. The production of different cytokines by the MO-DCs appeared similar in all of the studied groups under similar conditions. However, the production of interleukin (IL)-12p70 by MO-DCs from lepromatous (LL) leprosy patients after in vitro stimulation with M. leprae was lower than tuberculoid leprosy patients and healthy individuals, even after CD40 ligation with CD40 ligand-transfected cells. The present cumulative findings suggest that the MO-DCs of LL patients are generally a weak producer of IL-12p70 despite the moderate activating properties ofM. leprae. These results may explain the poor M. leprae-specific cell-mediated immunity in the LL type of leprosy. PMID:26222022

  10. Altered molecular expression of TLR-signaling pathways affects the steady-state release of IL-12p70 and IFN-α in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Deckx, Nathalie; Willekens, Barbara; Wens, Inez; Eijnde, Bert O; Goossens, Herman; Van Damme, Pierre; Berneman, Zwi N; Cools, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests a key role of dendritic cells (DC) in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Whereas dysfunction of DC was reported in MS patients, the underlying cause for this is not fully elucidated yet. The aim of the present study was to compare the gene expression profile of molecules involved in TLR4 and TLR7 signaling in DC from patients with MS and healthy controls. For this, circulating DC subsets were purified from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and from healthy controls for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Additionally, TLR responsiveness in peripheral blood was investigated. We observed an aberrant steady-state release of IL-12p70 and IFN-α in patients with RRMS compared with healthy controls. Expression of IRF1 and JUN was reduced in conventional DC from patients with RRMS. In plasmacytoid DC from patients with RRMS, expression of IRF7 and IFNGR1 was reduced, while higher expression levels of TLR4 and LY86 were found compared with DC from healthy controls. The observed alterations in the gene expression of molecules involved in the TLR4 and TLR7 signaling pathways in circulating DC subsets may underlie the impaired IL-12p70 and IFN-α secretion in patients with RRMS, thereby potentially contributing to the disease pathogenesis of MS. PMID:27036414

  11. Isomers among the carbon sulfides C4S6--synthesis and crystal structures of alpha,alpha-C4S6, alpha,beta-C4S6, and of a second polymorph of the diiodine adduct alpha,beta-C4S6.I2.

    PubMed

    Beck, Johannes; Daniels, Jörg; Roloff, Albrecht; Wagner, Norbert

    2006-03-01

    The reaction of the alpha and beta forms of C3S5(2-) with thiophosgene yields two isomeric carbon sulfides alpha,alpha-C4S6 and alpha,beta-C4S6, respectively. The crystal structures of both compounds could be determined for the first time. Both structures are made up of almost planar molecules. The alpha,alpha-isomer (1,3-dithiolo-(4,5-d)-1,3-dithol-2,5-dithione) is D2h-symmetric, while the alpha,beta-isomer is approximately Cs-symmetric. In the molecules of both isomers the two different C3S5 units are retained without significant alterations of structural parameters. alpha,alpha-C4S6 is unstable with respect to alpha,beta-C4S6. The molecular rearrangement can be induced by a short thermal treatment at 150 degrees C. Significant differences are found in the mass spectra fragmentation patterns. Only alpha,beta-C4S6 shows an intense signal for C3S2+ and is therefore a potential source for the synthesis of carbon subsulfide via flash vacuum pyrolysis. Only alpha,beta-C4S6 forms a stable adduct with I2. alpha,beta-C4S6.I2 was already known (F. L. Lu, K. M. Keshavarz-K, G. Srdanov, R. H. Jacobson and F. Wudl, J. Org. Chem., 1989, 54, 2165, ), but a second polymorph is formed on crystallisation from a different solvent. The two polymorphic forms do not show differences in the structures of the individual molecules but show a different packing pattern. alpha,beta-C4S6.I2 is remarkably thermally stable. Thermal analysis shows that I2 cleavage occurs in that temperature region above 200 degrees C when C-S bonds are broken and CS2 and I2 are simultaneously liberated. Performed at 270 degrees C thermolysis of alpha,beta-C4S6.I2 yields under cleavage of I2 and CS2 a black polymeric carbon sulfide (CS)x which is probably a mixture of graphitic carbon and unidentified amorphous polymeric carbon sulfides. PMID:16482354

  12. Phenotypically Dormant and Immature Leukaemia Cells Display Increased Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Pallis, Monica; Harvey, Tamsin; Russell, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity drives a number of key metabolic processes including growth and protein synthesis. Inhibition of the mTOR pathway promotes cellular dormancy. Since cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can be phenotypically dormant (quiescent), we examined biomarkers of their mTOR pathway activity concurrently with Ki-67 and CD71 (indicators of cycling cells) by quantitative flow cytometry. Using antibodies to phosphorylated epitopes of mTOR (S2448) and its downstream targets ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6, S235/236) and 4E-BP1 (T36/45), we documented that these phosphorylations were negligible in lymphocytes, but evident in dormant as well as proliferating subsets of both mobilised normal stem cell harvest CD34+ cells and AML blasts. Although mTOR phosphorylation in AML blasts was lower than that of the normal CD34+ cells, p-4E-BP1 was 2.6-fold higher and p-rpS6 was 22-fold higher. Moreover, in contrast to 4E-BP1, rpS6 phosphorylation was higher in dormant than proliferating AML blasts, and was also higher in the immature CD34+CD38- blast subset. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas show that rpS6 expression is associated with that of respiratory chain enzymes in AML. We conclude that phenotypic quiescence markers do not necessarily predict metabolic dormancy and that elevated rpS6 ser235/236 phosphorylation is characteristic of AML. PMID:26985829

  13. Phenotypically Dormant and Immature Leukaemia Cells Display Increased Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Pallis, Monica; Harvey, Tamsin; Russell, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity drives a number of key metabolic processes including growth and protein synthesis. Inhibition of the mTOR pathway promotes cellular dormancy. Since cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can be phenotypically dormant (quiescent), we examined biomarkers of their mTOR pathway activity concurrently with Ki-67 and CD71 (indicators of cycling cells) by quantitative flow cytometry. Using antibodies to phosphorylated epitopes of mTOR (S2448) and its downstream targets ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6, S235/236) and 4E-BP1 (T36/45), we documented that these phosphorylations were negligible in lymphocytes, but evident in dormant as well as proliferating subsets of both mobilised normal stem cell harvest CD34+ cells and AML blasts. Although mTOR phosphorylation in AML blasts was lower than that of the normal CD34+ cells, p-4E-BP1 was 2.6-fold higher and p-rpS6 was 22-fold higher. Moreover, in contrast to 4E-BP1, rpS6 phosphorylation was higher in dormant than proliferating AML blasts, and was also higher in the immature CD34+CD38- blast subset. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas show that rpS6 expression is associated with that of respiratory chain enzymes in AML. We conclude that phenotypic quiescence markers do not necessarily predict metabolic dormancy and that elevated rpS6 ser235/236 phosphorylation is characteristic of AML. PMID:26985829

  14. Blocking rpS6 Phosphorylation Exacerbates Tsc1 Deletion-Induced Kidney Growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huijuan; Chen, Jianchun; Xu, Jinxian; Dong, Zheng; Meyuhas, Oded; Chen, Jian-Kang

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying renal growth and renal growth-induced nephron damage remain poorly understood. Here, we report that in murine models, deletion of the tuberous sclerosis complex protein 1 (Tsc1) in renal proximal tubules induced strikingly enlarged kidneys, with minimal cystogenesis and occasional microscopic tumorigenesis. Signaling studies revealed hyperphosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and increased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in activated renal tubules. Notably, knockin of a nonphosphorylatable rpS6 in theseTsc1-mutant mice exacerbated cystogenesis and caused drastic nephron damage and renal fibrosis, leading to kidney failure and a premature death rate of 67% by 9 weeks of age. In contrast,Tsc1single-mutant mice were all alive and had far fewer renal cysts at this age. Mechanistic studies revealed persistent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling causing hyperphosphorylation and consequent accumulation of 4E-BP1, along with greater cell proliferation, in the renal tubules ofTsc1andrpS6double-mutant mice. Furthermore, pharmacologic treatment ofTsc1single-mutant mice with rapamycin reduced hyperphosphorylation and accumulation of 4E-BP1 but also inhibited phosphorylation of rpS6. Rapamycin also exacerbated cystic and fibrotic lesions and impaired kidney function in these mice, consequently leading to a premature death rate of 40% within 2 weeks of treatment, despite destroying tumors and decreasing kidney size. These findings indicate that Tsc1 prevents aberrant renal growth and tumorigenesis by inhibiting mTORC1 signaling, whereas phosphorylated rpS6 suppresses cystogenesis and fibrosis inTsc1-deleted kidneys. PMID:26296742

  15. Highly efficient acousto-optic diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals.

    PubMed

    Martynyuk-Lototska, I Yu; Mys, O G; Grabar, A A; Stoika, I M; Vysochanskii, Yu M; Vlokh, R O

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the acousto-optic (AO) diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals and found that they manifest high values of an AO figure of merit. The above crystals may therefore be used as highly efficient materials in different AO applications. PMID:18157276

  16. Prokaryotic Diacylglycerol Kinase and Undecaprenol Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Wade D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) and undecaprenol kinase (UDPK) are the lone members of a family of multispan membrane enzymes that are very small, lack relationships to any other family of proteinsincluding water soluble kinases, and that exhibit an unusual structure and active site architecture. Escherichia coli DAGK plays an important role in recycling diacylglycerol produced as a byproduct of biosynthesis of molecules located in the periplasmic space. UDPK seems to play an analogous role in Gram-positive bacteria, where its importance is evident by the fact that UDPK is essential for biofilm formation by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. DAGK has also long served as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, folding, stability, and structure. This review explores our current understanding of the microbial physiology, enzymology, structural biology, and folding of the prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family, which is based on over 40 years of studies. PMID:22224599

  17. Disparate role of Na(+) channel D2-S6 residues in batrachotoxin and local anesthetic action.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Barile, M; Wang, G K

    2001-05-01

    Batrachotoxin (BTX) stabilizes the voltage-gated Na(+) channels in their open conformation, whereas local anesthetics (LAs) block Na(+) conductance. Site-directed mutagenesis has identified clusters of common residues at D1-S6, D3-S6, and D4-S6 segments within the alpha-subunit Na(+) channel that are critical for binding of these two types of ligands. In this report, we address whether segment D2-S6 is similarly involved in both BTX and LA actions. Thirteen amino acid positions from G783 to L795 of the rat skeletal muscle Na(+) channel ((mu)1/Skm1) were individually substituted with a lysine residue. Four mutants (N784K, L785K, V787K, and L788K) expressed sufficient Na(+) currents for further studies. Activation and/or inactivation gating was altered in mutant channels; in particular, mu1-V787K displays enhanced slow inactivation and exhibited use-dependent inhibition of peak Na(+) currents during repetitive pulses. Two of these four mutants, (mu)1-N784K and (mu)1-L788K, were completely resistant to 5 microM BTX. This BTX-resistant phenotype could be caused by structural perturbations induced by a lysine point mutation in the D2-S6 segment. However, these two BTX-resistant mutants remained quite sensitive to bupivacaine block with affinity for inactivated Na(+) channels (K(I)) of approximately 10 microM or less, which suggests that (mu)1-N784 and (mu)1-L788 residues are not in close proximity to the LA binding site. PMID:11306693

  18. A Novel (S)-6-Hydroxynicotine Oxidase Gene from Shinella sp. Strain HZN7

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jiguo; Wei, Yin; Ma, Yun; Wen, Rongti; Wen, Yuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine is an important environmental toxicant in tobacco waste. Shinella sp. strain HZN7 can metabolize nicotine into nontoxic compounds via variations of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. However, the catabolic mechanism of this variant pathway at the gene or enzyme level is still unknown. In this study, two 6-hydroxynicotine degradation-deficient mutants, N7-M9 and N7-W3, were generated by transposon mutagenesis. The corresponding mutant genes, designated nctB and tnp2, were cloned and analyzed. The nctB gene encodes a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase that converts (S)-6-hydroxynicotine into 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and then spontaneously hydrolyzes into 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine. The deletion and complementation of the nctB gene showed that this enzyme is essential for nicotine or (S)-6-hydroxynicotine degradation. Purified NctB could also convert (S)-nicotine into N-methylmyosmine, which spontaneously hydrolyzed into pseudooxynicotine. The kinetic constants of NctB toward (S)-6-hydroxynicotine (Km = 0.019 mM, kcat = 7.3 s?1) and nicotine (Km = 2.03 mM, kcat = 0.396 s?1) indicated that (S)-6-hydroxynicotine is the preferred substrate in vivo. NctB showed no activities toward the R enantiomer of nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine. Strain HZN7 could degrade (R)-nicotine into (R)-6-hydroxynicotine without any further degradation. The tnp2 gene from mutant N7-W3 encodes a putative transposase, and its deletion did not abolish the nicotine degradation activity. This study advances the understanding of the microbial diversity of nicotine biodegradation. PMID:25002425

  19. A novel (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase gene from Shinella sp. strain HZN7.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiguo; Wei, Yin; Ma, Yun; Wen, Rongti; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    Nicotine is an important environmental toxicant in tobacco waste. Shinella sp. strain HZN7 can metabolize nicotine into nontoxic compounds via variations of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. However, the catabolic mechanism of this variant pathway at the gene or enzyme level is still unknown. In this study, two 6-hydroxynicotine degradation-deficient mutants, N7-M9 and N7-W3, were generated by transposon mutagenesis. The corresponding mutant genes, designated nctB and tnp2, were cloned and analyzed. The nctB gene encodes a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase that converts (S)-6-hydroxynicotine into 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and then spontaneously hydrolyzes into 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine. The deletion and complementation of the nctB gene showed that this enzyme is essential for nicotine or (S)-6-hydroxynicotine degradation. Purified NctB could also convert (S)-nicotine into N-methylmyosmine, which spontaneously hydrolyzed into pseudooxynicotine. The kinetic constants of NctB toward (S)-6-hydroxynicotine (Km = 0.019 mM, kcat = 7.3 s(-1)) and nicotine (Km = 2.03 mM, kcat = 0.396 s(-1)) indicated that (S)-6-hydroxynicotine is the preferred substrate in vivo. NctB showed no activities toward the R enantiomer of nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine. Strain HZN7 could degrade (R)-nicotine into (R)-6-hydroxynicotine without any further degradation. The tnp2 gene from mutant N7-W3 encodes a putative transposase, and its deletion did not abolish the nicotine degradation activity. This study advances the understanding of the microbial diversity of nicotine biodegradation. PMID:25002425

  20. Sigma Receptor 1 activation attenuates release of inflammatory cytokines MIP1γ, MIP2, MIP3α and IL12 (p40/p70) by retinal Müller glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, A.; Wang, J.; Markand, S.; Perry, R.L.; Tawfik, A.; Zorrilla, E.; Ganapathy, V.; Smith, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    The high affinity Sigma Receptor 1 (σR1) ligand (+)-pentazocine ((+)-PTZ) affords profound retinal neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo by a yet-unknown mechanism. A common feature of retinal disease is Müller cell reactive gliosis, which includes cytokine release. Here we investigated whether LPS stimulates cytokine release by primary mouse Müller cells and whether (+)-PTZ alters release. Using a highly sensitive inflammatory antibody array we observed significant release of macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP1γ, MIP2, MIP3α) and interleukin-12 (IL12 (p40/p70)) in LPS-treated cells compared to controls, and a significant decrease in secretion upon (+)-PTZ treatment. Müller cells from σR1 knockout mice demonstrated increased MIP1γ, MIP2, MIP3α and IL12 (p40/p70) secretion when exposed to LPS compared to LPS-stimulated WT cells. We investigated whether cytokine secretion was accompanied by cytosolic-to-nuclear NFκB translocation and whether endothelial cell adhesion/migration was altered by released cytokines. Cells exposed to LPS demonstrated increased NFκB nuclear location, which was reduced significantly in (+)-PTZ-treated cells. Media conditioned by LPS-stimulated-Müller cells induced leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and endothelial cell migration, which was attenuated by (+)-PTZ treatment. The findings suggest that release of certain inflammatory cytokines by Müller cells can be attenuated by σR1 ligands providing insights into the retinal neuroprotective role of this receptor. PMID:25439327

  1. Dual inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in human nonsmall cell lung cancer cells by a dietary flavonoid fisetin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Khusro, Fatima H; Mustafa Adhami, Vaqar; Suh, Yewseok; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignancies. It has been reported that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is phosphorylated in lung cancer and its activation was more frequent in tumors with overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. Therefore, dual inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling could be valuable agents for treating lung cancer. In the present study, we show that fisetin, a dietary tetrahydroxyflavone inhibits cell growth with the concomitant suppression of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Using autodock 4, we found that fisetin physically interacts with the mTOR complex at two sites. Fisetin treatment was also found to reduce the formation of A549 cell colonies in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with fisetin caused decrease in the protein expression of PI3K (p85 and p110), inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K1, eIF-4E and 4E-BP1. Fisetin-treated cells also exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the constituents of mTOR signaling complex such as Rictor, Raptor, GβL and PRAS40. There was an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPKα and a decrease in the phosphorylation of TSC2 on treatment of cells with fisetin. We also found that treatment of cells with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and mTOR-siRNA caused decrease in phosphorylation of mTOR and its target proteins which were further downregulated on treatment with fisetin, suggesting that these effects are mediated in part, through mTOR signaling. Our results show that fisetin suppressed PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling in NSCLC cells and thus, could be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent against human lung cancer. PMID:21618507

  2. Protein Kinase C-mediated Phosphorylation and Activation of PDE3A Regulate cAMP Levels in Human Platelets*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Roger W.; MacKintosh, Carol; Hers, Ingeborg

    2009-01-01

    The elevation of [cAMP]i is an important mechanism of platelet inhibition and is regulated by the opposing activity of adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase (PDE). In this study, we demonstrate that a variety of platelet agonists, including thrombin, significantly enhance the activity of PDE3A in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Stimulation of platelets with the PAR-1 agonist SFLLRN resulted in rapid and transient phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser312, Ser428, Ser438, Ser465, and Ser492, in parallel with the PKC (protein kinase C) substrate, pleckstrin. Furthermore, phosphorylation and activation of PDE3A required the activation of PKC, but not of PI3K/PKB, mTOR/p70S6K, or ERK/RSK. Activation of PKC by phorbol esters also resulted in phosphorylation of the same PDE3A sites in a PKC-dependent, PKB-independent manner. This was further supported by the finding that IGF-1, which strongly activates PI3K/PKB, but not PKC, did not regulate PDE3A. Platelet activation also led to a PKC-dependent association between PDE3A and 14-3-3 proteins. In contrast, cAMP-elevating agents such as PGE1 and forskolin-induced phosphorylation of Ser312 and increased PDE3A activity, but did not stimulate 14-3-3 binding. Finally, complete antagonism of PGE1-evoked cAMP accumulation by thrombin required both Gi and PKC activation. Together, these results demonstrate that platelet activation stimulates PKC-dependent phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser312, Ser428, Ser438, Ser465, and Ser492 leading to a subsequent increase in cAMP hydrolysis and 14-3-3 binding. PMID:19261611

  3. Colossal tuning of an energy gap in Sn2P2S6 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchennikov, Vladimir V.; Morozova, Natalia V.; Tyagur, Iryna; Tyagur, Yuriy; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.

    2011-11-01

    We report results of investigation of electrical and thermoelectric properties of Sn2P2S6 under strong compression up to 20 GPa. An "insulator-metal"(I-M)-type transition was discovered by a monotonic and reversible lowering of electrical resistivity by 9-10 orders. The energy gap (Eg = 2.3 eV) was estimated to decrease to ˜0.25-0.3 eV at 20 GPa. X-ray diffraction and Raman studies on samples recovered from the high pressure experiments confirm a conservation of the original monoclinic lattice. Thus, a colossal "band-gap engineering" potential is revealed in this optical material. Sn2P2S6 is a potential candidate for emergent multi-functional switches, between transparent "insulator" state and conducting state with magneto-dependent properties.

  4. Crystal structure of the ribosomal protein S6 from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, M; Svensson, L A; Liljas, A; Sedelnikova, S E; Eliseikina, I A; Fomenkova, N P; Nevskaya, N; Nikonov, S V; Garber, M B; Muranova, T A

    1994-01-01

    The amino acid sequence and crystal structure of the ribosomal protein S6 from the small ribosomal subunit of Thermus thermophilus have been determined. S6 is a small protein with 101 amino acid residues. The 3D structure, which was determined to 2.0 A resolution, consists of a four-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet with two alpha-helices packed on one side. Similar folding patterns have been observed for other ribosomal proteins and may suggest an original RNA-interacting motif. Related topologies are also found in several other nucleic acid-interacting proteins and based on the assumption that the structure of the ribosome was established early in the molecular evolution, the possibility that an ancestral RNA-interacting motif in ribosomal proteins is the evolutionary origin for the nucleic acid-interacting domain in large classes of ribonucleic acid binding proteins should be considered. Images PMID:8137808

  5. KEA: kinase enrichment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Alexander; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Multivariate experiments applied to mammalian cells often produce lists of proteins/genes altered under treatment versus control conditions. Such lists can be projected onto prior knowledge of kinase–substrate interactions to infer the list of kinases associated with a specific protein list. By computing how the proportion of kinases, associated with a specific list of proteins/genes, deviates from an expected distribution, we can rank kinases and kinase families based on the likelihood that these kinases are functionally associated with regulating the cell under specific experimental conditions. Such analysis can assist in producing hypotheses that can explain how the kinome is involved in the maintenance of different cellular states and can be manipulated to modulate cells towards a desired phenotype. Summary: Kinase enrichment analysis (KEA) is a web-based tool with an underlying database providing users with the ability to link lists of mammalian proteins/genes with the kinases that phosphorylate them. The system draws from several available kinase–substrate databases to compute kinase enrichment probability based on the distribution of kinase–substrate proportions in the background kinase–substrate database compared with kinases found to be associated with an input list of genes/proteins. Availability: The KEA system is freely available at http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/lib/kea.jsp Contact: avi.maayan@mssm.edu PMID:19176546

  6. Final report of APMP.QM-S6: clenbuterol in porcine meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, D. W.-M.; Ho, C.; Yip, Y.-C.

    2016-01-01

    At the CCQM Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) Meeting held in April 2012 and the APMP TCQM Meeting held in November 2012, an APMP supplementary comparison (APMP.QM-S6) on the determination of clenbuterol in porcine meat was supported by the OAWG and APMP TCQM. This comparison was organized by the Government Laboratory, Hong Kong. In order to accommodate a wider participation, a pilot study (APMP.QM-P22) was run in parallel to APMP.QM-S6. This study provided the means for assessing the measurement capabilities for determination of low-polarity measurands in a procedure that requires extraction, clean-up, analytical separation, and selective detection in a food matrix. A total of 7 institutes registered for the supplementary comparison and 6 of them submitted their results. 4 results were included for SCRV calculation. All participating laboratories applied Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LCMS/MS) technique with clenbuterol-d9 as internal standard spiked for quantitation in this programme. KEY WORDS FOR SEARCH APMP.QM-S6 and Clenbuterol Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Synthesis and Molecular Recognition of Water-Soluble S6-Corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Hui; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2015-07-13

    We report the efficient and scalable synthesis and molecular-recognition properties of novel and water-soluble S6-corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines. The synthesis comprises a one-pot nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction between diesters of 2,5-dimercaptoterephthalate and 3,6-dichlorotetrazine followed by the inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of the tetrazine moieties with an enamine and exhaustive saponification of esters. The resulting S6-corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines, which adopt a 1,3,5-alternate conformation in the crystalline state, are able to selectively form stable 1:1 complexes with dicationic guest species in water with association constants ranging from (1.100.06)10(3) ?M(-1) to (1.180.06)10(5) ?M(-1). The easy availability, large cavity size, strong and selective binding power render the water-soluble S6-corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines useful macrocyclic hosts in various disciplines of supramolecular chemistry. PMID:26038253

  8. Ex Vivo Nicotine Stimulation Augments the Efficacy of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell-Derived Dendritic Cell Vaccination via Activating Akt-S6 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan Yan; Yang, Yi Wen; You, Xiang; Deng, Xiao Qian; Hu, Chun Fang; Zhu, Cong; Wang, Jun Yao; Gu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yi Nan; Li, Qing; Gao, Feng Guang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) agonist nicotine has stimulatory effects on murine bone marrow-derived semimature DCs, but the effect of nicotine on peripheral blood mononuclear cell- (PBMC-) derived human semimature dendritic cells (hu-imDCs) is still to be clarified. In the present study, hu-imDCs (cultured 4 days) were conferred with  ex vivo lower dose nicotine stimulation and the effect of nicotine on surface molecules expression, the ability of cross-presentation, DCs-mediated PBMC priming, and activated signaling pathways were determined. We could demonstrate that the treatment with nicotine resulted in increased surface molecules expression, enhanced hu-imDCs-mediated PBMC proliferation, upregulated release of IL-12 in the supernatant of cocultured DCs-PBMC, and augmented phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6. Nicotine associated with traces of LPS efficiently enhanced endosomal translocation of internalized ovalbumin (OVA) and increased TAP-OVA colocalization. Importantly, the upregulation of nicotine-increased surface molecules upregulation was significantly abrogated by the inhibition of Akt kinase. These findings demonstrate that ex vivo nicotine stimulation augments hu-imDCs surface molecules expression via Akt-S6 pathway, combined with increased Ag-presentation result in augmented efficacy of DCs-mediated PBMC proliferation and Th1 polarization. PMID:26351626

  9. Pharmacological Activities and Hydrolysis by Peptidases of [Phospho-Ser(6)]-Bradykinin (pS(6)-BK).

    PubMed

    Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Luiz; Paschoalin, Thaysa; Kouyoumdjian, Maria; Calixto, Joao B; Santos, Robson A S; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Gauthier, Francis; Moreau, Thierry; Blaber, Michael; Juliano, Maria A

    2015-09-15

    Phosphorylated kininogen and some of its fragments containing serine phosphorylated bradykinin ([pS(6)]-Bk) were identified in human serum and plasma by a phosphoproteomic approach. We report the kininogenase ability of human tissue and plasma kallikreins and tryptase to generate [pS(6)]-Bk or Lys-[pS(6)]-Bk having as substrate the synthetic human kininogen fluorescent fragment Abz-MISLMKRPPGF[pS(386)]PFRSSRI-NH2. The pharmacological assays of [pS(6)]-Bk showed it as a full B2 bradykinin receptor agonist in smooth muscle, it produces a portal liver hypertensive response in rat and mouse paw edema that lasts longer than Bk. The rat hypotensive response to infusions of Bk is greater than that of [pS(6)]Bk, both if injected through femoral vein or aorta. [pS(6)]-Bk was more resistant than Bk to kininase digestion performed with angiotensin converting enzyme, neprilysin, thimet oligopeptidase, aminopeptidase P and carboxypeptidase M. (1)H-NMR experiments indicated that [pS(6)]-Bk has lower flexibility, with the pS(6)-P(7) bond restricted to the trans conformation, and can explain [pS(6)]-Bk resistance to hydrolysis. In conclusion, [pS(6)]-Bk presenting lower activity than Bk, with longer lasting effects and being slowly released by kininogenases from synthetic Abz-MISLMKRPPGF[pS(386)]PFRSSRI-NH2, suggests that phosphorylation of the kininogens can be an efficient kallikrein-kinin system regulator. PMID:26235942

  10. Targeting Protein Kinases with Selective and Semi-Promiscuous Covalent Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rand M.; Taunton, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors are an important class of therapeutics. In addition, selective kinase inhibitors can often reveal unexpected biological insights, augmenting genetic approaches and playing a decisive role in preclinical target validation studies. Nevertheless, developing protein kinase inhibitors with sufficient selectivity and pharmacodynamic potency presents significant challenges. Targeting noncatalytic cysteines with covalent inhibitors is a powerful approach to address both challenges simultaneously. Here, we describe our efforts to design irreversible and reversible electrophilic inhibitors with varying degrees of kinase selectivity. Highly selective covalent inhibitors have been used to elucidate the roles of p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (RSK) in animal models of atherosclerosis and diabetes. By contrast, semi-promiscuous covalent inhibitors have revealed new therapeutic targets in disease-causing parasites and have shown utility as chemoproteomic probes for interrogating kinase occupancy in living cells. PMID:25399643

  11. From Phosphosites to Kinases.

    PubMed

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V; Jensen, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a pivotal role in propagating the phosphorylation-mediated signaling networks in living cells. With the overwhelming quantities of phosphoproteomics data being generated, the number of identified phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) is ever increasing. Often, proteomics investigations aim to understand the global signaling modulation that takes place in different biological conditions investigated. For phosphoproteomics data, identifying the kinases central to mediating this response is key. This has prompted several efforts to catalogue the immense amounts of phosphorylation data and known or predicted kinases responsible for the modifications. However, barely 20 % of the known phosphosites are assigned to a kinase, initiating various bioinformatics efforts that attempt to predict the responsible kinases. These algorithms employ different approaches to predict kinase consensus sequence motifs, mostly based on large scale in vivo and in vitro experiments. The context of the kinase and the phosphorylated proteins in a biological system is equally important for predicting association between the enzymes and substrates, an aspect that is also being tackled with available bioinformatics tools. This chapter summarizes the use of the larger phosphorylation databases, and approaches that can be applied to predict kinases that phosphorylate individual sites or that are globally modulated in phosphoproteomics datasets. PMID:26584935

  12. Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2–RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex

    PubMed Central

    Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gergő; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszenői, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase–kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK→MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 “docking” groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they “readjust,” whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state. PMID:25730857

  13. The secretory pathway kinases.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, Anju; Kinch, Lisa N; Tagliabracci, Vincent S

    2015-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a nearly universal post-translation modification involved in a plethora of cellular events. Even though phosphorylation of extracellular proteins had been observed, the identity of the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins remained a mystery until only recently. Advances in genome sequencing and genetic studies have paved the way for the discovery of a new class of kinases that localize within the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the extracellular space. These novel kinases phosphorylate proteins and proteoglycans in the secretory pathway and appear to regulate various extracellular processes. Mutations in these kinases cause human disease, thus underscoring the biological importance of phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25862977

  14. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Woo-Young; Koh, Hee-Jong; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2015-09-18

    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. PMID:26241676

  15. Reduced ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation after progressive resistance exercise in growing adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Nathan J; Nokleby, Jessica J; Thicke, Bethany M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate moderate intensity progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in growing adolescent rats and its effect on muscle hypertrophy (defined as an increase in fiber cross-sectional area [CSA]). We hypothesized that in adolescent animals moderate intensity PRE would increase (a) fiber CSA; (b) myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content; and (c) expression and phosphorylation of cell signaling molecules involved in translational regulation, compared with that in age-matched sedentary (SED) controls. In the PRE group, 3-week-old male rats were trained to climb a vertical ladder as a mode of PRE training such that by 10 weeks all animals in the PRE group had progressed to carry an additional 80% of their body weight per climb. In agreement with our hypotheses, we observed that 10 weeks of moderate PRE in adolescent animals was sufficient to increase the CSA of muscle fibers and increase MyHC content. The average muscle fiber CSA increased by >10%, and the total MyHC content increased by 35% (p < 0.05) in the PRE group compared with that in the SED animals. Concurrently, we investigated sustained changes in the expression and phosphorylation of key signaling molecules that are previously identified regulators of hypertrophy in adult animal models. Contrary to our hypotheses, expression and phosphorylation of the translational regulators mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt were not increased in the PRE group. In addition, we observed that the ratio of phosphorylated-to-unphosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) was reduced over sixfold in PRE animals (p < 0.05) and that total rpS6 protein levels were unchanged between PRE and SED animals (p > 0.05). We conclude that moderate intensity PRE is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy in adolescent animals, whereas the signaling mechanisms associated with muscle hypertrophy may differ between growing adolescents and adults. PMID:22614147

  16. Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals.

    PubMed

    Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Grabar, A; Vlokh, R

    2009-07-01

    We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed. PMID:21828470

  17. Magnetization reversal phenomena in (Cr0.70Ti0.30)5S6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yuji; Sato, Tetsuya; Anzai, Shuichiro

    2005-12-01

    Magnetization reversal phenomena (MRP) along magnetic order-order transitions have recently been reported on impurity-doped magnetic systems. Because imperfect long-range magnetic order exists in these systems, it is expected that a systematic investigation of MRP will give physical information on thermomagnetic processes of magnetic systems in the range from the micro- to nanoscales. As a typical order-order transition (a state doubly modulated by helical and canting orders to a collinear ferrimagnetic state) has been known to occur on Cr5S6 at a transition temperature Tt, we investigate the magnetizations of (Cr0.70Ti0.30)5S6 on heating and cooling runs in various magnetic fields. At 20Oe, the field-cooled magnetization just below the Curie temperature has a positive sign; the sign turns negative below the compensation temperature TCM (first step) and finally returns to positive below Tt (second step). The first-step MRP observed in this system is explained by the potential barriers resulting from anisotropy energy when the preferred direction of collinear ferrimagnetic moment reverses. The proposed mechanism for second-step MRP is the pinning effect caused by the impurity atoms (Ti) in the helical long-range-order chains. Comparing other examples of MRPs, we discuss the roles of local impurity centers in the thermomagnetic process in magnetic order-order transitions.

  18. SnGa2GeS6: synthesis, structure, linear and nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zuohong; Li, Chao; Kang, Lei; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2015-04-28

    A new sulfide, SnGa2GeS6, has been synthesized, which represents the first member in the quaternary Sn/M/M'/Q (M = Ga, In; M' = Si, Ge; Q = S, Se, Te) system. It adopts a new structure type in the non-centrosymmetric space group Fdd2. In the structure, Sn(2+) is coordinated to a distorted square-pyramid of five S atoms, demonstrating the stereochemical activity of the lone electron pair, while the Ge atom and Ga atom are both tetrahedrally coordinated to four S atoms. The SnS5 square-pyramids and the MS4 (M = Ga, Ge) tetrahedra are connected to each other via corner and edge-sharing to generate a three-dimensional framework. The compound exhibits a powder second harmonic generation signal at 2 μm whose strength is about one-fourth that of the benchmark material AgGaS2, which may be explained in view of the macroscopic arrangement of the SnS5 square-pyramids and the MS4 tetrahedra. Moreover, based on UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy measurements and the electronic structure calculations, SnGa2GeS6 has two optical transitions at about 1.12 eV and 2.04 eV respectively. PMID:25801715

  19. By activating Fas/ceramide synthase 6/p38 kinase in lipid rafts, stichoposide D inhibits growth of leukemia xenografts.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seong-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seon; Shin, Sung-Won; Ju, Mi-Ha; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Stonik, Valentin A; Kwak, Jong-Young; Park, Joo-In

    2015-09-29

    Stichoposide D (STD) is a marine triterpene glycoside isolated from sea cucumbers. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of STD in human leukemia cells. The role of Fas (CD95), ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis was examined in human leukemia cells. In addition, the antitumor effects of STD in K562 and HL-60 leukemia xenograft models were investigated. We found that STD induces Fas translocation to lipid rafts, and thus mediates cell apoptosis. We also observed the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis. The use of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin to disrupt lipid rafts prevents the clustering of Fas and the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase, and also inhibits STD-induced apoptosis. Specific inhibition by Fas, CerS6, and p38 kinase siRNA transfection partially blocked STD-induced apoptosis. In addition, STD has antitumor activity through the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase without displaying any toxicity in HL-60 and K562 xenograft models. We observed that the anti-tumor effect of STD is partially prevented in CerS6 shRNA-silenced xenograft models. We first report that Fas/CerS6/p38 kinase activation in lipid rafts by STD is involved in its anti-leukemic activity. We also established that STD is able to enhance the chemosensitivity of K562 cells to etoposide or Ara-C. These data suggest that STD may be used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents to treat leukemia. PMID:26318294

  20. S6:S18 ribosomal protein complex interacts with a structural motif present in its own mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Matelska, Dorota; Purta, Elzbieta; Panek, Sylwia; Boniecki, Michal J.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Prokaryotic ribosomal protein genes are typically grouped within highly conserved operons. In many cases, one or more of the encoded proteins not only bind to a specific site in the ribosomal RNA, but also to a motif localized within their own mRNA, and thereby regulate expression of the operon. In this study, we computationally predicted an RNA motif present in many bacterial phyla within the 5′ untranslated region of operons encoding ribosomal proteins S6 and S18. We demonstrated that the S6:S18 complex binds to this motif, which we hereafter refer to as the S6:S18 complex-binding motif (S6S18CBM). This motif is a conserved CCG sequence presented in a bulge flanked by a stem and a hairpin structure. A similar structure containing a CCG trinucleotide forms the S6:S18 complex binding site in 16S ribosomal RNA. We have constructed a 3D structural model of a S6:S18 complex with S6S18CBM, which suggests that the CCG trinucleotide in a specific structural context may be specifically recognized by the S18 protein. This prediction was supported by site-directed mutagenesis of both RNA and protein components. These results provide a molecular basis for understanding protein-RNA recognition and suggest that the S6S18CBM is involved in an auto-regulatory mechanism. PMID:23980204

  1. Chiral Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jian-kang; Shen, Min; Thomas, Craig J.; Boxer, Mathew B.

    2011-01-01

    Small molecule kinase inhibitors are important tools for studying cellular signaling pathways, phenotypes and are, occasionally, useful clinical agents. With stereochemistry pervasive throughout the molecules of life it is no surprise that a single stereocenter can bestow a ligand with distinct binding affinities to various protein targets. While the majority of small molecule kinase inhibitors reported to date are achiral, a number of asymmetric compounds show great utility as tools for probing kinase-associated biomolecular events as well as promising therapeutic leads. The mechanism by which chirality is introduced varies but includes screening of chiral libraries, incorporation of chiral centers during optimization efforts and the rational installation of a chiral moiety as guided by structural and modeling efforts. Here we discuss several advanced chiral small molecule kinase inhibitors where stereochemistry plays an important role in terms of potency and selectivity. PMID:21291394

  2. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... break down faster than normal, a condition called hemolytic anemia . This test helps diagnose pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) . ... Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 32. Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias: red cell membrane and metabolic defects In: Goldman ...

  3. PI3 Kinase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area PI3 Kinase Disease ... people with the disease. In early studies, this strategy reduced swelling of the lymph nodes, most likely ...

  4. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Shin, Yun-jeong; Kim, Woo-Young; Koh, Hee-Jong; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2015-09-18

    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. - Highlights: • Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (AtNAP1) interacts with RPS6 as well as with AtHD2B. • rDNA transcription is regulated S6K1. • Overexpression or down regulation of AtNAP1 results in concomitant increase or decrease in rDNA transcription.

  5. The Pathology of Aging 129S6/SvEvTac Mice.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, E; Castiglioni, V; Recordati, C; Gobbi, A; Capillo, M; Invernizzi, A; Scanziani, E; Marchesi, F

    2016-03-01

    The 129 mouse strain is commonly used for the generation of genetically engineered mice. Genetic drift or accidental contamination during outcrossing has resulted in several 129 substrains. Comprehensive data on spontaneous age-related pathology exist for the 129S4/SvJae substrain, whereas only limited information is available for other 129 substrains. This longitudinal aging study describes the life span and spontaneous lesions of 44 male and 18 female mice of the 129S6/SvEvTac substrain. Median survival time was 778 and 770 days for males and females, respectively. Tumors of lung and Harderian gland were the most common neoplasms in both sexes. Hepatocellular tumors occurred mainly in males. Hematopoietic tumors were observed at low frequency. Suppurative and ulcerative blepharoconjunctivitis was the most common nonneoplastic condition in both sexes. Corynebacteria (primarily Corynebacterium urealyticum and C. pseudodiphtheriticum) were isolated from animals with blepharoconjunctivitis and in some cases from unaffected mice, although a clear causal association between corynebacterial infections and blepharoconjunctivitis could not be inferred. Polyarteritis occurred only in males and was identified as the most common nonneoplastic contributory cause of death. Eosinophilic crystalline pneumonia occurred in both sexes and was a relevant cause of death or comorbidity. Epithelial hyalinosis at extrapulmonary sites was noted at higher frequency in females. This study contributes important data on the spontaneous age-related pathology of the 129S6/SvEvTac mouse substrain and is a valuable reference for evaluation of the phenotype in genetically engineered mice obtained with this 129 substrain. PMID:26467077

  6. Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Mediates Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1-Induced Parathyroid Cell Proliferation in Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Volovelsky, Oded; Cohen, Gili; Kenig, Ariel; Wasserman, Gilad; Dreazen, Avigail; Meyuhas, Oded; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2016-04-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and parathyroid cell proliferation. However, the molecular pathways mediating the increased parathyroid cell proliferation remain undefined. Here, we found that the mTOR pathway was activated in the parathyroid of rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by either chronic hypocalcemia or uremia, which was measured by increased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a downstream target of the mTOR pathway. This activation correlated with increased parathyroid cell proliferation. Inhibition of mTOR complex 1 by rapamycin decreased or prevented parathyroid cell proliferation in secondary hyperparathyroidism rats andin vitroin uremic rat parathyroid glands in organ culture. Knockin rpS6(p-/-)mice, in which rpS6 cannot be phosphorylated because of substitution of all five phosphorylatable serines with alanines, had impaired PTH secretion after experimental uremia- or folic acid-induced AKI. Uremic rpS6(p-/-)mice had no increase in parathyroid cell proliferation compared with a marked increase in uremic wild-type mice. These results underscore the importance of mTOR activation and rpS6 phosphorylation for the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism and indicate that mTORC1 is a significant regulator of parathyroid cell proliferation through rpS6. PMID:26283674

  7. P7170: A Novel Molecule with Unique Profile of mTORC1/C2 and Activin Receptor-like Kinase 1 Inhibition Leading to Antitumor and Antiangiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Bhatia, Dimple R; Boreddy, Srinivas; Joshi, Asavari; Venkatraman, Magesh; Desai, Nikesh; Chaudhari, Sarika; Bose, Julie; Kolla, Lakshmi S; Deore, Vijaykumar; Yewalkar, Nilambari; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Rajiv; Damre, Anagha; More, Avinash; Sharma, Somesh; Agarwal, Veena R

    2015-05-01

    The mTOR pathway is often upregulated in cancer and thus intensively pursued as a target to design novel anticancer therapies. Approved and emerging drugs targeting the mTOR pathway have positively affected the clinical landscape. Recently, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), belonging to the TGFβ receptor family, has been reported as an emerging target for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. Here, we describe a novel orally efficacious compound, P7170, that inhibits mTORC1/mTORC2/ALK1 activity with a potent cell growth inhibition. In cell-based assays, P7170 strongly inhibited (IC50 < 10 nmol/L) the phosphorylation of p70S6K (T389) and pAKT (S473). In many cancer cell lines, such as prostate, ovarian, colon, and renal, P7170 treatment resulted in marked cell growth inhibition. Furthermore, it induced G1-S cell-cycle arrest and autophagy. In vitro HUVEC tube formation, in vivo Matrigel plug, and rat aorta ring assays demonstrated that P7170 exhibited significant antiangiogenic activity. In addition, ALK1 knockdown studies in HUVEC confirmed that the antiangiogenic activity of P7170 was primarily due to ALK1 inhibition. Strong inhibition of ALK1 in addition to mTORC1/mTORC2 differentiates P7170 in its mechanism of action in comparison with existing inhibitors. In vivo mouse xenograft studies revealed P7170 to exhibit a significant dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in a broad range of human tumor types when administered orally at 10 to 20 mg/kg doses. The distinctive pharmacological profile with favorable pharmacokinetic parameters and in vivo efficacy makes P7170 an attractive candidate for clinical development. It is currently being tested in phase I clinical studies. PMID:25700704

  8. Ribosomal S6 kinase 4 (RSK4) expression in ovarian tumors and its regulation by antineoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian; Zeferino-Toquero, Moises; Estrada-Moscoso, Isaias; Imani-Razavi, Fazlollah Shahram; Olivares, Aleida; Perez-Juarez, Carlos Eduardo; Diaz-Cueto, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Survival rate in ovarian cancer depends on the stage of the disease. RSK4, which has been considered as a tumor suppressor factor, controls cells invasion due to its antiinvasive and antimetastatic properties. Modulation of RSK4 expression could be an important event to increase the survival rate in ovarian cancer patients. Thus, the goal of the present study was to establish the differences in RSK4 expression among normal, benign and malignant ovarian tissues and to determine whether antineoplastic drugs regulate its expression in SKOV3 and TOV-112D cells. RSK4 levels in 30 malignant ovarian tumors, 64 benign tumors and 36 normal ovary tissues were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Modulation of RSK4 expression by two antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin and vorinostat) was also studied in the SKOV3 and TOV-112D ovarian cancer cell lines using the same techniques. RSK4 mRNA and protein levels were decreased in malignant ovarian tumors as compared to benign tumors and normal tissue. These low-RSK4 levels were significantly associated with advanced stages of ovarian cancer. RSK4 expression was increased after incubation of SKOV3 and TOV-112D cell lines with cisplatin and vorinostat for 24 h. The combination of these antineoplastic drugs did not produce a synergistic or additive effect. These results suggest that RSK4 is expressed at low levels in malignant ovarian tumors, which correlates with advanced stages of the disease. Additionally, RSK4 expression is regulated by cisplatin and vorinostat in two ovarian cancer cell lines. PMID:26732474

  9. Aberrant mTOR activation in senescence and aging: A mitochondrial stress response?

    PubMed

    Nacarelli, Timothy; Azar, Ashley; Sell, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Unexpected activation of mTOR signaling, measured by ribosomal S6 phosphorylation or ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) activity, has been reported in aging-related settings. Evidence of elevated mTOR activity has been reported in the heart and muscle tissue in aged mice and humans, mouse models of progeria, and senescent human fibroblasts. We explore these reports and the possibility that activation of the mTOR/p70S6K kinase pathway may represent a ROS-mediated response to mitochondrial stress leading to the activation of senescence. This activation is a hallmark of both aged tissue and senescent human cells. PMID:25449851

  10. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  11. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Schug, Alexander; Onuchic, José N.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein's functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism.

  12. Color-singlet J/? production at O(?s6) in ? decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Jian-Xiong

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the conflict between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of the inclusive J/? production in ? decay, we consider the ?s6 order color-singlet (CS) contributions of processes ??J/?+gg and ??J/?+gggg. Both the branching ratio and the J/? momentum spectrum are calculated, and the branching ratio (4.710-4) is larger than the leading-order contribution (?s5, ??J/?+ccg). Together with the QCD and QED leading-order contributions considered in our previous work, the CS prediction of the branching ratio for the direct J/? production is Br(??J/?direct+X)=0.90-0.31+0.4910-4, which is still about 3.8 times less than the CLEO measurement. We also obtain a preliminary CS prediction of Rcc=(B(??J/?+cc+X))/(B(??J/?+X)) and find that the value 0.39-0.20+0.21 is much larger than the color-octet prediction, and suggest to measure this quality in future experimental analysis.

  13. A SiPM-based ZnS:6LiF scintillation neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykov, A.; Mosset, J.-B.; Greuter, U.; Hildebrandt, M.; Schlumpf, N.

    2015-07-01

    In the work presented here we built and evaluated a single-channel neutron detection unit consisting of a ZnS:6LiF scintillator with embedded WLS fibers readout by a SiPM. The unit has a sensitive volume of 2.4×2.8×50 mm3; 12 WLS fibers of diameter 0.25 mm are uniformly distributed over this volume and are coupled to a 1×1 mm2 active area SiPM. We report the following performance parameters: neutron detection efficiency ~65% at 1.2 Å, background count rate <10-3 Hz, gamma-sensitivity with 60Co source <10-6, dead time ~20 μs, multi-count ratio < 1 %. All these parameters were achieved up to the SiPM dark count rate of ~2 MHz. We consider such detection unit as an elementary building block for realization of one-dimensional multichannel detectors for applications in the neutron scattering experimental technique. The dimensions of the unit and the number of embedded fibers can be varied to meet the specific application requirements. The upper limit of ~2 MHz on the SiPM dark count rate allows to use SiPMs with larger active areas if required.

  14. Frequency and mechanism of resistance to antibacterial action of ZM 240401, (6S)-6-fluoro-shikimic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Ewart, C D; Jude, D A; Thain, J L; Nichols, W W

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous resistance to (6S)-6-fluoro-shikimic acid arose in Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria at high frequencies, between 10(-5) and 10(-4). Two resistant variants of E. coli were tested for their susceptibilities to the diastereomeric compound, (6R)-6-fluoro-shikimate, and both of them had become resistant to this compound as well. (6S)-6-Fluoro-shikimate-resistant variants of E. coli generally failed to transport [14C]shikimate. In E. coli K-12, (6S)-6-fluoro-shikimate resistance cotransduced with his at the same frequency as shiA, a gene locus that governs shikimate transport phenotypes. We propose that the loss of susceptibility to (6S)-6-fluoro-shikimic acid in spontaneous resistant variants is due to the loss of activity of the transport system by which it enters the bacterial cytoplasm. PMID:7695335

  15. Elastic and acoustooptic properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals: Effect of ferroelectric phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mys, O.; Zapeka, B.; Martynyuk-Lototska, I.; Vlokh, R.

    2012-12-01

    We report on the studies for temperature dependences of elastic stiffness coefficients in Sn2P2S6 crystals. Basing on the construction of acoustic velocity surfaces, we have determined the parameters of the slowest acoustic wave that propagates in Sn2P2S6 crystals. The acoustooptic figure of merit for the case of acoustooptic interaction with this wave is estimated as ˜0.8 × 10-12 s3/kg. We have shown that Sn2P2S6 is very close to the conditions of tricritical point on the (x, T)- and (p, T)-phase diagrams of the solid solutions Sn2P2(SexS1-x)6. The critical exponent α of the heat capacity for the Sn2P2S6 crystals is equal to 0.42 ± 0.03.

  16. A Comprehensive Behavioral Test Battery to Assess Learning and Memory in 129S6/Tg2576 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Andrea; Bauer, Björn; Abner, Erin L.; Ashkenazy-Frolinger, Tal; Hartz, Anika M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic Tg2576 mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) are a widely used Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model to evaluate treatment effects on amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology and cognition. Tg2576 mice on a B6;SJL background strain carry a recessive rd1 mutation that leads to early retinal degeneration and visual impairment in homozygous carriers. This can impair performance in behavioral tests that rely on visual cues, and thus, affect study results. Therefore, B6;SJL/Tg2576 mice were systematically backcrossed with 129S6/SvEvTac mice resulting in 129S6/Tg2576 mice that lack the rd1 mutation. 129S6/Tg2576 mice do not develop retinal degeneration but still show Aβ accumulation in the brain that is comparable to the original B6;SJL/Tg2576 mouse. However, comprehensive studies on cognitive decline in 129S6/Tg2576 mice are limited. In this study, we used two dementia mouse models on a 129S6 background—scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice (3–5 month-old) and transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice (11–13 month-old)–to establish a behavioral test battery for assessing learning and memory. The test battery consisted of five tests to evaluate different aspects of cognitive impairment: a Y-Maze forced alternation task, a novel object recognition test, the Morris water maze, the radial arm water maze, and a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task. We first established this behavioral test battery with the scopolamine-induced dementia model using 129S6/SvEvTac mice and then evaluated 129S6/Tg2576 mice using the same testing protocol. Both models showed distinctive patterns of cognitive impairment. Together, the non-invasive behavioral test battery presented here allows detecting cognitive impairment in scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice and in transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice. Due to the modular nature of this test battery, more behavioral tests, e.g. invasive assays to gain additional cognitive information, can easily be added. PMID:26808326

  17. A Comprehensive Behavioral Test Battery to Assess Learning and Memory in 129S6/Tg2576 Mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Andrea; Bauer, Björn; Abner, Erin L; Ashkenazy-Frolinger, Tal; Hartz, Anika M S

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic Tg2576 mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) are a widely used Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model to evaluate treatment effects on amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology and cognition. Tg2576 mice on a B6;SJL background strain carry a recessive rd1 mutation that leads to early retinal degeneration and visual impairment in homozygous carriers. This can impair performance in behavioral tests that rely on visual cues, and thus, affect study results. Therefore, B6;SJL/Tg2576 mice were systematically backcrossed with 129S6/SvEvTac mice resulting in 129S6/Tg2576 mice that lack the rd1 mutation. 129S6/Tg2576 mice do not develop retinal degeneration but still show Aβ accumulation in the brain that is comparable to the original B6;SJL/Tg2576 mouse. However, comprehensive studies on cognitive decline in 129S6/Tg2576 mice are limited. In this study, we used two dementia mouse models on a 129S6 background-scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice (3-5 month-old) and transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice (11-13 month-old)-to establish a behavioral test battery for assessing learning and memory. The test battery consisted of five tests to evaluate different aspects of cognitive impairment: a Y-Maze forced alternation task, a novel object recognition test, the Morris water maze, the radial arm water maze, and a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task. We first established this behavioral test battery with the scopolamine-induced dementia model using 129S6/SvEvTac mice and then evaluated 129S6/Tg2576 mice using the same testing protocol. Both models showed distinctive patterns of cognitive impairment. Together, the non-invasive behavioral test battery presented here allows detecting cognitive impairment in scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice and in transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice. Due to the modular nature of this test battery, more behavioral tests, e.g. invasive assays to gain additional cognitive information, can easily be added. PMID:26808326

  18. Secreted protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Tagliabracci, Vincent S.; Pinna, Lorenzo A.; Dixon, Jack E.

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinases constitute one of the largest gene families and they control many aspects of cellular life. In retrospect, the first indication for their existence was reported 130 years ago when the secreted protein, casein, was shown to contain phosphate. Despite its identification as the first phosphoprotein, the responsible kinase has remained obscure. This conundrum was solved with the discovery of a novel family of atypical protein kinases that are secreted and appear to phosphorylate numerous extracellular proteins, including casein. Fam20C, the archetypical member, phosphorylates secreted proteins within Ser-x-Glu/pSer motifs. This discovery has solved a 130-year-old mystery and has shed light on several human disorders of biomineralization. PMID:23276407

  19. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase as protein histidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Paul V; Wieland, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Like phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues in many organisms, reversible histidine phosphorylation is a well-known regulatory signal in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes. In vertebrates, phosphohistidine has been mainly described as a phosphorylated intermediate in enzymatic reactions, and it was believed that regulatory histidine phosphorylation is of minor importance. During the last decade, it became evident however, that nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), an ubiquitously expressed enzyme required for nucleotide homeostasis, can additionally act as a protein histidine kinase. Especially for the isoform NDPK B, at least three defined substrates, the β subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gβ), the intermediate conductance potassium channel KCa3.1, and the Ca(2+)-conducting TRP channel family member, TRPV5, have been identified. In all three proteins, the phosphorylation of a specific histidine residue is of regulatory importance for protein function, and these phosphohistidines are cleaved by a counteracting 14 kDa phosphohistidine phosphatase (PHP). This article will therefore give an overview of our current knowledge on protein histidine phosphorylation in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes and compare it with the regulatory phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of histidine residues in vertebrates by NDPK and PHP, respectively. PMID:24961462

  20. Kinase-Catalyzed Biotinylation

    PubMed Central

    Senevirathne, Chamara; Green, Keith D.; Pflum, Mary Kay H.

    2012-01-01

    Kinase-catalyzed protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in a variety of biological processes. Methods to detect phosphoproteins and phosphopeptides in cellular mixtures will aid in cell biological and signaling research. Our laboratory recently discovered the utility of γ-modified ATP analogues as tools for studying phosphorylation. Specifically, ATP-biotin can be used for labeling and visualizing phosphoproteins from cell lysates. Because the biotin tag is suitable for protein detection, the biotinylation reaction can be applied to multiple phosphoproteomics applications. Herein we report a general protocol for labeling phosphopeptides and phosphoproteins in biological samples using kinase-catalyzed biotinylation. PMID:25177527

  1. Increment of CD8S6F1 cells in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Y; Eguchi, K; Miyake, S; Nagataki, S; Tominaga, Y

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the role of CD8 cell subsets in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the phenotypes of T cells adherent or non-adherent to the target cells (endothelial cells and synovial cells) pre-treated with IL-1 beta. METHODS--The expression of S6F1 on CD8 cells and that of an activation marker on CD8 cells and CD8 cell subsets was evaluated in specimens of peripheral blood and synovial fluid obtained from 15 patients with RA and 10 with osteoarthritis (OA) using a two- or three-colour immunofluorescence method for analysis. RESULTS--The percentage of CD8S6F1 cells among CD8 cells in synovial fluid was significantly greater than that of peripheral blood. Synovial fluid from RA patients had a greater percentage of CD8S6F1 cells compared with either peripheral blood of matched patients or synovial fluid of OA patients. The percentage of CD8HLA-DR cells in synovial fluid was markedly greater than that in paired samples of peripheral blood in patients with RA. In the CD8S6F1 cells from both groups of patients, synovial fluid showed an increased percentage of HLA-DR cells compared with peripheral blood. Similar results were observed in CD8 cells lacking S6F1 expression (CD8S6F1-) from both groups of patients. There was no significant difference in the percentage of HLA-DR cells between CD8S6F1 and CD8S6F1- cell populations in peripheral blood. In contrast with peripheral blood, in synovial fluid of RA patients the percentage of HLA-DR cells in the CD8S6F1 cell population was markedly greater than that in the CD8S6F1- population. However, the percentage of HLA-DR cells in both cell populations was similar in synovial fluid of OA patients. In both the endothelial and the synovial cell adhesion assays, the percentage of CD8S6F1 among CD8 cells and the mean fluorescence intensity of S6F1 antigen on CD8S6F1 cells were significantly greater in the adherent T cell population than that in the non-adherent T cell population. CONCLUSION--These results suggest that increased expression of S6F1 antigen and the increased percentage of HLA-DR cells on CD8 cells in synovial fluid may be responsible for the migration of these cells into inflamed synovial tissues, and for cellular interactions between these cells and synovial cells or the extracellular matrix. Images PMID:7864690

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  3. Activation and Function of the MAPKs and Their Substrates, the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Cargnello, Marie; Roux, Philippe P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse cellular programs by relaying extracellular signals to intracellular responses. In mammals, there are more than a dozen MAPK enzymes that coordinately regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. The best known are the conventional MAPKs, which include the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinases 1 to 3 (JNK1 to -3), p38 (α, β, γ, and δ), and ERK5 families. There are additional, atypical MAPK enzymes, including ERK3/4, ERK7/8, and Nemo-like kinase (NLK), which have distinct regulation and functions. Together, the MAPKs regulate a large number of substrates, including members of a family of protein Ser/Thr kinases termed MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). The MAPKAPKs are related enzymes that respond to extracellular stimulation through direct MAPK-dependent activation loop phosphorylation and kinase activation. There are five MAPKAPK subfamilies: the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), the mitogen- and stress-activated kinase (MSK), the MAPK-interacting kinase (MNK), the MAPK-activated protein kinase 2/3 (MK2/3), and MK5 (also known as p38-regulated/activated protein kinase [PRAK]). These enzymes have diverse biological functions, including regulation of nucleosome and gene expression, mRNA stability and translation, and cell proliferation and survival. Here we review the mechanisms of MAPKAPK activation by the different MAPKs and discuss their physiological roles based on established substrates and recent discoveries. PMID:21372320

  4. DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK IIβ Operate in Parallel to Each Other in PLCγ1-Driven Cell Proliferation and Migration of Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells, through Akt/mTOR/S6 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lianzhi; Zhuang, Luhua; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Fen; Chen, Xiaolei; Xia, Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositide specific phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) activates diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) axes to regulate import events in some cancer cells, including gastric adenocarcinoma cells. However, whether DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK IIβ axes are simultaneously involved in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and the underlying mechanism are not elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of DAG/PKCδ or CaMK IIβ in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, using the BGC-823 cell line. The results indicated that the inhibition of PKCδ and CaMK IIβ could block cell proliferation and migration of BGC-823 cells as well as the effect of inhibiting PLCγ1, including the decrease of cell viability, the increase of apoptotic index, the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression level, and the decrease of cell migration rate. Both DAG/PKCδ and CaMK IIβ triggered protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 pathway to regulate protein synthesis. The data indicate that DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK IIβ operate in parallel to each other in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells through Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway, with important implication for validating PLCγ1 as a molecular biomarker in early gastric cancer diagnosis and disease surveillance. PMID:26633375

  5. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  6. Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.

    PubMed

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  7. Covalent-Allosteric Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weisner, Jörn; Gontla, Rajesh; van der Westhuizen, Leandi; Oeck, Sebastian; Ketzer, Julia; Janning, Petra; Richters, André; Mühlenberg, Thomas; Fang, Zhizhou; Taher, Abu; Jendrossek, Verena; Pelly, Stephen C; Bauer, Sebastian; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Rauh, Daniel

    2015-08-24

    Targeting and stabilizing distinct kinase conformations is an instrumental strategy for dissecting conformation-dependent signaling of protein kinases. Herein the structure-based design, synthesis, and evaluation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-dependent covalent-allosteric inhibitors (CAIs) of the kinase Akt is reported. These inhibitors bind covalently to a distinct cysteine of the kinase and thereby stabilize the inactive kinase conformation. These modulators exhibit high potency and selectivity, and represent an innovative approach for chemical biology and medicinal chemistry research. PMID:26110718

  8. The Pallbearer E3 ligase promotes actin remodeling via RAC in efferocytosis by degrading the ribosomal protein S6.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui; Wang, Hui; Silva, Elizabeth A; Thompson, James; Guillou, Aurélien; Yates, John R; Buchon, Nicolas; Franc, Nathalie C

    2015-01-12

    Clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is achieved through phagocytosis by professional or amateur phagocytes. It is critical for tissue homeostasis and remodeling in all animals. Failure in this process can contribute to the development of inflammatory autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases. We found previously that the PALL-SCF E3-ubiquitin ligase complex promotes apoptotic cell clearance, but it remained unclear how it did so. Here we show that the F-box protein PALL interacts with phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (RpS6) to promote its ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. This leads to RAC2 GTPase upregulation and activation and F-actin remodeling that promotes efferocytosis. We further show that the specific role of PALL in efferocytosis is driven by its apoptotic cell-induced nuclear export. Finding a role for RpS6 in the negative regulation of efferocytosis provides the opportunity to develop new strategies to regulate this process. PMID:25533207

  9. The Pallbearer E3 Ligase Promotes Actin Remodeling via RAC in Efferocytosis by Degrading the Ribosomal Protein S6

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Wang, Hui; Silva, Elizabeth; Thompson, James; Guillou, Aurélien; Yates, John R.; Buchon, Nicolas; Franc, Nathalie C.

    2014-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is achieved through phagocytosis by professional or amateur phagocytes. It is critical for tissue homeostasis and remodeling in all animals. Failure in this process can contribute to the development of inflammatory autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases. We previously found that the PALL-SCF E3-Ubiquitin ligase complex promotes apoptotic cell clearance, yet it remained unclear as to how it did so. Here, we show that the F-Box protein PALL interacts with phosphorylated Ribosomal protein S6 (RpS6) to promote its ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. This leads to RAC2 GTPase up-regulation and activation and F-actin remodeling that promotes efferocytosis. We further show that the specific role of PALL in efferocytosis is driven by its apoptotic cell-induced nuclear export. Finding a role for RpS6 in negatively regulating efferocytosis provides the opportunity to develop new strategies to regulate this process. PMID:25533207

  10. Targeting cancer with kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Stefan; Rahal, Rami; Stransky, Nicolas; Lengauer, Christoph; Hoeflich, Klaus P.

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors have played an increasingly prominent role in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Currently, more than 25 oncology drugs that target kinases have been approved, and numerous additional therapeutics are in various stages of clinical evaluation. In this Review, we provide an in-depth analysis of activation mechanisms for kinases in cancer, highlight recent successes in drug discovery, and demonstrate the clinical impact of selective kinase inhibitors. We also describe the substantial progress that has been made in designing next-generation inhibitors to circumvent on-target resistance mechanisms, as well as ongoing strategies for combining kinase inhibitors in the clinic. Last, there are numerous prospects for the discovery of novel kinase targets, and we explore cancer immunotherapy as a new and promising research area for studying kinase biology. PMID:25932675

  11. Targeting cancer with kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gross, Stefan; Rahal, Rami; Stransky, Nicolas; Lengauer, Christoph; Hoeflich, Klaus P

    2015-05-01

    Kinase inhibitors have played an increasingly prominent role in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Currently, more than 25 oncology drugs that target kinases have been approved, and numerous additional therapeutics are in various stages of clinical evaluation. In this Review, we provide an in-depth analysis of activation mechanisms for kinases in cancer, highlight recent successes in drug discovery, and demonstrate the clinical impact of selective kinase inhibitors. We also describe the substantial progress that has been made in designing next-generation inhibitors to circumvent on-target resistance mechanisms, as well as ongoing strategies for combining kinase inhibitors in the clinic. Last, there are numerous prospects for the discovery of novel kinase targets, and we explore cancer immunotherapy as a new and promising research area for studying kinase biology. PMID:25932675

  12. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA. PMID:21861931

  13. The distribution and clearance of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine, an active ketamine metabolite, in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Moaddel, Ruin; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Dossou, Katina Sourou Sylvestre; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Green, Carol; Bupp, James; Swezey, Robert; O’Loughlin, Kathleen; Wainer, Irving W

    2015-01-01

    The distribution, clearance, and bioavailability of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine has been studied in the Wistar rat. The plasma and brain tissue concentrations over time of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were determined after intravenous (20 mg/kg) and oral (20 mg/kg) administration of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine (n = 3). After intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis and the half-life of drug elimination during the terminal phase (t1/2) was 8.0 ± 4.0 h and the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 7352 ± 736 mL/kg, clearance (Cl) was 704 ± 139 mL/h per kg, and the bioavailability was 46.3%. Significant concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were measured in brain tissues at 10 min after intravenous administration, ∼30 μg/mL per g tissue which decreased to 6 μg/mL per g tissue at 60 min. The plasma and brain concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were also determined after the intravenous administration of (S)-ketamine, where significant plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine were observed 10 min after administration. The (S)-ketamine metabolites (S)-norketamine, (S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6R)-hydroxynorketamine, (2S,5S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,4S)-hydroxynorketamine were also detected in both plasma and brain tissue. The enantioselectivity of the conversion of (S)-ketamine and (R)-ketamine to the respective (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites was also investigated over the first 60 min after intravenous administration. (S)-Ketamine produced significantly greater plasma and brain tissue concentrations of (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine relative to the (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine observed after the administration of (R)-ketamine. However, the relative brain tissue: plasma concentrations of the enantiomeric (2,6)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites were not significantly different indicating that the penetration of the metabolite is not enantioselective. PMID:26171236

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  5. The thermal unfolding of the ribosome-inactivating protein saporin-S6 characterized by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marina; Scirè, Andrea; Tanfani, Fabio; Ausili, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    Saporin-S6 is a plant toxin belonging to the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) family. Since it was extracted and isolated from Saponaria officinalis for the first time almost thirty years ago, the protein has been widely studied mainly for its potential applications in anti-tumour and anti-viral infection therapy. Like other RIPs, saporin-S6 is particularly effective in the form of immunotoxin conjugated with monoclonal antibodies and its chemico-physical characteristics made the protein a perfect candidate for the synthesis, development and use of saporin-S6-based chimeric toxins. The high stability of the protein against different denaturing agents has been broadly demonstrated, however, its complete thermal unfolding characterization has not already been performed. In this work we analyse in detail structure, thermostability and unfolding features by means of infrared spectroscopy coupled with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. Our data showed that saporin-S6 in solution at neutral pH exhibits a secondary structure analogue to that of the crystal and confirmed its good stability at moderately high temperatures, with a temperature of melting of 58°C. Our results also demonstrated that the thermal unfolding process is non-cooperative and occurs in two steps, and revealed the sequence of the events that take place during the denaturation, showing a higher stability of the N-terminal domain of the protein. PMID:26096917

  6. Role for the Plasmodium sporozoite-specific transmembrane protein S6 in parasite motility and efficient malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Steinbuechel, Marion; Matuschewski, Kai

    2009-02-01

    Malaria transmission occurs by intradermal deposition of Plasmodium sporozoites during the infectious bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. After formation in midgut-associated oocysts sporozoites actively enter mosquito salivary glands and subsequently invade host hepatocytes where they transform into clinically silent liver stages. To date, two sporozoite-specific transmembrane proteins have been identified that perform vital functions in natural malaria transmission. The sporozoite invasin TRAP drives sporozoite motility and target cell entry whereas the adhesin MAEBL mediates sporozoite recognition of and attachment to salivary glands. Here, we demonstrate that the sporozoite-specific transmembrane protein S6 is required for efficient malaria transmission to the vertebrate host. Targeted deletion of S6 results in severe impairment of sporozoite gliding motility and invasion of mosquito salivary glands. During sporozoite maturation S6 expression is tightly regulated by transcriptional and translational control. We propose that S6 functions together with TRAP/MIC2 family invasins to direct fast, efficient and specific cell entry and, ultimately, life cycle progression of the malaria sporozoite. PMID:19016774

  7. FXR blocks the growth of liver cancer cells through inhibiting mTOR-s6K pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiongfei; Zeng, Yeting; Wang, Xinrui; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qianqian; Li, Ningbo; Su, Hongying; Huang, Wendong

    2016-05-27

    The nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) is likely a tumor suppressor in liver tissue but its molecular mechanism of suppression is not well understood. In this study, the gene expression profile of human liver cancer cells was investigated by microarray. Bioinformatics analysis of these data revealed that FXR might regulate the mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. This was confirmed by altering the expression level of FXR in liver cancer cells. Overexpression of FXR prevented the growth of cells and induced cell cycle arrest, which was enhanced by the mTOR/S6K inhibitor rapamycin. FXR upregulation also intensified the inhibition of cell growth by rapamycin. Downregulation of FXR produced the opposite effect. Finally, we found that ectopic expression of FXR in SK-Hep-1 xenografts inhibits tumor growth and reduces expression of the phosphorylated protein S6K. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that FXR suppresses proliferation of human liver cancer cells via the inhibition of the mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. FXR expression can be used as a biomarker of personalized mTOR inhibitor treatment assessment for liver cancer patients. PMID:27109477

  8. Electronic, optical properties, surface energies and work functions of Ag8SnS6: First-principles method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chun-Lin; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yun-Wang; Liu, Shen-Ye; Mei, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Ternary metal chalcogenide semiconductor Ag8SnS6, which is an efficient photocatalyst under visible light radiation, is studied by plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. After geometry optimization, the electronic and optical properties are studied. A scissor operator value of 0.81 eV is introduced to overcome the underestimation of the calculation band gaps. The contribution of different bands is analyzed by virtue of total and partial density of states. Furthermore, in order to understand the optical properties of Ag8SnS6, the dielectric function, absorption coefficient, and refractive index are also performed in the energy range from 0 to 11 eV. The absorption spectrum indicates that Ag8SnS6 has a good absorbency in visible light area. Surface energies and work functions of , , , and (112) orientations have been calculated. These results reveal the reason for an outstanding photocatalytic activity of Ag8SnS6. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2012A0302015 and 2012B0302050).

  9. Photo-enhanced salt-water splitting using orthorhombic Ag8SnS6 photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kong-Wei; Tsai, Wei-Tseng; Wu, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-06-01

    Orthorhombic Ag8SnS6 photoelectrodes are prepared on various substrates via reactive sulfurization using the radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of silver-tin metal precursors. Evaluations of the photoelectrochemical performances of Ag8SnS6 photoelectrodes with various levels of silver content are carried out in various aqueous solutions. X-ray diffraction patterns and Hall measurements of samples after a three-stage sulfurization process show that all samples are the pure orthorhombic Ag8SnS6 phase with n-type conductivity. The energy band gaps, carrier concentrations, and mobilities of samples on glass substrates are 1.31-1.33 eV, 7.07 × 1011-8.52 × 1012 cm-3, and 74.9-368 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, depending on the [Ag]/[Ag+Sn] molar ratio in samples. The highest photoelectrochemical performances of orthorhombic Ag8SnS6 photoelectrodes in aqueous 0.35 M Na2S + 0.25 M K2SO3 and 0.5 M NaCl solutions are respectively 2.09 and 2.5 mA cm-2 at an applied voltages of 0.9 and 1.23 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode under light irradiation with a light intensity of 100 mW cm-2 from a 300-W Xe lamp.

  10. rpS6 Regulates Blood-Testis Barrier Dynamics By Affecting F-Actin Organization and Protein Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Ka-Wai; Mruk, Dolores D.; Silvestrini, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, preleptotene spermatocytes residing near the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stage VIII–IX of the epithelial cycle to continue their development in the adluminal compartment. Unlike other blood-tissue barriers (e.g. the blood-brain barrier) that are created by the endothelial tight junction (TJ) barrier of capillaries, the BTB is created by specialized junctions between Sertoli cells in which TJ coexists with basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES, a testis-specific adherens junction). The basal ES is typified by the presence of tightly packed actin filament bundles sandwiched between cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and the apposing plasma membranes of Sertoli cells. These actin filament bundles also confer unusual adhesive strength to the BTB. Yet the mechanisms by which these filamentous actin (F-actin) networks are regulated from the bundled to the debundled state to facilitate the transit of spermatocytes remain elusive. Herein, we provide evidence that ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), the downstream signaling molecule of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, is a major regulator of F-actin organization and adhesion protein recruitment at the BTB. rpS6 is restrictively and spatiotemporally activated at the BTB during the epithelial cycle. An activation of rpS6 led to a disruption of the Sertoli cell TJ barrier and BTB integrity. Its silencing in vitro or in vivo by using small interfering RNA duplexes or short hairpin RNA was found to promote the Sertoli cell TJ permeability barrier by the recruitment of adhesion proteins (e.g. claudin-11 and occludin) to the BTB. Thus, rpS6 in the mTORC1 pathway regulates BTB restructuring via its effects on the F-actin organization and protein recruitment at the BTB. PMID:22948214

  11. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Peter, M

    2001-09-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

  12. Tau-tubulin kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ikezu, Seiko; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2014-01-01

    Tau-tubulin kinase (TTBK) belongs to casein kinase superfamily and phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein tau and tubulin. TTBK has two isoforms, TTBK1 and TTBK2, which contain highly homologous catalytic domains but their non-catalytic domains are distinctly different. TTBK1 is expressed specifically in the central nervous system and is involved in phosphorylation and aggregation of tau. TTBK2 is ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues and genetically linked to spinocerebellar ataxia type 11. TTBK1 directly phosphorylates tau protein, especially at Ser422, and also activates cycline-dependent kinase 5 in a unique mechanism. TTBK1 protein expression is significantly elevated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains, and genetic variations of the TTBK1 gene are associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease in two cohorts of Chinese and Spanish populations. TTBK1 transgenic mice harboring the entire 55-kilobase genomic sequence of human TTBK1 show progression of tau accumulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration when crossed with tau mutant mice. Our recent study shows that there is a striking switch in mononuclear phagocyte and activation phenotypes in the anterior horn of the spinal cord from alternatively activated (M2-skewed) microglia in P301L tau mutant mice to pro-inflammatory (M1-skewed) infiltrating peripheral monocytes by crossing the tau mice with TTBK1 transgenic mice. TTBK1 is responsible for mediating M1-activated microglia-induced neurotoxicity, and its overexpression induces axonal degeneration in vitro. These studies suggest that TTBK1 is an important molecule for the inflammatory axonal degeneration, which may be relevant to the pathobiology of tauopathy including AD. PMID:24808823

  13. [Kinase inhibitors and their resistance].

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yosuke; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-08-01

    Kinase cascades are involved in all stages of tumorigenesis through modulation of transformation and differentiation, cell-cycle progression, and motility. Advances in molecular targeted drug development allow the design and synthesis of inhibitors targeting cancer-associated signal transduction pathways. Potent selective inhibitors with low toxicity can benefit patients especially with several malignancies harboring an oncogenic driver addictive signal. This article evaluates information on solid tumor-related kinase signals and inhibitors, including receptor tyrosine kinase or serine/threonine kinase signals that lead to successful application in clinical settings. In addition, the resistant mechanisms to the inhibitors is summarized. PMID:26281685

  14. Activation of extracellular regulated kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway in focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vinit V; Guzman, Miguel; Carter, Angela N; Rathore, Geetanjali; Yoshor, Daniel; Curry, Daniel; Wilfong, Angus; Agadi, Satish; Swann, John W; Adesina, Adekunle M; Bhattacharjee, Meenakshi B; Anderson, Anne E

    2016-04-01

    Neuropathology of resected brain tissue has revealed an association of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Recent studies have shown that the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is hyperactivated in FCD as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (S6) at serine 240/244 (S(240/244) ), a downstream target of mTOR. Moreover, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) has been shown to phosphorylate S6 at serine 235/236 (S(235/236) ) and tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) at serine 664 (S(664) ) leading to hyperactive mTOR signaling. We evaluated ERK phosphorylation of S6 and TSC2 in two types of FCD (FCD I and FCD II) as a candidate mechanism contributing to mTOR pathway dysregulation. Tissue samples from patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) served as a positive control. Immunostaining for phospho-S6 (pS6(240/244) and pS6(235/236) ), phospho-ERK (pERK), and phospho-TSC2 (pTSC2) was performed on resected brain tissue with FCD and TS. We found increased pS6(240/244) and pS6(235/236) staining in FCD I, FCD II and TS compared to normal-appearing tissue, while pERK and pTSC2 staining was increased only in FCD IIb and TS tissue. Our results suggest that both the ERK and mTOR pathways are dysregulated in FCD and TS; however, the signaling alterations are different for FCD I as compared to FCD II and TS. PMID:26381727

  15. Protein kinase C isotypes controlled by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through the protein kinase PDK1.

    PubMed

    Le Good, J A; Ziegler, W H; Parekh, D B; Alessi, D R; Cohen, P; Parker, P J

    1998-09-25

    Phosphorylation sites in members of the protein kinase A (PKA), PKG, and PKC kinase subfamily are conserved. Thus, the PKB kinase PDK1 may be responsible for the phosphorylation of PKC isotypes. PDK1 phosphorylated the activation loop sites of PKCzeta and PKCdelta in vitro and in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-dependent manner in vivo in human embryonic kidney (293) cells. All members of the PKC family tested formed complexes with PDK1. PDK1-dependent phosphorylation of PKCdelta in vitro was stimulated by combined PKC and PDK1 activators. The activation loop phosphorylation of PKCdelta in response to serum stimulation of cells was PI 3-kinase-dependent and was enhanced by PDK1 coexpression. PMID:9748166

  16. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  17. Protein kinase C inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Swannie, Helen C; Kaye, Stanley B

    2002-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine protein kinases that are involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate growth factor response, proliferation, and apoptosis. Its central role in these processes, which are closely involved in tumor initiation, progression, and response to antitumor agents, makes it an attractive therapeutic target in cancer. Despite initial activity seen in melanoma (bryostatin and UCN-01), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ISIS 3521, bryostatin, and UCN-01), and ovarian carcinoma (ISIS 3521 and bryostatin) in phase I studies, single-agent activity in those phase II studies reported to date has been limited. Preclinical data highlight a role for PKC in modulation of drug resistance and synergy with conventional cytotoxic drugs. A randomized phase III study of ISIS 3521 in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, compared with chemotherapy alone, in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer is underway. This paper reviews the rationale for using PKC inhibitors in cancer therapy, the challenges for clinical trial design, and the recent clinical experience with modulators of PKC activity. PMID:11734112

  18. Facile total synthesis of (-)-(5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide from carbohydrate, a mosquito oviposition attractant pheromone.

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Kumar, Ashish; Al Ghamdi, Ahamad Al Khazim; Yadav, Jhillu Singh

    2012-09-01

    Total synthesis of (-)-(5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, a major component of mosquito oviposition attractant pheromones is reported. The key synthetic steps involve epoxide opening by lithiated salt of ethylpropionate and acid catalysed lactonization. The total synthesis was achieved in 11 linear steps staring from a readily available carbohydrate δ-gluconolactone in 18% overall yield making it simple, practical and elegant. PMID:22687338

  19. mTORC1 drives HIF-1α and VEGF-A signalling via multiple mechanisms involving 4E-BP1, S6K1 and STAT3.

    PubMed

    Dodd, K M; Yang, J; Shen, M H; Sampson, J R; Tee, A R

    2015-04-23

    Recent clinical trials using rapalogues in tuberous sclerosis complex show regression in volume of typically vascularised tumours including angiomyolipomas and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. By blocking mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling, rapalogue efficacy is likely to occur, in part, through suppression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). We show that rapamycin reduces HIF-1α protein levels, and to a lesser extent VEGF-A levels, in renal cystadenoma cells in a Tsc2+/- mouse model. We established that mTORC1 drives HIF-1α protein accumulation through enhanced transcription of HIF-1α mRNA, a process that is blocked by either inhibition or knockdown of signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3). Furthermore, we demonstrated that STAT3 is directly phosphorylated by mTORC1 on Ser727 during hypoxia, promoting HIF-1α mRNA transcription. mTORC1 also regulates HIF-1α synthesis on a translational level via co-operative regulation of both initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 (S6K1), whereas HIF-1α degradation remains unaffected. We therefore proposed that mTORC1 drives HIF-1α synthesis in a multifaceted manner through 4E-BP1/eIF4E, S6K1 and STAT3. Interestingly, we observed a disconnect between HIF-1α protein levels and VEGF-A expression. Although both S6K1 and 4E-BP1 regulate HIF-1α translation, VEGF-A is primarily under the control of 4E-BP1/eIF4E. S6K1 inhibition reduces HIF-1α but not VEGF-A expression, suggesting that mTORC1 mediates VEGF-A expression via both HIF-1α-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our work has important implications for the treatment of vascularised tumours, where mTORC1 acts as a central mediator of STAT3, HIF-1α, VEGF-A and angiogenesis via multiple signalling mechanisms. PMID:24931163

  20. Phosphorylated Ribosomal Protein S6 Is Required for Akt-Driven Hyperplasia and Malignant Transformation, but Not for Hypertrophy, Aneuploidy and Hyperfunction of Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Avigail Dreazen; Azar, Shahar; Klochendler, Agnes; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Avraham, Shlomit; Birnbaum, Lea; Binder Gallimidi, Adi; Katz, Maximiliano; Dor, Yuval; Meyuhas, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive expression of active Akt (Akttg) drives hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pancreatic β-cells, concomitantly with increased insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, and at a later stage the development of insulinoma. To determine which functions of Akt are mediated by ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), an Akt effector, we generated mice that express constitutive Akt in β-cells in the background of unphosphorylatable ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P-/-). rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency failed to block Akttg-induced hypertrophy and aneuploidy in β-cells, as well as the improved glucose homeostasis, indicating that Akt carries out these functions independently of rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency efficiently restrained the reduction in nuclear localization of the cell cycle inhibitor p27, as well as the development of Akttg-driven hyperplasia and tumor formation in β-cells. In vitro experiments with Akttg and rpS6P-/-;Akttg fibroblasts demonstrated that rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency leads to reduced translation fidelity, which might underlie its anti-tumorigenic effect in the pancreas. However, the role of translation infidelity in tumor suppression cannot simply be inferred from this heterologous experimental model, as rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency unexpectedly elevated the resistance of Akttg fibroblasts to proteotoxic, genotoxic as well as autophagic stresses. In contrast, rpS6P-/- fibroblasts exhibited a higher sensitivity to these stresses upon constitutive expression of oncogenic Kras. The latter result provides a possible mechanistic explanation for the ability of rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency to enhance DNA damage and protect mice from Kras-induced neoplastic transformation in the exocrine pancreas. We propose that Akt1 and Kras exert their oncogenic properties through distinct mechanisms, even though both show addiction to rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26919188

  1. Phosphorylated Ribosomal Protein S6 Is Required for Akt-Driven Hyperplasia and Malignant Transformation, but Not for Hypertrophy, Aneuploidy and Hyperfunction of Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Avigail Dreazen; Azar, Shahar; Klochendler, Agnes; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Avraham, Shlomit; Birnbaum, Lea; Binder Gallimidi, Adi; Katz, Maximiliano; Dor, Yuval; Meyuhas, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive expression of active Akt (Akttg) drives hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pancreatic β-cells, concomitantly with increased insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, and at a later stage the development of insulinoma. To determine which functions of Akt are mediated by ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), an Akt effector, we generated mice that express constitutive Akt in β-cells in the background of unphosphorylatable ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P-/-). rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency failed to block Akttg-induced hypertrophy and aneuploidy in β-cells, as well as the improved glucose homeostasis, indicating that Akt carries out these functions independently of rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency efficiently restrained the reduction in nuclear localization of the cell cycle inhibitor p27, as well as the development of Akttg-driven hyperplasia and tumor formation in β-cells. In vitro experiments with Akttg and rpS6P-/-;Akttg fibroblasts demonstrated that rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency leads to reduced translation fidelity, which might underlie its anti-tumorigenic effect in the pancreas. However, the role of translation infidelity in tumor suppression cannot simply be inferred from this heterologous experimental model, as rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency unexpectedly elevated the resistance of Akttg fibroblasts to proteotoxic, genotoxic as well as autophagic stresses. In contrast, rpS6P-/- fibroblasts exhibited a higher sensitivity to these stresses upon constitutive expression of oncogenic Kras. The latter result provides a possible mechanistic explanation for the ability of rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency to enhance DNA damage and protect mice from Kras-induced neoplastic transformation in the exocrine pancreas. We propose that Akt1 and Kras exert their oncogenic properties through distinct mechanisms, even though both show addiction to rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26919188

  2. MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Faoro, Leonardo; Cervantes, Gustavo M.; El-Hashani, Essam; Salgia, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have become important therapeutic target in oncology, especially lung cancer. MET RTK is involved in cancer cell growth/survival, motility/migration, invasion/metastasis, and in angiogenesis. MET can be overexpressed in lung cancer, sometimes mutated, and sometimes amplified. Not only can MET be overexpressed, there are subsets of lung cancer tumors that have HGF overexpression. The mutations of MET can occur in the semaphorin and/or juxtamembrane domain in a majority of times. Amplification of MET can occur de novo in primary/metastatic tumors, as well arise in the context of therapeutic inhibition. There are a number of clinical inhibitors that have been developed against MET/HGF. Small molecule inhibitors such as XL184 and PF02341066 have come to clinical fruition, as well as antibodies against MET (such as MetMAb). These inhibitors will be discussed. PMID:19861919

  3. β-Caryophyllene oxide inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 pathways and ROS-mediated MAPKs activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ran; Nam, Dongwoo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Sethi, Gautam; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2011-12-22

    Both PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play an important role in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells. In the present report, we investigated the effects of β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated from essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK activation pathways in human prostate and breast cancer cells. We found that CPO not only inhibited the constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling cascade; but also caused the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in tumor cells. CPO induced increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from mitochondria, which is associated with the induction of apoptosis as characterized by positive Annexin V binding and TUNEL staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly prevented CPO-induced apoptosis. Subsequently, CPO also down-regulated the expression of various downstream gene products that mediate cell proliferation (cyclin D1), survival (bcl-2, bcl-xL, survivin, IAP-1, and IAP-2), metastasis (COX-2), angiogenesis (VEGF), and increased the expression of p53 and p21. Interestingly, we also observed that CPO can significantly potentiate the apoptotic effects of various pharmacological PI3K/AKT inhibitors when employed in combination in tumor cells. Overall, these findings suggest that CPO can interfere with multiple signaling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and used as a potential therapeutic candidate for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:21924548

  4. Focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rebecca L; Baggerly, Keith A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Kang, Yu; Sanguino, Angela M; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Dalton, Heather J; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Zand, Behrouz; Akbani, Rehan; Diao, Lixia; Nick, Alpa M; DeGeest, Koen; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L; Lutgendorf, Susan; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    This investigation describes the clinical significance of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at the major activating tyrosine site (Y397) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. FAK gene amplification as a mechanism for FAK overexpression and the effects of FAK tyrosine kinase inhibitor VS-6062 on tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis were examined. FAK and phospho-FAKY397 were quantified in tumor (FAK-T; pFAK-T) and tumor-associated endothelial (FAK-endo; pFAK-endo) cell compartments of EOCs using immunostaining and qRT-PCR. Associations between expression levels and clinical variables were evaluated. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used to correlate FAK gene copy number and expression levels in EOC specimens. The in vitro and in vivo effects of VS-6062 were assayed in preclinical models. FAK-T and pFAK-T overexpression was significantly associated with advanced stage disease and increased microvessel density (MVD). High MVD was observed in tumors with elevated endothelial cell FAK (59%) and pFAK (44%). Survival was adversely affected by FAK-T overexpression (3.03 vs 2.06 y, P = 0.004), pFAK-T (2.83 vs 1.78 y, P < 0.001), and pFAK-endo (2.33 vs 2.17 y, P = 0.005). FAK gene copy number was increased in 34% of tumors and correlated with expression levels (P < 0.001). VS-6062 significantly blocked EOC and endothelial cell migration as well as endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. VS-6062 reduced mean tumor weight by 56% (P = 0.005), tumor MVD by 40% (P = 0.0001), and extraovarian metastasis (P < 0.01) in orthotopic EOC mouse models. FAK may be a unique therapeutic target in EOC given the dual anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic potential of FAK inhibitors. PMID:24755674

  5. Raf Family Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Matallanas, David; Birtwistle, Marc; Romano, David; Zebisch, Armin; Rauch, Jens; von Kriegsheim, Alexander; Kolch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    First identified in the early 1980s as retroviral oncogenes, the Raf proteins have been the objects of intense research. The discoveries 10 years later that the Raf family members (Raf-1, B-Raf, and A-Raf) are bona fide Ras effectors and upstream activators of the ubiquitous ERK pathway increased the interest in these proteins primarily because of the central role that this cascade plays in cancer development. The important role of Raf in cancer was corroborated in 2002 with the discovery of B-Raf genetic mutations in a large number of tumors. This led to intensified drug development efforts to target Raf signaling in cancer. This work yielded not only recent clinical successes but also surprising insights into the regulation of Raf proteins by homodimerization and heterodimerization. Surprising insights also came from the hunt for new Raf targets. Although MEK remains the only widely accepted Raf substrate, new kinase-independent roles for Raf proteins have emerged. These include the regulation of apoptosis by suppressing the activity of the proapoptotic kinases, ASK1 and MST2, and the regulation of cell motility and differentiation by controlling the activity of Rok-?. In this review, we discuss the regulation of Raf proteins and their role in cancer, with special focus on the interacting proteins that modulate Raf signaling. We also describe the new pathways controlled by Raf proteins and summarize the successes and failures in the development of efficient anticancer therapies targeting Raf. Finally, we also argue for the necessity of more systemic approaches to obtain a better understanding of how the Ras-Raf signaling network generates biological specificity. PMID:21779496

  6. Synthese, structure cristalline et analyse vibrationnelle de l'hexathiohypodiphosphate de lithium Li 4P 2S 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Malugani, J. P.; Fahys, B.; Douglande, J.; Robert, G.

    1982-07-01

    The crystalline compound Li 4P 2S 6 is obtained either by devitrification of Li 4P 2S 7 glass at 450°C with sulfur formation or by crystallisation at 450°C of a Li 2S, P and S melt. The structure determination has been solved by X-ray diffraction on a monocrystal. The unit cell is hexagonal {P6 3}/{mcm} with a = 6.070(4), c = 6.577(4) Å, V = 209 Å 3, Z = 1. Intensities were collected at 293°K with Kα (λ = 0.71069 Å) Mo radiation on an automatic Nonius CAD-4 diffractometer. The structure was solved under the assumption of random disorder of P atoms over two sites (occupancy factor of 0.5). Anisotropic least-squares refinement with W = 1 gave R = 0.047 for 90 independent reflections and 9 variables. The structure is built according to an ABAB sequence sulfur packing. Per unit cell, four out of six octahedral sites are occupied by Li ions, and the other two are statistically filled (0.5) by PP pairs. The PP central bond (2.256(13) Å) links two staggered PS 3 groups (PS = 2.032(5) Å) to form the D3 d symmetry P 2S 4-6 anion. Infrared and Raman spectra show features very similar to those of Na 4P 2S 6, 6H 2O and MIIPS 3 compounds. A new assignment in terms of symmetry species is proposed for the P 2S 6 internal modes, which is confirmed by a normal coordinate calculation using a valence force field; the stretching force constants fPP and fPS are equal to 1.6 and 2.7 mdyne Å -1, respectively.

  7. MAP kinase-interacting kinases--emerging targets against cancer.

    PubMed

    Diab, Sarah; Kumarasiri, Malika; Yu, Mingfeng; Teo, Theodosia; Proud, Christopher; Milne, Robert; Wang, Shudong

    2014-04-24

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-interacting kinases (Mnks) regulate the initiation of translation through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Mnk-mediated eIF4E activation promotes cancer development and progression. While the phosphorylation of eIF4E is necessary for oncogenic transformation, the kinase activity of Mnks seems dispensable for normal development. For this reason, pharmacological inhibition of Mnks could represent an ideal mechanism-based and nontoxic therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of Mnk biological roles, structures, and functions, as well as clinical implications. Importantly, we propose different strategies for identification of highly selective small molecule inhibitors of Mnks, including exploring a structural feature of their kinase domain, DFD motif, which is unique within the human kinome. We also argue that a combined targeting of Mnks and other pathways should be considered given the complexity of cancer. PMID:24613018

  8. On the phase transitions of 8CB/Sn2P2S6 liquid crystal nanocolloids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Douali, R; Dubois, F; Segovia-Mera, A; Daoudi, A

    2015-09-01

    Using differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the influence of Sn2P2S6 ferroelectric nanoparticles on the phase transition temperatures of the 8CB liquid crystal is studied. The spontaneous polarization, ionic and anchoring effects are discussed. For low concentration of dopant, the global effect leads to a decrease and an increase of the nematic-isotropic and the smectic A-nematic phase transition temperatures, respectively. For high concentrations, due to aggregates formation, the predominant anchoring effect induces a decrease of the both phase transition temperatures. PMID:26410848

  9. The dual-specificity CLK kinase induces neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M P; Murphy, M B; Landreth, G

    1994-01-01

    CLK is a dual-specificity protein kinase capable of phosphorylating serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues. We have investigated the action of CLK by establishing stable PC12 cell lines capable of inducibly expressing CLK. Expression of CLK in stably transfected PC12 cells mimicked a number of nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent events, including the morphological differentiation of these cells and the elaboration of neurites. Moreover, CLK expression enhanced the rate of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth of these cells, indicating that CLK expression and NGF treatment activate similar signal transduction pathways. CLK expression, unlike NGF, was not able to promote PC12 cell survival in serum-free media, demonstrating that CLK only partially recapitulated the actions of NGF on these cells and that the biochemical pathways necessary for morphological differentiation can be stimulated without also stimulating those necessary for survival. Induction of CLK expression also resulted in the selective activation of protein kinases that are components of growth factor-stimulated signal transduction cascades, including ERK1, ERK2, pp90RSK, and S6PKII. Induction of CLK expression, however, did not stimulate pp70S6K or Fos kinase, two NGF-sensitive protein kinases. These data indicate that CLK action mediates the morphological differentiation of these cells through its capacity to independently stimulate signal transduction pathways normally employed by NGF. Images PMID:7935412

  10. Acetylcorynoline Impairs the Maturation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells via Suppression of I?B Kinase and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ru-Huei; Wang, Yu-Chi; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chu, Ching-Liang; Tsai, Rong-Tzong; Ho, Yu-Chen; Chang, Wen-Lin; Chiu, Shao-Chih; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2013-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are major modulators in the immune system. One active field of research is the manipulation of DCs as pharmacological targets to screen novel biological modifiers for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Acetylcorynoline is the major alkaloid component derived from Corydalis bungeana herbs. We assessed the capability of acetylcorynoline to regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs. Methodology/Principal Findings Our experimental data showed that treatment with up to 20 M acetylcorynoline does not cause cytotoxicity in cells. Acetylcorynoline significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12p70 by LPS-stimulated DCs. The expression of LPS-induced major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40, and CD86 on DCs was also decreased by acetylcorynoline, and the endocytic capacity of LPS-stimulated DCs was restored by acetylcorynoline. In addition, LPS-stimulated DC-elicited allogeneic T-cell proliferation was blocked by acetylcorynoline, and the migratory ability of LPS-stimulated DCs was reduced by acetylcorynoline. Moreover, acetylcorynoline significantly inhibits LPS-induced activation of I?B kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Importantly, administration of acetylcorynoline significantly attenuates 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. Conclusions/Significance Acetylcorynoline may be one of the potent immunosuppressive agents through the blockage of DC maturation and function. PMID:23472193

  11. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  12. Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. ); Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

  13. Functional and evolutionary consequences of pyrethroid resistance mutations in S6 transmembrane segments of a voltage-gated sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Park, Y; Adams, M E

    2000-11-30

    Pyrethroids are a class of voltage-dependent sodium channel modifiers widely used as insecticides for control of disease vectors and agricultural pests. Many insect populations have developed resistance to pyrethroids linked to nervous system insensitivity and structural mutations in neuronal sodium channels. Pyrethroid resistant strains of the moth Heliothis virescens carry single point mutations leading to amino acid substitutions in either transmembrane segment I-S6 (V421M) or II-S6 (L1029H) of the para-homologous sodium channel. We analyzed the consequences of V421M and L1029H mutations constructed in the Drosophila para sodium channel heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and found that both mutations confer channel insensitivity to permethrin, with the L1029H mutation having a more pronounced effect. Both mutations also modify the intrinsic voltage-dependent gating properties of the channel, but L1029H less so than V421M. These results suggest that mutation V421M exacts a higher fitness cost than L1029H, providing a plausible explanation for genetic succession observed in field strains, where V421M was replaced by L1029H during the past decade. PMID:11095943

  14. Large negative thermal expansion in non-perovskite lead-free ferroelectric Sn2P2S6.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yangchun; Li, Menglei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Mei; Lin, Kun; Hu, Lei; Yuan, Wenxia; Duan, Wenhui; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2016-02-17

    Functional materials showing both negative thermal expansion (NTE) and physical performance, such as ferroelectricity and magnetism, have been extensively explored in the past decade. However, among ferroelectrics a remarkable NTE was only found in perovskite-type PbTiO3-based compounds. In this work, a large NTE of -4.7 × 10(-5) K(-1) is obtained in the non-perovskite lead-free ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 from 243 K to TC (338 K). Structure refinements and first-principle calculations reveal the effects of the Sn(ii) 5s-S 3p interaction on spontaneous polarization and its correlation with NTE. Then the mechanism of spontaneous volume ferroelectrostriction (SVFS) is verified and it could well elucidate the nature of NTE in ferroelectric Sn2P2S6. This is the first case to demonstrate the unusual NTE behavior by SVFS in a non-perovskite lead-free ferroelectric material. PMID:26854264

  15. mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) controls hydrophobic motif phosphorylation and activation of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1).

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Juan M; Alessi, Dario R

    2008-12-15

    SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1) is a member of the AGC (protein kinase A/protein kinase G/protein kinase C) family of protein kinases and is activated by agonists including growth factors. SGK1 regulates diverse effects of extracellular agonists by phosphorylating regulatory proteins that control cellular processes such as ion transport and growth. Like other AGC family kinases, activation of SGK1 is triggered by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the T-loop of the kinase domain and a serine residue lying within the C-terminal hydrophobic motif (Ser(422) in SGK1). PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) phosphorylates the T-loop of SGK1. The identity of the hydrophobic motif kinase is unclear. Recent work has established that mTORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) complex 1] phosphorylates the hydrophobic motif of S6K (S6 kinase), whereas mTORC2 (mTOR complex 2) phosphorylates the hydrophobic motif of Akt (also known as protein kinase B). In the present study we demonstrate that SGK1 hydrophobic motif phosphorylation and activity is ablated in knockout fibroblasts possessing mTORC1 activity, but lacking the mTORC2 subunits rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR), Sin1 (stress-activated-protein-kinase-interacting protein 1) or mLST8 (mammalian lethal with SEC13 protein 8). Furthermore, phosphorylation of NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated gene 1), a physiological substrate of SGK1, was also abolished in rictor-, Sin1- or mLST8-deficient fibroblasts. mTORC2 immunoprecipitated from wild-type, but not from mLST8- or rictor-knockout cells, phosphorylated SGK1 at Ser(422). Consistent with mTORC1 not regulating SGK1, immunoprecipitated mTORC1 failed to phosphorylate SGK1 at Ser(422), under conditions which it phosphorylated the hydrophobic motif of S6K. Moreover, rapamycin treatment of HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293, MCF-7 or HeLa cells suppressed phosphorylation of S6K, without affecting SGK1 phosphorylation or activation. The findings of the present study indicate that mTORC2, but not mTORC1, plays a vital role in controlling the hydrophobic motif phosphorylation and activity of SGK1. Our findings may explain why in previous studies phosphorylation of substrates, such as FOXO (forkhead box O), that could be regulated by SGK, are reduced in mTORC2-deficient cells. The results of the present study indicate that NDRG1 phosphorylation represents an excellent biomarker for mTORC2 activity. PMID:18925875

  16. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Hsu, Peggy P.; Awad, Mark M.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as ‘druggable’ targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours. PMID:24132104

  17. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  18. MOM-4, a MAP kinase kinase kinase-related protein, activates WRM-1/LIT-1 kinase to transduce anterior/posterior polarity signals in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Shin, T H; Yasuda, J; Rocheleau, C E; Lin, R; Soto, M; Bei, Y; Davis, R J; Mello, C C

    1999-08-01

    In C. elegans, a Wnt/WG-like signaling pathway down-regulates the TCF/LEF-related protein, POP-1, to specify posterior cell fates. Effectors of this signaling pathway include a beta-catenin homolog, WRM-1, and a conserved protein kinase, LIT-1. WRM-1 and LIT-1 form a kinase complex that can directly phosphorylate POP-1, but how signaling activates WRM-1/LIT-1 kinase is not yet known. Here we show that mom-4, a genetically defined effector of polarity signaling, encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase-related protein that stimulates the WRM-1/LIT-1-dependent phosphorylation of POP-1. LIT-1 kinase activity requires a conserved residue analogous to an activating phosphorylation site in other kinases, including MAP kinases. These findings suggest that anterior/posterior polarity signaling in C. elegans may involve a MAP kinase-like signaling mechanism. PMID:10488343

  19. Kv Channel Gating Requires a Compatible S4-S5 Linker and Bottom Part of S6, Constrained by Non-interacting Residues

    PubMed Central

    Labro, Alain J.; Raes, Adam L.; Grottesi, Alessandro; Van Hoorick, Diane; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Snyders, Dirk J.

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ channels transfer the voltage sensor movement into gate opening or closure through an electromechanical coupling. To test functionally whether an interaction between the S4-S5 linker (L45) and the cytoplasmic end of S6 (S6T) constitutes this coupling, the L45 in hKv1.5 was replaced by corresponding hKv2.1 sequence. This exchange was not tolerated but could be rescued by also swapping S6T. Exchanging both L45 and S6T transferred hKv2.1 kinetics to an hKv1.5 background while preserving the voltage dependence. A one-by-one residue substitution scan of L45 and S6T in hKv1.5 further shows that S6T needs to be α-helical and forms a “crevice” in which residues I422 and T426 of L45 reside. These residues transfer the mechanical energy onto the S6T crevice, whereas other residues in S6T and L45 that are not involved in the interaction maintain the correct structure of the coupling. PMID:19029374

  20. Multi-kinase inhibitors, AURKs and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cicenas, Jonas; Cicenas, Erikas

    2016-05-01

    Inhibitors that impact function of kinases are valuable both for the biological research as well as therapy of kinase-associated diseases, such as different cancers. There are quite a number of inhibitors, which are quite specific for certain kinases and several of them are either already approved for the cancer therapy or are in clinical studies of various phases. However, that does not mean that each single kinase inhibitor is suitable for targeted therapy. Some of them are not effective others might be toxic or fail some other criteria for the use in vivo. On the other hand, even in case of successful therapy, many responders eventually develop resistance to the inhibitors. The limitations of various single kinase inhibitors can be fought using compounds which target multiple kinases. This tactics can increase effectiveness of the inhibitors by the synergistic effect or help to diminish the likelihood of drug resistance. To date, several families of kinases are quite popular targets of the inhibition in cancers, such as tyrosine kinases, cycle-dependent kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinases as well as their pathway "players" and aurora kinases. Aurora kinases play an important role in the control of the mitosis and are often altered in diverse human cancers. Here, we will describe the most interesting multi-kinase inhibitors which inhibit aurora kinases among other targets and their use in preclinical and clinical cancer studies. PMID:27038473

  1. Activation of MEK-1 and SEK-1 by Tpl-2 proto-oncoprotein, a novel MAP kinase kinase kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, A; Ahmad, T B; Carlile, G W; Pappin, D; Narsimhan, R P; Ley, S C

    1996-01-01

    The Tpl-2 protein serine/threonine kinase was originally identified, in a C-terminally deleted form, as the product of an oncogene associated with the progression of Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced T cell lymphomas in rats. The kinase domain of Tpl-2 is homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene product, STE11, which encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase. This suggested that Tpl-2 might have a similar activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, immunoprecipitated Tpl-2 and Tpl-2deltaC (a C-terminally truncated mutant) phosphorylated and activated recombinant fusion proteins of the mammalian MAP kinase kinases, MEK-1 and SEK-1, in vitro. Furthermore, transfection of Tpl-2 into COS-1 cells or Jurkat T cells. markedly activated the MAP kinases, ERK-1 and SAP kinase (JNK), which are substrates for MEK-1 and SEK-1, respectively. Tpl-2, therefore, is a MAP kinase kinase kinase which can activate two MAP kinase pathways. After Raf and Mos, Tpl-2 is the third serine/threonine oncoprotein kinase that has been shown to function as a direct activator of MEK-1. Images PMID:8631303

  2. Degradation of Si-Al aluminide coating after service of turbine blades made of ZhS6K superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmiela, B.; Kianicová, M.; Sozańska, M.; Swadźba, L.

    2012-05-01

    Aero engine turbine blades made of nickel-based superalloys are characterized by very good mechanical properties, but their hot corrosion resistance is insufficient. Therefore, various protective coatings must be applied. These coatings are typically made of diffusive aluminide coatings based on the β-NiAl intermetallic phase. Although the oxidation resistance and hot corrosion resistance of these coatings are very good, their thermal resistance is relatively poor. As a result, turbine blades with aluminide coatings are prone to degradation in case of overheating. In this paper we study the degradation of the Si-Al aluminide coating on turbine blades made of ZhS6K superalloy during overheating in the DV2 jet engine.

  3. Antisite Defects in Layered Multiferroic CuCr0.9In0.1P2S6

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Qian; Belianinov, Alex; Dziaugys, Andrius; Maksymovych, Petro; Vysochanskii, Yulian; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-10-06

    The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. We carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In3+(Cu+) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as the potential applications inmore » 2-D electronics.« less

  4. Optical inter-satellite communication with dynamically reconfigurable optical device using Sn2P2S6 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimaki, Kaori; Okamoto, Atsushi; Fujita, Tomohiro; Grabar, Alexander A.; Takabayashi, Masanori; Uozumi, Jun; Tomita, Akihisa; Takayama, Yoshihisa

    2011-03-01

    Since the optical inter-satellite communication has attractive advantages such as high-speed transmission with high confidence, almost no electronic magnetic interference, and low power consumption, it has been activity investigated. However, directivity control of the laser beams requires a bulky and complicated system in satellite mobile communications. A more flexible and high accurate system with small and simple mechanism has been desired. In this study, we propose a new method of optical inter-satellite communication with a dynamically reconfigurable optical directional device in which diffraction gratings are automatically rewritten and reorganized in response of incident conditions by moving satellites. For realizing such a device, we have developed Sn2P2S6 crystals which have a high sensitive photorefractivity and dynamic reconfigurable property. Furthermore, this crystal has hundreds times faster response than conventional photorefractive materials such as BaTiO3. These features are extremely advantageous to construct a high-speed and flexible communication system with a large tolerance to displacement of moving satellites. To investigate the possibility of the dynamically reconfigurable optical inter-satellite communication system, we experimentally evaluate the temporal and spatial characteristics of Sn2P2S6 crystals for the variation of the beam incident angle. Moreover, the diffraction beam from the crystal has phase conjugate wavefronts of the beam entering from the counter direction. We try to utilize this behavior to suppress the beam spread and to reduce the background light such as sunlight with a spatial filtering technique that has sensitivity in wavefront differences of the signal and background light.

  5. Antisite defects in layered multiferroic CuCr0.9In0.1P2S6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian; Belianinov, Alex; Dziaugys, Andrius; Maksymovych, Petro; Vysochanskii, Yulian; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-11-01

    The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. In this work, we carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In3+(Cu+) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as their potential applications in 2-D electronics.The CuCr1-xInxP2S6 system represents a large family of metal chalcogenophosphates that are unique and promising candidates for 2D materials with functionalities such as ferroelectricity. In this work, we carried out detailed microstructural and chemical characterization of these compounds using aberration-corrected STEM, in order to understand the origin of these different ordering phenomena. Quantitative STEM-HAADF imaging and analysis identified the stacking order of an 8-layer thin flake, which leads to the identification of anti-site In3+(Cu+) doping. We believe that these findings will pave the way towards understanding the ferroic coupling phenomena in van der Waals lamellar compounds, as well as their potential applications in 2-D electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04779j

  6. Ab initio quantum chemical investigation of arsenic sulfide molecular diversity from As4S6 and As4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyono, Atsushi

    2013-10-01

    The structural diversity of arsenic sulfide molecules in compositions between As4S6 and As4 was investigated using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The As4S6 molecule consists of four trigonal pyramid coordinations of As atoms bonding to three S atoms. In the As4S5 composition, only one type of molecular configuration corresponds to an uzonite-type molecule. In the As4S4 composition, two molecular configurations exist with realgar-type and pararealgar-type molecules. Three molecular configurations are in the As4S3 composition. The first configuration comprises trigonal pyramidal As atom coordinations of two types: bonding to two S atoms and one As atom, and bonding to one S atom and two As atoms. The second is the molecular configuration of dimorphite. The third comprises trigonal pyramidal As atom coordinations of two types: bonding to three As atoms, and bonding to one As atom and two S atoms. The As4S2 composition allows molecular configurations of two types. One is comprised of trigonal pyramidal As atom configurations of one type bonding to two As atoms and one S atom. The other comprises trigonal pyramidal As atom coordinations of three types: bonding to two S atoms and one As atoms, bonding to one S atom and two As atoms, and bonding to three As atoms. The As4S molecule has trigonal pyramidal As atom coordinations of two types: bonding to one S atom and two As atoms, and bonding to three As atoms. The As4S composition permits only one molecular configuration, which suggests that the mineral duranusite comprises the As4S molecular geometry. In all, ten molecular configurations are predicted in the molecular hierarchy of the arsenic sulfide binary system. The simulated Raman spectral profiles are helpful in searching for undiscovered arsenic sulfide minerals.

  7. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anish; Rajan, Arun; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS ‘Driver mutations’ are essential for carcinogenesis as well as tumor progression as they confer a selective growth advantage to cancer cells. Identification of driver mutations in growth related protein kinases, especially tyrosine kinases have led to clinical development of an array of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in various malignancies, including lung cancer. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinases have proven to be of meaningful clinical benefit, while inhibition of several other tyrosine kinases have been of limited clinical benefit, thus far. An improved understanding of tyrosine kinase biology has also led to faster drug development, identification of resistance mechanisms and ways to overcome resistance. In this review, we discuss the clinical data supporting the use and practical aspects of management of patients on epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22520981

  8. Molecular structure of a protein-tyrosine/threonine kinase activating p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase: MAP kinase kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Harrison, J K; Vincent, L A; Haystead, C; Haystead, T A; Michel, H; Hunt, D F; Lynch, K R; Sturgill, T W

    1993-01-01

    MAP kinases p42mapk and p44mapk participate in a protein kinase cascade(s) important for signaling in many cell types and contexts. Both MAP kinases are activated in vitro by MAP kinase kinase, a protein-tyrosine and threonine kinase. A MAP kinase kinase cDNA was isolated from a rat kidney library by using peptide sequence data we obtained from MAP kinase kinase isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. The deduced sequence, containing 393 amino acids (predicted mass, 43.5 kDa), is most similar to byr1 (Bypass of ras1), a yeast protein kinase functioning in the mating pathway induced by pheromones in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. An unusually large insert is present in MAP kinase kinase between domains IX and X and may contribute to protein-protein interactions with MAP kinase. Major (2.7 kilobases) and minor (1.7 kilobases) transcripts are widely expressed in rat tissues and appear to be derived from a single gene. Images PMID:8380494

  9. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  10. Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Katsouri, Loukia; Irvine, Elaine E.; Hankir, Mohammed K.; Pedroni, Silvia M.A.; Voshol, Peter J.; Gordon, Matthew W.; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Woods, Angela; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Carling, David; Withers, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons. PMID:25865886

  11. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway activation in breast cancer brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Activation status of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) is largely unknown. We examined expression of phospho(p)-AKT, p-S6, and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in BCBMs and their implications for overall survival (OS) and survival after BCBMs. Secondary analyses included PI3K pathway activation status and associations with time to distant recurrence (TTDR) and time to BCBMs. Similar analyses were also conducted among the subset of patients with triple-negative BCBMs. Methods p-AKT, p-S6, and PTEN expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry in 52 BCBMs and 12 matched primary BCs. Subtypes were defined as hormone receptor (HR)+/HER2-, HER2+, and triple-negative (TNBC). Survival analyses were performed by using a Cox model, and survival curves were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Expression of p-AKT and p-S6 and lack of PTEN (PTEN-) was observed in 75%, 69%, and 25% of BCBMs. Concordance between primary BCs and matched BCBMs was 67% for p-AKT, 58% for p-S6, and 83% for PTEN. PTEN- was more common in TNBC compared with HR+/HER2- and HER2+. Expression of p-AKT, p-S6, and PTEN- was not associated with OS or survival after BCBMs (all, P > 0.06). Interestingly, among all patients, PTEN- correlated with shorter time to distant and brain recurrence. Among patients with TNBC, PTEN- in BCBMs was associated with poorer overall survival. Conclusions The PI3K pathway is active in most BCBMs regardless of subtype. Inhibition of this pathway represents a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with BCBMs, a group of patients with poor prognosis and limited systemic therapeutic options. Although expression of the PI3K pathway did not correlate with OS and survival after BCBM, PTEN- association with time to recurrence and OS (among patients with TNBC) is worthy of further study. PMID:22132754

  13. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway in Human Cancer: Genetic Alterations and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Arcaro, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Ana S

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently activated in human cancer and represents an attractive target for therapies based on small molecule inhibitors. PI3K isoforms play an essential role in the signal transduction events activated by cell surface receptors including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There are eight known PI3K isoforms in humans, which have been subdivided into three classes (I-III). Therefore PI3Ks show considerable diversity and it remains unclear which kinases in this family should be targeted in cancer. The class IA of PI3K comprises the p110α, p110β and p110δ isoforms, which associate with activated RTKs. In human cancer, recent reports have described activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene encoding p110α, and inactivating mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) gene, a tumour suppressor and antagonist of the PI3K pathway. The PIK3CA mutations described in cancer constitutively activate p110α and, when expressed in cells drive oncogenic transformation. Moreover, these mutations cause the constitutive activation of downstream signaling molecules such as Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) that is commonly observed in cancer cells. In addition to p110α, the other isoforms of the PI3K family may also play a role in human cancer, although their individual functions remain to be precisely identified. In this review we will discuss the evidence implicating individual PI3K isoforms in human cancer and their potential as drug targets in this context. PMID:19384426

  14. Evolutionary Ancestry of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases and Choline Kinases.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shenshen; Safaei, Javad; Pelech, Steven

    2016-03-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins catalyzed by protein kinases in eukaryotes supports an important role for eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) in the emergence of nucleated cells in the third superkingdom of life. Choline kinases (ChKs) could also be critical in the early evolution of eukaryotes, because of their function in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is unique to eukaryotic membranes. However, the genomic origins of ePKs and ChKs are unclear. The high degeneracy of protein sequences and broad expansion of ePK families have made this fundamental question difficult to answer. In this study, we identified two class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with high similarities to consensus amino acid sequences of human protein-serine/threonine kinases. Comparisons of primary and tertiary structures supported that ePKs and ChKs evolved from a common ancestor related to glutaminyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which may have been one of the key factors in the successful of emergence of ancient eukaryotic cells from bacterial colonies. PMID:26742849

  15. Functionally distinct PI 3-kinase pathways regulate myelination in the peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Bradley A.; Ghidinelli, Monica; Voelkl, Jakob; Einheber, Steven; Smith, Ryan; Grund, Ethan; Morahan, Grant; Chandler, David; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Giancotti, Filippo; King, Rosalind H.; Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray; Fejes-Toth, Gerard; Feltri, Maria Laura; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The PI 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling pathway is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Here we have characterized PI 3-K effectors activated during myelination by probing myelinating cultures and developing nerves with an antibody that recognizes phosphorylated substrates for this pathway. We identified a discrete number of phospho-proteins including the S6 ribosomal protein (S6rp), which is down-regulated at the onset of myelination, and N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), which is up-regulated strikingly with myelination. We show that type III Neuregulin1 on the axon is the primary activator of S6rp, an effector of mTORC1. In contrast, laminin-2 in the extracellular matrix (ECM), signaling through the α6β4 integrin and Sgk1 (serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1), drives phosphorylation of NDRG1 in the Cajal bands of the abaxonal compartment. Unexpectedly, mice deficient in α6β4 integrin signaling or Sgk1 exhibit hypermyelination during development. These results identify functionally and spatially distinct PI 3-K pathways: an early, pro-myelinating pathway driven by axonal Neuregulin1 and a later-acting, laminin–integrin-dependent pathway that negatively regulates myelination. PMID:24687281

  16. Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

    2015-02-01

    The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

  17. Lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} atomic state of radium.

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, W. L.; Sulai, I. A.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Kentucky

    2009-01-01

    The lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} state of atomic radium is determined to be 385(45) {mu}s using cold {sup 226}Ra atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap. The {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is populated from the decay of the {sup 1}P{sub 1} state which is excited by a pulse of 483 nm light. The decay of the {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is observed by detecting delayed fluorescence at 714 nm from the last step in the decay sequence {sup 1}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}S{sub 0}. The measured lifetime is compared to a number of theoretical calculations. An improved value of the 7s7p {sup 1}P{sub 1} level of 20 715.598(6) cm{sup -1} is obtained.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7 links) CLIMB National (UK) Information Centre for Metabolic Diseases: Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Disease InfoSearch: Dystonia 10 Disease ... 2 links) CLIMB National (UK) Information Centre for Metabolic Diseases National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Pyruvate Kinase ...

  19. The generality of kinase-catalyzed biotinylation.

    PubMed

    Senevirathne, Chamara; Embogama, D Maheeka; Anthony, Thilani A; Fouda, Ahmed E; Pflum, Mary Kay H

    2016-01-01

    Kinase-catalyzed protein phosphorylation is involved in a wide variety of cellular events. Development of methods to monitor phosphoproteins in normal and diseased states is critical to fully characterize cell signaling. Towards phosphoprotein analysis tools, our lab reported kinase-catalyzed labeling where γ-phosphate modified ATP analogs are utilized by kinases to label peptides or protein substrates with a functional tag. In particular, the ATP-biotin analog was developed for kinase-catalyzed biotinylation. However, kinase-catalyzed labeling has been tested rigorously with only a few kinases, preventing use of ATP-biotin as a general tool. Here, biotinylation experiments, gel or HPLC-based quantification, and kinetic measurements indicated that twenty-five kinases throughout the kinome tree accepted ATP-biotin as a cosubstrate. With this rigorous characterization of ATP-biotin compatibility, kinase-catalyzed labeling is now immediately useful for studying phosphoproteins and characterizing the role of phosphorylation in various biological events. PMID:26672511

  20. MAP kinase cascades: scaffolding signal specificity.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, Frank; Peter, Matthias

    2002-01-22

    Scaffold proteins organize many MAP kinase pathways by interacting with several components of these cascades. Recent studies suggest that scaffold proteins provide local activation platforms that contribute to signal specificity by insulating different MAP kinase pathways. PMID:11818078

  1. Anticancer Alkaloid Lamellarins Inhibit Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Baunbæk, Dianne; Trinkler, Nolwenn; Ferandin, Yoan; Lozach, Olivier; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi; Rucirawat, Somsak; Ishibashi, Fumito; Iwao, Masatomo; Meijer, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Lamellarins, a family of hexacyclic pyrrole alkaloids originally isolated from marine invertebrates, display promising anti-tumor activity. They induce apoptotic cell death through multi-target mechanisms, including inhibition of topoisomerase I, interaction with DNA and direct effects on mitochondria. We here report that lamellarins inhibit several protein kinases relevant to cancer such as cyclin-dependent kinases, dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation activated kinase 1A, casein kinase 1, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and PIM-1. A good correlation is observed between the effects of lamellarins on protein kinases and their action on cell death, suggesting that inhibition of specific kinases may contribute to the cytotoxicity of lamellarins. Structure/activity relationship suggests several paths for the optimization of lamellarins as kinase inhibitors. PMID:19172192

  2. Kinases charging to the membrane.

    PubMed

    Hadders, Michael A; Williams, Roger L

    2010-12-10

    Being at the right place and time is as fundamental to biology as it is to academic careers. In this issue, Moravcevic and colleagues (2010) survey membrane-interacting proteins in yeast and discover a new membrane-targeting module, the kinase associated-1 domain KA1, which ensures that proteins are active at the correct place and time. PMID:21145452

  3. Choline kinase in Cuscuta reflexa

    PubMed Central

    Setty, Pravina N.; Krishnan, P. S.

    1972-01-01

    1. Choline kinase is a mitochondrial enzyme in Cuscuta reflexa. It can be solubilized from the particles by treatment with 350mm-sodium chloride, or by freezing and thawing. 2. Choline kinase of C. reflexa was purified by starting from the crude mitochondrial fraction. A 33–52% recovery of the enzyme, on the basis of the activity in the original homogenate, in 1200–2250-fold enrichment, was effected. 3. The purified preparation of choline kinase had a sigmoid saturation curve with respect to choline, with a Hill number of 2.3, and was inhibited by ADP (competitive in nature and allosteric in binding, with a Hill number of 2.7) and by phosphorylcholine (non-competitive and non-allosteric). The kinetic characteristics of the enzyme were consistent with the K type allosteric model of Monod et al. (1965). 4. The enzyme was desensitized, with respect to choline regulation, by prolonged storage in the cold, was activated significantly on warming before assay and was inactivated by high concentrations of sodium chloride. 5. The significance of allostery in choline kinase in relation to the intracellular regulation of phospholipid synthesis is discussed. PMID:5010855

  4. Targeting of ribosomal protein S6 to dendritic spines by in vivo high frequency stimulation to induce long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Nihonmatsu, Itsuko; Ohkawa, Noriaki; Saitoh, Yoshito; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampus is believed to be the cellular basis of long-term memory. Protein synthesis is required for persistent forms of synaptic plasticity, including L-LTP. Neural activity is thought to enhance local protein synthesis in dendrites, and one of the mechanisms required to induce or maintain the long-lasting synaptic plasticity is protein translation in the dendrites. One regulator of translational processes is ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit. Although polyribosomes containing rpS6 are observed in dendritic spines, it remains unclear whether L-LTP induction triggers selective targeting of the translational machinery to activated synapses in vivo. Therefore, we investigated synaptic targeting of the translational machinery by observing rpS6 immunoreactivity during high frequency stimulation (HFS) for L-LTP induction in vivo. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed a selective but transient increase in rpS6 immunoreactivity occurring as early as 15 min after the onset of HFS in dendritic spine heads at synaptic sites receiving HFS. Concurrently, levels of the rpS6 protein rapidly declined in somata of granule cells, as determined using immunofluorescence microscopy. These results suggest that the translational machinery is rapidly targeted to activated spines and that this targeting mechanism may contribute to the establishment of L-LTP. PMID:26432888

  5. Targeting of ribosomal protein S6 to dendritic spines by in vivo high frequency stimulation to induce long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Nihonmatsu, Itsuko; Ohkawa, Noriaki; Saitoh, Yoshito; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampus is believed to be the cellular basis of long-term memory. Protein synthesis is required for persistent forms of synaptic plasticity, including L-LTP. Neural activity is thought to enhance local protein synthesis in dendrites, and one of the mechanisms required to induce or maintain the long-lasting synaptic plasticity is protein translation in the dendrites. One regulator of translational processes is ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit. Although polyribosomes containing rpS6 are observed in dendritic spines, it remains unclear whether L-LTP induction triggers selective targeting of the translational machinery to activated synapses in vivo. Therefore, we investigated synaptic targeting of the translational machinery by observing rpS6 immunoreactivity during high frequency stimulation (HFS) for L-LTP induction in vivo. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed a selective but transient increase in rpS6 immunoreactivity occurring as early as 15 min after the onset of HFS in dendritic spine heads at synaptic sites receiving HFS. Concurrently, levels of the rpS6 protein rapidly declined in somata of granule cells, as determined using immunofluorescence microscopy. These results suggest that the translational machinery is rapidly targeted to activated spines and that this targeting mechanism may contribute to the establishment of L-LTP. PMID:26432888

  6. Latest progress in tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pospelova, Tatiana V.; Pospelov, Valery A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the latest progress in development of some kinase inhibitors such as inhibitors of c-MET, LIM and Bcr-Abl kinases. Importantly, many oncogenic kinases signal via the mTOR pathway, suggesting a common target for drug combinations. PMID:24727648

  7. Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 M s 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, Z. J.; Xie, L. L.; Zhou, B. F.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 M s 6.5 ( M w6.1) Ludian earthquake occurred in the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region of western China. This earthquake caused much more severe engineering damage than the usual earthquakes with the same magnitude in China. The National Strong Motion Network obtained large set of ground motion recordings during the earthquake. To investigate the engineering interested characteristics of ground motion from Ludian earthquake and compare it with the M w 7.9 Wenchuan and the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquakes in western China, studies on the ground motion field, attenuation relationship, distance dependence of significant duration, and site amplification were carried out. Some conclusion is drawn. Specifically, the ground motion field reveals a directional feature, and the distribution characteristics of the two horizontal components are similar. The attenuation relationship for Ludian earthquake is basically consistent with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for western China, except the slight smaller than the GMPE predicted at short periods. The distance dependences of ground motion duration are different in Sichuan and Yunnan regions due to the local physical dispersion and Q value. The site amplification factors are dominated by linear site response for lower reference ground motion, but the nonlinearity becomes notable for higher reference ground motion. This feature is basically consistent with the empirical model for western China. All the results indicate that the spatial distribution of ground motion, the attenuation characteristics, and the site amplification effect should be considered in characterization of near-field ground motion.

  8. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert . E-mail: biocrr@lsuhsc.edu

    2005-05-27

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTP{alpha}, PTP{epsilon}, and PTP{lambda}. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined.

  9. Attenuation of pattern recognition receptor signaling is mediated by a MAP kinase kinase kinase.

    PubMed

    Mithoe, Sharon C; Ludwig, Christina; Pel, Michiel Jc; Cucinotta, Mara; Casartelli, Alberto; Mbengue, Malick; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Robatzek, Silke; Pieterse, Corné Mj; Aebersold, Ruedi; Menke, Frank Lh

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a key role in plant and animal innate immunity. PRR binding of their cognate ligand triggers a signaling network and activates an immune response. Activation of PRR signaling must be controlled prior to ligand binding to prevent spurious signaling and immune activation. Flagellin perception in Arabidopsis through FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2) induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and immunity. However, the precise molecular mechanism that connects activated FLS2 to downstream MAPK cascades remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of a differentially phosphorylated MAP kinase kinase kinase that also interacts with FLS2. Using targeted proteomics and functional analysis, we show that MKKK7 negatively regulates flagellin-triggered signaling and basal immunity and this requires phosphorylation of MKKK7 on specific serine residues. MKKK7 attenuates MPK6 activity and defense gene expression. Moreover, MKKK7 suppresses the reactive oxygen species burst downstream of FLS2, suggesting that MKKK7-mediated attenuation of FLS2 signaling occurs through direct modulation of the FLS2 complex. PMID:26769563

  10. A Role for the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1 in Epithelial Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Maoxian; Chen, Wei-Li; Takatori, Atsushi; Peng, Zhimin; Zhang, Lin; Mongan, Maureen; Parthasarathy, Ranjani; Sartor, Maureen; Miller, Marian; Yang, Jianhua; Su, Bing; Kao, Winston W.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) kinase 1 (MEKK1) mediates activin B signals required for eyelid epithelium morphogenesis during mouse fetal development. The present study investigates the role of MEKK1 in epithelial wound healing, another activin-regulated biological process. In a skin wound model, injury markedly stimulates MEKK1 expression and activity, which are in turn required for the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. MEKK1 ablation or down-regulation by interfering RNA significantly delays skin wound closure and impairs activation of Jun NH2-terminal kinases, induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and restoration of cell–cell junctions of the wounded epidermis. Conversely, expression of wild-type MEKK1 accelerates reepithelialization of full-thickness skin and corneal debridement wounds by mechanisms involving epithelial cell migration, a cell function that is partially abolished by neutralizing antibodies for PAI-1 and metalloproteinase III. Our data suggest that MEKK1 transmits wound signals, leading to the transcriptional activation of genes involved in ECM homeostasis, epithelial cell migration, and wound reepithelialization. PMID:16760432

  11. Manipulation of kinase signaling by bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Krachler, Anne Marie; Woolery, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens use effector proteins to manipulate their hosts to propagate infection. These effectors divert host cell signaling pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and frequently target kinase signaling cascades. Notable pathways that are usurped include the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and p21-activated kinase (PAK) pathways. Analyzing the functions of pathogenic effectors and their intersection with host kinase pathways has provided interesting insights into both the mechanisms of virulence and eukaryotic signaling. PMID:22123833

  12. Pseudo Jahn-Teller origin of puckering in cyclohexahomoatomic molecules E6 (E = S, Se, Te) and restoring S6 planar ring configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilkhani, Ali Reza

    2015-10-01

    The pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE) is employed to explore the origin of the puckering structure of cyclohexasulfur (S6), cyclohexaselenium (Se6) and cyclohexatellurium (Te6) and their nondegenerate and degenerate vibronic excited states and their planar structure instabilities have investigated. The ab initio geometry optimization and frequency calculations show that all these cyclohexahomoatomic molecules chose D6h symmetry in the planar configuration, and according the S6 and Se6 experimental structure, the chair form of the molecules is stable structure. The vibronic coupling between the ground state 1A1g and excited state 1B2g is the cause of chair puckering in all these series compounds and the numerical solutions of the PJTE (1A1g+1B2g)⊗b2g problems describe their instability. The adiabatic potential energy surfaces (APES) cross sections of low-lying electronic states along the b2g puckering normal coordinates have calculated by the state-average complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) method. The calculation results show that, the chair puckering instability in the S6 from unstable planar configuration with D6h symmetry to a stable D3d distorted geometry, is stronger than others, whereas it is weaker in Te6. Additionally, coordination two canions (X = H+, He2+) to the S6 chair structure restore the planarity of S6 puckered ring in the S6X2 systems, although the D6h symmetry in S6 planar ring configuration changes to the Cs symmetry in the systems.

  13. Regulation and function of yeast PAS kinase

    PubMed Central

    Grose, Julianne H.; Sundwall, Eleanor; Rutter, Jared

    2016-01-01

    The inability to coordinate cellular metabolic processes with the cellular and organismal nutrient environment leads to a variety of disorders, including diabetes and obesity. Nutrient-sensing protein kinases, such as AMPK and mTOR, play a pivotal role in metabolic regulation and are promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of disease. In this Extra View, we describe another member of the nutrient-sensing protein kinase group, PAS kinase, which plays a role in the regulation of glucose utilization in both mammals and yeast. PAS kinase deficient mice are resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain, insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride hyperaccumulation, suggesting a role for PAS kinase in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in mammals. Likewise, PAS kinase deficient yeast display altered glucose partitioning, favoring glycogen biosynthesis at the expense of cell wall biosynthesis. As a result, PAS kinase deficient yeast are sensitive to cell wall perturbing agents. This partitioning of glucose in response to PAS kinase activation is due to phosphorylation of Ugp1, the enzyme primarily responsible for UDP-glucose production. The two yeast PAS kinase homologs, Psk1 and Psk2, are activated by two stimuli, cell integrity stress and nonfermentative carbon sources. We review what is known about yeast PAS kinase and describe a genetic screen that may help elucidate pathways involved in PAS kinase activation and function. PMID:19440050

  14. S6K1 Phosphorylation of H2B Mediates EZH2 Trimethylation of H3: A Determinant of Early Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang Ah; Um, Sung Hee; Lee, Jaecheol; Yoo, Ji Hee; Bang, So Young; Park, Eun Kyung; Lee, Min Gyu; Nam, Ki Hong; Jeon, Ye Ji; Park, Jong Woo; You, Jueng Soo; Lee, Sang-Jin; Bae, Gyu-Un; Rhie, Jong Won; Kozma, Sara C; Thomas, George; Han, Jeung-Whan

    2016-05-01

    S6K1 has been implicated in a number of key metabolic responses, which contribute to obesity. Critical among these is the control of a transcriptional program required for the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the adipocytic lineage. However, in contrast to its role in the cytosol, the functions and targets of nuclear S6K1 are unknown. Here, we show that adipogenic stimuli trigger nuclear translocation of S6K1, leading to H2BS36 phosphorylation and recruitment of EZH2 to H3, which mediates H3K27 trimethylation. This blocks Wnt gene expression, inducing the upregulation of PPARγ and Cebpa and driving increased adipogenesis. Consistent with this finding, white adipose tissue from S6K1-deficient mice exhibits no detectable H2BS36 phosphorylation or H3K27 trimethylation, whereas both responses are highly elevated in obese humans or in mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings define an S6K1-dependent mechanism in early adipogenesis, contributing to the promotion of obesity. PMID:27151441

  15. Multiple phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 during transition of quiescent 3T3 cells into early G1, and cellular compartmentalization of the phosphate donor.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G; Siegmann, M; Gordon, J

    1979-01-01

    At 5 min after quiescent cells are induced to enter G1 there is a large increase in the amount of 32P incorporated into 40S ribosomal protein S6. Here we show that changes in the specific activities of 32Pi and [gamma-32P]ATP in stimulated as compared to quiescent cultures do not account for this large increase. Instead, we demonstrate by decreased electrophoretic mobility on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels that this increase is due to a quantitative increase in the total amount of phosphate incorporated into S6. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments show that the phosphate that is incorporated into S6 is metabolically stable during at least the first 60 min of induction and that the incorporation of 32P into S6 responds immediately to the replacement of 32Pi by Pi in the medium, in contrast to [gamma-32P]ATP which changes very slowly. Thus, the S6 phosphate donor must be a compartment separate from that of the total cellular ATP. Images PMID:291054

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Bioinformatic mining of kinase inhibitors that regulate autophagy through kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Biao; Jin, Ye; Ben, Wei; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Keping; Feng, Shujun; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Jianhua

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the kinase inhibitors that may regulate autophagy. A total of 62 kinases were obtained through text mining by importing the keyword 'autophagy' and a 'protein kinase' Excel file to PubMed. Subsequently, 146 kinases were derivated through screening in the PubMed database by importing the 'autophagy‑associated gene' and 'protein kinase' files. Following intersection of the above two methods, 54 candidate autophagy‑associated kinases were obtained. Enrichment analysis indicated that these candidate autophagy‑associated kinases were mainly enriched in pathways such as the calcium, Wnt, HIF‑1 and mTOR signaling pathways. Among the 54 kinases, 24 were identified through text mining to have specific kinase inhibitors that regulate the corresponding functions; a total of 56 kinase inhibitors were found to be involved in the regulation of these 24 kinases. In total, nine of these 56 kinase inhibitors identified had been widely reported in autophagy regulation studies, 23 kinase inhibitors had been seldom reported and 24 had never been reported. Therefore, introducing these kinases into autophagy regulation analysis in subsequent studies may produce important results. PMID:25323421

  18. The Origin and Evolution of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Mushegian, Arcady; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play key role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. GRKs phosphorylate activated receptors, promoting high affinity binding of arrestins, which precludes G protein coupling. Direct binding to active GPCRs activates GRKs, so that they selectively phosphorylate only the activated form of the receptor regardless of the accessibility of the substrate peptides within it and their Ser/Thr-containing sequence. Mammalian GRKs were classified into three main lineages, but earlier GRK evolution has not been studied. Here we show that GRKs emerged at the early stages of eukaryotic evolution via an insertion of a kinase similar to ribosomal protein S6 kinase into a loop in RGS domain. GRKs in Metazoa fall into two clades, one including GRK2 and GRK3, and the other consisting of all remaining GRKs, split into GRK1-GRK7 lineage and GRK4-GRK5-GRK6 lineage in vertebrates. One representative of each of the two ancient clades is found as early as placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. Several protists, two oomycetes and unicellular brown algae have one GRK-like protein, suggesting that the insertion of a kinase domain into the RGS domain preceded the origin of Metazoa. The two GRK families acquired distinct structural units in the N- and C-termini responsible for membrane recruitment and receptor association. Thus, GRKs apparently emerged before animals and rapidly expanded in true Metazoa, most likely due to the need for rapid signalling adjustments in fast-moving animals. PMID:22442725

  19. Mitotic Kinases and p53 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Geun-Hyoung; Breuer, Eun-Kyoung Yim

    2012-01-01

    Mitosis is tightly regulated and any errors in this process often lead to aneuploidy, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Deregulation of mitotic kinases is significantly associated with improper cell division and aneuploidy. Because of their importance during mitosis and the relevance to cancer, mitotic kinase signaling has been extensively studied over the past few decades and, as a result, several mitotic kinase inhibitors have been developed. Despite promising preclinical results, targeting mitotic kinases for cancer therapy faces numerous challenges, including safety and patient selection issues. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mitotic kinase signaling and its interactive network. Increasing evidence suggests that tumor suppressor p53 functions at the center of the mitotic kinase signaling network. In response to mitotic spindle damage, multiple mitotic kinases phosphorylate p53 to either activate or deactivate p53-mediated signaling. p53 can also regulate the expression and function of mitotic kinases, suggesting the existence of a network of mutual regulation, which can be positive or negative, between mitotic kinases and p53 signaling. Therefore, deciphering this regulatory network will provide knowledge to overcome current limitations of targeting mitotic kinases and further improve the results of targeted therapy. PMID:22852086

  20. rpS6 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics through Arp3-mediated actin microfilament organization in rat sertoli cells. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mok, Ka-Wai; Chen, Haiqi; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-05-01

    In the seminiferous epithelium of rat testes, preleptotene spermatocytes residing in the basal compartment are transported across the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle. This process involves redistribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins via reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in Sertoli cells that serves as attachment site for adhesion protein complexes. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a downstream molecule of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), participates in this process via a yet-to-be defined mechanism. Here, we constructed an rpS6 quadruple phosphomimetic mutant by converting Ser residues at 235, 236, 240, and 244 to Glu via site-directed mutagenesis, making this mutant constitutively active. When this rpS6 mutant was overexpressed in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established TJ barrier mimicking the BTB in vivo, it perturbed the TJ permeability by down-regulating and redistributing TJ proteins at the cell-cell interface. These changes are mediated by a reorganization of actin microfilaments, which was triggered by a redistribution of activated actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) as well as changes in Arp3-neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) interaction. This in turn induced reorganization of actin microfilaments, converting them from a "bundled" to an "unbundled/branched" configuration, concomitant with a reduced actin bundling activity, thereby destabilizing the TJ-barrier function. These changes were mediated by Akt (transforming oncogene of v-akt), because an Akt knockdown by RNA interference was able to mimic the phenotypes of rpS6 mutant overexpression at the Sertoli cell BTB. In summary, this study illustrates a mechanism by which mTORC1 signal complex regulates BTB function through rpS6 downstream by modulating actin organization via the Arp2/3 complex, which may be applicable to other tissue barriers. PMID:25714812

  1. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  2. Protein kinases in normal and transformed melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Quong, R Y; Bickford, S T; Ing, Y L; Terman, B; Herlyn, M; Lassam, N J

    1994-10-01

    Aberrant function of protein kinases has been implicated in the development of melanoma. In an effort to define the molecular events involved in initiation and progression of this malignancy, we used RT-PCR to identify protein kinases in both normal and transformed melanocytes. Collectively, we identified seven clones corresponding to previously characterized protein kinases (JAK-1, TYK02, AXL/UFO, IGF1-R, KDR and FER) as well as the recently identified MLK-3/PTK1 protein kinase. Northern analysis was used to determine the expression pattern of each protein kinase in both normal melanocytes and a variety of melanoma cell lines. Relatively abundant levels of UFO/AXL and KDR mRNAs were observed in a subset of the melanoma cell lines whereas most of the remaining protein kinases were expressed at similar levels in both normal and transformed melanocytes. PMID:7858416

  3. The serine kinase phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) regulates T cell development.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Heather J; Alessi, Dario R; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2004-05-01

    T lymphocyte activation is associated with activation of diverse AGC serine kinases (named after family members protein kinase A, protein kinase G and protein kinase C). It has been difficult to assess the function of these molecules in T cell development with simple gene-deletion strategies because different isoforms of AGC kinases are coexpressed in the thymus and have overlapping, redundant functions. To circumvent these problems, we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), a rate-limiting 'upstream' activator of AGC kinases. Here we analyzed the effect of PDK1 deletion on T lineage development. We also assessed the consequences of reducing PDK1 levels to 10% of normal. Complete PDK1 loss blocked T cell differentiation in the thymus, whereas reduced PDK1 expression allowed T cell differentiation but blocked proliferative expansion. These studies show that AGC family kinases are essential for T cell development. PMID:15077109

  4. MST kinases in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease. PMID:26370497

  5. Calcium-regulated protein kinases of plants.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Alice C

    2003-06-01

    The importance of calcium ions in coupling physiological responses to external and developmental signals in plants has been well documented. Recently, Plieth and Trewavas (Plant Physiology, 2002, 129: 786-796) have shown that gravistimulation, too, elicits changes in the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in Arabidopsis plants. Cytoplasmic calcium brings about responses by interacting with target proteins, many of which contain EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. In plants there are at least five classes of protein kinases, all of which are in the CDPK/SnRK family, that either contain EF-hands within their structure or interact with proteins that contain EF-hands. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and calcium and calmodulin-activated protein kinases (CCaMKs) both contain EF hands in their C-terminal domains and are activated by the binding of calcium. SnRK3s (Group 3 of the SNF-1 related kinases) bind to proteins that contain three EF hands, and some are activated by calcium. Members of two other protein kinase classes, plant calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) and CDPK-related kinase (CRK), bind to calmodulin, but it remains to be seen whether the activity of these enzymes is regulated by calcium/calmodulin. This paper will review what is known about the structure and the regulation of these protein kinases and address the question of why there is such a plethora of calcium-regulated kinases in plants. PMID:12959135

  6. Tec family kinases in inflammation and disease.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Nicole J; Urbaniak, Ania M; Danks, Lynett

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decade, the Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (Btk, Tec, Bmx, Itk, and Rlk) have been shown to play a key role in inflammation and bone destruction. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been the most widely studied due to the critical role of this kinase in B-cell development and recent evidence showing that blocking Btk signaling is effective in ameliorating lymphoma progression and experimental arthritis. This review will examine the role of TFK in myeloid cell function and the potential of targeting these kinases as a therapeutic intervention in autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22449071

  7. Aggregation of Ribosomal Protein S6 at Nucleolus Is Cell Cycle-Controlled and Its Function in Pre-rRNA Processing Is Phosphorylation Dependent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Duo; Chen, Hui-Peng; Duan, Hai-Feng; Gao, Li-Hua; Shao, Yong; Chen, Ke-Yan; Wang, You-Liang; Lan, Feng-Hua; Hu, Xian-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) has long been regarded as one of the primary r-proteins that functions in the early stage of 40S subunit assembly, but its actual role is still obscure. The correct forming of 18S rRNA is a key step in the nuclear synthesis of 40S subunit. In this study, we demonstrate that rpS6 participates in the processing of 30S pre-rRNA to 18S rRNA only when its C-terminal five serines are phosphorylated, however, the process of entering the nucleus and then targeting the nucleolus does not dependent its phosphorylation. Remarkably, we also find that the aggregation of rpS6 at the nucleolus correlates to the phasing of cell cycle, beginning to concentrate in the nucleolus at later S phase and disaggregate at M phase. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1649-1657, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26639987

  8. Crystal structures of the N-terminal kinase domain of human RSK1 bound to three different ligands: Implications for the design of RSK1 specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Mari; Kornienko, Maria; Byrne, Noel; Reid, John C; Mizuarai, Shinji; Kotani, Hidehito; Munshi, Sanjeev K

    2007-12-01

    The p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) also known as MAPKAP-Ks are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by ERK or PDK1 and act as downstream effectors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). RSK1, a member of the RSK family, contains two distinct kinase domains in a single polypeptide chain, the regulatory C-terminal kinase domain (CTKD) and the catalytic N-terminal kinase domain (NTKD). Autophosphorylation of the CTKD leads to activation of the NTKD that subsequently phosphorylates downstream substrates. Here we report the crystal structures of the unactivated RSK1 NTKD bound to different ligands at 2.0 A resolution. The activation loop and helix alphaC, key regulatory elements of kinase function, are disordered. The DFG motif of the inactive RSK1 adopts an "active-like" conformation. The beta-PO(4) group in the AMP-PCP complex adopts a unique conformation that may contribute to inactivity of the enzyme. Structures of RSK1 ligand complexes offer insights into the design of novel anticancer agents and into the regulation of the catalytic activity of RSKs. PMID:17965187

  9. Kinase-likeness and kinase-privileged fragments: toward virtual polypharmacology.

    PubMed

    Aronov, Alex M; McClain, Brian; Moody, Cameron Stuver; Murcko, Mark A

    2008-03-13

    Small molecule protein kinase inhibitors are widely employed as biological reagents and as leads in the design of drugs for a variety of diseases. We investigated the phenomenon of kinase-likeness, i.e., the propensity of ligands to inhibit protein kinases, in the context of kinase-specific substructural fragments. The frequency of occurrence of multiple structural fragments in kinase inhibitor libraries relative to nonkinase compounds has been analyzed. A combination of structural fragment counts, termed the "2-0" kinase-likeness rule, provides approximately 5-fold enrichment in kinase active compounds. This rule has been validated using in-house kinase counterscreening data and applied prospectively to uncover kinase activities in marketed drugs. In addition, the role of discriminating fragments in kinase recognition was interrogated using available structural data, providing an insight into their effect on inhibitor potency and selectivity. One of these fragments, bisarylaniline, has been characterized as a kinase-privileged fragment with specific binding preferences and a link to increased activity within kinases. PMID:18288794

  10. Dominant Mutations of Drosophila Map Kinase Kinase and Their Activities in Drosophila and Yeast Map Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Y. M.; Tsuda, L.; Inoue, Y. H.; Irie, K.; Adachi-Yamada, T.; Hata, M.; Nishi, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Nishida, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Eight alleles of Dsor1 encoding a Drosophila homologue of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase were obtained as dominant suppressors of the MAP kinase kinase kinase D-raf. These Dsor1 alleles themselves showed no obvious phenotypic consequences nor any effect on the viability of the flies, although they were highly sensitive to upstream signals and strongly interacted with gain-of-function mutations of upstream factors. They suppressed mutations for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs); torso (tor), sevenless (sev) and to a lesser extent Drosophila EGF receptor (DER). Furthermore, the Dsor1 alleles showed no significant interaction with gain-of-function mutations of DER. The observed difference in activity of the Dsor1 alleles among the RTK pathways suggests Dsor1 is one of the components of the pathway that regulates signal specificity. Expression of Dsor1 in budding yeast demonstrated that Dsor1 can activate yeast MAP kinase homologues if a proper activator of Dsor1 is coexpressed. Nucleotide sequencing of the Dsor1 mutant genes revealed that most of the mutations are associated with amino acid changes at highly conserved residues in the kinase domain. The results suggest that they function as suppressors due to increased reactivity to upstream factors. PMID:9136016

  11. Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases set the amplitude of receptor tyrosine kinase output

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Gloria; Niederst, Matt; Cohen-Katsenelson, Ksenya; Stender, Joshua D.; Kunkel, Maya T.; Chen, Muhan; Brognard, John; Sierecki, Emma; Gao, Tianyan; Nowak, Dawid G.; Trotman, Lloyd C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factor receptor levels are aberrantly high in diverse cancers, driving the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Understanding the molecular basis for this aberrant elevation has profound clinical implications. Here we show that the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) suppresses receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling output by a previously unidentified epigenetic mechanism unrelated to its previously described function as the hydrophobic motif phosphatase for the protein kinase AKT, protein kinase C, and S6 kinase. Specifically, we show that nuclear-localized PHLPP suppresses histone phosphorylation and acetylation, in turn suppressing the transcription of diverse growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. These data uncover a much broader role for PHLPP in regulation of growth factor signaling beyond its direct inactivation of AKT: By suppressing RTK levels, PHLPP dampens the downstream signaling output of two major oncogenic pathways, the PI3 kinase/AKT and the Rat sarcoma (RAS)/ERK pathways. Our data are consistent with a model in which PHLPP modifies the histone code to control the transcription of RTKs. PMID:25201979

  12. The Polyphosphate Kinase Gene ppk2 Is Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inorganic Polyphosphate Regulation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yu-Min; Belchis, Deborah A.; Karakousis, Petros C.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene Rv3232c/MT3329 (ppk2) encodes a class II polyphosphate kinase, which hydrolyzes inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) to synthesize GTP. We assessed the role of ppk2 in M. tuberculosis poly P regulation, antibiotic tolerance, and virulence. A ppk2-deficient mutant (ppk2::Tn) and its isogenic wild-type (WT) and complemented (Comp) strains were studied. For each strain, the intrabacillary poly P content, MIC of isoniazid, and growth kinetics during infection of J774 macrophages were determined. Multiplex immunobead assays were used to evaluate cytokines elaborated during macrophage infection. The requirement of ppk2 for M. tuberculosis virulence was assessed in the murine model. The ppk2::Tn mutant was found to have significantly increased poly P content and a 4-fold increase in the MIC of isoniazid relative to the WT and Comp strains. The ppk2::Tn mutant showed reduced survival at day 7 in activated and naive J774 macrophages relative to the WT. Naive ppk2::Tn mutant-infected macrophages showed increased expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) relative to WT-infected macrophages. The ppk2::Tn mutant exhibited significantly lower lung CFU during acute murine infection compared to the control groups. ppk2 is required for control of intrabacillary poly P levels and optimal M. tuberculosis growth and survival in macrophages and mouse lungs. PMID:23695835

  13. Pyridinylimidazole inhibitors of Tie2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Semones, Marcus; Feng, Yanhong; Johnson, Neil; Adams, Jerry L; Winkler, Jim; Hansbury, Michael

    2007-09-01

    This communication details the evolution of the screening lead SB-203580, a known CSBP/p38 kinase inhibitor, into a potent and selective Tie2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The optimized compound 5 showed efficacy in an in vivo model of angiogenesis and a MOPC-315 plasmacytoma xenograft model. PMID:17618114

  14. Multifunctional Abl kinases in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Aaditya; Wang, Jun; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    The Abelson tyrosine kinases were initially identified as drivers of leukemia in mice and humans. The Abl family kinases Abl1 and Abl2 regulate diverse cellular processes during development and normal homeostasis, and their functions are subverted during inflammation, cancer and other pathologies. Abl kinases can be activated by multiple stimuli leading to cytoskeletal reorganization required for cell morphogenesis, motility, adhesion and polarity. Depending on the cellular context, Abl kinases regulate cell survival and proliferation. Emerging data support important roles for Abl kinases in pathologies linked to inflammation. Among these are neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Unexpectedly, Abl kinases have also been identified as important players in mammalian host cells during microbial pathogenesis. Thus, the use of Abl kinase inhibitors might prove to be effective in the treatment of pathologies beyond leukemia and solid tumors. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and in the accompanying poster, we highlight the emerging roles of Abl kinases in the regulation of cellular processes in normal cells and diverse pathologies ranging from cancer to microbial pathogenesis. PMID:26729027

  15. MECHANISTIC ANALYSIS OF PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE KINASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is the primary regulator of flux through the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The PDK is a member of the ATPase/kinase superfamily. Member proteins of this family are characterized by four signature sequences in the catalytic domain (N-, D-, F-, and G...

  16. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases with Intracellular Pseudokinase Domains

    PubMed Central

    Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Shi, Fumin; Park, Jin H.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    As with other groups of protein kinases, approximately 10% of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in the human proteome contain intracellular pseudokinases that lack one or more conserved catalytically important residues. These include ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, and a series of unconventional Wnt receptors. We recently showed that, despite its reputation as a pseudokinase, the ErbB3 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) does retain significant – albeit weak – kinase activity. This led us to suggest that a subgroup of RTKs may be able to signal even with very inefficient kinases. Recent work suggests that this is not the case, however. Other pseudokinase RTKs have not revealed significant kinase activity, and mutations that impair ErbB3’s weak kinase activity have not so far been found to exhibit signaling defects. These findings therefore point to models in which the TKDs of pseudokinase RTKs participate in receptor signaling by allosterically regulating associated kinases (such as ErbB3 regulation of ErbB2) and/or function as regulated ‘scaffolds’ for other intermolecular interactions central to signal propagation. Further structural and functional studies – particularly of the pseudokinase RTKs involved in Wnt signaling – are required to shed new light on these intriguing signaling mechanisms. PMID:23863174

  17. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions. PMID:26734566

  18. Identification of Direct Kinase Substrates via Kinase Assay-Linked Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang; Arrington, Justine V; Tao, W Andy

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in the regulation of various cellular functions. Dysregulation of phosphorylation is implicated in the pathogenesis of certain cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and central nervous system disorders. As a result, protein kinases have become potential drug targets for treating a wide variety of diseases. Identification of kinase substrates is vital not only for dissecting signaling pathways, but also for understanding disease pathologies and identifying novel therapeutic targets. However, identification of bona fide kinase substrates has remained challenging, necessitating the development of new methods and techniques. The kinase assay linked phosphoproteomics (KALIP) approach integrates in vitro kinase assays with global phosphoproteomics experiments to identify the direct substrates of protein kinases. This strategy has demonstrated outstanding sensitivity and a low false-positive rate for kinase substrate screening. PMID:26584932

  19. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16 and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. A 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors. PMID:25075558

  20. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Trawinska, Malgorzata Monika; Perrotti, Alessio Pio; De Fabritiis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during pregnancy has become recently a matter of continuous debate. The introduction of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) in clinical practice has dramatically changed the prognosis of CML patients; in fact, patients diagnosed in chronic phase can reasonably expect many years of excellent disease control and good quality of life, as well as a normal life expectancy, including the necessity to address issues relating to fertility and pregnancy. Physicians are frequently being asked for advice regarding the need for, and/or the appropriateness of, stopping treatment in order to conceive. In this report, we will review the data published in terms of fertility, conception, pregnancy, pregnancy outcome and illness control for TKI treated CML patients, as well as how to manage a planned and/or unplanned pregnancy. PMID:24804001

  1. The Borosulfates K4 [BS4 O15 (OH)], Ba[B2 S3 O13 ], and Gd2 [B2 S6 O24 ].

    PubMed

    Gross, Peter; Kirchhain, Arno; Höppe, Henning A

    2016-03-18

    K4 [BS4 O15 (OH)], Ba[B2 S3 O13 ], and Gd2 [B2 S6 O24 ] were obtained by a new synthetic approach. The strategy involves initially synthesizing the complex acid H[B(HSO4 )4 ] which is subsequently reacted in an open system with anhydrous chlorides of K, Ba, and Gd to the respective borosulfates and a volatile molecule (HCl). Furthermore, protonated borosulfates should be accessible by appropriate stoichiometry of the starting materials, particularly in closed systems, which inhibit deprotonation of H[B(HSO4 )4 ] via condensation and dehydration. This approach led to the successful synthesis of the first divalent and trivalent metal borosulfates (Ba[B2 S3 O13 ] with band-silicate topology and Gd2 [B2 S6 O24 ] with cyclosilicate topology) and the first hydrogen borosulfate K4 [BS4 O15 (OH)]. PMID:26924507

  2. Open channel current noise analysis of S6 peptides from KvAP channel on bilayer lipid membrane shows bimodal power law scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rajan; Malik, Chetan; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2016-06-01

    Open channel current noise in synthetic peptide S6 of KvAP channel was investigated in a voltage clamp experiment on bilayer lipid membrane (BLM). It was observed that the power spectral density (PSD) of the component frequencies follows power law with different slopes in different frequency ranges. In order to know the origin of the slopes PSD analysis was done with signal filtering. It was found that the first slope in the noise profile follows 1 / f pattern which exists at lower frequencies and has high amplitude current noise, while the second slope corresponds to 1 /f 2 - 3 pattern which exists at higher frequencies with low amplitude current noise. In addition, white noise was observed at very large frequencies. It was concluded that the plausible reason for the multiple power-law scaling is the existence of different modes of non-equilibrium ion transport through the S6 channel.

  3. Investigation of PI3K/PKB/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway in relationship of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunqing; Wu, Dongke; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jiankun; Chen, Siping; Hua, Binghong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of PI3K/PKB/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway in the risk-increasing mechanisms of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) towards the Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Based on the high-sugar high-fat diet, the single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was performed to induce the T2DM rat model; the immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR technique were then performed to detect the expression levels of mTOR, PI3K, PKB, S6K1 and phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampal tissues of each group. The related metabolic indicators of the T2DM group and the T2DM + AD group were significantly higher than the normal control group and the AD group (P<0.01); the Morris water maze test of the AD group and the learning and memory of the T2DM + AD group were than significantly decreased than the T2DM group (P<0.01); the T2DM + AD group exhibited significantly increased expression levels of mTOR, S6K1 and Tau protein in the hippocampal tissues than the AD group and the T2DM group (P<0.05), and while the expression levels of PI3K and PKB were decreased (P<0.05). Among the possible mechanisms through which T2DM increased the risk of AD, the dystransduction of insulin signaling pathway (PI3K/PKB/mTOR/S6K1) was the important cause of hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein, thus it prompted the AD occurrence. PMID:26770471

  4. Photoabsorption of the ground state of Ne and of Ne-like Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+, P5+, S6+, and Cl7+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakho, I.

    2016-03-01

    Photoabsorption of the 1s2 2s2 2p6 (1S0) ground state of Ne-like ions is presented in this paper. Resonance energies and width of the 2 s 2p6 n p1P1 series of Ne and Ne-like Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+, P5+, S6+, and Cl7+ ions are reported. Wavelengths of the 2s2 2p6 (1S0) → 2s2 2p5(2P 3 / 2 , 1 / 2) n d transitions in neon-like Na+ ion and of the 2s2 2p6(1S0) → 2 s 2p6 n p1P1 transitions in Ne and in Ne-like Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+, P5+, S6+, and Cl7+ ions are tabulated. Analysis of the resonances investigated is done in the framework of the LS, jj and JK coupling schemes. All the calculations are made using the Screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) formalism. Very good agreement is found between the SCUNC results and various experimental and theoretical literature values and new data for the Ne-like Si4+, P5+, S6+, and Cl7+ ions are listed.

  5. Dynamically reconfigurable characteristics of a double phase conjugate mirror using Sn2P2S6 crystals and their application to optical inter-satellite communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimaki, Kaori; Okamoto, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Masanori; Tomita, Akihisa; Takayama, Yoshihisa

    2014-05-01

    A double phase conjugate mirror (DPCM), created by two mutually incoherent beams entering photorefractive nonlinear materials, can generate a phase conjugate beam whose reflectivity may be greater than 100%. Even though the conditions of the incident beams are changed, the DPCM can be dynamically reconfigured by using a Sn2P2S6 crystal with a high response speed. These features of the DPCM are advantageous, particularly in an optical inter-satellite communication system. In particular, use of the phase conjugate beam from the DPCM offers wavefront compensation and amplification in satellite communication. In addition, the dynamically reconfigurable DPCM using a Sn2P2S6 crystal relaxes the acquisition accuracy of the signal beam in the system. In this study, the temporal and spatial operating characteristics of the DPCM using a Sn2P2S6 crystal were first clarified. Next, an inter-satellite system based on the DPCM was proposed, and it was demonstrated that our system significantly improves the tolerance of the acquisition accuracy and tracking time.

  6. The increased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in Arbacia punctulata is not a universal event in the activation of sea urchin eggs.

    PubMed

    Ward, G E; Vacquier, V D; Michel, S

    1983-02-01

    Eggs of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata (Ap), Lytechinus pictus (Lp), and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp) were labeled to equilibrium with 32PO3-4. Approximately 65-70% of the label in extractable adenine nucleotides comigrates chromatographically with ATP. Autoradiograms of one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) slab gels show that each species possesses a distinct complement of phosphate-exchangeable phosphoproteins. No changes in the phosphoprotein composition are detected in Lp and Sp eggs as a result of fertilization or development for 2.5 hr (with the possible exception of a 43,000 Mr protein in Lp). In Ap, increases in the phosphorylation of bands at Mr's 30,000, 55,000, and 105,000 are seen during the first 10 min postinsemination. The 30,000 Mr band in Ap eggs has previously been identified as ribosomal protein S6 and the hypothesis presented that its increased phosphorylation may be an important step in the activation of protein synthesis at fertilization (D. G. Ballinger and T. Hunt, 1981, Dev. Biol. 87, 277-285). In Lp and Sp eggs S6 (identified by two-dimensional PAGE) is heavily phosphorylated in the unfertilized state and the extent of labeling does not increase after fertilization. If the increased phosphorylation of S6 seen in Ap is indeed related to translational activation, then these results suggest that different sea urchin species may rely on different mechanisms for the activation of protein synthesis. PMID:6825939

  7. Oleanolic acid suppresses the proliferation of human bladder cancer by Akt/mTOR/S6K and ERK1/2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Da-Wei; Guo, He-Qing; Zhou, Gao-Biao; Li, Jian-Ye; Su, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Oleanolic acid has significant pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, regulating blood sugar level and liver protection, which are more effective compared with free aglyconeoleanolic acid. However, it is still unknown if oleanolic acid affects the proliferation of human bladder cancer. We utilized T24 cells to study the effect of oleanolic acid on the proliferation and apoptosis of human bladder cancer. In this study, we found that the anti-cancer effect of oleanolic acid significantly suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and caspase-3 activity of T24 cells. Furthermore, Akt, mTOR and S6K protein expression was greatly inhibited in T24 cells under oleanolic acid treatment. Meanwhile, ERK1/2 of phosphorylation protein expression was significantly promoted by oleanolic acid treatment. Taken together, we provided evidences that oleanolic acid was Akt/mTOR/S6K and ERK1/2 signaling-targeting anti-tumor agent. These findings represent new evidences that oleanolic acid suppresses the proliferation of human bladder cancer by Akt/mTOR/S6K and ERK1/2 signaling, and oleanolic acid may be used to prevent human bladder cancer. PMID:26823699

  8. Spin-polarized Dirac cones and topological nontriviality in a metal-organic framework Ni2C24S6H12.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-03-01

    Dirac cones in the band structure make a great contribution to the unique electronic properties of graphene. But the spin-degeneracy of Dirac cones limits the application of graphene in spintronics. Here, using first-principles calculations, we propose a two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF), Ni2C24S6H12, with spin-polarized Dirac cones at the six corners of the Brillouin zone (BZ). Ferromagnetism is quite stable with a high Curie temperature (630 K) as revealed by Monte Carlo simulation within the Ising model. Taking spin-orbit coupling into account, band gaps are opened up at the Dirac point (5.9 meV) and Γ point (10.4 meV) in the BZ, making Ni2C24S6H12 a Chern topological insulator which is implemented for achieving the quantum anomalous Hall effect. These interesting properties enable Ni2C24S6H12 to be a promising candidate material for spintronics device applications. PMID:26923280

  9. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-gamma induces Xenopus oocyte maturation via lipid kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Hehl, S; Stoyanov, B; Oehrl, W; Schönherr, R; Wetzker, R; Heinemann, S H

    2001-01-01

    Type-I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) were characterized as a group of intracellular signalling proteins expressing both protein and lipid kinase activities. Recent studies implicate PI3Ks as mediators of oocyte maturation, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we used the Xenopus oocyte expression system as a model to investigate a possible contribution of the gamma-isoform of PI3K (PI3Kgamma) in the different pathways leading to cell-cycle progression by monitoring the time course of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Expression of a constitutive active PI3Kgamma (PI3Kgamma-CAAX) induced GVBD and increased the levels of phosphorylated Akt/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, PI3Kgamma-CAAX accelerated progesterone-induced GVBD, but had no effect on GVBD induced by insulin. The effects of PI3Kgamma-CAAX could be suppressed by pre-incubation of the oocytes with LY294002, PD98059 or roscovitine, inhibitors of PI3K, MEK (MAPK/extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase kinase) and cdc2/cyclin B kinase, respectively. Mutants of PI3Kgamma-CAAX, in which either lipid kinase or both lipid and protein kinase activities were altered or eliminated, did not induce significant GVBD. Our data demonstrate that expression of PI3Kgamma in Xenopus oocytes accelerates their progesterone-induced maturation and that lipid kinase activity is required to induce this effect. PMID:11736661

  10. Bioluminescent kinase strips: A novel approach to targeted and flexible kinase inhibitor profiling.

    PubMed

    Hennek, J; Alves, J; Yao, E; Goueli, S A; Zegzouti, H

    2016-02-15

    In addition to target efficacy, drug safety is a major requirement during the drug discovery process and is influenced by target specificity. Therefore, it is imperative that every new drug candidate be profiled against various liability panels that include protein kinases. Here, an effective methodology to streamline kinase inhibitor profiling is described. An accessible standardized profiling system for 112 protein kinases covering all branches of the kinome was developed. This approach consists of creating different sets of kinases and their corresponding substrates in multi-tube strips. The kinase stocks are pre-standardized for optimal kinase activity and used for inhibitor profiling using a bioluminescent ADP detection assay. We show that these strips can routinely generate inhibitor selectivity profiles for small or broad kinase family panels. Lipid kinases were also assembled in strip format and profiled together with protein kinases. We identified two specific PI3K inhibitors that have off-target effects on CK2 that were not reported before and would have been missed if compounds were not profiled against lipid and protein kinases simultaneously. To validate the accuracy of the data generated by this method, we confirmed that the inhibition potencies observed are consistent with published values produced by more complex technologies such as radioactivity assays. PMID:26628096

  11. Physiological roles of mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activated p38-regulated/activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kostenko, Sergiy; Dumitriu, Gianina; Lægreid, Kari Jenssen; Moens, Ugo

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of proteins that constitute signaling pathways involved in processes that control gene expression, cell division, cell survival, apoptosis, metabolism, differentiation and motility. The MAPK pathways can be divided into conventional and atypical MAPK pathways. The first group converts a signal into a cellular response through a relay of three consecutive phosphorylation events exerted by MAPK kinase kinases, MAPK kinase, and MAPK. Atypical MAPK pathways are not organized into this three-tiered cascade. MAPK that belongs to both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways can phosphorylate both non-protein kinase substrates and other protein kinases. The latter are referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases. This review focuses on one such MAPK-activated protein kinase, MAPK-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) or p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK). This protein is highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and seems to be the target of both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways. Recent findings on the regulation of the activity and subcellular localization, bona fide interaction partners and physiological roles of MK5/PRAK are discussed. PMID:21666810

  12. Photoactivation of NAD Kinase through Phytochrome

    PubMed Central

    Tezuka, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Yukio

    1975-01-01

    The specificities of phosphate donors and the effects of metal chelating agents and divalent metal ions on NAD kinase activation by phytochrome-far red-absorbing form (Pfr) were examined. ATP was the most efficient phosphorylating agent. Uridine 5′-triphosphate, cytidine 5′-triphosphate (CTP), inosine 5′-triphosphate, and guanosine 5′-triphosphate in this order caused significant phosphorylation in the dark. Under red light, striking photoactivation of NAD kinase was obtained with ATP and subsequently CTP. In the presence of exogenous Mg2+, which is required for NAD kinase activity, α-nitroso-β-naphthol, cyanide, and dimethylglyoxime, strongly inhibited the activation by red light without affecting the level of NAD kinase in the dark. Of the divalent cations tested with the KCN-treated phytochrome preparation, only Co2+ was effective for photoactivation of NAD kinase. Even when Mg2+, an essential component of NAD kinase, was added to the assay system, the further addition of Co2+ was required for the activation of NAD kinase by Pfr. PMID:16659381

  13. [Mitogen-activated protein kinases in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Bryk, Dorota; Olejarz, Wioletta; Zapolska-Downar, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They may mediate inflammatory processes, endothelial cell activation, monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and T-lymphocyte differentiation, all of which represent crucial mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The specific inhibition of an activity of the respective MAP kinases may prove a new therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaque formation in the future. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge concerning MAP kinase-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:24491891

  14. Extinction, applied after retrieval of auditory fear memory, selectively increases zinc-finger protein 268 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 expression in prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Vincenzo; Roquet, Rheall F; DeMis, John; Chiamulera, Cristiano; Monfils, Marie-H

    2014-11-01

    Retrieval of consolidated memories induces a labile phase during which memory can be disrupted or updated through a reconsolidation process. A central component of behavioral updating during reconsolidation using a retrieval-extinction manipulation (Ret+Ext) is the synaptic removal of a calcium-permeable-?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (CP-AMPARs) in the lateral amygdala-a metabotropic GluR1 receptor (mGluR1) dependent mechanism. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Ret+Ext on the expression of molecular markers that could play a role in the reconsolidation process. Specifically, we tested the effects of Ret+Ext on the global expression of zinc-finger 268 protein (Zif268), a marker previously found to be implicated in memory reconsolidation, to confirm its occurrence after retrieval (Ret) and Ret+Ext. We also evaluated the global expression of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P), here proposed as a marker of the mGluR1-mediated memory process induced by Ret+Ext. The expression of both markers (zif268, rpS6P) was assessed by immunolocalization in prelimbic cortex (PRL), infralimbic cortex (IL), ventral subdivision of the lateral amygdala (LA) and hippocampus CA1 (CA1) in fear-conditioned rats. Our results showed that retrieval and Ret+Ext, but not extinction alone, increased Zif268 expression in prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala. Ret+Ext, but not retrieval, retrieval followed by context exposure or extinction alone, increased the expression of rpS6P in prefrontal cortex and LA. In summary, (i) Zif268 increased after retrieval confirming that reconsolidation is engaged in our conditions, (ii) Zif268 increased after Ret+Ext confirming that it does not simply reflect an extinction or reconsolidation disruption (Zif268 level of expression should be lower in both cases) and (iii) rpS6P increased after Ret+Ext, but not after extinction, suggesting, as expected, a potential mGluR1 mediated molecular mechanism specific for Ret+Ext. Together with the Zif268 increase, our results suggest that the Ret+Ext induced memory process is more similar to reconsolidation updating than extinction facilitation. PMID:25196703

  15. Structure and function of phosphoinositide 3-kinases.

    PubMed

    Wymann, M P; Pirola, L

    1998-12-01

    Phosphoinositide kinases (PI3Ks) play an important role in mitogenic signaling and cell survival, cytoskeletal remodeling, metabolic control and vesicular trafficking. Here we summarize the structure-function relationships delineating the activation process of class I PI3Ks involving various domains of adapter subunits, Ras, and interacting proteins. The resulting product, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, targets Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), phosphoinositide-dependent kinases (PDK), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), atypical protein kinases C (PKC), phospholipase Cgamma and more. Surface receptor-activated PI3Ks function in mammals, insects, nematodes and slime mold, but not yeast. While many members of the class II family have been identified and characterized biochemically, it is presently unknown how these C2-domain containing PI3Ks are activated, and which PI substrate they phosphorylate in vivo. PtdIns 3-P is produced by Vps34p/class III PI3Ks and operates via the PtdIns 3-P-binding proteins early endosomal antigen (EEA1), yeast Vac1p, Vps27p, Pip1p in lysosomal protein targeting. Besides the production of D3 phosphorylated lipids, PI3Ks have an intrinsic protein kinase activity. For trimeric GTP-binding protein-activated PI3Kgamma, protein kinase activity seems to be sufficient to trigger mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Recent disruption of PI3K genes in slime mold, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mice further underlines the importance of PI3K signaling systems and elucidates the role of PI3K signaling in multicellular organisms. PMID:9838078

  16. p38 MAP kinases in the heart.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Tomohiro; Wang, Yibin

    2016-01-10

    p38 kinases are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) with established contribution to a wide range of signaling pathways and different biological processes. The prototypic p38 MAPK, p38α was originally identified as an essential signaling kinase for inflammatory cytokine production Extensive studies have now revealed that p38s have critical roles in many different tissues far beyond immune regulation and inflammatory responses. In this review, we will focus on the structure and molecular biology of p38s, and their specific roles in heart, especially regarding myocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and hypertrophic responses. PMID:26390817

  17. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  18. The Crystal Structure of Cancer Osaka Thyroid Kinase Reveals an Unexpected Kinase Domain Fold.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Sascha; Hinniger, Alexandra; Fendrich, Gabriele; Drckes, Peter; Antz, Sylvie; Mattes, Henri; Mbitz, Henrik; Ofner, Silvio; Schmiedeberg, Niko; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Rieffel, Sebastien; Strauss, Andr; Troxler, Thomas; Glatthar, Ralf; Sparrer, Helmut

    2015-06-12

    Macrophages are important cellular effectors in innate immune responses and play a major role in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cancer Osaka thyroid (COT) kinase, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8) and tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl-2), is a serine-threonine (ST) kinase and is a key regulator in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Due to its pivotal role in immune biology, COT kinase has been identified as an attractive target for pharmaceutical research that is directed at the discovery of orally available, selective, and potent inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and cancer. The production of monomeric, recombinant COT kinase has proven to be very difficult, and issues with solubility and stability of the enzyme have hampered the discovery and optimization of potent and selective inhibitors. We developed a protocol for the production of recombinant human COT kinase that yields pure and highly active enzyme in sufficient yields for biochemical and structural studies. The quality of the enzyme allowed us to establish a robust in vitro phosphorylation assay for the efficient biochemical characterization of COT kinase inhibitors and to determine the x-ray co-crystal structures of the COT kinase domain in complex with two ATP-binding site inhibitors. The structures presented in this study reveal two distinct ligand binding modes and a unique kinase domain architecture that has not been observed previously. The structurally versatile active site si