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1

Structural basis of human p70 ribosomal S6 kinase-1 regulation by activation loop phosphorylation.  

PubMed

p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) is a downstream effector of the mTOR signaling pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell-cycle progression, and glucose homeostasis. Multiple phosphorylation events within the catalytic, autoinhibitory, and hydrophobic motif domains contribute to the regulation of p70S6K. We report the crystal structures of the kinase domain of p70S6K1 bound to staurosporine in both the unphosphorylated state and in the 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-phosphorylated state in which Thr-252 of the activation loop is phosphorylated. Unphosphorylated p70S6K1 exists in two crystal forms, one in which the p70S6K1 kinase domain exists as a monomer and the other as a domain-swapped dimer. The crystal structure of the partially activated kinase domain that is phosphorylated within the activation loop reveals conformational ordering of the activation loop that is consistent with a role in activation. The structures offer insights into the structural basis of the 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-induced activation of p70S6K and provide a platform for the rational structure-guided design of specific p70S6K inhibitors. PMID:19864428

Sunami, Tomoko; Byrne, Noel; Diehl, Ronald E; Funabashi, Kaoru; Hall, Dawn L; Ikuta, Mari; Patel, Sangita B; Shipman, Jennifer M; Smith, Robert F; Takahashi, Ikuko; Zugay-Murphy, Joan; Iwasawa, Yoshikazu; Lumb, Kevin J; Munshi, Sanjeev K; Sharma, Sujata

2010-02-12

2

p70 S6 kinase promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition through snail induction in ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6K)) is a downstream effector of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and is frequently activated in human ovarian cancer. Here we show that p70(S6K) functions in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) responsible for the acquisition of invasiveness during tumor progression. This tumorigenic activity is associated with the ability of p70(S6K) to repress E-cadherin through the up-regulation of Snail. p70(S6K) activation induced phenotypic changes consistent with EMT in ovarian cancer cells: The cells lost epithelial cell morphology, acquired fibroblast-like properties, and showed reduced intercellular adhesion. Western blot showed that p70(S6K) activation led to decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. Inhibition of p70(S6K) by a specific inhibitor or small interfering RNA reversed the shift of EMT markers. Importantly, p70(S6K) activation also stimulated the expression of Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin and an inducer of EMT, but not other family members such as Slug. This induction of Snail was regulated at multiple levels by increasing transcription, inhibiting protein degradation, and enhancing nuclear localization of Snail. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Snail suppressed p70(S6K)-induced EMT, confirming that the effect was Snail specific. Furthermore, phospho (active)-p70(S6K) staining correlated with higher tumor grade. We also showed a significant positive correlation between p70(S6K) activation and Snail expression in ovarian cancer tissues. These results indicate that p70(S6K) may play a critical role in tumor progression in ovarian cancer through the induction of EMT. Targeting p70(S6K) may thus be a useful strategy to impede cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:18701475

Pon, Yuen L; Zhou, Hong Y; Cheung, Annie N Y; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Wong, Alice S T

2008-08-15

3

Vascular tumors have increased p70 S6-kinase activation and are inhibited by topical rapamycin.  

PubMed

Vascular tumors are endothelial cell neoplasms whose cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to tumor formation, are poorly understood, and current therapies have limited efficacy with significant side effects. We have investigated mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in benign and malignant vascular tumors, and the effects of mTOR kinase inhibitor as a potential therapy for these lesions. Human vascular tumors (infantile hemangioma and angiosarcoma) were analyzed by immunohistochemical stains and western blot for the phosphorylation of p70 S6-kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6), which are activated downstream of mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1). To assess the function of S6K, tumor cells with genetic knockdown of S6K were analyzed for cell proliferation and migration. The effects of topical rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, on mTORC1 and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) activities, as well as on tumor growth and migration, were determined. Vascular tumors showed increased activation of S6K and S6. Genetic knockdown of S6K resulted in reduced tumor cell proliferation and migration. Rapamycin fully inhibited mTORC1 and partially inhibited mTORC2 activities, including the phosphorylation of Akt (serine 473) and PKC?, in vascular tumor cells. Rapamycin significantly reduced vascular tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. As a potential localized therapy for cutaneous vascular tumors, topically applied rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth with limited systemic drug absorption. These findings reveal the importance of mTOR signaling pathways in benign and malignant vascular tumors. The mTOR pathway is an important therapeutic target in vascular tumors, and topical mTOR inhibitors may provide an alternative and well-tolerated therapy for the treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. PMID:23938603

Du, Wa; Gerald, Damien; Perruzzi, Carole A; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Enayati, Ladan; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Edmonds, Joseph; Hochman, Marcelo L; Lev, Dina C; Phung, Thuy L

2013-10-01

4

p70S6 kinase is a critical node that integrates HER-family and PI3 kinase signaling networks.  

PubMed

Therapies targeting oncogenic drivers rapidly induce compensatory adaptive responses that blunt drug effectiveness, contributing to therapeutic resistance. Adaptive responses are characteristic of robust cell signaling networks, and thus there is increasing interest in drug combinations that co-target the driver and the adaptive response. An alternative approach to co-inhibiting oncogenic and adaptive targets is to identify a critical node where the activities of these targets converge. Nodes of convergence between signaling modules represent potential therapeutic vulnerabilities because their inhibition could result in the collapse of the network, leading to enhanced cytotoxicity. In this report we demonstrate that p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) can function as a critical node linking HER-family and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling. We used high-throughput combinatorial drug screening to identify adaptive survival responses to targeted therapies, and found that HER-family and PI3K represented compensatory signaling pathways. Co-targeting these pathways with drug combinations caused synergistic cytotoxicity in cases where inhibition of neither target was effective as a monotherapy. We utilized Reverse Phase Protein Arrays and determined that phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 was synergistically down-regulated upon HER-family and PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) co-inhibition. Expression of constitutively active p70S6K protected against apoptosis induced by combined HER-family and PI3K/mTOR inhibition. Direct inhibition of p70S6K with small molecule inhibitors phenocopied HER-family and PI3K/mTOR co-inhibition. These data implicate p70S6K as a critical node in the HER-family/PI3K signaling network. The ability of direct inhibitors of p70S6K to phenocopy co-inhibition of two upstream signaling targets indicates that identification and targeting of critical nodes can overcome adaptive resistance to targeted therapies. PMID:24662264

Axelrod, Mark J; Gordon, Vicki; Mendez, Rolando E; Leimgruber, Stephanie S; Conaway, Mark R; Sharlow, Elizabeth R; Jameson, Mark J; Gioeli, Daniel G; Weber, Michael J

2014-08-01

5

p70 S6 kinase is regulated by protein kinase Czeta and participates in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-regulated signalling complex.  

PubMed

p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) is an important regulator of cell proliferation. Its activation by growth factor requires phosphorylation by various inputs on multiple sites. Data accumulated thus far support a model whereby p70S6K activation requires sequential phosphorylations at proline-directed residues in the putative autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate domain, as well as threonine 389. Threonine 229, a site in the catalytic loop is phosphorylated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1). Experimental evidence suggests that p70S6K activation requires a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)-dependent signal(s). However, the intermediates between PI3-K and p70S6K remain unclear. Here, we have identified PI3-K-regulated atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKCzeta as an upstream regulator of p70S6K. In coexpression experiments, we found that a kinase-inactive PKCzeta mutant antagonized activation of p70S6K by epidermal growth factor, PDK-1, and activated Cdc42 and PI3-K. While overexpression of a constitutively active PKCzeta mutant (myristoylated PKCzeta [myr-PKCzeta]) only modestly activated p70S6K, this mutant cooperated with PDK-1 activation of p70S6K. PDK-1-induced activation of a C-terminal truncation mutant of p70S6K was also enhanced by myr-PKCzeta. Moreover, we have found that p70S6K can associate with both PDK-1 and PKCzeta in vivo in a growth factor-independent manner, while PDK-1 and PKCzeta can also associate with each other, suggesting the existence of a multimeric PI3-K signalling complex. This work provides evidence for a link between a phorbol ester-insensitive PKC isoform and p70S6K. The existence of a PI3-K-dependent signalling complex may enable efficient activation of p70S6K in cells. PMID:10082559

Romanelli, A; Martin, K A; Toker, A; Blenis, J

1999-04-01

6

p70S6 Kinase Phosphorylates AMPK on Serine 491 to Mediate Leptin's Effect on Food Intake  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The PI3K-AKT, mTOR-p70S6 kinase and AMPK pathways play distinct and critical roles in metabolic regulation. Each pathway is necessary for leptin's anorexigenic effects in the hypothalamus. Here we show that these pathways converge in an integrated phosphorylation cascade to mediate leptin action in the hypothalamus. We identify serine491 on ?2AMPK as the site of convergence and show that p70S6 kinase forms a complex with ?2AMPK, resulting in phosphorylation on serine491. Blocking ?2AMPK-serine491 phosphorylation increases hypothalamic AMPK activity, food intake, and body weight. Serine491 phosphorylation is necessary for leptin's effects on hypothalamic ?2AMPK activity, neuropeptide expression, food intake, and body weight. These results identify an inhibitory AMPK kinase, p70S6 kinase, and demonstrate that AMPK is a substrate for mTOR-p70S6 kinase. This discovery has broad biologic implications since mTOR-p70S6 kinase and AMPK have multiple, fundamental and generally opposing cellular effects that regulate metabolism, cell growth, and development.

Dagon, Yossi; Hur, Elizabeth; Zheng, Bin; Wellenstein, Kerry; Cantley, Lewis C.; Kahn, Barbara B.

2012-01-01

7

MAP kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and p70 S6 kinase mediate the mitogenic response of human endothelial cells to vascular endothelial growth factor.  

PubMed

Although the significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors in angiogenesis is well established, the signal transduction cascades activated by VEGF and their involvement in mediating the mitogenic response of endothelial cells to VEGF are incompletely characterized. Here we demonstrate that VEGF activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, including the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 MAP kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and p70 S6 kinase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The activation of these enzymes was assayed by kinase phosphorylation and by kinase activity towards substrates. Studies with PI 3-kinase inhibitors revealed that activation of p70 S6 kinase was mediated by PI 3-kinase. Selective inhibition of ERK, PI 3-kinase, and p70 S6 kinase with the inhibitors PD098059, LY294002, and rapamycin, respectively, inhibited VEGF-stimulated HUVEC proliferation. In marked contrast, the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 not only failed to inhibit but actually enhanced HUVEC proliferation; this effect was associated with the phosphorylation of Rb protein. Rb phosphorylation resulted from a decrease in the level of the cdk inhibitor p27KiP1. These results indicate that the activities of ERK, PI 3-kinase, and p70 S6 kinase are essential for VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation. p38 MAP kinase suppresses endothelial cell proliferation by regulating cell-cycle progression. PMID:10048588

Yu, Y; Sato, J D

1999-02-01

8

Inhibition of insulin signaling and adipogenesis by rapamycin: effect on phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase vs eIF4EBP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Insulin-responsive adipogenic signaling molecules include insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and -2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase B (PKB; also known as Akt). Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a PKB substrate, and regulates p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K). Since p70 S6K is an insulin-responsive kinase downstream of PI3K and PKB, its potential role in adipogenic insulin signaling was

D El-Chaâr; A Gagnon; A Sorisky

2004-01-01

9

Impaired phosphorylation and ubiquitination by p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) promote tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) stability and carcinogenic property in liver cancer.  

PubMed

Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) is critical for both solid and non-solid malignancies. Recently, TRIB2 was identified as a liver cancer-specific Wnt/?-catenin signaling downstream target and is functionally important for liver cancer cell survival and transformation. TRIB2 functions as a protein that interacts with E3 ubiquitin ligases and thereby modulates protein stability of downstream effectors. However, the regulation underlying TRIB2 protein stability per se has not yet been reported. In this study, we found that TRIB2 was up-regulated and exhibited high stability in liver cancer cells compared with other cells. We performed a structure-function analysis of TRIB2 and identified a domain (amino acids 1-5) at the N terminus that interacted with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 and was critical for protein stability. Deletion of this domain extended TRIB2 half-life time accompanied with a more significant malignant property compared with wild type TRIB2. Furthermore, Smurf1-mediated ubiquitination required phosphorylation of TRIB2 by p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) via another domain (amino acids 69-85) that is also essential for correct TRIB2 subcellular localization. Mutation of Ser-83 diminished p70S6K-induced phosphorylation of TRIB2. Moreover, the high stability of TRIB2 may be due to the fact that both p70S6K and Smurf1 were down-regulated and negatively correlated with TRIB2 expression in both liver cancer tissues and established liver cancer cell lines. Taken together, impaired phosphorylation and ubiquitination by p70S6K and Smurf1 increase the protein stability of TRIB2 in liver cancer and thus may be helpful in the development of diagnosis and treatment strategies against this malignant disease. PMID:24089522

Wang, Jiayi; Zhang, Yue; Weng, Wenhao; Qiao, Yongxia; Ma, Lifang; Xiao, Weifan; Yu, Yongchun; Pan, Qiuhui; Sun, Fenyong

2013-11-22

10

Insulin stimulation of SREBP-1c processing in transgenic rat hepatocytes requires p70 S6-kinase.  

PubMed

Insulin activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in liver, thereby increasing fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. We created a line of transgenic rats that produce epitope-tagged human SREBP-1c in liver under control of the constitutive apolipoprotein E promoter/enhancer. This system allows us to dissect the pathway by which insulin stimulates SREBP-1c processing without interference by the insulin-mediated increase in SREBP-1c mRNA. Rats are used because freshly isolated rat hepatocytes respond much more robustly to insulin than do mouse hepatocytes. The data reveal that insulin-mediated stimulation of SREBP-1c processing requires the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which also is required for insulin-mediated SREBP-1c mRNA induction. However, in contrast to mRNA induction, insulin stimulation of SREBP-1c processing is blocked by an inhibitor of p70 S6-kinase. The data indicate that the pathways for insulin enhancement of SREBP-1c mRNA and proteolytic processing diverge after mTORC1. Stimulation of processing requires the mTORC1 target p70 S6-kinase, whereas induction of mRNA bypasses this enzyme. Insulin stimulation of both processes is blocked by glucagon. The transgenic rat system will be useful in further defining the molecular mechanism for insulin stimulation of lipid synthesis in liver in normal and diabetic states. PMID:22927400

Owen, Joshua L; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Bae, Soo-Han; Farooqi, Midhat S; Liang, Guosheng; Hammer, Robert E; Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

2012-10-01

11

Genetic Removal of p70 S6 Kinase 1 Corrects Molecular, Synaptic, and Behavioral Phenotypes in Fragile X Syndrome Mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited cause of autism and intellectual disability. Aberrant synaptic translation has been implicated in the etiology of FXS, but most lines of research on therapeutic strategies have targeted protein synthesis indirectly, far upstream of the translation machinery. We sought to perturb p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a key translation initiation and elongation regulator, in FXS model mice. We found that genetic reduction of S6K1 prevented elevated phosphorylation of translational control molecules, exaggerated protein synthesis, enhanced mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD), weight gain, and macro-orchidism in FXS model mice. In addition, S6K1 deletion prevented immature dendritic spine morphology and multiple behavioral phenotypes, including social interaction deficits, impaired novel object recognition, and behavioral inflexibility. Our results support the model that dysregulated protein synthesis is the key causal factor in FXS, and that restoration of normal translation can stabilize peripheral and neurological function in FXS.

Bhattacharya, Aditi; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Alvarez-Dieppa, Amanda C.; Murphy, Jaclyn P.; Pierre, Philippe; Klann, Eric

2012-01-01

12

Absence of ?-sarcoglycan alters the response of p70S6 kinase to mechanical perturbation in murine skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Background The dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) is located at the sarcolemma of muscle fibers, providing structural integrity. Mutations in and loss of DGC proteins cause a spectrum of muscular dystrophies. When only the sarcoglycan subcomplex is absent, muscles display severe myofiber degeneration, but little susceptibility to contractile damage, suggesting that disease occurs not by structural deficits but through aberrant signaling, namely, loss of normal mechanotransduction signaling through the sarcoglycan complex. We extended our previous studies on mechanosensitive, ?-sarcoglycan-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation, to determine whether additional pathways are altered with the loss of ?-sarcoglycan. Methods We examined mechanotransduction in the presence and absence of ?-sarcoglycan, using C2C12 myotubes, and primary cultures and isolated muscles from C57Bl/6 (C57) and ?-sarcoglycan-null (?-SG-/-) mice. All were subjected to cyclic passive stretch. Signaling protein phosphorylation was determined by immunoblotting of lysates from stretched and non-stretched samples. Calcium dependence was assessed by maintaining muscles in calcium-free or tetracaine-supplemented Ringer’s solution. Dependence on mTOR was determined by stretching isolated muscles in the presence or absence of rapamycin. Results C2C12 myotube stretch caused a robust increase in P-p70S6K, but decreased P-FAK and P-ERK2. Neither Akt nor ERK1 were responsive to passive stretch. Similar but non-significant trends were observed in C57 primary cultures in response to stretch, and ?-SG-/- cultures displayed no p70S6K response. In contrast, in isolated muscles, p70S6K was mechanically responsive. Basal p70S6K activation was elevated in muscles of ?-SG-/- mice, in a calcium-independent manner. p70S6K activation increased with stretch in both C57 and ?-SG-/- isolated muscles, and was sustained in ?-SG-/- muscles, unlike the transient response in C57 muscles. Rapamycin treatment blocked all of p70S6K activation in stretched C57 muscles, and reduced downstream S6RP phosphorylation. However, even though rapamycin treatment decreased p70S6K activation in stretched ?-SG-/- muscles, S6RP phosphorylation remained elevated. Conclusions p70S6K is an important component of ?-sarcoglycan-dependent mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle. Our results suggest that loss of ?-sarcoglycan uncouples the response of p70S6K to stretch and implies that ?-sarcoglycan is important for inactivation of this pathway. Overall, we assert that altered load-sensing mechanisms exist in muscular dystrophies where the sarcoglycans are absent.

2014-01-01

13

4-(Benzimidazol-2-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-ylamine derivatives: Potent and selective p70S6 kinase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report herein the design and synthesis of 4-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-amine derivatives as inhibitors of p70S6 kinase. Screening hits containing the 4-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-ylamine scaffold were optimized for p70S6K potency and selectivity against related kinases. Structure-based design employing an active site homology model derived from PKA led to the preparation of benzimidazole 5-substituted compounds 26 and 27 as highly potent inhibitors (Ki <1nM) of

Upul Bandarage; Brian Hare; Jonathan Parsons; Ly Pham; Craig Marhefka; Guy Bemis; Qing Tang; Cameron Stuver Moody; Steve Rodems; Sundeep Shah; Chris Adams; Jose Bravo; Emmanuelle Charonnet; Vladimir Savic; Jon H. Come; Jeremy Green

2009-01-01

14

AT7867 is a potent and oral inhibitor of AKT and p70 S6 kinase that induces pharmacodynamic changes and inhibits human tumor xenograft growth.  

PubMed

The serine/threonine kinase AKT plays a pivotal role in signal transduction events involved in malignant transformation and chemoresistance and is an attractive target for the development of cancer therapeutics. Fragment-based lead discovery, combined with structure-based drug design, has recently identified AT7867 as a novel and potent inhibitor of both AKT and the downstream kinase p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and also of protein kinase A. This ATP-competitive small molecule potently inhibits both AKT and p70S6K activity at the cellular level, as measured by inhibition of GSK3beta and S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation, and also causes growth inhibition in a range of human cancer cell lines as a single agent. Induction of apoptosis was detected by multiple methods in tumor cells following AT7867 treatment. Administration of AT7867 (90 mg/kg p.o. or 20 mg/kg i.p.) to athymic mice implanted with the PTEN-deficient U87MG human glioblastoma xenograft model caused inhibition of phosphorylation of downstream substrates of both AKT and p70S6K and induction of apoptosis, confirming the observations made in vitro. These doses of AT7867 also resulted in inhibition of human tumor growth in PTEN-deficient xenograft models. These data suggest that the novel strategy of AKT and p70S6K blockade may have therapeutic value and supports further evaluation of AT7867 as a single-agent anticancer strategy. PMID:20423992

Grimshaw, Kyla M; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K; Yap, Timothy A; Heaton, Simon P; Walton, Mike I; Woodhead, Steven J; Fazal, Lynsey; Reule, Matthias; Davies, Thomas G; Seavers, Lisa C; Lock, Victoria; Lyons, John F; Thompson, Neil T; Workman, Paul; Garrett, Michelle D

2010-05-01

15

EGF-induced activation of Akt results in mTOR-dependent p70S6 kinase phosphorylation and inhibition of HC11 cell lactogenic differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells differentiate in response to lactogenic hormone resulting in expression of milk proteins including ?-casein. Previous studies have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) blocks differentiation not only through activation of the Ras/Mek/Erk pathway but also implicated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) signaling. The current study analyzes the mechanism of the PI-3-kinase pathway in an EGF-induced block of HC11 lactogenic differentiation. Results HC11 and HC11-luci cells, which contain luciferase gene under the control of a ?-casein promotor, were treated with specific chemical inhibitors of signal transduction pathways or transiently infected/transfected with vectors encoding dominant negative-Akt (DN-Akt) or conditionally active-Akt (CA-Akt). The expression of CA-Akt inhibited lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells, and the infection with DN-Akt adenovirus enhanced ?-casein transcription and rescued ?-casein promotor-regulated luciferase activity in the presence of EGF. Treatment of cells with Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, blocked the effects of EGF on ?-casein promotor driven luciferase activity as effectively as PI-3-kinase inhibitors. While expression of CA-Akt caused a constitutive activation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) in HC11 cells, the inhibition of either PI-3-kinase or mTOR abolished the activation of p70S6K by EGF. The activation of p70S6K by insulin or EGF resulted in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6), elongation initiation factor 4E (elF4E) and 4E binding protein1 (4E-BP1). But lower levels of PI-3-K and mTOR inhibitors were required to block insulin-induced phosphorylation of RPS6 than EGF-induced phosphorylation, and insulin-induced phosphorylation of elF4E and 4E-BP1 was not completely mTOR dependent suggesting some diversity of signaling for EGF and insulin. In HC11 cells undergoing lactogenic differentiation the phosphorylation of p70S6K completely diminished by 12 hours, and this was partly attributable to dexamethasone, a component of lactogenic hormone mix. However, p70S6K phosphorylation persisted in the presence of lactogenic hormone and EGF, but the activation could be blocked by a PI-3-kinase inhibitor. Conclusion PI-3-kinase signaling contributes to the EGF block of lactogenic differentiation via Akt and p70S6K. The EGF-induced activation of PI-3-kinase-Akt-mTOR regulates phosphorylation of molecules including ribosomal protein S6, eIF4E and 4E-BP1 that influence translational control in HC11 cells undergoing lactogenic differentiation.

Galbaugh, Traci; Cerrito, Maria Grazia; Jose, Cynthia C; Cutler, Mary Lou

2006-01-01

16

Phosphorylation of IRS1 at Serine 307 in Response to Insulin in Human Adipocytes Is Not Likely to be Catalyzed by p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase  

PubMed Central

The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) is phosphorylated on serine 307 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine 302) in response to insulin as part of a feedback loop that controls IRS1 phosphorylation on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor. This in turn directly affects downstream signaling and is in human adipocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The phosphorylation is inhibited by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in complex with raptor (mTORC1). The mTORC1-downstream p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), which is activated by insulin, can phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in vitro and is considered the physiological protein kinase. Because the IRS1 serine 307-kinase catalyzes a critical step in the control of insulin signaling and constitutes a potential target for treatment of insulin resistance, it is important to know whether S6K1 is the physiological serine 307-kinase or not. We report that, by several criteria, S6K1 does not phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in response to insulin in intact human primary adipocytes: (i) The time-courses for phosphorylation of S6K1 and its phosphorylation of S6 are not compatible with the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (ii) A dominant-negative construct of S6K1 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (iii) The specific inhibitor of S6K1 PF-4708671 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307. mTOR-immunoprecipitates from insulin-stimulated adipocytes contains an unidentified protein kinase specific for phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307, but it is not mTOR or S6K1.

Kj?lhede, Preben; Turkina, Maria V.; Stralfors, Peter

2013-01-01

17

mTOR is the Rapamycin-Sensitive Kinase that Confers Mechanically-Induced Phosphorylation of the Hydrophobic Motif Site Thr(389) in p70S6k  

PubMed Central

Mechanical stretch induces phosphorylation of the hydrophobic motif site Thr389 in p70S6k through a rapamycin-sensitive (RS) pathway that involves a unique PI3K-independent mechanism. Rapamycin is considered to be a highly specific inhibitor of the protein kinase mTOR; however, mTOR is also considered to be a PI3K-dependent signaling molecule. Thus, questions remain as to whether mTOR is the RS element that confers mechanically-induced signaling to p70S6k(389). In this study, rapamycin-resistant mutants of mTOR along with mechanical stretch were used to address this question. The results indicate that mTOR is the RS element and reveal that mTOR signaling can be activated through a PI3K-independent mechanism.

Hornberger, Troy Alan; Sukhija, Kunal Balu; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Chien, Shu

2007-01-01

18

Serotonin-Induced Growth of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Requires Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase\\/Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase B\\/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin\\/p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously found that both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)- and Rho kinase (ROCK)-related signaling pathways are necessary for the induction of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell(SMC)proliferationbyserotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT)). In the presentstudy, weinvestigated thepossible additionalpartici- pation of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)\\/serine-threonine protein kinase B (Akt)\\/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)\\/ p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1) pathway in this growth response. We found

Yinglin Liu; Barry L. Fanburg

19

P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} P70S6K1 regulates VEGF expression; {yields} P70S6K1 induces transcriptional activation through HIF-1{alpha} binding site; {yields} P70S6K1 regulates HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression; {yields} P70S6K1 mediates tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression. -- Abstract: The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN-negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1{alpha} binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Shi, Zhumei [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)] [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: binghjiang@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

2010-07-30

20

P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1? expression  

PubMed Central

The 70kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1? binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1?, but not HIF-1? protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1? expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1? and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

2010-01-01

21

Intracellular sensing of amino acids in Xenopus laevis oocytes stimulates p70 S6 kinase in a target of rapamycin-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Amino acids exert modulatory effects on proteins involved in control of mRNA translation in animal cells through the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway. Here we use oocytes of Xenopus laevis to investigate mechanisms by which amino acids are "sensed" in animal cells. Small ( approximately 48%) but physiologically relevant increases in intracellular but not extracellular total amino acid concentration (or Leu or Trp but not Ala, Glu, or Gln alone) resulted in increased phosphorylation of p70(S6K) and its substrate ribosomal protein S6. This response was inhibited by rapamycin, demonstrating that the effects require the TOR pathway. Alcohols of active amino acids substituted for amino acids with lower efficiency. Oocytes were refractory to changes in external amino acid concentration unless surface permeability of the cell to amino acids was increased by overexpression of the System L amino acid transporter. Amino acid-induced, rapamycin-sensitive activation of p70(S6K) was conferred when System L-expressing oocytes were incubated in extracellular amino acids, supporting intracellular localization of the putative amino acid sensor. In contrast to lower eukaryotes such as yeast, which possess an extracellular amino acid sensor, our findings provide the first direct evidence for an intracellular location for the putative amino acid sensor in animal cells that signals increased amino acid availability to TOR/p70(S6K). PMID:11788584

Christie, Graham R; Hajduch, Eric; Hundal, Harinder S; Proud, Christopher G; Taylor, Peter M

2002-03-22

22

Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for transcriptional activity of F-type 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase: assessment of the role of protein kinase B and p70 S6 kinase.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that the F isoform of6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase(6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase) is transcriptionally regulated by growth factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathway in the regulation of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression. We have completed studies using chemical inhibitors and expression vectors for the proteins involved in this signalling cascade. Treatment of cells with LY 294002, an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, blocked the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent stimulation of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene transcription. Transient transfection of a constitutively active PI 3-kinase was sufficient to activate transcription from the F-type 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase promoter. In contrast, co-transfection with a dominant-negative form of PI 3-kinase completely abrogated the stimulation by EGF, and down-regulated the basal promoter activity. In an attempt to determine downstream proteins that lie between PI 3-kinase and 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression, the overexpression of a constitutively active form of protein kinase B (PKB) was sufficient to activate 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression, even in the presence of either a dominant-negative form of PI 3-kinase or LY 294002. The over-expression of p70/p85 ribosomal S6 kinase or the treatment with its inhibitor rapamycin did not affect 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase transcription. We conclude that PI 3-kinase is necessary for the transcriptional activity of F-type 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase, and that PKB is a downstream effector of PI 3-kinase directly involved in the regulation of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression.

Fernandez de Mattos , S; de los Pinos E, E; Joaquin, M; Tauler, A

2000-01-01

23

The Drosophila p70s6k Homolog Exhibits Conserved Regulatory Elements and Rapamycin Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein p70s6k\\/p85s6k lies on a mitogenstimulated signaling pathway and plays a key role in G1 progression of the cell cycle. Activation of this enzyme is mediated by a complex set of phosphorylation events, which has largely contributed to the difficulty in identifying the upstream kinases that mediate p70s6k activation. Genetics has proved a powerful complementary approach for such problems,

Mary J. Stewart; Christopher O. A. Berry; Frederic Zilberman; George Thomas; Sara C. Kozma

1996-01-01

24

Rapamycin suppresses 5?TOP mRNA translation through inhibition of p70s6k  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of mammalian cells with the immunosuppressant rapamycin, a bacterial macrolide, selectively suppresses mitogen-induced translation of an essential class of mRNAs which contain an oligopyrimidine tract at their transcriptional start (5?TOP), most notably mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins and elongation factors. In parallel, rapamycin blocks mitogen-induced p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k) phosphorylation and activation. Utilizing chimeric mRNA constructs containing either

Harold B. J. Jefferies; Stefano Fumagalli; Patrick B. Dennis; Christoph Reinhard; Richard B. Pearson; George Thomas

1997-01-01

25

CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 signaling in human lymphatic and microvascular endothelial cells and activated lymphocytes: involvement of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, Src and p70S6 kinase.  

PubMed

CXC chemokines influence a variety of biological processes, such as angiogenesis, both in a physiological and pathological context. Platelet factor-4 (PF-4)/CXCL4 and its variant PF-4var/CXCL4L1 are known to favor angiostasis by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and chemotaxis. CXCL4L1 in particular is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis with anti-tumoral characteristics, both through regulation of neovascularization and through attraction of activated lymphocytes. However, its underlying signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. Here, we have identified various intracellular pathways activated by CXCL4L1 in comparison with other CXCR3 ligands, including CXCL4 and interferon-?-induced protein 10/CXCL10. Signaling experiments show involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family in CXCR3A-transfected cells, activated lymphocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). In CXCR3A transfectants, CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 activated p38 MAPK, as well as Src kinase within 30 and 5 min, respectively. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation occured in activated lymphocytes, yet was inhibited in microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 counterbalanced the angiogenic chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 in both endothelial cell types. Notably, inhibition of ERK signaling by CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 in lymphatic endothelial cells implies that these chemokines might also regulate lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, CXCL4, CXCL4L1 and CXCL10 slightly enhanced forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in HMVEC. Finally, CXCL4, but not CXCL4L1, induced activation of p70S6 kinase within 5 min in HMVEC. Our findings confirm that the angiostatic chemokines CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 activate both CXCR3A and CXCR3B and bring new insights into the complexity of their signaling cascades. PMID:24469069

Van Raemdonck, Katrien; Gouwy, Mieke; Lepers, Stefanie Antoinette; Van Damme, Jo; Struyf, Sofie

2014-07-01

26

A hexane fraction of guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) induces anticancer activity by suppressing AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase in human prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including ?-eudesmol (11.98%), ?-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), ?-patchoulene (3.76%), ?-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), ?-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:22280146

Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2012-03-01

27

A Hexane Fraction of Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) Induces Anticancer Activity by Suppressing AKT/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin/Ribosomal p70 S6 Kinase in Human Prostate Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including ?-eudesmol (11.98%), ?-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), ?-patchoulene (3.76%), ?-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), ?-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer.

Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik

2012-01-01

28

Inhibition of DNA synthesis by a farnesyltransferase inhibitor involves inhibition of the p70(s6k) pathway.  

PubMed

Previously, the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), L-744, 832, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a number of tumor cell lines in vitro in a manner that correlated with the inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Here we show that FTI inhibits p70(s6k) phosphorylation in mammary tumors in vivo in transgenic mice. Furthermore, in a mouse keratinocyte cell line, FTI inhibits p70(s6k) phosphorylation and activity and inhibits PHAS-1 phosphorylation in vitro in both rapidly growing cells and in growth factor-stimulated quiescent cells. Dominant-negative Ras expression inhibits p70(s6k) stimulation by epidermal growth factor, demonstrating a requirement for Ras activity during p70(s6k) activation. FTI does not inhibit protein kinase B phosphorylation on Ser473, indicating that FTI does not act by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. FTI also inhibits DNA synthesis in keratinocytes, and inhibition of DNA synthesis correlates closely with p70(s6k) inhibition. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of p70(s6k) and PHAS-1 phosphorylation, causes a 30-45% reduction in DNA synthesis in keratinocytes, while FTI induces an 80-90% reduction in DNA synthesis. These observations suggest that alteration of p70(s6k) and PHAS-1 function by FTI are responsible for a substantial portion of the growth-inhibitory properties of FTI. Together, these data demonstrate that p70(s6k) and PHAS-1 are novel downstream targets of FTI and suggest that the anti-tumor properties of FTI are probably due to the inhibition of multiple mitogenic pathways. PMID:9988711

Law, B K; Nørgaard, P; Gnudi, L; Kahn, B B; Poulson, H S; Moses, H L

1999-02-19

29

Thyroid Hormone Induces Rapid Activation of Akt\\/Protein Kinase B-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin-p70S6K Cascade through Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase in Human Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated that T3 increases the ex- pression of ZAKI-4, an endogenous calcineurin inhibitor. In this study we characterized a T3- dependent signaling cascade leading to ZAKI-4 expression in human skin fibroblasts. We found that T3-dependent increase in ZAKI-4 was greatly attenuated by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of a protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), suggesting the requirement

Xia Cao; Fukushi Kambe; Lars C. Moeller; Samuel Refetoff; Hisao Seo

2004-01-01

30

Farnesyltransferase inhibitor induces rapid growth arrest and blocks p70s6k activation by multiple stimuli.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that the peptidomimetic farnesyltransferase inhibitor L-744,832 (FTI) inhibits p70s6k activation and cell growth in a mouse keratinocyte cell line but only at concentrations of FTI significantly higher than those required for the inhibition of Ras farnesylation. Here we show that the rapid kinetics of FTI inhibition of DNA synthesis (within 1.5 h) in both normal and v-K-Ras transformed keratinocytes matches the rapid kinetics of p70s6k inhibition observed previously. It is further shown that FTI inhibits p70s6k activation in response to serum, phorbol myristate acetate, and increased amino acid levels. The phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A partially reverses the FTI-induced dephosphorylation of p70s6k, suggesting that FTI may act upstream of a protein phosphatase. A rapamycin-resistant mutant of p70s6k is shown to be resistant to FTI-induced dephosphorylation of the major rapamycin-sensitive phosphorylation site of p70s6k, Thr(389). Together, these data demonstrate that FTI rapidly inhibits DNA synthesis irrespective of the presence of v-K-Ras and that FTI inhibits p70s6k activation in response to multiple stimuli. Because the FTI L-744,832 mimics many of the effects of rapamycin, this FTI may prove effective against tumors that exhibit inappropriate activation of the mTOR/p70s6k pathway. PMID:10753872

Law, B K; Norgaard, P; Moses, H L

2000-04-14

31

Phosphorylated p70S6K in noninvasive low-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: correlation with tumor recurrence  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether inhibiting phosphorylated p70S6K (p-p70S6K) suppresses the proliferation and growth of noninvasive low-grade urothelial carcinoma (LG-URCa) in vitro and whether p-p70S6K can serve as a predictive biomarker for the recurrence of noninvasive LG-URCa of the bladder in patients. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) for 95 LG-URCa and 35 benign urothelium samples and performed immunohistochemical staining for p-p70S6K and p-4E-BP1. A Cox regression model was used to investigate the predictive factors for recurrence of LG-URCa. We investigated the dose-dependent antiproliferative effect of rapamycin, its antiproliferative effect and the growth-inhibition effect of p70S6K siRNA transfection in RT4 and 253J cell lines. The pT1 staged group (P < 0.05; hazard ratio (HR), 2.415) and the high p-p70S6K staining group (P < 0.05; HR, 2.249) were independent factors for predicting recurrence. Rapamycin inhibited RT4 and 253J cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (r = ?0.850, P < 0.001 in RT4 cells; r = ?0.835, P < 0.001 in 253J cells). RT4 and 253J cell proliferation and growth were inhibited by the transfection of p70S6K siRNA and rapamycin, respectively (P < 0.05). Transfection of p70S6K siRNA resulted in inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and growth that were similar to those of rapamycin. Our results suggest that inhibiting p70S6K phosphorylation is important to prevent recurrence and that p70S6K phosphorylation can be used as a molecular biomarker to predict recurrence of certain LG-URCa of the bladder.

Kim, Soon-Ja; Kim, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hui Seok; Lee, Tae-Jin; Lee, Kyung Mee; Chang, In Ho

2014-01-01

32

Salicylate-induced growth arrest is associated with inhibition of p70s6k and down-regulation of c-myc, cyclin D1, cyclin A, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.  

PubMed

Salicylate and its pro-drug form aspirin are widely used medicinally for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, and more recently for their ability to protect against colon cancer and cardiovascular disease. Despite the wide use of salicylate, the mechanisms underlying its biological activities are largely unknown. Recent reports suggest that salicylate may produce some of its effects by modulating the activities of protein kinases. Since we have previously shown that the farnesyltransferase inhibitor l-744, 832 inhibits cell proliferation and p70(s6k) activity, and salicylate inhibits cell proliferation, we examined whether salicylate affects p70(s6k) activity. We find that salicylate potently inhibits p70(s6k) activation and phosphorylation in a p38 MAPK-independent manner. Interestingly, low salicylate concentrations (p70(s6k) activation by phorbol myristate acetate, while higher salicylate concentrations (>/=5 mm) are required to block p70(s6k) activation by epidermal growth factor + insulin-like growth factor-1. These data suggest that salicylate may selectively inhibit p70(s6k) activation in response to specific stimuli. Inhibition of p70(s6k) by salicylate occurs within 5 min, is independent of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, and is associated with dephosphorylation of p70(s6k) on its major rapamycin-sensitive site, Thr(389). A rapamycin-resistant mutant of p70(s6k) is resistant to salicylate-induced Thr(389) dephosphorylation. PMID:10993886

Law, B K; Waltner-Law, M E; Entingh, A J; Chytil, A; Aakre, M E; Nørgaard, P; Moses, H L

2000-12-01

33

Targeting GPCR-mediated p70S6K activity may improve head and neck cancer response to cetuximab  

PubMed Central

Purpose EGFR overexpression is correlated with decreased survival in head and neck cancer (HNC) where the addition of EGFR inhibition to standard chemoradiation approaches has improved treatment responses. However, the basis for the limited efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in HNC is incompletely understood. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to be overexpressed in HNC where GPCR activation induces HNC growth via both EGFR-dependent and independent pathways. We hypothesized that targeting GPCR-induced EGFR-independent signaling would improve the efficacy of EGFR inhibition. Experimental Design Using a high-throughput phospho-proteome array, we identified proteins that were phosphorylated in HNC cells where EGFR expression was downmodulated by RNAi in the presence or absence of a GPCR ligand. We confirmed the findings from the array by Western blotting followed by in vitro and in vivo phenotypic assays. Results p70S6K phosphorylation was elevated approximately 6-fold in EGFR siRNA transfected cells treated with a GPCR ligand. In addition to RNAi-mediated EGFR downmodulation, GPCR-mediated phosphorylation of p70S6K was modestly increased by the FDA-approved EGFR inhibitor cetuximab. Biopsies from cetuximab treated patients also displayed increased phospho-p70S6K staining compared to pre-treatment biopsies. HNC cells were growth inhibited by both genetic and pharmacological p70S6K targeting strategies. Furthermore, p70S6K targeting in combination with cetuximab resulted in enhanced anti-tumor effects in both in vitro and in vivo HNC models. Conclusions These results indicate that increased phosphorylation of p70S6K in cetuximab-treated patients may be due to increased GPCR signaling. Therefore, the addition of p70S6K targeting strategies may improve treatment responses to EGFR inhibition.

Bhola, Neil E.; Thomas, Sufi M.; Freilino, Maria; Joyce, Sonali; Sahu, Anirban; Maxwell, Jessica; Argiris, Athanassios; Seethala, Raja; Grandis, Jennifer R.

2011-01-01

34

Mechanical stimuli of skeletal muscle: implications on mTOR/p70s6k and protein synthesis.  

PubMed

The skeletal muscle is a tissue with adaptive properties which are essential to the survival of many species. When mechanically stimulated it is liable to undergo remodeling, namely, changes in its mass/volume resulting mainly from myofibrillar protein accumulation. The mTOR pathway (mammalian target of rapamycin) via its effector p70s6k (ribosomal protein kinase S6) has been reported to be of importance to the control of skeletal muscle mass, particularly under mechanical stimulation. However, not all mechanical stimuli are capable of activating this pathway, and among those who are, there are differences in the activation magnitude. Likewise, not all skeletal muscle fibers respond to the same extent to mechanical stimulation. Such evidences suggest specific mechanical stimuli through appropriate cellular signaling to be responsible for the final physiological response, namely, the accumulation of myofibrillar protein. Lately, after the mTOR signaling pathway has been acknowledged as of importance for remodeling, the interest for the mechanical/chemical mediators capable of activating it has increased. Apart from the already known MGF (mechano growth factor), some other mediators such as phosphatidic acid (PA) have been identified. This review article comprises and discusses relevant information on the mechano-chemical transduction of the pathway mTOR, with special emphasis on the muscle protein synthesis. PMID:17940791

Zanchi, Nelo Eidy; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2008-02-01

35

Rapid activation of FAK/mTOR/p70S6K/PAK1-signaling controls the early testosterone-induced actin reorganization in colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Actin cytoskeleton reorganization initiated by testosterone conjugates through activation of membrane androgen receptors (mAR) has recently been reported in colon tumor cells. This mAR-induced actin reorganization was recognized as a critical initial event, controlling apoptosis and inhibiting cell migration. The present study addressed the molecular signaling regulating the rapid actin remodeling initiated upon testosterone-induced mAR activation in Caco2 colon tumor cells. We report early phosphorylation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), followed by substantial early phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), S6 kinase (p70S6K) and the actin regulating p21-activated kinase (PAK1). Pharmacological inhibition of FAK-sensitive phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI-3K), a known element of mAR-signaling, fully abrogated the testosterone-induced actin reorganization and the activation of mTOR, p70S6K and PAK1. Similarly, inhibition of mTOR blocked p70S6K and PAK1 phosphorylation and actin remodeling. Pretreatment of the cells with the intracellular androgen receptor (iAR) antagonist flutamide or silencing iAR through siRNA did not influence mTOR phosphorylation and actin reorganization, indicating specific mAR-induced testosterone effects that are independent of iAR signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time a new mAR-governed pathway involving FAK/PI-3K and mTOR/p70S6K/PAK1-cascade that regulates early actin reorganization in colon cancer cells. PMID:23316499

Gu, Shuchen; Kounenidakis, Michalis; Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Deshpande, Divija; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud; Föller, Michael; Alevizopoulos, Konstantinos; Lang, Florian; Stournaras, Christos

2013-01-01

36

Myostatin reduces Akt/TORC1/p70S6K signaling, inhibiting myoblast differentiation and myotube size.  

PubMed

Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle size, previously shown to inhibit muscle cell differentiation. Myostatin requires both Smad2 and Smad3 downstream of the activin receptor II (ActRII)/activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptor complex. Other transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-like molecules can also block differentiation, including TGF-beta(1), growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11), activins, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and BMP-7. Myostatin inhibits activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 protein synthesis pathway, which mediates both differentiation in myoblasts and hypertrophy in myotubes. Blockade of the Akt/mTOR pathway, using small interfering RNA to regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (RAPTOR), a component of TOR signaling complex 1 (TORC1), increases myostatin-induced phosphorylation of Smad2, establishing a myostatin signaling-amplification role for blockade of Akt. Blockade of RAPTOR also facilitates myostatin's inhibition of muscle differentiation. Inhibition of TORC2, via rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR), is sufficient to inhibit differentiation on its own. Furthermore, myostatin decreases the diameter of postdifferentiated myotubes. However, rather than causing upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligases muscle RING-finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), previously shown to mediate skeletal muscle atrophy, myostatin decreases expression of these atrophy markers in differentiated myotubes, as well as other genes normally upregulated during differentiation. These findings demonstrate that myostatin signaling acts by blocking genes induced during differentiation, even in a myotube, as opposed to activating the distinct "atrophy program." In vivo, inhibition of myostatin increases muscle creatine kinase activity, coincident with an increase in muscle size, demonstrating that this in vitro differentiation measure is also upregulated in vivo. PMID:19357233

Trendelenburg, Anne Ulrike; Meyer, Angelika; Rohner, Daisy; Boyle, Joseph; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Glass, David J

2009-06-01

37

Phosphorylated p-70S6K predicts tamoxifen resistance in postmenopausal breast cancer patients randomized between adjuvant tamoxifen versus no systemic treatment  

PubMed Central

Introduction Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways results in anti-estrogen resistance in vitro, but a biomarker with clinical validity to predict intrinsic resistance has not been identified. In metastatic breast cancer patients with previous exposure to endocrine therapy, the addition of a mammalian target of rapamycine (mTOR) inhibitor has been shown to be beneficial. Whether or not patients on adjuvant endocrine treatment might benefit from these drugs is currently unclear. A biomarker that predicts intrinsic resistance could potentially be used as companion diagnostic in this setting. We tested the clinical validity of different downstream-activated proteins in the PI3K and/or MAPK pathways to predict intrinsic tamoxifen resistance in postmenopausal primary breast cancer patients. Methods We recollected primary tumor tissue from patients who participated in a randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen (1–3 years) versus observation. After constructing a tissue micro-array, cores from 563 estrogen receptor ? positive were immunostained for p-AKT(Thr308), p-AKT(Ser473), p-mTOR, p-p706SK and p-ERK1/2. Cox proportional hazard models for recurrence free interval were used to assess hazard ratios and interactions between these markers and tamoxifen treatment efficacy. Results Interactions were identified between tamoxifen and p-AKT(Thr308), p-mTOR, p-p70S6K and p-ERK1/2. Applying a conservative level of significance, p-p70S6K remained significantly associated with tamoxifen resistance. Patients with p-p70S6K negative tumors derived significant benefit from tamoxifen (HR 0.24, P?p70S6K did not (HR?=?1.02, P =0.95), P for interaction 0.004. In systemically untreated breast cancer patients, p-p70S6K was associated with a decreased risk for recurrence. Conclusions Patients whose tumor expresses p-p70S6K, as a marker of downstream PI3K and/or MAPK pathway activation, have a favorable prognosis, but do not benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen. A potential benefit from inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in these patients needs to be further explored.

2014-01-01

38

Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Liu, Ling-Zhi, E-mail: ling-zhi.liu@jefferson.edu [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: bhjiang@jefferson.edu [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

2011-10-28

39

AKT/mTOR substrate P70S6K is frequently phosphorylated in gallbladder cancer tissue and cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Gallbladder carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor and a public health problem in some parts of the world. It is characterized by a poor prognosis and its resistance to radio and chemotherapy. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is activated in about 50% of human malignancies, and its role in gallbladder carcinoma has previously been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the phosphorylation status of the mTOR substrate p70S6K in preneoplastic and neoplastic gallbladder tissues and evaluated the effect of three mTOR inhibitors on cell growth and migration in gallbladder carcinoma cell lines. Methods Immunohistochemical staining of phospho-p70S6K was analyzed in 181 gallbladder carcinoma cases, classified according to lesion type as dysplasia, early carcinoma, or advanced carcinoma. Protein expression of AKT/mTOR members was also evaluated in eight gallbladder carcinoma cell lines by Western blot analysis. We selected two gallbladder carcinoma cell lines (G415 and TGBC-2TKB) to evaluate the effect of rapamycin, RAD001, and AZD8055 on cell viability, cell migration, and protein expression. Results Our results showed that phospho-p70S6K is highly expressed in dysplasia (66.7%, 12/18), early cancer (84.6%, 22/26), and advanced cancer (88.3%, 121/137). No statistical correlation was observed between phospho-p70S6K status and any clinical or pathological features, including age, gender, ethnicity, wall infiltration level, or histological differentiation (P < 0.05). In vitro treatment with rapamycin, RAD001, and AZD8055 reduced cell growth, cell migration, and phospho-p70S6K expression significantly in G-415 and TGBC-2TKB cancer cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings confirm the upregulation of this signaling pathway in gallbladder carcinoma and provide a rationale for the potential use of mTOR inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for human gallbladder carcinoma.

Leal, Pamela; Garcia, Patricia; Sandoval, Alejandra; Buchegger, Kurt; Weber, Helga; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan C

2013-01-01

40

H 2 S Protects Hippocampal Neurons from Anoxia–Reoxygenation Through cAMP-Mediated PI3K\\/Akt\\/p70S6K Cell-Survival Signaling Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to investigate the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)\\/Akt\\/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) signal transduction pathway after oxygen\\u000a glucose deprivation\\/reoxygenation (OGD\\/R) in the rat hippocampus. Newborn Wister rats were decapitated under anesthesia, and\\u000a hippocampal tissue was dissected. Cells were plated at 1.0?×?105 cells\\/mL on polylysine-treated 96-well and 6-well plates. After 7 days in culture, cells

Jian-Lin Shao; Xiao-Hong Wan; Yan Chen; Chun Bi; Hong-Mei Chen; Ying Zhong; Xin-Hua Heng; Jin-Qiao Qian

2011-01-01

41

Dietary fish oil inhibits the early stage of recovery of atrophied soleus muscle in rats via Akt-p70s6k signaling and PGF2?.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle recovery from disuse atrophy requires the recruitment of insulin signaling for muscle growth, which is driven by protein synthesis. Dietary fish oil, which is rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is known to enhance insulin signaling and protein metabolism. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate whether dietary fish oil facilitates muscle recovery during remobilization after disuse atrophy. Ten days of immobilization, followed by 3 or 13 days of remobilization, were applied to the hindlimbs of rats fed corn oil [corn oil diet group as control (CO)] or fish oil [fish oil diet group (FO)] as source of dietary fat. The immobilization-induced reductions in soleus muscle weight and myosin heavy-chain content were significantly restored by 3 days of remobilization in CO. However, in FO, these muscle recovery measurements did not significantly change until 13 days of remobilization. At 3 days of remobilization, both groups had significant elevations in p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70s6k) activation and at a greater extent in CO than in FO. The activation of Akt was also increased on Day 3, but it was not significant in FO. Throughout the remobilization period, levels of prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA were significantly augmented. However, FO had a lesser increase in PGF2? than CO until Day 13. These findings indicate that dietary fish oil inhibits the early stage of soleus muscle recovery after disuse atrophy by suppressing the activation of Akt-p70s6k signaling and PGF2? synthesis. PMID:19954953

You, Jae-Sung; Park, Mi-Na; Lee, Yeon-Sook

2010-10-01

42

Overexpression of 4EBP1, p70S6K, Akt1 or Akt2 differentially promotes Coxsackievirus B3-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have shown that the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or mTOR complex 1 can obviously promote the Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells by regulating the expression of proapoptotic factors. To further illustrate it, Homo sapiens eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), Akt1 and Akt2 were transfected to HeLa cells, respectively. And then, we established the stable transfected cell lines. Next, after CVB3 infection, apoptosis in different groups was determined by flow cytometry; the expressions of Bim, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were examined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and western blot analysis; the expression of CVB3 mRNA and viral capsid protein VP1 were also analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence, respectively. At the meantime, CVB3 replication was observed by transmission electron microscope. We found that CVB3-induced cytopathic effect and apoptosis in transfected groups were more obvious than that in controls. Unexpectedly, apoptosis rate in Akt1 group was higher than others at the early stage after viral infection and decreased with the viral-infected time increasing, which was opposite to other groups. Compared with controls, the expression of CVB3 mRNA was increased at 3, 6, 12 and 24?h postinfection (p. i.) in all groups. At the meantime, VP1 expression in 4EBP1 group was higher than control during the process of infection, while the expressions in the other groups were change dynamically. Moreover, overexpression of 4EBP1 did not affect the mRNA expressions of Bim, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3; while protein expressions of Bim and Bax were decreased, the self-cleavages of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were stimulated. Meanwhile, overexpression of p70S6K blocked the CVB3-induced Bim, Bax and caspase-9 expressions but promoted the self-cleavage of caspase-9. In the Akt1 group, it is noteworthy that the expressions of Bim protein were higher than controls at 3 and 6?h p. i. but lower at 24?h p. i., and the expression of Bax protein were higher at 6 and 24?h p. i., while their mRNA expressions were all decreased. Furthermore, overexpression of Akt1 stimulated the procaspase-9 and procaspase-3 expression but blocked their self-cleavages. Overexpression of Akt2, however, had little effect on Bim, Bax and caspase-3, while prevented caspase-9 from self-cleavage at the late stage of CVB3 infection. As stated above, our results demonstrated that overexpression of 4EBP1, p70S6K, Akt1 or Akt2 could promote the CVB3-induced apoptosis in diverse degree via different mediating ways in viral replication and proapoptotic factors in BcL-2 and caspase families. As 4EBP1, p70S6K and Akt are the important substrates of PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), we further illustrated the role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the process of CVB3-induced apoptosis. PMID:24030155

Li, X; Li, Z; Zhou, W; Xing, X; Huang, L; Tian, L; Chen, J; Chen, C; Ma, X; Yang, Z

2013-01-01

43

Temporal changes in ERK phosphorylation are harmonious with 4E-BP1, but not p70S6K, during clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy in the rat gastrocnemius.  

PubMed

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is required for clenbuterol (CB)-dependent fast-type myofibril enlargement; however, its contribution to translation control is unclear. ERK mediates translational regulation through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation and (or) mTORC1-independent pathways. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ERK in translational control during CB-induced muscular hypertrophy by measuring time-dependent changes in the phosphorylation statuses of ERK, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K; an indicator of mTORC1 activity), 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), and other related signaling molecules in rat gastrocnemius muscles. Five-day administration of CB induced phenotypes associated with muscular hypertrophy (significant increases in wet weight and isometric ankle flexion torque in the gastrocnemius muscle), but was not accompanied by elevated ERK or p70S6K phosphorylation. One-day administration of CB caused significant increases in the phosphorylation of ERK, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1. In contrast, 3-day administration of CB caused significant increases in the phosphorylation of ERK and 4E-BP1, but not p70S6K. In addition, positive correlations were observed between ERK and 4E-BP1 on days 1 and 3, whereas a correlation between ERK and p70S6K was only observed on day 1. eEF2 phosphorylation was unchanged on both days 1 and 3. These findings suggest that ERK accelerates the initiation of translation, but does not support the involvement of ERK in translational elongation. Furthermore, ERK may play a major role in promoting translational initiation by mediating the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, and may contribute to the initial activation of mTORC1 during CB administration. PMID:24941107

Sumi, Koichiro; Higashi, Seiichiro; Natsume, Midori; Kawahata, Keiko; Nakazato, Koichi

2014-08-01

44

Fisetin inhibits human melanoma cell growth through direct binding to p70S6K and mTOR: Findings from 3-D melanoma skin equivalents and computational modeling.  

PubMed

The incidence of melanoma continues to rise. Inspite of treatment advances, the prognosis remains grim once the disease has metastasized, emphasizing the need to explore additional therapeutic strategies. One such approach is through the use of mechanism-based dietary intervention. We previously showed that the flavonoid fisetin inhibits melanoma cell proliferation, in vitro and in vivo. Here, we studied fisetin-mediated regulation of kinases involved in melanoma growth and progression. Time-course analysis in 3-D melanoma constructs that transitioned from radial to vertical growth showed that fisetin treatment resulted in significant decrease in melanocytic lesions in contrast to untreated controls that showed large tumor nests and invading disseminated cells. Further studies in melanoma cultures and mouse xenografts showed that fisetin-mediated growth inhibition was associated with dephosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and p70S6K proteins. In silico modeling indicated direct interaction of fisetin with mTOR and p70S6K with favorable free energy values. These findings were validated by cell-free competition assays that established binding of fisetin to p70S6K and mTOR while little affinity was detected with AKT. Kinase activity studies reflected similar trend with % inhibition observed for p70S6K and mTOR at lower doses than AKT. Our studies characterized, for the first time, the differential interactions of any botanical agent with kinases involved in melanoma growth and demonstrate that fisetin inhibits mTOR and p70S6K through direct binding while the observed inhibitory effect of fisetin on AKT is mediated indirectly, through targeting interrelated pathways. PMID:24675012

Syed, Deeba N; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Sechi, Mario; Lall, Rahul K; Adhami, Vaqar M; Mukhtar, Hasan

2014-06-01

45

Role of p70S6K1-mediated Phosphorylation of eIF4B and PDCD4 Proteins in the Regulation of Protein Synthesis*  

PubMed Central

Modulation of mRNA binding to the 40 S ribosomal subunit during translation initiation controls not only global rates of protein synthesis but also regulates the pattern of protein expression by allowing for selective inclusion, or exclusion, of mRNAs encoding particular proteins from polysomes. The mRNA binding step is modulated by signaling through a protein kinase known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 directly phosphorylates the translational repressors eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 2, releasing them from the mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E, thereby promoting assembly of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex. mTORC1 also phosphorylates the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), which subsequently phosphorylates eIF4B, and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which sequesters eIF4A from the eIF4E·eIF4G complex, resulting in repressed translation of mRNAs with highly structured 5?-untranslated regions. In the present study, we compared the role of the 4E-BPs in the regulation of global rates of protein synthesis to that of eIF4B and PDCD4. We found that maintenance of eIF4E interaction with eIF4G was not by itself sufficient to sustain global rates of protein synthesis in the absence of mTORC1 signaling to p70S6K1; phosphorylation of both eIF4B and PDCD4 was additionally required. We also found that the interaction of eIF4E with eIF4G was maintained in the liver of fasted rats as well as in serum-deprived mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking both 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2, suggesting that the interaction of eIF4G with eIF4E is controlled primarily through the 4E-BPs.

Dennis, Michael D.; Jefferson, Leonard S.; Kimball, Scot R.

2012-01-01

46

Inhibition of cathepsin S induces autophagy and apoptosis in human glioblastoma cell lines through ROS-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K and JNK signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine protease that is overexpressed in various cancer models and plays important role in tumorigenesis, however the mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we found that inhibition of cathepsin S induced autophagy and mitochondrial apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. Blockade of autophagy by either a chemical inhibitor or RNA interference attenuated cathespin S inhibition-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy and apoptosis induction was dependent on the suppression of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6 kinase (PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K) signaling pathway and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) served as an upstream of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K and JNK signaling pathways. In conclusion, the current study revealed that cathepsin S played an important role in the regulation of autophagy and apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. PMID:24875536

Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong; Xu, Jianguo; Zhu, Jianhong; Ding, Ke

2014-08-01

47

Octreotide and the mTOR Inhibitor RAD001 (Everolimus) Block Proliferation and Interact with the Akt-mTOR-p70S6K Pathway in a NeuroEndocrine Tumour Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: The mode of action of the somatostatin analog octreotide on neuro-endocrine tumour proliferation is largely unknown. Overexpression of the proto-oncogene Akt\\/PKB (protein kinase B) has been demonstrated in certain neuro-endocrine tumours: Akt activates downstream proteins including mTOR and p70S6K, which play an important role in cell proliferation. RAD001 (everolimus) is a novel agent that is being trialled in the

Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg; Giulia Franchi; Mabel Teng; Chrysanthia A. Leontiou; Antônio Ribeiro de Oliveira Jr.; Paolo Dalino; Nabila Salahuddin; Márta Korbonits; Ashley B. Grossman

2008-01-01

48

Association of sirolimus adverse effects with m-TOR, p70S6K or Raptor polymorphisms in kidney transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

The m-TOR inhibitor sirolimus is an immunosuppressive drug used in kidney transplantation. m-TOR binds with Raptor and phosphorylates p70S6 kinase, a protein involved in numerous cell signalling pathways. We investigated the association of candidate polymorphisms in m-TOR, Raptor and p70S6K, sirolimus dose and exposure, and other time-independent as well as time-dependent covariates, with sirolimus-induced adverse events in kidney transplant recipients. This study included a first group of 113 patients, switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to sirolimus and a validation group of 66 patients from another clinical trial, with the same immunosuppressive regimen. The effects of gene polymorphisms and covariates on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin, cutaneous adverse events, oedemas and infections were studied using multilinear regression, or logistic regression imbedded in linear mixed-effect models. An m-TOR variant haplotype was significantly associated with a decrease in hemoglobin levels in the two populations of patients (discovery group: ?=?0.82 g/dl, p=0.0076; validation group: ?=?1.58 g/dl, p=0.0308). Increased sirolimus trough levels were significantly associated with increased total cholesterol levels (discovery group: ? =0.02 g/l, p<0.0001, validation group: ? =0.02 g/l, p=0.0002) and triglyceride levels (discovery group: ? =0.02 g/l, p=0.0059, validation group: ? =0.05 g/l, p=0.0370). Sirolimus trough levels were also associated with an increased risk for cutaneous adverse events (OR=1.97, 95%CI [1.32–1.94], p=0.0009) and oedemas (OR=1.16, 95%CI [1.03–1.30], p=0.01342) in the discovery group, but this was not confirmed in the validation group. These results provide evidence of an association between an m-TOR haplotype and a decrease in hemoglobin in renal transplant recipients.

Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Kamar, Nassim; Rousseau, Annick; Rostaing, Lionel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

2012-01-01

49

Carnosine Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells by Retarding Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling.  

PubMed

Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine), described as an enigmatic peptide for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially antiproliferation properties, has been demonstrated to play an anti-tumorigenic role in certain types of cancer. However, its function in human gastric carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, the effect of carnosine on cell proliferation and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in the cultured human gastric carcinoma cells. The mTOR signaling axis molecules were analyzed in carnosine treated cells. The results showed that treatment with carnosine led to proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, apoptosis increase, and inhibition of mTOR signaling activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, suggesting that proliferation inhibition of carnosine in human gastric carcinoma was through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and carnosine would be a mimic of rapamycin. PMID:24799956

Zhang, Zhenwei; Miao, Lei; Wu, Xin; Liu, Guangze; Peng, Yuting; Xin, Xiaoming; Jiao, Binghua; Kong, Xiangping

2014-01-01

50

Carnosine Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells by Retarding Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling  

PubMed Central

Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine), described as an enigmatic peptide for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially antiproliferation properties, has been demonstrated to play an anti-tumorigenic role in certain types of cancer. However, its function in human gastric carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, the effect of carnosine on cell proliferation and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in the cultured human gastric carcinoma cells. The mTOR signaling axis molecules were analyzed in carnosine treated cells. The results showed that treatment with carnosine led to proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, apoptosis increase, and inhibition of mTOR signaling activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, suggesting that proliferation inhibition of carnosine in human gastric carcinoma was through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and carnosine would be a mimic of rapamycin.

Zhang, Zhenwei; Miao, Lei; Wu, Xin; Liu, Guangze; Peng, Yuting; Xin, Xiaoming; Jiao, Binghua; Kong, Xiangping

2014-01-01

51

Differential effects of des IGF-1 on ERKs, AKT1 and P70 S6K activation in mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in the degree of the phosphorylation of ERK1\\/2, Akt-1 and p70 S6K in mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle was examined in vivo following an intraperitoneal injection of des IGF-I. Plasma levels of insulin, IGF-I and glucose were measured. The administration of des IGF-I had no effect on plasma levels of insulin, or IGF-I, but plasma glucose levels were decreased

M. Li; C. Li; W. S. Parkhouse

2002-01-01

52

MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer and modulates cell growth and invasion by targeting p70S6K1 and MUC1  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer. •MiR-145 targets p70S6K1 and MUC1. •p70S6K1 and MUC1 are involved in miR-145 mediated tumor cell growth and cell invasion, respectively. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Previous studies have shown that miR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer; however, the roles of miR-145 in ovarian cancer growth and invasion have not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that miR-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as in serum samples of ovarian cancer, compared to healthy ovarian tissues, cell lines and serum samples. Functional studies suggest that miR-145 overexpression leads to the inhibition of colony formation, cell proliferation, cell growth viability and invasion, and the induction of cell apoptosis. In accordance with the effect of miR-145 on cell growth, miR-145 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. MiR-145 is found to negatively regulate P70S6K1 and MUC1 protein levels by directly targeting their 3?UTRs. Importantly, the overexpression of p70S6K1 and MUC1 can restore the cell colony formation and invasion abilities that are reduced by miR-145, respectively. MiR-145 expression is increased after 5-aza-CdR treatment, and 5-aza-CdR treatment results in the same phenotype as the effect of miR-145 overexpression. Our study suggests that miR-145 modulates ovarian cancer growth and invasion by suppressing p70S6K1 and MUC1, functioning as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, our data imply that miR-145 has potential as a miRNA-based therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

Wu, Huijuan [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China)] [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China); Xiao, ZhengHua [Department of gynecology, Yongchuan Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City 404100 (China)] [Department of gynecology, Yongchuan Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City 404100 (China); Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China)] [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China); Hao, Quan, E-mail: quanhao2002@163.com [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China)] [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China)

2013-11-29

53

Tanshinone IIA induces autophagic cell death via activation of AMPK and ERK and inhibition of mTOR and p70 S6K in KBM-5 leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Although tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) from Salviae miltiorrhizae was known to induce apoptosis in various cancers, its underlying mechanism of autophagic cell death was not reported yet. Thus, in the present study, the molecular mechanism of autophagic cell death by Tan IIA was investigated in KBM-5 leukemia cells. Tan IIA significantly increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) II as a hallmark of autophagy in western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Tan IIA augmented the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and attenuated the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70 S6K in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine partly reversed the cytotoxicity and the phosphorylation of AMPK, mTOR and p70 S6K induced by Tan IIA in KBM-5 leukemia cells. In addition, Tan IIA dramatically activated the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway including Raf, ERK and p90 RSK in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Consistently, ERK inhibitor PD184352 suppressed LC3-II activation induced by Tan IIA, whereas PD184352 and PD98059 did not affect poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and sub-G1 accumulation induced by Tan IIA in KBM-5 leukemia cells. Furthermore, Tan IIA could induce autophagy via LC3-II activation in various cancer cells such as prostate (PC-3), multiple myeloma (U266), lung (NCI-H460), and breast (MDA-MB-231) cells. Overall, these findings suggest that Tan IIA induces autophagic cell death via activation of AMPK and ERK and inhibition of mTOR and p70 S6K in KBM-5 cells as a potent natural compound for leukemia treatment. PMID:23813779

Yun, Sun-Mi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

2014-03-01

54

Sepiapterin inhibits cell proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells via down-regulation of p70S6K-dependent VEGFR-2 expression.  

PubMed

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is known to be an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, which are involved in the production of neurotransmitters, and for nitric oxide (NO) synthase. In the present study, we report that sepiapterin, the more stable form of the BH4 precursor, modulates ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration by NO-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Sepiapterin induction of cell proliferation and migration in SKOV-3 cells is accompanied by ERK, Akt and p70S6K activation. These stimulatory effects of sepiapterin are reversed by pretreatment with NO synthase inhibitor. We also show that sepiapterin significantly inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)-stimulated cell proliferation and migration. Pretreatment with NO synthase inhibitor does not alter the ability of sepiapterin to inhibit VEGF-A-induced cell proliferation and migration, indicating that the suppressive effects of sepiapterin on VEGF-A-induced responses are mediated by a NO-independent mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that sepiapterin markedly suppresses VEGF-A-induced p70S6K phosphorylation and VEGFR-2 expression, resulting in inhibition of VEGF-A-induced cell proliferation and migration. Collectively, these findings represent a biphasic effect of sepiapterin on cellular fates, depending on the presence of growth factors, and support further development and evaluation of sepiapterin for the treatment of cancers overexpressing VEGFR-2. PMID:21637925

Cho, Young-Rak; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Ko, Hee Young; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Choi, Shin Wook; Seo, Dong-Wan

2011-10-01

55

S6K2: The Neglected S6 Kinase Family Member  

PubMed Central

S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) is a member of the AGC kinases super-family. Its closest homolog, S6K1, has been extensively studied along the years. However, due to the belief in the community that the high degree of identity between these two isoforms would translate in essentially identical biological functions, S6K2 has been largely neglected. Nevertheless, recent research has clearly highlighted that these two proteins significantly differ in their roles in vitro as well as in vivo. These findings are significant to our understanding of S6 kinase signaling and the development of therapeutic strategies for several diseases including cancer. Here, we will focus on S6K2 and review the protein–protein interactions and specific substrates that determine the selective functions of this kinase.

Pardo, Olivier E.; Seckl, Michael J.

2013-01-01

56

4?,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoaurone inhibits the HIF-1? pathway through inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 phosphorylation.  

PubMed

4?,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoaurone (ISOA) is an isoaurone compound isolated from Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds, which was identified as an inhibitor of tumor growth. However, the mechanism by which ISOA inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-mediated tumor growth is not fully understood. We here demonstrated the effect of ISOA on HIF-1 activation. ISOA showed a potent inhibitory activity against HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia in various human cancer cell lines. This compound markedly decreased the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1a protein dose-dependently, whereas it did not affect the expressions of HIF-1b and topoisomerase-I (Topo-I). Further analysis revealed that the suppression of HIF-1a accumulation by ISOA was closely correlated with strong dephosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and its effectors ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), a pathway known to regulate HIF-1a expression at the translational level. Furthermore, ISOA prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 target genes and suppresses the invasiveness of tumor cells. Taken together, our results suggested that ISOA is an effective inhibitor of HIF-1 through targeting Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway, thereby, providing new perspectives into the mechanism of its anticancer activity. PMID:25075425

Mi, Chunliu; Ma, Juan; Shi, Hui; Li, Jing; Wang, Fei; Lee, Jung Joon; Jin, Xuejun

2014-06-19

57

4',6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoaurone Inhibits the HIF-1? Pathway Through Inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 Phosphorylation.  

PubMed

4',6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoaurone (ISOA) is an isoaurone compound isolated from Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds, which was identified as an inhibitor of tumor growth. However, the mechanism by which ISOA inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-mediated tumor growth is not fully understood. We here demonstrated the effect of ISOA on HIF-1 activation. ISOA showed a potent inhibitory activity against HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia in various human cancer cell lines. This compound markedly decreased the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1? protein dose-dependently, whereas it did not affect the expressions of HIF-1? and topoisomerase-I (Topo-I). Further analysis revealed that the suppression of HIF-1? accumulation by ISOA was closely correlated with strong dephosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and its effectors ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), a pathway known to regulate HIF-1? expression at the translational level. Furthermore, ISOA prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 target genes and suppresses the invasiveness of tumor cells. Taken together, our results suggested that ISOA is an effective inhibitor of HIF-1 through targeting Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway, thereby, providing new perspectives into the mechanism of its anticancer activity. PMID:24942214

Mi, Chunliu; Ma, Juan; Shi, Hui; Li, Jing; Wang, Fei; Lee, Jung Joon; Jin, Xuejun

2014-01-01

58

Regulation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 1 and Protein Phosphatase 1*  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is a critical component of the 40 S ribosomal subunit that mediates translation initiation at the 5?-m7GpppG cap of mRNA. In response to mitogenic stimuli, rpS6 undergoes ordered C-terminal phosphorylation by p70 S6 kinases and p90 ribosomal S6 kinases on four conserved Ser residues (Ser-235, Ser-236, Ser-240, and Ser-244) whose modification potentiates rpS6 cap binding activity. A fifth site, Ser-247, is also known to be phosphorylated, but its function and regulation are not well characterized. In this study, we employed phospho-specific antibodies to show that Ser-247 is a target of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of protein kinases. CK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser-247 was induced by mitogenic stimuli and required prior phosphorylation of upstream S6 kinase/ribosomal S6 kinase residues. CK1-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-247 also enhanced the phosphorylation of upstream sites, which implies that bidirectional synergy between C-terminal phospho-residues is required to sustain rpS6 phosphorylation. Consistent with this idea, CK1-dependent phosphorylation of rpS6 promotes its association with the mRNA cap-binding complex in vitro. Additionally, we show that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) antagonizes rpS6 C terminus phosphorylation and cap binding in intact cells. These findings further our understanding of rpS6 phospho-regulation and define a direct link between CK1 and translation initiation.

Hutchinson, John A.; Shanware, Naval P.; Chang, Haeyoon; Tibbetts, Randal S.

2011-01-01

59

Resveratrol inhibits BMP-4-stimulated VEGF synthesis in osteoblasts: suppression of S6 kinase.  

PubMed

Resveratrol is well known as a natural polyphenol abundantly found in red wine. We previously reported that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis via p70 S6 kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on the BMP-4-stimulated VEGF synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Resveratrol significantly suppressed BMP-4-stimulated release and expression levels of VEGF mRNA. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1 with potencies greater than resveratrol, also reduced VEGF release and the mRNA levels. Both resveratrol and SRT1720 markedly attenuated the BMP-4-induced phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase without affecting the BMP-4-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol attenuates BMP-4-stimulated VEGF synthesis through suppression of the activation of p70 S6 kinase in osteoblasts, and that the inhibitory effect is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation. PMID:24435444

Kondo, Akira; Otsuka, Takanobu; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

2014-04-01

60

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppresses the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells through inhibition of p70S6K and Akt signaling networks.  

PubMed

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive component derived from honeybee hive propolis. CAPE has been shown to have antimitogenic, anticarcinogenic, and other beneficial medicinal properties. Many of its effects have been shown to be mediated through its inhibition of NF-?B signaling pathways. We took a systematic approach to uncover the effects of CAPE from hours to days on the signaling networks in human prostate cancer cells. We observed that CAPE dosage dependently suppressed the proliferation of LNCaP, DU-145, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Administration of CAPE by gavage significantly inhibited the tumor growth of LNCaP xenografts in nude mice. Using LNCaP cells as a model system, we examined the effect of CAPE on gene expression, protein signaling, and transcriptional regulatory networks using micro-Western arrays and PCR arrays. We built a model of the impact of CAPE on cell signaling which suggested that it acted through inhibition of Akt-related protein signaling networks. Overexpression of Akt1 or c-Myc, a downstream target of Akt signaling, significantly blocked the antiproliferative effects of CAPE. In summary, our results suggest that CAPE administration may be useful as an adjuvant therapy for prostate and potentially other types of cancers that are driven by the p70S6K and Akt signaling networks. PMID:22562408

Chuu, Chih-Pin; Lin, Hui-Ping; Ciaccio, Mark F; Kokontis, John M; Hause, Ronald J; Hiipakka, Richard A; Liao, Shutsung; Jones, Richard Baker

2012-05-01

61

Melittin Suppresses HIF-1?/VEGF Expression through Inhibition of ERK and mTOR/p70S6K Pathway in Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Melittin (MEL), a major component of bee venom, has been associated with various diseases including arthritis, rheumatism and various cancers. In this study, the anti-angiogenic effects of MEL in CaSki cells that were responsive to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) were examined. Methodology/Principal Findings MEL decreased the EGF-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) protein and significantly regulated angiogenesis and tumor progression. We found that inhibition of the HIF-1? protein level is due to the shortened half-life by MEL. Mechanistically, MEL specifically inhibited the EGF-induced HIF-1? expression by suppressing the phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR and p70S6K. It also blocked the EGF-induced DNA binding activity of HIF-1? and the secretion of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that MEL reduced the binding of HIF-1? to the VEGF promoter HRE region. The anti-angiogenesis effects of MEL were confirmed through a matrigel plus assay. Conclusions MEL specifically suppressed EGF-induced VEGF secretion and new blood vessel formation by inhibiting HIF-1?. These results suggest that MEL may inhibit human cervical cancer progression and angiogenesis by inhibiting HIF-1? and VEGF expression.

Cho, Hyun-Ji; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Chung, Il-Kyung; Lee, In-Kyu; Kwak, Jong-Young; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Chang, Young-Chae

2013-01-01

62

Novel Role for SHP-2 in Nutrient-Responsive Control of S6 Kinase 1 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Amino acids are required for the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which plays a critical role in cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. The branched-chain amino acid leucine is an essential nutrient that stimulates mTORC1 to promote protein synthesis by activating p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Here we show that the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 is required for leucine-induced activation of S6K1 in skeletal myoblasts. In response to leucine, S6K1 activation is inhibited in myoblasts either lacking SHP-2 expression or overexpressing a catalytically inactive mutant of SHP-2. Activation of S6K1 by leucine requires the mobilization of intracellular calcium (Ca2+), which we show is mediated by SHP-2 in an inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent manner. Ectopic Ca2+ mobilization rescued the S6K1 activation defect in SHP-2-deficient myoblasts. SHP-2 was identified to act upstream of phospholipase C ?4, linking it to the generation of nutrient-induced Ca2+ release and S6K1 phosphorylation. Consistent with these results, SHP-2-deficient myoblasts exhibited impaired leucine sensing, leading to defective autophagy and reduced myoblast size. These data define a new role for SHP-2 as a nutrient-sensing regulator in skeletal myoblasts that is required for the activation of S6K1.

Mercan, Fatih; Lee, Hojin; Kolli, Sivanagarani

2013-01-01

63

Celastrol inhibits the HIF-1? pathway by inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/eIF4E and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the central mediator of cellular responses to low oxygen and vital to many aspects of cancer biology. In a search for HIF-1 inhibitors, we identified celastrol as an inhibitor of HIF-1 activation from Tripterygium wilfordii. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of celastrol on HIF-1 activation. Celastrol showed a potent inhibitory activity against HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia in various human cancer cell lines. This compound markedly decreased the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1? protein dose-dependently, whereas it did not affect the expressions of HIF-1? and topoisomerase-I (topo?I). Furthermore, celastrol prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 target genes for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO). Further analysis revealed that celastrol inhibited HIF-1? protein synthesis, without affecting the expression level of HIF-1? mRNA or degradation of HIF-1? protein. Markedly, we found that suppression of HIF-1? accumulation by celastrol correlated with strong dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its effectors, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), pathways known to regulate HIF-1? expression at the translational level. In vivo studies further confirmed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on the expression of HIF-1? proteins, leading to a decreased growth of Hep3B cells in a xenograft tumor model. Our data suggested that celastrol is an effective inhibitor of HIF-1 and provide new perspectives into the mechanism of its anticancer activity. PMID:24859482

Ma, Juan; Han, Li Zhuo; Liang, He; Mi, Chunliu; Shi, Hui; Lee, Jung Joon; Jin, Xuejun

2014-07-01

64

Stimulation of MAP kinase and S6 kinase by vanadium and selenium in rat adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the mechanism underlying the insulin-mimetic actions of vanadium and selenium we examined their effects on the mitogen activated protein\\/myelin basic protein kinases (MAPK) and ribosomal S6 protein kinases, which are among the best characterized of the kinases that comprise the phosphorylation cascade in insulin signal transduction. We observed a transient activation of MAPK and S6 kinases by insulin

Yong-jiang Hei; Sepehr Farahbakhshian; Xunsheng Chen; Mary L. Battell; John H. McNeill

1998-01-01

65

Antibodies to Xenopus egg S6 kinase II recognize S6 kinase from progesterone- and insulin-stimulated Xenopus oocytes and from proliferating chicken embryo fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal protein S6 becomes highly phosphorylated during progesterone- or insulin-induced maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes. We have previously purified an Mr 92,000 protein as one of the major S6 kinases from Xenopus unfertilized eggs. In this paper we confirm by renaturation of activity from a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel that this protein is an S6 kinase. This enzyme, termed S6 kinase II (S6 K II), was used for the preparation of polyclonal antiserum. Immunocomplexes formed with the antiserum and purified S6 K II were able to express kinase activity with the same substrate specificity as that of the purified enzyme, including autophosphorylation of S6 K II itself. The antiserum did not react with S6 kinase I, another major S6 kinase present in Xenopus eggs, which is chromatographically distinct from S6 K II. The administration of progesterone to oocytes resulted in a 20- to 25-fold increase in S6 kinase activity in extracts of these cells. Immunocomplex kinase assays done on extracts revealed that anti-S6 K II serum reacted with S6 kinase from progesterone-treated oocytes. This antiserum also reacted with the activated S6 kinase from insulin-stimulated oocytes. In addition, anti-S6 K II serum reacted with activated S6 kinase from chicken embryo fibroblasts stimulated with serum or transformed by Rous sarcoma virus. These results indicate that S6 K II or an antigenically related S6 kinase(s) is subject to regulation by mitogenic stimuli in various cell types. Images

Erikson, E; Stefanovic, D; Blenis, J; Erikson, R L; Maller, J L

1987-01-01

66

Cross-talk between Sirtuin and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Signaling in the Regulation of S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1) Phosphorylation.  

PubMed

p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1), a major substrate of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, regulates diverse cellular processes including protein synthesis, cell growth, and survival. Although it is well known that the activity of S6K1 is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation status, the regulation of S6K1 activity by other post-translational modifications such as acetylation has not been well understood. Here we show that the acetylation of the C-terminal region (CTR) of S6K1 blocks mTORC1-dependent Thr-389 phosphorylation, an essential phosphorylation site for S6K1 activity. The acetylation of the CTR of S6K1 is inhibited by the class III histone deacetylases, SIRT1 and SIRT2. An S6K1 mutant lacking acetylation sites in its CTR shows enhanced Thr-389 phosphorylation and kinase activity, whereas the acetylation-mimetic S6K1 mutant exhibits decreased Thr-389 phosphorylation and kinase activity. Interestingly, relative to the acetylation-mimetic S6K1 mutant, the acetylation-defective mutant displays higher affinity toward Raptor, an essential scaffolding component of mTORC1 that recruits mTORC1 substrates. These observations indicate that sirtuin-mediated regulation of S6K1 acetylation is an additional important regulatory modification that impinges on the mechanisms underlying mTORC1-dependent S6K1 activation. PMID:24652283

Hong, Sungki; Zhao, Bin; Lombard, David B; Fingar, Diane C; Inoki, Ken

2014-05-01

67

Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway is Involved in S100A4-induced Viability and Migration in Colorectal Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The S100 protein family member S100A4 regulates various cellular functions. Previous studies have shown that elevated expression of S100A4 is associated with progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about whether and how S100A4 contributes to CRC development. In our present study, the elevated expression of S100A4 in CRC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Adenovirus-mediated S100A4 overexpression obviously enhanced viability and migration of CRC cells, which was detected by MTT assay and transwell assay, respectively. Additionally, S100A4 overexpression increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K. These effects of S100A4 were abolished by treatment with either the specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002, or the specific mTOR/p70S6K inhibitor rapamycin. Furthermore, overexpression of S100A4 resulted in upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin, which were strongly reversed by either LY294002 or rapamycin. Altogether, our results demonstrate that activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway is involved in S100A4-induced viability, migration, upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin in CRC cells.

Wang, Haiyan; Duan, Liang; Zou, Zhengyu; Li, Huan; Yuan, Shimei; Chen, Xian; Zhang, Yunyuan; Li, Xueru; Sun, Hui; Zha, He; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Lan

2014-01-01

68

HMGA2 regulates the in vitro aging and proliferation of human umbilical cord blood-derived stromal cells through the mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The human high-mobility group protein A2 (HMGA2) protein is an architectural transcription factor that transforms chromatin structure by binding to DNA. Recently, it has been reported that HMGA2 is highly expressed in fetal neural stem cells and has the capacity to promote stemness. However, there is currently no information available on the functional significance and molecular mechanisms of the cellular in vitro aging and proliferation of human umbilical cord blood-derived stromal cells (hUCBSCs). In the present study, we evaluated the direct effects of HMGA2 on the cellular aging and proliferation of hUCBSCs and investigated potential regulatory mechanisms responsible for the corresponding functions. We found that the overexpression of HMGA2 enhanced proliferation and reduced or even reversed the in vitro aging process of hUCBSCs. This effect was accompanied by the increased expression of cyclin E and CDC25A and the significantly decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, HMGA2 inhibition compromised cell proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in early-stage hUCBSCs. From the molecular/cellular functional analysis of microarray data, we found that HMGA2 overexpression induced a PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K cascade, which in turn suppressed the expression of p16(INK4A) and p21(CIP1/WAF1) in hUCBSCs. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism by which HMGA2 regulates the in vitro aging and proliferation of hUCBSCs. PMID:23276696

Yu, Kyung-Rok; Park, Sang-Bum; Jung, Ji-Won; Seo, Min-Soo; Hong, In-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Seo, Yoojin; Kang, Tae-Wook; Lee, Jin Young; Kurtz, Andreas; Kang, Kyung-Sun

2013-03-01

69

Inhibition of p70S6K2 down-regulates Hedgehog\\/GLI pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (HH) pathway promotes tumorigenesis in a diversity of cancers. Activation of the HH signaling pathway is caused by overexpression of HH ligands or mutations in the components of the HH\\/GLI1 cascade, which lead to increased transactivation of GLI transcription factors. Although negative kinase regulators that antagonize the activity of GLI transcription factors have been reported, including GSK3?,

Shinji Mizuarai; Aki Kawagishi; Hidehito Kotani

2009-01-01

70

The discovery of potent ribosomal S6 kinase inhibitors by high-throughput screening and structure-guided drug design  

PubMed Central

The ribosomal P70 S6 kinases play a crucial role in PI3K/mTOR regulated signalling pathways and are therefore potential targets for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes and cancer. In this study we describe the identification of three series of chemically distinct S6K1 inhibitors. In addition, we report a novel PKA-S6K1 chimeric protein with five mutations in or near its ATP-binding site, which was used to determine the binding mode of two of the three inhibitor series, and provided a robust system to aid the optimisation of the oxadiazole-substituted benzimidazole inhibitor series. We show that the resulting oxadiazole-substituted aza-benzimidazole is a potent and ligand efficient S6 kinase inhibitor, which blocks the phosphorylation of RPS6 at Ser235/236 in TSC negative HCV29 human bladder cancer cells by inhibiting S6 kinase activity and thus provides a useful tool compound to investigate the function of S6 kinases.

Kalusa, Andrew; Cano, Celine; Travers, Jon; Boxall, Kathy; Chow, Chiau Ling; Burns, Sam; Schmitt, Jessica; Pickard, Lisa; Barillari, Caterina; McAndrew, P. Craig; Clarke, Paul A.; Linardopoulos, Spiros; Griffin, Roger J.; Aherne, G. Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I.; Workman, Paul; Jones, Keith; van Montfort, Rob L.M.

2013-01-01

71

Regulation and function of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) within mTOR signalling networks.  

PubMed

The ribosomal protein S6K (S6 kinase) represents an extensively studied effector of the TORC1 [TOR (target of rapamycin) complex 1], which possesses important yet incompletely defined roles in cellular and organismal physiology. TORC1 functions as an environmental sensor by integrating signals derived from diverse environmental cues to promote anabolic and inhibit catabolic cellular functions. mTORC1 (mammalian TORC1) phosphorylates and activates S6K1 and S6K2, whose first identified substrate was rpS6 (ribosomal protein S6), a component of the 40S ribosome. Studies over the past decade have uncovered a number of additional S6K1 substrates, revealing multiple levels at which the mTORC1-S6K1 axis regulates cell physiology. The results thus far indicate that the mTORC1-S6K1 axis controls fundamental cellular processes, including transcription, translation, protein and lipid synthesis, cell growth/size and cell metabolism. In the present review we summarize the regulation of S6Ks, their cellular substrates and functions, and their integration within rapidly expanding mTOR (mammalian TOR) signalling networks. Although our understanding of the role of mTORC1-S6K1 signalling in physiology remains in its infancy, evidence indicates that this signalling axis controls, at least in part, glucose homoeostasis, insulin sensitivity, adipocyte metabolism, body mass and energy balance, tissue and organ size, learning, memory and aging. As dysregulation of this signalling axis contributes to diverse disease states, improved understanding of S6K regulation and function within mTOR signalling networks may enable the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:22168436

Magnuson, Brian; Ekim, Bilgen; Fingar, Diane C

2012-01-01

72

Mitogen-activated 70K S6 kinase. Identification of in vitro 40 S ribosomal S6 phosphorylation sites.  

PubMed

Recently we purified and cloned the mitogen/oncogene-activated Mr 70,000 (70K) S6 kinase from the livers of rats treated with cycloheximide (Kozma, S. C., Lane, H. A., Ferrari, S., Luther, H., Siegmann, M., and Thomas, G. (1989) EMBO J. 8, 4125-4132; Kozma, S. C., Ferrari, S., Bassand, P., Siegmann, M., Totty, N., and Thomas, G. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87, 7365-7369). Prior to determining the ability of this kinase to phosphorylate the same sites observed in S6 in vivo, we established the effects of different cations and autophosphorylation on kinase activity. The results show that the 70K S6 kinase is dependent on Mg2+ for activity and that this requirement cannot be substituted for by Mn2+. Furthermore, 50-fold lower concentrations of Mn2+ block the effect of Mg2+ on the kinase. This effect is not limited to Mn2+ but can be substituted for by a number of cations, with Zn2+ being the most potent inhibitor, IC50 approximately 2 microM. In the presence of optimum Mg2+ concentrations the enzyme incorporates an average of 1.2 mol of phosphate/mol of kinase and an average of 3.7 mol of phosphate/mol of S6. The autophosphorylation reaction appears to be intramolecular and leads to a 25% reduction in kinase activity toward S6. In the case of S6 all of the sites of phosphorylation are found to reside in a 19-amino acid peptide at the carboxyl end of the protein. Four of these sites have been identified as Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244, equivalent to four of the five sites previously observed in vivo (Krieg, J., Hofsteenge, J., and Thomas, G. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11473-11477). A fifth mole of phosphate is incorporated at low stoichiometry into the peptide, but the amino acid which is phosphorylated cannot be unequivocally assigned. The low level of phosphorylation of the fifth site in vitro is discussed with regard to known results and to a potential three-dimensional model for the carboxyl terminus of S6. PMID:1939282

Ferrari, S; Bandi, H R; Hofsteenge, J; Bussian, B M; Thomas, G

1991-11-25

73

Exocytosis of Insulin Promotes Insulin Gene Transcription via the Insulin Receptor\\/PI3 Kinase\\/p70 s6 Kinase and CaM Kinase Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of glucose homeostasis by insulin requires, in addition to the glucose-induced insulin release, a highly dynamic control of insulin biosynthesis. Although elevated glucose concentrations have been shown to trigger insulin biosynthesis at the levels of transcription and translation, the molecular mechanisms underlying the immediate transcriptional control are poorly understood. By investigating signal transduction pathways involved in the “glucose-dependent”

Ingo B. Leibiger; Barbara Leibiger; Tilo Moede; Per-Olof Berggren

1998-01-01

74

IL-6 Impairs Myogenic Differentiation by Downmodulation of p90RSK/eEF2 and mTOR/p70S6K Axes, without Affecting AKT Activity  

PubMed Central

IL-6 is a multifaceted pleiotropic cytokine, which is produced by a variety of cell types and targets different cells and tissues. In physiological conditions, IL-6 can be locally and transiently produced by skeletal muscle and plays an important role in muscle homeostasis. Circulating IL-6 levels are normally very low or undetectable but are dramatically increased in several pathologic conditions. In this study, we aimed to define the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of IL-6 on myogenic program. We explored the molecular mechanisms through which exogenous IL-6, or the conditioned medium from the murine C-26 adenocarcinoma cells (a cellular model that secretes high levels of IL-6 and induces cancer cachexia in mice), interferes with the myogenic program. Our study revealed that IL-6 induces the activation of the Stat3 signaling and promotes the downmodulation of the p90RSK/eEF2 and mTOR/p70S6K axes, while it does not affect the activation of AKT. We thus identified potential molecular mediators of the inhibitory effects of IL-6 on myogenic program.

Pelosi, Michele; De Rossi, Manuela; Barberi, Laura; Musaro, Antonio

2014-01-01

75

Characterization of a phorbol ester-stimulated S6 kinase from MDCK renal epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Increased phosphorylation of S6, a 40S ribosomal subunit protein, is observed in mammalian cells in response to growth factors and phorbol esters. The goal of this study was to identify the S6 kinase that is stimulated by phorbol ester treatment of MDCK cells. MDCK clone D1 cells express high levels of protein kinase C(PKC). PKC and S6 kinase activities were measured following DEAE-Sephacel fractionation of cytosol; this procedure separated the two kinase activities. When confluent MDCK-D1 cells were exposed to 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), 95% of the total cellular PKC activity became associated with the particulate fraction within 1 hour. Cytosolic S6 kinase activity was maximal by 1 hour and then declined thereafter, preceding any detectable loss of total cellular PKC. The PMA-responsive S6 kinase was partially purified from MDCK-D1 cytosol by consecutive steps of DEAE-Sephacel, ammonium sulfate precipitation, Ultrogel AcA 34, heparin-agarose, and Ultrogel AcA 34. The partially-purified enzyme had an apparent molecular size of approximately 80 kDa. In addition to S6, the enzyme phosphorylated synthetic peptides based on the carboxyl terminal sequence of S6. S6 kinase activity utilized ATP but not GTP, and was inhibited by heparin, NaCl, and ..beta..-glycerophosphate. In conclusion, a phorbol ester-stimulated S6 kinase has been partially purified from an epithelial cell line. This kinase is distinct from PKC.

Meier, K.E.; Krebs, E.G.

1987-05-01

76

S6 kinase 1 is required for rapamycin-sensitive liver proliferation after mouse hepatectomy  

PubMed Central

Rapamycin is an antibiotic inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation by acting on target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase. Mammalian TOR (mTOR) is thought to work through 2 independent complexes to regulate cell size and cell replication, and these 2 complexes show differential sensitivity to rapamycin. Here we combine functional genetics and pharmacological treatments to analyze rapamycin-sensitive mTOR substrates that are involved in cell proliferation and tissue regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice. After hepatectomy, hepatocytes proliferated rapidly, correlating with increased S6 kinase phosphorylation, while treatment with rapamycin derivatives impaired regeneration and blocked S6 kinase activation. In addition, genetic deletion of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) caused a delay in S phase entry in hepatocytes after hepatectomy. The proliferative defect of S6K1-deficient hepatocytes was cell autonomous, as it was also observed in primary cultures and hepatic overexpression of S6K1-rescued proliferation. We found that S6K1 controlled steady-state levels of cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) mRNA in liver, and cyclin D1 expression was required to promote hepatocyte cell cycle. Notably, in vivo overexpression of cyclin D1 was sufficient to restore the proliferative capacity of S6K-null livers. The identification of an S6K1-dependent mechanism participating in cell proliferation in vivo may be relevant for cancer cells displaying high mTOR complex 1 activity and cyclin D1 accumulation.

Espeillac, Catherine; Mitchell, Claudia; Celton-Morizur, Severine; Chauvin, Celine; Koka, Vonda; Gillet, Cynthia; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.; Desdouets, Chantal; Pende, Mario

2011-01-01

77

The human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide regulates pancreatic beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis via an AMPK/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes, has been proven to protect pancreatic beta cells through many pathways. Recent evidence demonstrates that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as a metabolic regulator, coordinates beta-cell protein synthesis through regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether liraglutide, a human GLP-1 analogue, protects beta cells via AMPK/mTOR signaling. We evaluated INS-1 beta-cell line proliferation using the Cell Counting Kit-8, and examined the effect of GLP-1 on cellular ATP levels using an ATP assay kit. mTOR pathway protein expression levels were tested by Western blotting and glucolipotoxicity-induced cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Liraglutide increased beta-cell viability at an optimum concentration of 100 nmol/L in the presence of 11.1 or 30 mmol/L glucose. Liraglutide (100 nmol/L) activated mTOR and its downstream effectors, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eIF4E-binding protein-1, in INS-1 cells. This effect was abated by pathway blockers: the AMPK activator AICAR and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Furthermore, the effect of liraglutide on beta-cell proliferation was inhibited by AICAR and rapamycin. Liraglutide increased cellular ATP levels. In addition, liraglutide protected beta cells from glucolipotoxicity-induced apoptosis. This response was also prevented by rapamycin treatment. These results suggest that the enhancement of beta-cell proliferation by that GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is mediated, at least in part, by AMPK/mTOR signaling. Liraglutide also prevents beta-cell glucolipotoxicity by activating mTOR. PMID:23116613

Miao, Xin-Yu; Gu, Zhao-Yan; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yuan; Li, Lin; Gong, Yan-Ping; Shu, Hua; Liu, Yu; Li, Chun-Lin

2013-01-01

78

Proliferation and Survival Signaling from Both Jak2-V617F and Lyn Involving GSK3 and mTOR/p70S6K/4EBP1 in PVTL-1 Cell Line Newly Established from Acute Myeloid Leukemia Transformed from Polycythemia Vera  

PubMed Central

The gain of function mutation JAK2-V617F is very frequently found in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and is strongly implicated in pathogenesis of these and other hematological malignancies. Here we report establishment of a new leukemia cell line, PVTL-1, homozygous for JAK2-V617F from a 73-year-old female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformed from MPN. PVTL-1 is positive for CD7, CD13, CD33, CD34, CD117, HLA-DR, and MPO, and has complex karyotypic abnormalities, 44,XX,-5q,-7,-8,add(11)(p11.2),add(11)(q23),?16,+21,?22,+mar1. Sequence analysis of JAK2 revealed only the mutated allele coding for Jak2-V617F. Proliferation of PVTL-1 was inhibited and apoptosis was induced by the pan-Jak inhibitor Jak inhibitor-1 (JakI-1) or dasatinib, which inhibits the Src family kinases as well as BCR/ABL. Consistently, the Src family kinase Lyn was constitutively activated with phosphorylation of Y396 in the activation loop, which was inhibited by dasatinib but not by JakI-1. Further analyses with JakI-1 and dasatinib indicated that Jak2-V617F phosphorylated STAT5 and SHP2 while Lyn phosphorylated SHP1, SHP2, Gab-2, c-Cbl, and CrkL to induce the SHP2/Gab2 and c-Cbl/CrkL complex formation. In addition, JakI-1 and dasatinib inactivated the mTOR/p70S6K/4EBP1 pathway and reduced the inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3 in PVTL-1 cells, which correlated with their effects on proliferation and survival of these cells. Furthermore, inhibition of GSK3 by its inhibitor SB216763 mitigated apoptosis induced by dasatinib but not by JakI-1. Together, these data suggest that apoptosis may be suppressed in PVTL-1 cells through inactivation of GSK3 by Lyn as well as Jak2-V617F and additionally through activation of STAT5 by Jak2-V617F. It is also speculated that activation of the mTOR/p70S6K/4EBP1 pathway may mediate proliferation signaling from Jak2-V617F and Lyn. PVTL-1 cells may provide a valuable model system to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of Jak2-V617F-expressing MPN to AML and to develop novel therapies against this intractable condition.

Nagao, Toshikage; Kurosu, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Yoshihiro; Nogami, Ayako; Oshikawa, Gaku; Tohda, Shuji; Yamamoto, Masahide; Miura, Osamu

2014-01-01

79

Tumor-promoting phorbol esters and activated Ras inactivate the tuberous sclerosis tumor suppressor complex via p90 ribosomal S6 kinase  

PubMed Central

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in either of the two tumor suppressor genes TSC1 or TSC2, which encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively. Tuberin and hamartin form a complex that inhibits signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a critical nutrient sensor and regulator of cell growth and proliferation. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inactivates the tumor suppressor complex and enhances mTOR signaling by means of phosphorylation of tuberin by Akt. Importantly, cellular transformation mediated by phorbol esters and Ras isoforms that poorly activate PI3K promote tumorigenesis in the absence of Akt activation. In this study, we show that phorbol esters and activated Ras also induce the phosphorylation of tuberin and collaborates with the nutrient-sensing pathway to regulate mTOR effectors, such as p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated kinase, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) 1, was found to interact with and phosphorylate tuberin at a regulatory site, Ser-1798, located at the evolutionarily conserved C terminus of tuberin. RSK1 phosphorylation of Ser-1798 inhibits the tumor suppressor function of the tuberin/hamartin complex, resulting in increased mTOR signaling to S6K1. Together, our data unveil a regulatory mechanism by which the Ras/MAPK and PI3K pathways converge on the tumor suppressor tuberin to inhibit its function.

Roux, Philippe P.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Anjum, Rana; Gygi, Steven P.; Blenis, John

2004-01-01

80

Mechanism of PDK1-catalyzed Thr-229 Phosphorylation of the S6K1 Protein Kinase*  

PubMed Central

PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1) catalyzes phosphorylation of Thr-229 in the T-loop of S6K1?II (the 70-kDa 40 S ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 ?II isoform), and Thr-229 phosphorylation is synergistic with C-terminal Thr-389 phosphorylation to activate S6K1?II regulatory functions in protein translation preinitiation complexes. Unlike its common AGC kinase subfamily member S6K1?II, PDK1 does not contain the synergistic C-terminal phosphorylation site, and it has been proposed that phosphorylated Thr-389 in S6K1?II may initially serve to trans-activate PDK1-catalyzed Thr-229 phosphorylation. Herein, we report direct binding and kinetic studies that showed PDK1 to exhibit nearly equal binding affinities and steady-state kinetic turnover numbers toward native (KdS6K1 = 1.2 ?m and kcat = 1.1 s?1) and the phosphomimicking T389E mutant S6K1?II (KdS6K1 = 1.5 ?m and kcat = 1.2 s?1), although ?2-fold enhanced specificity was displayed for the T389E mutant (kcat/KmS6K1 = 0.08 ?m?1 s?1 compared with 0.04 ?m?1 s?1). Considering that transient kinetic binding studies showed all nucleotide and S6K1?II substrates and products to rapidly associate with PDK1 (kon = 1–6 ?m?1 s?1), it was concluded that positioning a negative charge at residue Thr-389 reduced ?2-fold the occurrence of nonproductive binding events that precede formation of a reactive ternary complex for Thr-229 phosphorylation. In addition, steady-state kinetic data were most simply accommodated by an Ordered Bi Bi mechanism with competitive substrate inhibition, where (i) the initially formed PDK1-ATP complex phosphorylates the nucleotide-free form of the S6K1?II kinase and (ii) initial binding of S6K1?II precludes ATP binding to PDK1.

Keshwani, Malik M.; Gao, Xinxin; Harris, Thomas K.

2009-01-01

81

Ribosomal Protein Mutations Induce Autophagy through S6 Kinase Inhibition of the Insulin Pathway.  

PubMed

Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies. PMID:24875531

Heijnen, Harry F; van Wijk, Richard; Pereboom, Tamara C; Goos, Yvonne J; Seinen, Cor W; van Oirschot, Brigitte A; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W; Gazda, Hanna T; Bierings, Marc B; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W

2014-05-01

82

Ribosomal Protein Mutations Induce Autophagy through S6 Kinase Inhibition of the Insulin Pathway  

PubMed Central

Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies.

Pereboom, Tamara C.; Goos, Yvonne J.; Seinen, Cor W.; van Oirschot, Brigitte A.; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H.; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Gazda, Hanna T.; Bierings, Marc B.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

2014-01-01

83

Nerve growth factor-sensitive S6 kinase in cell-free extracts from PC12 cells  

SciTech Connect

Soluble extracts from nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated PC12 cells prepared by alkaline lysis show a 2-10 fold increase in the ability to phosphorylate the ribosomal protein S6. The alkaline lysis method yields a preparation of much higher specific activity than does sonication. Half-maximal incorporation of (/sup 32/P) from (/sup 32/P)ATP into S6 occurred after 4-7 minutes of nerve growth factor treatment. The partially purified NGF-sensitive S6 kinase has a molecular weight of 45,000 and is not inhibited by the inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, NaCl, or trifluoperazine, nor is it activated by the addition of diolein plus phosphatidylserine. Trypsin treatment of either crude extracts or partially purified S6 kinase from control or NGF-treated cells was without effect. These data suggest that the S6 kinase stimulated by NGF is neither cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, nor the result of proteolytic activation of an inactive proenzyme. Treatment of intact cells with dibutyryl cyclic AMP or 5'-N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine also increases the subsequent cell-free phosphorylation of S6. But the effect of NGF in increasing S6 kinase activity cannot be mimicked by treatment of control extract with cAMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro. Thus, it is unlikely to result from the phosphorylation of a less active form of the S6 kinase by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

Matsuda, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Dickens, G.; Guroff, G.

1986-05-01

84

MEK1-independent activation of MAPK and MEK1-dependent activation of p70 S6 kinase by stem cell factor (SCF) in ovarian cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

We discovered a stem cell factor (SCF)-triggered, MEK1-independent, and PI3K-dependent MAPK activation pathway in the Kit-expressing ovarian cancer cell line HEY. When we knocked down MEK1 with RNA interference (RNAi) to study the function of MEK1 on the proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells, we found that impaired cell growth still occurred after MEK1 expression had been suppressed, although MAPK activation remained intact. This suggests that there is MEK1-independent activation of MAPK in the SCF-induced ovarian cancer cell growth process, and that MEK1 still plays a crucial role in maintaining the malignant properties of ovarian cancer cells even when it fails to activate MAPK as expected.

Liu, Lian, E-mail: tounao@126.com [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China) [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Zhang, Xin [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Du, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoning; Hou, Nan; Zhao, Di [Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Sun, Jianzhi; Li, Li; Wang, Xiuwen [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Ma, Chunhong [Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

2009-05-01

85

Purified rat brain calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6.  

PubMed Central

The Ca2+-phospholipid-regulated protein kinase has been purified to homogeneity from a 100,000 X g supernatant fluid of rat brain homogenate by a procedure that includes DEAE-cellulose chromatography and successive filtrations on Ultrogel AcA 34 in EGTA and in phosphatidylserine and Ca2+. A more rapid purification consisting of DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Ultrogel AcA 34 gel filtration chromatography, and DEAE-trisacryl chromatography, all in the presence of EGTA, was also developed. Although the enzyme obtained by the latter procedure is not homogeneous, it exhibits properties similar to those of the pure enzyme and is more stable. In addition, the DEAE-trisacryl step permitted resolution of a contaminating Ca2+-inhibitable protein kinase that can interfere with studies of the Ca2+-phospholipid-stimulated enzyme. The homogeneous enzyme, purified about 300-fold, was estimated to have a Mr of 84,000. Its activity was 20- to 30-fold higher in the presence of phospholipid and Ca2+ than in the presence of phospholipid and EGTA, EGTA, or Ca2+ alone. The specific activity of the activated kinase was 852 nmol of P incorporated into histone per min/mg at 20 degrees C. The pure enzyme underwent autophosphorylation in a Ca2+- and phospholipid-dependent manner. This reaction was inhibited in the presence of histones without affecting the kinetic properties of the enzyme. Under optimal assay conditions, the homogeneous enzyme was activated 10-20% by either 10 microM diolein or 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Activation of the purified enzyme by diolein or the phorbol ester was far greater (3- to 4-fold) when aggregated instead of freshly sonicated phospholipids were used, suggesting that these compounds affect the interaction of the enzyme with phospholipids and Ca2+. The purified enzyme catalyzed the phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal subunit protein S6. The Km for S6 was approximately equal to 1 microM and it was estimated that 2 mol of phosphate were incorporated per mol of S6. The observation that protein S6 can be phosphorylated by the purified Ca2+-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase may link recent reports that phorbol ester tumor promoters activate the Ca2+-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase in vitro and stimulate phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 in vivo. Images

Le Peuch, C J; Ballester, R; Rosen, O M

1983-01-01

86

The nuclear receptor DHR3 modulates dS6 kinase-dependent growth in Drosophila.  

PubMed

S6 kinases (S6Ks) act to integrate nutrient and insulin signaling pathways and, as such, function as positive effectors in cell growth and organismal development. However, they also have been shown to play a key role in limiting insulin signaling and in mediating the autophagic response. To identify novel regulators of S6K signaling, we have used a Drosophila-based, sensitized, gain-of-function genetic screen. Unexpectedly, one of the strongest enhancers to emerge from this screen was the nuclear receptor (NR), Drosophila hormone receptor 3 (DHR3), a critical constituent in the coordination of Drosophila metamorphosis. Here we demonstrate that DHR3, through dS6K, also acts to regulate cell-autonomous growth. Moreover, we show that the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of DHR3 is essential for mediating this response. Consistent with these findings, we have identified an endogenous DHR3 isoform that lacks the DBD. These results provide the first molecular link between the dS6K pathway, critical in controlling nutrient-dependent growth, and that of DHR3, a major mediator of ecdysone signaling, which, acting together, coordinate metamorphosis. PMID:20463884

Montagne, Jacques; Lecerf, Caroline; Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Bennion, Janis M; Radimerski, Thomas; Ruhf, Marie-Laure; Zilbermann, Frederic; Vouilloz, Nicole; Stocker, Hugo; Hafen, Ernst; Kozma, Sara C; Thomas, George

2010-05-01

87

The Nuclear Receptor DHR3 Modulates dS6 Kinase-Dependent Growth in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

S6 kinases (S6Ks) act to integrate nutrient and insulin signaling pathways and, as such, function as positive effectors in cell growth and organismal development. However, they also have been shown to play a key role in limiting insulin signaling and in mediating the autophagic response. To identify novel regulators of S6K signaling, we have used a Drosophila-based, sensitized, gain-of-function genetic screen. Unexpectedly, one of the strongest enhancers to emerge from this screen was the nuclear receptor (NR), Drosophila hormone receptor 3 (DHR3), a critical constituent in the coordination of Drosophila metamorphosis. Here we demonstrate that DHR3, through dS6K, also acts to regulate cell-autonomous growth. Moreover, we show that the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of DHR3 is essential for mediating this response. Consistent with these findings, we have identified an endogenous DHR3 isoform that lacks the DBD. These results provide the first molecular link between the dS6K pathway, critical in controlling nutrient-dependent growth, and that of DHR3, a major mediator of ecdysone signaling, which, acting together, coordinate metamorphosis.

Montagne, Jacques; Lecerf, Caroline; Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Bennion, Janis M.; Radimerski, Thomas; Ruhf, Marie-Laure; Zilbermann, Frederic; Vouilloz, Nicole; Stocker, Hugo; Hafen, Ernst; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George

2010-01-01

88

Constitutively active Akt1 expression in mouse pancreas requires S6 kinase 1 for insulinoma formation  

PubMed Central

Factors that promote pancreatic ? cell growth and function are potential therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus. In mice, genetic experiments suggest that signaling cascades initiated by insulin and IGFs positively regulate ? cell mass and insulin secretion. Akt and S6 kinase (S6K) family members are activated as part of these signaling cascades, but how the interplay between these proteins controls ? cell growth and function has not been determined. Here, we found that although transgenic mice overexpressing the constitutively active form of Akt1 under the rat insulin promoter (RIP-MyrAkt1 mice) had enlarged ? cells and high plasma insulin levels, leading to improved glucose tolerance, a substantial proportion of the mice developed insulinomas later in life, which caused decreased viability. This oncogenic transformation tightly correlated with nuclear exclusion of the tumor suppressor PTEN. To address the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate S6K1 in the MyrAkt1-mediated phenotype, we crossed RIP-MyrAkt1 and S6K1-deficient mice. The resulting mice displayed reduced insulinemia and glycemia compared with RIP-MyrAkt1 mice due to a combined effect of improved insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, although the increase in ? cell size in RIP-MyrAkt1 mice was not affected by S6K1 deficiency, the hyperplastic transformation required S6K1. Our results therefore identify S6K1 as a critical element for MyrAkt1-induced tumor formation and suggest that it may represent a useful target for anticancer therapy downstream of mTOR.

Alliouachene, Samira; Tuttle, Robyn L.; Boumard, Stephanie; Lapointe, Thomas; Berissi, Sophie; Germain, Stephane; Jaubert, Francis; Tosh, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pende, Mario

2008-01-01

89

The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is a mediator of smooth muscle contractility.  

PubMed

In the canonical model of smooth muscle (SM) contraction, the contractile force is generated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC20) by the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Moreover, phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of the RLC20 phosphatase (MLCP) by the RhoA-dependent ROCK kinase, inhibits the phosphatase activity and consequently inhibits dephosphorylation of RLC20 with concomitant increase in contractile force, at constant intracellular [Ca(2+)]. This pathway is referred to as Ca(2+)-sensitization. There is, however, emerging evidence suggesting that additional Ser/Thr kinases may contribute to the regulatory pathways in SM. Here, we report data implicating the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in SM contractility. During both Ca(2+)- and agonist (U46619) induced SM contraction, RSK inhibition by the highly selective compound BI-D1870 (which has no effect on MLCK or ROCK) resulted in significant suppression of contractile force. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of RLC20 and MYPT1 were both significantly decreased. Experiments involving the irreversible MLCP inhibitor microcystin-LR, in the absence of Ca(2+), revealed that the decrease in phosphorylation levels of RLC20 upon RSK inhibition are not due solely to the increase in the phosphatase activity, but reflect direct or indirect phosphorylation of RLC20 by RSK. Finally, we show that agonist (U46619) stimulation of SM leads to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 and PDK1, consistent with a canonical activation cascade for RSK. Thus, we demonstrate a novel and important physiological function of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, which to date has been typically associated with the regulation of gene expression. PMID:23516539

Artamonov, Mykhaylo; Momotani, Ko; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Franke, Aaron; Khromov, Alexander; Derewenda, Zygmunt S; Somlyo, Avril V

2013-01-01

90

Supplementation of ketoacids contributes to the up-regulation of the Wnt7a/Akt/p70S6K pathway and the down-regulation of apoptotic and ubiquitin-proteasome systems in the muscle of 5/6 nephrectomised rats.  

PubMed

Ketoacids (KA) are known to improve muscle mass among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on a low-protein diet (CKD-LPD), but the mechanism of its preventive effects on muscle atrophy still remains unclear. Since muscle atrophy in CKD may be attributable to the down-regulation of the Wnt7a/Akt/p70S6K pathway and the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the apoptotic signalling pathway, a hypothesis can readily be drawn that KA supplementation improves muscle mass by up-regulating the Wnt7a/Akt/p70S6K pathway and counteracting the activation of the UPS and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. Rats with 5/6 nephrectomy were randomly divided into three groups, and fed with either 22 % protein (normal-protein diet; NPD), 6 % protein (LPD) or 5 % protein plus 1 % KA for 24 weeks. Sham-operated rats with NPD intake were used as the control. The results demonstrated that KA supplementation improved protein synthesis and increased related mediators such as Wnt7a, phosphorylated Akt and p70S6K in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. It also inhibited protein degradation, withheld the increase in ubiquitin and its ligases MAFbx (muscle atrophy F-box) and MuRF1 (muscle ring finger-1) as well as attenuated proteasome activity in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. Moreover, KA supplementation gave rise to a reduction in DNA fragment, cleaved caspase-3 and 14 kDa actin fragment via the down-regulation of the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. The beneficial effects unveiled herein further consolidate that KA may be a better therapeutic strategy for muscle atrophy in CKD-LPD. PMID:24502851

Wang, Dong-Tao; Lu, Lu; Shi, Ying; Geng, Zhen-Bo; Yin, Yi; Wang, Ming; Wei, Lian-Bo

2014-05-01

91

The role of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 in activating AGC kinases defined in embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Protein kinase B (PKB), and the p70 and p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (p70 S6 kinase and p90 Rsk, respectively), are activated by phosphorylation of two residues, one in the ‘T-loop’ of the kinase domain and, the other, in the hydrophobic motif carboxy terminal to the kinase domain. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) activates many AGC kinases in vitro

Michayla R. Williams; J. Simon C. Arthur; Anudharan Balendran; Jeroen van der Kaay; Valeria Poli; Philip Cohen; Dario R. Alessi

2000-01-01

92

Novel 5'TOPmRNAs regulated by ribosomal S6 kinase are important for cardiomyocyte development: S6 kinase suppression limits cardiac differentiation and promotes pluripotent cells toward a neural lineage.  

PubMed

Moving stem cells from bench to bedside has been a challenging task. Undermining this task is comprehending and optimizing the underlying regulatory mechanisms that drive differentiation of stem cells into desired cell and tissue types. Here we present evidence that ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) is among the proteins upregulated as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that S6K plays a pivotal role in cardiomyogenesis, primarily because it regulates the translation of 3 cardiac-involved genes recently shown to have 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (5'TOP) sequences: connexin 43 (Cx43), desmoplakin (Dsp), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Along with another independent laboratory, we confirmed that S6K is indeed upregulated in beating ESC-derived cardiomyocytes compared to the surrounding nonbeating, differentiated cells. S6K short interfering RNA-transfected stem cell cultures indicate that inhibition of S6K strongly hinders development of cardiomyocyte beating and translation of Cx43, Dsp, and PTEN; these cardiac 5'TOP mRNAs were only properly translated in cells with S6K, supporting our hypothesis. An unexpected discovery took the role of S6K one step further: S6K-knockdown stem cell cultures developed significantly more neurons than seen in embryoid bodies subjected to a typical cardiac differentiation protocol. These results introduced the novel idea that in addition to its critical cardiac roles, S6K may be a significant factor that prevents stem cells from pursuing a neuronal pathway. Overall, results have indicated the necessity of S6K for normal stem cell cardiomyogenesis, as well as lowered S6K expression for stem cell neurogenesis. PMID:22165977

Li, LeeAnn; Larabee, Shannon M; Chen, Shenglin; Basiri, Ladan; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Zakaria, Asif; Gallicano, G Ian

2012-06-10

93

Expression, purification, and characterization of a structurally disordered and functional C-terminal autoinhibitory domain (AID) of the 70 kDa 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 (S6K1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

S6K1 is a member of the AGC subfamily of serine–threonine protein kinases, whereby catalytic activation requires dual phosphorylation of critical residues in the conserved T-loop (T229) and hydrophobic motif (HM; T389) peptide regions of its catalytic kinase domain (residues 1–398). In addition to its kinase domain, S6K1 contains a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain (AID; residues 399–502), which prevents T-loop and HM

Timothy J. Ragan; Duncan B. Ross; Malik M. Keshwani; Thomas K. Harris

2008-01-01

94

Regulatory Effects of Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (RSK1) in IFN? Signaling*  

PubMed Central

Although the mechanisms of generation of signals that control transcriptional activation of Type III IFN (IFN?)-regulated genes have been identified, very little is known about the mechanisms by which the IFN? receptor generates signals for mRNA translation of IFN?-activated genes. We provide evidence that IFN? activates the p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) and its downstream effector, initiation factor eIF4B. Prior to its engagement by the IFN? receptor, the non-active form of RSK1 is present in a complex with the translational repressor 4E-BP1 in IFN?-sensitive cells. IFN?-inducible phosphorylation/activation of RSK1 results in its dissociation from 4E-BP1 at the same time that 4E-BP1 dissociates from eIF4E to allow formation of eIF4F and initiation of cap-dependent translation. Our studies demonstrate that such IFN?-dependent engagement of RSK1 is essential for up-regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression, suggesting a mechanism for generation of growth-inhibitory responses. Altogether, our data provide evidence for a critical role for the activated RSK1 in IFN? signaling.

Kroczynska, Barbara; Joshi, Sonali; Eklund, Elizabeth A.; Verma, Amit; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Fish, Eleanor N.; Platanias, Leonidas C.

2011-01-01

95

Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of S6K1 in Cashmere Goats (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) can integrate nutrient and growth factor signals to promote cell growth and survival. We report our molecular characterization of the complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes the goat p70S6K gene 40S ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) (GenBank accession GU144017) and its 3' noncoding sequence in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus). Goat S6K1 cDNA was 2,272 bp and include an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,578 bp, corresponding to a polypeptide of 525 amino acids, and a 694-residue 3' noncoding sequence with a polyadenylation signal at nucleotides 2,218 to 2,223. The relative abundance of S6K1 mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in 6 tissues, and p70S6K expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in heart and testis. The phosphorylation of p70S6K is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in fetal fibroblasts. PMID:25049885

Manlin, Wu; Wenlei, Bao; Xiyan, Hao; Xu, Zheng; Yanfeng, Wang; Zhigang, Wang

2013-08-01

96

Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of S6K1 in Cashmere Goats (Capra hircus)  

PubMed Central

p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) can integrate nutrient and growth factor signals to promote cell growth and survival. We report our molecular characterization of the complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes the goat p70S6K gene 40S ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) (GenBank accession GU144017) and its 3? noncoding sequence in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus). Goat S6K1 cDNA was 2,272 bp and include an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,578 bp, corresponding to a polypeptide of 525 amino acids, and a 694-residue 3? noncoding sequence with a polyadenylation signal at nucleotides 2,218 to 2,223. The relative abundance of S6K1 mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in 6 tissues, and p70S6K expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in heart and testis. The phosphorylation of p70S6K is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in fetal fibroblasts.

Manlin, Wu; Wenlei, Bao; Xiyan, Hao; Xu, Zheng; Yanfeng, Wang; Zhigang, Wang

2013-01-01

97

Cloning of the mitogen-activated S6 kinase from rat liver reveals an enzyme of the second messenger subfamily  

SciTech Connect

Recently the authors reported the purification of a mitogen-activated S6 kinase from Swiss mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat liver. The rat liver protein was cleaved with cyanogen bromide or trypsin and 17 of the resulting peptides were sequenced. DNA primers were generated from 3 peptides that had homology to sequences of the conserved catalytic domain of protein kinases. These primers were used in the polymerase chain reaction to obtain a 0.4-kilobase DNA fragment. This fragment was either radioactively labeled and hybridized to Northern blots of poly(A){sup {sup plus}} mRNA or used to screen a rat liver cDNA library. Northern blot analysis revealed four transcripts of 2.5, 3.2, 4.0, and 6.0 kilobases, and five S6 kinase clones were obtained by screening the library. Only two of the clones, which were identical, encoded a full-length protein. This protein had a molecular weight of 56,160, which correlated closely to that of the dephosphorylated kinase determined by SDS/PAGE. The catalytic domain of the kinase resembles that of other serine/threonine kinases belonging to the second messenger subfamily of protein kinases.

Kozma, S.C.; Ferrari, S. Bassand, P.; Siegmann, M.; Thomas, G. (Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel (Switzerland)); Totty, N. (Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom))

1990-10-01

98

The unusual mechanism of inhibition of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) by flavonol rhamnosides  

PubMed Central

All known protein kinases share a bilobal kinase domain with well conserved structural elements. Because of significant structural similarities of nucleotide binding pocket, the development of highly selective kinase inhibitors is a very challenging task. Flavonols, naturally occurring plant metabolites, have long been known to inhibit kinases by mimicking the adenine moiety. Interestingly, recent data show that some flavonol glycosides are more selective, although underlying mechanisms were unknown. Crystallographic data from our laboratory revealed that the N-terminal kinase domain of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, isoform 2, binds three different flavonol rhamnosides in a highly unusual manner, distinct from other kinase inhibitor interactions. The kinase domain undergoes a reorganization of several structural elements in response to the binding of the inhibitors. Specifically, the main ?-sheet of the N-lobe undergoes a twisting rotation by ~56° around an axis passing through the N- and C-lobes, leading to the restructuring of the canonical ATP-binding pocket into pockets sterically adapted to the inhibitor shape. The flavonol rhamnosides appear to adopt compact, but strained conformations with the rhamnose moiety swept under the B-ring of flavonol, unlike the structure of the free counterparts in solution. These data suggest that the flavonol glycoside scaffold could be used as a template for new inhibitors selective for the RSK family.

Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

2013-01-01

99

Altered Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling and Glycogen Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle from p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), a cytosolic substrate for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), is involved in transcriptional regulation, and one isoform (RSK2) has been implicated in the activation of glycogen synthase by insulin. To determine RSK2 function in vivo, mice lacking a functional rsk2 gene were generated and studied in response to insulin and exercise, two potent stimulators

SCOTT D. DUFRESNE; C. Bjorbak; KARIM EL-HASCHIMI; YI ZHAO; WILLIAM G. ASCHENBACH; DAVID E. MOLLER; LAURIE J. GOODYEAR

2001-01-01

100

Structural Diversity of the Active N-Terminal Kinase Domain of p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2  

SciTech Connect

The p90 ribosomal protein kinase 2 (RSK2) is a highly expressed Ser/Thr kinase activated by growth factors and is involved in cancer cell proliferation and tumor promoter-induced cell transformation. RSK2 possesses two non-identical kinase domains, and the structure of its N-terminal domain (NTD), which is responsible for phosphorylation of a variety of substrates, is unknown. The crystal structure of the NTD RSK2 was determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution in complex with AMP-PNP. The N-terminal kinase domain adopted a unique active conformation showing a significant structural diversity of the kinase domain compared to other kinases. The NTD RSK2 possesses a three-stranded {beta}B-sheet inserted in the N-terminal lobe, resulting in displacement of the {alpha}C-helix and disruption of the Lys-Glu interaction, classifying the kinase conformation as inactive. The purified protein was phosphorylated at Ser227 in the T-activation loop and exhibited in vitro kinase activity. A key characteristic is the appearance of a new contact between Lys216 ({beta}B-sheet) and the {beta}-phosphate of AMP-PNP. Mutation of this lysine to alanine impaired both NTDs in vitro and full length RSK2 ex vivo activity, emphasizing the importance of this interaction. Even though the N-terminal lobe undergoes structural re-arrangement, it possesses an intact hydrophobic groove formed between the {alpha}C-helix, the {beta}4-strand, and the {beta}B-sheet junction, which is occupied by the N-terminal tail. The presence of a unique {beta}B-sheet insert in the N-lobe suggests a different type of activation mechanism for RSK2.

Malakhova, Margarita; Kurinov, Igor; Liu, Kangdong; Zheng, Duo; D'Angelo, Igor; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Steinman, Valerie; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; (Cornell); (CLS); (UMM); (CSB)

2010-10-08

101

Activation of an 85 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase during serotonin-induced oocyte maturation.  

PubMed

Oocytes from the Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum are naturally blocked at the prophase-I stage of meiosis. Following physiological activation by the neurohormone serotonin (5HT), oocytes undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and reach a second cell cycle arrest in metaphase-I. To identify the kinases activated during meiosis reinitiation, we used a phosphorylation assay following sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in situ renaturation. A soluble 85-kDa serine/threonine kinase (PK85) was highly and consistently activated (up to 17-fold) within 5 minutes following addition of the hormone. This activation occurred 5 to 10 minutes before GVBD and only when 5HT concentration was sufficient to induce meiosis reinitiation. The calcium ionophore A23187 and NH4Cl, two compounds known to induce GVBD by increasing intracellular calcium concentration, also activate PK85. In crude oocyte extracts, the presence of beta-glycerophosphate, NaF, okadaic acid, calyculin A or microcystin, prevented inactivation of PK85, suggesting that it is activated by phosphorylation. Partial purification of PK85 followed by Western blotting showed that this kinase is related to the ribosomal S6 kinase pp90rsk. PK85 phosphorylates the peptides LRRASLG (kemptide) and PLARTLSVAGLPGGK (syntide-2), and to a lesser extent the synthetic polyamino acids poly(R3:S1) while myelin basic protein (MBP), histone III-S, casein, the peptides pEKRPSQRSKYL ((pGlu4)-MBP 4-14), GTFRASIRRLAARRR (NIMA kinase substrate), the protein kinase C (PKC) substrate LRTLRR and the synthetic polyaminoacids poly(R1:P1:T1) were poor substrates. 5HT-induced GVBD and PK85 activation are both inhibited by the phorbol ester 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and this inhibition can be reversed by 5 microM of the bisindolyl-maleimide GF109203X, a potent PKC inhibitor. PMA inhibitory action appears to take place between 5HT binding to its receptor and the intracellular calcium surge since it has no effect on GVBD induced by calcium ionophore A23187 and thapsigargin. Taken together, these results suggest that serotonin-induced activation of PK85 occurs after the intracellular calcium surge in a PKC-independent pathway. PMID:8840188

Durocher, Y; Guerrier, P

1996-06-01

102

Phosphorylation of KIBRA by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) cascade modulates cell proliferation and migration.  

PubMed

In mammals, KIBRA is defined as a memory performance-associated protein. The physiological function and regulation of KIBRA in non-neuronal cells are much less understood. Recent studies have identified KIBRA as a novel regulator of the Hippo signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in tumorigenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. We recently reported that KIBRA is phosphorylated by the mitotic kinases Aurora and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 during mitosis. In this current study, we show that KIBRA is also phosphorylated by the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases)-RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinases) cascade. We demonstrated that ERK1/2 phosphorylate KIBRA at Ser(548) in cells as well as in vitro. Moreover, we found that RSK1/2 specifically phosphorylates KIBRA at two highly conserved sites (Thr(929) and Ser(947)) in vitro and in cells. RSK-mediated phosphorylation is required for KIBRA binding to RSK1, but not RSK2. Surprisingly, KIBRA knockdown impaired cell migration and proliferation in breast cancer cells. By using inducible-expression cell lines, we further show that phospho-regulation of KIBRA by ERK1/2 and RSK1/2 is required for proper cell proliferation and RSK-mediated phosphorylation also modulates KIBRA's migratory activity in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Our findings uncover unexpected results and a new mechanism through which KIBRA regulates cell migration and proliferation. PMID:24269383

Yang, Shuping; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Yuanhong; Wennmann, Dirk Oliver; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Dong, Jixin

2014-02-01

103

p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 promotes invasion and metastasis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common types of human cancer and frequently metastasizes to LNs. Identifying metastasis-promoting factors is of immense clinical interest, as the prognosis for patients with even a single unilateral LN metastasis is extremely poor. Here, we report that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) promotes human HNSCC cell invasion and metastasis. We determined that RSK2 was overexpressed and activated in highly invasive HNSCC cell lines compared with poorly invasive cell lines. Expression of RSK2 also correlated with metastatic progression in patients with HNSCC. Ectopic expression of RSK2 substantially enhanced the invasive capacity of HNSCC cells, while inhibition of RSK2 activity led to marked attenuation of invasion in vitro. Additionally, shRNA knockdown of RSK2 substantially reduced the invasive and metastatic potential of HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model, respectively. Mechanistically, we determined that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and Hsp27 are phosphorylated and activated by RSK2 and are important for the RSK2-mediated invasive ability of HNSCC cells. Our findings suggest that RSK2 is involved in the prometastatic programming of HNSCC cells, through phosphorylation of proteins in a putative signaling network. Moreover, targeting RSK2 markedly attenuates in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of HNSCC cells, suggesting that RSK2 may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of metastatic HNSCC.

Kang, Sumin; Elf, Shannon; Lythgoe, Katherine; Hitosugi, Taro; Taunton, Jack; Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Li; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Fan, Songqing; Sun, Shi-Yong; Marcus, Adam I.; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Chen, Zhuo (Georgia); Khuri, Fadlo R.; Shin, Dong M.; Chen, Jing

2010-01-01

104

Rapid improvement of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis with rapamycin therapy: possible role of phospho-70-ribosomal-S6 kinase.  

PubMed

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a fibrosing disorder that occurs in some patients with renal insufficiency. Exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GdCA) has been associated with the development of NSF. No uniformly effective treatment options exist. We present immunohistochemical evidence to show that the proliferating fibrocytes of NSF express phospho-70-s6 kinase (PI-3-K), a protein downstream of PI-3-K, and the target of the drug rapamycin. In our patient, use of rapamycin resulted in rapid clinical improvement marked by reduced edema, reduced skin induration, and decreased pain. This suggests a possible role for PI-3-K and rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the pathogenesis of NSF. Drugs that inhibit these pathways may be a target for future therapy. While our patient did attribute disease onset to GdCA exposure, used on a single occasion for abdominal imaging, he was also exposed to iron, calcium, and darbepoetin alpha at the time of imaging. PMID:20115955

Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Arbiser, Jack L; Hiatt, Kim M; High, Whitney; Abul-Ezz, Sameh; Horn, Thomas D; Shah, Sudhir V

2010-02-01

105

Anti-invasive and Antimetastatic Activities of Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 4 in Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose We have previously shown that p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 4 (RSK4), an X-linked gene, is highly up-regulated in mammary tumors of MMTV-c-Myc transgenic mice. In this study, we further investigated whether RSK4 inhibits or promotes breast tumor growth and progression. Experimental Design Stable overexpression or small interfering RNA – mediated knockdown of RSK4 was done in the MDA-MB-231cell line. Stable clones were tested for cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, invasive and metastatic ability of these clones in vitro and tumorigenesis, invasive and metastatic ability in vivo in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Results Here, we show that exogenous expression of RSK4 resulted in decreased cell proliferation and increased accumulation of cells in G0–G1phase, which paralleled with enhanced expression of tumor suppressor genes: retinoblastoma protein, retinobl astoma-associated 46 kDa protein, and p21 protein. Overexpression of RSK4 resulted in reduced colony formation in soft agar and suppressed invasive and migratory activities of MDA-MB-231cells both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, RSK4-overexpressing cells showed up-regulation of claudin-2 and down-regulation of CXCR4, both of these play roles in invasion and chemotaxis. Conclusions These results indicate that RSK4 expression may limit the oncogenic, invasive, and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. Anti-invasive and antimetastatic activities of RSK4 may be, in part, due to its regulation of claudin-2. Increased expression of RSK4 in c-Myc-overexpressing cells and a dose-dependent induction of luciferase reporter gene activity suggest that c-Myc may regulate RSK4 expression.

Thakur, Archana; Sun, Yuan; Bollig, Aliccia; Wu, Jack; Biliran, Hector; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Liao, D. Joshua

2013-01-01

106

Involvement of Polo-like Kinase 1 (Plk1) in Mitotic Arrest by Inhibition of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase-Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (MEK-ERK-RSK1) Cascade*  

PubMed Central

Cell division is controlled through cooperation of different kinases. Of these, polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) play key roles. Plk1 acts as a G2/M trigger, and RSK1 promotes G1 progression. Although previous reports show that Plk1 is suppressed by RSK1 during meiosis in Xenopus oocytes, it is still not clear whether this is the case during mitosis or whether Plk1 counteracts the effects of RSK1. Few animal models are available for the study of controlled and transient cell cycle arrest. Here we show that encysted embryos (cysts) of the primitive crustacean Artemia are ideal for such research because they undergo complete cell cycle arrest when they enter diapause (a state of obligate dormancy). We found that Plk1 suppressed the activity of RSK1 during embryonic mitosis and that Plk1 was inhibited during embryonic diapause and mitotic arrest. In addition, studies on HeLa cells using Plk1 siRNA interference and overexpression showed that phosphorylation of RSK1 increased upon interference and decreased after overexpression, suggesting that Plk1 inhibits RSK1. Taken together, these findings provide insights into the regulation of Plk1 during cell division and Artemia diapause cyst formation and the correlation between the activity of Plk1 and RSK1.

Li, Ran; Chen, Dian-Fu; Zhou, Rong; Jia, Sheng-Nan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Clegg, James S.; Yang, Wei-Jun

2012-01-01

107

Substituted indolin-2-ones as p90 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 2 (RSK2) inhibitors: Molecular docking simulation and structure-activity relationship analysis.  

PubMed

A series of novel indolin-2-ones inhibitors against p90 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 2 (RSK2) were designed and synthesized and their structure-activity relationship (SAR) was studied. The most potent inhibitor, compound 3s, exhibited potent inhibition against RSK2 with an IC50 value of 0.5 ?M and presented a satisfactory selectivity against 23 kinases. The interactions of these inhibitors with RSK2 were investigated based on the proposed binding poses with molecular docking simulation. Four compounds and six compounds exhibited moderate anti-proliferation activities against PC 3 cells and MCF-7 cells, respectively. PMID:23434140

Zhong, Ye; Xue, Mengzhu; Zhao, Xue; Yuan, Jun; Liu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Jin; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Li, Honglin; Xu, Yufang

2013-04-01

108

Growth-promoting effect of a protein-free hemodialysate used in situations of hypoxia and for tissue repair as measured via stimulation of S6-kinase.  

PubMed

Solcoseryl is the low-molecular weight fraction of calf blood as manufactured by counterflow dialysis. This hemodialysate (HD) is in clinical use in situations involving hypoxia and for the normalization of tissue repair. The influence of the HD on ZR-75 cells was tested. These cells preferably express receptors for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)/Transforming Growth Factor alpha (TGF-alpha) or Somatomedin C (SMC = insulin like growth factor I resp. ILA-I) and react upon stimulation by enhancement of their S6-kinase activity, the latter being a prerequisite for growth. The functional presence of one or several of these peptide growth factors should therefore reflect in a stimulation of S6-kinase activity. PMID:1418056

Fabbro, D; Imber, R; Huggel, K; Baschong, W

1992-07-01

109

Tumor Suppressor PDCD4 Represses Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Translation of Antiapoptotic Proteins and Is Regulated by S6 Kinase 2  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis can be regulated by extracellular signals that are communicated by peptides such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) that have important roles in tumor cell proliferation. The prosurvival effects of FGF-2 are transduced by the activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2), which increases the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins X chromosome-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) and Bcl-xL. We now show that the FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling is mediated by the tumor suppressor programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). We demonstrate that PDCD4 specifically binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements of both the XIAP and Bcl-xL messenger RNAs and represses their translation by inhibiting the formation of the 48S translation initiation complex. Phosphorylation of PDCD4 by activated S6K2 leads to the degradation of PDCD4 and thus the subsequent derepression of XIAP and Bcl-xL translation. Our results identify PDCD4 as a specific repressor of the IRES-dependent translation of cellular mRNAs (such as XIAP and Bcl-xL) that mediate FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling and provide further insight into the role of PDCD4 in tumor suppression.

Liwak, Urszula; Thakor, Nehal; Jordan, Lindsay E.; Roy, Rajat; Lewis, Stephen M.; Pardo, Olivier E.; Seckl, Michael

2012-01-01

110

Yeast 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) Orthologs Pkh1-3 Differentially Regulate Phosphorylation of Protein Kinase A (PKA) and the Protein Kinase B (PKB)/S6K Ortholog Sch9*  

PubMed Central

Pkh1, -2, and -3 are the yeast orthologs of mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Although essential for viability, their functioning remains poorly understood. Sch9, the yeast protein kinase B and/or S6K ortholog, has been identified as one of their targets. We now have shown that in vitro interaction of Pkh1 and Sch9 depends on the hydrophobic PDK1-interacting fragment pocket in Pkh1 and requires the complementary hydrophobic motif in Sch9. We demonstrated that Pkh1 phosphorylates Sch9 both in vitro and in vivo on its PDK1 site and that this phosphorylation is essential for a wild type cell size. In vivo phosphorylation on this site disappeared during nitrogen deprivation and rapidly increased again upon nitrogen resupplementation. In addition, we have shown here for the first time that the PDK1 site in protein kinase A is phosphorylated by Pkh1 in vitro, that this phosphorylation is Pkh-dependent in vivo and occurs during or shortly after synthesis of the protein kinase A catalytic subunits. Mutagenesis of the PDK1 site in Tpk1 abolished binding of the regulatory subunit and cAMP dependence. As opposed to PDK1 site phosphorylation of Sch9, phosphorylation of the PDK1 site in Tpk1 was not regulated by nitrogen availability. These results bring new insight into the control and prevalence of PDK1 site phosphorylation in yeast by Pkh protein kinases.

Voordeckers, Karin; Kimpe, Marlies; Haesendonckx, Steven; Louwet, Wendy; Versele, Matthias; Thevelein, Johan M.

2011-01-01

111

S6 kinase 2 is bound to chromatin-nuclear matrix cellular fractions and is able to phosphorylate histone H3 at threonine 45 in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The activity of S6 kinases (S6K) is highly induced in cancer cells highlighting an essential role in carcinogenesis. The S6K family has two members: S6K1 and S6K2 which bear common as well as distinct features. In an attempt to identify S6K2 unique sequence features compared to S6K1, we applied extensive bioinformatic analysis and motif search approaches. Interestingly, we identified 14 unique protein signatures which are present in proteins directly connected to chromatin and/or involved in transcription regulation. Using chromatin binding assay, we biochemically showed that S6K2 is bound to chromatin as well as nuclear matrix cellular fractions in HEK293 cells. The presence of S6K2 in chromatin fractions raised the possibility that it may be in close proximity to a number of chromatin substrates. For that, we then searched for S6K phosphorylation consensus sites RXRXXT/S in mammalian proteins using the SWISS-PROT database. Interestingly, we identified some potential phosphorylation sites in histone H3 (Thr45). Using in vitro kinase assays and siRNA-based knockdown strategy; we confirmed that S6K2 but not S6K1 or AKT is essential for histone H3-Thr45 phosphorylation in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, we show that the nuclear localisation sequence in the S6K2 C-terminus is essential for this modification. We have found that, H3-Thr45 phosphorylation correlates to S6K activation in response to mitogens and TPA-induced cell differentiation of leukaemic cell lines U937, HL60 and THP1. Overall, we demonstrate that S6K2 is a novel kinase that can phosphorylate histone H3 at position Thr45, which may play a role during cell proliferation and/or differentiation. PMID:23564320

Ismail, Heba M S; Hurd, Paul J; Khalil, Mahmoud I M; Kouzarides, Tony; Bannister, Andrew; Gout, Ivan

2014-06-01

112

Insulin activates RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) to trigger a new negative feedback loop that regulates insulin signaling for glucose metabolism.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that the mTORC1/S6K1 pathway is activated by insulin and nutrient overload (e.g. amino acids (AA)), which leads to the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway via the inhibitory serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, notably on serine 1101 (Ser-1101). However, even in the absence of AA, insulin can still promote IRS-1 Ser-1101 phosphorylation by other kinases that remain to be fully characterized. Here, we describe a new negative regulator of IRS-1, the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). Computational analyses revealed that Ser-1101 within IRS-1 falls into the consensus motif of RSK. Moreover, recombinant RSK phosphorylated IRS-1 C-terminal fragment on Ser-1101, which was prevented by mutations of this site or when a kinase-inactive mutant of RSK was used. Using antibodies directed toward the phosphorylation sites located in the activation segment of RSK (Ser-221 or Ser-380), we found that insulin activates RSK in L6 myocytes in the absence of AA overload. Inhibition of RSK using either the pharmacological inhibitor BI-D1870 or after adenoviral expression of a dominant negative RSK1 mutant (RSK1-DN) showed that RSK selectively phosphorylates IRS-1 on Ser-1101. Accordingly, expression of the RSK1-DN mutant in L6 myocytes and FAO hepatic cells improved insulin action on glucose uptake and glucose production, respectively. Furthermore, RSK1 inhibition prevented insulin resistance in L6 myocytes chronically exposed to high glucose and high insulin. These results show that RSK is a novel regulator of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism and a potential mediator of insulin resistance, notably through the negative phosphorylation of IRS-1 on Ser-1101. PMID:24036112

Smadja-Lamère, Nicolas; Shum, Michael; Déléris, Paul; Roux, Philippe P; Abe, Jun-Ichi; Marette, André

2013-10-25

113

Role of extracellular electrolytes in the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase by epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, and insulin in ZR-75-1 cells  

PubMed Central

Activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase by epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) was studied in the human mammary tumor cell line ZR-75-1 in isotonic buffers. In contrast to growth factor-dependent S6 phosphorylation which is strongly dependent on extracellular pH (Chambard, J. C., and J. Pouyssegur. 1986. Exp. Cell Res. 164:282-294.) preincubation of cells in buffers with different pH values ranging from 7.5 to 6.5 had no effect on basal or EGF-stimulated S6 kinase activity. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with choline or replacement of extracellular Ca++ with EGTA also did not inhibit stimulation of S6 kinase by EGF. When intracellular Ca++ was buffered with the permeable Ca++ chelator quin2, EGF stimulation was reduced 50%. A similar inhibition of the EGF response was observed when cells were incubated in buffers with high K+ concentrations or in the presence of the K+ ionophore valinomycin. Insulin and IGF1 stimulation of S6 kinase were also inhibited by high K+ concentrations and by buffering intracellular Ca++. In contrast to the responses to EGF, insulin- and IGF1-activation of S6 kinase was enhanced when glucose was present and depended on the presence of bicarbonate in the medium. The results indicate that ionic signals generated by growth factors and insulin, such as increases in intracellular pH or Na+, do not seem to be involved in the activation of S6 kinase. However, effects of growth factors or insulin on membrane potential and/or K+ fluxes and redistribution of intracellular Ca++ may play a role in the activation process. Furthermore, the mechanism of insulin activation of S6 kinase is distinct from the growth factors by its dependency on extracellular bicarbonate.

1988-01-01

114

Complex formation between S100B protein and the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in malignant melanoma is calcium-dependent and inhibits extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated phosphorylation of RSK.  

PubMed

S100B is a prognostic marker for malignant melanoma. Increasing S100B levels are predictive of advancing disease stage, increased recurrence, and low overall survival in malignant melanoma patients. Using S100B overexpression and shRNA(S100B) knockdown studies in melanoma cell lines, elevated S100B was found to enhance cell viability and modulate MAPK signaling by binding directly to the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). S100B-RSK complex formation was shown to be Ca(2+)-dependent and to block ERK-dependent phosphorylation of RSK, at Thr-573, in its C-terminal kinase domain. Additionally, the overexpression of S100B sequesters RSK into the cytosol and prevents it from acting on nuclear targets. Thus, elevated S100B contributes to abnormal ERK/RSK signaling and increased cell survival in malignant melanoma. PMID:24627490

Hartman, Kira G; Vitolo, Michele I; Pierce, Adam D; Fox, Jennifer M; Shapiro, Paul; Martin, Stuart S; Wilder, Paul T; Weber, David J

2014-05-01

115

Mitigation of off-target adrenergic binding and effects on cardiovascular function in the discovery of novel ribosomal S6 kinase 2 inhibitors.  

PubMed

We previously reported the discovery of a novel ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) inhibitor, (R)-5-Methyl-1-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a] indole-8-carboxylic acid [1-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl]-amide (BIX 02565), with high potency (IC(50) = 1.1 nM) targeted for the treatment of heart failure. In the present study, we report that despite nanomolar potency at the target, BIX 02565 elicits off-target binding at multiple adrenergic receptor subtypes that are important in the control of vascular tone and cardiac function. To elucidate in vivo the functional consequence of receptor binding, we characterized the cardiovascular (CV) profile of the compound in an anesthetized rat CV screen and telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Infusion of BIX 02565 (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) in the rat CV screen resulted in a precipitous decrease in both mean arterial pressure (MAP; to -65 ± 6 mm Hg below baseline) and heart rate (-93 ± 13 beats/min). In telemetry-instrumented rats, BIX 02565 (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg p.o. QD for 4 days) elicited concentration-dependent decreases in MAP after each dose (to -39 ± 4 mm Hg on day 4 at T(max)); analysis by Demming regression demonstrated strong correlation independent of route of administration and influence of anesthesia. Because of pronounced off-target effects of BIX 02565 on cardiovascular function, a high-throughput selectivity screen at adrenergic ?(1A) and ?(2A) was performed for 30 additional RSK2 inhibitors in a novel chemical series; a wide range of adrenergic binding was achieved (0-92% inhibition), allowing for differentiation within the series. Eleven lead compounds with differential binding were advanced to the rat CV screen for in vivo profiling. This led to the identification of potent RSK2 inhibitors (cellular IC(50) <0.14 nM) without relevant ?(1A) and ?(2A) inhibition and no adverse cardiovascular effects in vivo. PMID:22128344

Fryer, Ryan M; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Smith, James D; Mazurek, Suzanne Nodop; Harrington, Kyle E; Dinallo, Roger M; Burke, Jennifer; DiCapua, Frank M; Guo, Xin; Kirrane, Thomas M; Snow, Roger J; Zhang, Yunlong; Soleymanzadeh, Fariba; Madwed, Jeffrey B; Kashem, Mohammed A; Kugler, Stanley Z; O'Neill, Margaret M; Harrison, Paul C; Reinhart, Glenn A; Boyer, Stephen J

2012-03-01

116

FMRP S499 Is Phosphorylated Independent of mTORC1-S6K1 Activity  

PubMed Central

Hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with cognitive deficits in several neurological disorders including tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The phosphorylation of the mRNA-binding protein FMRP reportedly depends on mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity via p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Because this phosphorylation is thought to regulate the translation of messages important for synaptic plasticity, we explored whether FMRP phosphorylation of the S6K1-dependent residue (S499) is altered in TSC and states of dysregulated TSC-mTORC1 signaling. Surprisingly, we found that FMRP S499 phosphorylation was unchanged in heterozygous and conditional Tsc1 knockout mice despite significantly elevated mTORC1-S6K1 activity. Neither up- nor down-regulation of the mTORC1-S6K1 axis in vivo or in vitro had any effect on phospho-FMRP S499 levels. In addition, FMRP S499 phosphorylation was unaltered in S6K1-knockout mice. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that FMRP S499 phosphorylation is independent of mTORC1-S6K1 activity and is not altered in TSC.

Bartley, Christopher M.; O'Keefe, Rachel A.; Bordey, Angelique

2014-01-01

117

Tumor-promoting phorbol esters and activated Ras inactivate the tuberous sclerosis tumor suppressor complex via p90 ribosomal S6 kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in either of the two tumor suppressor genes TSC1 or TSC2, which encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively. Tuberin and hamartin form a complex that inhibits signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a critical nutrient sensor and regulator of cell growth and proliferation. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inactivates the

Philippe P. Roux; Bryan A. Ballif; Rana Anjum; Steven P. Gygi; John Blenis

2004-01-01

118

Metformin Impairs Vascular Endothelial Recovery After Stent Placement in the Setting of Locally Eluted Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors Via S6 Kinase-Dependent Inhibition of Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study sought to examine the effect of oral metformin (Mf) therapy on endothelialization in the setting of drug-eluting stents (DES). Background Mf is a commonly used therapy in diabetic patients receiving DES. Mf and locally eluted mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors used in DES have convergent molecular signaling; however, the impact of this drug interaction on stent endothelialization is unknown. Methods We examined human endothelial aortic cells (HAECs) and a rabbit model of stenting to determine points on molecular convergence between these 2 agents and their impact on stent endothelialization. Results Western blotting of HAECs treated with Mf and the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus and 14-day rabbit iliacs treated with the combination of zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) and oral Mf demonstrated greater inhibition of S6 kinase (S6K), a downstream effector of mTOR complex 1, than either treatment alone. HAEC proliferation was significantly inhibited by Mf or sirolimus treatments alone and further reduced when they were combined. Knockdown of S6K via short interfering RNA in HAECs impaired cell proliferation via a cyclin D1–dependent mechanism, whereas its overexpression rescued the antiproliferative effects of both agents. Last, endothelialization and endothelial cell proliferation at 14 days were assessed in rabbits receiving ZES or bare-metal stents and Mf or placebo by scanning electron microscopy and bromodeoxyuridine/CD31 labeling, respectively. Both endpoints were inhibited by ZES treatment alone and were further reduced by the combination of Mf and ZES. Conclusions Significant convergence of signaling occurs between Mf and locally delivered mTOR inhibitors at S6K. This further impairs endothelial recovery/proliferation via an S6K-dependent mechanism. Patients receiving Mf in combination with stents that elute mTOR inhibitors are potentially at increased risk of delayed endothelial healing and stent thrombosis.

Habib, Anwer; Karmali, Vinit; Polavarapu, Rohini; Akahori, Hirokuni; Nakano, Masataka; Yazdani, Saami; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Pachura, Kim; Davis, Talina; Narula, Jagat; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu; Finn, Aloke V.

2014-01-01

119

Abrogation of hyperosmotic impairment of insulin signaling by a novel class of 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones through the inhibition of S6K1 activation.  

PubMed

A previous study from this laboratory showed that oltipraz and synthetic dithiolethiones prevent tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced hepatic insulin resistance via AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent p70S6 kinase (S6K) 1 inhibitory pathway. This study investigated whether oltipraz and a novel class of 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones were capable of preventing insulin resistance induced by hyperosmotic stress, thereby enhancing insulin-dependent signals, and, if so, whether the restoration of insulin signal was mediated with the inhibition of S6K1 activity stimulated by hyperosmotic stress. In HepG2 cells, oltipraz treatment inhibited insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 1 serine phosphorylation, a marker of insulin resistance, induced by sorbitol-, mannitol-, or sodium chloride-induced hyperosmotic stress. Consequently, this allowed cells to restore insulin signals, which was evidenced by decrease in the ratio of serine to tyrosine phosphorylations of IRS1 and increase in the phosphorylations of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3beta. Hyperosmotic stress markedly activated S6K1; S6K1 activation was completely abolished by oltipraz pretreatment. An experiment using dominant-negative S6K1 supports the essential role of S6K1 in the hyperosmolarity-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS1. Transfection of constitutive active mutant S6K1 eliminated the protective effect of oltipraz on GSK3beta phosphorylation, indicating that oltipraz restores insulin signaling by inhibiting S6K1 activation. A variety of synthetic 1,2-dithiole-3-thione derivatives also inhibited S6K1 activity and insulin resistance induced by hyperosmotic stress in HepG2 cells. The results of this study demonstrate that a novel class of 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones improve insulin sensitivity under the condition of hyperosmotic stress, which results from the inhibition of S6K1 activation. PMID:18252807

Bae, Eun Ju; Yang, Yoon Mee; Kim, Sang Geon

2008-05-01

120

The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor BI-D1870 prevents gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis and mediates senescence via RSK- and p53-independent accumulation of p21WAF1/CIP1  

PubMed Central

The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family is a group of highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases that promote cell proliferation, growth, motility and survival. As they are almost exclusively activated downstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), therapeutic intervention by RSK inhibition is less likely to produce such severe side effects as those observed following inhibition of the upstream master regulators Raf, MEK and ERK1/2. Here, we report that BI-D1870, a potent small molecule inhibitor of RSKs, induces apoptosis, although preferentially, in a p21-deficient background. On the other hand, BI-D1870 also induces a strong transcription- and p53-independent accumulation of p21 protein and protects cells from gamma irradiation (?IR)-induced apoptosis, driving them into senescence even in the absence of ?IR. Although we identified p21 in in vitro kinase assays as a novel RSK substrate that specifically becomes phosphorylated by RSK1-3 at Ser116 and Ser146, RNA-interference, overexpression and co-immunoprecipitation studies as well as the use of SL0101, another specific RSK inhibitor, revealed that BI-D1870 mediates p21 accumulation via a yet unknown pathway that, besides its off-site targets polo-like kinase-1 and AuroraB, also does also not involve RSKs. Thus, this novel off-target effect of BI-D1870 should be taken into serious consideration in future studies investigating the role of RSKs in cellular signaling and tumorigenesis.

Neise, D; Sohn, D; Stefanski, A; Goto, H; Inagaki, M; Wesselborg, S; Budach, W; Stuhler, K; Janicke, R U

2013-01-01

121

Insights into the Inhibition of the p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) by the Flavonol Glycoside SL0101 from the 1.5 Å Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of RSK2 with Bound Inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

The p90 ribosomal S6 family of kinases (RSK) are potential drug targets, due to their involvement in cancer and other pathologies. There are currently only two known selective inhibitors of RSK, but the basis for selectivity is not known. One of these inhibitors is a naturally occurring kaempferol-a-l-diacetylrhamnoside, SL0101. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of the N-terminal kinase domain of the RSK2 isoform with SL0101 at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. The refined atomic model reveals unprecedented structural reorganization of the protein moiety, as compared to the nucleotide-bound form. The entire N-lobe, the hinge region, and the aD-helix undergo dramatic conformational changes resulting in a rearrangement of the nucleotide binding site with concomitant formation of a highly hydrophobic pocket spatially suited to accommodate SL0101. These unexpected results will be invaluable in further optimization of the SL0101 scaffold as a promising lead for a novel class of kinase inhibitors.

Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Derewenda, Urszula; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Szukalska, Gabriela; Banerjee, Budhaditya; Hilinski, Michael K.; Lannigan, Deborah A.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (Lodz - Poland); (UV)

2012-09-11

122

Ontogeny of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in developing heart: effect of acute beta-adrenergic stimulation.  

PubMed

Signaling pathways underlying transition of cardiomyocyte growth from hyperplasia in fetal/newborn to hypertrophy in postnatal/adult hearts are not well understood. We have shown that beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR)-mediated regulation of neonatal cardiomyocyte proliferation involves p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). Here we examined the ontogeny of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/p70S6K signaling pathway in rat hearts and investigated the influence of beta-AR on this pathway during development. Cardiac PI3K and p70S6K1 activities were high in the embryonic day 20 fetus, decreased gradually postnatally, and were low in the adult. In contrast, p70S6K2 was barely detectable. Phosphorylation of p70S6K1, Akt, and phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 were markedly increased in late gestation and early postnatal life but not in adult hearts. Phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of PI3K, was highly expressed in adult hearts but only at low levels and mostly in the phosphorylated (inactivated) form in the fetus. Beta-AR stimulation resulted in increased cardiac p70S6K1 activity only in animals > or = 2 wk old, whereas Akt level was increased in all developmental stages tested. These increases were accompanied by increased Bcl-2 associated death promoter (Ser136) phosphorylation without changes in PTEN level. Thus there is globally high input of cardiac PI3K signaling during the fetal-neonatal transition period. Inactivation of PTEN may in part contribute to the high activity of PI3K signaling, which coincides with the period of high cardiomyocyte proliferation. Beta-AR stimulation activates cardiac p70S6K1 and Akt in postnatal animals and may activate cardiac survival signals. These data provide further evidence for the importance of beta-AR and PI3K signaling in the regulation of cardiac growth during development. PMID:16006545

Tseng, Yi-Tang; Yano, Naohiro; Rojan, Adam; Stabila, Joan P; McGonnigal, Bethany G; Ianus, Vlad; Wadhawan, Rajan; Padbury, James F

2005-11-01

123

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-associated Factor Family Protein 2 Is a Key Mediator of the Epidermal Growth Factor-induced Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2/cAMP-responsive Element-binding Protein/Fos Protein Signaling Pathway*  

PubMed Central

TRAF2 has an important function in mediating the TNF-R signaling pathway toward activation of NF-?B and JNKs. Here we reveal a novel function of TRAF2 in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRAF2 blocked EGF-induced AP-1 activity and anchorage- independent cell transformation. Notably, we showed that EGF induces ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) ubiquitination, and knocking down TRAF2 suppresses ubiquitination of RSK2 induced by EGF. We also found that TRAF2 affects RSK2 activity through RSK2 ubiquitination. RSK2 plays a critical role in AP-1 activity mediated through CREB and c-Fos, which regulates anchorage-independent cell transformation. In addition, TRAF2 is overexpressed in colon cancer and required for colon cancer development, suggesting that TRAF2 might be a potential molecular target for cancer prevention and treatment.

Peng, Cong; Zhu, Feng; Wen, Weihong; Yao, Ke; Li, Shengqing; Zykova, Tatyana; Liu, Kangdong; Li, Xiang; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

2012-01-01

124

Identification and characterization of a constitutively T-loop phosphorylated and active recombinant S6K1: expression, purification, and enzymatic studies in a high capacity non-radioactive TR-FRET Lance assay.  

PubMed

The p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase 1 (S6K) is a substrate and effector of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR/S6K pathway is implicated in cancer and metabolic disorders. To study the molecular regulation of S6K and identify specific inhibitors, availability of active recombinant S6K and robust enzyme assays are critically needed. To date, however, expression of active recombinant S6K has not been feasible as S6K activation requires a cascade of phosphorylation events. We have compared several engineered S6K enzymes. Expression of the Flag-S6KDeltaCT(T389E) in HEK293 cells resulted in a highly active S6K that was constitutively phosphorylated on T229 in the activation-loop (T-loop). The active enzyme was readily purified in large scale by anti-Flag affinity chromatography achieving a high purity. We developed a high capacity homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Lance assay for measurement of substrate phosphorylation and analysis of kinetic parameters. The Michaelis constant (Km) values of S6K for ATP and the Biotin-S6 substrate peptide were determined to be 21.4+/-0.29 and 0.9+/-0.48 microM, respectively. The Lance assay was further validated with a diverse panel of literature inhibitors, in which the PKC inhibitors staurosporine, Ro-318220, and the PKA inhibitor Balanol potently inhibited S6K. Dose-response and inhibition mechanism by these inhibitors were also studied. Our data provide a new simplified strategy to achieve rapid production of active S6K and demonstrate utility of the Lance assay for S6K enzyme screen in searching for specific inhibitors. PMID:16213157

Zhang, Wei-Guo; Shor, Boris; Yu, Ker

2006-04-01

125

Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389} and phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and phosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K{sup Thr389} and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at Ser{sup 9} and, to a lesser extent, Thr{sup 390}, the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 389}, and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 421} and Ser{sup 424}. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389}; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}, and p-70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our data show that proteasome inhibition regulates p38/GSK{sup Ser9}/p70S6K{sup Thr380} and ERK/GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}/p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} kinase signaling, which is involved in cell survival and cell death.

Choi, Cheol-Hee [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of) [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon [College of Pharmacy and Multiscreening Center for Drug Development, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy and Multiscreening Center for Drug Development, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee, E-mail: oshccw@hanmail.net [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-24

126

Changes in growth-related kinases in head, neck and limb muscles with age  

PubMed Central

Sarcopenia coincides with declines in several systemic processes that signal through the MAP kinase and Akt-mTOR-p70S6k cascades typically associated with muscle growth. Effects of aging on these pathways have primarily been examined in limb muscles, which experience substantial activity and neural changes in addition to systemic hormonal and metabolic changes. Head and neck muscles are reported to undergo reduced sarcopenia and disuse with age relative to limb muscles, suggesting muscle activity may contribute to maintaining mass with age. However many head and neck muscles derive from embryonic branchial arches, rather than the somites from which limb muscles originate, suggesting that developmental origin may be important. This study compares the expression and phosphorylation of MAP kinase and mTOR networks in head, neck, tongue, and limb muscles from 8- and 26-month old F344 rats to test the hypothesis that physical activity and developmental origin contribute to preservation of muscle mass with age. Phosphorylation of p38 was exaggerated in aged branchial arch muscles. Phosphorylation of ERK and p70S6k T421/S424 declined with age only in the biceps brachii. Expression of p70S6k declined in all head and neck, tongue and limb muscles although no change in phosphorylation of p70S6k on T389 could be resolved. A systemic change that results in a loss of p70S6k protein expression may reduce the capacity to respond to acute hypertrophic stimuli, while the exaggerated p38 signaling in branchial arch muscles may reflect more active muscle remodeling.

Rahnert, Jill A.; Luo, Qingwei; Balog, Edward M.; Sokoloff, Alan J.; Burkholder, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

127

AMP-activated protein kinase counteracts brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling in neurons.  

PubMed

Growth factors and nutrients, such as amino acids and glucose, regulate mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and subsequent translational control in a coordinated manner. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most prominent neurotrophic factor in the brain, activates mTORC1 and induces phosphorylation of its target, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), at Thr389 in neurons. BDNF also increases mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent novel protein synthesis in neurons. Here, we report that BDNF-induced p70S6K activation is dependent on glucose, but not amino acids, sufficiency in cultured cortical neurons. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the molecular background to this specific nutrient dependency. Activation of AMPK, which is induced by glucose deprivation, treatment with pharmacological agents such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose, metformin, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside or forced expression of a constitutively active AMPK? subunit, counteracts BDNF-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and enhanced protein synthesis in cortical neurons. These results indicate that AMPK inhibits the effects of BDNF on mTORC1-mediated translation in neurons. PMID:23841933

Ishizuka, Yuta; Kakiya, Naomasa; Witters, Lee A; Oshiro, Noriko; Shirao, Tomoaki; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Takei, Nobuyuki

2013-10-01

128

Bacteriophage P70: Unique Morphology and Unrelatedness to Other Listeria Bacteriophages  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen, and its bacteriophages find many uses in detection and biocontrol of its host. The novel broad-host-range virulent phage P70 has a unique morphology with an elongated capsid. Its genome sequence was determined by a hybrid sequencing strategy employing Sanger and PacBio techniques. The P70 genome contains 67,170 bp and 119 open reading frames (ORFs). Our analyses suggest that P70 represents an archetype of virus unrelated to other known Listeria bacteriophages.

Schmuki, Martina M.; Erne, Doris; Loessner, Martin J.

2012-01-01

129

Bacteriophage P70: unique morphology and unrelatedness to other Listeria bacteriophages.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen, and its bacteriophages find many uses in detection and biocontrol of its host. The novel broad-host-range virulent phage P70 has a unique morphology with an elongated capsid. Its genome sequence was determined by a hybrid sequencing strategy employing Sanger and PacBio techniques. The P70 genome contains 67,170 bp and 119 open reading frames (ORFs). Our analyses suggest that P70 represents an archetype of virus unrelated to other known Listeria bacteriophages. PMID:22993158

Schmuki, Martina M; Erne, Doris; Loessner, Martin J; Klumpp, Jochen

2012-12-01

130

Removal of S6K1 and S6K2 Leads to Divergent Alterations in Learning, Memory, and Synaptic Plasticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Protein synthesis is required for the expression of enduring memories and long-lasting synaptic plasticity. During cellular proliferation and growth, S6 kinases (S6Ks) are activated and coordinate the synthesis of de novo proteins. We hypothesized that protein synthesis mediated by S6Ks is critical for the manifestation of learning, memory, and…

Antion, Marcia D.; Merhav, Maayan; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Reis, Gerald; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Schuman Erin M.; Rosenblum, Kobi; Klann, Eric

2008-01-01

131

LKB1 is required for adiponectin-mediated modulation of AMPK-S6K axis and inhibition of migration and invasion of breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is widely known as an adipocytokine with therapeutic potential for its markedly protective function in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders, metabolic syndrome, systemic insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and more recently carcinogenesis. In the present study, we show that adiponectin inhibits adhesion, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Further analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that adiponectin treatment increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and activity as evident by increased phosphorylation of downstream target of AMPK, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and inhibition of p70S6 kinase (S6K). Intriguingly, we discovered that adiponectin treatment increases the expression of tumor suppressor gene LKB1 in breast cancer cells. Overexpression of LKB1 in breast cancer cells further increased adiponectin-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK. Using isogenic LKB1 knockdown cell line pair, we found that LKB1 is required for adiponectin-mediated modulation of AMPK–S6K axis and more importantly, inhibition of adhesion, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Taken together these data present a novel mechanism involving specific upregulation of tumor suppressor gene LKB1 by which adiponectin inhibits adhesion, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Our findings indicate the possibility of using adiponectin analogues to inhibit invasion and migration of breast cancer cells.

Taliaferro-Smith, L; Nagalingam, A; Zhong, D; Zhou, W; Saxena, NK; Sharma, D

2010-01-01

132

S6K1 deficiency protects against apoptosis in hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K1 signaling pathway controls cell growth and proliferation. To assess the importance of S6K1 in the balance between death and survival in the liver, we have generated immortalized hepatocyte cell lines from wild-type and S6K1-deficient (S6K1(-/-)) mice. In S6K1(-/-) hepatocytes, caspase-8 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bid were constitutively down-regulated as compared with wild-type. Moreover, S6K1(-/-) hepatocytes failed to respond to the apoptotic trigger of death receptor activation. Neither caspase-8 activation nor FLIP(L) degradation in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or anti-Fas antibody (Jo2) was observed in cells lacking S6K1. Downstream events such as Bid cleavage, cytochrome C release, caspase-3 activation, DNA laddering, as well as the percentage of apoptotic cells were attenuated as compared with wild-type. In addition, the anti-apoptotic protein Bclx(L) was down-regulated in TNF-alpha-treated or Jo2-treated wild-type hepatocytes, but this response was abolished in S6K1(-/-)cells. In vivo, S6K1-deficient mice were protected against concanavalin A-induced apoptosis. The withdrawal of growth factors strongly induced apoptosis in wild-type, but not in S6K1(-/-) hepatocytes. S6K1 deficiency did not decrease Bclx(L)/Bim ratio on serum withdrawal, thereby protecting cells from cytochrome C release and DNA fragmentation. At the molecular level, the lack of S6K1-mediated negative feedback decreased insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, resulting in activation of survival pathways mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). However, S6K1(-/-) hepatocytes underwent apoptosis on serum withdrawal in combination with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or ERK inhibitors. Conclusion: This finding might explain the mechanism of resistance to mTOR inhibitors in cancer treatments and strongly suggests that the inhibition of S6K1 could protect against acute liver failure and, in combination with inhibitors that abrogate the sustained activation of Akt and ERK, could improve the efficacy of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) treatment. PMID:19437488

González-Rodriguez, Agueda; Alba, Javier; Zimmerman, Valeri; Kozma, Sara C; Valverde, Angela M

2009-07-01

133

?-Terpineol induces fatty liver in mice mediated by the AMP-activated kinase and sterol response element binding protein pathway.  

PubMed

The use of herbal medicines in disease prevention and treatment is growing rapidly worldwide, without careful consideration of safety issues. ?-Terpineol is a monoterpene alcoholic component of Melaleuca alternifolia, Salvia officinalis and Carthamus tinctorius that is used widely as a flavor and essential oil in food. The present study showed that ?-terpineol induces fatty liver via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mTOR-sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) pathway. ?-Terpineol-treated hepatocytes had significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation. ?-Terpineol suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, and increased p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and SREBP-1 activation. It also increased luciferase activity in cells transfected with LXRE-tk-Luc and SRE-tk-Luc. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by co-treatment with rapamycin or co-transfection with dominant negative p70S6K blocked completely the effects of ?-terpineol. ?-Terpineol oral administration to mice for 2weeks led to decreased AMPK phosphorylation and increased SREBP-1 activation in the liver, followed by hepatic lipid accumulation. Conversely, rapamycin co-treatment reversed ?-terpineol-induced SREBP-1 activation and fatty liver in mice. These data provide evidence that ?-terpineol causes fatty liver, an effect mediated by the AMPK/mTOR/SREBP-1 pathway. PMID:23274539

Choi, You-Jin; Sim, Woo-Cheol; Choi, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hoon

2013-05-01

134

Identification of quercitrin as an inhibitor of the p90 S6 ribosomal kinase (RSK): structure of its complex with the N-terminal domain of RSK2 at 1.8 ? resolution  

PubMed Central

Members of the RSK family of kinases constitute attractive targets for drug design, but a lack of structural information regarding the mechanism of selective inhibitors impedes progress in this field. The crystal structure of the N-terminal kinase domain (residues 45–346) of mouse RSK2, or RSK2NTKD, has recently been described in complex with one of only two known selective inhibitors, a rare naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-(3??,4??-di-O-acetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranoside), known as SL0101. Based on this structure, it was hypothesized that quercitrin (quercetin 3-­O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside), a related but ubiquitous and inexpensive compound, might also act as an RSK inhibitor. Here, it is demonstrated that quercitrin binds to RSK2NTKD with a dissociation constant (K d) of 5.8?µM as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a crystal structure of the binary complex at 1.8?Å resolution is reported. The crystal structure reveals a very similar mode of binding to that recently reported for SL0101. Closer inspection shows a number of small but significant differences that explain the slightly higher K d for quercitrin compared with SL0101. It is also shown that quercitrin can effectively substitute for SL0101 in a biological assay, in which it significantly suppresses the contractile force in rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle in response to Ca2+.

Derewenda, Urszula; Artamonov, Mykhaylo; Szukalska, Gabriela; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Parikh, Hardik I.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

2013-01-01

135

Insulin signal transduction through protein kinase cascades.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the evolution of ideas concerning insulin signal transduction, the current information on protein ser/thr kinase cascades as signalling intermediates, and their status as participants in insulin regulation of energy metabolism. Best characterized is the Ras-MAPK pathway, whose input is crucial to cell fate decisions, but relatively dispensable in metabolic regulation. By contrast the effectors downstream of PI-3 kinase, although less well elucidated, include elements indispensable for the insulin regulation of glucose transport, glycogen and cAMP metabolism. Considerable information has accrued on PKB/cAkt, a protein kinase that interacts directly with Ptd Ins 3'OH phosphorylated lipids, as well as some of the elements further downstream, such as glycogen synthase kinase-3 and the p70 S6 kinase. Finally, some information implicates other erk pathways (e.g. such as the SAPK/JNK pathway) and Nck/cdc42-regulated PAKs (homologs of the yeast Ste 20) as participants in the cellular response to insulin. Thus insulin recruits a broad array of protein (ser/thr) kinases in its target cells to effectuate its characteristic anabolic and anticatabolic programs. PMID:9609112

Avruch, J

1998-05-01

136

PKC? regulates IL-12p40/p70 production by macrophages and dendritic cells, driving a type 1 healer phenotype in cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The protein kinase C (PKC) family is involved in the regulation of many intracellular signalling pathways. Here, we report that the PKC? isoform regulates IL-12p40/p70 production in macrophages and DC and that PKC? deficiency in mice transforms the 129/Sv healer to a non-healer strain during cutaneous leishmaniasis. Leishmania major-infected PKC?(-/-) 129/Sv mice developed a rapid increase in footpad swelling and parasite burden with disease progression, leading to necrosis and ulceration similar to non-healer BALB/c mice. Moreover, PKC?(-/-) mice failed to develop delayed-type hypersensitivity responses against Leishmania antigen. PKC?(-/-) macrophages were fully functional with normal MHC class II surface expression and GM-CSF production, recruitment to the draining lymph node and killing effector functions by NO production. In contrast, macrophages and DC produced significantly reduced IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 compared to the WT cells. Decreased IL-12 production resulted in diminished Th1 differentiation, as determined by a striking reduction in IFN-? by antigen-specific stimulated CD4(+) T cells isolated from popliteal lymph nodes of L. major-infected PKC?(-/-) mice, explaining the "non-healer" phenotype. We conclude from these data that PKC? is a regulator of IL-12p40/p70 production by DC and macrophages, driving the healer phenotype during cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:21287553

Guler, Reto; Afshar, Mona; Arendse, Berenice; Parihar, Suraj P; Revaz-Breton, Melanie; Leitges, Michael; Schwegmann, Anita; Brombacher, Frank

2011-03-01

137

Selective PDZ protein-dependent stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by the adenovirus E4-ORF1 oncoprotein  

PubMed Central

While PDZ domain-containing proteins represent cellular targets for several different viral oncoproteins, including human papillomavirus E6, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax, and human adenovirus E4-ORF1, the functional consequences for such interactions have not been elucidated. Here we report that, at the plasma membrane of cells, the adenovirus E4-ORF1 oncoprotein selectively and potently stimulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), triggering a downstream cascade of events that includes activation of both protein kinase B and p70S6-kinase. This activity of E4-ORF1 could be abrogated by overexpression of its PDZ-protein targets or by disruption of its PDZ domain-binding motif, which was shown to mediate complex formation between E4-ORF1 and PDZ proteins at the plasma membrane of cells. Furthermore, E4-ORF1 mutants unable to activate the PI3K pathway failed to transform cells in culture or to promote tumors in animals, and drugs that block either PI3K or p70S6-kinase inhibited E4-ORF1-induced transformation of cells. From these results, we propose that the transforming and tumorigenic potentials of the adenovirus E4-ORF1 oncoprotein depend on its capacity to activate PI3K through a novel PDZ protein-dependent mechanism of action.

Frese, Kristopher K; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Thomas, Darby L; Latorre, Isabel J; Weiss, Robert S; Glaunsinger, Britt A; Javier, Ronald T

2012-01-01

138

S6K1 Plays a Key Role in Glial Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient and ATP sensor suggested to play an important role in tumori- genesis, particularly in the setting of PTEN loss or activated Akt\\/PKB. Of mTOR's two known effectors, eIF4E has been implicated in tumorigenesis, whereas the role of S6 kinase (S6K1) in transformation is less understood. To assess the contribution of S6K1

Jean L. Nakamura; Edna Garcia; Russell O. Pieper

2008-01-01

139

Treatment with TNF-? and IFN-? alters the activation of SER\\/THR protein kinases and the metabolic response to IGF-I in mouse c2c12 myogenic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of TNF-?, IL-1? and IFN-? on the activation of protein kinase B (PKB), p70S6k, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p90\\u000a rsk\\u000a , and on IGF-I-stimulated glucose uptake and protein synthesis in mouse C2C12 myotubes. 100 nmol\\/l IGF-I stimulated glucose\\u000a uptake in C2C12 myotubes by 198.1% and 10 ng\\/ml TNF-? abolished

Katarzyna Grzelkowska-Kowalczyk; Wioletta Wieteska-Skrzeczy?ska

2010-01-01

140

Diversity of the p70 Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptor (KIR3DL) Family Members in a Single Individual  

Microsoft Academic Search

NK cells and some T cells express members of a multigenic family of killer cell inhibitory receptors (KIRs) including p70\\u000a KIR (KIR3DL) and p58 KIR (KIR2DL) family that recognize polymorphic class I MHC molecules on target cells and transmit an\\u000a inhibitory signal to prevent killer cell-mediated cytoxicity. The cDNA sequences of p70 KIR family members reported so far\\u000a suggest that

Daeho Kwon; Yong-Joon Chwae; In Hong Choi; Jeon Han Park; Se Jong Kim; Jongsun Kim

2000-01-01

141

IL-8-INDUCED NEUTROPHIL CHEMOTAXIS IS MEDIATED BY JANUS KINASE 3 (JAK3)  

PubMed Central

Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase vital to the regulation of T-cells. We report that JAK3 is a mediator of IL-8 stimulation of a different class of hematopoietic relevant cells: human neutrophils. IL-8 induced a time- and concentration-dependent activation of JAK3 activity in neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 leukemic cells. JAK3 was more robustly activated by IL-8 than other kinases: p70S6K, mTOR, MAPK or PKC. JAK3 silencing severely inhibited IL-8-mediated chemotaxis. Thus, IL-8 stimulates chemotaxis through a mechanism mediated by JAK3. Further, JAK3 activity and chemotaxis were inhibited by the flavonoid apigenin (4,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) at ~5 nM IC50. These new findings lay the basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell migration as it relates to neutrophil-mediated chronic inflammatory processes.

Henkels, Karen M.; Frondorf, Kathleen; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Doseff, Andrea L.; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

2010-01-01

142

PHLPP-Mediated Dephosphorylation of S6K1 Inhibits Protein Translation and Cell Growth ?  

PubMed Central

PHLPP is a family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases that contains PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 isoforms. We have shown previously that PHLPP functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating Akt signaling in cancer cells. Here we report the identification of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as a novel substrate of PHLPP. Overexpression of both PHLPP isoforms resulted in a decrease in S6K1 phosphorylation in cells, and this PHLPP-mediated dephosphorylation of S6K1 was independent of its ability to dephosphorylate Akt. Conversely, S6K1 phosphorylation was increased in cells depleted of PHLPP expression. Furthermore, we showed that the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) expression and insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation were significantly decreased as the result of activation of the S6K-dependent negative feedback loop in PHLPP knockdown cells. Functionally, the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and the amount of phosphorylated rpS6 bound to the translation initiation complex were increased in PHLPP-knockdown cells. This correlated with increased cell size, protein content, and rate of cap-dependent translation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that loss of PHLPP expression activates the S6K-dependent negative feedback loop and that PHLPP is a novel player involved in regulating protein translation initiation and cell size via direct dephosphorylation of S6K1.

Liu, Jianyu; Stevens, Payton D.; Li, Xin; Schmidt, Micheal D.; Gao, Tianyan

2011-01-01

143

S6K1 negatively regulates TAK1 activity in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a key regulator in the signals transduced by proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The regulatory mechanism of TAK1 in response to various tissue types and stimuli remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) negatively regulates TLR-mediated signals by inhibiting TAK1 activity. S6K1 overexpression causes a marked reduction in NF-?B and AP-1 activity induced by stimulation of TLR2 or TLR4. In contrast, S6K1(-/-) and S6K1 knockdown cells display enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, S6K1(-/-) mice exhibit decreased survival in response to challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that S6K1 inhibits TAK1 kinase activity by interfering with the interaction between TAK1 and TAB1, which is a key regulator protein for TAK1 catalytic function. Upon stimulation with TLR ligands, S6K1 deficiency causes a marked increase in TAK1 kinase activity that in turn induces a substantial enhancement of NF-?B-dependent gene expression, indicating that S6K1 is negatively involved in the TLR signaling pathway by the inhibition of TAK1 activity. Our findings contribute to understanding the molecular pathogenesis of the impaired immune responses seen in type 2 diabetes, where S6K1 plays a key role both in driving insulin resistance and modulating TLR signaling. PMID:24277938

Kim, So Yong; Baik, Kyung-Hwa; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Chah, Kyong-Hwa; Kim, Kyung Ah; Moon, Gyuyoung; Jung, Eunyu; Kim, Seong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hyuck; Greenblatt, Matthew B; Chun, Eunyoung; Lee, Ki-Young

2014-02-01

144

Artemisinin inhibits neuroblastoma proliferation through activation of AHP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling.  

PubMed

Recent population studies suggest that the use of artemisinin is associated with reduced incidence and improved prognosis of certain cancers. In the current study, we assessed the effect of artemisinin on neuroblastoma cells using SHSY5Y cells. We found that artemisinin inhibited growth and modulated expression of cell-cycle regulators in these cells. Treatment with artemisinin was also associated with activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/pS6 signaling in SHSY5Y cells. In addition, inhibition of AMPK signaling reversed impact on the anti-proliferative roles of artemisinin. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a mechanism that may contribute to the antineoplastic effects of artemisinin suggested by recent population studies and justify further work to explore its potential roles in neuroblastoma prevention and treatment. PMID:24974584

Tan, Wei-Qiang; Chen, Gang; Jia, Bing; Ye, Ming

2014-06-01

145

Rapamycin augments human DC IL-12p70 and IL-27 secretion to promote allogeneic Type 1 polarization modulated by NK cells.  

PubMed

Mammalian target of rapamycin kinase inhibitor (mTORi) rapamycin (RAPA) use in transplantation can lead to inflammatory complications in some patients. Our goal was to better understand how mTORi-exposed human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines shape T cell allo-immunity. RAPA-conditioned-DC (RAPA-DC) displayed a more immature phenotype than untreated, control (CTRL)-DC. However, subsequent exposure of RAPA-DC to an inflammatory cytokine cocktail (ICC) plus IFN-? induced a mature Type-1 promoting phenotype, consisting of elevated HLA-DR and co-stimulatory molecules, augmented IL-12p70 and IL-27 production, but decreased IL-10 secretion compared to CTRL-DC. Co-culture of mature (m)RAPA-DC with allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells resulted in significantly increased Type-1 (IFN-?) responses by T cells. Moreover, NK cells acted as innate modulators that conveyed activating cell-to-cell contact signals in addition to helper (IFN-?) and/or regulatory (IL-10) soluble cytokines. We conclude that production of IL12-p70, IL-27 and low IL-10 by RAPA-DC allowed us to elucidate how these cytokines as well as NK-DC interaction shapes T cell allo-immunity. Thus, lack of inhibitory NK cell function during allo-specific T cell activation by human ICC + IFN-?-stimulated RAPA-DC may represent an unwanted effector mechanism that may underlie RAPA-induced inflammatory events in transplant patients undergoing microbial infection or allograft rejection. PMID:24034707

Macedo, C; Turnquist, H R; Castillo-Rama, M; Zahorchak, A F; Shapiro, R; Thomson, A W; Metes, D

2013-09-01

146

Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and their role in regulating kinase activity.  

PubMed

3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a central role in signal transduction pathways that activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Despite its key role as an upstream activator of enzymes such as protein kinase B and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, the regulatory mechanisms controlling PDK1 activity are poorly understood. PDK1 has been reported to be constitutively active in resting cells and not further activated by growth factor stimulation (Casamayor, A., Morrice, N. A., and Alessi, D. R. (1999) Biochem. J. 342, 287-292). Here, we report that PDK1 becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to pervanadate and insulin. Following pervanadate treatment, PDK1 kinase activity increased 1.5- to 3-fold whereas the activity of PDK1 associated with the plasma membrane increased approximately 6-fold. The activity of PDK1 localized to the plasma membrane was also increased by insulin treatment. Three tyrosine phosphorylation sites of PDK1 (Tyr-9 and Tyr-373/376) were identified using in vivo labeling and mass spectrometry. Using site-directed mutants, we show that, although phosphorylation on Tyr-373/376 is important for PDK1 activity, phosphorylation on Tyr-9 has no effect on the activity of the kinase. Both of these residues can be phosphorylated by v-Src tyrosine kinase in vitro, and co-expression of v-Src leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PDK1. Thus, these data suggest that PDK1 activity is regulated by reversible phosphorylation, possibly by a member of the Src kinase family. PMID:11481331

Park, J; Hill, M M; Hess, D; Brazil, D P; Hofsteenge, J; Hemmings, B A

2001-10-01

147

Regulation of Interleukin 12 p40 and p70 Production by Blood and Alveolar Phagocytes During Severe Sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradoxically, the host response to severe sepsis may lead to immunosuppression, thereby favoring nosocomial infections. We examined the role of the two IL-12 isoforms, bioactive IL-12p70 and regulatory IL-12p40, in 16 patients with severe sepsis. We compared the capacity of purified blood and alveolar phagocytes [polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and monocytes\\/macrophages] to secrete each isoform. Blood monocytes had normal basal secretions.

Frédéric Ethuin; Charlotte Delarche; Marie-Anne Gougerot-Pocidalo; Benoît Eurin; Laurent Jacob; Sylvie Chollet-Martin

2003-01-01

148

Identification of Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantigens and analysis of anti-Ki autoantibody reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Anti-Ki (Ku, p70/p80) autoantibodies, named after the prototype patient Kikuta by Tojo et al., occur in approximately 10% of patients with SLE, often in association with anti-Sm autoantibodies. Anti-Ki sera specifically immunoprecipitated two protein antigens, Ki/sub 86/ (M/sub r/ 86,000) and Ki/sub 66/ (M/sub r/ 66,000), from radiolabeled cell extracts. The Ki system was found to be immunologically identical to the Ku system described by Mimori et al. and the p70/p80 system described by Reeves. The Ki primary in vitro translation products were identified and proved similar in size to the cellular antigens. The Ki antigens were purified from human spleen by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. The purified Ki antigens proved to be closely related by amino acid composition, and did not appear to be phosphorylated, glycosylated, or associated with RNA. The Ki antigens were found to bind to DNA, in agreement with the observations on the Ku and p70/p80 antigens. They were found to be widely conserved in mammals and were coordinately expressed in all tissues tested.

Francoeur, A.M.; Peebles, C.L.; Gompper, P.T.; Tan, E.M.

1986-03-01

149

S6K1 alternative splicing modulates its oncogenic activity and regulates mTORC1.  

PubMed

Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a major mTOR downstream signaling molecule that regulates cell size and translation efficiency. Here, we report that short isoforms of S6K1 are overproduced in breast cancer cell lines and tumors. Overexpression of S6K1 short isoforms induces transformation of human breast epithelial cells. The long S6K1 variant (Iso-1) induced opposite effects. It inhibits Ras-induced transformation and tumor formation, while its knockdown or knockout induces transformation, suggesting that Iso-1 has a tumor-suppressor activity. Furthermore, we found that S6K1 short isoforms bind and activate mTORC1, elevating 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, cap-dependent translation, and Mcl-1 protein levels. Both a phosphorylation-defective 4E-BP1 mutant and the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin partially blocked the oncogenic effects of S6K1 short isoforms, suggesting that these are mediated by mTORC1 and 4E-BP1. Thus, alternative splicing of S6K1 acts as a molecular switch in breast cancer cells, elevating oncogenic isoforms that activate mTORC1. PMID:23273915

Ben-Hur, Vered; Denichenko, Polina; Siegfried, Zahava; Maimon, Avi; Krainer, Adrian; Davidson, Ben; Karni, Rotem

2013-01-31

150

Zymosan suppresses leukotriene C? synthase activity in differentiating monocytes: antagonism by aspirin and protein kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are potent proinflammatory mediators with particular relevance for asthma. However, control of cysLT biosynthesis in the time period after onset of acute inflammation has not been extensively studied. As a model for later phases of inflammation, we investigated regulation of leukotriene (LT) C(4) synthase (LTC(4)S) in differentiating monocytes, exposed for several days to fungal zymosan. Incubations with LTA(4) revealed 20-fold increased LTC(4)S activity during differentiation of monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells, which was reduced by 80% in the presence of zymosan (25 ?g/ml, 96 h). Zymosan (48 h) similarly attenuated LTC(4)S activity of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Several findings indicate phosphoregulation of LTC(4)S: increased activity during MM6 cell differentiation correlated with reduced phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), which could phosphorylate purified LTC(4)S; the p70S6K inhibitor rapamycin (20 nM) doubled LTC(4)S activity of undifferentiated MM6 cells, and protein kinase A and C inhibitors (H-89, CGP-53353, and staurosporine) reversed the zymosan-induced suppression of LTC(4)S activity. Finally, zymosan (48 h) up-regulated PGE(2) biosynthesis, and aspirin (10 ?M) or prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor antagonists counteracted the zymosan effect. Our results suggest a late PGE(2)-mediated phosphoregulation of LTC(4)S during microbial exposure, which may contribute to resolution of inflammation, with implications for aspirin hypersensitivity. PMID:21228223

Esser, Julia; Gehrmann, Ulf; Salvado, M Dolores; Wetterholm, Anders; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Samuelsson, Bengt; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Scheynius, Annika; Rådmark, Olof

2011-04-01

151

Sirtuin 1 Is a Key Regulator of the Interleukin-12 p70/Interleukin-23 Balance in Human Dendritic Cells*  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of human dendritic cells with the fungal surrogate zymosan produces IL-23 and a low amount of IL-12 p70. Trans-repression of il12a transcription, which encodes IL-12 p35 chain, by proteins of the Notch family and lysine deacetylation reactions have been reported as the underlying mechanisms, but a number of questions remain to be addressed. Zymosan produced the location of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to the nucleus, enhanced its association with the il12a promoter, increased the nuclear concentration of the SIRT1 co-substrate NAD+, and decreased chromatin accessibility in the nucleosome-1 of il12a, which contains a ?B-site. The involvement of deacetylation reactions in the inhibition of il12a transcription was supported by the absence of Ac-Lys-14-histone H3 in dendritic cells treated with zymosan upon coimmunoprecipitation of transducin-like enhancer of split. In contrast, we did not obtain evidence of a possible effect of SIRT1 through the deacetylation of c-Rel, the central element of the NF-?B family involved in il12a regulation. These data indicate that an enhancement of SIRT1 activity in response to phagocytic stimuli may reduce the accessibility of c-Rel to the il12a promoter and its transcriptional activation, thus regulating the IL-12 p70/IL-23 balance and modulating the ongoing immune response.

Alvarez, Yolanda; Rodriguez, Mario; Municio, Cristina; Hugo, Etzel; Alonso, Sara; Ibarrola, Nieves; Fernandez, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sanchez

2012-01-01

152

3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 as an emerging target in the management of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

It should be noted that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is a protein encoded by the PDPK1 gene, which plays a key role in the signaling pathways activated by several growth factors and hormones. PDK1 is a crucial kinase that functions downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation and activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases, such as protein kinase B (Akt), protein kinase C (PKC), p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases, and serum glucocorticoid-dependent kinase, by phosphorylating serine/threonine residues in the activation loop. AGC kinases are known to play crucial roles in regulating physiological processes relevant to metabolism, growth, proliferation, and survival. Changes in the expression and activity of PDK1 and several AGC kinases have been linked to human diseases including cancer. Recent data have revealed that the alteration of PDK1 is a critical component of oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in breast cancer, suggesting that inhibition of PDK1 can inhibit breast cancer progression. Indeed, PDK1 is highly expressed in a majority of human breast cancer cell lines and both PDK1 protein and messenger ribonucleic acid are overexpressed in a majority of human breast cancers. Furthermore, overexpression of PDK1 is sufficient to transform mammary epithelial cells. PDK1 plays an essential role in regulating cell migration, especially in the context of phosphatase and tensin homologue deficiency. More importantly, downregulation of PDK1 levels inhibits migration and experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Thus, targeting PDK1 may be a valuable anticancer strategy that may improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic strategies in breast cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the evidence that has been reported to support the idea that PDK1 may be a key target in breast cancer management.

Fyffe, Chanse; Falasca, Marco

2013-01-01

153

Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Ribosomal Protein S6 Gene in the Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

Ribosomal protein (rp) S6 is the substrate of ribosomal protein S6K (S6 kinase) and is involved in protein synthesis by mTOR/S6K/S6 signaling pathway. Some S6 cDNA have been cloned in mammals in recent years but has not been identified in the goat. To facilitate such studies, we cloned the cDNA encoding Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) S6 (GenBank accession GU131122) and then detected mRNA expression in seven tissues by real time PCR and protein expression in testis tissue by immunohistochemisty. Sequence analysis indicated that the obtained goat S6 was a 808 bp product, including a 3' untranslated region of 58 bp and an open reading frame of 750 bp which predicted a protein of 249 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence was highly homologous to cattle, human, mouse and rat S6. Expression analysis indicated S6 mRNA was expressed extensively in detected tissues and S6 protein was expressed in testis tissue. PMID:25049753

Wenlei, Bao; Xiyan, Hao; Xu, Zheng; Yan, Liang; Yuhao, Chen; Yanfeng, Wang; Zhigang, Wang

2013-11-01

154

Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Ribosomal Protein S6 Gene in the Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus)  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal protein (rp) S6 is the substrate of ribosomal protein S6K (S6 kinase) and is involved in protein synthesis by mTOR/S6K/S6 signaling pathway. Some S6 cDNA have been cloned in mammals in recent years but has not been identified in the goat. To facilitate such studies, we cloned the cDNA encoding Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) S6 (GenBank accession GU131122) and then detected mRNA expression in seven tissues by real time PCR and protein expression in testis tissue by immunohistochemisty. Sequence analysis indicated that the obtained goat S6 was a 808 bp product, including a 3? untranslated region of 58 bp and an open reading frame of 750 bp which predicted a protein of 249 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence was highly homologous to cattle, human, mouse and rat S6. Expression analysis indicated S6 mRNA was expressed extensively in detected tissues and S6 protein was expressed in testis tissue.

Wenlei, Bao; Xiyan, Hao; Xu, Zheng; Yan, Liang; Yuhao, Chen; Yanfeng, Wang; Zhigang, Wang

2013-01-01

155

WNK1, the kinase mutated in an inherited high-blood-pressure syndrome, is a novel PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt substrate.  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence indicates that mutations in the gene encoding the WNK1 [with no K (lysine) protein kinase-1] results in an inherited hypertension syndrome called pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. The mechanisms by which WNK1 is regulated or the substrates it phosphorylates are currently unknown. We noticed that Thr-60 of WNK1, which lies N-terminal to the catalytic domain, is located within a PKB (protein kinase B) phosphorylation consensus sequence. We found that PKB phosphorylated WNK1 efficiently compared with known substrates, and both peptide map and mutational analysis revealed that the major PKB site of phosphorylation was Thr-60. Employing a phosphospecific Thr-60 WNK1 antibody, we demonstrated that IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor) stimulation of HEK-293 cells induced phosphorylation of endogenously expressed WNK1 at Thr-60. Consistent with PKB mediating this phosphorylation, inhibitors of PI 3-kinase (phosphoinositide 3-kinase; wortmannin and LY294002) but not inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (rapamycin) or MEK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1) activation (PD184352), inhibited IGF1-induced phosphorylation of endogenous WNK1 at Thr-60. Moreover, IGF1-induced phosphorylation of endogenous WNK1 did not occur in PDK1-/- ES (embryonic stem) cells, in which PKB is not activated. In contrast, IGF1 still induced normal phosphorylation of WNK1 in PDK1(L155E/L155E) knock-in ES cells in which PKB, but not S6K (p70 ribosomal S6 kinase) or SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1), is activated. Our study provides strong pharmacological and genetic evidence that PKB mediates the phosphorylation of WNK1 at Thr-60 in vivo. We also performed experiments which suggest that the phosphorylation of WNK1 by PKB is not regulating its kinase activity or cellular localization directly. These results provide the first connection between the PI 3-kinase/PKB pathway and WNK1, suggesting a mechanism by which this pathway may influence blood pressure.

Vitari, Alberto C; Deak, Maria; Collins, Barry J; Morrice, Nick; Prescott, Alan R; Phelan, Anne; Humphreys, Sian; Alessi, Dario R

2004-01-01

156

RAS/ERK signaling promotes site-specific ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation via RSK and stimulates cap-dependent translation.  

PubMed

Converging signals from the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are well established to modulate translation initiation. Less is known regarding the molecular basis of protein synthesis regulated by other inputs, such as agonists of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade. Ribosomal protein (rp) S6 is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit that becomes phosphorylated at several serine residues upon mitogen stimulation, but the exact molecular mechanisms regulating its phosphorylation and the function of phosphorylated rpS6 is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that activation of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) by serum, growth factors, tumor promoting phorbol esters, and oncogenic Ras is required for rpS6 phosphorylation downstream of the Ras/ERK signaling cascade. We demonstrate that while ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylates rpS6 at all sites, RSK exclusively phosphorylates rpS6 at Ser(235/236) in vitro and in vivo using an mTOR-independent mechanism. Mutation of rpS6 at Ser(235/236) reveals that phosphorylation of these sites promotes its recruitment to the 7-methylguanosine cap complex, suggesting that Ras/ERK signaling regulates assembly of the translation preinitiation complex. These data demonstrate that RSK provides an mTOR-independent pathway linking the Ras/ERK signaling cascade to the translational machinery. PMID:17360704

Roux, Philippe P; Shahbazian, David; Vu, Hieu; Holz, Marina K; Cohen, Michael S; Taunton, Jack; Sonenberg, Nahum; Blenis, John

2007-05-11

157

Macrophage IL-12p70 Signaling Prevents HSV-1-Induced CNS Autoimmunity Triggered by Autoaggressive CD4+ Tregs  

PubMed Central

Purpose. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain self-tolerance and function to suppress overly exuberant immune responses. However, it is unclear whether innate immune cells modulate Treg function. Here the authors examined the role of innate immunity in lymphomyeloid homeostasis. Methods. The involvement of B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells in central nervous system (CNS) demyelination in different strains of mice infected ocularly with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was investigated. Results. The authors found that depletion of macrophages, but not DCs, B cells, NK cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells, induced CNS demyelination irrespective of virus or mouse strain. As with macrophage depletion, mice deficient in interleukin (IL)-12p35 or IL-12p40 showed CNS demyelination after HSV-1 infection, whereas demyelination was undetectable in HSV-1–infected, IL-23p19–deficient, or Epstein-Barr virus–induced gene 3-deficient mice. Demyelination could be rescued in macrophage-depleted mice after the injection of IL-12p70 DNA and in IL-12p35?/? or IL-12p40?/? mice after injection with IL-12p35 or IL-12p40 DNA or with recombinant viruses expressing IL-12p35 or IL-12p40. Using FoxP3-, CD4-, CD8-, or CD25-depletion and gene-deficient mouse approaches, the authors demonstrated that HSV-1–induced demyelination was blocked in the absence of CD4, CD25, or FoxP3 in macrophage-depleted mice. Flow cytometry showed an elevation of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells in the spleens of infected macrophage-depleted mice, and adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells to infected macrophage-depleted severe combined immunodeficient mice induced CNS demyelination. Conclusions. The authors demonstrated that macrophage IL-12p70 signaling plays an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis in the CNS by preventing the development of autoaggressive CD4+ Tregs.

Mott, Kevin R.; Gate, David; Zandian, Mandana; Allen, Sariah J.; Rajasagi, Naveen Kumar; van Rooijen, Nico; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Rouse, Barry T.; Flavell, Richard A.; Town, Terrence; Ghiasi, Homayon

2011-01-01

158

Myricetin inhibits UVB-induced angiogenesis by regulating PI-3 kinase in vivo  

PubMed Central

Myricetin is one of the principal phytochemicals in onions, berries and red wine. Previous studies showed that myricetin exhibits potent anticancer and chemopreventive effects. The present study examined the effect of myricetin on ultraviolet (UV) B-induced angiogenesis in an SKH-1 hairless mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Topical treatment with myricetin inhibited repetitive UVB-induced neovascularization in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The induction of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-13 expression by chronic UVB irradiation was significantly suppressed by myricetin treatment. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed that myricetin inhibited UVB-induced hypoxia inducible factor-1? expression in mouse skin. Western blot analysis and kinase assay data revealed that myricetin suppressed UVB-induced phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity and subsequently attenuated the UVB-induced phosphorylation of Akt/p70S6K in mouse skin lysates. A pull-down assay revealed the direct binding of PI-3 kinase and myricetin in mouse skin lysates. Our results indicate that myricetin suppresses UVB-induced angiogenesis by regulating PI-3 kinase activity in vivo in mouse skin.

Jung, Sung Keun; Lee, Ki Won; Byun, Sanguine; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

2010-01-01

159

Glycogen synthase kinase-3? mediates convergence of protection signaling to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore  

PubMed Central

Environmental stresses converge on the mitochondria that can trigger or inhibit cell death. Excitable, postmitotic cells, in response to sublethal noxious stress, engage mechanisms that afford protection from subsequent insults. We show that reoxygenation after prolonged hypoxia reduces the reactive oxygen species (ROS) threshold for the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in cardiomyocytes and that cell survival is steeply negatively correlated with the fraction of depolarized mitochondria. Cell protection that exhibits a memory (preconditioning) results from triggered mitochondrial swelling that causes enhanced substrate oxidation and ROS production, leading to redox activation of PKC, which inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Alternatively, receptor tyrosine kinase or certain G protein–coupled receptor activation elicits cell protection (without mitochondrial swelling or durable memory) by inhibiting GSK-3?, via protein kinase B/Akt and mTOR/p70s6k pathways, PKC pathways, or protein kinase A pathways. The convergence of these pathways via inhibition of GSK-3? on the end effector, the permeability transition pore complex, to limit MPT induction is the general mechanism of cardiomyocyte protection.

Juhaszova, Magdalena; Zorov, Dmitry B.; Kim, Suhn-Hee; Pepe, Salvatore; Fu, Qin; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Ziman, Bruce D.; Wang, Su; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Antos, Christopher L.; Olson, Eric N.; Sollott, Steven J.

2004-01-01

160

Human CDC45 protein binds to minichromosome maintenance 7 protein and the p70 subunit of DNA polymerase alpha.  

PubMed

Budding yeast CDC45 encodes Cdc45p, an essential protein required to trigger initiation of DNA replication in late G1 phase. We cloned four and one species of the human Cdc45p homolog cDNA, resulting from different splicing patterns, from HeLa cell and human placenta cDNA libraries, respectively. A comparison of the cDNAs and the genomic sequence showed that the longest encoding a 610-amino acid protein was comprised of 20 exons. One species, which lacks exon 7 and contains the shorter of two exons 18, was identical with the previously reported CDC45L cDNA and constituted 24 out of 28 clones from HeLa cells. Splicing was different in HeLa cells and TIG-1 cells, a human diploid cell line. Human CDC45 protein was found to bind directly in vitro to human minichromosome maintenance 7 protein (hMCM7) and to the p70 subunit of DNA polymerase alpha. The data support a thesis that human CDC45 acts as a molecular tether to mediate loading of the DNA polymerase alpha on to the DNA replication complex through binding to hMCM7. PMID:10518787

Kukimoto, I; Igaki, H; Kanda, T

1999-11-01

161

Acute ketamine-induced neuroplasticity: ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation expression in drug addiction-related rat brain areas.  

PubMed

Recent clinical studies show that a low dose of dissociative anesthetic ketamine (KET) induced a rapid antidepressant response that lasted for up to 7 days. This effect could be related to the capacity of KET to acutely induce molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity engaged after chronic treatments. KET produces its actions by binding to the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, leading to increased activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (rpS6P) is downstream to mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6K activation, a molecular mechanism correlating synaptic protein synthesis and neuroplasticity. As neuroplasticity is also a key mechanism of addiction development, and considering the increasing abuse of KET, our aim was to examine the effect of acute KET administration on the expression of rpS6 in drug addiction-related cerebral areas. We tested in rats the effect of different KET doses (5 or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on rpS6P expression by immunolocalization in prelimbic (PRL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices, nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) and nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), hippocampus (CA1 and CA3), and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Expression levels of rpS6 were quantified. A significant dose-related increase in rpS6P expression in PRL, IL, BLA, NAcC but not in the NAcS and hippocampus was found after acute KET. These data confirm acute KET-induced neuroplasticity effects, and extend these findings to drug addiction-related brain areas. PMID:23568219

Tedesco, Vincenzo; Ravagnani, Chiara; Bertoglio, Daniele; Chiamulera, Cristiano

2013-05-01

162

The Bacterial Preparation OK432 Induces IL-12p70 Secretion in Human Dendritic Cells in a TLR3 Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DC) used in therapeutic cancer immunotherapy have to be able to stimulate T cells resulting in an immune response that can efficiently target the cancer cells. One of the critical hurdles has been the lack of IL-12p70 production when maturating the DC, which is rectified by using the bacterial preparation OK432 (trade name Picibanil) to mature the cells. In order to identify the mechanism behind OK432 stimulation of DC, we investigated the contribution of different TLR to examine their involvement in IL-12p70 production. By combining different inhibitors of TLR signaling, we demonstrate here that TLR3 is responsible for the IL-12p70 production of DC induced by OK432. Moreover, our data suggest that the ligand triggering IL-12p70 secretion upon TLR3 stimulation is sensitive to proteinase and partly also RNAse treatment. The fact that a bacterial compound like OK432 can activate the TLR3 pathway in human DC is a novel finding. OK432 demonstrates a critical ability to induce IL-12p70 production, which is of great relevance in DC based cancer immunotherapy.

Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Karlsen, Marie; Jonsson, Roland; Appel, Silke

2012-01-01

163

S6K1 plays a key role in glial transformation.  

PubMed

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient and ATP sensor suggested to play an important role in tumorigenesis, particularly in the setting of PTEN loss or activated Akt/PKB. Of mTOR's two known effectors, eIF4E has been implicated in tumorigenesis, whereas the role of S6 kinase (S6K1) in transformation is less understood. To assess the contribution of S6K1 to the transformed phenotype, we pharmacologically and genetically manipulated the mTOR-S6K pathway in glioma cells and monitored its effects on growth in soft agar, a hallmark of cellular transformation, and also assessed in vivo intracranial growth. Anchorage-independent growth by HRas(V12)-transformed human astrocytes as well as by U251 and U373 human glioma cells was inhibited by pharmacologic mTOR inhibition. Similarly, short hairpin RNA-mediated suppression of mTOR also reduced anchorage-independent growth of glioma cell lines. Expression of wild-type eIF4E in rapamycin-treated E6/E7/hTert/HRas(V12) and U373 cells failed to rescue colony formation, although expression of wild-type S6K1 or rapamycin-resistant S6K1 in rapamycin-treated U373 and U251 provided partial rescue. Consistent with the latter observation, small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of S6K1 in HRas(V12)-transformed human astrocytes, U251, and U373 cells resulted in a significant loss of anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, we found that in vivo short hairpin RNA-mediated suppression of S6K1 in HRas(V12)-transformed human astrocytes reduced intracranial tumor size, in association with reduced tumor levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6. These findings implicate the mTOR-S6K pathway as a critical mediator of glial cell transformation. PMID:18701474

Nakamura, Jean L; Garcia, Edna; Pieper, Russell O

2008-08-15

164

Atomic-scale structure of Mo6S6 nanowires.  

PubMed

We have studied the atomic-scale structure of the Mo6S6 nanowires using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS) and density functional theory (DFT). A novel synthesis route based on metallic Mo precursors is presented for the selective formation of elementary pure Mo6S6 nanowires. The Mo6S6 nanowires selectively organize as trimer bundles, and each of the Mo6S6 nanowires consists of an electrically conducting Mo backbone dressed with a sulfur exterior cap. The Mo6S6 nanowires may thus be of interest as novel building blocks in nanoelectronics because the Mo6S6 nanowires exist in a robust, singular structural conformation with uniquely defined electrical (metallic) properties. PMID:18950238

Kibsgaard, Jakob; Tuxen, Anders; Levisen, Martin; Laegsgaard, Erik; Gemming, Sibylle; Seifert, Gotthard; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; Besenbacher, Flemming

2008-11-01

165

Interleukin-12 (IL-12p70) Promotes Induction of Highly Potent Th1-Like CD4+CD25+ T Regulatory Cells That Inhibit Allograft Rejection in Unmodified Recipients  

PubMed Central

In rat models, CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Treg) play a key role in the induction and maintenance of antigen-specific transplant tolerance, especially in DA rats with PVG cardiac allografts (1, 2). We have previously described generation of alloantigen-specific Treg (Ts1), by culture of naïve natural CD4+CD25+ Treg (nTreg) with specific alloantigen and IL-2 for 4?days. These cells express mRNA for IFN-? receptor (ifngr) and suppress donor but not third party cardiac allograft rejection mediated by alloreactive CD4+ T cells at ratios of <1:10. Here, we show that Ts1 also expressed the IL-12p70 specific receptor (il-12r?2) and that rIL-12p70 can induce their proliferation. Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-12p70 alone or rIL-12p70 and recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), suppressed proliferation of CD4+ T cells in mixed lymphocyte culture at <1:1024, whereas Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-2 and alloantigen only suppressed at 1:32–64. The rIL-12p70 alloactivated Ts1 cells markedly delayed PVG, but not third party Lewis, cardiac allograft rejection in normal DA recipients. Ts1 cells re-cultured for 4?days with rIL-12p70 alone, but not those re-cultured with rIL-12p70 and rIL-2, expressed more il-12r?2, t-bet, and ifn-?, and continued to express the markers of Ts1 cells, foxp3, ifngr, and il-5 indicating Th1-like Treg were induced. Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-2 and alloantigen remained of the Ts1 phenotype and did not suppress cardiac graft rejection in normal DA rats. We induced highly suppressive Th1-like Treg from naïve nTreg in 7?days by culture with alloantigen, first with rIL-2 then with rIL-12p70. These Th1-like Treg delayed specific donor allograft rejection demonstrating therapeutic potential.

Verma, Nirupama Darshan; Hall, Bruce Milne; Plain, Karren Michelle; Robinson, Catherine M.; Boyd, Rochelle; Tran, Giang T.; Wang, Chuanmin; Bishop, G. Alex; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J.

2014-01-01

166

The Combined Deletion of S6K1 and Akt2 Deteriorates Glycemic Control in a High-Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

Signaling downstream of mechanistic target of rapamycin complexes 1 and 2 (mTORC1 and mTORC2) controls specific and distinct aspects of insulin action and nutrient homeostasis in an interconnected and as yet unclear way. Mice lacking the mTORC1 substrate S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) maintain proper glycemic control with a high-fat diet. This phenotype is accompanied by insulin hypersensitivity, Akt- and AMP-activated kinase upregulation, and increased lipolysis in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Here, we show that, when S6K1 inactivation is combined with the deletion of the mTORC2 substrate Akt2, glucose homeostasis is compromised due to defects in both insulin action and ?-cell function. After a high-fat diet, the S6K1?/? Akt2?/? double-mutant mice do not become obese, though they are severely hyperglycemic. Our data demonstrate that S6K1 is required for pancreatic ?-cell growth and function during adaptation to insulin resistance states. Strikingly, the inactivation of two targets of mTOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling is sufficient to reproduce major hallmarks of type 2 diabetes.

Treins, Caroline; Alliouachene, Samira; Hassouna, Rim; Xie, Yun; Birnbaum, Morris J.

2012-01-01

167

Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis.

Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H. (Tokyo Women's Medical College (Japan))

1990-08-15

168

Ghrelin-induced food intake and adiposity depend on central mTORC1/S6K1 signaling.  

PubMed

Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and its effectors the S6-kinases (S6K) in the hypothalamus is thought to be involved in nutrient sensing and control of food intake. Given the anatomical proximity of this pathway to circuits for the hormone ghrelin, we investigated the potential role of the mTORC1/S6K pathway in mediating the metabolic effects of ghrelin. We found that ghrelin promoted phosphorylation of S6K1 in the mouse hypothalamic cell line N-41 and in the rat hypothalamus after intracerebroventricular administration. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, suppressed ghrelin-induced phosphorylation of hypothalamic S6K1 and increased food intake and insulin in rats. Chronic peripheral administration of ghrelin induced a significant increase in body weight, fat mass and food efficiency in wild-type and S6K2-knockout but not in S6K1-knockout mice. We therefore propose that ghrelin-induced hyperphagia, adiposity and insulin secretion are controlled by a central nervous system involving the mTORC1/S6K1 pathway. PMID:23994018

Stevanovic, Darko; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Müller-Lühlhoff, Sabrina; Brandt, Elisabeth; Abplanalp, William; Bumke-Vogt, Christiane; Liehl, Beate; Wiedmer, Petra; Janjetovic, Kristina; Starcevic, Vesna; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Tschöp, Matthias H; Castañeda, Tamara R

2013-12-01

169

Simultaneous inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 by mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD8055 induces autophagy and cell death in cancer cells.  

PubMed

mTOR is a major biological switch, coordinating an adequate response to changes in energy uptake (amino acids, glucose), growth signals (hormones, growth factors) and environmental stress. mTOR kinase is highly conserved through evolution from yeast to man and in both cases, controls autophagy and cellular translation in response to nutrient stress. mTOR kinase is the catalytic component of two distinct multiprotein complexes called mTORC1 and mTORC2. In addition to mTOR, mTORC1 contains Raptor, mLST8 and PRAS40. mTORC2 contains mTOR, Rictor, mSIN1 and Protor-1. mTORC1 activates p70S6K, which in turn phosphorylates the ribosomal protein S6 and 4E-BP1, both involved in protein translation. mTORC2 activates AKT directly by phosphorylating Serine 473. pAKT(S473) phosphorylates TSC2 (tuberin) and inactivates it, preventing its association with TSC1 (hamartin) and the inhibition of Rheb, an activator of mTOR. pAKT also phosphorylates PRAS40, releasing it from the mTORC1 complex, increasing its kinase activity. Finally, AKT regulates FOXO3 phosphorylation, sequestering it in the cytosol in an inactive state. PMID:20364113

Sini, Patrizia; James, Dominic; Chresta, Christine; Guichard, Sylvie

2010-05-01

170

Prognostic significance and therapeutic potential of the activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in anaplastic large cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-mediated tumorigenesis in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and correlated with unfavorable outcome in certain types of other cancers. However, the prognostic value of AKT/mTOR activation in ALCL remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we aim to address this question from a clinical perspective by comparing the expressions of the AKT/mTOR signaling molecules in ALCL patients and exploring the therapeutic significance of targeting the AKT/mTOR pathway in ALCL. Methods A cohort of 103 patients with ALCL was enrolled in the study. Expression of ALK fusion proteins and the AKT/mTOR signaling phosphoproteins was studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The pathogenic role of ALK fusion proteins and the therapeutic significance of targeting the ATK/mTOR signaling pathway were further investigated in vitro study with an ALK?+?ALCL cell line and the NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells. Results ALK expression was detected in 60% of ALCLs, of which 79% exhibited the presence of NPM-ALK, whereas the remaining 21% expressed variant-ALK fusions. Phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (p70S6K1) was detected in 76%, 80%, 91%, and 93% of ALCL patients, respectively. Both phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and p-mTOR were correlated to ALK expression, and p-mTOR was closely correlated to p-AKT. Both p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K1 were correlated to p-mTOR, but were not correlated to the expression of ALK and p-AKT. Clinically, ALK?+?ALCL occurred more commonly in younger patients, and ALK?+?ALCL patients had a much better prognosis than ALK-ALCL cases. However, expression of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1, or p-p70S6K1 did not have an impact on the clinical outcome. Overexpression of NPM-ALK in a nonmalignant murine pro-B lymphoid cell line, BaF3, induced the cells to become cytokine-independent and resistant to glucocorticoids (GCs). Targeting AKT/mTOR inhibited growth and triggered the apoptotic cell death of ALK?+?ALCL cells and NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells, and also reversed GC resistance induced by overexpression of NPM-ALK. Conclusions Overexpression of ALK due to chromosomal translocations is seen in the majority of ALCL patients and endows them with a much better prognosis. The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is highly activated in ALK?+?ALCL patients and targeting the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway might confer a great therapeutic potential in ALCL.

2013-01-01

171

Involvement of phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated inhibition of the phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We found that treatment with PTTH in vitro inhibited AMPK phosphorylation in time- and dose-dependent manners, as seen on Western blots of glandular lysates probed with antibody directed against AMPK? phosphorylated at Thr172. Moreover, in vitro inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by PTTH was also verified by in vivo experiments: injection of PTTH into day 7 last instar larvae greatly inhibited glandular AMPK phosphorylation. PTTH-inhibited AMPK phosphorylation appeared to be partially reversed by treatment with LY294002, indicating involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. A chemical activator of AMPK (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-d-ribofuranoside, AICAR) increased both basal and PTTH-inhibited AMPK phosphorylation. Treatment with AICAR also inhibited PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis of prothoracic glands. The mechanism underlying inhibition of PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis by AICAR was further investigated by determining the phosphorylation of eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), two known downstream signaling targets of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Upon treatment with AICAR, decreases in PTTH-stimulated phosphorylation of 4E-BP and S6K were detected. In addition, treatment with AICAR did not affect PTTH-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK phosphorylation is not upstream signaling for ERK phosphorylation. Examination of gene expression levels of AMPK?, ?, and ? by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that PTTH did not affect AMPK transcription. From these results, it is assumed that inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation, which lies upstream of PTTH-stimulated TOR signaling, may play a role in PTTH stimulation of ecdysteroidogenesis. PMID:23671658

Gu, Shi-Hong; Hsieh, Yun-Chin; Young, Shun-Chieh; Lin, Pei-Ling

2013-01-01

172

Autophagy-dependent and -independent involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The role of the main intracellular energy sensor adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the induction of autophagic response and cell death was investigated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells exposed to the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The induction of autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the presence of autophagosome- and autophagolysosome-like vesicles confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, as well as by microtubule-associated protein 1 light-chain 3 (LC3) conversion and p62 degradation detected by immunoblotting. 6-OHDA induced phosphorylation of AMPK and its target Raptor, followed by the dephosphorylation of the major autophagy inhibitor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its substrate p70S6 kinase (S6K). 6-OHDA treatment failed to suppress mTOR/S6K phosphorylation and to increase LC3 conversion, p62 degradation and cytoplasmatic acidification in neuroblastoma cells in which AMPK expression was downregulated by RNA interference. Transfection of SH-SY5Y cells with AMPK or LC3? shRNA, as well as treatment with pharmacological autophagy inhibitors suppressed, while mTOR inhibitor rapamycin potentiated 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. 6-OHDA induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in an AMPK-dependent manner, and pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAP kinase reduced neurotoxicity, but not AMPK activation and autophagy triggered by 6-OHDA. Finally, the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine antagonized 6-OHDA-induced activation of AMPK, p38 and autophagy. These data suggest that oxidative stress-mediated AMPK/mTOR-dependent autophagy and AMPK/p38-dependent apoptosis could be valid therapeutic targets for neuroprotection. PMID:22917563

Arsikin, Katarina; Kravic-Stevovic, Tamara; Jovanovic, Maja; Ristic, Biljana; Tovilovic, Gordana; Zogovic, Nevena; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica

2012-11-01

173

Resveratrol inhibits the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in the human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell line  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol inhibits the initiation, promotion and progression of tumors, however, the mechanism by which resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of the human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell line remains unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of resveratrol on the activation of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade in K562 cells. Resveratrol showed significant cytotoxic effects and induced apoptosis in K562 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and mTOR in the K562 cells. Furthermore, the selected inhibitors of PI3K (LY294002), Akt (SH-6) and mTOR (rapamycin) enhanced the effects of resveratrol in K562 cells. In addition, cyclin D1 levels were found to decrease and the activation of caspase-3 was observed. Resveratrol was also found to significantly attenuate the phosphorylation of the downstream molecules, p70S6K and 4EBP1. These results suggested that the downregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascades may be a crucial mediator in the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis by resveratrol in K562 cells.

SUI, TAO; MA, LI; BAI, XUE; LI, QING; XU, XINNV

2014-01-01

174

Follicle-stimulating Hormone Activation of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 by the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT/Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway Is Necessary for Induction of Select Protein Markers of Follicular Differentiation*  

PubMed Central

We sought to elucidate the role of AKT in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-mediated granulosa cell (GC) differentiation. Our results define a signaling pathway in GCs whereby the inactivating phosphorylation of tuberin downstream of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/AKT activity leads to Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain) and subsequent mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation. mTOR then stimulates translation by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase and, consequently, the 40 S ribosomal protein S6. Activation of this pathway is required for FSH-mediated induction of several follicular differentiation markers, including luteinizing-hormone receptor (LHR), inhibin-?, microtubule-associated protein 2D, and the PKA type II? regulatory subunit. FSH also promotes activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). FSH-stimulated HIF-1 activity is inhibited by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, the Rheb inhibitor FTI-277 (farne-syltransferase inhibitor-277), and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Finally, we find that the FSH-mediated up-regulation of reporter activities for LHR, inhibin-?, and vascular endothelial growth factor is dependent upon HIF-1 activity, because a dominant negative form of HIF-1? interferes with the up-regulation of these genes. These results show that FSH enhances HIF-1 activity downstream of the PI 3-kinase/AKT/Rheb/mTOR pathway in GCs and that HIF-1 activity is necessary for FSH to induce multiple follicular differentiation markers.

Alam, Hena; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Park, Youngkyu; Ghaey, Shail; Feiger, Zachary J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

2006-01-01

175

AZD8055 is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable ATP-competitive mammalian target of rapamycin kinase inhibitor with in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity.  

PubMed

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase forms two multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulate cell growth, cell survival, and autophagy. Allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1, such as rapamycin, have been extensively used to study tumor cell growth, proliferation, and autophagy but have shown only limited clinical utility. Here, we describe AZD8055, a novel ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase activity, with an IC50 of 0.8 nmol/L. AZD8055 showed excellent selectivity (approximately 1,000-fold) against all class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms and other members of the PI3K-like kinase family. Furthermore, there was no significant activity against a panel of 260 kinases at concentrations up to 10 micromol/L. AZD8055 inhibits the phosphorylation of mTORC1 substrates p70S6K and 4E-BP1 as well as phosphorylation of the mTORC2 substrate AKT and downstream proteins. The rapamycin-resistant T37/46 phosphorylation sites on 4E-BP1 were fully inhibited by AZD8055, resulting in significant inhibition of cap-dependent translation. In vitro, AZD8055 potently inhibits proliferation and induces autophagy in H838 and A549 cells. In vivo, AZD8055 induces a dose-dependent pharmacodynamic effect on phosphorylated S6 and phosphorylated AKT at plasma concentrations leading to tumor growth inhibition. Notably, AZD8055 results in significant growth inhibition and/or regression in xenografts, representing a broad range of human tumor types. AZD8055 is currently in phase I clinical trials. PMID:20028854

Chresta, Christine M; Davies, Barry R; Hickson, Ian; Harding, Tom; Cosulich, Sabina; Critchlow, Susan E; Vincent, John P; Ellston, Rebecca; Jones, Darren; Sini, Patrizia; James, Dominic; Howard, Zoe; Dudley, Phillippa; Hughes, Gareth; Smith, Lisa; Maguire, Sharon; Hummersone, Marc; Malagu, Karine; Menear, Keith; Jenkins, Richard; Jacobsen, Matt; Smith, Graeme C M; Guichard, Sylvie; Pass, Martin

2010-01-01

176

Stimulation of de novo pyrimidine synthesis by growth signaling through mTOR and S6K1  

PubMed Central

Cellular growth signals stimulate anabolic processes. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a protein kinase that senses growth signals to regulate anabolic growth and proliferation. Activation of mTORC1 led to the acute stimulation of metabolic flux through the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. mTORC1 signaling post-translationally regulated this metabolic pathway via its downstream target ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), which directly phosphorylates S1859 on CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotatase), the enzyme that catalyzes the first three steps of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Growth signaling through mTORC1 thus stimulates the production of new nucleotides to accommodate an increase in RNA and DNA synthesis needed for ribosome biogenesis and anabolic growth.

Ben-Sahra, Issam; Howell, Jessica J.; Asara, John M.; Manning, Brendan D.

2013-01-01

177

Faraday effect in Sn2P2S6 crystals.  

PubMed

We have revealed a large Faraday rotation in tin thiohypodiphosphate (Sn(2)P(2)S(6)) crystals, which makes this material promising for magneto-optics. The effective Faraday tensor component and the Verdet constant for the direction of the optic axis have been determined by measuring the pure Faraday rotation in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals with both the single-ray and small-angular polarimetric methods at the normal conditions and a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The effective Verdet constant is found to be equal to 115 rad/T x m. PMID:19002228

Krupych, Oleh; Adamenko, Dmytro; Mys, Oksana; Grabar, Aleksandr; Vlokh, Rostyslav

2008-11-10

178

Targeting TORC2 in multiple myeloma with a new mTOR kinase inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Although preclinical work with rapalogs suggests potential in treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), they have been less successful clinically. These drugs allostearically inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase primarily curtailing activity of the target of rapamycin complex (TORC)1. To assess if the mammalian target of rapamycin within the TORC2 complex could be a better target in MM, we tested a new agent, pp242, which prevents activation of TORC2 as well as TORC1. Although comparable to rapamycin against phosphorylation of the TORC1 substrates p70S6kinase and 4E-BP-1, pp242 could also inhibit phosphorylation of AKT on serine 473, a TORC2 substrate, while rapamycin was ineffective. pp242 was also more effective than rapamycin in achieving cytoreduction and apoptosis in MM cells. In addition, pp242 was an effective agent against primary MM cells in vitro and growth of 8226 cells in mice. Knockdown of the TORC2 complex protein, rictor, was deleterious to MM cells further supporting TORC2 as the critical target for pp242. TORC2 activation was frequently identified in primary specimens by immunostaining for AKT phosphorylation on serine 473. Potential mechanisms of up-regulated TORC2 activity in MM were stimulation with interleukin-6 or insulin-like growth factor 1, and phosphatase and tensin homolog or RAS alterations. Combining pp242 with bortezomib led to synergistic anti-MM effects. These results support TORC2 as a therapeutic target in MM.

Hoang, Bao; Frost, Patrick; Shi, Yijiang; Belanger, Eileen; Benavides, Angelica; Pezeshkpour, Gholam; Cappia, Susanna; Guglielmelli, Tommasina; Gera, Joseph

2010-01-01

179

Synthesis, structure of a new acceptor TBA 2S 6 and preparation, physical properties of ET 3S 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general procedure for the synthesis of the tetrabutylammoium hexasulphide, TBA2S6, is first described. The structure of TBA2S6 has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Lattice parameters and space group information are as follows: a=15.039(5) Å, b=16.086(5) Å, c=17.078(6) Å, ?=?=?=90.00°, V=4131.5(24) Å3, orthorhombic, Pbnb (Z=4). Diffraction data (MoK? radiation, 2?max=50) is collected by Rigaku-AFC6 diffract meter. The structure was solved

Qichun Zhang; Peiji Wu; Siyuan Chen; Ruisong Ding; Yanqiao Wang; Daoben Zhu

1999-01-01

180

Interleukin-12p70 expression by dendritic cells of HIV-1-infected patients fails to stimulate gag-specific immune responses.  

PubMed

A variety of immune-based therapies has been developed in order to boost or induce protective CD8(+) T cell responses in order to control HIV replication. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique capability to stimulate naïve T cells into effector T cells, their use for the induction of HIV-specific immune responses has been studied intensively. In the present study we investigated whether modulation of the activation state of DCs electroporated with consensus codon-optimized HxB2 gag mRNA enhances their capacity to induce HIV gag-specific T cell responses. To this end, mature DCs were (i) co-electroporated with mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-12p70 mRNA, or (ii) activated with a cytokine cocktail consisting of R848 and interferon (IFN)-?. Our results confirm the ability of HxB2 gag-expressing DCs to expand functional HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. However, although most of the patients had detectable gag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, no significant differences in the level of expansion of functional CD8(+) T cells could be demonstrated when comparing conventional or immune-modulated DCs expressing IL-12p70. This result which goes against expectation may lead to a re-evaluation of the need for IL-12 expression by DCs in order to improve T-cell responses in HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:22844321

Van Gulck, Ellen; Cools, Nathalie; Atkinson, Derek; Bracke, Lotte; Vereecken, Katleen; Vekemans, Marc; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I; Berneman, Zwi N; Vanham, Guido

2012-01-01

181

Interleukin-12p70 Expression by Dendritic Cells of HIV-1-Infected Patients Fails to Stimulate gag-Specific Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

A variety of immune-based therapies has been developed in order to boost or induce protective CD8+ T cell responses in order to control HIV replication. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique capability to stimulate naïve T cells into effector T cells, their use for the induction of HIV-specific immune responses has been studied intensively. In the present study we investigated whether modulation of the activation state of DCs electroporated with consensus codon-optimized HxB2 gag mRNA enhances their capacity to induce HIV gag-specific T cell responses. To this end, mature DCs were (i) co-electroporated with mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-12p70 mRNA, or (ii) activated with a cytokine cocktail consisting of R848 and interferon (IFN)-?. Our results confirm the ability of HxB2 gag-expressing DCs to expand functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. However, although most of the patients had detectable gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses, no significant differences in the level of expansion of functional CD8+ T cells could be demonstrated when comparing conventional or immune-modulated DCs expressing IL-12p70. This result which goes against expectation may lead to a re-evaluation of the need for IL-12 expression by DCs in order to improve T-cell responses in HIV-1-infected individuals.

Van Gulck, Ellen; Cools, Nathalie; Atkinson, Derek; Bracke, Lotte; Vereecken, Katleen; Vekemans, Marc; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F. I.; Berneman, Zwi N.; Vanham, Guido

2012-01-01

182

Molecular Architecture of a Sodium Channel S6 Helix  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are membrane proteins that consist of 24 transmembrane segments organized into four homologous domains and are essential for action potential generation and propagation. Although the S6 helices of NaV channels line the ion-conducting pore and participate in channel activation, their functional architecture is incompletely understood. Our recent studies show that a naturally occurring in-frame deletion mutation (Del-L955) of NaV1.7 channel, identified in individuals with a severe inherited pain syndrome (inherited erythromelalgia) causes a substantial hyperpolarizing shift of channel activation. Here we took advantage of this deletion mutation to understand the role of the S6 helix in the channel activation. Based on the recently published structure of a bacterial NaV channel (NaVAb), we modeled the WT and Del-L955 channel. Our structural model showed that Del-L955 twists the DII/S6 helix, shifting location and radial orientation of the activation gate residue (Phe960). Hypothesizing that these structural changes produce the shift of channel activation of Del-L955 channels, we restored a phenylalanine in wild-type orientation by mutating Ser961 (Del-L955/S961F), correcting activation by ?10 mV. Correction of the displaced Phe960 (F960S) together with introduction of the rescuing activation gate residue (S961F) produced an additional ?6-mV restoration of activation of the mutant channel. A simple point mutation in the absence of a twist (L955A) did not produce a radial shift and did not hyperpolarize activation. Our results demonstrate the functional importance of radial tuning of the sodium channel S6 helix for the channel activation.

Yang, Yang; Estacion, Mark; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D.; Waxman, Stephen G.

2013-01-01

183

Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and its effect on insulin action.  

PubMed

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) is implicated in cellular events including glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and protein synthesis. It is activated in insulin-stimulated cells by binding of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domains in its 85-kDa regulatory subunit to insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and, others. We have previously shown that IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity is not essential for insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that alternate pathways exist in these cells. We now show that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of the p85N-SH2 domain in these cells behaves in a dominant-negative manner, interfering with complex formation between endogenous PI 3-K and its SH2 binding targets. This not only inhibited insulin-stimulated IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity, but also completely blocked anti-phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase activity, which would include the non-IRS-1-associated activity. This resulted in inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose transport, glycogen synthase activity and DNA synthesis. Further, Ser/Thr phosphorylation of downstream molecules Akt and p70 S6 kinase was inhibited. However, co-expression of a membrane-targeted p110(C) with the p85N-SH2 protein rescued glucose transport, supporting our argument that the p85N-SH2 protein specifically blocks insulin-mediated PI 3-kinase activity, and, that the signaling pathways downstream of PI 3-kinase are intact. Unexpectedly, GTP-bound Ras was elevated in the basal state. Since p85 is known to interact with GTPase-activating protein in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the overexpressed p85N-SH2 peptide could titrate out cellular GTPase-activating protein by direct association, such that it is unavailable to hydrolyze GTP-bound Ras. However, insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was inhibited. Thus, PI 3-kinase may be required for this action at a step independent of and downstream of Ras. We conclude that, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, non-IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity is crucial for insulin's metabolic signaling, and that overexpressed p85N-SH2 protein inhibits a variety of insulin's ultimate biological effects. PMID:9660823

Sharma, P M; Egawa, K; Huang, Y; Martin, J L; Huvar, I; Boss, G R; Olefsky, J M

1998-07-17

184

S6K1 and E2FB are in mutually antagonistic regulatory links controlling cell growth and proliferation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Plant development is dependent on the coordination between growth and cell proliferation. The nutrient sensing TOR kinase and its downstream target, the 40S ribosomal S6 Kinase, are central controllers of cell growth that were also shown to determine cell size by inhibiting the onset of mitosis in yeast and animal cells. We have shown that the Arabidopsis S6 Kinase1 inhibits cell proliferation through the RBR-E2FB complex. S6K1 interacts with RBR via its N-terminal RBR binding motif, promotes its nuclear localization and consequent RBR-dependent repression of cell cycle genes through E2FB. Here we show that S6K1 and E2FB are in a mutually antagonistic relationship both in their protein abundance and in their activity. We propose that this double inhibitory regulatory connection between S6K1 and E2FB forms a regulatory switch that might be important to determine whether cells divide or grow.

Henriques, Rossana; Magyar, Zoltan; Bogre, Laszlo

2013-01-01

185

IL-2 Suppression of IL-12p70 by a Recombinant HSV-1 Expressing IL-2 Induces T-Cell Auto-Reactivity and CNS Demyelination  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the role of cellular infiltrates in CNS demyelination in immunocompetent mice, we have used a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) in which different strains of mice are infected with a recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-2. Histologic examination of the mice infected with HSV-IL-2 demonstrates that natural killer cells, dendritic cells, B cells, and CD25 (IL-2r?) do not play any role in the HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination. T cell depletion, T cell knockout and T cell adoptive transfer experiments suggest that both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells contribute to HSV-IL-2-induced CNS demyelination with CD8+ T cells being the primary inducers. In the adoptive transfer studies, all of the transferred T cells irrespective of their CD25 status at the time of transfer were positive for expression of FoxP3 and depletion of FoxP3 blocked CNS demyelination by HSV-IL-2. The expression levels of IL-12p35 relative to IL-12p40 differed in BM-derived macrophages infected with HSV-IL-2 from those infected with wild-type HSV-1. HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination was blocked by injecting HSV-IL-2-infected mice with IL-12p70 DNA. This study demonstrates that suppression of the IL-12p70 function of macrophages by IL-2 causes T cells to become auto-aggressive. Interruption of this immunoregulatory axis results in demyelination of the optic nerve, the spinal cord and the brain by autoreactive T cells in the HSV-IL-2 mouse model of MS.

Zandian, Mandana; Mott, Kevin R.; Allen, Sariah J.; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Ghiasi, Homayon

2011-01-01

186

Targeting mTOR to Overcome Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Aims Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown dramatic clinical benefits in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, resistance remains a serious problem in clinical practice. The present study analyzed mTOR-associated signaling-pathway differences between the EGFR TKI-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cell lines and investigated the feasibility of targeting mTOR with specific mTOR inhibitor in EGFR TKI resistant NSCLC cells. Methods We selected four different types of EGFR TKI-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cells: PC9, PC9GR, H1650 and H1975 cells as models to detect mTOR-associated signaling-pathway differences by western blot and Immunoprecipitation and evaluated the antiproliferative effect and cell cycle arrest of ku-0063794 by MTT method and flow cytometry. Results In the present study, we observed that mTORC2-associated Akt ser473-FOXO1 signaling pathway in a basal state was highly activated in resistant cells. In vitro mTORC1 and mTORC2 kinase activities assays showed that EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines had higher mTORC2 kinase activity, whereas sensitive cells had higher mTORC1 kinase activity in the basal state. The ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor ku-0063794 showed dramatic antiproliferative effects and G1-cell cycle arrest in both sensitive and resistant cells. Ku-0063794 at the IC50 concentration effectively inhibited both mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation levels; the latter is an mTORC1 substrate and did not upregulate Akt ser473 phosphorylation which would be induced by rapamycin and resulted in partial inhibition of FOXO1 phosphorylation. We also observed that EGFR TKI-sensitive and -resistant clinical NSCLC tumor specimens had higher total and phosphorylated p70S6K expression levels. Conclusion Our results indicate mTORC2-associated signaling-pathway was hyperactivated in EGFR TKI-resistant cells and targeting mTOR with specific mTOR inhibitors is likely a good strategy for patients with EGFR mutant NSCLC who develop EGFR TKI resistance; the potential specific roles of mTORC2 in EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells were still unknown and should be further investigated.

Fei, Shi-Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Dong, Song; Cheng, Hua; Zhang, Yi-Fang; Huang, Ling; Zhou, Hai-Yu; Xie, Zhi; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Yi-Long

2013-01-01

187

IGF-I stimulation of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes requires activation of the PI 3-kinase pathway but not ERK MAPK  

PubMed Central

The IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I) signalling pathway responsible for regulation of proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes has not been defined and is the focus of the present study. Chondrocytes isolated from normal human articular cartilage were stimulated with IGF-I in monolayer culture or in suspension in alginate. IGF-I activated members of both the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway and the ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase)/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. The PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin blocked IGF-I-stimulated Akt phosphorylation without blocking ERK phosphorylation and this was associated with complete inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis. A decrease in IGF-I-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis was also observed upon inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and p70S6 kinase, both of which are downstream of Akt. The MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 blocked IGF-I-stimulated ERK phosphorylation but did not block the phosphorylation of Akt and did not decrease proteoglycan synthesis. Instead, in alginate- cultured chondrocytes, the MEK inhibitors increased IGF-I-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis when compared with cells treated with IGF-I alone. This is the first study to demonstrate that IGF-I stimulation of the PI3K signalling pathway is responsible for the ability of IGF-I to increase proteoglycan synthesis. Although IGF-I also activates the ERK/MAPK pathway, ERK activity is not required for proteoglycan synthesis and may serve as a negative regulator.

2005-01-01

188

The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed.

Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbj?rnsson, Baldur

2013-01-01

189

Combining an mTOR antagonist and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a potentially useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However mTOR antagonists used as single agents are not likely to result in dramatic clinical responses, so that it is useful to identify prospective agents that might be useful in combination. We treated CWR22Rv1 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells with an mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, alone, or in combination with either of two receptor protein kinase (RTK) inhibitors. We assessed the effects of these treatments on cell survival and activation of down-stream mTOR target proteins. Treatment with either PD16839, an EGFr antagonist, or imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), a PDGFr, c-kit and bcr/abl antagonist, enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of rapamycin. We therefore assessed the effects of treatment with the RTK antagonist alone and in combination with rapamycin on mTOR targeted proteins. RTK antagonists alone had no effect or paradoxically increased phosphorylation of the mTOR targeted proteins, p70 S6 kinase and ribosomal S6. In contrast, when these cells were treated with either RTK antagonist in the presence of rapamycin, there was a dramatic decrease in phosphorylation of these two mTOR-targeted proteins. These effects were not mediated through phospho-AKT. Since two separate RTK antagonists had additive antiproliferative effects in combination with an mTOR antagonist and were associated with a dramatic decrease in mTOR targeted proteins in cells with or without PTEN expression, the strategy deserves further evaluation for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:17218776

Masiello, David; Mohi, M Golam; McKnight, Nicole C; Smith, Bradley; Neel, Ben G; Balk, Steven P; Bubley, Glenn J

2007-02-01

190

Anticancer properties of pomolic acid-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation in MCF7 human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status found in all eukaryotes. Recent studies indicate that AMPK activation strongly suppresses cell proliferation in tumor cells, which requires high rates of protein synthesis and de novo fatty acid synthesis for their rapid growth. Pomolic acid (PA) has been previously described as being active in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated PA activated AMPK, and this activity was related to proliferation and apoptosis in MCF7 breast cancer cells. PA inhibited cell proliferation and induced sub-G(1) arrest, elevating the mRNA levels of the apoptotic genes p53 and p21. PA activated caspase-3, -9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and this effect was inhibited by z-VAD-fmk. AMPK activation was increased by treating cells with PA, inactivated by treating cells with a compound C, and co-treatment consisting of PA and aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) synergistically activated AMPK. These anti-cancer potentials of PA were accompanied by effects on de novo fatty acid synthesis as shown by the decreased expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activation and incorporation of [(3)H]acetyl-CoA into fatty acids. In addition, PA inhibited key enzymes involved in protein synthesis such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 70?kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1). These results suggest that PA exerts anti-cancer properties through the modulation of AMPK pathways and its value as an anti-cancer agent in breast cancer therapy. PMID:22223345

Youn, Seog Hyeon; Lee, Jin Sun; Lee, Myung Sun; Cha, Eun Young; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Kim, Je Ryong; Chang, Eil Sung

2012-01-01

191

Intracellular parasitism with Toxoplasma gondii stimulates mTOR-dependent host cell growth despite impaired signaling to S6K1 and 4E-BP1  

PubMed Central

Summary The Ser/Thr kinase mTOR is a central regulator of anabolism, growth and proliferation. We investigated the effects of Toxoplasma gondii on host mTOR signaling. Toxoplasma invasion of multiple cell types rapidly induced sustained mTOR activation that was restricted to infected cells, as determined by rapamycin-sensitive phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6; however, phosphorylation of the growth-associated mTOR substrates 4E-BP1 and S6K1 was not detected. Infected cells still phosphorylated S6K1 and 4E-BP1 in response to insulin, although the S6K1 response was blunted. Parasite-induced S6 phosphorylation was independent of S6K1 and did not require activation of canonical mTOR-inducing pathways mediated by PI3K–Akt and ERK. Host mTOR was localized in a vesicular pattern surrounding the parasitophorous vacuole, suggesting potential activation by phosphatidic acid in the vacuolar membrane. In spite of a failure to phosphorylate 4E-BP1 and S6K1, intracellular T. gondii triggered host cell cycle progression in an mTOR-dependent manner and progression of infected cells displayed increased sensitivity to rapamycin. Moreover, normal cell growth was maintained during parasite-induced cell cycle progression, as indicated by total cellular S6 levels. The Toxoplasma-infected cell provides a unique example of non-canonical mTOR activation supporting growth that is independent of signaling through either S6K1 or 4E-BP1.

Wang, Yubao; Weiss, Louis M.; Orlofsky, Amos

2010-01-01

192

Association of IL-12p70 and IL-6:IL-10 ratio with autism-related behaviors in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder that conveys a significant risk for the development of social behavior disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Also known as DiGeorge syndrome, 22q11DS is the second most common genetic disorder and is characterized by an elevated risk for immune dysfunction, up to 77% of individuals have an identifiable immune deficiency. We hypothesize that this immune dysfunction could contribute to the elevated risk of impaired social behavior seen in 22q11DS. The current study begins to elucidate these immune deficits and link them with the behavioral alterations associated with the disorder. Serum concentrations of a series of cytokines were examined, using a multiplex immunoassay, in sixteen individuals with 22q11DS and screened for autism-related behavior using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). This preliminary study examined correlations between specific immune proteins and each of the ADI-R algorithm scores (social, communication, and repetitive behavior). The inflammatory cytokine IL-1?, as well as the ratio between the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, were correlated with social scores (r=0.851, p=0.004; r=0.580, p=0.018). In addition, the inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma and IL-12p70 were correlated with repetitive behaviors (r=0.795, p=0.033; r=0.774, p=0.002). Interestingly, IL-12 has been reported to be increased in autistic children. These data show a positive association between severity of autism-related behaviors and level of serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in individuals with 22q11DS, providing a basis for further inquiry. PMID:23353117

Ross, Heather E; Guo, Ying; Coleman, Karlene; Ousley, Opal; Miller, Andrew H

2013-07-01

193

The Attenuated Brucella abortus Strain 19 Invades, Persists in, and Activates Human Dendritic Cells, and Induces the Secretion of IL-12p70 but Not IL-23  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vectors have been proposed as novel vaccine strategies to induce strong cellular immunity. Attenuated strains of Brucella abortus comprise promising vector candidates since they have the potential to induce strong CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell mediated immune responses in the absence of excessive inflammation as observed with other Gram-negative bacteria. However, some Brucella strains interfere with the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which is essential for antigen-specific T-cell priming. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of human monocyte-derived DCs with the smooth attenuated B. abortus strain (S) 19, which has previously been employed successfully to vaccinate cattle. Methodology/Principal findings We first looked into the potential of S19 to hamper the cytokine-induced maturation of DCs; however, infected cells expressed CD25, CD40, CD80, and CD86 to a comparable extent as uninfected, cytokine-matured DCs. Furthermore, S19 activated DCs in the absence of exogeneous stimuli, enhanced the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, and was able to persist intracellularly without causing cytotoxicity. Thus, DCs provide a cellular niche for persisting brucellae in vivo as a permanent source of antigen. S19-infected DCs produced IL-12/23p40, IL-12p70, and IL-10, but not IL-23. While heat-killed bacteria also activated DCs, soluble mediators were not involved in S19-induced activation of human DCs. HEK 293 transfectants revealed cellular activation by S19 primarily through engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2. Conclusions/Significance Thus, as an immunological prerequisite for vaccine efficacy, B. abortus S19 potently infects and potently activates (most likely via TLR2) human DCs to produce Th1-promoting cytokines.

Weinhold, Mario; Eisenblatter, Martin; Jasny, Edith; Fehlings, Michael; Finke, Antje; Gayum, Hermine; Ruschendorf, Ursula; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Moos, Verena; Allers, Kristina; Schneider, Thomas; Schaible, Ulrich E.; Schumann, Ralf R.; Mielke, Martin E.; Ignatius, Ralf

2013-01-01

194

Dendritic cells treated with HPV16mE7 in a three-dimensional model promote the secretion of IL-12p70 and IFN-?.  

PubMed

Although the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA therapeutic vaccine represents a promising approach to the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, the mechanism of the HPV DNA vaccine is poorly understood. Moreover, current strategies have met with only limited success in preclinical and dendritic cell-based (DC-based) clinical research. In addition, two-dimensional (2-D) DC monolayers poorly mimic the physiology function in vivo. We used a three-dimensional (3-D) DC culture model in vitro to explore the immune mechanism of the HPV DNA vaccine. DCs were generated from peripheral blood monocytes with interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The cells, growing in 3-D collagen gel, were treated with pcDNA3.1-HPV16mE7 in vitro for 48 h. Compared to DCs treated with E7 in a 2-D culture model, the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD40 were significantly increased in the 3-D model (p<0.05), and a remarkable increase of IL-12 p70 was observed. However, we did not detect any obvious change in IL-10 in 3-D culture. In addition, we found that IFN-? expression increased when HPV16mE7-DC cells were co-cultured with T-cells for 96 h in the 3-D model, and HPV16mE7-DCs stimulated the proliferation of T lymphocytes more efficiently in the 3-D model than in the 2-D model (p<0.05). These results suggest that DCs in 3-D culture model have a notable effect on the enhancement of the HPV16 DNA vaccine's immune reaction and indicate that the DC-based 3-D model is a novel approach to study the HPV vaccine. PMID:21463625

Wang, Ya Ting; Li, WenSheng; Liu, QinShe; Guan, XiaoYing; Hu, Jun

2011-08-01

195

Viral factor TAV recruits TOR/S6K1 signalling to activate reinitiation after long ORF translation  

PubMed Central

The protein kinase TOR (target-of-rapamycin) upregulates translation initiation in eukaryotes, but initiation restart after long ORF translation is restricted by largely unknown pathways. The plant viral reinitiation factor transactivator–viroplasmin (TAV) exceptionally promotes reinitiation through a mechanism involving retention on 80S and reuse of eIF3 and the host factor reinitiation-supporting protein (RISP) to regenerate reinitiation-competent ribosomal complexes. Here, we show that TAV function in reinitiation depends on physical association with TOR, with TAV–TOR binding being critical for both translation reinitiation and viral fitness. Consistently, TOR-deficient plants are resistant to viral infection. TAV triggers TOR hyperactivation and S6K1 phosphorylation in planta. When activated, TOR binds polyribosomes concomitantly with polysomal accumulation of eIF3 and RISP—a novel and specific target of TOR/S6K1—in a TAV-dependent manner, with RISP being phosphorylated. TAV mutants defective in TOR binding fail to recruit TOR, thereby abolishing RISP phosphorylation in polysomes and reinitiation. Thus, activation of reinitiation after long ORF translation is more complex than previously appreciated, with TOR/S6K1 upregulation being the key event in the formation of reinitiation-competent ribosomal complexes.

Schepetilnikov, Mikhail; Kobayashi, Kappei; Geldreich, Angele; Caranta, Carole; Robaglia, Christophe; Keller, Mario; Ryabova, Lyubov A

2011-01-01

196

Thyroid-stimulating hormone/cAMP and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta elicit opposing effects on Rap1GAP stability.  

PubMed

Beyond regulating Rap activity, little is known regarding the regulation and function of the Rap GTPase-activating protein Rap1GAP. Tuberin and E6TP1 protein levels are tightly regulated through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. A role for these RapGAPs, along with SPA-1, as tumor suppressors has been demonstrated. Whether Rap1GAP performs a similar role was investigated. We now report that Rap1GAP protein levels are dynamically regulated in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-dependent thyroid cells. Upon TSH withdrawal, Rap1GAP undergoes a net increase in phosphorylation followed by proteasome-mediated degradation. Sequence analysis identified two putative destruction boxes in the Rap1GAP C-terminal domain. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylated Rap1GAP immunoprecipitated from thyroid cells, and GSK3beta inhibitors prevented phosphorylation and degradation of endogenous Rap1GAP. Co-expression of GSK3beta and Rap1GAP in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stimulated proteasome-dependent Rap1GAP turnover. Mutational analysis established a role for serine 525 in the regulation of Rap1GAP stability. Overexpression of Rap1GAP in thyroid cells impaired TSH/cAMP-stimulated p70S6 kinase activity and cell proliferation. These data are the first to show that Rap1GAP protein levels are tightly regulated and are the first to support a role for Rap1GAP as a tumor suppressor. PMID:14660640

Tsygankova, Oxana M; Feshchenko, Elena; Klein, Peter S; Meinkoth, Judy L

2004-02-13

197

Structure Modification on Quaternary Rare Earth Thiophosphates: NaYbP 2S 6, NaSmP 2S 6, and KSmP 2S 7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three rare earth quaternary compounds, NaYbP 2S 6, NaSmP 2S 6, and KSmP 2S 7, are synthesized using alkali metal halide or polychalcogenides flux. NaYbP 2S 6 was prepared from the stoichiometric reaction of Yb/S/P/NaCl flux at 700°C, and NaSmP 2S 6 and KSmP 2S 7 were prepared from Sm/S/P/Na 2S (K 2S x) flux at 750°C. The structures were determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The air-sensitive dark-red crystals of NaYbP 2S 6 crystallize in the triclinic space group P-1 with a=6.8241(10) Å, b=7.0371(10) Å, c=9.107(2) Å, ?=87.17(2)°, ?=87.62(2)°, ?=88.30(2)°, and Z=2. The yellow plate crystals of NaSmP 2S 6 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ a with a=11.0717(10) Å, b=7.2999(1) Å, c=11.579(3) Å, ?=111.30(2)°, and Z=4. The pale yellow plate crystals of KSmP 2S 7 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ a with a=8.981(2) Å, b=12.254(2) Å, c=9.609(1) Å, ?=90.27(2)°, and Z=4. NaYbP 2S 6 and NaSmP 2S 6 are derivatives of the MIMIIIP 2S 6 family. NaYbP 2S 6 has a flat monolayered structure, and there are weak interactions between neighboring layers. In NaSmP 2S 6, two MPS 3-type layers are condensed together. The ordering features of sodium and rare earth metal cations in two-dimensional layers are different: Na and Yb atoms are arranged in pairing fashion in NaYbP 2S 6, while Na and Sm atoms are arranged in a triangular pattern in NaSmP 2S 6. The structure of KSmP 2S 7 is similar to that of ABiP 2S 7 ( A=K, Rb), where corrugated layers are formed from Sm 3+ and [P 2S 7] 4- units. The optically measured band gaps of NaYbP 2S 6 and NaSmP 2S 6 are 1.85 eV and 2.54 eV, respectively.

Goh, Eun-Young; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Sung-Jin

2001-08-01

198

The novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235, inhibits growth and proliferation in multiple myeloma  

SciTech Connect

NVP-BEZ235 is a new inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3 kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) whose efficacy in advanced solid tumours is currently being evaluated in a phase I/II clinical trial. Here we show that NVP-BEZ235 inhibits growth in common myeloma cell lines as well as primary myeloma cells at nanomolar concentrations in a time and dose dependent fashion. Further experiments revealed induction of apoptosis in three of four cell lines. Inhibition of cell growth was mainly due to inhibition of myeloma cell proliferation, as shown by the BrdU assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, which was due to downregulation of cyclin D1, pRb and cdc25a. NVP-BEZ235 inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), P70S6k and 4E-BP-1. Furthermore we show that the stimulatory effect of CD40-ligand (CD40L), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and conditioned medium of HS-5 stromal cells on myeloma cell growth is completely abrogated by NVP-BEZ235. In addition, synergism studies revealed synergistic and additive activity of NVP-BEZ235 together with melphalan, doxorubicin and bortezomib. Taken together, inhibition of PI3 kinase/mTOR by NVP-BEZ235 is highly effective and NVP-BEZ235 represents a potential new candidate for targeted therapy in multiple myeloma.

Baumann, Philipp [Department of Hematology and Oncology Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: Philipp.Baumann@med.uni-muenchen.de; Mandl-Weber, Sonja; Oduncu, Fuat; Schmidmaier, Ralf [Department of Hematology and Oncology Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

2009-02-01

199

Evodiamine Inhibits Insulin-Stimulated mTOR-S6K Activation and IRS1 Serine Phosphorylation in Adipocytes and Improves Glucose Tolerance in Obese/Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

Evodiamine, an alkaloid extracted from the dried unripe fruit of the tree Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae), reduces obesity and insulin resistance in obese/diabetic mice; however, the mechanism underlying the effect of evodiamine on insulin resistance is unknown. This study investigated the effect of evodiamine on signal transduction relating to insulin resistance using obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and an in vitro adipocyte culture. There is a significant decrease in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling in white adipose tissue (WAT) in KK-Ay mice treated with evodiamine, in which glucose tolerance is improved. In addition, reduction of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine phosphorylation, an indicator of insulin resistance, was detected in their WAT, suggesting suppression of the negative feedback loop from S6K to IRS1. As well as the stimulation of IRS1 and Akt serine phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K is time-dependent in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas evodiamine does not affect their phosphorylation except for an inhibitory effect on mTOR phosphorylation. Moreover, evodiamine inhibits the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, leading to down-regulation of IRS1 serine phosphorylation in the adipocytes. Evodiamine also stimulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, which may cause down-regulation of mTOR signaling in adipocytes. A similar effect on AMPK, mTOR and IRS1 phosphorylation was found in adipocytes treated with rosiglitazone. These results suggest evodiamine improves glucose tolerance and prevents the progress of insulin resistance associated with obese/diabetic states, at least in part, through inhibition of mTOR-S6K signaling and IRS1 serine phosphorylation in adipocytes.

Wang, Ting; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Tamaki; Yamashita, Yukari; Kontani, Yasuhide; Okamatsu, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki; Mori, Nozomu; Yamashita, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

200

Evodiamine inhibits insulin-stimulated mTOR-S6K activation and IRS1 serine phosphorylation in adipocytes and improves glucose tolerance in obese/diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Evodiamine, an alkaloid extracted from the dried unripe fruit of the tree Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae), reduces obesity and insulin resistance in obese/diabetic mice; however, the mechanism underlying the effect of evodiamine on insulin resistance is unknown. This study investigated the effect of evodiamine on signal transduction relating to insulin resistance using obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and an in vitro adipocyte culture. There is a significant decrease in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling in white adipose tissue (WAT) in KK-Ay mice treated with evodiamine, in which glucose tolerance is improved. In addition, reduction of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine phosphorylation, an indicator of insulin resistance, was detected in their WAT, suggesting suppression of the negative feedback loop from S6K to IRS1. As well as the stimulation of IRS1 and Akt serine phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K is time-dependent in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas evodiamine does not affect their phosphorylation except for an inhibitory effect on mTOR phosphorylation. Moreover, evodiamine inhibits the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, leading to down-regulation of IRS1 serine phosphorylation in the adipocytes. Evodiamine also stimulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, which may cause down-regulation of mTOR signaling in adipocytes. A similar effect on AMPK, mTOR and IRS1 phosphorylation was found in adipocytes treated with rosiglitazone. These results suggest evodiamine improves glucose tolerance and prevents the progress of insulin resistance associated with obese/diabetic states, at least in part, through inhibition of mTOR-S6K signaling and IRS1 serine phosphorylation in adipocytes. PMID:24391749

Wang, Ting; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Tamaki; Yamashita, Yukari; Kontani, Yasuhide; Okamatsu, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki; Mori, Nozomu; Yamashita, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

201

Protein Kinases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering the structure and function of protein kinases and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the genomics and evolutionary relationships among kinases and then proceeds to describe the structure-function relationships of specific kinases, the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate specificity, and selected issues in regulation of kinase activity.

Avrom Caplan (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry REV)

2005-02-22

202

Combined use of toll-like receptor agonists and prostaglandin E(2) in the FastDC model: rapid generation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells capable of migration and IL-12p70 production.  

PubMed

Phenotypical maturation, IL-12p70 production and migration upon chemokine receptor CCR7 ligation are currently proposed as requirements for the use of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) in antitumoral vaccination. We have previously described a short-term protocol for DC generation from monocytes including stimulation with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and PGE(2) (FastDC). These "conventional" FastDC are mature, migrate in response to CCR7 ligation and effectively stimulate autologeous T cells in vitro, but are deficient in IL-12p70 production. Here, conventional FastDC were compared to FastDC activated with different TLR ligands. High levels of IL-12p70 were induced by combined activation of FastDC with TLR4 and TLR7/8 ligands. IL-12 secretion could be maximized by additional T cell-derived stimulation. However, TLR-stimulated FastDC failed to migrate upon CCR7 ligation, independent of additional activation with CD40 ligand and IFN-gamma. The presence of PGE(2) during TLR ligation fully restored migratory capacity of FastDC, but left IL-12p70 production and activation of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells unaffected, challenging previous findings obtained with standard 7-day monocyte-derived DC. The FastDC model thus not only represents an effective tool for antitumoral vaccination, but may also provide novel insights into human DC biology. PMID:18657542

Dauer, Marc; Lam, Veronique; Arnold, Hannah; Junkmann, Jana; Kiefl, Rosemarie; Bauer, Christian; Schnurr, Max; Endres, Stefan; Eigler, Andreas

2008-09-15

203

E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF2 interacts with the S6' proteasomal ATPase subunit and increases the ATP hydrolysis activity of S6'.  

PubMed

We reported previously that the human RNF2 (RING finger protein 2) protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Hip-2/hE2-25K. In the present study, we show that RNF2 interacts with S6' ATPase, a subunit of the proteasomal 19 S regulatory complex. S6' interacts with RNF2 through its N-terminal RING domain, and RNF2 interacts with S6' through its C-terminal region. Interestingly, the RNF2-S6' interaction increases the ATP hydrolysis activity of the S6' protein. Moreover, S6' ATPase activity is highly increased in the presence of ubiquitinated proteins. The present study suggests that the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF2 might have a dual function: facilitating the ubiquitination of its target substrates and recruiting the substrates to the proteasome. Furthermore, ATP hydrolysis in the E3/proteasome complex might act as an important signal for the protein degradation pathway. PMID:15773819

Lee, Sun-Joo; Choi, Dongwon; Rhim, Hyangshuk; Kang, Seongman

2005-07-15

204

Venus Kinase Receptors Control Reproduction in the Platyhelminth Parasite Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

The Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) is a single transmembrane molecule composed of an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptor and an extracellular Venus Flytrap (VFT) structure similar to the ligand binding domain of many class C G Protein Coupled Receptors. This receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) was first discovered in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, then in a large variety of invertebrates. A single vkr gene is found in most genomes, except in S. mansoni in which two genes Smvkr1 and Smvkr2 exist. VKRs form a unique family of RTKs present only in invertebrates and their biological functions are still to be discovered. In this work, we show that SmVKRs are expressed in the reproductive organs of S. mansoni, particularly in the ovaries of female worms. By transcriptional analyses evidence was obtained that both SmVKRs fulfill different roles during oocyte maturation. Suppression of Smvkr expression by RNA interference induced spectacular morphological changes in female worms with a strong disorganization of the ovary, which was dominated by the presence of primary oocytes, and a defect of egg formation. Following expression in Xenopus oocytes, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2 receptors were shown to be activated by distinct ligands which are L-Arginine and calcium ions, respectively. Signalling analysis in Xenopus oocytes revealed the capacity of SmVKRs to activate the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K and Erk MAPK pathways involved in cellular growth and proliferation. Additionally, SmVKR1 induced phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). Activation of JNK by SmVKR1 was supported by the results of yeast two-hybrid experiments identifying several components of the JNK pathway as specific interacting partners of SmVKR1. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the functions of SmVKR in gametogenesis, and particularly in oogenesis and egg formation. By eliciting signalling pathways potentially involved in oocyte proliferation, growth and migration, these receptors control parasite reproduction and can therefore be considered as potential targets for anti-schistosome therapies.

Cailliau, Katia; Morel, Marion; Hahnel, Steffen; Leutner, Silke; Beckmann, Svenja; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Dissous, Colette

2014-01-01

205

Venus kinase receptors control reproduction in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

The Venus kinase receptor (VKR) is a single transmembrane molecule composed of an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptor and an extracellular Venus Flytrap (VFT) structure similar to the ligand binding domain of many class C G protein coupled receptors. This receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) was first discovered in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, then in a large variety of invertebrates. A single vkr gene is found in most genomes, except in S. mansoni in which two genes Smvkr1 and Smvkr2 exist. VKRs form a unique family of RTKs present only in invertebrates and their biological functions are still to be discovered. In this work, we show that SmVKRs are expressed in the reproductive organs of S. mansoni, particularly in the ovaries of female worms. By transcriptional analyses evidence was obtained that both SmVKRs fulfill different roles during oocyte maturation. Suppression of Smvkr expression by RNA interference induced spectacular morphological changes in female worms with a strong disorganization of the ovary, which was dominated by the presence of primary oocytes, and a defect of egg formation. Following expression in Xenopus oocytes, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2 receptors were shown to be activated by distinct ligands which are L-Arginine and calcium ions, respectively. Signalling analysis in Xenopus oocytes revealed the capacity of SmVKRs to activate the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K and Erk MAPK pathways involved in cellular growth and proliferation. Additionally, SmVKR1 induced phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). Activation of JNK by SmVKR1 was supported by the results of yeast two-hybrid experiments identifying several components of the JNK pathway as specific interacting partners of SmVKR1. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the functions of SmVKR in gametogenesis, and particularly in oogenesis and egg formation. By eliciting signalling pathways potentially involved in oocyte proliferation, growth and migration, these receptors control parasite reproduction and can therefore be considered as potential targets for anti-schistosome therapies. PMID:24875530

Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Gouignard, Nadège; Cailliau, Katia; Morel, Marion; Hahnel, Steffen; Leutner, Silke; Beckmann, Svenja; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dissous, Colette

2014-05-01

206

Exendin-4 stimulates islet cell replication via the IGF1 receptor activation of mTORC1/S6K1.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists, such as exendin-4, potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and are currently used in the management of type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, GLP1R agonists also have the ability to augment ?-cell mass. In this report, we provide evidence that in the presence of glucose, exendin-4 stimulates rodent islet cell DNA replication via the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and that this is mediated by the protein kinase B (PKB)-dependent activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). We show that activation of this pathway is caused by the autocrine or paracrine activation of the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), as siRNA-mediated knockdown of the IGF1R effectively blocked exendin-4-stimulated PKB and mTORC1 activation. In contrast, pharmacological inactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor has no discernible effect on exendin-4-stimulated PKB or mTORC1 activation. Therefore, we conclude that GLP1R agonists stimulate ?-cell proliferation via the PKB-dependent stimulation of mTORC1/S6K1 whose activation is mediated through the autocrine/paracrine activation of the IGF1R. This work provides a better understanding of the molecular basis of GLP1 agonist-induced ?-cell proliferation which could potentially be exploited in the identification of novel drug targets that increase ?-cell mass. PMID:24994913

Xie, Jianling; El Sayed, Norhan M; Qi, Cheng; Zhao, Xuechan; Moore, Claire E; Herbert, Terence P

2014-08-01

207

CCL2 Protects Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells from Autophagic Death via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT-dependent Survivin Up-regulation*  

PubMed Central

Resistance to cell death is a hallmark of cancer. Autophagy is a survival mechanism activated in response to nutrient deprivation; however, excessive autophagy will ultimately induce cell death in a nonapoptotic manner. The present study demonstrates that CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death, allowing prolonged survival in serum-free conditions. Upon serum starvation, CCL2 induced survivin up-regulation in PC3, DU 145, and C4-2B prostate cancer cells. Both cell survival and survivin expression were stunted in CCL2-stimulated PC3 cells when treated either with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 (2 ?m) or the Akt-specific inhibitor-X (Akti-X; 2.5 ?m). Furthermore, CCL2 significantly reduced light chain 3-II (LC3-II) in serum-starved PC3; in contrast, treatment with LY294002 or Akti-X reversed the effect of CCL2 on LC3-II levels, suggesting that CCL2 signaling limits autophagy in these cells. Upon serum deprivation, the analysis of LC3 localization by immunofluorescence revealed a remarkable reduction in LC3 punctate after CCL2 stimulation. CCL2 treatment also resulted in a higher sustained mTORC1 activity as measured by an increase in phospho-p70S6 kinase (Thr389). Rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, both down-regulated survivin and decreased PC3 cell viability in serum-deprived conditions. Treatment with CCL2, however, allowed cells to partially resist rapamycin-induced death, which correlated with survivin protein levels. In two stable transfectants expressing survivin-specific short hairpin RNA, generated from PC3, survivin protein levels controlled both cell viability and LC3 localization in response to CCL2 treatment. Altogether, these findings indicate that CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/survivin pathway and reveal survivin as a critical molecule in this survival mechanism.

Roca, Hernan; Varsos, Zachary; Pienta, Kenneth J.

2008-01-01

208

A Ribosomal S-6 Kinase-Mediated Signal to C/EBP-? Is Critical for the Development of Liver Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background In response to liver injury, hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation causes excessive liver fibrosis. Here we show that activation of RSK and phosphorylation of C/EBP? on Thr217 in activated HSC is critical for the progression of liver fibrosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Chronic treatment with the hepatotoxin CCl4 induced severe liver fibrosis in C/EBP?+/+ mice but not in mice expressing C/EBP?-Ala217, a non-phosphorylatable RSK-inhibitory transgene. C/EBP?-Ala217 was present within the death receptor complex II, with active caspase 8, and induced apoptosis of activated HSC. The C/EBP?-Ala217 peptides directly stimulated caspase 8 activation in a cell-free system. C/EBP?+/+ mice with CCl4-induced severe liver fibrosis, while continuing on CCl4, were treated with a cell permeant RSK-inhibitory peptide for 4 or 8 weeks. The peptide inhibited RSK activation, stimulating apoptosis of HSC, preventing progression and inducing regression of liver fibrosis. We found a similar activation of RSK and phosphorylation of human C/EBP? on Thr266 (human phosphoacceptor) in activated HSC in patients with severe liver fibrosis but not in normal livers, suggesting that this pathway may also be relevant in human liver fibrosis. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that the RSK-C/EBP? phosphorylation pathway is critical for the development of liver fibrosis and suggest a potential therapeutic target.

Buck, Martina; Chojkier, Mario

2007-01-01

209

Subcellular transport and ribosomal incorporation of microinjected protein S6 in oocytes from Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

Protein S6 was isolated from 40S ribosomal subunits of Xenopus laevis oocytes, labeled with sodium boro[3H]hydride, and microinjected back into oocytes. In the first 4 h of incubation, the uptake of S6 into the nucleus increased to a maximum, with, however, no detectable incorporation into 40S ribosomal subunits. After this lag period, S6 was progressively integrated into the small ribosomal subunit. When rRNA transcription was inhibited by actinomycin D, the uptake of S6 into the nucleus and its consequent incorporation into the 40S subunit were significantly reduced. Moreover, when enucleated oocytes were microinjected, little or no S6 was found in the 40S subunits, also suggesting that integration of S6 into ribosomes is linked to rRNA precursor synthesis. In contrast to S6, the acidic protein eL12 isolated from Artemia salina or X. laevis oocyte 60S subunits was integrated into the large subunit independently of the nucleus or active rRNA synthesis. PMID:7074038

Kalthoff, H; Richter, D

1982-02-16

210

PI3 kinase regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy.  

PubMed

Activation of the PI3 kinase pathway can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, defined as an increase in skeletal muscle mass. In mammals, skeletal muscle hypertrophy occurs as a result of an increase in the size, as opposed to the number, of pre-existing skeletal muscle fibers. This pathway's effects on skeletal muscle have been implicated most prominently downstream of Insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling. IGF-1's pro-hypertrophy activity comes predominantly through its ability to activate the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Akt is a serine-threonine protein kinase that can induce protein synthesis and block the transcriptional upregulation of key mediators of skeletal muscle atrophy, the E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx (also called Atrogin-1), by phosphorylating and thereby inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the FOXO (also called "forkhead") family of transcription factors. Once phosphorylated by Akt, the FOXOs are excluded from the nucleus, and upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx is blocked. MuRF1 and MAFbx mediate atrophy by ubiquitinating particular protein substrates, causing them to undergo degradation by the proteasome. MuRF1's substrates include several components of the sarcomeric thick filament, including Myosin Heavy Chain (MyHC). Thus, by blocking MuRF1 activation, IGF-1 helps prevent the breakdown of the thick filament under atrophy conditions.IGF1/PI3K/Akt signaling also can dominantly inhibit the effects of a secreted protein called "myostatin," which is a member of the TGF? family of proteins. Deletion or inhibition of myostatin causes an increase in skeletal muscle size, because myostatin acts both to inhibit myoblast differentiation and to block the Akt pathway. Thus by blocking myostatin, PI3K/Akt activation stimulates differentiation and protein synthesis by this distinct mechanism. Myostatin induces the phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factors of Smad2 and Smad3, downstream of the ActRII (Activin Receptor type II)/Alk (Activin Receptor-like kinase) receptor complex. Other TGF?-like molecules can also block differentiation, including TGF-b1, GDF-11, activinA, BMP-2 and BMP-7. As mentioned, myostatin also downregulates the Akt/mTOR/p70S6 protein synthesis pathway, which mediates both differentiation in myoblasts and hypertrophy in myotubes. Blockade of the Akt/mTOR pathway, using siRNA to RAPTOR, a component of "TORC1" (TOR signaling Complex 1), increases myostatin-induced phosphorylation of Smad2; this establishes a "feed-forward mechanism," because myostatin can downregulates TORC1, and this downregulation in turn amplifies myostatin signaling. Blockade of RAPTOR also facilitates myostatin's inhibition of muscle differentiation. When added to post-differentiated myotubes, myostatin causes a decrease in their diameter - however, this does not happen through the normal "atrophy pathway." Rather than causing upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx, previously shown to mediate skeletal muscle atrophy, myostatin decreases expression of these atrophy markers in differentiated myotubes, as well as other genes normally upregulated during differentiation, such as MyoD and myogenin. These findings show that myostatin signaling acts by blocking genes induced during differentiation, even in a myotube, as opposed to activating the distinct "atrophy program." PMID:20593312

Glass, David J

2010-01-01

211

Phosphorylated S6 as an immunohistochemical biomarker of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

As life expectancy lengthens, cases of non-viral-associated vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesion, so-called differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), continue to increase in frequency. Differentiated VIN often is difficult to recognize and failure to detect it before invasion results in morbidity and mortality. Thus, identification of a reliable biomarker for this type of lesion would be of great clinical benefit. Our recent studies have identified activation (ser235/236 phosphorylation) of ribosomal protein S6 (p-S6) in basal epithelial cells as an event that precedes and accompanies laminin ?(2) overexpression in most preinvasive oral dysplasias. To test this as a potential biomarker of vulvar dysplasia, we immunostained seven differentiated VINs and nine papillomavirus-related 'classic' VINs, most of which were associated with carcinoma, for p-S6. All carcinomas, all differentiated VINs, and most classic VINs contained regions of p-S6 staining in the basal layer, whereas basal and parabasal cells of normal vulvar epithelium and hyperplastic and inflamed lesions lacking cellular atypia were p-S6 negative. Laminin ?(2) was expressed in a subset of VINs, always occurring within basal p-S6 positive regions, as we had found previously for oral dysplasias. Lichen sclerosus is considered a potential precursor of vulvar carcinoma. Two lichen sclerosus lesions of patients with a concurrent carcinoma and one of six lichen sclerosus lesions without atypia or known concurrent carcinoma were basal p-S6 positive. In summary, there is a distinct difference in p-S6 basal cell layer staining between benign and neoplastic vulvar squamous epithelium, with consistent staining of differentiated VIN and of some lichen sclerosus lesions. These results support further studies to assess the potential of p-S6 as a biomarker to identify vulvar lesions at risk of progressing to invasive cancer. PMID:23765247

Pinto, Alvaro P; Degen, Martin; Barron, Patricia; Crum, Christopher P; Rheinwald, James G

2013-11-01

212

Electronic Structure and Phase Transition in Ferroelectic Sn2P2S6 Crystal  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the P2S6 cluster electronic structure and its comparison with the crystal valence band in the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases has been done by first-principles calculations for Sn2P2S6 ferroelectrics. The origin of ferroelectricity has been outlined. It was established that the spontaneous polarization follows from the stereochemical activity of the electron lone pair of tin cations, which is determined by hybridization with P2S6 molecular orbitals. The chemical bonds covalence increase and rearrangement are related to the valence band changes at transition from the paraelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase.

Glukhov, Konstantin; Fedyo, Kristina; Banys, Juras; Vysochanskii, Yulian

2012-01-01

213

Preclinical pharmacological evaluation of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor, ON123300, in brain tumor models.  

PubMed

ON123300 is a low molecular weight multikinase inhibitor identified through a series of screens that supported further analyses for brain tumor chemotherapy. Biochemical assays indicated that ON123300 was a strong inhibitor of Ark5 and CDK4, as well as growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases such as ?-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR?). ON123300 inhibited U87 glioma cell proliferation with an IC(50) 3.4 ± 0.1 ?mol/L and reduced phosphorylation of Akt, yet it also unexpectedly induced Erk activation, both in a dose- and time-dependent manner that subsequently was attributed to relieving Akt-mediated C-Raf S259 inactivation and activating a p70S6K-initiated PI3K-negative feedback loop. Cotreatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib produced synergistic cytotoxic effects. Pursuant to the in vitro studies, in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of ON123300 were completed in mice bearing intracerebral U87 tumors following intravenous doses of 5 and 25 mg/kg alone, and also at the higher dose concurrently with gefitinib. ON123300 showed high brain and brain tumor accumulation based on brain partition coefficient values of at least 2.5. Consistent with the in vitro studies, single agent ON123300 caused a dose-dependent suppression of phosphorylation of Akt as well as activation of Erk in brain tumors, whereas addition of gefitinib to the ON123300 regimen significantly enhanced p-Akt inhibition and prevented Erk activation. In summary, ON123300 demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics, and future development for brain tumor therapy would require use of combinations, such as gefitinib, that mitigate its Erk activation and enhance its activity. PMID:24568969

Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Hua; Zhou, Qingyu; Elkholi, Rana; Chipuk, Jerry E; Reddy, M V Ramana; Reddy, E Premkumar; Gallo, James M

2014-05-01

214

Role of GalNAc4S-6ST in astrocytic tumor progression.  

PubMed

N-Acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S-6ST) is the sulfotransferase responsible for biosynthesis of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate CS-E. Although involvements of CS-E in neuronal cell functions have been extensively analyzed, the role of GalNAc4S-6ST in astrocytic tumor progression remains unknown. Here, we reveal that GalNAc4S-6ST transcripts were detected in astrocytic tumors derived from all 30 patients examined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Patients with high GalNAc4S-6ST mRNA expression had significantly worse outcome compared with patients with low expression, and multivariate survival analysis disclosed that GalNAc4S-6ST is an independent poor prognostic factor for astrocytic tumors. We then tested whether CS-E enhanced haptotaxic migration of glioblastoma U251-MG cells that endogenously express both the CS-E's scaffold tyrosine phosphatase ? (PTP?) and GalNAc4S-6ST, in the presence of CS-E's preferred ligands, pleiotrophin (PTN) or midkine (MK), using a modified Boyden chamber method. Haptotaxic stimulation of cell migration by PTN was most robust on control siRNA-transfected U251-MG cells, while that enhancing effect was cancelled following transduction of GalNAc4S-6ST siRNA. Similar results were obtained using MK, suggesting that both PTN and MK enhance migration of U251-MG cells by binding to CS-E. We also found that PTP? as well as PTN and MK were frequently expressed in astrocytic tumor cells. Thus, our findings indicate that GalNAc4S-6ST mRNA expressed by astrocytic tumor cells is associated with poor patient prognosis likely by enhancing CS-E-mediated tumor cell motility in the presence of PTN and/or MK. PMID:23349846

Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Yan, Huimin; Kurahashi, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yuki; Maeda, Hiroshi; Tada, Tsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Jun

2013-01-01

215

Role of GalNAc4S-6ST in Astrocytic Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

N-Acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S-6ST) is the sulfotransferase responsible for biosynthesis of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate CS-E. Although involvements of CS-E in neuronal cell functions have been extensively analyzed, the role of GalNAc4S-6ST in astrocytic tumor progression remains unknown. Here, we reveal that GalNAc4S-6ST transcripts were detected in astrocytic tumors derived from all 30 patients examined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Patients with high GalNAc4S-6ST mRNA expression had significantly worse outcome compared with patients with low expression, and multivariate survival analysis disclosed that GalNAc4S-6ST is an independent poor prognostic factor for astrocytic tumors. We then tested whether CS-E enhanced haptotaxic migration of glioblastoma U251-MG cells that endogenously express both the CS-E’s scaffold tyrosine phosphatase ? (PTP?) and GalNAc4S-6ST, in the presence of CS-E’s preferred ligands, pleiotrophin (PTN) or midkine (MK), using a modified Boyden chamber method. Haptotaxic stimulation of cell migration by PTN was most robust on control siRNA-transfected U251-MG cells, while that enhancing effect was cancelled following transduction of GalNAc4S-6ST siRNA. Similar results were obtained using MK, suggesting that both PTN and MK enhance migration of U251-MG cells by binding to CS-E. We also found that PTP? as well as PTN and MK were frequently expressed in astrocytic tumor cells. Thus, our findings indicate that GalNAc4S-6ST mRNA expressed by astrocytic tumor cells is associated with poor patient prognosis likely by enhancing CS-E-mediated tumor cell motility in the presence of PTN and/or MK.

Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Yan, Huimin; Kurahashi, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yuki; Maeda, Hiroshi; Tada, Tsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Jun

2013-01-01

216

Brassinin induces apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells through the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K1 signaling cascades.  

PubMed

The oncogenic PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis and its downstream effector, the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) play a key role in mediating cell survival in various tumor cells. Here, we investigated the effects of brassinin (BSN), a phytoalexin first identified as a constituent of cabbage, on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K1 activation, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer. BSN exerted a significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity and reduced constitutive phosphorylation of Akt against androgen-independent PC-3 cells as compared to androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. Moreover, knockdown of androgen receptor (AR) by small interfering RNA enhanced the potential effect of BSN on induction of apoptosis in LNCaP cells. BSN clearly suppressed the constitutive activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K1 signaling cascade, which correlated with the induction of apoptosis as characterized by accumulation of cells in subG1 phase, positive Annexin V binding, TUNEL staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, down-regulation of antiapoptotic and proliferative proteins, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. Additionally, BSN could block broad-spectrum inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K1 axes, and aberrant Akt activation by pcDNA3-myr-HA-Akt1 plasmid could not prevent the observed suppressive effect of BSN on constitutive mTOR activation. Finally, overexpression of Bcl-2 also attenuated BSN-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that BSN can interfere with multiple signaling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and might be provided as a potential therapeutic candidate for both the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:23686889

Kim, Sung-Moo; Park, Jeong Ha; Kim, Ki Dong; Nam, Dongwoo; Shim, Bum Sang; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2014-03-01

217

Metformin sensitizes human bladder cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through mTOR/S6K1-mediated downregulation of c-FLIP.  

PubMed

Metformin, an oral antidiabetic agent, has been reported to potentiate chemotherapeutic-induced cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of metformin in sensitizing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Metformin alone did not induce apoptosis, but markedly potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in 253J and RT4 bladder cancer cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we examined the modulatory effects of metformin on the key components of the TRAIL signaling pathway and found that metformin did not alter the expression levels of death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), but significantly reduced the cellular Fas-associated death domain (FADD)-like interleukin-1?-converting enzyme (FLICE) inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) levels, contributing toward the sensitization to TRAIL. Further experiments showed that metformin did not affect the mRNA level, proteasomal degradation, and protein stability of c-FLIPL. However, metformin inhibited the mTOR/S6K1 pathway in 253J and RT4 cells, which usually regulates protein translation; moreover, knockdown of S6K1 effectively reduced the levels of c-FLIPL, indicating that metformin downregulates c-FLIP through inhibition of the mTOR/S6K1 pathway. In addition, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C did not prevent the inhibitory effects of metformin on the mTOR/S6K1 pathway and metformin-mediated sensitization to TRAIL. Taken together, our results indicate that metformin sensitizes human bladder cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through downregulation of c-FLIP, which is mediated by the mTOR/S6K1 pathway, but independent of AMPK; furthermore, these findings provide a rationale for the combined application of metformin with TRAIL in the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:24714080

Zhang, Tao; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Jin, Xunbo; Guo, Peng

2014-09-01

218

Kinase dysfunction and kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

With recent advances in molecular biology, abnormalities in cancer cells that contribute to dysregulation of cell survival and proliferation are being characterized with greater precision. Through this process, key abnormalities in cancer cells involving proteins that regulate signal transduction, migration, mitosis and other critical processes have been identified. Such abnormalities often involve a class of proteins called kinases that act to phosphorylate other proteins in the cell, resulting in activation of these proteins in the absence of appropriate stimulation/regulation. Given their role in tumour biology, substantial effort has been directed at blocking the function of these proteins. Several approaches have been used, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. While antibodies are primarily directed at cell surface proteins, small molecule inhibitors, also known as kinase inhibitors, target proteins throughout the cell. A variety of kinase inhibitors have been approved for the treatment of human cancers. In some instances, these inhibitors have exhibited significant clinical efficacy, and it is likely that their biological activity will be further enhanced as combination regimens with standard treatment modalities are explored. The use of kinase inhibitors in dogs and cats is relatively recent, although two inhibitors, toceranib (Palladia; Pfizer Animal Health, Madison, NJ, USA) and masitinib (Kinavet; Catalent Pharma Solutions, Somerset, NJ, USA) have been approved by the Federal Drug Administration (USA) for use in dogs. This article reviews the biology of protein kinase dysfunction in human and animal cancers, and the application of specific kinase inhibitors to veterinary cancer patients. PMID:23331696

London, Cheryl A

2013-02-01

219

HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses in fractionated ?-irradiated mice by modulating the IL-12p70-STAT4 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Whole body irradiated mice appear to experience a down-regulation of the helper T (Th)1-like immune response, and maintain a persistent immunological imbalance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HemoHIM (an herbal product made from Angelica Radix, Cnidium officinale , and Paeonia japonica cultivated in Korea) to ameliorate the immunological imbalance induce in fractionated ?-irradiated mice. The mice were exposed to ? rays twice a week (0.5 Gy fractions) for a total dose of 5 Gy, and HemoHIM was administrated orally from 1 week before the first irradiation to 1 week before the final analysis. All experiments were performed 4 and 6 months after their first exposure. HemoHIM ameliorated the Th1- and Th2-related immune responses normally occur in irradiated mice with or without dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. HemoHIM also restored the natural killer cell activities without changing the percentage of natural killer cells in irradiated mice. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM prevented the reduction in levels of interleukin-12p70 in irradiated mice. Finally, we found that HemoHIM enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4 that was reduced in irradiated mice. Our findings suggest that HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses by modulating the IL-12p70/pSTAT4 signaling pathway. PMID:22439601

Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Choi, Nam-Hee; Jung, Uhee

2012-05-01

220

Identification of a Calcium Signalling Pathway of S-[6]-Gingerol in HuH-7 Cells  

PubMed Central

Calcium signals in hepatocytes control cell growth, proliferation, and death. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily are candidate calcium influx channels. NF?B activation strictly depends on calcium influx and often induces antiapoptotic genes favouring cell survival. Previously, we reported that S-[6]-gingerol is an efficacious agonist of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in neurones. In this study, we tested the effect of S-[6]-gingerol on HuH-7 cells using the Fluo-4 calcium assay, RT-qPCR, transient cell transfection, and luciferase measurements. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced a transient rise in [Ca2+]i in HuH-7 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by S-[6]-gingerol was abolished by preincubation with EGTA and was also inhibited by the TRPV1 channel antagonist capsazepine. Expression of TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells was confirmed by mRNA analysis as well as a test for increase of [Ca2+]i by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and its inhibition by capsazepine. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced rapid NF?B activation through TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells. Furthermore, S-[6]-gingerol-induced NF?B activation was dependent on the calcium gradient and TRPV1. The rapid NF?B activation by S-[6]-gingerol was associated with an increase in mRNA levels of NF?B-target genes: cIAP-2, XIAP, and Bcl-2 that encode antiapoptotic proteins.

McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Tran, Van H.; Li, Yi-Ming; Duke, Colin C.; Heather, Alison K.; Roufogalis, Basil D.

2013-01-01

221

Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 confers PARP inhibitor resistance in BRCA1-deficient cancers  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a promising therapeutic strategy for BRCA1 deficient cancers, however, the development of drug resistance limits clinical efficacy. Previously we found that the BRCA1-AKT1 pathway contributes to tumorigenesis and that the AKT1/mTOR is a novel therapeutic target for BRCA1-deficient cancers. Here, we report that phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, a mTOR downstream effector, is greatly increased in BRCA1 deficient cells resistant to PARP inhibition. Phosphorylation of S6 is associated with DNA damage and repair signaling during PARP inhibitor treatment. In BRCA1 deficient cells, expression of S6 lacking all five phosphorylatable sites renders the cells sensitive to PARP inhibitor and increases DNA damage signals. In addition, the S6 mutations reduce tumor formation induced by Brca1-deficiency in mice. Inhibition of S6 phosphorylation by rapamycin restores PARP sensitivity to resistant cells. Combined treatment with rapamycin and PARP inhibitor effectively suppresses BRCA1-deficient tumor growth in mice. These results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which BRCA1 deficient cancers acquire drug resistance and suggest a new therapeutic strategy to circumvent resistance.

Xiang, Tao; Chen, Qianming; Pandita, Tej K.; Huang, Yuping; Hu, Mickey C.T.; Yang, Qin

2014-01-01

222

S6K1 Plays a Critical Role in Early Adipocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Earlier, we reported that S6K1?/? mice have reduced body fat mass, elevated rates of lipolysis, severely decreased adipocyte size, and are resistant to high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Here we report that adipocytes of S6K1?/? mice on a HFD, have the capacity to increase in size to a degree comparable to that of wild-type (WT) mice, but not in number, indicating an unexpected lesion in adipogenesis. Tracing this lesion revealed that S6K1 is dispensable for terminal adipocyte differentiation, but is involved in the commitment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to early adipocyte progenitors. We further show that absence of S6K1 attenuates the upregulation of transcription factors critical for commitment to adipogenesis. These results led to the conclusion that a lack of S6K1 impairs the generation of de novo adipocytes when mice are challenged with a HFD, consistent with a reduction in early adipocyte progenitors.

Carnevalli, Larissa S.; Masuda, Kouhei; Frigerio, Francesca; Le Bacquer, Olivier; Um, Sung Hee; Gandin, Valentina; Topisirovic, Ivan; Sonenberg, Nahum; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.

2010-01-01

223

S6K1 promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a model of metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of oncology-related death in US women. Of all invasive breast cancers, patients with tumors lacking expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have the poorest clinical prognosis. These referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represent an aggressive form of disease that is marked by early-onset metastasis, high tumor recurrence rate, and low overall survival during the first three years post-diagnosis. In this report, we discuss a novel model of early-onset TNBC metastasis to bone and lungs, derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast cancer cells injected intravenously produced rapid, osteolytic metastases in long bones and spines of athymic nude mice, with concurrent metastasis to lungs, liver, and soft tissues. From the bone metastases, we developed a highly metastatic luciferase-tagged cell line variant named MDA-231-LUC Met. In this report, we demonstrate that the Akt/mTOR/S6K1 axis is hyperactivated in these cells, leading to a dramatic increase in phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein at Ser235/236. Lastly, we provide evidence that inhibition of the furthest downstream kinase in the mTOR pathway, S6K1, with a highly specific inhibitor PF-4708671 inhibits cell migration, and thus may provide a potent anti-metastatic adjuvant therapy approach.

Khotskaya, Yekaterina B; Goverdhan, Aarthi; Shen, Jia; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Chang, Shih-Shin; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Wei, Yongkun; Xia, Weiya; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

2014-01-01

224

Autophosphorylation kinetics of protein kinases.  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases play a central role in cellular signal transduction, by transmitting biochemical information between activated membrane-bound receptors and physiological target proteins. In addition to phosphorylating other proteins, almost all protein kinases catalyse autophosphorylation reactions (i.e. reactions in which the kinase serves as its own substrate). The autophosphorylation reactions can be intramolecular or intermolecular. In the present study, a detailed kinetic analysis of the intermolecular autophosphorylation reaction is presented. On the basis of the kinetic equations, a new procedure is developed to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the autophosphorylation reaction. This method was used to analyse the intermolecular autophosphorylation of an S6/H4 kinase from human placenta. At a fixed ATP concentration of 0.125 mM, the apparent catalytic-centre activity (turnover number; k (cat)) and apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ( K (m)) for the autophosphorylation reaction were determined to be 0.91 min(-1) and 0.86 microM respectively.

Wang, Zhi-Xin; Wu, Jia-Wei

2002-01-01

225

Anisotropic diffraction from photorefractive gratings and Pockels tensor of Sn2P2S6.  

PubMed

The first observation of anisotropic diffraction and anisotropic self diffraction in low symmetry photorefractive crystal Sn(2)P(2)S(6) is reported. From comparison of the diffraction efficiency of isotropic and anisotropic diffraction the ratios of the Pockels tensor components are deduced, including some nondiagonal components that have never been evaluated until now. The particular orientation of the optical indicatrix in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) (roughly at 45 degrees to z- and x-axes at ambient temperature) has a paradoxical consequence: The efficiency of anisotropic diffraction depends solely on diagonal components of the Pockels tensor, while the efficiency of the isotropic diffraction is considerably affected by nondiagonal components. With already known results and data presented in this article we can state that all 10 nonvanishing Pockels tensor components of the m-symmetry class crystal like Sn(2)P(2)S(6) do manifest themselves in various types of nonlinear wave mixing. PMID:18852800

Odoulov, Serguey; Volkov, Alexandr; Shumelyuk, Alexandr; Evans, Dean R; Cook, Gary

2008-10-13

226

Density-functional calculations of structures and absorption spectra of sulfur cluster S-6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite-difference pseudopotential density-functional theory in real space and the Langevin molecular dynamics annealing technique as well as the adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory within the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA) are applied to the descriptions of structures and optical absorption spectra of sulfur cluster S-6. It is found that the ground-state structure of S-6 belongs to either a boat-shaped C-2v or chair-shaped D-3d symmetry structure and the calculated spectra exhibit a variety of features that can be used for comparison against future experimental investigations.

Zhu, J.; Cheng, Y.; Bai, Y. L.; Chen, X. R.

2005-01-01

227

Activation and Association of the Tec Tyrosine Kinase with the Human Prolactin Receptor: Mapping of a Tec\\/Vav1Receptor Binding Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulation of the PRL receptor (PRLr) results in the activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) p95Vav1 with corresponding alter- ations in cytoarchitecture and cell motility. To bet- ter understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of Vav1 activity, the role of the tyrosine kinase p70Tec was examined. Coimmunoprecipita- tion and in vitro kinase assays revealed that ligand stimulation

J. Bradford Kline; Daniel J. Moore; Charles V. Clevenger

2001-01-01

228

Augmentation of Antitumor Immunity by Fusions of Ethanol-Treated Tumor Cells and Dendritic Cells Stimulated via Dual TLRs through TGF-?1 Blockade and IL-12p70 Production  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic efficacy of fusion cell (FC)-based cancer vaccine generated with whole tumor cells and dendritic cells (DCs) requires the improved immunogenicity of both cells. Treatment of whole tumor cells with ethanol resulted in blockade of immune-suppressive soluble factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and IL-10 without decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and the MUC1 tumor-associated antigen. Moreover, the ethanol-treated tumor cells expressed “eat-me” signals such as calreticulin (CRT) on the cell surface and released immunostimulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP)90? and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). A dual stimulation of protein-bound polysaccharides isolated from Coriolus versicolor (TLR2 agonist) and penicillin-inactivated Streptococcus pyogenes (TLR4 agonist) led human monocyte-derived DCs to produce HSP90? and multiple cytokines such as IL-12p70 and IL-10. Interestingly, incorporating ethanol-treated tumor cells and TLRs-stimulated DCs during the fusion process promoted fusion efficiency and up-regulated MHC class II molecules on a per fusion basis. Moreover, fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs (E-tumor/FCs) inhibited the production of multiple immune-suppressive soluble factors including TGF-?1 and up-regulated the production of IL-12p70 and HSP90?. Most importantly, E-tumor/FCs activated T cells capable of producing high levels of IFN-?, resulting in augmented MUC1-specific CTL induction. Collectively, our results illustrate the synergy between ethanol-treated whole tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs in inducing augmented CTL responses in vitro by FC preparations. The alternative system is simple and may provide a platform for adoptive immunotherapy.

Koido, Shigeo; Homma, Sadamu; Okamoto, Masato; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Takakura, Kazuki; Takahara, Akitaka; Odahara, Shunichi; Tsukinaga, Shintaro; Yukawa, Toyokazu; Mitobe, Jimi; Matsudaira, Hiroshi; Nagatsuma, Keisuke; Kajihara, Mikio; Uchiyama, Kan; Arihiro, Seiji; Imazu, Hiroo; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kan, Shin; Hayashi, Kazumi; Komita, Hideo; Kamata, Yuko; Ito, Masaki; Hara, Eiichi; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Gong, Jianlin; Tajiri, Hisao

2013-01-01

229

Augmentation of antitumor immunity by fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dendritic cells stimulated via dual TLRs through TGF-?1 blockade and IL-12p70 production.  

PubMed

The therapeutic efficacy of fusion cell (FC)-based cancer vaccine generated with whole tumor cells and dendritic cells (DCs) requires the improved immunogenicity of both cells. Treatment of whole tumor cells with ethanol resulted in blockade of immune-suppressive soluble factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and IL-10 without decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and the MUC1 tumor-associated antigen. Moreover, the ethanol-treated tumor cells expressed "eat-me" signals such as calreticulin (CRT) on the cell surface and released immunostimulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP)90? and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). A dual stimulation of protein-bound polysaccharides isolated from Coriolus versicolor (TLR2 agonist) and penicillin-inactivated Streptococcus pyogenes (TLR4 agonist) led human monocyte-derived DCs to produce HSP90? and multiple cytokines such as IL-12p70 and IL-10. Interestingly, incorporating ethanol-treated tumor cells and TLRs-stimulated DCs during the fusion process promoted fusion efficiency and up-regulated MHC class II molecules on a per fusion basis. Moreover, fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs (E-tumor/FCs) inhibited the production of multiple immune-suppressive soluble factors including TGF-?1 and up-regulated the production of IL-12p70 and HSP90?. Most importantly, E-tumor/FCs activated T cells capable of producing high levels of IFN-?, resulting in augmented MUC1-specific CTL induction. Collectively, our results illustrate the synergy between ethanol-treated whole tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs in inducing augmented CTL responses in vitro by FC preparations. The alternative system is simple and may provide a platform for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:23717436

Koido, Shigeo; Homma, Sadamu; Okamoto, Masato; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Takakura, Kazuki; Takahara, Akitaka; Odahara, Shunichi; Tsukinaga, Shintaro; Yukawa, Toyokazu; Mitobe, Jimi; Matsudaira, Hiroshi; Nagatsuma, Keisuke; Kajihara, Mikio; Uchiyama, Kan; Arihiro, Seiji; Imazu, Hiroo; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kan, Shin; Hayashi, Kazumi; Komita, Hideo; Kamata, Yuko; Ito, Masaki; Hara, Eiichi; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Gong, Jianlin; Tajiri, Hisao

2013-01-01

230

Induction of the synthesis of the pregnancy-specific protein p70 in the endometrium by intramuscular injection of recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1 in nonpregnant ewes.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1 (rboIFN-alpha I1) or recombinant bovine trophoblast protein-1 (rbTP-1) on protein synthesis by endometrial explants from Day-13 cyclic ewes and studied the ability of rboIFN-alpha I1 injected i.m. to influence subsequent protein secretion by endometrial tissue explants. In Expt 1, ewes were injected with either 2 mg rboIFN-alpha I1 or vehicle alone at 12 h intervals beginning on Day 11 of the oestrous cycle and ending on the morning of Day 13; 8 h after the last injection, ewes were hysterectomized and endometrial explant cultures were prepared. Explants were cultured for 24 h in leucine-deficient medium supplemented with 250 microCi L-[3H]leucine per culture. For Expt 2, additional explants were prepared from Expt 1 controls. Explants were cultured in the presence of 0, 20 or 200 ng/ml of either rboIFN-alpha I1 or rbTP-1 for 24 h in leucine-deficient medium supplemented with 250 microCi L-[3H]leucine per culture. Secreted proteins were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and fluorography. There was a marked enhancement of a 70 kDa acidic protein, p70, in explants cultured in the presence of rboIFN-alpha I1 or rbTP-1. This polypeptide is a product of the gravid uterine horn from Day 14 to Day 20 of pregnancy and is a useful marker of the action of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) on endometrium. Enhanced production of p70 also occurred in ewes injected i.m. with rboIFN-alpha I1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1787456

Francis, H; Keisler, D H; Roberts, R M

1991-11-01

231

PDK1 regulates growth through Akt and S6K in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insulin\\/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway promotes growth in invertebrates and vertebrates by increasing the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate through the activation of p110 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Two key effectors of this pathway are the phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) and Akt\\/PKB. Although genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans has implicated Akt as the only relevant PDK1 substrate, cell culture studies have

Felix Rintelen; Hugo Stocker; George Thomas; Ernst Hafen

2001-01-01

232

Photorefractive and photochromic effects in Sn2P2S6 at various temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photochromic effect in nominally pure and doped Sn2P2S6 photorefractive crystals is investigated in the temperature range 120-310 K. This effect determines a mechanism of the amplitude hologram formation at low temperatures, and we show that a competition between the photorefractive (phase) and the amplitude gratings occurs at increasing temperature.

Mathey, Pierre; Gadret, Grégory; Grabar, Alexander; Stoika, Ivan; Vysochanskii, Yulian

2013-07-01

233

Highly efficient acousto-optic diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals.  

PubMed

We have studied the acousto-optic (AO) diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals and found that they manifest high values of an AO figure of merit. The above crystals may therefore be used as highly efficient materials in different AO applications. PMID:18157276

Martynyuk-Lototska, I Yu; Mys, O G; Grabar, A A; Stoika, I M; Vysochanskii, Yu M; Vlokh, R O

2008-01-01

234

The application of ICH S6 to the preclinical safety evaluation of plasma derivative therapeutic products.  

PubMed

The ICH S6 guidance was developed to describe a rational science-based flexible approach to the preclinical evaluation for biotechnology-derived pharmaceutical products. It also suggested that some of the principles described may be suitable for plasma-derived therapeutics. Some of the specific concerns unique to protein-based therapeutics include complexity in structure and potential immunogenicity. S6 has been interpreted by some industry and regulatory authorities, often due to lack of experience with these types of products, as encouraging a broader or more conventional toxicology program similar to that normally conducted for small molecules. The guidance does encourage important and necessary preclinical evaluations but also recognizes the limitations of studies in non-relevant animal species because they are without pharmacological interaction with the biologic. In addition, studies of human proteins are often limited in useful chronic, reproductive and carcinogenic toxicity evaluations by the immunological response in animals. Thus the safety evaluation of biopharmaceuticals and plasma derivatives in animals has limitations that cannot be adequately addressed by the use of testing paradigms used for small molecule pharmaceuticals. S6 focuses evaluations on well-designed studies in relevant species for reasonable time periods to make the best use of available resources and enable clinical trials. PMID:20359910

Lewis, Richard M; Cavagnaro, Joy

2010-07-01

235

Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 attenuates DNA damage and tumor suppression during development of pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

The signaling pathways that mediate the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) downstream of mutant Kras remain incompletely understood. Here, we focus on ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), an mTOR effector not implicated previously in cancer. Phosphorylation of rpS6 was increased in pancreatic acinar cells upon implantation of the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or transgenic expression of mutant Kras. To examine the functional significance of rpS6 phosphorylation, we used knockin mice lacking all five phosphorylatable sites in rpS6 (termed rpS6(P-/-) mice). Strikingly, the development of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions induced by either DMBA or mutant Kras was greatly reduced in rpS6(P-/-) mice. The rpS6 mutants expressing oncogenic Kras showed increased p53 along with increased staining of ?-H2AX and 53bp1 (Trp53bp1) in areas of acinar ductal metaplasia, suggesting that rpS6 phosphorylation attenuates Kras-induced DNA damage and p53-mediated tumor suppression. These results reveal that rpS6 phosphorylation is important for the initiation of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23361300

Khalaileh, Abed; Dreazen, Avigail; Khatib, Areej; Apel, Roy; Swisa, Avital; Kidess-Bassir, Norma; Maitra, Anirban; Meyuhas, Oded; Dor, Yuval; Zamir, Gideon

2013-03-15

236

The selectivity of protein kinase inhibitors: a further update  

PubMed Central

The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70–80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB 203580/SB202190 and BIRB 0796 to be used in parallel to assess the physiological roles of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) isoforms, PI-103 and wortmannin to be used in parallel to inhibit phosphatidylinositol (phosphoinositide) 3-kinases, PP1 or PP2 to be used in parallel with Src-I1 (Src inhibitor-1) to inhibit Src family members; PD 184352 or PD 0325901 to inhibit MKK1 (MAPK kinase-1) or MKK1 plus MKK5, Akt-I-1/2 to inhibit the activation of PKB (protein kinase B/Akt), rapamycin to inhibit TORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)–raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) complex], CT 99021 to inhibit GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), BI-D1870 and SL0101 or FMK (fluoromethylketone) to be used in parallel to inhibit RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase), D4476 to inhibit CK1 (casein kinase 1), VX680 to inhibit Aurora kinases, and roscovitine as a pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. We have also identified harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase 1A) in vitro. The results have further emphasized the need for considerable caution in using small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases to assess the physiological roles of these enzymes. Despite being used widely, many of the compounds that we analysed were too non-specific for useful conclusions to be made, other than to exclude the involvement of particular protein kinases in cellular processes.

Bain, Jenny; Plater, Lorna; Elliott, Matt; Shpiro, Natalia; Hastie, C. James; Mclauchlan, Hilary; Klevernic, Iva; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Alessi, Dario R.; Cohen, Philip

2007-01-01

237

Proteomic and biochemical analyses reveal the activation of unfolded protein response, ERK-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 signaling in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rat model  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis underlying myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM)-induced heart failure rat model that represents T cell mediated postinflammatory heart disorders. Results By performing unbiased 2-dimensional electrophoresis of protein extracts from control rat heart tissues and EAM rat heart tissues, followed by nano-HPLC-ESI-QIT-MS, 67 proteins were identified from 71 spots that exhibited significantly altered expression levels. The majority of up-regulated proteins were confidently associated with unfolded protein responses (UPR), while the majority of down-regulated proteins were involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria. Although there was no difference in AKT signaling between EAM rat heart tissues and control rat heart tissues, the amounts and activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) were significantly increased. By comparing our data with the previously reported myocardial proteome of the Coxsackie viruses of group B (CVB)-mediated myocarditis model, we found that UPR-related proteins were commonly up-regulated in two murine myocarditis models. Even though only two out of 29 down-regulated proteins in EAM rat heart tissues were also dysregulated in CVB-infected rat heart tissues, other proteins known to be involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria were also dysregulated in CVB-mediated myocarditis rat heart tissues, suggesting that impairment of mitochondrial functions may be a common underlying mechanism of the two murine myocarditis models. Conclusions UPR, ERK-1/2 and S6RP signaling were activated in both EAM- and CVB-induced myocarditis murine models. Thus, the conserved components of signaling pathways in two murine models of acute myocarditis could be targets for developing new therapeutic drugs or methods aimed at treating enigmatic myocarditis.

2011-01-01

238

Mammalian cell size is controlled by mTOR and its downstream targets S6K1 and 4EBP1/eIF4E.  

PubMed

The coordinated action of cell cycle progression and cell growth (an increase in cell size and cell mass) is critical for sustained cellular proliferation, yet the biochemical signals that control cell growth are poorly defined, particularly in mammalian systems. We find that cell growth and cell cycle progression are separable processes in mammalian cells and that growth to appropriate cell size requires mTOR- and PI3K-dependent signals. Expression of a rapamycin-resistant mutant of mTOR rescues the reduced cell size phenotype induced by rapamycin in a kinase-dependent manner, showing the evolutionarily conserved role of mTOR in control of cell growth. Expression of S6K1 mutants that possess partial rapamycin-resistant activity or overexpression of eIF4E individually and additively partially rescues the rapamycin-induced decrease in cell size. In the absence of rapamycin, overexpression of S6K1 or eIF4E increases cell size, and, when coexpressed, they cooperate to increase cell size further. Expression of a phosphorylation site-defective mutant of 4EBP1 that constitutively binds the eIF4E-Cap complex to inhibit translation initiation reduces cell size and blocks eIF4E effects on cell size. These data show that mTOR signals downstream to at least two independent targets, S6K1 and 4EBP1/eIF4E, that function in translational control to regulate mammalian cell size. PMID:12080086

Fingar, Diane C; Salama, Sofie; Tsou, Christina; Harlow, Ed; Blenis, John

2002-06-15

239

Reduced Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation following Progressive Resistance Exercise in Growing Adolescent Rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to investigate moderate intensity progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in growing adolescent rats and its effect on muscle hypertrophy (defined as an increase in fiber cross-sectional area). We hypothesized that in adolescent animals moderate intensity PRE would increase: 1) fiber cross-sectional area (CSA); 2) myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content; and 3) expression and phosphorylation of cell signaling molecules involved in translational regulation, compared to age-matched sedentary controls (SED). In the PRE group, three-week old male rats were trained to climb a vertical ladder as a mode of PRE training such that by 10 weeks, all animals in the PRE group had progressed to carry an additional 80% of body weight per climb. In agreement with our hypotheses, we observed that 10 weeks of moderate PRE in adolescent animals was sufficient to increase CSA of muscle fibers and increase MyHC content. Average muscle fiber CSA increased by greater than 10% and total MyHC content increased by 35% (p<0.05) in the PRE group compared to SED animals. Concurrently, we investigated sustained changes in the expression and phosphorylation of key signaling molecules that are previously identified regulators of hypertrophy in adult animal models. Contrary to our hypotheses, expression and phosphorylation of the translational regulators mTOR and Akt were not increased in the PRE group. In addition, we observed that the ratio of phosphorylated-to-unphosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) was reduced over six-fold in PRE animals (p<0.05) and total rpS6 protein levels were unchanged between PRE and sedentary animals (p>0.05). We conclude that moderate intensity PRE is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy in adolescent animals while the signaling mechanisms associated with muscle hypertrophy may differ between growing adolescents and adults.

Hellyer, Nathan J.; Nokleby, Jessica J.; Thicke, Bethany M.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

2011-01-01

240

Reduced ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation after progressive resistance exercise in growing adolescent rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate moderate intensity progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in growing adolescent rats and its effect on muscle hypertrophy (defined as an increase in fiber cross-sectional area [CSA]). We hypothesized that in adolescent animals moderate intensity PRE would increase (a) fiber CSA; (b) myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content; and (c) expression and phosphorylation of cell signaling molecules involved in translational regulation, compared with that in age-matched sedentary (SED) controls. In the PRE group, 3-week-old male rats were trained to climb a vertical ladder as a mode of PRE training such that by 10 weeks all animals in the PRE group had progressed to carry an additional 80% of their body weight per climb. In agreement with our hypotheses, we observed that 10 weeks of moderate PRE in adolescent animals was sufficient to increase the CSA of muscle fibers and increase MyHC content. The average muscle fiber CSA increased by >10%, and the total MyHC content increased by 35% (p < 0.05) in the PRE group compared with that in the SED animals. Concurrently, we investigated sustained changes in the expression and phosphorylation of key signaling molecules that are previously identified regulators of hypertrophy in adult animal models. Contrary to our hypotheses, expression and phosphorylation of the translational regulators mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt were not increased in the PRE group. In addition, we observed that the ratio of phosphorylated-to-unphosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) was reduced over sixfold in PRE animals (p < 0.05) and that total rpS6 protein levels were unchanged between PRE and SED animals (p > 0.05). We conclude that moderate intensity PRE is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy in adolescent animals, whereas the signaling mechanisms associated with muscle hypertrophy may differ between growing adolescents and adults. PMID:22614147

Hellyer, Nathan J; Nokleby, Jessica J; Thicke, Bethany M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

2012-06-01

241

Platelet-derived growth factor-induced Akt phosphorylation requires mTOR/Rictor and phospholipase C-?1, whereas S6 phosphorylation depends on mTOR/Raptor and phospholipase D.  

PubMed

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) can be found in two multi-protein complexes, i.e. mTORC1 (containing Raptor) and mTORC2 (containing Rictor). Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which mTORC1 and mTORC2 are activated and their downstream targets in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB treatment. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibited PDGF-BB activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. We found that in Rictor-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, or after prolonged rapamycin treatment of NIH3T3 cells, PDGF-BB was not able to promote phosphorylation of Ser473 in the serine/threonine kinase Akt, whereas Thr308 phosphorylation was less affected, suggesting that Ser473 in Akt is phosphorylated in an mTORC2-dependent manner. This reduction in Akt phosphorylation did not influence the phosphorylation of the S6 protein, a well established protein downstream of mTORC1. Consistently, triciribine, an inhibitor of the Akt pathway, suppressed PDGF-BB-induced Akt phosphorylation without having any effect on S6 phosphorylation. Thus, mTORC2 does not appear to be upstream of mTORC1. We could also demonstrate that in Rictor-null cells the phosphorylation of phospholipase C?1 (PLC?1) and protein kinase C (PKC) was impaired, and the PKC? protein levels strongly reduced. Furthermore, interfering with the PLC?/Ca2+/PKC pathway inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt phosphorylation. In addition, PDGF-BB-induced activation of mTORC1, as measured by phosphorylation of the downstream S6 protein, was dependent on phospholipase D (PLD). It has been shown that Erk1/2 MAP-kinase directly phosphorylates and activates mTORC1; in partial agreement with this finding, we found that a Mek1/2 inhibitor delayed S6 phosphorylation in response to PDGF-BB, but it did not block it. Thus, whereas both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are activated in a PI3K-dependent manner, different additional signaling pathways are needed. mTORC1 is activated in a PLD-dependent manner and promotes phosphorylation of the S6 protein, whereas mTORC2, in concert with PLC? signaling, promotes Akt phosphorylation. PMID:23311350

Razmara, Masoud; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Lennartsson, Johan

2013-01-01

242

Platelet-derived growth factor-induced Akt phosphorylation requires mTOR/Rictor and phospholipase C-?1, whereas S6 phosphorylation depends on mTOR/Raptor and phospholipase D  

PubMed Central

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) can be found in two multi-protein complexes, i.e. mTORC1 (containing Raptor) and mTORC2 (containing Rictor). Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which mTORC1 and mTORC2 are activated and their downstream targets in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB treatment. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibited PDGF-BB activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. We found that in Rictor-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, or after prolonged rapamycin treatment of NIH3T3 cells, PDGF-BB was not able to promote phosphorylation of Ser473 in the serine/threonine kinase Akt, whereas Thr308 phosphorylation was less affected, suggesting that Ser473 in Akt is phosphorylated in an mTORC2-dependent manner. This reduction in Akt phosphorylation did not influence the phosphorylation of the S6 protein, a well established protein downstream of mTORC1. Consistently, triciribine, an inhibitor of the Akt pathway, suppressed PDGF-BB-induced Akt phosphorylation without having any effect on S6 phosphorylation. Thus, mTORC2 does not appear to be upstream of mTORC1. We could also demonstrate that in Rictor-null cells the phosphorylation of phospholipase C?1 (PLC?1) and protein kinase C (PKC) was impaired, and the PKC? protein levels strongly reduced. Furthermore, interfering with the PLC?/Ca2+/PKC pathway inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt phosphorylation. In addition, PDGF-BB-induced activation of mTORC1, as measured by phosphorylation of the downstream S6 protein, was dependent on phospholipase D (PLD). It has been shown that Erk1/2 MAP-kinase directly phosphorylates and activates mTORC1; in partial agreement with this finding, we found that a Mek1/2 inhibitor delayed S6 phosphorylation in response to PDGF-BB, but it did not block it. Thus, whereas both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are activated in a PI3K-dependent manner, different additional signaling pathways are needed. mTORC1 is activated in a PLD-dependent manner and promotes phosphorylation of the S6 protein, whereas mTORC2, in concert with PLC? signaling, promotes Akt phosphorylation.

2013-01-01

243

Ferroelectricity, nonlinear dynamics, and relaxation effects in monoclinic Sn2P2S6.  

PubMed

An ab initio-based model of the temperature-induced ferroelectric phase transition in Sn2P2S6 (SPS) as a prototype of an unconventional ferroelectric is developed. The order parameter in SPS is found as the valley line on a total-energy surface of the zone-center fully symmetrical Ag and polar Bu distortions. Significant nonlinear coupling between order parameter and strain is observed. Monte Carlo simulations describe the additional low-temperature rearrangement in polar structure, which appears in domain boundaries, and describe the relaxation phenomena near the ferroelectric phase transition. PMID:18233186

Rushchanskii, Konstantin Z; Vysochanskii, Yulian M; Strauch, Dieter

2007-11-16

244

Growth of aligned Mo6S6 nanowires on Cu(111)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on density functional theory (DFT) predictions and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements we report the possibility of using the Cu(111) surface for growth of molybdenum sulfide nanowires (Mo6S6). Strong substrate interactions coupled with small lattice mismatch lead to epitaxial growth of the nanowires parallel to a set of substrate high symmetry directions. We observe a propensity for creation of aligned and equally spaced arrays of nanowires and use DFT to elucidate interaction strength both in the absence and presence of the substrate.

Le, Duy; Sun, Dezheng; Lu, Wenhao; Aminpour, Maral; Wang, Chen; Ma, Quan; Rahman, Talat S.; Bartels, Ludwig

2013-05-01

245

Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals.  

PubMed

We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed. PMID:21828470

Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Grabar, A; Vlokh, R

2009-07-01

246

The crystal structure of apo-pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6.  

PubMed

The 3D structure of the apo-pseudoazurin (copper free pseudoazurin) from Alcaligenes faecalis strain S-6 is determined and refined at pH 6.7 using X-ray diffraction data to 1.85 A resolution. The final crystallographic R-factor is 0.164. Comparing the structures of apo-pseudoazurin and the native (Cu2+) protein, we observed limited differences ranging between 0.1-0.4 A at the vicinity of the copper site, at the loops connecting the secondary structural elements, at certain beta-strands and at the amino and carboxy termini of the protein. PMID:7635192

Petratos, K; Papadovasilaki, M; Dauter, Z

1995-07-24

247

Transition probability for Ca (4s 6s 1S-->4s 4p 1P)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission, transition probability of the Ca (4s 6s 1S-->4s 4p 1P) transition at 586.8 nm has been measured relative to the known strength of the Ca (4p2 1D-->4s 4p 1P) transition at 585.7 nm by two-step laser excitation. The ratio of transition probabilities was found to be A586.8A585.7=(3.5+\\/-0.5)×10-1 resulting in an A value for the 586.8-nm transition of 2.35×107

Arthur G. Zajonc

1982-01-01

248

Transition probability for Ca (4s 6s 1S-->4s 4p 1P)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission, transition probability of the Ca (4s 6s 1S-->4s 4p 1P) transition at 586.8 nm has been measured relative to the known strength of the Ca (4p2 1D-->4s 4p 1P) transition at 585.7 nm by two-step laser excitation. The ratio of transition probabilities was found to be A586.8A585.7=(3.5+/-0.5)×10-1 resulting in an A value for the 586.8-nm transition of 2.35×107 sec-1.

Zajonc, Arthur G.

1982-05-01

249

Refractive indices of Sn2P2S6 at visible and infrared wavelengths.  

PubMed

We report on the refractive indices of Sn2P2S6 crystals in the wavelength range 550 - 2300 nm. The measurements are performed at room temperature using the minimum deviation method. The dispersion is described by a two oscillator model yielding the oscillator energies and strengths (Sellmeier parameters) for all polarization directions. The rotation of the indicatrix in the mirror plane and the direction of the optical axes have also been determined in the wavelength range lambda= 550-2200 nm. PMID:19495089

Haertle, D; Guarino, A; Hajfler, J; Montemezzani, G; Günter, P

2005-03-21

250

Cysteine Mutagenesis and Computer Modeling of the S6 Region of an Intermediate Conductance IKCa Channel  

PubMed Central

Cysteine-scanning mutagenesis (SCAM) and computer-based modeling were used to investigate key structural features of the S6 transmembrane segment of the calcium-activated K+ channel of intermediate conductance IKCa. Our SCAM results show that the interaction of [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET) with cysteines engineered at positions 275, 278, and 282 leads to current inhibition. This effect was state dependent as MTSET appeared less effective at inhibiting IKCa in the closed (zero Ca2+ conditions) than open state configuration. Our results also indicate that the last four residues in S6, from A283 to A286, are entirely exposed to water in open IKCa channels, whereas MTSET can still reach the 283C and 286C residues with IKCa maintained in a closed state configuration. Notably, the internal application of MTSET or sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSES) caused a strong Ca2+-dependent stimulation of the A283C, V285C, and A286C currents. However, in contrast to the wild-type IKCa, the MTSET-stimulated A283C and A286C currents appeared to be TEA insensitive, indicating that the MTSET binding at positions 283 and 286 impaired the access of TEA to the channel pore. Three-dimensional structural data were next generated through homology modeling using the KcsA structure as template. In accordance with the SCAM results, the three-dimensional models predict that the V275, T278, and V282 residues should be lining the channel pore. However, the pore dimensions derived for the A283–A286 region cannot account for the MTSET effect on the closed A283C and A286 mutants. Our results suggest that the S6 domain extending from V275 to V282 possesses features corresponding to the inner cavity region of KcsA, and that the COOH terminus end of S6, from A283 to A286, is more flexible than predicted on the basis of the closed KcsA crystallographic structure alone. According to this model, closure by the gate should occur at a point located between the T278 and V282 residues.

Simoes, Manuel; Garneau, Line; Klein, Helene; Banderali, Umberto; Hobeila, Fadi; Roux, Benoit; Parent, Lucie; Sauve, Remy

2002-01-01

251

Blockade of mTOR signaling potentiates the ability of histone deacetylase inhibitor to induce growth arrest and differentiation of acute myelogenous leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study found that MS-275, a novel synthetic benzamide histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), blocked Akt\\/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) HL60 and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4 cells, as assessed by decreased levels of the phosphorylated (p)-Akt, p-p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) and p-S6K by western blot analysis. Interestingly, further inactivation of mTOR by rapamycin

C Nishioka; T Ikezoe; J Yang; H P Koeffler; A Yokoyama

2008-01-01

252

Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6RP predicts the efficacy of everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of renal cell cancer (RCC) has been increasing for the past decade, and the 5-year survival for patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC) is rather low. Everolimus (RAD001), a new inhibitor for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is generally well tolerated, and demonstrates clinical benefit to patients with anti-VEGF-refractory mRCC. However, factors for selection of patients who may benefit from everolimus remain largely unknown. Here we aimed to explore potential molecular indicators for mRCC patients who may benefit from everolimus treatment. Methods Paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens derived from 18 mRCC patients before everolimus treatment, who participated the phase 1b trial of everolimus in VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-refractory Chinese patients with mRCC (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01152801), were examined for the expression levels of phosphorylated AKT, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein-1 (4EBP1) and 40S ribosomal protein S6 (S6RP) by immunohistochemistry. Clinical benefit rate (complete response [CR], partial response [PR], plus stable disease [SD]???6 months) and progression-free survival time (PFS) were correlated with expression levels of these mTOR-associated molecules. Results In these 18 patients, there were 1 PR, 15 SDs (including 9 SDs???6 months), and 2 progressive diseases (PD). The clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 55.6% (10/18), and the median PFS time was 8.4 months. Patients with positive expression of phospho-mTOR showed a better CBR (71.4% versus 0%, P?=?0.023) and PFS time (11.3 versus 3.7 months, P?=?0.001) than those patients with negative expression. The median PFS of patients with positive phospho-S6RP expression was longer (11.3 versus 3.7 months, P?=?0.002) than that of patients negative for phospho-S6RP expression. However, expression levels of phospho-4EBP1 and phospho-AKT were unassociated to efficacy of everolimus treatment with respect to CBR and PFS. Co-expression of phosphorylated mTOR, S6RP and/or 4EBP1 may improve the predictive value of the biomarkers for patients treated with everolimus. Conclusions The expression levels of phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6RP may be potential predictive biomarkers for efficacy of everolimus in patients with mRCC. Combining examinations of phosphorylated mTOR, S6RP and/or 4EBP1 may be a potential strategy to select mRCC patients sensitive to mTOR inhibitor treatment.

2014-01-01

253

Immunotoxins and Other Conjugates Containing Saporin-S6 for Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a family of plant toxins that permanently damage ribosomes and possibly other cellular substrates, thus causing cell death. RIPs are mostly divided in two types: Type 1 RIPs that are single-chain enzymatic proteins, and type 2 RIPs that consist of an active A chain (similar to a type 1 RIP) linked to a B chain with lectin properties. RIP-containing conjugates have been used in many experimental strategies against cancer cells, often showing great efficacy in clinical trials. Saporin-S6, a type 1 RIP extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. seeds, has been extensively utilized to construct anti-cancer conjugates because of its high enzymatic activity, stability and resistance to conjugation procedures, resulting in the efficient killing of target cells. This review summarizes saporin-S6-containing conjugates and their application in cancer therapy, considering in-vitro and in-vivo studies both in animal models and in clinical trials. The review is structured on the basis of the targeting of hematological versus solid tumors and on the antigen recognized on the cell surface.

Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Pedrazzi, Manuela; Bolognesi, Andrea

2011-01-01

254

Identification of Novel Kinase Targets for the Treatment of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous gene expression profiling studies of breast cancer have focused on the entire genome to identify genes differentially expressed between estrogen receptor alpha (ER)-positive and ER-alpha-negative cancers. Experimental Design Here we used gene expression microarray profiling to identify a distinct kinase gene expression profile that identifies ER-negative breast tumors and subsets ER-negative breast tumors into 4 distinct subtypes. Results Based upon the types of kinases expressed in these clusters, we identify a cell cycle regulatory subset, a S6 kinase pathway cluster, an immunomodulatory kinase expressing cluster, and a MAPK pathway cluster. Furthermore, we show that this specific kinase profile is validated using independent sets of human tumors, and is also seen in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Kinase expression knockdown studies show that many of these kinases are essential for the growth of ER-negative, but not ER-positive, breast cancer cell lines. Finally, survival analysis of patients with breast cancer shows that the S6 kinase pathway signature subtype of ER-negative cancers confers an extremely poor prognosis, while patients whose tumors express high levels of immunomodulatory kinases have a significantly better prognosis. Conclusions This study identifies a list of kinases that are prognostic and may serve as druggable targets for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.

Speers, Corey; Tsimelzon, Anna; Sexton, Krystal; Herrick, Ashley M.; Gutierrez, Carolina; Culhane, Aedin; Quackenbush, John; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Chang, Jenny; Brown, Powel

2009-01-01

255

AKT/mTOR and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy.  

PubMed

Chrysotile asbestos is closely associated with excess mortality from pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Although multiple mechanisms in which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, the role of autophagy in human lung epithelial cells has not been examined. In this study, we evaluated whether chrysotile asbestos induces autophagy in A549 human lung epithelial cells and then analyzed the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Chrysotile asbestos induced autophagy in A549 cells based on a series of biochemical and microscopic autophagy markers. We observed that asbestos increased expression of A549 cell microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II), an autophagy marker, in conjunction with dephosphorylation of phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-p70S6K. Notably, AKT1/AKT2 double-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) had negligible asbestos-induced LC3-II expression, supporting a crucial role for AKT signaling. Chrysotile asbestos also led to the phosphorylation/activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK, but not p38 MAPK, dramatically inhibited the protein expression of LC3-II. Moreover, JNK2(-/-) MEFs but not JNK1(-/-) MEFs blocked LC3-II levels induced by chrysotile asbestos. In addition, N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, attenuated chrysotile asbestos-induced dephosphorylation of P-AKT and completely abolished phosphorylation/activation of JNK. Finally, we demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos-induced apoptosis was not affected by the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or autophagy-related gene 5 siRNA, indicating that the chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy may be adaptive rather than prosurvival. Our findings demonstrate that AKT/mTOR and JNK2 signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy. These data provide a mechanistic basis for possible future clinical applications targeting these signaling pathways in the management of asbestos-induced lung disease. PMID:24735948

Lin, Ziying; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Zhou, Xu; Li, Donghong; Yang, Lawei; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Gang

2014-07-01

256

Genetic alterations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway confer sensitivity of thyroid cancer cells to therapeutic targeting of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin.  

PubMed

We investigated the genotype-dependent therapeutic potential of targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway for thyroid cancer. Proliferation of TPC1, Hth7, FTC133, OCUT1, K1, and BCPAP cells that harbored PI3K/Akt-activating genetic alterations was potently inhibited by the Akt inhibitor perifosine, whereas SW1736, Hth74, WRO, KAT18, and TAD2 cells that harbored no genetic alterations had no or only modest responses. Inhibition of Akt phosphorylation by perifosine was seen in these cells. Genetic-dependent apoptosis was induced by perifosine in cells selectively tested. Similarly, potent inhibition of cell proliferation by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor temsirolimus occurred in virtually all the cells harboring genetic alterations, whereas modest inhibition was seen in some of the cells not harboring genetic alterations. Temsirolimus inhibited the phosphorylation of p70S6K, a substrate of mTOR. Knockdown of Akt1/2 or mTOR by shRNA approach inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of FTC133 and OCUT1 cells that harbored genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway but had no effect on SW1736 and KAT18 cells that did not. Transfection with PIK3CA mutants greatly sensitized SW1736 cells to perifosine and temsirolimus. Growth of xenograft tumors derived from FTC133 cells but not SW1736 cells in nude mice was dramatically inhibited by perifosine. Thus, this work for the first time shows that genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway confer thyroid cancer cells addiction to this pathway and their sensitivity to inhibition by targeting Akt and mTOR. This genotype-based targeting of the PI3K/Akt pathway using Akt and mTOR inhibitors may offer an effective therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer and warrants further studies. PMID:19706758

Liu, Dingxie; Hou, Peng; Liu, Zhi; Wu, Guojun; Xing, Mingzhao

2009-09-15

257

Protective effect of 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A against intestinal inflammation is mediated through PI3-kinase/Akt/mTOR and NF-?B signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, are pivotal for the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and down-regulation of the cytokines and cytokine-induced inflammatory responses therefore constitute pharmacological targets for the development of therapeutic strategies in IBD. In the current study, we found that 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A (SMA), a macrolide, potently inhibited TNF-?-induced adhesion of monocytes to colonic epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner, similar to rapamycin, a mTOR inhibitor. In addition, oral administration of SMA resulted in a significant suppression of clinical signs of TNBS-induced rat colitis, including weight loss, colon tissue edema, and myeloperoxidase activity, a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as microscopic damage score in a histomorphological examination of HE-stained colon tissue. More importantly, SMA was more efficacious in inhibition of intestinal inflammation than 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), an active metabolite of sulfasalazine, the most commonly prescribed agent for the treatment of IBD. Such anti-inflammatory activity showed correlation with significant suppression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1), T-helper 1-type cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6), and chemokines (MCP-1, IL-8). In addition to inhibition of NF-?B nuclear translocation, SMA also caused significant suppression of TNF-?-induced phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR and p70S6 kinase, similar to the effect of rapamycin, an immunosuppressant macrolide. Taken together, the current results suggest that managing both mTOR and NF-?B activation pathways using SMA may be a good therapeutic intervention for the treatment of IBD. PMID:24769511

Park, Sumin; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Park, Su-Young; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Jung-Ae

2014-07-15

258

Lifetime of the 7s6d D12 atomic state of radium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lifetime of the 7s6d D12 state of atomic radium is determined to be 385(45)?s using cold R226a atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap. The D12 state is populated from the decay of the P11 state which is excited by a pulse of 483 nm light. The decay of the D12 state is observed by detecting delayed fluorescence at 714 nm from the last step in the decay sequence P11-D12-P31-S10 . The measured lifetime is compared to a number of theoretical calculations. An improved value of the 7s7p P11 level of 20715.598(6)cm-1 is obtained.

Trimble, W. L.; Sulai, I. A.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.

2009-11-01

259

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A 2-GS/s 6-bit self-calibrated flash ADC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single channel 2-GS/s 6-bit ADC with cascade resistive averaging and self foreground calibration is demonstrated in 0.18-?m CMOS. The calibration method based on DAC trimming improves the linearity and dynamic performance further. The peak DNL and INL are measured as 0.34 and 0.22 LSB, respectively. The SNDR and SFDR have achieved 36.5 and 45.9 dB, respectively, with 1.22 MHz input signal and 2 GS/s. The proposed ADC, including on-chip track-and-hold amplifiers and clock buffers, consumes 570 mW from a single 1.8 V supply while operating at 2 GS/s.

Youtao, Zhang; Xiaopeng, Li; Min, Zhang; Ao, Liu; Chen, Chen

2010-09-01

260

Raf1 activates MAP kinase-kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE normal cellular homologue of the acutely transforming oncogene v-ra\\/is c-raf-l, which encodes a serine\\/threonine protein kinase that is activated by many extracellular stimuli1. The physiological substrates of the protein c-Raf-1 are unknown. The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ErkI and 2 are also activated by mitogens through phosphorylation of Erk tyrosine and threonine residues catalysed by a protein kinase of

John M. Kyriakis; Harald App; Xian-Feng Zhang; Papia Banerjee; David L. Brautigan; Ulf R. Rapp; Joseph Avruch

1992-01-01

261

KEA: kinase enrichment analysis  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Multivariate experiments applied to mammalian cells often produce lists of proteins/genes altered under treatment versus control conditions. Such lists can be projected onto prior knowledge of kinase–substrate interactions to infer the list of kinases associated with a specific protein list. By computing how the proportion of kinases, associated with a specific list of proteins/genes, deviates from an expected distribution, we can rank kinases and kinase families based on the likelihood that these kinases are functionally associated with regulating the cell under specific experimental conditions. Such analysis can assist in producing hypotheses that can explain how the kinome is involved in the maintenance of different cellular states and can be manipulated to modulate cells towards a desired phenotype. Summary: Kinase enrichment analysis (KEA) is a web-based tool with an underlying database providing users with the ability to link lists of mammalian proteins/genes with the kinases that phosphorylate them. The system draws from several available kinase–substrate databases to compute kinase enrichment probability based on the distribution of kinase–substrate proportions in the background kinase–substrate database compared with kinases found to be associated with an input list of genes/proteins. Availability: The KEA system is freely available at http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/lib/kea.jsp Contact: avi.maayan@mssm.edu

Lachmann, Alexander; Ma'ayan, Avi

2009-01-01

262

Protein Kinase Inhibitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Protein kinase inhibitors are disclosed having utility in the treatment of protein kinase-mediated diseases and conditions, such as cancer. The compounds of this invention have the following structure: 1 including steroisomers, prodrugs and pharmaceutical...

L. H. Hurley D. Mahadevan H. Han D. J. Bearss H. Vankayalapati S. Bashyam

2005-01-01

263

Oncogenic kinase signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are important regulators of intracellular signal-transduction pathways mediating development and multicellular communication in metazoans. Their activity is normally tightly controlled and regulated. Perturbation of PTK signalling by mutations and other genetic alterations results in deregulated kinase activity and malignant transformation. The lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and some of its downstream targets, such as the protein-serine\\/threonine

Peter Blume-Jensen; Tony Hunter

2001-01-01

264

The cluster [Fe 4Cp 4S 6] as a ligand to Mo(II) and W(II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexes [MI2(CO)3(Fe4Cp4S6-S,S?)] {M=W (1) or Mo (2)}, [MI(SR)(CO)3(Fe4Cp4S6-S,S?)] {R=Ph; M=W (3) or Mo (4): R=C6H2Me3-2,4,6; M=W (5) or Mo (6)}, [M(SR)2(CO)3(Fe4Cp4S6-S,S?)] {R=SPh; M=W (7) or Mo (8): R=C6H2Me3-2,4,6; M=W (9) or Mo (10)}, [MI(CO)3(PPh3)(Fe4Cp4S6-S,S?)]I {M=W (11) or Mo (12)}, [M(CO)3(PPh3)(Fe4Cp4S6-S,S?)]I2 {M=W (13) or Mo (14)}, [M(CO)3(P-P)(Fe4Cp4S6-S,S?)]I2 {P-P=diphenylphosphinoethane (dppe); M=W (15) or Mo (16): P-P=diphenylphosphinopropane (dppp); M=W (17) or Mo

Paul K. Baker; J. Elaine Barclay; Alec I. Clark; David J. Evans; Kerry Mitchell; Raymond L. Richards

1999-01-01

265

Trpc1 Ion Channel Modulates Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway during Myoblast Differentiation and Muscle Regeneration*  

PubMed Central

We previously showed in vitro that calcium entry through Trpc1 ion channels regulates myoblast migration and differentiation. In the present work, we used primary cell cultures and isolated muscles from Trpc1?/? and Trpc1+/+ murine model to investigate the role of Trpc1 in myoblast differentiation and in muscle regeneration. In these models, we studied regeneration consecutive to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury and observed a significant hypotrophy and a delayed regeneration in Trpc1?/? muscles consisting in smaller fiber size and increased proportion of centrally nucleated fibers. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin and of one of their targets, the developmental MHC (MHCd). Consequently, muscle tension was systematically lower in muscles from Trpc1?/? mice. Importantly, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, which plays a crucial role in muscle growth and regeneration, was down-regulated in regenerating Trpc1?/? muscles. Indeed, phosphorylation of both Akt and p70S6K proteins was decreased as well as the activation of PI3K, the main upstream regulator of the Akt. This effect was independent of insulin-like growth factor expression. Akt phosphorylation also was reduced in Trpc1?/? primary myoblasts and in control myoblasts differentiated in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or pretreated with EGTA-AM or wortmannin, suggesting that the entry of Ca2+ through Trpc1 channels enhanced the activity of PI3K. Our results emphasize the involvement of Trpc1 channels in skeletal muscle development in vitro and in vivo, and identify a Ca2+-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration.

Zanou, Nadege; Schakman, Olivier; Louis, Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dietrich, Alexander; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Gailly, Philippe

2012-01-01

266

A Genome-wide RNAi Screen for Polypeptides that Alter rpS6 Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a giant protein kinase that controls cell proliferation, growth, and metabolism. mTOR is regulated by nutrient availability, by mitogens, and by stress, and operates through two independently regulated hetero-oligomeric complexes. We have attempted to identify the cellular components necessary to maintain the activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), the amino acid-dependent, rapamycin-inhibitable complex, using a whole genome approach involving RNAi-induced depletion of cellular polypeptides. We have used a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell line, Mia-PaCa for this screen; as with many pancreatic cancers, these cells exhibit constitutive activation of mTORC1. PDAC is the most common form of pancreatic cancer and the 5-year survival rate remains 3–5% despite current nonspecific and targeted therapies. Although rapamycin-related mTOR inhibitors have yet to demonstrate encouraging clinical responses, it is now evident that this class of compounds is capable of only partial mTORC1 inhibition. Identifying previously unappreciated proteins needed for maintenance of mTORC1 activity may provide new targets and lead to the development of beneficial therapies for pancreatic cancer.

Papageorgiou, Angela; Avruch, Joseph

2012-01-01

267

Inactivation of S6 ribosomal protein gene in T lymphocytes activates a p53-dependent checkpoint response  

PubMed Central

Ribosome biogenesis has been associated with regulation of cell growth and cell division, but the molecular mechanisms that integrate the effect of ribosome biogenesis on these processes in mammalian cells remain unknown. To study the effect of impaired ribosome functions in vivo, we conditionally deleted one or two alleles of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 gene in T cells in the mouse. While complete deletion of S6 abrogated T-cell development, hemizygous expression did not have any effect on T-cell maturation in the thymus, but inhibited the accumulation of T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes, as a result of their decreased survival in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Additionally, TCR-mediated stimulation of S6-heterozygous T cells induced a normal increase in their size, but cell cycle progression was impaired. Genetic inactivation of p53 tumor suppressor rescued development of S6-homozygous null thymocytes and proliferative defect of S6-heterozygous T cells. These results demonstrate the existence of a p53-dependent checkpoint mechanism that senses changes in the fidelity of the translational machinery to prevent aberrant cell division or eliminate defective T cells in vivo. Failure to activate this checkpoint response could potentially lead to a development of pathological processes such as tumors and autoimmune diseases.

Sulic, Sanda; Panic, Linda; Barkic, Martina; Mercep, Mladen; Uzelac, Miljana; Volarevic, Sinisa

2005-01-01

268

Down-regulation of Ku autoantigen, DNA-dependent protein kinase, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase during cellular senescence.  

PubMed

During aging and cellular senescence mutations accumulate in genomic and mitochondrial DNA. Ku autoantigens, DNA-dependent protein kinase, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase have an essential role in DNA damage recognition. Our purpose was to find out whether cellular senescence of fibroblasts affects the protein components that recognize DNA damage and induce the repair process. We compared presenescent and replicatively senescent human WI-38 fibroblasts with each other and with SV-40 immortalized and serum-deficient quiescent WI-38 cells. Our results showed that replicative senescence significantly decreased the nuclear level of both p70 and p86 components of Ku autoantigen. SV-40 immortalization and cellular quiescence did not affect the level of the p86 component but slightly increased that of p70. Both replicative senescence and cellular quiescence decreased the activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase in WI-38 fibroblasts. On the other hand, SV-40 immortalization increased the activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase. The protein level of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was strongly decreased in replicatively senescent fibroblasts. Quiescence of early-passage fibroblasts also slightly reduced the protein level of PARP. Apoptosis was not observed in replicatively senescent fibroblasts. Our results show that replicative senescence and to some extent cellular quiescence down-regulate the recognition system of DNA damage involving Ku autoantigens, DNA-dependent protein kinase, and PARP and hence could enhance the accumulation of DNA damage during aging. PMID:9325154

Salminen, A; Helenius, M; Lahtinen, T; Korhonen, P; Tapiola, T; Soininen, H; Solovyan, V

1997-09-29

269

Prokaryotic Diacylglycerol Kinase and Undecaprenol Kinase  

PubMed Central

Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) and undecaprenol kinase (UDPK) are the lone members of a family of multispan membrane enzymes that are very small, lack relationships to any other family of proteins—including water soluble kinases, and that exhibit an unusual structure and active site architecture. Escherichia coli DAGK plays an important role in recycling diacylglycerol produced as a byproduct of biosynthesis of molecules located in the periplasmic space. UDPK seems to play an analogous role in Gram-positive bacteria, where its importance is evident by the fact that UDPK is essential for biofilm formation by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. DAGK has also long served as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, folding, stability, and structure. This review explores our current understanding of the microbial physiology, enzymology, structural biology, and folding of the prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family, which is based on over 40 years of studies.

Van Horn, Wade D.; Sanders, Charles R.

2013-01-01

270

Ringwoodite Lamellae in Olivine from the S6 Chondrite Tenham: The Transformation Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ringwoodite lamellae in partially transformed olivine have been reported to occur in the shock-induced melt veins or near the melt veins in heavily shocked (S6) chondrites [1-4]. These features were interpreted to have formed by a coherent intracrystalline transformation mechanism like that observed in experimentally transformed samples by Kerschhofer et al. [5-7]. However, our SEM and TEM observations on the partially transformed olivine suggest that the transformation is incoherent and occurs along specific orientation [4], which is in agreement with the new interpretation of ringwoodite lamellae based on new SEM and SXRD observations [8]. Here we report more detailed TEM results, which are crucial to understand the transformation mechanism. Abundant ringwoodite lamellae were found in olivine grains, which occur as host-rock fragments entrained in melt veins and pockets. These partially transformed olivines are commonly intergrown with enstatite and plagioclase in multi-phase fragments. High-resolution SEM images reveal that the ringwoodite lamellae are not continuous, but rather polycrystalline ringwoodite with crystal size about 1 mm. Preliminary TEM results show that olivine are heavily deformed or occur as fine olivine grains, and ringwoodite lamellae consist of individual ringwoodite grains in the matrix of olivine fine grains. The discontinuous lamellar textures that we observe strongly suggest that the lamellae consist of many distinct ringwoodite crystallites rather than single-crystal lamella. It is possible that lamellae of polycrystalline ringwoodite in olivine could form by a mechanism analogous to the formation of planar deformation features (PDF), representing preferential transformation along specific crystallographic defect planes of the host phase. [1 Chen et al. (2004) Proceedings. of NAS 101(42), 15033-15037. [2] Ohtani et al. (2004) EPSL 227(3-4), 505- 515. [3] Beck, et al. (2005) Nature 435, 1071-1074. [4] Xie and Sharp (2006), LPSC XXXVII, 2306.pdf. [5] Kerschhofer et al. (1996) Science 274 (5284), 79-81. [6] Kerschhofer et al. (1998) Mineralogical magazine 62(5),617-638. [7] Kerschhofer et al. (2000) PEPI 121, 59-76. [8] Chen et al. (2006) Meteoritics Planet. Sci. (41), 731-737.

Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.; Decarli, P. S.

2006-12-01

271

A Novel Ribosomal S6Kinase ( RSK4; RPS6KA6) Is Commonly Deleted in Patients with Complex X-Linked Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deletions in Xq21 often are associated with contiguous gene syndromes consisting of X-linked deafness type 3 (DFN3), mental retardation (MRX), and choroideremia (CHM). The identification of deletions associated with classic CHM or DFN3 facilitated the positional cloning of the underlying genes, REP-1 and POU3F4, respectively, and enabled the positioning of the MRX gene in between these genes. Here, we

Helger G. Yntema; Bellinda van den Helm; Johan Kissing; Gerard van Duijnhoven; Francis Poppelaars; Jamel Chelly; Claude Moraine; Jean-Pierre Fryns; Ben C. J. Hamel; Helmut Heilbronner; Hans-Jürgen Pander; Han G. Brunner; Hans-Hilger Ropers; Frans P. M. Cremers; Hans van Bokhoven

1999-01-01

272

CCL2 Is a Negative Regulator of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase to Sustain mTOR Complex-1 Activation, Survivin Expression, and Cell Survival in Human Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells1  

PubMed Central

CCL2 is a cytokine prevalent in the prostate cancer tumor microenvironment. Recently, we reported that CCL2 induces the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to promote prostate cancer PC3 cell survival; however, the mechanism used by CCL2 to maintain mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) activation requires clarification. This study demonstrates that upon serum starvation, CCL2 functions as a negative regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by decreasing phosphorylation at its major regulatory site (Thr172) in PC3, DU145, and C4-2B prostate cancer cells. The CCL2-mediated AMPK regulation decreased raptor phosphorylation (Ser792) resulting in hyperactivation of mTORC1. D942, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, stunted CCL2-induced mTORC1 activity, survivin expression, and cell survival without significantly affecting Akt activity. CCL2, however, conferred some resistance to the lethal effect of D942 compared with untreated cells. By using Akt-specific inhibitor X, it was shown that Akt inactivation did not cause an increase in AMPK phosphorylation in CCL2-stimulated cells, suggesting that CCL2-mediated negative regulation of AMPK is independent of Akt. Furthermore, bisindolylmaleimide-V, a specific inhibitor of p70S6K, stunted survivin expression and induced cell death in CCL2-treated PC3. Altogether, these findings suggest that CCL2 hyperactivates mTORC1 through simultaneous regulation of both AMPK and Akt pathways and reveals a new network that promotes prostate cancer: CCL2-AMPK-mTORC1-survivin.

Roca, Hernan; Varsos, Zachary S; Pienta, Kenneth J

2009-01-01

273

CCL2 is a negative regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase to sustain mTOR complex-1 activation, survivin expression, and cell survival in human prostate cancer PC3 cells.  

PubMed

CCL2 is a cytokine prevalent in the prostate cancer tumor microenvironment. Recently, we reported that CCL2 induces the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to promote prostate cancer PC3 cell survival; however, the mechanism used by CCL2 to maintain mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) activation requires clarification. This study demonstrates that upon serum starvation, CCL2 functions as a negative regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by decreasing phosphorylation at its major regulatory site (Thr(172)) in PC3, DU145, and C4-2B prostate cancer cells. The CCL2-mediated AMPK regulation decreased raptor phosphorylation (Ser(792)) resulting in hyperactivation of mTORC1. D942, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, stunted CCL2-induced mTORC1 activity, survivin expression, and cell survival without significantly affecting Akt activity. CCL2, however, conferred some resistance to the lethal effect of D942 compared with untreated cells. By using Akt-specific inhibitor X, it was shown that Akt inactivation did not cause an increase in AMPK phosphorylation in CCL2-stimulated cells, suggesting that CCL2-mediated negative regulation of AMPK is independent of Akt. Furthermore, bisindolylmaleimide-V, a specific inhibitor of p70(S6K), stunted survivin expression and induced cell death in CCL2-treated PC3. Altogether, these findings suggest that CCL2 hyperactivates mTORC1 through simultaneous regulation of both AMPK and Akt pathways and reveals a new network that promotes prostate cancer: CCL2-AMPK-mTORC1-survivin. PMID:20019839

Roca, Hernan; Varsos, Zachary S; Pienta, Kenneth J

2009-12-01

274

Kinases in Leuconostoc mesenteroides  

PubMed Central

Enzyme extracts of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were found to contain at least four separate kinases: one active with glucose, glucosamine, and N-acetylglucosamine; one active with fructose and mannose; and two active with gluconate, one constitutive and one inducible. The molecular sizes of all the kinases, estimated from sucrose gradient centrifugation, are about the same, 37,000 to 50,000 daltons, except the constitutive gluconate kinase, which is about 100,000 daltons. Apparent Michaelis constants were calculated for all of the substrates mentioned. The kinases are separable on triethylaminoethyl cellulose.

DeMoss, R. D.

1968-01-01

275

Role for the Plasmodium sporozoite-specific transmembrane protein S6 in parasite motility and efficient malaria transmission  

PubMed Central

Malaria transmission occurs by intradermal deposition of Plasmodium sporozoites during the infectious bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. After formation in midgut-associated oocysts sporozoites actively enter mosquito salivary glands and subsequently invade host hepatocytes where they transform into clinically silent liver stages. To date, two sporozoite-specific transmembrane proteins have been identified that perform vital functions in natural malaria transmission. The sporozoite invasin TRAP drives sporozoite motility and target cell entry whereas the adhesin MAEBL mediates sporozoite recognition of and attachment to salivary glands. Here, we demonstrate that the sporozoite-specific transmembrane protein S6 is required for efficient malaria transmission to the vertebrate host. Targeted deletion of S6 results in severe impairment of sporozoite gliding motility and invasion of mosquito salivary glands. During sporozoite maturation S6 expression is tightly regulated by transcriptional and translational control. We propose that S6 functions together with TRAP/MIC2 family invasins to direct fast, efficient and specific cell entry and, ultimately, life cycle progression of the malaria sporozoite.

Steinbuechel, Marion; Matuschewski, Kai

2009-01-01

276

A six-bladed impeller-like Cu18 nanocluster with S6 symmetry constructed from simple inorganic linkers.  

PubMed

Eighteen Cu(II) ions are consolidated by simple inorganic linkers alone to construct an S(6)-symmetric six-bladed impeller-like Cu(18) nanocluster driven by the concomitant decomposition reaction of a Schiff base, which affords a typical high-nuclearity inorganic cluster and a representative synthetic strategy. The magnetic measurements reveal dominant antiferromagnetic interaction in this cluster. PMID:23108109

Chen, Zilu; Wang, Yifei; Liu, Long; Zhang, Zhong; Liang, Fupei

2012-12-11

277

Inactivation of S6 ribosomal protein gene in T lymphocytes activates a p53-dependent checkpoint response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribosome biogenesis has been associated with regulation of cell growth and cell division, but the molecular mechanisms that integrate the effect of ribosome biogenesis on these processes in mammalian cells remain unknown. To study the effect of impaired ribosome functions in vivo, we conditionally deleted one or two alleles of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 gene in T cells in

Sanda Sulic; Linda Panic; Martina Barkic; Mladen Mercep; Miljana Uzelac; Sinisa Volarevic

2005-01-01

278

Stabilizing the Closed S6 Gate in the Shaker K v Channel Through Modification of a Hydrophobic Seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary activation gate in Kchannels is thought to reside near the intracellular entrance to the ion conduction pore. In a previous study of the S6 activation gate in Shaker (Hackos et al., 2002), we found that mutation of V478 to W results in a channel that cannot conduct ions even though the voltage sensors are competent to translocate gating

Tetsuya Kitaguchi; Manana Sukhareva; Kenton J. Swartz

2004-01-01

279

Ribosomal Protein S6-Ps240 Is Expressed in Lesional Skin from Patients with Autoimmune Skin Blistering Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: The in situ signaling transduction within skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases is not well-characterized. Aim: In autoimmune skin blistering diseases, autoantibodies seem to trigger several intracellular signaling pathways and we investigated the presence of the phosphorylated form of ribosomal protein S6-pS240 within autoimmune skin blistering diseases biopsies. Materials and Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate the presence of S6-pS240 in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases including patients with an endemic and nonendemic pemphigus foliaceus (non EPF), with bullous pemphigoid (BP), pemphigus vulgaris (PV), dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and the respective controls. Results: Most autoimmune bullous skin diseases biopsies stained positive for S6-pS240 around lesional blisters, including adjacent areas of the epidermis; and within upper dermal inflammatory infiltrates, and/or mesenchymal-endothelial cell junctions within the dermis. Conclusions: We document that S6-pS240 is expressed in lesional areas of skin biopsies from patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases, as well as on eccrine glands and piloerector muscles. Thus, the role of this molecule in autoimmune skin blistering diseases warrants further study.

Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Googe, Paul B; Howard, Michael S

2013-01-01

280

Exercise stimulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise can cause marked alterations in the structure and function of human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about the specific signaling molecules and pathways that enable exercise to modulate cellular processes in skeletal muscle. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a major signaling system by which cells transduce extracellular signals into intracellular responses. We tested the hypothesis that a single bout of exercise activates the MAPK signaling pathway. Needle biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle were taken from nine subjects at rest and after 60 min of cycle ergometer exercise. In all subjects, exercise increased MAPK phosphorylation, and the activity of its downstream substrate, the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2. Furthermore, exercise increased the activities of the upstream regulators of MAPK, MAP kinase kinase, and Raf-1. When two additional subjects were studied using a one-legged exercise protocol, MAPK phosphorylation and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2, MAP kinase kinase 1, and Raf-1 activities were increased only in the exercising leg. These studies demonstrate that exercise activates the MAPK cascade in human skeletal muscle and that this stimulation is primarily a local, tissue-specific phenomenon, rather than a systemic response to exercise. These findings suggest that the MAPK pathway may modulate cellular processes that occur in skeletal muscle in response to exercise.

Aronson, D; Violan, M A; Dufresne, S D; Zangen, D; Fielding, R A; Goodyear, L J

1997-01-01

281

Tec family kinases.  

PubMed

Tec family kinases (TFKs) are ancient kinases, vital for the development of both mammals and fruit flies. The first TFKs were described 20 years ago, and one of them, BTK, was found to be vital for B-lymphocyte development. However, during the last five years several seminal discoveries have been made, significantly advancing our understanding of these signal transducers. PMID:21518256

Yu, Liang; Smith, C I Edvard

2011-06-01

282

TPCK inhibits AGC kinases by direct activation loop adduction at phenylalanine-directed cysteine residues  

PubMed Central

N-alpha-tosyl-l-phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) has anti-tumorigenic properties, but its direct cellular targets are unknown. Previously, we showed TPCK inhibited the PDKl-dependent AGC kinases RSK, Akt and S6K1 without inhibiting PKA, ERK1/2, PI3K, and PDK1 itself. Here we show TPCK-inhibition of the RSK-related kinases MSK1 and 2, which can be activated independently of PDK1. Mass spectrometry analysis of RSK1, Aktl, S6K1 and MSK1 immunopurified from TPCK-treated cells identified TPCK adducts on cysteines located in conserved activation loop Phenylalanine-Cysteine (Phe–Cys) motifs. Mutational analysis of the Phe–Cys residues conferred partial TPCK resistance. These studies elucidate a primary mechanism by which TPCK inhibits several AGC kinases, inviting consideration of TPCK-like compounds in chemotherapy given their potential for broad control of cellular growth, proliferation and survival.

Anjum, Rana; Pae, Eunice; Blenis, John; Ballif, Bryan A.

2013-01-01

283

Serine phosphorylation and maximal activation of STAT3 during CNTF signaling is mediated by the rapamycin target mTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropoietic cytokines such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) can activate multiple signaling pathways in parallel, including those involving Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) [1], mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [2], phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)–p70 S6 kinase [3]. Crosstalk occurs between these pathways, because studies have shown that STAT3 requires phosphorylation on

Kiyotaka Yokogami; Shinichiro Wakisaka; Joseph Avruch; Steven A. Reeves

2000-01-01

284

Thermodynamically balanced inside-out (TBIO) PCR-based gene synthesis: a novel method of primer design for high-fidelity assembly of longer gene sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel thermodynamically-balanced inside-out (TBIO) method of primer design was developed and compared with a thermodynamically-balanced con- ventional (TBC) method of primer design for PCR- based gene synthesis of codon-optimized gene sequences for the human protein kinase B-2 (PKB2; 1494 bp), p70 ribosomal S6 subunit protein kinase-1 (S6K1; 1622 bp) and phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1; 1712 bp). Each of the

Xinxin Gao; Peggy Yo; Andrew Keith; Timothy J. Ragan; Thomas K. Harris

2003-01-01

285

Ribosomal Protein S6 Gene Haploinsufficiency Is Associated with Activation of a p53-Dependent Checkpoint during Gastrulation? †  

PubMed Central

Nascent ribosome biogenesis is required during cell growth. To gain insight into the importance of this process during mouse oogenesis and embryonic development, we deleted one allele of the ribosomal protein S6 gene in growing oocytes and generated S6-heterozygous embryos. Oogenesis and embryonic development until embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5) were normal. However, inhibition of entry into M phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis became evident post-E5.5 and led to perigastrulation lethality. Genetic inactivation of p53 bypassed this checkpoint and prolonged development until E12.5, when the embryos died, showing decreased expression of D-type cyclins, diminished fetal liver erythropoiesis, and placental defects. Thus, a p53-dependent checkpoint is activated during gastrulation in response to ribosome insufficiency to prevent improper execution of the developmental program.

Panic, Linda; Tamarut, Sanda; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Barkic, Martina; Solter, Davor; Uzelac, Miljana; Grabusic, Kristina; Volarevic, Sinisa

2006-01-01

286

C-glycosylation of anhydrotetracycline scaffold with SsfS6 from the SF2575 biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

Glycosylation with deoxysugar is a common strategy used by nature to introduce structural diversity and biological activities among natural products. In this study, we biochemically confirmed the activities of SsfS6, a C-glycosyltransferase in the SF2575 biosynthetic pathway, as a regioselective D-olivose transferase that acts on the C-9 position of an anhydrotetracycline aglycon. To perform the glycosyl transfer reaction using Escherichia coli as a whole-cell biocatalyst, we reconstituted the biosynthesis of TDP-D-olivose using a heterologous pathway. Under in vivo conditions, SsfS6 transferred multiple endogenous sugar substrates, in addition to D-olivose, to the anhydrotetracycline substrate, demonstrating broad substrate tolerance and potential as a tetracycline-diversifying enzyme. PMID:24022606

Li, Li; Wang, Peng; Tang, Yi

2014-01-01

287

S6 Peptide Derived from KvAP Channel Shows Cooperativity in Gating on Bilayer Lipid Membrane  

PubMed Central

Collective behavior of S6 peptide channels derived from KvAP (a bacterial potassium channel) incorporated in lipid bilayer membrane, has been investigated at various applied potentials through multi-channel electrophysiological experiments. The current versus time traces at any particular membrane potential show clear steps for sequential opening of the multi-channels. The minimum current (representing one-channel current) was found out from the amplitude histograms. Accordingly, the number of open channels corresponding to a particular open state was calculated. It was observed that the above-mentioned one channel current is higher than the corresponding single-channel current at most of the applied membrane potentials. Moreover, the difference between the single and one channel conductances is a nonlinear function of the membrane potential. We conclude that the S6 multi-channels show co-operative gating. Voltage relaxation studies support the above-mentioned conclusion.

Malik, Chetan; Ghosh, Subhendu

2013-01-01

288

First principle conductance calculation of zigzag, armchair and mixed geometries of S-6C-4HS structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated ballistic transport properties of armchair (AC), zigzag (ZZ), mixed, rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ geometries of small molecules made of 2S, 6C & 4H atoms which exhibit sp-sp2 hybridization. Well-tested first principle scattering states formalism implemented in Quantum Espresso package has been employed to perform the calculations. The chains made of 6C-atoms with 1S-atom at each end and 4H-atoms attached

S. K. Ambavale; A. C. Sharma

2010-01-01

289

First principle conductance calculation of zigzag, armchair and mixed geometries of S6C–4H–S structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated ballistic transport properties of armchair (AC), zigzag (ZZ), mixed, rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ geometries of small molecules made of 2S, 6C & 4H atoms which exhibit sp–sp2 hybridization. Well-tested first principle scattering states formalism implemented in Quantum Espresso package has been employed to perform the calculations. The chains made of 6C-atoms with 1S-atom at each end and 4H-atoms attached

S. K. Ambavale; A. C. Sharma

2010-01-01

290

Novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound, (3R,6S)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin, from a strain of Lasiodiplodia theobromae.  

PubMed

A novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound was isolated from the culture broth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Shimokita 2. The structure of the isolated compound was determined as (3R,6S)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin by means of spectroscopic analyses, the modified Mosher method, and chemical conversion. The compound showed potato micro-tuber-inducing activity at a concentration of 10(-4) M, using the culture of single-node segments of potato stems in vitro. PMID:16116294

Li, Peng; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

2005-08-01

291

Changes in source parameters of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2001 M S =6.0 Yajiang, Sichuan, earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper changes in focal mechanisms, parameters of wave spectra, and stress drops for the M\\u000a S=5.0 foreshock and M\\u000a S=6.0 mainshock in February 2001 in Yajiang County, Sichuan, and seismicity in epicentral region are studied. Comparison of\\u000a focal mechanisms for the Yajiang earthquakes with distribution patterns of aftershocks, the nodal plane I, striking in the\\u000a direction of NEN,

Wan-Zheng Cheng; Tian-Chang Chen; Ya-Ling Wei; Hang Zhu

2003-01-01

292

Synthese, structure cristalline et analyse vibrationnelle de l'hexathiohypodiphosphate de lithium Li4P2S6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le composé Li4P2S6 est obtenu soit par dévitrification du verre Li4P2S7 à 450°C avec formation de soufre soit par fusion d'un mélange Li2S, P et S et cristallisation à 450°C. La structure a été déterminée par diffraction X sur monocristal. La maille élémentaire est hexagonale P63\\/mcm avec a = 6,070(4), c = 6,577(4) Å, V = 209 Å3, Z =

R. Mercier; J. P. Malugani; B. Fahys; J. Douglande; G. Robert

1982-01-01

293

Photonic crystal kinase biosensor.  

PubMed

We have developed a novel biosensor for kinases that is based on a kinase-responsive polymer hydrogel, which enables label-free screening of kinase activity via changes in optical properties. The hydrogel is specifically designed to swell reversibly upon phosphorylation of a target peptide, triggering a change in optical diffraction from a crystalline colloidal array of particles impregnated into the hydrogel. Diffraction measurements, and charge staining, confirmed the responsive nature of the hydrogel. Moreover, the change in diffraction of the hydrogel upon treatment with kinase exhibited a time- and dose-dependent response. A theoretical model for ionic polymer networks describes the observed optical response well and can be used to quantify the extent of phosphorylation. PMID:24761969

MacConaghy, Kelsey I; Geary, Christopher I; Kaar, Joel L; Stoykovich, Mark P

2014-05-14

294

?-Caryophyllene oxide inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 pathways and ROS-mediated MAPKs activation.  

PubMed

Both PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play an important role in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells. In the present report, we investigated the effects of ?-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated from essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK activation pathways in human prostate and breast cancer cells. We found that CPO not only inhibited the constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling cascade; but also caused the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in tumor cells. CPO induced increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from mitochondria, which is associated with the induction of apoptosis as characterized by positive Annexin V binding and TUNEL staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly prevented CPO-induced apoptosis. Subsequently, CPO also down-regulated the expression of various downstream gene products that mediate cell proliferation (cyclin D1), survival (bcl-2, bcl-xL, survivin, IAP-1, and IAP-2), metastasis (COX-2), angiogenesis (VEGF), and increased the expression of p53 and p21. Interestingly, we also observed that CPO can significantly potentiate the apoptotic effects of various pharmacological PI3K/AKT inhibitors when employed in combination in tumor cells. Overall, these findings suggest that CPO can interfere with multiple signaling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and used as a potential therapeutic candidate for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:21924548

Park, Kyung-Ran; Nam, Dongwoo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Sethi, Gautam; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2011-12-22

295

Protein kinases and multidrug resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of protein kinases in the multidrug resistance phenotype of cancer cell lines is discussed with an emphasis on protein\\u000a kinase C and protein kinase A. Evidence that P-glycoprotein is phosphorylated by these kinases is summarised and the relationship\\u000a between P-glycoprotein phosphorylation and the multidrug-resistant phenotype discussed. Results showing that protein kinase\\u000a C, particularly the alpha subspecies, is overexpressed

Martin G. Rumsby; Lisa Drew; J. Roger Warr

1998-01-01

296

Activity-based kinase profiling of approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The specificities of nine approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib) were determined by activity-based kinase profiling using a large panel of human recombinant active kinases. This panel consisted of 79 tyrosine kinases, 199 serine/threonine kinases, three lipid kinases, and 29 disease-relevant mutant kinases. Many potential targets of each inhibitor were identified by kinase profiling at the K(m) for ATP. In addition, profiling at a physiological ATP concentration (1 mm) was carried out, and the IC(50) values of the inhibitors against each kinase were compared with the estimated plasma-free concentration (calculated from published pharmacokinetic parameters of plasma C(trough) and C(max) values). This analysis revealed that the approved kinase inhibitors were well optimized for their target kinases. This profiling also implicates activity at particular off-target kinases in drug side effects. Thus, large-scale kinase profiling at both K(m) and physiological ATP concentrations could be useful in characterizing the targets and off-targets of kinase inhibitors. PMID:23279183

Kitagawa, Daisuke; Yokota, Koichi; Gouda, Masaki; Narumi, Yugo; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Nishiwaki, Eiji; Akita, Kensaku; Kirii, Yasuyuki

2013-02-01

297

Optical waveguides in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) by low fluence MeV He+ ion implantation.  

PubMed

Planar waveguides in nonlinear optical crystals of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) have been produced by He+ ion implantation. The effective indices of the waveguide have been determined and refractive index profiles have been evaluated for the indices along all three principal axes of the optical indicatrix. The depth of the induced optical barrier is n1 = -0.07, n2 = -0.07 and n3 = -0.09 at lambda = 0.633 microm for a fluence Phi = 0.5x10(15)ions/cm(2). Propagation losses for hybrid-n(1) modes are alpha approximately 10dB/cm. PMID:19503572

Guarino, Andrea; Jazbinsek, Mojca; Herzog, Christian; Degl'innocenti, Riccardo; Poberaj, Gorazd; Günter, Peter

2006-03-20

298

Dynamic interaction of S5 and S6 during voltage-controlled gating in a potassium channel.  

PubMed

A gain-of-function mutation in the Caenorhabditis elegans exp-2 K(+)-channel gene is caused by a cysteine-to-tyrosine change (C480Y) in the sixth transmembrane segment of the channel (Davis, M.W., R. Fleischhauer, J.A. Dent, R.H. Joho, and L. Avery. 1999. Science. 286:2501-2504). In contrast to wild-type EXP-2 channels, homotetrameric C480Y mutant channels are open even at -160 mV, explaining the lethality of the homozygous mutant. We modeled the structure of EXP-2 on the 3-D scaffold of the K(+) channel KcsA. In the C480Y mutant, tyrosine 480 protrudes from S6 to near S5, suggesting that the bulky side chain may provide steric hindrance to the rotation of S6 that has been proposed to accompany the open-closed state transitions (Perozo, E., D.M. Cortes, and L.G. Cuello. 1999. Science. 285:73-78). We tested the hypothesis that only small side chains at position 480 allow the channel to close, but that bulky side chains trap the channel in the open state. Mutants with small side chain substitutions (Gly and Ser) behave like wild type; in contrast, bulky side chain substitutions (Trp, Phe, Leu, Ile, Val, and His) generate channels that conduct K(+) ions at potentials as negative as -120 mV. The side chain at position 480 in S6 in the pore model is close to and may interact with a conserved glycine (G421) in S5. Replacement of G421 with bulky side chains also leads to channels that are trapped in an active state, suggesting that S5 and S6 interact with each other during voltage-dependent open-closed state transitions, and that bulky side chains prevent the dynamic changes necessary for permanent channel closing. Single-channel recordings show that mutant channels open frequently at negative membrane potentials indicating that they fail to reach long-lasting, i.e., stable, closed states. Our data support a "two-gate model" with a pore gate responsible for the brief, voltage-independent openings and a separately located, voltage-activated gate (Liu, Y., and R.H. Joho. 1998. Pflügers Arch. 435:654-661). PMID:11479343

Espinosa, F; Fleischhauer, R; McMahon, A; Joho, R H

2001-08-01

299

The Janus kinases (Jaks)  

PubMed Central

The Janus kinase (Jak) family is one of ten recognized families of non-receptor tyrosine kinases. Mammals have four members of this family, Jak1, Jak2, Jak3 and Tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2). Birds, fish and insects also have Jaks. Each protein has a kinase domain and a catalytically inactive pseudo-kinase domain, and they each bind cytokine receptors through amino-terminal FERM (Band-4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domains. Upon binding of cytokines to their receptors, Jaks are activated and phosphorylate the receptors, creating docking sites for signaling molecules, especially members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) family. Mutations of the Drosophila Jak (Hopscotch) have revealed developmental defects, and constitutive activation of Jaks in flies and humans is associated with leukemia-like syndromes. Through the generation of Jak-deficient cell lines and gene-targeted mice, the essential, nonredundant functions of Jaks in cytokine signaling have been established. Importantly, deficiency of Jak3 is the basis of human autosomal recessive severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID); accordingly, a selective Jak3 inhibitor has been developed, forming a new class of immunosuppressive drugs.

Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Saharinen, Pipsa; Pesu, Marko; Holt, Vance ET; Silvennoinen, Olli; O'Shea, John J

2004-01-01

300

Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.  

PubMed

Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

2014-01-01

301

Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases  

PubMed Central

Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel.

Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

2014-01-01

302

PAK family kinases  

PubMed Central

The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that are represented by six genes in humans (PAK 1–6), and are found in all eukaryotes sequenced to date. Genetic and knockdown experiments in frogs, fish and mice indicate group I PAKs are widely expressed, required for multiple tissue development, and particularly important for immune and nervous system function in the adult. The group II PAKs (human PAKs 4–6) are more enigmatic, but their restriction to metazoans and presence at cell-cell junctions suggests these kinases emerged to regulate junctional signaling. Studies of protozoa and fungal PAKs show that they regulate cell shape and polarity through phosphorylation of multiple cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule binding proteins, myosins and septins. This chapter discusses what we know about the regulation of PAKs and their physiological role in different model organisms, based primarily on gene knockout studies.

Zhao, Zhuo-shen; Manser, Ed

2012-01-01

303

Interlayer magnetoresistance due to chiral soliton lattice formation in hexagonal chiral magnet CrNb3S6.  

PubMed

We investigate the interlayer magnetoresistance (MR) along the chiral crystallographic axis in the hexagonal chiral magnet CrNb3S6. In a region below the incommensurate-commensurate phase transition between the chiral soliton lattice and the forced ferromagnetic state, a negative MR is obtained in a wide range of temperature, while a small positive MR is found very close to the Curie temperature. Normalized data of the negative MR almost falls into a single curve and is well fitted by a theoretical equation of the soliton density, meaning that the origin of the MR is ascribed to the magnetic scattering of conduction electrons by a nonlinear, periodic, and countable array of magnetic soliton kinks. PMID:24266487

Togawa, Y; Kousaka, Y; Nishihara, S; Inoue, K; Akimitsu, J; Ovchinnikov, A S; Kishine, J

2013-11-01

304

Calculation of the parity-violating 5s-6s E1 amplitude in the rubidium atom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the theoretical uncertainty limits the interpretation of the atomic parity-nonconservation (PNC) measurements. We calculate the PNC 5s-6s electric dipole transition amplitude in rubidium and demonstrate that rubidium is a good candidate to search for new physics beyond the standard model since accuracy of the atomic calculations in rubidium can be higher than in cesium. PNC in cesium is currently the best low-energy test of the standard model; therefore, similar measurements for rubidium present a good option for further progress in the field. We also calculate the nuclear spin-dependent part of the PNC amplitude, which is needed for the extraction of the nuclear anapole moment from the PNC measurements.

Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Roberts, B.

2012-12-01

305

Indole RSK inhibitors. Part 2: optimization of cell potency and kinase selectivity.  

PubMed

A series of inhibitors for the 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) based on an 1-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a]indole-8-carboxamide scaffold were optimized for cellular potency and kinase selectivity. This led to the identification of compound 24, BIX 02565, an attractive candidate for use in vitro and in vivo to explore the role of RSK as a target for the treatment heart failure. PMID:22056746

Kirrane, Thomas M; Boyer, Stephen J; Burke, Jennifer; Guo, Xin; Snow, Roger J; Soleymanzadeh, Lida; Swinamer, Alan; Zhang, Yunlong; Madwed, Jeffery B; Kashem, Mohammed; Kugler, Stanley; O'Neill, Margaret M

2012-01-01

306

Cyclophilin represents a novel class of protein kinases  

SciTech Connect

Cyclophilin (CyP, Mr 17,737, pI 9.6), a highly specific cytosolic receptor for cyclosporin A (CsA) has ser/thr protein kinase activity. Incorporation of /sup 32/P into bovine histone H/sub 3/ (BH/sub 3/) was catalyzed by major and minor CyP isozymes at the same rate. Salt effects were biphasic with optimal kinase activity between 50-100 mM Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/. Kinase activity was maximal at 37/sup 0/C, stable for 5 min at 45/sup 0/, labile at 56/sup 0/, optimal between pH 6.8 and 8.0 and had an apparent Km of 20 uM ATP with both isozymes. The specific activity of CyP was 1.0 nmole P/mg protein/min with chicken histone H/sub 1/ (CH/sub 1/), 0.2 nmoles P/mg prot/min with BH/sub 3/ and less than 0.01 nmoles P/mg prot/min with synapsin, casein, phosvitin, and ribosomal protein S6. Cofactors including Mn/sup + +/, Zn/sup + +/, Ca/sup + +/, phosphatidyl serine, diolein and phorbol ester, cAMP, cGMP and Ca/sup + +/ did not affect basal CyP kinase activity. CsA (<200 ng/ml) inhibited phosphorylation of CH/sub 3/ by 50% but did not inhibit phosphorylation of other histones; 2ug CsA/ml was required to cause 50% inhibition of cAMP and Ca/sup + +//CaM dependent kinases. A non-immunosuppressive analog (Me-leu-11-CsA) that does not bind to CyP did not inhibit CH/sub 3/ phosphorylation. Thus, CyP is a novel protein kinase that mediates immunosuppression by CsA.

Harding, M.W.; Gorelick, F.S.; Handschumacher, R.E.

1987-05-01

307

Cyclin dependent kinase regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of the cell cycle and their activities are consequently tightly regulated. Recent developments in the field of CDK regulation have included the discovery and characterization of CDK inhibitors. These developments have had an impact on our understanding of how other signalling pathways may be linked to the cell cycle machinery.

Emma Lees

1995-01-01

308

Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge at onset of lay on digestive and reproductive tract characteristics in commercial layers.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a reproductive/respiratory pathogen in poultry, has been implicated in suboptimum egg production and decreased hatchability. Commercial layer hens raised in a controlled environment were inoculated with the S6 strain of MG at 20 wk of age. The S6 inoculation had no effect on bird weight, egg production, digestive tract weight and length, or histopathologic lesion scores, although significant differences were noted in the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproductive tract. This study shows that S6MG inoculation does not detrimentally affect layer hen performance when in the absence of environmental stressors customary to a caged layer facility. PMID:12713163

Parker, T A; Branton, S L; Jones, M S; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D; Willeford, K O; Pharr, G T; Maslin, W R

2003-01-01

309

Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge before beginning of lay on various egg characteristics in commercial layers.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a reproductive/respiratory disease in poultry implicated in suboptimum egg production and decreased hatchability. Commercial layer hens raised in a controlled environment were inoculated with the S6 strain of MG at 10 wk of age. Egg production and selected egg and egg quality parameters were quantitated over the entire lay cycle for inoculated and control birds. The S6 inoculation had no effect on bird weight, egg production, associated egg quality parameters, or histopathologic lesion scores. This study shows that in the absence of environmental stressors a prelay S6 MG inoculation does not produce detrimental effects on layer hen performance. PMID:12243522

Parker, T A; Branton, S L; Jones, M S; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D; Willeford, K O; Burnham, M R; Maslin, W R

2002-01-01

310

Purification and characterization of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta from rat cerebellum.  

PubMed

The existence of isoforms of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-kinase kinase) in the rat brain was recently suggested by Northern and Western blot analyses and immunotitration [Okuno, S., Kitani, T., and Fujisawa, H. (1996) J. Biochem. 119, 1176-1181]. In the present study, CaM-kinase kinase beta, distinct from Cam-kinase kinase alpha which had been purified and cloned from rat cerebral cortex, was purified approximately 5,000-fold from rat cerebellum and its properties were examined. The purified CaM-kinase kinase beta gave a doublet at positions corresponding to molecular weights of 66,000 to 67,000 on SDS-PAGE, and neither protein band reacted with antibody against CaM-kinase kinase alpha. Both CaM-kinase kinase alpha and beta markedly activated both CaM-kinase I and IV, but CaM-kinase kinase beta activated CaM-kinase IV more strongly than did CaM-kinase kinase alpha. The maximal extents of the activation of CaM-kinase I and IV by CaM-kinase kinase beta were almost the same as those by CaM-kinase kinase alpha, suggesting that the two CaM-kinase kinases activated CaM-kinase I and IV by the same mechanisms. PMID:9058207

Okuno, S; Kitani, T; Fujisawa, H

1997-01-01

311

Differentially expressed kinase genes associated with trypsinogen activation in rat pancreatic acinar cells treated with taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate.  

PubMed

Trypsinogen activation is the initial factor involved in the development of all types of acute pancreatitis (AP) and has been suggested to be regulated by protein kinases. In the present study, AR42J rat pancreatic acinar cells were treated with taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S), and trypsinogen activation was detected with bis-(CBZ-L-isoleucyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine amide) dihydrochloride (BZiPAR) staining and flow cytometry. Differentially expressed protein kinase genes were screened by Gene Chip analysis, and the functions of these kinases were analyzed. A significantly increased activation of trypsinogen in AR42J cells following treatment with TLC-S was observed. A total of 22 differentially expressed protein kinase genes were found in the TLC-S group, among which 19 genes were upregulated and 3 were downregulated. Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, kinase genes of the same KEGG pathways were connected to create a network through signaling pathways, and 10 nodes of kinases were identified, which were mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mapk)8, Mapk14, Map2k4, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 (Irak3), ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 2 (Rps6ka2), protein kinase C, alpha (Prkca), v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene homolog (Lyn), protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta (Ptk2b), p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 4 (Pak4) and FYN oncogene related to SRC, FGR, YES (Fyn). The interactions between signaling pathways were further analyzed and a network was created. MAPK and calcium signaling pathways were found to be located at the center of the network. Thus, protein kinases constitute potential drug targets for AP treatment. PMID:23467886

Ma, Biao; Wu, Lin; Lu, Ming; Gao, Bo; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Bei; Xue, Dongbo; Zhang, Weihui

2013-05-01

312

Src kinase signaling in leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Role of Src kinases in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has been recently demonstrated in leukaemia mouse model. Retained activation of Src kinases by the BCR-ABL oncoprotein in leukaemic cells following inhibition of BCR-ABL kinase activity by imatinib indicates that Src activation by BCR-ABL is independent of BCR-ABL kinase activity and provides an explanation for reduced effectiveness of the BCR-ABL kinase activity inhibitors in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Simultaneous inhibition of kinase activity of both BCR-ABL and Src kinases results in long-term survival of mice with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Leukaemic stem cells exist in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and complete eradication of this group of cells would provide a curative therapy for this disease.

Li, Shaoguang

2007-01-01

313

Structure of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase  

PubMed Central

The structure of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 2 is of interest because it represents a family of serine-specific protein kinases that lack sequence similarity with all other eukaryotic protein kinases. Similarity exists instead with key motifs of prokaryotic histidine protein kinases and a family of eukaryotic ATPases. The 2.5-Å crystal structure reported here reveals that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 2 has two domains of about the same size. The N-terminal half is dominated by a bundle of four amphipathic ?-helices, whereas the C-terminal half is folded into an ?/? sandwich that contains the nucleotide-binding site. Analysis of the structure reveals this C-terminal domain to be very similar to the nucleotide-binding domain of bacterial histidine kinases, but the catalytic mechanism appears similar to that of the eukaryotic serine kinases and ATPases.

Nicklaus Steussy, C.; Popov, Kirill M.; Bowker-Kinley, Melissa M.; Sloan, Robert B.; Harris, Robert A.; Hamilton, Jean A.

2007-01-01

314

A new optical method of measuring electron impact excitation cross section of atoms: Cross section of the metastable 6s6p 3P 0 level of Hg  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new method that is potentially applicable to the measurement of electron impact excitation cross section of any atoms. Measurement of the cross section of the metastable 6s6p 3P0 level of mercury is conducted to demonstrate the method, which involves using cavity ringdown spectroscopy to determine the absolute number density of mercury atoms in the 6s6p 3P0 energy

Chuji Wang; Peeyush Sahay; Susan T. Scherrer

2011-01-01

315

Turnover of the Active Fraction of IRS1 Involves Raptor-mTOR- and S6K1Dependent Serine Phosphorylation in Cell Culture Models of Tuberous Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TSC1-TSC2\\/Rheb\\/Raptor-mTOR\\/S6K1 cell growth cassette has recently been shown to regulate cell autonomous insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) sensitivity by transducing a negative feedback signal that targets insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1 and -2). Using two cell culture models of the familial hamartoma syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, we show here that Raptor-mTOR and S6K1 are required for

O. Jameel Shah; Tony Hunter

2006-01-01

316

Versatile casein kinase 1  

PubMed Central

Members of casein kinase 1 (CK1) are evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein kinases, which play fundamental roles in various cellular, physiological and developmental processes. One of the key mechanisms by which the activity of these multifunctional CK1 members is controlled appears to be their specific spatiotemporal compartmentalization within the cell. Plant genomes encode dozens of CK1 homologs, the function of which are not yet well characterized, however, evolutionary conservation of these genes predicts their fundamental roles in plants. Characterization of Arabidopsis CK1-like 6 (CKL6) that we have recently reported sheds new light on the existence of parallel and unique aspects of the mechanism involved in specific subcellular targeting as well as cellular function of CK1 in plants. In this addendum, I will focus my discussion on the versatility of CKL6 partitioning at different subcellular compartments and propose that this capability likely reflects its multiple functions in modulating an array of cellular targets.

2009-01-01

317

Ribosomal Protein S6 Interacts with the Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ?  

PubMed Central

The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is central to the maintenance of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and to the survival of KSHV-carrying tumor cells. In an effort to identify interaction partners of LANA, we purified authentic high-molecular-weight complexes of LANA by conventional chromatography followed by immunoprecipitation from the BC-3 cell line. This is the first analysis of LANA-interacting partners that is not based on forced ectopic expression of LANA. Subsequent tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis identified many of the known LANA-interacting proteins. We confirmed LANA's interactions with histones. Three classes of proteins survived our stringent four-step purification procedure (size, heparin, anion, and immunoaffinity chromatography): two heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp96 precursor), signal recognition particle 72 (SRP72), and 10 different ribosomal proteins. These proteins are likely involved in structural interactions within LANA high-molecular-weight complexes. Here, we show that ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) interacts with LANA. This interaction is mediated by the N-terminal domain of LANA and does not require DNA or RNA. Depletion of RPS6 from primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells dramatically decreases the half-life of full-length LANA. The fact that RPS6 has a well-established nuclear function beyond its role in ribosome assembly suggests that RPS6 (and by extension other ribosomal proteins) contributes to the extraordinary stability of LANA.

Chen, Wuguo; Dittmer, Dirk P.

2011-01-01

318

First principle conductance calculation of zigzag, armchair and mixed geometries of S-6C-4H-S structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated ballistic transport properties of armchair (AC), zigzag (ZZ), mixed, rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ geometries of small molecules made of 2S, 6C & 4H atoms which exhibit sp-sp 2 hybridization. Well-tested first principle scattering states formalism implemented in Quantum Espresso package has been employed to perform the calculations. The chains made of 6C-atoms with 1S-atom at each end and 4H-atoms attached to different C-atoms have been relaxed. This resulted in AC, ZZ, mixed geometry structures. Differences in transmission coefficient ( T) curves of AC, ZZ and mixed molecules suggest geometry dependence of conductance and are in accordance with the previously reported results for AC and ZZ nanoribbons. In addition, our computed results for rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ suggest that the angle between electrode surface layers and molecular axis plays dominant role, compared to the role of angle between S-C bond and electrode surface layers, in determining conduction through the structure. The structures with molecular axis perpendicular to electrode surface layers yield higher conductance values.

Ambavale, S. K.; Sharma, A. C.

2010-06-01

319

Studies on protein-protein interaction between copper-containing nitrite reductase and pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6.  

PubMed

Site-directed mutagenesis of a copper-containing nitrite reductase (NIR) from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 was carried out to identify the amino acid residues involved in interaction with its redox partner, pseudoazurin, in which four positively charged residues were previously shown to be important in the interaction. Ten negatively charged residues located on the surface of NIR were replaced independently by alanine or serine. All the altered NIRs showed CD spectra and optical spectra identical to those of wild-type NIR, suggesting that all the replacements caused no gross change in the overall structure or in the environment of type 1 copper site. Kinetic analysis of electron transfer between pseudoazurin and altered NIRs revealed that the replacement of Glu-118, Glu-197, Asp-201, Glu-204, or Asp-205 by Ala caused a significant increase in the Km value for pseudoazurin compared with that of wild-type NIR. Furthermore, the simultaneous replacement of three of these residues (Glu-118, Glu-197, and Asp-201) caused a further increase in the Km value. These results suggested that the negatively charged residues are involved in electrostatic interaction with pseudoazurin. Kinetic analyses of the altered NIRs (E118A, E197A, or D201A) with altered pseudoazurins (K10A, K57A, or K77A) implicate specific pairs of the charged residues that are involved in electrostatic interaction between NIR and pseudoazurin. PMID:8662745

Kukimoto, M; Nishiyama, M; Tanokura, M; Adman, E T; Horinouchi, S

1996-06-01

320

Changes in source parameters of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2001 M S=6.0 Yajiang, Sichuan, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper changes in focal mechanisms, parameters of wave spectra, and stress drops for the M S=5.0 foreshock and M S=6.0 mainshock in February 2001 in Yajiang County, Sichuan, and seismicity in epicentral region are studied. Comparison of focal mechanisms for the Yajiang earthquakes with distribution patterns of aftershocks, the nodal plane I, striking in the direction of NEN, of the Yajiang M=5.0 event is chosen as the faulting plane; the nodal plane II, striking in the direction of WNW, of the M=6.0 event as the faulting plane. The strikes of the two faulting planes are nearly perpendicular to each other. The level of stress drops in the epicentral region before the occurrence of the M=6.0 earthquake increases, which is consistent with increase of seismicity in the epicentral region. The rate decay of the Yajiang earthquake sequence, changes in wave spectra for foreshocks and aftershocks, and focal mechanisms are complex.

Cheng, Wan-Zheng; Chen, Tian-Chang; Wei, Ya-Ling; Zhu, Hang

2003-07-01

321

Charge-cloud alignment in the electron-impact excitation of 138Ba( . . .6s6p 1P1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined charge-cloud alignment parameters P+l and ? for electron-impact excitation of the (6s2 1S0) to (6s6p 1P1) transition in 138Ba by measuring the superelastic scattering of electrons from laser-excited 138Ba. Four electron-impact energies were studied and scattering-angle coverage in each case was sufficient to allow the observation of pronounced structure in the behavior of these parameters. Comparison of our measurements with two distorted-wave theories [R. E. H. Clark, J. Abdallah, Jr., G. Csanak, and S. P. Kramer, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2935 (1989); R. Srivastava, T. Zuo, R. P. McEachran, and A. D. Stauffer, J. Phys. B 25, 3709 (1992)] reveals generally excellent agreement except at the lowest impact energy studied where these theories fail completely to reproduce the observed behavior of P+l. Our low-impact-energy data have also been compared with a close-coupling calculation [I. I. Fabrikant, Izv. Akad. Nauk Latv. SSR, Ser. Fiz. Tekhn. 6, 11 (1985)] which qualitatively reproduces the observed behavior of P+l and ? but fails to give quantitative agreement.

Zetner, P. W.; Li, Y.; Trajmar, S.

1993-07-01

322

Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation is associated with epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6), a downstream effector of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway (mTOR), is activated in many cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the role of RPS6 in the progression of potentially malignant disorders (or premalignant lesions) to OSCC is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of RPS6 in epithelial dysplasia and OSCC to determine the association of RPS6 in tumor progression. In our study, an immunohistochemical analysis of RPS6 was performed on tissue microarrays containing 30 control samples, 15 epithelial dysplasia cases, and 53 OSCC cases. Correlations between the clinicopathologic features of OSCC and RPS6 expression were analyzed using the Chi-square test. We found RPS6 phosphorylation (p-RPS6) in 15/30 (50 %) control normal oral mucosa samples, 15/15 (100 %) epithelial dysplasia cases, and 47/53 (88.68 %) OSCC cases. The frequency of p-RPS6 in epithelial dysplasia or OSCC showed a statistically significant difference compared to control (P?

Chaisuparat, Risa; Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Yodsanga, Somchai

2013-04-01

323

PI3Kinase Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation of cells by a wide variety of stimuli leads to rapid changes in 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids through the\\u000a action of a family of enzymes known as phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3-Ks). PI3-K activation is central to the coordinated\\u000a control of multiple cell signaling pathways leading to cell growth, cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell migration.\\u000a The PI3-Ks have been classified

Peter M. Finan; Stephen G. Ward

324

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

1997-02-25

325

MAP kinase and pain  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important for intracellular signal transduction and play critical roles in regulating neural plasticity and inflammatory responses. The MAPK family consists of three major members: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which represent three separate signaling pathways. Accumulating evidence shows that all three MAPK pathways contribute to pain sensitization after tissue and nerve injury via distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms. Activation (phosphorylation) of MAPKs under different persistent pain conditions results in the induction and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity via non-transcriptional and transcriptional regulation. In particular, ERK activation in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons by nociceptive activity, via multiple neurotransmitter receptors, and using different second messenger pathways plays a critical role in central sensitization by regulating the activity of glutamate receptors and potassium channels and inducing gene transcription. ERK activation in amygdala neurons is also required for inflammatory pain sensitization. After nerve injury, ERK, p38, and JNK are differentially activated in spinal glial cells (microglia vs astrocytes), leading to the synthesis of proinflammatory/pronociceptive mediators, thereby enhancing and prolonging pain. Inhibition of all three MAPK pathways has been shown to attenuate inflammatory and neuropathic pain in different animal models. Development of specific inhibitors for MAPK pathways to target neurons and glial cells may lead to new therapies for pain management. Although it is well documented that MAPK pathways can increase pain sensitivity via peripheral mechanisms, this review will focus on central mechanisms of MAPKs, especially ERK.

Ji, Ru-Rong; Gereau, Robert W.; Malcangio, Marzia; Strichartz, Gary R.

2008-01-01

326

The Structure of Lombricine Kinase  

PubMed Central

Lombricine kinase is a member of the phosphagen kinase family and a homolog of creatine and arginine kinases, enzymes responsible for buffering cellular ATP levels. Structures of lombricine kinase from the marine worm Urechis caupo were determined by x-ray crystallography. One form was crystallized as a nucleotide complex, and the other was substrate-free. The two structures are similar to each other and more similar to the substrate-free forms of homologs than to the substrate-bound forms of the other phosphagen kinases. Active site specificity loop 309–317, which is disordered in substrate-free structures of homologs and is known from the NMR of arginine kinase to be inherently dynamic, is resolved in both lombricine kinase structures, providing an improved basis for understanding the loop dynamics. Phosphagen kinases undergo a segmented closing on substrate binding, but the lombricine kinase ADP complex is in the open form more typical of substrate-free homologs. Through a comparison with prior complexes of intermediate structure, a correlation was revealed between the overall enzyme conformation and the substrate interactions of His178. Comparative modeling provides a rationale for the more relaxed specificity of these kinases, of which the natural substrates are among the largest of the phosphagen substrates.

Bush, D. Jeffrey; Kirillova, Olga; Clark, Shawn A.; Davulcu, Omar; Fabiola, Felcy; Xie, Qing; Somasundaram, Thayumanasamy; Ellington, W. Ross; Chapman, Michael S.

2011-01-01

327

Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

2011-01-01

328

Attenuation of Proinflammatory Responses by S-[6]-Gingerol via Inhibition of ROS/NF-Kappa B/COX2 Activation in HuH7 Cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Hepatic inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. S-[6]-Gingerol has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Important inflammatory mediators of interleukins include nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). We now explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of S-[6]-gingerol in liver cells. Methods. HuH7 cells were stimulated with IL1? to establish an in vitro hepatic inflammatory model. Results. S-[6]-Gingerol attenuated IL1?-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HuH7 cells, as evidenced by decreasing mRNA levels of inflammatory factor IL6, IL8, and SAA1, suppression of ROS generation, and increasing mRNA levels of DHCR24. In addition, S-[6]-gingerol reduced IL1?-induced COX2 upregulation as well as NF?B activity. Similar to the protective effects of S-[6]-gingerol, both NS-398 (a selective COX2 inhibitor) and PDTC (a selective NF?B inhibitor) suppressed mRNA levels of IL6, IL8, and SAA1. Importantly, PDTC attenuated IL1?-induced overexpression of COX2. Of particular note, the protective effect of S-[6]-gingerol against the IL1?-induced inflammatory response was similar to that of BHT, an ROS scavenger. Conclusions. The findings of this study demonstrate that S-[6]-gingerol protects HuH7 cells against IL1?-induced inflammatory insults through inhibition of the ROS/NF?B/COX2 pathway.

McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Tran, Van H.; Li, Yi-Ming; Duke, Colin C.; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Heather, Alison K.

2013-01-01

329

Water soluble adenosine kinase inhibitors  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to adenosine kinase inhibitors and to nucleoside analogs, specifically to water soluble, aryl substituted 4-amino pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidine and pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine nucleoside analogs having activity as adenosine kinase inhibitors The invention also relates to the preparation and use of these adenosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases, inflammation and other diseases which can be regulated by increasing the local concentration of adenosine.

1998-08-18

330

Tau-tubulin kinase  

PubMed Central

Tau-tubulin kinase (TTBK) belongs to casein kinase superfamily and phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein tau and tubulin. TTBK has two isoforms, TTBK1 and TTBK2, which contain highly homologous catalytic domains but their non-catalytic domains are distinctly different. TTBK1 is expressed specifically in the central nervous system and is involved in phosphorylation and aggregation of tau. TTBK2 is ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues and genetically linked to spinocerebellar ataxia type 11. TTBK1 directly phosphorylates tau protein, especially at Ser422, and also activates cycline-dependent kinase 5 in a unique mechanism. TTBK1 protein expression is significantly elevated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains, and genetic variations of the TTBK1 gene are associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease in two cohorts of Chinese and Spanish populations. TTBK1 transgenic mice harboring the entire 55-kilobase genomic sequence of human TTBK1 show progression of tau accumulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration when crossed with tau mutant mice. Our recent study shows that there is a striking switch in mononuclear phagocyte and activation phenotypes in the anterior horn of the spinal cord from alternatively activated (M2-skewed) microglia in P301L tau mutant mice to pro-inflammatory (M1-skewed) infiltrating peripheral monocytes by crossing the tau mice with TTBK1 transgenic mice. TTBK1 is responsible for mediating M1-activated microglia-induced neurotoxicity, and its overexpression induces axonal degeneration in vitro. These studies suggest that TTBK1 is an important molecule for the inflammatory axonal degeneration, which may be relevant to the pathobiology of tauopathy including AD.

Ikezu, Seiko; Ikezu, Tsuneya

2014-01-01

331

Plant Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates the D-3 position of phosphoinositides. In Arabidopsis, only one PI3K exists,\\u000a which belongs to the class-III PI3K subfamily which makes phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The single AtPI3K gene is essential for survival, since loss of its expression results in lethality. Although not much is known about the molecular\\u000a mechanism of its function, recent studies show that plant

Yuree Lee; Teun Munnik; Youngsook Lee

2010-01-01

332

Multiple phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 during transition of quiescent 3T3 cells into early G1, and cellular compartmentalization of the phosphate donor.  

PubMed Central

At 5 min after quiescent cells are induced to enter G1 there is a large increase in the amount of 32P incorporated into 40S ribosomal protein S6. Here we show that changes in the specific activities of 32Pi and [gamma-32P]ATP in stimulated as compared to quiescent cultures do not account for this large increase. Instead, we demonstrate by decreased electrophoretic mobility on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels that this increase is due to a quantitative increase in the total amount of phosphate incorporated into S6. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments show that the phosphate that is incorporated into S6 is metabolically stable during at least the first 60 min of induction and that the incorporation of 32P into S6 responds immediately to the replacement of 32Pi by Pi in the medium, in contrast to [gamma-32P]ATP which changes very slowly. Thus, the S6 phosphate donor must be a compartment separate from that of the total cellular ATP. Images

Thomas, G; Siegmann, M; Gordon, J

1979-01-01

333

The phosphorylation of protein S6 modulates the interaction of the 40 S ribosomal subunit with the 5'-untranslated region of a dictyostelium pre-spore-specific mRNA and controls its stability.  

PubMed

AC914 mRNA, a pre-spore-specific mRNA that accumulates only in the post-aggregation stage of development, is transcribed constitutively as shown by nuclear run-off experiments and by fusing its promoter to the luciferase reporter gene. The same mRNA disappears quickly from disaggregated cells. If the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) of the constitutively expressed Actin 15 mRNA is substituted for the 5'UTR of AC914 mRNA, this can no longer be destabilized and accumulates both in growing and disaggregated cells. If the 5'UTR of AC914 mRNA is substituted for the 5'UTR of Actin 15 mRNA, the latter accumulates only in aggregated cells. Pactamycin, but not other inhibitors of protein synthesis, prevents AC914 mRNA from being destabilized in disaggregated cells, suggesting a role of 40 S subunits in the destabilization. This has been confirmed by using an in vitro system in which the in vivo stability of different mRNAs is reproduced. A protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 determines whether 40 S subunits are capable or not of destabilizing AC914 mRNA in the in vitro system. PMID:9765222

Chiaberge, S; Cassarino, E; Mangiarotti, G

1998-10-16

334

Akt mediates insulin induction of glucose uptake and up-regulation of GLUT4 gene expression in brown adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin acutely stimulated glucose uptake in rat primary brown adipocytes in a PI3-kinase-dependent but p70S6-kinase-independent manner. Since Akt represents an intermediate step between these kinases, this study investigated the contribution of Akt to insulin-induced glucose uptake by the use of a chemical compound, ML-9, as well as by transfection with a dominant-negative form of Akt (?Akt). Pretreatment with ML-9 for

Rosario Hernandez; Teresa Teruel; Margarita Lorenzo

2001-01-01

335

Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation before beginning of lay on the leukocytic characteristics of commercial layers.  

PubMed

A clinical study was conducted on commercial layers housed in biological isolation units, within which exogenous stress factors potentially affecting bird performance were minimized. This set-up was devised in order to assess how a pre-lay inoculation of S6 strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum affects the leukocytic properties of laying chickens. Previous studies have demonstrated relative decreases in lymphocyte and relative increases in heterophil percentages in birds infected with other strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. However, current results showed that the differential percentages of lymphocytes were decreased, whereas those of heterophils were increased, in both sham-inoculated control birds and birds inoculated with S6 Mycoplasma gallisepticum between 19 and 26 wk of age. This study clearly shows that a pre-lay inoculation of S6 Mycoplasma gallisepticum alone had no apparent effect on the leukocyte profile of commercial layers housed in biological isolation units. PMID:15077815

Peebles, E D; Parker, T A; Branton, S L; Willeford, K O; Jones, M S; Gerard, P D; Pharr, G T; Maslin, W R

2004-01-01

336

Bis(tetraphenylphosphonium) (hexasulfido-2kappa2S1,S6)di-mu-sulfido-disulfido-1kappa2S-tungsten(VI)zinc(II) acetone solvate.  

PubMed

The title complex, (C(24)H(20)P)(2)[WZnS(4)(S(6))].C(3)H(6)O or (Ph(4)P)(2)[WS(2)(mu-S)(2){Zn(S(6))}].Me(2)CO, was unexpectedly obtained on attempted recrystallization of a mixed tungten-zinc complex of a tris(pyrazolato)borate ligand. The two metal centres of the anion have distorted tetrahedral coordination and the two tetrahedra share one S...S edge; tungsten is additionally coordinated by two terminal sulfide ligands and zinc by a chelating S(6)(2-) ligand, which has one central S-S bond significantly longer than the other four, a pattern found to be consistent for this ligand. This is the first reported example of a tetrahedral zinc centre bridging an edge of a single tetrathiotungstate(VI) or tetrathiomolybdate(VI) anion, although there are many previous examples with other metals. PMID:19726844

Beheshti, Azizolla; Clegg, William; Dale, Sophie H; Hyvadi, Reza

2009-09-01

337

Imaging Kinase Activity at Protein Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Kinase signaling is under tight spatiotemporal control, with signaling hubs within the cell often coordinated by protein scaffolds. Genetically encoded kinase activity reporters afford a unique tool to interrogate the rate, amplitude, and duration of kinase signaling at specific locations throughout the cell. This protocol describes how to assay kinase activity at a protein scaffold in live cells using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based kinase activity sensor for protein kinase D (PKD) as an example.

Kunkel, Maya T.; Newton, Alexandra C.

2014-01-01

338

Kinase inhibitor profiling using chemoproteomics.  

PubMed

Quantitative chemoproteomics has recently emerged as an experimental approach to determine protein interaction profiles of small molecules in a given cell line or tissue. In contrast to standard biochemical and biophysical kinase assays, application of this method to kinase inhibitors determines compound binding to endogenously expressed kinases under conditions approximating the physiological situation with regard to the molecular state of the kinase and presence of required cofactors and regulatory proteins. Using a dose-dependent, competition-based experimental design in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry approaches, such as the use of tandem mass tags (TMT) for isobaric labeling described here, allows to rank-order interactions of inhibitors to kinase by binding affinity. PMID:21960222

Schirle, Markus; Petrella, Eugene C; Brittain, Scott M; Schwalb, David; Harrington, Edmund; Cornella-Taracido, Ivan; Tallarico, John A

2012-01-01

339

Activation of the pp90[sup rsk] and mitogen-activated serine/threonine protein kinases by ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

The cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR) includes induction of the c-jun and EGRI early response genes. The present work has examined potential cytoplasmic signaling cascades that transduce IR-induced signals to the nucleus. The results demonstrate activation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase, pp90[sup rsk], in human U-937 myeloid leukemia cells. Partial purification of pp90[sup rsk] by affinity chromatography demonstrated an increase in S6 peptide phosphorylation when comparing irradiated with control cells. IR-induced activation of pp90[sup rsk] was further confirmed in immune-complex kinase assays. In contrast to these findings, there was no detectable induction of pp70[sup rsk]. Previous work has demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase activates pp90[sup rsk]. The present results further show that IR treatment is associated with induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and that this event is temporally related to activation of pp90[sup rsk] and early response gene expression. These findings suggest that activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/pp90[sup rsk] cascade is involved in the response of cells to IR exposure.

Kharbanda, S.; Saleem, A.; Shafman, T.; Emoto, Y.; Kufe, D. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Weichselbaum, R. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-06-07

340

ERK kinases modulate the activation of PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs) in DNA damage response.  

PubMed

DNA damage response (DDR) is the critical surveillance mechanism in maintaining genome integrity. The mechanism activates checkpoints to prevent cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA lesions, and mediates lesion repair. DDR is coordinated by three apical PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase). These kinases are activated in response to specific DNA damage or lesions, resulting in checkpoint activation and DNA lesion repair. While it is clear that the pathways of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK are the core components of DDR, there is accumulating evidence revealing the involvement of other cellular pathways in regulating DDR; this is in line with the concept that in addition to being a nuclear event DDR is also a cellular process. One of these pathways is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. ERK is a converging point of multiple signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adding to this list of pathways is the recent development of ERK in DDR. The ERK kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) contribute to the proper execution of DDR in terms of checkpoint activation and the repair of DNA lesions. This review summarizes the contributions of ERK to DDR with emphasis on the relationship of ERK kinases with the activation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs. PMID:23832672

Lin, Xiaozeng; Yan, Judy; Tang, Damu

2013-12-01

341

Raf Family Kinases  

PubMed Central

First identified in the early 1980s as retroviral oncogenes, the Raf proteins have been the objects of intense research. The discoveries 10 years later that the Raf family members (Raf-1, B-Raf, and A-Raf) are bona fide Ras effectors and upstream activators of the ubiquitous ERK pathway increased the interest in these proteins primarily because of the central role that this cascade plays in cancer development. The important role of Raf in cancer was corroborated in 2002 with the discovery of B-Raf genetic mutations in a large number of tumors. This led to intensified drug development efforts to target Raf signaling in cancer. This work yielded not only recent clinical successes but also surprising insights into the regulation of Raf proteins by homodimerization and heterodimerization. Surprising insights also came from the hunt for new Raf targets. Although MEK remains the only widely accepted Raf substrate, new kinase-independent roles for Raf proteins have emerged. These include the regulation of apoptosis by suppressing the activity of the proapoptotic kinases, ASK1 and MST2, and the regulation of cell motility and differentiation by controlling the activity of Rok-?. In this review, we discuss the regulation of Raf proteins and their role in cancer, with special focus on the interacting proteins that modulate Raf signaling. We also describe the new pathways controlled by Raf proteins and summarize the successes and failures in the development of efficient anticancer therapies targeting Raf. Finally, we also argue for the necessity of more systemic approaches to obtain a better understanding of how the Ras-Raf signaling network generates biological specificity.

Matallanas, David; Birtwistle, Marc; Romano, David; Zebisch, Armin; Rauch, Jens; von Kriegsheim, Alexander; Kolch, Walter

2011-01-01

342

Evodiamine induces apoptosis and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells through mTOR/S6K1-mediated downregulation of Mcl-1.  

PubMed

The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer agents, has been considered as a new strategy for anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that evodiamine, a quinolone alkaloid isolated from the fruit of Evodia fructus, induced apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we found that evodiamine significantly reduced the protein levels of Mcl-1 in 253J and T24 bladder cancer cells, and overexpression of this molecule attenuated the apoptosis induced by evodiamine alone, or in combination with TRAIL. Further experiments revealed that evodiamine did not affect the mRNA level, proteasomal degradation and protein stability of Mcl-1. On the other hand, evodiamine inhibited the mTOR/S6K1 pathway, which usually regulates protein translation; moreover, knockdown of S6K1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively reduced Mcl-1 levels, indicating evodiamine downregulates c-FLIP through inhibition of mTOR/S6K1 pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that evodiamine induces apoptosis and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis possibly through mTOR/S6K1-mediated downregulation of Mcl-1; furthermore, these findings provide a rationale for the combined application of evodiamine with TRAIL in the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:24566141

Zhang, Tao; Qu, Shanna; Shi, Qi; He, Dalin; Jin, Xunbo

2014-01-01

343

Structural Transformation in Some Chevrel Phase Compounds: ZnMo5S6, ZnMo5Se6 and CuO.7Mo3Se4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low temperature x-ray powder diffraction and electrical resistivity experiments show that the Chevrel phase compounds ZnMo5S6, ZnMo5Se6 and CuO.7Mo3Se4 are structurally unstable near or below room temperature. The binary compounds Mo3S4, Mo3Se4 and Mo3Te4...

A. C. Lawson R. N. Shelton

1977-01-01

344

Preferential formation of (5S,6R)-thymine glycol for oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthesis and analysis of drug binding to thymine glycol-containing DNA  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides containing thymine glycol, a major form of oxidative DNA damage. In the preparation of the phosphoramidite building block, the predominant product of the osmium tetroxide oxidation of protected thymidine was (5R,6S)-thymidine glycol. To obtain the building block of the other isomer, (5S,6R)-thymidine glycol, in an amount sufficient for oligonucleotide synthesis, the Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD) reaction was examined. Although the reaction was very slow, (5S,6R)-thymidine glycol was obtained in preference to the (5R,6S) isomer. The ratio of (5S,6R)- and (5R,6S)-thymidine glycols was 2:1, and a trans isomer was also formed. When an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, was used as a co-solvent, the reaction became faster, and the yield was improved without changing the preference. The phosphoramidite building block of (5S,6R)-thymidine glycol was prepared, and oligonucleotides containing 5S-thymine glycol were synthesized. One of the oligonucleotides was used to analyze the binding of distamycin A to thymine glycol-containing DNA by Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements. Distamycin A bound to a duplex containing either isomer of thymine glycol within the AATT target site, and its binding was observed even when the thymine glycol was placed opposite cytosine.

Shimizu, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Koichiro; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Kawasaki, Yusuke; Iwai, Shigenori

2006-01-01

345

Ceramide inhibits insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation through activation of Rheb/mTORC1/S6K signaling in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Ceramide is a negative regulator of insulin activity. At the molecular level, it causes a decrease in insulin-stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes. Interestingly, we found that the phosphorylation of S6