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1

P70 S6 kinase mediates tau phosphorylation and synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, we found that the 70-kDa p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) directly phosphorylates tau at S262, S214, and T212 sites in vitro. By immunoprecipitation, p-p70S6K (T421\\/S424) showed a close association with p-tau (S262 and S396\\/404). Zinc-induced p70S6K activation could only upregulate translation of total S6 and tau but not global proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. The requirement of p70S6K activation was confirmed

Jin-Jing Pei; Wen-Lin An; Xin-Wen Zhou; Takeshi Nishimura; Jan Norberg; Eirikur Benedikz; Jürgen Götz; Bengt Winblad

2006-01-01

2

Atypical protein kinase Clambda binds and regulates p70 S6 kinase.  

PubMed Central

p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K) has been implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression. However, the mechanism of its activation is not fully understood. In the present work, evidence is provided that an atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isotype, PKClambda, is indispensable, but not sufficient, for the activation of p70 S6K. Both the regulatory and kinase domains of PKClambda associate directly with p70 S6K. Overexpression of the kinase domain without kinase activity or the regulatory domain of PKClambda results in the suppression of the serum-induced activation of p70 S6K. In addition, two types of dominant-negative mutants of PKClambda, as well as a kinase-deficient mutant of p70 S6K, suppress serum-induced DNA synthesis and E2F activation. The overexpresion of the active form of PKClambda, however, fails to activate p70 S6K. These results suggest that PKClambda is a mediator in the regulation of p70 S6K activity and plays an important role in cell cycle progression. PMID:9761742

Akimoto, K; Nakaya, M; Yamanaka, T; Tanaka, J; Matsuda, S; Weng, Q P; Avruch, J; Ohno, S

1998-01-01

3

Structural Basis of Human p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase-1 Regulation by Activation Loop Phosphorylation  

SciTech Connect

p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) is a downstream effector of the mTOR signaling pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell-cycle progression, and glucose homeostasis. Multiple phosphorylation events within the catalytic, autoinhibitory, and hydrophobic motif domains contribute to the regulation of p70S6K. We report the crystal structures of the kinase domain of p70S6K1 bound to staurosporine in both the unphosphorylated state and in the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-phosphorylated state in which Thr-252 of the activation loop is phosphorylated. Unphosphorylated p70S6K1 exists in two crystal forms, one in which the p70S6K1 kinase domain exists as a monomer and the other as a domain-swapped dimer. The crystal structure of the partially activated kinase domain that is phosphorylated within the activation loop reveals conformational ordering of the activation loop that is consistent with a role in activation. The structures offer insights into the structural basis of the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-induced activation of p70S6K and provide a platform for the rational structure-guided design of specific p70S6K inhibitors.

Sunami, Tomoko; Byrne, Noel; Diehl, Ronald E.; Funabashi, Kaoru; Hall, Dawn L.; Ikuta, Mari; Patel, Sangita B.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Smith, Robert F.; Takahashi, Ikuko; Zugay-Murphy, Joan; Iwasawa, Yoshikazu; Lumb, Kevin J.; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Sharma, Sujata (Banyu); (Merck)

2010-03-04

4

A minimal cytoplasmic subdomain of the erythropoietin receptor mediates p70 S6 kinase phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a lineage-restricted growth factor that is required for erythroid proliferation and differentiation. EPO stimulates the phosphorylation and activation of p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K), which is required for cell cycle progression. Here, the minimal cytoplasmic domains of the EPO receptor (EPO-R) required for p70 S6K activation were determined.Ba/F3 cells were stably transfected with wild-type (WT) EPO-R or EPO-R carboxyl-terminal deletion mutants, designated by the number of amino acids deleted from the cytoplasmic tail (-99, -131, -221). Transfected cells were growth factor deprived and then stimulated with EPO. p70 S6K, JAK2, IRS-2, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation were examined. The ability of transfected 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) to reconstitute p70 S6K phosphorylation in EPO-R mutants also was determined. Phosphorylation and activation of p70 S6K, JAK2, IRS-2, and ERK1/2 in Ba/F3 cells transfected with EPO-R-99 or EPO-R-99Y343F were similar to WT EPO-R. In contrast, EPO-dependent p70 S6K phosphorylation/activation, as well as IRS-2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, were minimal or absent in cells transfected with EPO-R-131 or EPO-R-221. JAK2 phosphorylation was reduced significantly in cells transfected with EPO-R-131 and abolished with EPO-R-221. To examine the role of PDK1, a kinase known to phosphorylate p70 S6K, Ba/F3 EPO-R-131 cells were transiently transfected with PDK1. WT constitutively active PDK1 restored p70 S6K phosphorylation in Ba/F3 EPO-R-131 cells but not in Ba/F3 EPO-R-221 cells. The results demonstrate that a minimal cytoplasmic subdomain of the EPO-R extending between -99 and -131 is required for p70 S6K phosphorylation and activation. The results also demonstrate that PDK1 is a critical component in this signaling pathway, which requires the presence of domains between -131 and -221 for its activation of p70 S6K. PMID:11301183

Zhang, M Y; Barber, D L; Alessi, D R; Bell, L L; Stine, C; Nguyen, M H; Beattie, B K; Cheung, J Y; Miller, B A

2001-04-01

5

Vascular tumors have increased p70 S6-kinase activation and are inhibited by topical rapamycin.  

PubMed

Vascular tumors are endothelial cell neoplasms whose cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to tumor formation, are poorly understood, and current therapies have limited efficacy with significant side effects. We have investigated mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in benign and malignant vascular tumors, and the effects of mTOR kinase inhibitor as a potential therapy for these lesions. Human vascular tumors (infantile hemangioma and angiosarcoma) were analyzed by immunohistochemical stains and western blot for the phosphorylation of p70 S6-kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6), which are activated downstream of mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1). To assess the function of S6K, tumor cells with genetic knockdown of S6K were analyzed for cell proliferation and migration. The effects of topical rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, on mTORC1 and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) activities, as well as on tumor growth and migration, were determined. Vascular tumors showed increased activation of S6K and S6. Genetic knockdown of S6K resulted in reduced tumor cell proliferation and migration. Rapamycin fully inhibited mTORC1 and partially inhibited mTORC2 activities, including the phosphorylation of Akt (serine 473) and PKC?, in vascular tumor cells. Rapamycin significantly reduced vascular tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. As a potential localized therapy for cutaneous vascular tumors, topically applied rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth with limited systemic drug absorption. These findings reveal the importance of mTOR signaling pathways in benign and malignant vascular tumors. The mTOR pathway is an important therapeutic target in vascular tumors, and topical mTOR inhibitors may provide an alternative and well-tolerated therapy for the treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. PMID:23938603

Du, Wa; Gerald, Damien; Perruzzi, Carole A; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Enayati, Ladan; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Edmonds, Joseph; Hochman, Marcelo L; Lev, Dina C; Phung, Thuy L

2013-10-01

6

Tuberin Regulates p70 S6 Kinase Activation and Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the cellular functions of TSC2 and its pro- tein product, tuberin, are not known, somatic mutations in the TSC2 tumor suppressor gene are associated with tumor development in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). We found that ribosomal protein S6 (S6), which exerts translational control of protein synthesis and is required for cell growth, is hyperphosphorylated in the smooth muscle-like cell lesions of

Elena A. Goncharova; Dmitry A. Goncharov; Andrew Eszterhas; Deborah S. Hunter; Marilyn K. Glassberg; Raymond S. Yeung; Cheryl L. Walker; Daniel Noonan; David J. Kwiatkowski; Margaret M. Chou; Reynold A. Panettieri; Vera P. Krymskaya

7

Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and p70S6 kinase is not correlated with cerebellar granule cell survival.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in the survival of cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin, but not epidermal growth factor (EGF), promoted the survival of P6 cerebellar granule neurons. BDNF promoted a sustained activation of MAP kinase, whereas that induced by EGF was only transient. Insulin promoted a small but transient activation of MAP kinase that was completely blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase activation. PD98059 had no effect on the insulin- or BDNF-induced survival of cerebellar granule cells. We also investigated the role of p70S6 kinase in survival. The activation of p70S6 kinase by EGF was transient, whereas BDNF and insulin promoted a sustained activation of p70S6 kinase. Rapamycin, which blocked p70S6 kinase activation, had no effect on the BDNF- or insulin-induced survival of cerebellar granule cells. We conclude that sustained activation of MAP kinase is not correlated with the survival response of cerebellar granule cells; indeed insulin-mediated survival is independent of MAP kinase. Survival of cerebellar granule cells is also independent of the activation of p70S6 kinase. PMID:9182692

Gunn-Moore, F J; Williams, A G; Toms, N J; Tavaré, J M

1997-01-01

8

Effects of electroacupuncture on the expression of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia?  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the mechanism underlying electroacupuncture therapy for vascular dementia through electroacupuncture at the acupoints of Baihui (DU20), Dazhui (DU14), and bilateral Shenshu (BL23) in a rat model of vascular dementia produced by bilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Morris water maze test showed that electroacupuncture improved the learning ability of vascular dementia rats. Western blot assay revealed that the expression of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 in vascular dementia rats was significantly increased after electroacupuncture, compared with the model group that was not treated with acupuncture. The average escape latency was also shortened after electroacupuncture, and escape strategies in the spatial probe test improved from edge and random searches, to linear and trending swim pathways. The experimental findings indicate that electroacupuncture improves learning and memory ability by up-regulating expression of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 in the hippocampus of vascular dementia rats.

Zhu, Yanzhen; Wang, Xuan; Ye, Xiaobao; Gao, Changhua; Wang, Wei

2012-01-01

9

Phophatidylinositol-3 Kinase\\/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin\\/p70S6K Regulates Contractile Protein Accumulation in Airway Myocyte Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased airway smooth muscle in airway remodeling results from myocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. Skeletal and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy is induced by phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI(3) kinase) via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6 kinase (p70 S6K ). We tested the hypothesis that this pathway regulates contractile protein accumulation in cultured canine airway myocytes acquiring an elongated contractile phenotype in

Andrew J. Halayko; Sreedharan Kartha; Gerald L. Stelmack; John McConville; John Tam; Blanca Camoretti-Mercado; Sean M. Forsythe; Marc B. Hershenson; Julian Solway

10

Inhibition of p70 S6 Kinase (S6K1) Activity by A77 1726 and Its Effect on Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Progress12  

PubMed Central

Leflunomide is a novel immunomodulatory drug prescribed for treating rheumatoid arthritis. It inhibits the activity of protein tyrosine kinases and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis pathway. Here, we report that A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, inhibited the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and two other substrates of S6K1, insulin receptor substrate-1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 2, in an A375 melanoma cell line. A77 1726 increased the phosphorylation of AKT, p70 S6 (S6K1), ERK1/2, and MEK through the feedback activation of the IGF-1 receptor–mediated signaling pathway. Invitro kinase assay revealed that leflunomide and A77 1726 inhibited S6K1 activity with IC50 values of approximately 55 and 80 ?M, respectively. Exogenous uridine partially blocked A77 1726–induced inhibition of A375 cell proliferation. S6K1 knockdown led to the inhibition of A375 cell proliferation but did not potentiate the antiproliferative effect of A77 1726. A77 1726 stimulated bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in A375 cells but arrested the cell cycle in the S phase, which was reversed by addition of exogenous uridine or by MAP kinase pathway inhibitors but not by rapamycin and LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor). These observations suggest that A77 1726 accelerates cell cycle entry into the S phase through MAP kinase activation and that pyrimidine nucleotide depletion halts the completion of the cell cycle. Our study identified a novel molecular target of A77 1726 and showed that the inhibition of S6K1 activity was in part responsible for its antiproliferative activity. Our study also provides a novel mechanistic insight into A77 1726–induced cell cycle arrest in the S phase. PMID:25379019

Doscas, Michelle E.; Williamson, Ashley J.; Usha, Lydia; Bogachkov, Yedida; Rao, Geetha S.; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yimin; Ruby, Carl; Kaufman, Howard; Zhou, Jingsong; Williams, James W.; Li, Yi; Xu, Xiulong

2014-01-01

11

p70s6k Integrates Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase and Rapamycin Regulated Signals for E2F Regulation in T Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In T lymphocytes, the hematopoietic cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) uses phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-induced signaling pathways to regulate E2F transcriptional activity, a critical cell cycle checkpoint. PI 3-kinase also regulates the activity of p70s6k, the 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase, a response that is abrogated by the macrolide rapamycin. This immunosuppressive drug is known to prevent T-cell proliferation, but the precise

PAUL BRENNAN; J. W. BABBAGE; G. THOMAS; DOREEN CANTRELL

12

Involvement of mitogen-stimulated p70-S6 kinase in the development of sensitization to the methamphetamine-induced rewarding effect in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural plasticity associated with behavioral sensitization following repeated administration of a psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) is thought to require synthesis of new proteins. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of p70-S6 kinase (p70-S6K) phosphorylation, which contributes to the selective translation of a unique family of mRNA, in mediating both the METH-induced rewarding effect and its

M. Narita; H. Akai; T. Kita; Y. Nagumo; N. Sunagawa; C. Hara; K. Hasebe; H. Nagase; T. Suzuki

2005-01-01

13

Absence of ?-sarcoglycan alters the response of p70S6 kinase to mechanical perturbation in murine skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Background The dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) is located at the sarcolemma of muscle fibers, providing structural integrity. Mutations in and loss of DGC proteins cause a spectrum of muscular dystrophies. When only the sarcoglycan subcomplex is absent, muscles display severe myofiber degeneration, but little susceptibility to contractile damage, suggesting that disease occurs not by structural deficits but through aberrant signaling, namely, loss of normal mechanotransduction signaling through the sarcoglycan complex. We extended our previous studies on mechanosensitive, ?-sarcoglycan-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation, to determine whether additional pathways are altered with the loss of ?-sarcoglycan. Methods We examined mechanotransduction in the presence and absence of ?-sarcoglycan, using C2C12 myotubes, and primary cultures and isolated muscles from C57Bl/6 (C57) and ?-sarcoglycan-null (?-SG-/-) mice. All were subjected to cyclic passive stretch. Signaling protein phosphorylation was determined by immunoblotting of lysates from stretched and non-stretched samples. Calcium dependence was assessed by maintaining muscles in calcium-free or tetracaine-supplemented Ringer’s solution. Dependence on mTOR was determined by stretching isolated muscles in the presence or absence of rapamycin. Results C2C12 myotube stretch caused a robust increase in P-p70S6K, but decreased P-FAK and P-ERK2. Neither Akt nor ERK1 were responsive to passive stretch. Similar but non-significant trends were observed in C57 primary cultures in response to stretch, and ?-SG-/- cultures displayed no p70S6K response. In contrast, in isolated muscles, p70S6K was mechanically responsive. Basal p70S6K activation was elevated in muscles of ?-SG-/- mice, in a calcium-independent manner. p70S6K activation increased with stretch in both C57 and ?-SG-/- isolated muscles, and was sustained in ?-SG-/- muscles, unlike the transient response in C57 muscles. Rapamycin treatment blocked all of p70S6K activation in stretched C57 muscles, and reduced downstream S6RP phosphorylation. However, even though rapamycin treatment decreased p70S6K activation in stretched ?-SG-/- muscles, S6RP phosphorylation remained elevated. Conclusions p70S6K is an important component of ?-sarcoglycan-dependent mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle. Our results suggest that loss of ?-sarcoglycan uncouples the response of p70S6K to stretch and implies that ?-sarcoglycan is important for inactivation of this pathway. Overall, we assert that altered load-sensing mechanisms exist in muscular dystrophies where the sarcoglycans are absent. PMID:25024843

2014-01-01

14

Specific activation of p85-p110 phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase stimulates DNA synthesis by ras- and p70 S6 kinase-dependent pathways.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a polyclonal antibody that activates the heterodimeric p85-p110 phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase in vitro and in microinjected cells. Affinity purification revealed that the activating antibody recognized the N-terminal SH2 (NSH2) domain of p85, and the antibody increased the catalytic activity of recombinant p85-p110 dimers threefold in vitro. To study the role of endogenous PI 3'-kinase in intact cells, the activating anti-NSH2 antibody was microinjected into GRC + LR73 cells, a CHO cell derivative selected for tight quiescence during serum withdrawal. Microinjection of anti-NSH2 antibodies increased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation fivefold in quiescent cells and enhanced the response to serum. These data reflect a specific activation of PI 3'-kinase, as the effect was blocked by coinjection of the appropriate antigen (glutathione S-transferase-NSH2 domains from p85 alpha), coinjection of inhibitory anti-p110 antibodies, or treatment of cells with wortmannin. We used the activating antibodies to study signals downstream from PI 3'-kinase. Although treatment of cells with 50 nM rapamycin only partially decreased anti-NSH2-stimulated BrdU incorporation, coinjection with an anti-p70 S6 kinase antibody effectively blocked anti-NSH2-stimulated DNA synthesis. We also found that coinjection of inhibitory anti-ras antibodies blocked both serum- and anti-NSH2-stimulated BrdU incorporation by approximately 60%, and treatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of MEK abolished antibody-stimulated BrdU incorporation. We conclude that selective activation of physiological levels of PI 3'-kinase is sufficient to stimulate DNA synthesis in quiescent cells. PI 3'-kinase-mediated DNA synthesis requires both p70 S6 kinase and the P21ras/MEK pathway. PMID:8972205

McIlroy, J; Chen, D; Wjasow, C; Michaeli, T; Backer, J M

1997-01-01

15

Lean and Obese Zucker Rats Exhibit Different Patterns of p70S6kinase Regulation in the Tibialis Anterior Muscle in Response to High Force Muscle Contraction  

PubMed Central

Increased phosphorylation of the 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70s6k) signaling is strongly correlated with the degree of muscle adaptation following exercise. Here, we compare the phosphorylation of p70s6k, Akt and mTOR in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of lean and obese Zucker rats following a bout of eccentric exercise. Exercise increased p70S6k (Thr 389) phosphorylation immediately after (33.3 ± 7.2%) and during recovery [1-hr; (24.0 ± 14.9%), and 3-hr (24.6 ± 11.3%)], in the lean TA and at 3-hr (33.5 ± 8.0%) in the obese TA. mTOR (Ser 2448) phosphorylation was elevated in the lean TA immediately after exercise (96.5 ± 40.3%) but remained unaltered in the obese TA. Exercise increased Akt (Thr 308) and Akt (Ser 473) phosphorylation in the lean but not the obese TA. These results suggest that insulin resistance is associated with alterations in the ability of muscle to activate p p70s6k signaling following an acute bout of exercise. PMID:19296503

Katta, Anjaiah; Karkala, Sunil K.; Wu, Miaozong; Meduru, Sarath; Desai, Devashish H.; Rice, Kevin M.; Blough, Eric R.

2009-01-01

16

Functional Role of RNA Polymerase II and P70 S6 Kinase in KCl Withdrawal-induced Cerebellar Granule Neuron Apoptosis.  

PubMed

KCl withdrawal-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons is associated with aberrant cell cycle activation, and treatment with cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors protects cells from undergoing apoptosis. Because the Cdk inhibitor flavopiridol is known to inhibit RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent transcription elongation by inhibiting the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, a complex of CDK9 and cyclin T), we examined whether inhibition of RNA Pol II protects neurons from apoptosis. Treatment of neurons with 5, 6-dichloro-1-?-d-ribobenzimidazole (DRB), an RNA Pol II-dependent transcription elongation inhibitor, and flavopiridol inhibited phosphorylation and activation of Pol II and protected neurons from undergoing apoptosis. In addition to Pol II, neurons subjected to KCl withdrawal showed increased phosphorylation and activation of p70 S6 kinase, which was inhibited by both DRB and flavopiridol. Immunostaining analysis of the neurons deprived of KCl showed increased nuclear levels of phospho-p70 S6 kinase, and neurons protected with DRB and flavopiridol showed accumulation of the kinase into large spliceosome assembly factor-positive speckle domains within the nuclei. The formation of these foci corresponded with cell survival, and removal of the inhibitors resulted in dispersal of the speckles into smaller foci with subsequent apoptosis induction. Because p70 S6 kinase is known to induce translation of mRNAs containing a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract, our data suggest that transcription and translation of this subset of mRNAs may contribute to KCl withdrawal-induced apoptosis in neurons. PMID:25568312

Padmanabhan, Jaya; Brown, Kristy R; Padilla, Amelia; Shelanski, Michael L

2015-02-27

17

P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} P70S6K1 regulates VEGF expression; {yields} P70S6K1 induces transcriptional activation through HIF-1{alpha} binding site; {yields} P70S6K1 regulates HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression; {yields} P70S6K1 mediates tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression. -- Abstract: The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN-negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1{alpha} binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Shi, Zhumei [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)] [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: binghjiang@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

2010-07-30

18

Activation of aPKC is required for vanadate-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), but not p70S6k in mouse epidermal JB6 cells.  

PubMed

Vanadium is a metal widely distributed in the environment. Although vanadate-containing compounds exert potent toxic effects on a wide variety of biological systems, the mechanisms by which vanadate mediates adverse effects are not well understood. The present study investigated the vanadate-induced phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K, two kinases known to be vital for cell survival, growth, transformation, and transition of the cell cycle in mammals. Exposure of mouse epidermal JB6 cells to vanadium led to phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Vanadium exposure also caused translocation of atypical isoforms of PKC (lambda, zeta) from the cytosol to the membrane, but had no effect on PKCalpha translocation, suggesting that the atypical PKCs (aPKC) were specifically involved in vanadium-induced cellular response. Importantly, overexpression of a dominant negative mutant PKClambda blocked Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308, whereas it did not inhibit p70S6k phosphorylation at Thr389 and Thr421/Ser424, suggesting that aPKC activation is specifically involved in vanadium-induced activation of Akt, but not in activation of p70S6k. Furthermore, vanadium-induced p70S6k phosphorylation at Thr389 and Thr421/Ser424 and Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 occurred through a PI-3K-dependent pathway because a PI-3K dominant negative mutant inhibited induction as compared with vector control cells. These results indicate that there was a differential role of aPKC in vanadate-induced phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6k, suggesting that signal transduction pathways leading to the activation of Akt and p70S6k were different. PMID:14971662

Li, Jingxia; Dokka, Sujatha; Wang, Liying; Shi, Xianglin; Castranova, Vincent; Yan, Yan; Costa, Max; Huang, Chuanshu

2004-01-01

19

Role of AMP-activated protein kinase activators in antiproliferative multi-drug pituitary tumour therapies: effects of combined treatments with compounds affecting the mTOR-p70S6 kinase axis in cultured pituitary tumour cells.  

PubMed

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated under conditions that deplete cellular ATP levels and elevate AMP levels. We have recently shown that AMPK can represent a valid target for improving the medical treatment of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas and the effects of its activation or inhibition in pituitary tumour cells are worthy of further characterisation. We aimed to determine whether AMPK may have a role in combined antiproliferative therapies based on multiple drugs targeting cell anabolic functions at different levels in pituitary tumour cells to overcome the risk of cell growth escape phenomena. Accordingly, we tried to determine whether a rationale exists in combining compounds activating AMPK with compounds targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway. AMPK down-regulation by specific small-interfering RNAs confirmed that activated AMPK had a role in restraining growth of GH3 cells. Hence, we compared the effects of compounds directly targeting the mTOR-p70S6K axis, namely the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and the p70S6K inhibitor PF-4708671, with the effects of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) on cell signalling and cell growth, in rat pituitary GH3 cells. AICAR was able to reduce growth factor-induced p70S6K activity, as shown by the decrease of phospho-p70S6K levels. However, it was far less effective than rapamycin and PF-4708671. We observed significant differences between the growth inhibitory effects of the three compounds in GH3 and GH1 cells. Interestingly, PF-4708671 was devoid of any effect. AICAR was at least as effective as rapamycin and the co-treatment was more effective than single treatments. AICAR induced apoptosis of GH3 cells, whereas rapamycin caused preferentially a decrease of cell proliferation. Finally, AICAR and rapamycin differed in their actions on growth factor-induced extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest the increased efficacy of combined antiproliferative therapies, including rapamycin analogues and AMPK activators in GH-secreting pituitary tumours, as a result of complementary and only partially overlapping mechanisms of action. PMID:25323047

Tulipano, G; Faggi, L; Cacciamali, A; Spinello, M; Cocchi, D; Giustina, A

2015-01-01

20

Rapamycin suppresses 5?TOP mRNA translation through inhibition of p70s6k  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of mammalian cells with the immunosuppressant rapamycin, a bacterial macrolide, selectively suppresses mitogen-induced translation of an essential class of mRNAs which contain an oligopyrimidine tract at their transcriptional start (5?TOP), most notably mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins and elongation factors. In parallel, rapamycin blocks mitogen-induced p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k) phosphorylation and activation. Utilizing chimeric mRNA constructs containing either

Harold B. J. Jefferies; Stefano Fumagalli; Patrick B. Dennis; Christoph Reinhard; Richard B. Pearson; George Thomas

1997-01-01

21

Increased activity of MAP, p70S6 and p90rs kinases is associated with AP-1 activation in spontaneous liver tumours, but not in adjacent tissue in mice  

PubMed Central

Growth factor-responsive protein kinases regulate expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, cell proliferation and differentiation. To better understand the role of these kinases in the abnormal proliferation of malignant cells, we examined basal and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-inducible mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p70S6k and p90rsk activities in spontaneous hepatocellular neoplasms (adenomas and carcinomas) from CBA-T6 mice and in L1 sarcoma tumours implanted in livers of BALB/c mice. In spontaneous and implanted hepatic tumours, basal cytoplasmic and nuclear MAPK, p70S6k and p90rsk activities were significantly higher compared to the activities found in the part of the liver uninvolved by the tumour. Interestingly, the activities of these enzymes in the uninvolved tissue of the livers harbouring the tumour were higher compared to the livers from control mice. Basal kinase activities correlated with tumour morphology; they were lower in adenomas than in carcinomas and sarcomas. In contrast to basal activities, EGF-triggered kinase responses in normal livers and hepatic tumours were indistinguishable. Activating protein-1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity was detected in tumours but not in the adjacent tissues. Constitutively activated kinases and AP-1 transcription factor found in hepatic malignancies are reminiscent of cells activated by EGF, suggesting that EGF and its intracellular effectors play a role in these malignancies. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10737387

Ostrowski, J; Woszczynski, M; Kowalczyk, P; Wocial, T; Hennig, E; Trzeciak, L; Janik, P; Bomsztyk, K

2000-01-01

22

Phospholipase D2-derived phosphatidic acid binds to and activates ribosomal p70 S6 kinase independently of mTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The product of phospholipase D (PLD) enzymatic action in cell membranes, phosphatidic acid (PA), regulates kinases implicated in NADPH oxidase activation, as well as the mammalian target of rapamy- cin (mTOR) kinase. However, other protein targets for this lipid second messenger must exist in order to explain other key PA-mediated cellular functions. In this study, PA was found to specifically

Nicholas Lehman; Bill Ledford; Mauricio Di Fulvio; Kathleen Frondorf; Linda C. McPhail; Julian Gomez-Cambronero

2007-01-01

23

Cyclin D1 Expression Mediated by Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase through mTOR-p70S6K-Independent Signaling in Growth Factor-Stimulated NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase is required for G1 to S phase cell cycle progression stimulated by a variety of growth factors and is implicated in the activation of several downstream effectors, including p70S6K. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PI 3-kinase is engaged in activation of the cell cycle machinery are not well understood. Here we report that the expression of a dominant negative (DN) form of either the p110? catalytic or the p85 regulatory subunit of heterodimeric PI 3-kinase strongly inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced upregulation of cyclin D1 protein in NIH 3T3(M17) fibroblasts. The PI 3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin completely abrogated increases in both mRNA and protein levels of cyclin D1 and phosphorylation of pRb, inducing G1 arrest in EGF-stimulated cells. By contrast, rapamycin, which potently suppressed p70S6K activity throughout the G1 phase, had little inhibitory effect, if any, on either of these events. PI 3-kinase, but not rapamycin-sensitive pathways, was also indispensable for upregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein by other mitogens in NIH 3T3 (M17) cells and in wild-type NIH 3T3 cells as well. We also found that an enforced expression of wild-type p110 was sufficient to induce cyclin D1 protein expression in growth factor-deprived NIH 3T3(M17) cells. The p110 induction of cyclin D1 in quiescent cells was strongly inhibited by coexpression of either of the PI 3-kinase DN forms, and by LY294002, but was independent of the Ras-MEK-ERK pathway. Unlike mitogen stimulation, the p110 induction of cyclin D1 was sensitive to rapamycin. These results indicate that the catalytic activity of PI 3-kinase is necessary, and could also be sufficient, for upregulation of cyclin D1, with mTOR signaling being differentially required depending upon cellular conditions. PMID:9891068

Takuwa, Noriko; Fukui, Yasuhisa; Takuwa, Yoh

1999-01-01

24

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling genes in decapod crustaceans: cloning and tissue expression of mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and p70 S6 kinase in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.  

PubMed

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls global translation of mRNA into protein by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase (S6K) and eIF4E-binding protein-1. Akt and Rheb, a GTP-binding protein, regulate mTOR protein kinase activity. Molting in crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids synthesized by a pair of molting glands, or Y-organs (YOs), located in the cephalothorax. During premolt, the YOs hypertrophy and increase production of ecdysteroids. Rapamycin (1?M) inhibited ecdysteroid secretion in Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis YOs in vitro, indicating that ecdysteroidogenesis requires mTOR-dependent protein synthesis. The effects of molting on the expression of four key mTOR signaling genes (mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and S6K) in the YO was investigated. Partial cDNAs encoding green crab (C. maenas) mTOR (4031bp), Akt (855bp), and S6K (918bp) were obtained from expressed sequence tags. Identity/similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of the C. maenas cDNAs to human orthologs were 72%/81% for Cm-mTOR, 58%/73% for Cm-Akt, and 77%/88% for Cm-S6K. mTOR, Akt, S6K, and elongation factor 2 (EF2) in C. maenas and blackback land crab (G. lateralis) were expressed in all tissues examined. The two species differed in the effects of molting on gene expression in the YO. In G. lateralis, Gl-mTOR, Gl-Akt, and Gl-EF2 mRNA levels were increased during premolt. By contrast, molting had no effect on the expression of Cm-mTOR, Cm-Akt, Cm-S6K, Cm-Rheb, and Cm-EF2. These data suggest that YO activation during premolt involves up regulation of mTOR signaling genes in G. lateralis, but is not required in C. maenas. PMID:24269559

Abuhagr, Ali M; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-02-01

25

Parallel increase in p70 kinase activation and tau phosphorylation (S262) with A? overproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study set out to search for a link between overproduction of A? and p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation\\/activation. Results showed that levels of p-p70S6K at T421\\/S424 and T389 are significantly increased in mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells carrying human APP with Swedish mutation (APPswe), and in transgenic APPswe\\/PS1 (A246E) mice as compared with respective controls, corresponding to the increase of tau

Xin-Wen Zhou; Heikki Tanila; Jin-Jing Pei

2008-01-01

26

Activation of p70s6k is Associated with Phosphorylation of Four Clustered Sites Displaying Ser\\/Thr-Pro Motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial amino acid sequences were obtained from 22 internal tryptic peptides of rat liver p70s6k (M_r 70,000 ribosomal protein S6 kinase), 3 of which were found to contain phosphorylated residues. To determine whether these sites were associated with p70s6k activation, the kinase was labeled to high specific activity with 32P_i in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells. By sequential cleavage with CNBr

Stefano Ferrari; Willi Bannwarth; Simon J. Morley; Nicholas F. Totty; George Thomas

1992-01-01

27

Association of sirolimus adverse effects with m-TOR, p70S6K or Raptor polymorphisms in kidney transplant recipients  

E-print Network

1 Association of sirolimus adverse effects with m-TOR, p70S6K or Raptor polymorphisms in kidney is an immunosuppressive drug used in kidney transplantation. m-TOR binds with Raptor and phosphorylates p70S6 kinase as time-dependent covariates, with sirolimus-induced adverse events in kidney transplant recipients

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Protective Role of p70S6K in Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

The mTOR signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival and in directing immune responses. As the intestinal epithelium displays rapid cell growth and differentiation and is an important immune regulatory organ, we hypothesized that mTOR may play an important role in the protection against intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which the mTOR pathway is altered by intestinal I/R, p70S6K, the major effector of the mTOR pathway, was investigated along with the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR and an immunosuppressant agent used clinically in transplant patients. In vitro experiments using an intestinal epithelial cell line and hypoxia/reoxygenation demonstrated that overexpression of p70S6K promoted cell growth and migration, and decreased cell apoptosis. Inhibition of p70S6K by rapamycin reversed these protective effects. In a mouse model of gut I/R, an increase of p70S6K activity was found by 5 min and remained elevated after 6 h of reperfusion. Inhibition of p70S6K by rapamycin worsened gut injury, promoted inflammation, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Importantly, rapamycin treated animals had a significantly increased mortality. These novel results demonstrate a key role of p70S6K in protection against I/R injury in the intestine and suggest a potential danger in using mTOR inhibitors in patients at risk for gut hypoperfusion. PMID:22848534

Ban, Kechen; Kozar, Rosemary A.

2012-01-01

29

Resistance to Selumetinib (AZD6244) in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines is Mediated by p70S6K and RPS6 Activation1  

PubMed Central

Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a MEK1/2 inhibitor that has gained interest as an anti-tumour agent. We have determined the degree of sensitivity/resistance to Selumetinib in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines using cell proliferation and soft agar assays. Sensitive cell lines underwent G1 arrest, whereas Selumetinib had no effect on the cell cycle of resistant cells. Some of the resistant cell lines showed high levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of serum. Selumetinib inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and RSK and had no effect on AKT phosphorylation in both sensitive and resistant cells. Furthermore, mutations in KRAS, BRAF, or PIK3CA were not clearly associated with Selumetinib resistance. Surprisingly, Selumetinib was able to inhibit phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in sensitive cell lines. However, p70S6K and RPS6 phosphorylation remained unaffected or even increased in resistant cells. Moreover, in some of the resistant cell lines p70S6K and RPS6 were phosphorylated in the absence of serum. Interestingly, colorectal primary cultures derived from tumours excised to patients exhibited the same behaviour than established cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of p70S6K using the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, the specific mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin and the specific p70S6K inhibitor PF-4708671 potentiated Selumetinib effects in resistant cells. In addition, biological inhibition of p70S6K using siRNA rendered responsiveness to Selumetinib in resistant cell lines. Furthermore, combination of p70S6K silencing and PF-47086714 was even more effective. We can conclude that p70S6K and its downstream target RPS6 are potential biomarkers of resistance to Selumetinib in colorectal cancer. PMID:25379021

Grasso, Silvina; Tristante, Elena; Saceda, Miguel; Carbonell, Pablo; Mayor-López, Leticia; Carballo-Santana, Mar; Carrasco-García, Estefanía; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; García-Morales, Pilar; Carballo, Fernando; Ferragut, José A.; Martínez-Lacaci, Isabel

2014-01-01

30

Pharmacogenet Genomics . Author manuscript Association of sirolimus adverse effects with m-TOR, p70S6K or Raptor  

E-print Network

Pharmacogenet Genomics . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Association of sirolimus adverse effects.picard@unilim.fr > Abstract The m-TOR inhibitor sirolimus is an immunosuppressive drug used in kidney transplantation. m pathways. We investigated the association of candidate polymorphisms in m-TOR, Raptor and p70S6K, sirolimus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Liu, Ling-Zhi, E-mail: ling-zhi.liu@jefferson.edu [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: bhjiang@jefferson.edu [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

2011-10-28

32

Low amount of salinomycin greatly increases Akt activation, but reduces activated p70S6K levels.  

PubMed

The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal)-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3?, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal. PMID:23975168

Kim, Ju-Hwa; Choi, Ae-Ran; Kim, Yong Kee; Kim, Hyung Sik; Yoon, Sungpil

2013-01-01

33

Overexpression of 4EBP1, p70S6K, Akt1 or Akt2 differentially promotes Coxsackievirus B3-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have shown that the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or mTOR complex 1 can obviously promote the Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells by regulating the expression of proapoptotic factors. To further illustrate it, Homo sapiens eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), Akt1 and Akt2 were transfected to HeLa cells, respectively. And then, we established the stable transfected cell lines. Next, after CVB3 infection, apoptosis in different groups was determined by flow cytometry; the expressions of Bim, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were examined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and western blot analysis; the expression of CVB3 mRNA and viral capsid protein VP1 were also analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence, respectively. At the meantime, CVB3 replication was observed by transmission electron microscope. We found that CVB3-induced cytopathic effect and apoptosis in transfected groups were more obvious than that in controls. Unexpectedly, apoptosis rate in Akt1 group was higher than others at the early stage after viral infection and decreased with the viral-infected time increasing, which was opposite to other groups. Compared with controls, the expression of CVB3 mRNA was increased at 3, 6, 12 and 24?h postinfection (p. i.) in all groups. At the meantime, VP1 expression in 4EBP1 group was higher than control during the process of infection, while the expressions in the other groups were change dynamically. Moreover, overexpression of 4EBP1 did not affect the mRNA expressions of Bim, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3; while protein expressions of Bim and Bax were decreased, the self-cleavages of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were stimulated. Meanwhile, overexpression of p70S6K blocked the CVB3-induced Bim, Bax and caspase-9 expressions but promoted the self-cleavage of caspase-9. In the Akt1 group, it is noteworthy that the expressions of Bim protein were higher than controls at 3 and 6?h p. i. but lower at 24?h p. i., and the expression of Bax protein were higher at 6 and 24?h p. i., while their mRNA expressions were all decreased. Furthermore, overexpression of Akt1 stimulated the procaspase-9 and procaspase-3 expression but blocked their self-cleavages. Overexpression of Akt2, however, had little effect on Bim, Bax and caspase-3, while prevented caspase-9 from self-cleavage at the late stage of CVB3 infection. As stated above, our results demonstrated that overexpression of 4EBP1, p70S6K, Akt1 or Akt2 could promote the CVB3-induced apoptosis in diverse degree via different mediating ways in viral replication and proapoptotic factors in BcL-2 and caspase families. As 4EBP1, p70S6K and Akt are the important substrates of PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), we further illustrated the role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the process of CVB3-induced apoptosis. PMID:24030155

Li, X; Li, Z; Zhou, W; Xing, X; Huang, L; Tian, L; Chen, J; Chen, C; Ma, X; Yang, Z

2013-01-01

34

Expression and distribution of mTOR, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and their phosphorylated counterparts in rat dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord dorsal horn.  

PubMed

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls protein translation and has an important role in the mechanism of pain hypersensitivity under persistent pain conditions. However, its expression and localization in pain-related regions of the nervous system is not completely understood. Here, we examined the expression and distribution of mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein1/2 (4E-BP1/2), p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70S6K), and their phosphorylated (active) counterparts in two major pain-related regions, the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord dorsal horn. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mTOR, 4E-BP1, and p70S6K mRNA are expressed in the DRG and dorsal horn. Western blot analysis further confirmed the existence of their protein products in these two regions, but expression of their phosphorylated counterparts was very low in dorsal horn and was not detected in the DRG. Immunohistochemistry revealed mTOR and p70S6K in the DRG neurons. Quantitative analysis showed that approximately 26.1% (+/- 3.2%) of DRG neurons were positive for mTOR and 19.1% (+/- 1.9%) were positive for p70S6K. Most of these neurons were small-less than 600 microm(2) in cross-sectional area-and some co-labeled with substance P or isolectin B4. Surprisingly, 4E-BP1 was observed only in the DRG satellite glial cells. In the dorsal horn, mTOR, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1 were detected in neurons, but not in astrocytes or microglia. They were distributed in the whole dorsal horn, especially in the superficial dorsal horn. Immunostaining for their phosphorylated counterparts was very low or undetectable in DRG and dorsal horn. Behavioral study showed that intrathecal mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, did not affect acute nocicepetive transmission. The results indicate that although mTOR, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1 are highly expressed in the DRG and dorsal horn, their activate forms are very low in both regions under normal conditions. Our findings support the view that mTOR and its downstream effectors do not play a key role in acute pain. PMID:20399760

Xu, Ji-Tain; Zhao, Xiuli; Yaster, Myron; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

2010-06-01

35

Carnosine Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells by Retarding Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling  

PubMed Central

Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine), described as an enigmatic peptide for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially antiproliferation properties, has been demonstrated to play an anti-tumorigenic role in certain types of cancer. However, its function in human gastric carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, the effect of carnosine on cell proliferation and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in the cultured human gastric carcinoma cells. The mTOR signaling axis molecules were analyzed in carnosine treated cells. The results showed that treatment with carnosine led to proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, apoptosis increase, and inhibition of mTOR signaling activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, suggesting that proliferation inhibition of carnosine in human gastric carcinoma was through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and carnosine would be a mimic of rapamycin. PMID:24799956

Zhang, Zhenwei; Miao, Lei; Wu, Xin; Liu, Guangze; Peng, Yuting; Xin, Xiaoming; Jiao, Binghua; Kong, Xiangping

2014-01-01

36

Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1? protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1? protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1?. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1?. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1? protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1? through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1? protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1? expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1? protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Magae, Junji [Magae Bioscience Institute, 49-4 Fujimidai, Tsukuba 300-1263 (Japan); Lee, In-Kyu [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun-Gyu, E-mail: kpark@knu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young-Chae, E-mail: ycchang@cu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-15

37

S6 kinase 2 promotes breast cancer cell survival via Akt.  

PubMed

The 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) acts downstream of mTOR, which plays important roles in cell proliferation, protein translation, and cell survival and is a target for cancer therapy. mTOR inhibitors are, however, of limited success. Although Akt is believed to act upstream of mTOR, persistent inhibition of p70 S6 kinase or S6K1 can activate Akt via a negative feedback loop. S6K exists as two homologues, S6K1 and S6K2, but little is known about the function of S6K2. In the present study, we have examined the effects of S6K2 on Akt activation and cell survival. Silencing of S6K1 caused a modest decrease, whereas knockdown of S6K2 caused a substantial increase in TNF-? and TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-mediated apoptosis. In contrast to S6K1, depletion of S6K2 by siRNA decreased basal and TNF-induced Akt phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt in MCF-7 cells restored cell survival in S6K2-depleted cells. We have previously shown that activation of Akt induces downregulation of Bid via p53. Knockdown of S6K2 caused an increase in p53, and downregulation of p53 by siRNA decreased Bid level. Silencing of Bid blunted the ability of S6K2 deficiency to enhance TNF-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study shows that the two homologues of S6K have distinct effects on Akt activation and cell survival. Thus, targeting S6K2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy to treat cancers. PMID:21427355

Sridharan, Savitha; Basu, Alakananda

2011-04-01

38

MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer and modulates cell growth and invasion by targeting p70S6K1 and MUC1  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •MiR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer. •MiR-145 targets p70S6K1 and MUC1. •p70S6K1 and MUC1 are involved in miR-145 mediated tumor cell growth and cell invasion, respectively. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Previous studies have shown that miR-145 is downregulated in human ovarian cancer; however, the roles of miR-145 in ovarian cancer growth and invasion have not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that miR-145 is downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as in serum samples of ovarian cancer, compared to healthy ovarian tissues, cell lines and serum samples. Functional studies suggest that miR-145 overexpression leads to the inhibition of colony formation, cell proliferation, cell growth viability and invasion, and the induction of cell apoptosis. In accordance with the effect of miR-145 on cell growth, miR-145 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. MiR-145 is found to negatively regulate P70S6K1 and MUC1 protein levels by directly targeting their 3?UTRs. Importantly, the overexpression of p70S6K1 and MUC1 can restore the cell colony formation and invasion abilities that are reduced by miR-145, respectively. MiR-145 expression is increased after 5-aza-CdR treatment, and 5-aza-CdR treatment results in the same phenotype as the effect of miR-145 overexpression. Our study suggests that miR-145 modulates ovarian cancer growth and invasion by suppressing p70S6K1 and MUC1, functioning as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, our data imply that miR-145 has potential as a miRNA-based therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

Wu, Huijuan [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China)] [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China); Xiao, ZhengHua [Department of gynecology, Yongchuan Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City 404100 (China)] [Department of gynecology, Yongchuan Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City 404100 (China); Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China)] [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China); Hao, Quan, E-mail: quanhao2002@163.com [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China)] [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China)

2013-11-29

39

Interferon-dependent engagement of eukaryotic initiation factor 4B via S6 kinase (S6K)- and ribosomal protein S6K-mediated signals.  

PubMed

Although the roles of Jak-Stat pathways in type I and II interferon (IFN)-dependent transcriptional regulation are well established, the precise mechanisms of mRNA translation for IFN-sensitive genes remain to be defined. We examined the effects of IFNs on the phosphorylation/activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B). Our data show that eIF4B is phosphorylated on Ser422 during treatment of sensitive cells with alpha IFN (IFN-alpha) or IFN-gamma. Such phosphorylation is regulated, in a cell type-specific manner, by either the p70 S6 kinase (S6K) or the p90 ribosomal protein S6K (RSK) and results in enhanced interaction of the protein with eIF3A (p170/eIF3A) and increased associated ATPase activity. Our data also demonstrate that IFN-inducible eIF4B activity and IFN-stimulated gene 15 protein (ISG15) or IFN-gamma-inducible chemokine CXCL-10 protein expression are diminished in S6k1/S6k2 double-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In addition, IFN-alpha-inducible ISG15 protein expression is blocked by eIF4B or eIF3A knockdown, establishing a requirement for these proteins in mRNA translation/protein expression by IFNs. Importantly, the generation of IFN-dependent growth inhibitory effects on primitive leukemic progenitors is dependent on activation of the S6K/eIF4B or RSK/eIF4B pathway. Taken together, our findings establish critical roles for S6K and RSK in the induction of IFN-dependent biological effects and define a key regulatory role for eIF4B as a common mediator and integrator of IFN-generated signals from these kinases. PMID:19289497

Kroczynska, Barbara; Kaur, Surinder; Katsoulidis, Efstratios; Majchrzak-Kita, Beata; Sassano, Antonella; Kozma, Sara C; Fish, Eleanor N; Platanias, Leonidas C

2009-05-01

40

mTOR/p70S6K signaling distinguishes routine, maintenance-level autophagy from autophagic cell death during influenza A infection  

PubMed Central

Autophagy, a stress response activated in influenza A virus infection helps the cell avoid apoptosis. However, in the absence of apoptosis infected cells undergo vastly expanded autophagy and nevertheless die in the presence of necrostatin but not of autophagy inhibitors. Combinations of inhibitors indicate that the controls of protective and lethal autophagy are different. Infection that triggers apoptosis also triggers canonical autophagy signaling exhibiting transient PI3K and mTORC1 activity. In terminal autophagy phospho-mTOR(Ser2448) is suppressed while mTORC1, PI3K and mTORC2 activities increase. mTORC1 substrate p70S6K becomes highly phosphorylated while its activity, now regulated by mTORC2, is required for LC3-II formation. Inhibition of mTORC2/p70S6K, unlike that of PI3K/mTORC1, blocks expanded autophagy in the absence of apoptosis but not moderate autophagy. Inhibitors of expanded autophagy limit virus reproduction. Thus expanded, lethal autophagy is activated by a signaling mechanism different from autophagy that helps cells survive toxic or stressful episodes. PMID:24606695

Datan, Emmanuel; Matassov, Demetrius; Tinari, Antonella; Malorni, Walter; Lockshin, Richard A.; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Zakeri, Zahra

2014-01-01

41

Antisense Inhibition of S6 Kinase 1 Produces Improved Glucose Tolerance and Is Well Tolerated for 4 Weeks of Treatment in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes as knockout mice are hypoinsulinemic, hypersensitive to insulin treatment and are less susceptible to obesity-induced insulin resistance. Although S6K1 knockout mice provide important information on the biology of this target, the therapeutic relevance of S6K1 inhibition in adult animals is unknown. Thus, this research evaluated

H. S. Younis; B. Hirakawa; W. Scott; P. Tran; G. Bhat; T. Affolter; J. Chapman; J. Heyen; K. Chakravarty; G. Alton

2011-01-01

42

Dose?dependent increases in p70S6K phosphorylation and intramuscular branched?chain amino acids in older men following resistance exercise and protein intake  

PubMed Central

Abstract Resistance exercise and whey protein supplementation are effective strategies to activate muscle cell anabolic signaling and ultimately promote increases in muscle mass and strength. In the current study, 46 healthy older men aged 60–75 (69.0 ± 0.55 years, 85.9 ± 1.8 kg, 176.8 ± 1.0 cm) performed a single bout of unaccustomed lower body resistance exercise immediately followed by ingestion of a noncaloric placebo beverage or supplement containing 10, 20, 30, or 40 g of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Intramuscular amino acid levels in muscle biopsy samples were measured by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC?MS) at baseline (before exercise and WPC supplementation) plus at 2 h and 4 h post exercise. Additionally, the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation at Thr389 in muscle biopsy homogenates was assessed by western blot. Resistance exercise alone reduced intramuscular branch chain amino acid (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) content. Supplementation with increasing doses of whey protein prevented this fall in muscle BCAAs during postexercise recovery and larger doses (30 g and 40 g) significantly augmented postexercise muscle BCAA content above that observed following placebo ingestion. Additionally, the fold change in the phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389) at 2 h post exercise was correlated with the dose of whey protein consumed (r = 0.51, P < 001) and was found to be significantly correlated with intramuscular leucine content (r = 0.32, P = 0.026). Intramuscular BCAAs, and leucine in particular, appear to be important regulators of anabolic signaling in aged human muscle during postexercise recovery via reversal of exercise?induced declines in intramuscular BCAAs. PMID:25107987

D'Souza, Randall F.; Markworth, James F.; Figueiredo, Vandre C.; Della Gatta, Paul A.; Petersen, Aaron C.; Mitchell, Cameron J.; Cameron?Smith, David

2014-01-01

43

Monepantel induces autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells through disruption of the mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway  

PubMed Central

We have recently shown that the novel anthelmintic drug monepantel (MPL) inhibits growth, proliferation and colony formation, arrests the cell cycle and induces cleavage of PARP-1 in ovarian cancer cell lines. Here we report on the mechanism behind the anticancer properties of MPL. The cytotoxic effect of MPL on ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3 and A2780) was investigated employing a panel of tests used for the detection of apoptosis and autophagy. Apoptosis and autophagy were defined by caspase activity, DNA-laddering, Annexin-V and acridine orange (AO) staining. Autophagy markers such as LC3B, SQSTM1/p62 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway related proteins were assessed by western blotting and ELISA techniques. MPL did not activate caspases 3 or 8, nor did it alter the percentage of Annexin V positive stained cells. Failure to cause DNA laddering and the inability of z-VAD-fmk to block the MPL antiproliferative effects led to the ruling out of apoptosis as the mechanism behind MPL-induced cell death. On the other hand, accumulation of acidic vacuoles with distinct chromatin morphology and an increase in punctuate localization of green fluorescent protein-LC3B, and MPL-induced changes in the expression of SQSTM1/p62 were all indicative of MPL-induced autophagy. Consistent with this, we found inhibition of mTOR phosphorylation leading to suppression of the mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence to show that MPL triggers autophagy through the deactivation of mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway. PMID:25232497

Bahrami, Farnaz; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Mekkawy, Ahmed H; Rufener, Lucien; Morris, David L

2014-01-01

44

Dose-dependent increases in p70S6K phosphorylation and intramuscular branched-chain amino acids in older men following resistance exercise and protein intake.  

PubMed

Resistance exercise and whey protein supplementation are effective strategies to activate muscle cell anabolic signaling and ultimately promote increases in muscle mass and strength. In the current study, 46 healthy older men aged 60-75 (69.0 ± 0.55 years, 85.9 ± 1.8 kg, 176.8 ± 1.0 cm) performed a single bout of unaccustomed lower body resistance exercise immediately followed by ingestion of a noncaloric placebo beverage or supplement containing 10, 20, 30, or 40 g of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Intramuscular amino acid levels in muscle biopsy samples were measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) at baseline (before exercise and WPC supplementation) plus at 2 h and 4 h post exercise. Additionally, the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation at Thr389 in muscle biopsy homogenates was assessed by western blot. Resistance exercise alone reduced intramuscular branch chain amino acid (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) content. Supplementation with increasing doses of whey protein prevented this fall in muscle BCAAs during postexercise recovery and larger doses (30 g and 40 g) significantly augmented postexercise muscle BCAA content above that observed following placebo ingestion. Additionally, the fold change in the phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389) at 2 h post exercise was correlated with the dose of whey protein consumed (r = 0.51, P < 001) and was found to be significantly correlated with intramuscular leucine content (r = 0.32, P = 0.026). Intramuscular BCAAs, and leucine in particular, appear to be important regulators of anabolic signaling in aged human muscle during postexercise recovery via reversal of exercise-induced declines in intramuscular BCAAs. PMID:25107987

D'Souza, Randall F; Marworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Della Gatta, Paul A; Petersen, Aaron C; Mitchell, Cameron J; Cameron-Smith, David

2014-08-01

45

Collaboration of geldanamycin-activated P70S6K and Hsp70 against beta-amyloid-induced hippocampal apoptosis: an approach to long-term memory and learning.  

PubMed

One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (A?) in senile plaques. A?-induced oxidative stress is believed to be responsible for degeneration and apoptosis of neurons and consequent cognitive and memory deficits. Here, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) against amyloid pathogenesis in adult male Wistar rats. GA or vehicle was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricles of rats 24 h before injection of A? (1-42) in CA1 area of hippocampus. The learning and memory of the rats were assessed 7 days after injection of A? using passive avoidance (PA) task. As potential contributing factors in A?-induced memory decline, we evaluated apoptotic markers and also used terminal-transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique to detect apoptosis in the hippocampus of A?-injected rats. Our behavioral data suggest that GA pretreatment can significantly suppress memory deficits in A?-injected rats. There was also not only a marked increase in Hsp70 level but also upregulated 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in the hippocampus of GA-treated groups with a reduction in apoptotic factors including caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and TUNEL-positive cells as well. Thus, we conclude that GA exerts its protective effects against A? (1-42) toxicity and memory deficits, at least in part, by upregulating of Hsp70 and P70S6K. PMID:25576151

Zare, Nayereh; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Maghsoudi, Nader

2015-03-01

46

Tanshinone IIA Inhibits HIF-1? and VEGF Expression in Breast Cancer Cells via mTOR/p70S6K/RPS6/4E-BP1 Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play important roles in angiogenesis and tumor growth. Tanshinone IIA (T2A) is a novel antiangiogenic agent with promising antitumor effects; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic effects of T2A remains unclear. In the present study, we provided evidence showing that T2A inhibited angiogenesis and breast cancer growth by down-regulating VEGF expression. Specifically, T2A repressed HIF-1? expression at the translational level and inhibited the transcriptional activity of HIF-1?, which led to the down-regulation of VEGF expression. Suppression of HIF-1? synthesis by T2A correlated with strong dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its effectors ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), a pathway regulating HIF-1? expression at the translational level. In addition, we also found that T2A inhibited the angiogenesis and growth of human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice through suppression of HIF-1? and VEGF. Our study provides novel perspectives and potential targets for the treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:25659153

Li, Guobing; Shan, Changyu; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Xiaoye; Chen, Yibiao; Cui, Hongjuan; Gao, Ning

2015-01-01

47

Antibodies to Xenopus egg S6 kinase II recognize S6 kinase from progesterone- and insulin-stimulated Xenopus oocytes and from proliferating chicken embryo fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal protein S6 becomes highly phosphorylated during progesterone- or insulin-induced maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes. We have previously purified an Mr 92,000 protein as one of the major S6 kinases from Xenopus unfertilized eggs. In this paper we confirm by renaturation of activity from a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel that this protein is an S6 kinase. This enzyme, termed S6 kinase II (S6 K II), was used for the preparation of polyclonal antiserum. Immunocomplexes formed with the antiserum and purified S6 K II were able to express kinase activity with the same substrate specificity as that of the purified enzyme, including autophosphorylation of S6 K II itself. The antiserum did not react with S6 kinase I, another major S6 kinase present in Xenopus eggs, which is chromatographically distinct from S6 K II. The administration of progesterone to oocytes resulted in a 20- to 25-fold increase in S6 kinase activity in extracts of these cells. Immunocomplex kinase assays done on extracts revealed that anti-S6 K II serum reacted with S6 kinase from progesterone-treated oocytes. This antiserum also reacted with the activated S6 kinase from insulin-stimulated oocytes. In addition, anti-S6 K II serum reacted with activated S6 kinase from chicken embryo fibroblasts stimulated with serum or transformed by Rous sarcoma virus. These results indicate that S6 K II or an antigenically related S6 kinase(s) is subject to regulation by mitogenic stimuli in various cell types. Images PMID:3313008

Erikson, E; Stefanovic, D; Blenis, J; Erikson, R L; Maller, J L

1987-01-01

48

The discovery of potent ribosomal S6 kinase inhibitors by high-throughput screening and structure-guided drug design  

PubMed Central

The ribosomal P70 S6 kinases play a crucial role in PI3K/mTOR regulated signalling pathways and are therefore potential targets for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes and cancer. In this study we describe the identification of three series of chemically distinct S6K1 inhibitors. In addition, we report a novel PKA-S6K1 chimeric protein with five mutations in or near its ATP-binding site, which was used to determine the binding mode of two of the three inhibitor series, and provided a robust system to aid the optimisation of the oxadiazole-substituted benzimidazole inhibitor series. We show that the resulting oxadiazole-substituted aza-benzimidazole is a potent and ligand efficient S6 kinase inhibitor, which blocks the phosphorylation of RPS6 at Ser235/236 in TSC negative HCV29 human bladder cancer cells by inhibiting S6 kinase activity and thus provides a useful tool compound to investigate the function of S6 kinases. PMID:24072592

Kalusa, Andrew; Cano, Celine; Travers, Jon; Boxall, Kathy; Chow, Chiau Ling; Burns, Sam; Schmitt, Jessica; Pickard, Lisa; Barillari, Caterina; McAndrew, P. Craig; Clarke, Paul A.; Linardopoulos, Spiros; Griffin, Roger J.; Aherne, G. Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I.; Workman, Paul; Jones, Keith; van Montfort, Rob L.M.

2013-01-01

49

Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway is Involved in S100A4-induced Viability and Migration in Colorectal Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The S100 protein family member S100A4 regulates various cellular functions. Previous studies have shown that elevated expression of S100A4 is associated with progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about whether and how S100A4 contributes to CRC development. In our present study, the elevated expression of S100A4 in CRC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Adenovirus-mediated S100A4 overexpression obviously enhanced viability and migration of CRC cells, which was detected by MTT assay and transwell assay, respectively. Additionally, S100A4 overexpression increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K. These effects of S100A4 were abolished by treatment with either the specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002, or the specific mTOR/p70S6K inhibitor rapamycin. Furthermore, overexpression of S100A4 resulted in upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin, which were strongly reversed by either LY294002 or rapamycin. Altogether, our results demonstrate that activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway is involved in S100A4-induced viability, migration, upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin in CRC cells. PMID:24936148

Wang, Haiyan; Duan, Liang; Zou, Zhengyu; Li, Huan; Yuan, Shimei; Chen, Xian; Zhang, Yunyuan; Li, Xueru; Sun, Hui; Zha, He; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Lan

2014-01-01

50

The sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P1 axis specifically counteracts LPS-induced IL-12p70 production in immune cells of the spleen.  

PubMed

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been implicated in angiogenesis, inflammation, cancerogenesis, neurological excitability and immune regulation and is synthesized by two different sphingosine kinases (SphK). It was suggested that mice lacking the gene for SphK1 exhibit no obvious phenotype, because SphK2 compensates for its absence. However, recent investigations revealed that under challenge SphK1 contributed to pro-inflammatory processes favoring Th2 and Th17 rather than Th1-type reactions. To investigate the immune modulatory role of SphK1 as opposed to SphK2 specifically for the Th1 propagating IL-12p70 we compared WT and SphK1(-/-) splenocytes and Flt3-ligand differentiated BMCs of WT and SphK1(-/-), representing dendritic cells as major producers of IL-12p70, incubated with LPS. We determined the impact on IL-12p70 in comparison to other inflammatory cytokines, and on DC and macrophage surface marker expression, SphK mRNA, protein expression and enzymatic activity in splenocytes. Our data demonstrated that SphK1 deficiency enhanced LPS-induced IL-12p70 production although SphK2 was present. To further characterize SphK1-dependent IL-12p70 regulation we exogenously applied S1P, SEW2871 and the new potent S1P1 agonist CYM5442. Both S1P and S1P1-specific analogs fully compensated the increase of IL-12p70 production in SphK1-deficient splenocytes. The use of pertussis toxin, to block G(i)-coupled signaling downstream of S1P1, again increased IL-12p70 and neglected the compensation achieved by addition of S1P and S1P1 agonists pointing on the importance of this specific S1P-receptor. Given that, in parallel to a prominent IL-12p35 increase following LPS stimulation, LPS also enhanced SphK expression and total SphK activity, we concluded that SphK1-derived S1P acting via S1P1 is a major mechanism of this negative IL-12p70 feedback loop, which did not affect other cytokines. Moreover, our data showed that SphK2 activity failed to compensate for SphK1 deficiency. These findings clearly point to a divergent and cytokine-specific impact of immune cell SphK1 and SphK2 in chronic inflammation and cancer. PMID:21435724

Schröder, Matthias; Richter, Cornelia; Juan, Martina Herrero San; Maltusch, Katrin; Giegold, Oliver; Quintini, Gianluca; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Huwiler, Andrea; Radeke, Heinfried H

2011-05-01

51

Activation of a ribosomal protein S6 protein kinase in Xenopus oocytes by insulin and insulin-receptor kinase.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that insulin treatment of Xenopus oocytes leads to an increase in phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. To investigate the mechanism of this increase, S6 kinase activity was measured in lysates of oocytes exposed to insulin. Insulin caused a rapid 4- to 6-fold increase in S6 kinase activity, which was maximal by 20 min and which could be reversed by removal of insulin prior to homogenization. Dose-response curves showed a detectable increase in specific activity at 1 nM insulin with a maximal effect at 100 nM. Treatment of oocytes with puromycin did not prevent this increase in S6 kinase activity, suggesting activation rather than synthesis of the enzyme. DEAE-Sephacel chromatography of extracts from insulin-treated oocytes revealed two peaks of S6 kinase activity, and the specific activity of the peak eluting at 300 nM NaCl was increased 3-fold in oocytes treated with insulin. The same peak of S6 kinase activity was increased 40% within 10 min in oocytes injected with highly purified insulin-receptor kinase. These results indicate that the insulin-dependent increase in S6 phosphorylation is due, at least in part, to activation of an S6 protein kinase, and this activation may result from the action of the insulin receptor at an intracellular location. PMID:3514207

Stefanovic, D; Erikson, E; Pike, L J; Maller, J L

1986-01-01

52

Death Associated Protein Kinase Phosphorylates Mammalian Ribosomal Protein S6 and Reduces Protein Synthesis†  

PubMed Central

Death associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a pro-apoptotic, calcium/calmodulin regulated protein kinase that is a drug discovery target for neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the potential profound physiological role of DAPK in neuronal function and pathophysiology, the endogenous substrate(s) of this kinase and the mechanisms via which DAPK elicits its biological action remain largely unknown. We report here that the mammalian 40S ribosomal protein S6 is a DAPK substrate. Results from immunoprecipitation experiments are consistent with endogenous DAPK being associated with endogenous S6 in rat brain. When S6 is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit complex, DAPK selectively phosphorylates it at serine 235, one of the five sites in S6 that are phosphorylated by the S6 kinase family of proteins. The amino acid sequence flanking serine 235 matches the established pattern for DAPK peptide and protein substrates. Kinetic analyses using purified 40S subunits revealed a Km value of 9 ?M, consistent with S6 being a potential physiological substrate of DAPK. This enzyme-substrate relationship has functional significance. DAPK suppresses translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and treatment of neuroblastoma cells with a stimulator of DAPK reduces protein synthesis. In both cases, suppression of translation correlates with increased phosphorylation of S6 at serine 235. These results demonstrate that DAPK is an S6 kinase and provide evidence for a novel role of DAPK in regulation of translation. PMID:17087515

Schumacher, Andrew M.; Velentza, Anastasia V.; Watterson, D. Martin; Dresios, John

2015-01-01

53

S6 kinase 1 is required for rapamycin-sensitive liver proliferation after mouse hepatectomy  

PubMed Central

Rapamycin is an antibiotic inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation by acting on target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase. Mammalian TOR (mTOR) is thought to work through 2 independent complexes to regulate cell size and cell replication, and these 2 complexes show differential sensitivity to rapamycin. Here we combine functional genetics and pharmacological treatments to analyze rapamycin-sensitive mTOR substrates that are involved in cell proliferation and tissue regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice. After hepatectomy, hepatocytes proliferated rapidly, correlating with increased S6 kinase phosphorylation, while treatment with rapamycin derivatives impaired regeneration and blocked S6 kinase activation. In addition, genetic deletion of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) caused a delay in S phase entry in hepatocytes after hepatectomy. The proliferative defect of S6K1-deficient hepatocytes was cell autonomous, as it was also observed in primary cultures and hepatic overexpression of S6K1-rescued proliferation. We found that S6K1 controlled steady-state levels of cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) mRNA in liver, and cyclin D1 expression was required to promote hepatocyte cell cycle. Notably, in vivo overexpression of cyclin D1 was sufficient to restore the proliferative capacity of S6K-null livers. The identification of an S6K1-dependent mechanism participating in cell proliferation in vivo may be relevant for cancer cells displaying high mTOR complex 1 activity and cyclin D1 accumulation. PMID:21633171

Espeillac, Catherine; Mitchell, Claudia; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Chauvin, Céline; Koka, Vonda; Gillet, Cynthia; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.; Desdouets, Chantal; Pende, Mario

2011-01-01

54

A protein kinase from Xenopus eggs specific for ribosomal protein S6.  

PubMed Central

A protein kinase specific for ribosomal protein S6 has been purified from eggs of Xenopus laevis. As visualized on a silver-stained polyacrylamide gel, the major protein in the preparation migrated with a Mr of 90,000. Incubation of the enzyme preparation with [gamma-32P]ATP led to phosphorylation of this protein on serine residues. Upon glycerol gradient centrifugation, the S6 kinase activity and the Mr 90,000 protein both sedimented with a Mr of 50,000-55,000. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated that up to 4-5 phosphate groups per S6 molecule could be incorporated with this enzyme in vitro, and two-dimensional peptide mapping demonstrated that the phosphopeptides from S6 labeled in vitro with the enzyme comigrated with those from highly phosphorylated S6 labeled in vivo in response to progesterone treatment. The purified S6 protein kinase did not phosphorylate at a significant rate ribosomal protein S10, histone H1, histone H4, mixed histones, casein, or phosvitin, indicating a high degree of substrate specificity. These results indicate that activation of a single S6 protein kinase may be sufficient to account for increased S6 phosphorylation after a growth stimulus. Images PMID:3856226

Erikson, E; Maller, J L

1985-01-01

55

The role of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 in activating AGC kinases defined in embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Protein kinase B (PKB), and the p70 and p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (p70 S6 kinase and p90 Rsk, respectively), are activated by phosphorylation of two residues, one in the ‘T-loop’ of the kinase domain and, the other, in the hydrophobic motif carboxy terminal to the kinase domain. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) activates many AGC kinases in vitro

Michayla R. Williams; J. Simon C. Arthur; Anudharan Balendran; Jeroen van der Kaay; Valeria Poli; Philip Cohen; Dario R. Alessi

2000-01-01

56

Phytohormones Participate in an S6 Kinase Signal Transduction Pathway in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

Addition of fresh medium to stationary cells of Arabidopsis suspension culture induces increased phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein and activation of its cognate kinase, AtS6k. Analysis of the activation response revealed that medium constituents required for S6 kinase activation were the phytohormones 1-naphthylacetic acid (auxin) and kinetin. Pretreatment of cells with anti-auxin or PI3-kinase drugs inhibited this response. Consistent with these findings, LY294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, efficiently suppressed phytohormone-induced S6 phosphorylation and translational up-regulation of ribosomal protein S6 and S18A mRNAs without affecting global translation. These data indicate that (1) activation of AtS6k is regulated by phytohormones, at least in part, via a lipid kinase-dependent pathway, that (2) the translational regulation of ribosomal proteins appears to be conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdom, and that (3) these events are hallmarks of a growth-related signal transduction pathway novel in plants. PMID:15064379

Turck, Franziska; Zilbermann, Frederic; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Nagy, Ferenc

2004-01-01

57

Crystal structures of the S6K1 kinase domain in complexes with inhibitors.  

PubMed

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays an important role in the PIK3/mTOR signaling pathway, and is implicated in diseases including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. The crystal structures of the S6K1 kinase domain in complexes with staurosporine and the S6K1-specific inhibitor PF-4708671 have been reported. In the present study, five compounds (F108, F109, F176, F177, and F179) were newly identified by in silico screening of a chemical library and kinase assay. The crystal structures of the five inhibitors in complexes with the S6K1 kinase domain were determined at resolutions between 1.85 and 2.10 Å. All of the inhibitors bound to the ATP binding site, lying along the P-loop, while the activation loop stayed in the inactive form. Compound F179, with a carbonyl group in the middle of the molecule, altered the ?C helix conformation by interacting with the invariant Lys123. Compounds F176 and F177 bound slightly distant from the hinge region, and their sulfoamide groups formed polar interactions with the protein. The structural features required for the specific binding of inhibitors are discussed. PMID:25078151

Niwa, Hideaki; Mikuni, Junko; Sasaki, Shunta; Tomabechi, Yuri; Honda, Keiko; Ikeda, Mariko; Ohsawa, Noboru; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Handa, Noriko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2014-09-01

58

Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1  

SciTech Connect

The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector.

Park, In-Hyun [Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: ihpark@uiuc.edu; Erbay, Ebru [Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Nuzzi, Paul [Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chen Jie [Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2005-09-10

59

Drosophila S6 Kinase Like Inhibits Neuromuscular Junction Growth by Downregulating the BMP Receptor Thickveins  

PubMed Central

Synaptic connections must be precisely controlled to ensure proper neural circuit formation. In Drosophila melanogaster, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) promotes growth of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by binding and activating the BMP ligand receptors wishful thinking (Wit) and thickveins (Tkv) expressed in motor neurons. We report here that an evolutionally conserved, previously uncharacterized member of the S6 kinase (S6K) family S6K like (S6KL) acts as a negative regulator of BMP signaling. S6KL null mutants were viable and fertile but exhibited more satellite boutons, fewer and larger synaptic vesicles, larger spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potential (mEJP) amplitudes, and reduced synaptic endocytosis at the NMJ terminals. Reducing the gene dose by half of tkv in S6KL mutant background reversed the NMJ overgrowth phenotype. The NMJ phenotypes of S6KL mutants were accompanied by an elevated level of Tkv protein and phosphorylated Mad, an effector of the BMP signaling pathway, in the nervous system. In addition, Tkv physically interacted with S6KL in cultured S2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of S6KL enhanced Tkv expression, while S6KL overexpression downregulated Tkv in cultured S2 cells. This latter effect was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Our results together demonstrate for the first time that S6KL regulates synaptic development and function by facilitating proteasomal degradation of the BMP receptor Tkv. PMID:25748449

Zhao, Guoli; Wu, Yingga; Du, Li; Li, Wenhua; Xiong, Ying; Yao, Aiyu; Wang, Qifu; Zhang, Yong Q.

2015-01-01

60

Drosophila S6 Kinase Like Inhibits Neuromuscular Junction Growth by Downregulating the BMP Receptor Thickveins.  

PubMed

Synaptic connections must be precisely controlled to ensure proper neural circuit formation. In Drosophila melanogaster, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) promotes growth of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by binding and activating the BMP ligand receptors wishful thinking (Wit) and thickveins (Tkv) expressed in motor neurons. We report here that an evolutionally conserved, previously uncharacterized member of the S6 kinase (S6K) family S6K like (S6KL) acts as a negative regulator of BMP signaling. S6KL null mutants were viable and fertile but exhibited more satellite boutons, fewer and larger synaptic vesicles, larger spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potential (mEJP) amplitudes, and reduced synaptic endocytosis at the NMJ terminals. Reducing the gene dose by half of tkv in S6KL mutant background reversed the NMJ overgrowth phenotype. The NMJ phenotypes of S6KL mutants were accompanied by an elevated level of Tkv protein and phosphorylated Mad, an effector of the BMP signaling pathway, in the nervous system. In addition, Tkv physically interacted with S6KL in cultured S2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of S6KL enhanced Tkv expression, while S6KL overexpression downregulated Tkv in cultured S2 cells. This latter effect was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Our results together demonstrate for the first time that S6KL regulates synaptic development and function by facilitating proteasomal degradation of the BMP receptor Tkv. PMID:25748449

Zhao, Guoli; Wu, Yingga; Du, Li; Li, Wenhua; Xiong, Ying; Yao, Aiyu; Wang, Qifu; Zhang, Yong Q

2015-03-01

61

Role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase\\/Akt and mTOR\\/P70S6-kinase pathways in the proliferation and apoptosis in multiple myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy preliminary localized in the bone marrow and characterized by its capacity to disseminate. IL-6 and IGF-1 have been shown to mediate proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals in plasmocytes. However, in primary plasma-cell leukemia (PCL) and in end-stage aggressive extramedullar disease, the cytokine requirement for both effects may be not mandatory. This suggests that

Frédéric Pene; Yann-Erick Claessens; Odile Muller; Franck Viguié; Patrick Mayeux; François Dreyfus; Catherine Lacombe; Didier Bouscary

2002-01-01

62

Ribosomal Protein Mutations Induce Autophagy through S6 Kinase Inhibition of the Insulin Pathway  

PubMed Central

Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies. PMID:24875531

Pereboom, Tamara C.; Goos, Yvonne J.; Seinen, Cor W.; van Oirschot, Brigitte A.; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H.; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Gazda, Hanna T.; Bierings, Marc B.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

2014-01-01

63

Celastrol Stimulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Activity in Tumor Cells by Initiating the ROS/Akt/p70S6K Signaling Pathway and Enhancing Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1? Protein Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Celastrol, a tripterine derived from the traditional Chinese medicine plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. (“Thunder of God Vine”), has been reported to have multiple effects, such as anti-inflammation, suppression of tumor angiogenesis, inhibition of tumor growth, induction of apoptosis and protection of cells against human neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms that underlie these functions are not well defined. In this study, we reported for the first time that Celastrol could induce HIF-1? protein accumulation in multiple cancer cell lines in an oxygen-independent manner and that the enhanced HIF-1? protein entered the nucleus and promoted the transcription of the HIF-1 target genes VEGF and Glut-1. Celastrol did not influence HIF-1? transcription. Instead, Celastrol induced the accumulation of the HIF-1? protein by inducing ROS and activating Akt/p70S6K signaling to promote HIF-1? translation. In addition, we found that the activation of Akt by Celastrol was transient. With increased exposure time, inhibition of Hsp90 chaperone function by Celastrol led to the subsequent depletion of the Akt protein and thus to the suppression of Akt activity. Moreover, in HepG2 cells, the accumulation of HIF-1? increased the expression of BNIP3, which induced autophagy. However, HIF-1? and BNIP3 did not influence the cytotoxicity of Celastrol because the main mechanism by which Celastrol kills cancer cells is through stimulating ROS-mediated JNK activation and inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, our data showed that the dose required for Celastrol to induce HIF-1? protein accumulation and enhance HIF-1? transcriptional activation was below its cytotoxic threshold. A cytotoxic dose of Celastrol for cancer cells did not display cytotoxicity in LO2 normal human liver cells, which indicated that the novel functions of Celastrol in regulating HIF-1 signaling and inducing autophagy might be used in new applications, such as in anti-inflammation and protection of cells against human neurodegenerative diseases. Future studies regarding these applications are required. PMID:25383959

Zhao, Ming; Cheng, Xiang; Chen, Guozhu; Lin, Song; Guan, Yifu; Yu, Xiaodan

2014-01-01

64

Insulin activates a 70-kDa S6 kinase through serine/threonine-specific phosphorylation of the enzyme polypeptide  

SciTech Connect

The dominant insulin-stimulated ribosomal protein S6 kinase activity was purified to near homogeneity from insulin-treated {sup 32}P-labeled rat H4 hepatoma cells and found to copurify with a 70-kDa {sup 32}P-labeled polypeptide. The dominant S6 kinase purified from livers of cycloheximide-treated rats is also a 70-kDa polypeptide. Antiserum raised against rat liver S6 kinase specifically immunoprecipitates the purified {sup 32}P-labeled H4 hepatoma insulin-stimulated S6 kinase. Immune complexes prepared from the cytosol of {sup 32}P-labeled H4 cells contain several {sup 32}P-labeled polypeptides. Insulin treatment increases the {sup 32}P content of the immunoprecipitated 70-kDa S6 kinase polypeptide 3- to 4-fold over basal levels. Tryptic peptide maps indicate that the insulin-stimulated S6 kinase purified from {sup 32}P-labeled H4 cells is phosphorylated at multiple sites distinct from those which participate in autophosphorylation in vitro. The S6 kinases purified from liver of cycloheximide-treated rat and H4 hepatoma insulin-stimulated enzyme are each completely deactivated by incubation with protein phosphatase type 2A in both autophosphorylating and 40S S6 phosphorylating activities. Thus insulin activates the 70-kDa S6 kinase by promoting phosphorylation of specific serine/threonine residues on the enzyme polypeptide, probably through activating an as-yet-unidentified serine/threonine protein kinase distinct from microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase.

Price, D.J.; Gunsalus, J.R.; Avruch, J. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-10-01

65

S6 kinase 2 potentiates interleukin-3-driven cell proliferation Rebecca Cruz,* Lee Hedden,* Derek Boyer,* Michael G. Kharas,  

E-print Network

S6 kinase 2 potentiates interleukin-3-driven cell proliferation Rebecca Cruz,* Lee Hedden,* Derek survival and proliferation via several signaling pathways such as the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and phosphoinositide-3

66

MEK1-independent activation of MAPK and MEK1-dependent activation of p70 S6 kinase by stem cell factor (SCF) in ovarian cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

We discovered a stem cell factor (SCF)-triggered, MEK1-independent, and PI3K-dependent MAPK activation pathway in the Kit-expressing ovarian cancer cell line HEY. When we knocked down MEK1 with RNA interference (RNAi) to study the function of MEK1 on the proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells, we found that impaired cell growth still occurred after MEK1 expression had been suppressed, although MAPK activation remained intact. This suggests that there is MEK1-independent activation of MAPK in the SCF-induced ovarian cancer cell growth process, and that MEK1 still plays a crucial role in maintaining the malignant properties of ovarian cancer cells even when it fails to activate MAPK as expected.

Liu, Lian, E-mail: tounao@126.com [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China) [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Zhang, Xin [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Du, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoning; Hou, Nan; Zhao, Di [Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Sun, Jianzhi; Li, Li; Wang, Xiuwen [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Ma, Chunhong [Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

2009-05-01

67

PDGF- and insulin-dependent pp70S6k activation mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3OH kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLATELET-DERIVED growth factor receptor (PDGF-R) phosphory-lation at tyrosines 740\\/751 and insulin receptor phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 effects the recruitment and activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PIK)1-5. Changes in PI(3)K activity correlate with cell growth but its downstream signal transducers are unknown4,5. Activation of the 70\\/85K S6 kinases (pp70S6k) by serine phosphorylation6,7 results in 40S ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and is

Jongkyeong Chung; Katherine P. Lemon; Andrius Kazlauskas; John Blenis

1994-01-01

68

TORC1 Promotes Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 via the AGC Kinase Ypk3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of nutrient availability. Genetic and pharmacological studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided mechanistic insights on the regulation of TORC1 signaling in response to nutrients. Using a highly specific antibody that recognizes phosphorylation of the bona fide TORC1 target ribosomal protein S6 (Rps6) in yeast, we found that nutrients rapidly induce Rps6 phosphorylation in a TORC1-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ypk3, an AGC kinase which exhibits high homology to human S6 kinase (S6K), is required for the phosphorylation of Rps6 in vivo. Rps6 phosphorylation is completely abolished in cells lacking Ypk3 (ypk3?), whereas Sch9, previously reported to be the yeast ortholog of S6K, is dispensable for Rps6 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation-deficient mutations in regulatory motifs of Ypk3 abrogate Rps6 phosphorylation, and complementation of ypk3? cells with human S6 kinase restores Rps6 phosphorylation in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Our findings demonstrate that Ypk3 is a critical component of the TORC1 pathway and that the use of a phospho-S6 specific antibody offers a valuable tool to identify new nutrient-dependent and rapamycin-sensitive targets in vivo. PMID:25767889

Eisenberg, Tobias; Merle, David Adrian; Pendl, Tobias; Hall, Michael N.; Moustafa, Tarek

2015-01-01

69

Baculovirus-mediated expression, purification, and characterization of a fully activated catalytic kinase domain construct of the 70 kDa 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 ?II isoform (S6K1?II)  

PubMed Central

S6K1?II is a member of the AGC subfamily of serine-threonine protein kinases, whereby catalytic activation requires dual phosphorylation of critical residues in the conserved T-loop (T229) and hydrophobic motif (HM; T389) regions of its catalytic kinase domain [S6K1?II(?AID); deletion of C-terminal autoinhibitory domain residues 399-502]. With regard to mimicking the synergistic effect of full dual site phosphorylation, baculovirus-mediated expression and affinity purification of the His6-S6K1?II(?AID)-T229E,T389E double mutant from Sf9 insect cells yielded enzyme with compromised activity. Higher activity preparations were generated using the Sf9 purified His6-S6K1?II(?AID)-T389E single mutant isoform, which was in vitro phosphorylated by the upstream T229 kinase, PDK1 (?75 nmol/min/mg). Most significantly, we report that the His6-S6K1?II(?AID)-T389E construct was generated in its most highly active form (250 nmol/min/mg) by baculovirus-mediated expression and purification from Sf9 insect cells that were coinfected with recombinant baculovirus expressing the catalytic kinase domain of PDK1 [His6-PDK1(?PH)]. Approximately equal amounts of fully activated His6-S6K1?II(?AID)-T389E (5 ± 1 mg) and His6-PDK1(?PH) (8 ± 2 mg) were His6 affinity co-purified 60 h after initial coinfection of 200 mL of Sf9 insect cells (2 × 106 cells/mL), which were resolved by MonoQ anion exchange chromatography. ESI-TOF mass spectrometry, MonoQ anion exchange chromatography, and kinetic assays showed His6-PDK1(?PH) to phosphorylate T229 to ?100% after co-expression in Sf9 insect cells as compared to ?50% under in vitro conditions, raising interest to mechanistic components not fully achieved in the in vitro reaction. Generation of fully activated S6K1 will facilitate more rigorous analysis of its structure and mechanism. PMID:18160308

Keshwani, Malik M.; Ross, Duncan B.; Ragan, Timothy J.; Harris, Thomas K.

2008-01-01

70

Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 on serine after microinjection of the Abelson murine leukemia virus tyrosine-specific protein kinase into Xenopus oocytes.  

PubMed Central

Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts is dependent on the presence of serum, but after transformation of these cells by Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV), S6 remained highly phosphorylated on serine residues either in the absence or the presence of serum. To investigate whether S6 phosphorylation in this system was a consequence of the action of the Ab-MuLV tyrosine-specific protein kinase, purified Ab-MuLV kinase made in Escherichia coli was microinjected into Xenopus oocytes and was observed to cause a 7- to 15-fold increase in the phosphorylation of S6 on serine residues. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide maps of S6 phosphorylated in Ab-MuLV-transformed NIH cells in the absence of serum were identical to those of S6 isolated from normal cells grown in the presence of serum. In addition, S6 from oocytes injected with Ab-MuLV kinase yielded an S6 phosphopeptide map indistinguishable from that of serum-stimulated NIH 3T3 cells, whereas S6 from control oocytes lacked several phosphopeptides. Ab-MuLV kinase did not phosphorylate S6 directly in vitro, and microinjection of a mutant Ab-MuLV protein lacking kinase activity had no effect. These results indicate that the Ab-MuLV kinase interacts with a cellular pathway to enhance S6 phosphorylation by directly or indirectly activating an S6 protein kinase and/or inactivating an S6 protein phosphatase. Images PMID:3918307

Maller, J L; Foulkes, J G; Erikson, E; Baltimore, D

1985-01-01

71

Control of Paip1-Eukayrotic Translation Initiation Factor 3 Interaction by Amino Acids through S6 Kinase  

PubMed Central

The simultaneous interaction of poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and the mRNA 3? poly(A) tail promotes translation initiation. We previously showed that the interaction of PABP-interacting protein 1 (Paip1) with PABP and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3; via the eIF3g subunit) further stimulates translation. Here, we demonstrate that the interaction of eIF3 with Paip1 is regulated by amino acids through the mTORC1 signaling pathway. The Paip1-eIF3 interaction is impaired by the mTORC1 inhibitors, rapamycin and PP242. We show that ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 and 2 (S6K1/2) promote the interaction of eIF3 with Paip1. The enhancement of Paip1-eIF3 interaction by amino acids is abrogated by an S6K inhibitor or shRNA against S6K1/2. S6K1 interacts with eIF3f and, in vitro, phosphorylates eIF3. Finally, we show that S6K inhibition leads to a reduction in translation by Paip1. We propose that S6K1/2 phosphorylate eIF3 to stimulate Paip1-eIF3 interaction and consequent translation initiation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that eIF3 is a new translation target of the mTOR/S6K pathway. PMID:24396066

Martineau, Yvan; Wang, Xiaoshan; Alain, Tommy; Petroulakis, Emmanuel; Shahbazian, David; Fabre, Bertrand; Bousquet-Dubouch, Marie-Pierre; Monsarrat, Bernard

2014-01-01

72

Stimulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase activity by pp60/sup v-src/ or by serum: dissociation from phorbol ester-stimulated activity  

SciTech Connect

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase activity was measured in lysates prepared from serum-deprived chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) treated for various times with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Maximal activity was observed within 15 min, and it declined to the initial level by 4 hr. Incubation of these cells with PMA 4-60 hr after the initial treatment did not result in an additional increase in S6 protein kinase activity. These results are consistent with down-regulation of the PMA receptor, protein kinase C, and the dependence of PMA-stimulated S6 kinase activity on this enzyme. Long-term pretreatment of CEF with PMA only partially attenuated the stimulation of the S6 protein kinase activity by serum or by expression of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming gene product, pp60/sup v-src/. A similar protein kinase activity also was stimulated in cells treated with cycloheximide or sodium vanadate. Pretreatment with PMA had little effect on this response. These data indicate that it is likely that there are at least two mechanisms through which S6 kinase activity can be regulated, one of which apparently utilizes protein kinase C whereas the other(s) does not. Additional experiments show PMA-stimulated glucose transport was not attenuated by long-term incubation with phorbol ester, suggesting that another mechanism, which is not dependent on the presence of protein kinase C, maintains this response after the proposed down-regulation of the PMA receptor.

Blenis, J.; Erikson, R.L.

1986-03-01

73

Urea activates ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in a MEK-dependent fashion in renal mIMCD3 cells.  

PubMed

Urea activates a characteristic subset of signaling pathways in a tissue-specific fashion, including transcription of immediate early genes through activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), and activation of its transcription factor substrate, Elk-1. The ability of urea to activate the ERK effector and pivotal regulatory kinase, ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), was investigated in mIMCD3 renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. Urea upregulated RSK activity in a time-dependent fashion in serum-deprived mIMCD3 cells; the effect was maximal at 5 min. Activation by hypertonic NaCl, in contrast, was negligible at 5 min and peaked at 15 min. Both stimuli induced the nuclear translocation of cytosolic RSK, as determined via immunofluorescence. Importantly, activation of RSK by both solutes was MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) dependent, as determined by the ability of the specific MEK inhibitor, PD-98059, to abrogate the response. Taken together, these data indicate that urea activates the ERK effector, RSK, in cells of the renal medulla in an ERK-dependent fashion, further emphasizing the functional significance of urea signaling through ERK activation in renal medullary cells. PMID:9458825

Zhang, Z; Cohen, D M

1998-01-01

74

Structural Diversity of the Active N-Terminal Kinase Domain of p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2  

SciTech Connect

The p90 ribosomal protein kinase 2 (RSK2) is a highly expressed Ser/Thr kinase activated by growth factors and is involved in cancer cell proliferation and tumor promoter-induced cell transformation. RSK2 possesses two non-identical kinase domains, and the structure of its N-terminal domain (NTD), which is responsible for phosphorylation of a variety of substrates, is unknown. The crystal structure of the NTD RSK2 was determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution in complex with AMP-PNP. The N-terminal kinase domain adopted a unique active conformation showing a significant structural diversity of the kinase domain compared to other kinases. The NTD RSK2 possesses a three-stranded {beta}B-sheet inserted in the N-terminal lobe, resulting in displacement of the {alpha}C-helix and disruption of the Lys-Glu interaction, classifying the kinase conformation as inactive. The purified protein was phosphorylated at Ser227 in the T-activation loop and exhibited in vitro kinase activity. A key characteristic is the appearance of a new contact between Lys216 ({beta}B-sheet) and the {beta}-phosphate of AMP-PNP. Mutation of this lysine to alanine impaired both NTDs in vitro and full length RSK2 ex vivo activity, emphasizing the importance of this interaction. Even though the N-terminal lobe undergoes structural re-arrangement, it possesses an intact hydrophobic groove formed between the {alpha}C-helix, the {beta}4-strand, and the {beta}B-sheet junction, which is occupied by the N-terminal tail. The presence of a unique {beta}B-sheet insert in the N-lobe suggests a different type of activation mechanism for RSK2.

Malakhova, Margarita; Kurinov, Igor; Liu, Kangdong; Zheng, Duo; D'Angelo, Igor; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Steinman, Valerie; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; (Cornell); (CLS); (UMM); (CSB)

2010-10-08

75

Localization and retention of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 in the nucleus: implications for its function  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) belongs to a family of proteins with two kinase domains. Following activation in the cytoplasm by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), it mediates the cell-proliferative, cell-growth, and survival-promoting actions of a number of growth factors and other agonists. These diverse biological actions of RSK1 involve regulation of both cytoplasmic and nuclear events. However, the mechanisms that permit nuclear accumulation of RSK1 remain unknown. Here, we show that phosphorylation of RSK1 on S221 is important for its dissociation from the type I? regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) in the cytoplasm and that RSK1 contains a bipartite nuclear localization sequence that is necessary for its nuclear entry. Once inside, the active RSK1 is retained in the nucleus via its interactions with PKA catalytic subunit and AKAP95. Mutations of RSK1 that do not affect its activity but disrupt its entry into the nucleus or expression of AKAP95 forms that do not enter the nucleus inhibit the ability of active RSK1 to stimulate DNA synthesis. Our findings identify novel mechanisms by which active RSK1 accumulates in the nucleus and also provide new insights into how AKAP95 orchestrates cell cycle progression. PMID:22130794

Gao, Xianlong; Chaturvedi, Deepti; Patel, Tarun B.

2012-01-01

76

Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1 Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Involves Activation of p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase  

PubMed Central

Studies using pharmacological and genetic approaches have shown that increased activity/expression of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Despite the importance of NHE1 in cardiac hypertrophy, severe cerebrovascular side effects were associated with the use of NHE1 inhibitors when administered to patients with myocardial infarctions. p90 ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK), a downstream regulator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, has also been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. We hypothesized that RSK plays a role in the NHE1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response. Infection of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with the active form of the NHE1 adenovirus induced hypertrophy and was associated with an increase in the phosphorylation of RSK (P<0.05). Parameters of hypertrophy such as cell area, protein content and atrial natriuretic mRNA expression were significantly reduced in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts infected with active NHE1 in the presence of dominant negative RSK (DN-RSK) (P<0.05). These results confirm that NHE1 lies upstream of RSK. Increased phosphorylation and activation of GATA4 at Ser261 was correlated with increased RSK phosphorylation. This increase was reversed upon inhibition of RSK or NHE1. These findings demonstrate for the first time that the NHE1 mediated hypertrophy is accounted for by increased activation and phosphorylation of RSK, which subsequently increased the phosphorylation of GATA4; eventually activating fetal gene transcriptional machinery. PMID:25830299

Jaballah, Maiy; Mohamed, Iman A.; Alemrayat, Bayan; Al-Sulaiti, Fatima; Mlih, Mohamed; Mraiche, Fatima

2015-01-01

77

Expression, purification, and characterization of a structurally disordered and functional C-terminal autoinhibitory domain (AID) of the 70 kDa 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 (S6K1)  

PubMed Central

S6K1 is a member of the AGC subfamily of serine-threonine protein kinases, whereby catalytic activation requires dual phosphorylation of critical residues in the conserved T-loop (T229) and hydrophobic motif (HM; T389) peptide regions of its catalytic kinase domain (residues 1-398). In addition to its kinase domain, S6K1 contains a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain (AID; residues 399-502), which prevents T-loop and HM phosphorylation; and autoinhibition is relieved on multi-site Ser-Thr phosphorylation of the AID (S411, S418, T421, and S424). Interestingly, 66 of the 104 C-terminal AID amino acid residues were computer predicted to exist in structurally disordered peptide regions, begetting interest as to how such dynamics could be coupled to autoregulation. To begin addressing this issue, we developed and optimized protocols for efficient AID expression and purification. Consistent with computer predictions, aberrant mobilities in both SDS-PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography, as well as low chemical shift dispersion in 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectra, indicated purified recombinant AID to be largely unfolded. Yet, trans-addition of purified AID effectively inhibited PDK1-catalyzed T-loop phosphorylation of a catalytic kinase domain construct of S6K1. Using an identical purification protocol, similar protein yields of a tetraphospho-mimic mutant AID(D2ED) construct were obtained; and this construct displayed only weak inhibition of PDK1-catalyzed T229 phosphorylation. Purification of the structurally ‘disordered’ and functional C-terminal AID and AID(D2ED) constructs will facilitate studies aimed to understand the role of conformational plasticity and protein phosphorylation in modulating autoregulatory domain-domain interactions. PMID:17980619

Ragan, Timothy J.; Ross, Duncan B.; Keshwani, Malik M.; Harris, Thomas K.

2008-01-01

78

Ha-rasVal-12,Thr-59 activates S6 kinase and p34cdc2 kinase in Xenopus oocytes: evidence for c-mosxe-dependent and -independent pathways.  

PubMed Central

Treatment with insulin or progesterone or microinjection of the transforming protein product of Ha-rasVal-12,Thr-59 (p21) is known to induce germinal vesicle breakdown in Xenopus oocytes. We have investigated the effect of p21 on S6 kinase and the H1 histone kinase of maturation-promoting factor in the presence and absence of antisense oligonucleotides against the c-mosxe proto-oncogene. Injection of p21 led to a rapid increase in S6 phosphorylation, with kinetics similar to those previously observed with insulin. Microinjection of c-mosxe antisense oligonucleotides inhibited germinal vesicle breakdown induced by p21 and totally abolished S6 kinase activation by insulin or progesterone but only partially inhibited activation by p21. However, the activation of p34cdc2 protein kinase by all three stimuli was blocked by antisense oligonucleotides. The results suggest that in oocyte maturation c-mosxe functions downstream of p21 but upstream of p34cdc2 and S6 kinase activation, although not all p21-induced events require c-mosxe. Images PMID:2152963

Barrett, C B; Schroetke, R M; Van der Hoorn, F A; Nordeen, S K; Maller, J L

1990-01-01

79

Tumor Suppressor PDCD4 Represses Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Translation of Antiapoptotic Proteins and Is Regulated by S6 Kinase 2  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis can be regulated by extracellular signals that are communicated by peptides such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) that have important roles in tumor cell proliferation. The prosurvival effects of FGF-2 are transduced by the activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2), which increases the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins X chromosome-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) and Bcl-xL. We now show that the FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling is mediated by the tumor suppressor programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). We demonstrate that PDCD4 specifically binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements of both the XIAP and Bcl-xL messenger RNAs and represses their translation by inhibiting the formation of the 48S translation initiation complex. Phosphorylation of PDCD4 by activated S6K2 leads to the degradation of PDCD4 and thus the subsequent derepression of XIAP and Bcl-xL translation. Our results identify PDCD4 as a specific repressor of the IRES-dependent translation of cellular mRNAs (such as XIAP and Bcl-xL) that mediate FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling and provide further insight into the role of PDCD4 in tumor suppression. PMID:22431522

Liwak, Urszula; Thakor, Nehal; Jordan, Lindsay E.; Roy, Rajat; Lewis, Stephen M.; Pardo, Olivier E.; Seckl, Michael

2012-01-01

80

Nerve growth factor-sensitive S6 kinase in cell-free extracts from PC12 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble extracts from nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated PC12 cells prepared by alkaline lysis show a 2-10 fold increase in the ability to phosphorylate the ribosomal protein S6. The alkaline lysis method yields a preparation of much higher specific activity than does sonication. Half-maximal incorporation of (³²P) from (³²P)ATP into S6 occurred after 4-7 minutes of nerve growth factor treatment. The

Yuzuru Matsuda; Nobuo Nakanishi; Geneva Dickens; Gordon Guroff

1986-01-01

81

Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1 at Thr421/Ser424 and Dephosphorylation at Thr389 Regulates SP600125-Induced Polyploidization of Megakaryocytic Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Megakaryocytes (MKs) are one of the few cell types that become polyploid; however, the mechanisms by which these cells are designated to become polyploid are not fully understood. In this investigation, we successfully established two relatively synchronous polyploid cell models by inducing Dami and CMK cells with SP600125. We found that SP600125 induced the polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells, concomitant with the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389. The polyploidization was partially blocked by H-89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, through direct binding to S6K1, leading to dephosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and phosphorylation at Thr389, independent of PKA. Overexpression of a rapamycin-resistant mutant of S6K1 further enhanced the inhibitory effect of LY294002 on the SP600125-induced polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells. SP600125 also induced the polyploidization of Meg-01 cells, which are derived from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, without causing a significant change in S6K1 phosphorylation. Additionally, SP600125 induced the polyploidization of HEL cells, which are derived from a patient with erythroleukemia, and phosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 was detected. However, the polyploidization of both Meg-01 cells and HEL cells as a result of SP600125 treatment was lower than that of SP600125-induced Dami and CMK cells, and it was not blocked by H-89 despite the increased phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr389 in both cell lines in response to H-89. Given that the Dami and CMK cell lines were derived from patients with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) and expressed high levels of platelet-specific antigens, our data suggested that SP600125-induced polyploidization is cell-type specific, that these cell lines were more differentiated, and that phosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 may play an important role in the SP600125-induced polyploidization of these cell lines synergistically with other signaling pathways. PMID:25486532

Lin, Di; Zhao, Yong-Shan; Liu, Shuo; Xing, Si-Ning; Zhao, Song; Chen, Cong-Qin; Jiang, Zhi-Ming; Pu, Fei-Fei; Cao, Jian-Ping; Ma, Dong-Chu

2014-01-01

82

Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389 regulates SP600125-induced polyploidization of megakaryocytic cell lines.  

PubMed

Megakaryocytes (MKs) are one of the few cell types that become polyploid; however, the mechanisms by which these cells are designated to become polyploid are not fully understood. In this investigation, we successfully established two relatively synchronous polyploid cell models by inducing Dami and CMK cells with SP600125. We found that SP600125 induced the polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells, concomitant with the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389. The polyploidization was partially blocked by H-89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, through direct binding to S6K1, leading to dephosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and phosphorylation at Thr389, independent of PKA. Overexpression of a rapamycin-resistant mutant of S6K1 further enhanced the inhibitory effect of LY294002 on the SP600125-induced polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells. SP600125 also induced the polyploidization of Meg-01 cells, which are derived from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, without causing a significant change in S6K1 phosphorylation. Additionally, SP600125 induced the polyploidization of HEL cells, which are derived from a patient with erythroleukemia, and phosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 was detected. However, the polyploidization of both Meg-01 cells and HEL cells as a result of SP600125 treatment was lower than that of SP600125-induced Dami and CMK cells, and it was not blocked by H-89 despite the increased phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr389 in both cell lines in response to H-89. Given that the Dami and CMK cell lines were derived from patients with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) and expressed high levels of platelet-specific antigens, our data suggested that SP600125-induced polyploidization is cell-type specific, that these cell lines were more differentiated, and that phosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 may play an important role in the SP600125-induced polyploidization of these cell lines synergistically with other signaling pathways. PMID:25486532

Li, Chang-Ling; Yang, Jin-Gang; Lin, Di; Zhao, Yong-Shan; Liu, Shuo; Xing, Si-Ning; Zhao, Song; Chen, Cong-Qin; Jiang, Zhi-Ming; Pu, Fei-Fei; Cao, Jian-Ping; Ma, Dong-Chu

2014-01-01

83

Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

2008-01-01

84

Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in vascular endothelial aging: Interaction with Arginase-II and S6K1 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) regulates cellular senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), i.e., secretion of cytokines and/or chemokines. Previous work showed that augmented arginase-II (Arg-II) and S6K1 interact with each other to promote endothelial senescence through uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Here we demonstrate eNOS-uncoupling, augmented expression/secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, elevation of p38 activation and Arg-II levels in senescent endothelial cells. Silencing Arg-II or p38? in senescent cells recouples eNOS and inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Overexpression of Arg-II in young endothelial cells causes eNOS-uncoupling and enhances IL-6 and IL-8 expression/secretion, which is prevented by p38 inhibition or by antioxidant. Moreover, p38 activation and expression of IL-6 and KC (the murine IL-8 homologue) are increased in the heart and/or aortas of wild type (WT) old mice, which is abolished in mice with Arg-II gene deficiency (Arg-II?/?). In addition, inhibition of p38 in the old WT mice recouples eNOS function and reduces IL-6 and KC expression in the aortas and heart. Silencing Arg-II or p38? or S6K1 inhibits each other in senescence endothelial cells. Thus, Arg-II, p38, and S6K1 form a positive circuit which regulates endothelial senescence and cardiovascular aging. PMID:25635535

Wu, Zongsong; Yu, Yi; Liu, Chang; Xiong, Yuyan; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

2015-01-01

85

Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling.  

PubMed

Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3 h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (?90%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr(389) phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased severalfold immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (?55 and ?110%, respectively, P < 0.05) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation was reduced (?55%, P < 0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P < 0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTOR complex 1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown. PMID:25605643

Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; van Hall, Gerrit; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

2015-03-15

86

Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 (RSK2) Maintains Genomic Stability by Activating the Atm/p53-Dependent DNA Damage Pathway  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 (RSK2) is a member of the p90RSK family of serine/threonine kinases, which are widely expressed and respond to many growth factors, peptide hormones, and neurotransmitters. Loss-of function mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene, which encodes the RSK2 protein, have been implicated in Coffin-Lowry Syndrome (CLS), an X-linked mental retardation disorder associated with cognitive deficits and behavioral impairments. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this neurological disorder are not known. Recent evidence suggests that defective DNA damage signaling might be associated with neurological disorders, but the role of RSK2 in the DNA damage pathway remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that Adriamycin-induced DNA damage leads to the phosphorylation of RSK2 at Ser227 and Thr577 in the chromatin fraction, promotes RSK2 nuclear translocation, and enhances RSK2 and Atm interactions in the nuclear fraction. Furthermore, using RSK2 knockout mouse fibroblasts and RSK2-deficient cells from CLS patients, we demonstrate that ablation of RSK2 impairs the phosphorylation of Atm at Ser1981 and the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser18 (mouse) or Ser15 (human) in response to genotoxic stress. We also show that RSK2 affects p53-mediated downstream cellular events in response to DNA damage, that RSK2 knockout relieves cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and that an increased number of ?H2AX foci, which are associated with defects in DNA repair, are present in RSK2-deficient cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that RSK2 plays an important role in the DNA damage pathway that maintains genomic stability by mediating cell cycle progression and DNA repair. PMID:24086335

Lim, Han Chi; Xie, Li; Zhang, Wei; Li, Rong; Chen, Zhong-Can; Wu, Guang-Zhi; Cui, Shu-Sen; Tan, Eng King; Zeng, Li

2013-01-01

87

Central hypotensive effects of neuropeptide Y are modulated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase after activation by ribosomal protein S6 kinase  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid polypeptide found abundantly in the central and peripheral nervous systems. NPY exerts a potent depressor effect via the activation of both Y1 and Y2 receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats. However, the precise mechanisms involved in this NPY-mediated action remained unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of a selective antagonist of Y1 receptors, a PKC inhibitor, a PI3 kinase inhibitor, a NOS inhibitor, an endothelial NOS (eNOS)-selective inhibitor, a neuronal NOS (nNOS)-specific inhibitor or a MAPK inhibitor, on responses to microinjection of NPY into the NTS of Wistar-Kyoto rats were studied to determine the underlying mechanisms. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured and, in NTS, protein phosphorylation assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. KEY RESULTS Unilateral microinjection of exogenous NPY (4.65 pmol/60 nL) into the NTS of urethane-anesthetized Wistar-Kyoto rats markedly decreased blood pressure and heart rate. Microinjection of the Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP3226 or the Gi/Go-protein inhibitor, Pertussis toxin, into the NTS attenuated these NPY-induced hypotensive effects. A selective Y1 receptor agonist increased expression of ERK1/2, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK) and the phosphorylation of eNOS. RSK also bound directly to eNOS and induced its phosphorylation at Ser1177. Pretreatment of the NTS with an eNOS inhibitor, but not a nNOS inhibitor, attenuated the NPY-induced hypotensive effects. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Together, these results suggested that NPY-induced depressor effects were mediated by activating NPY Y1 receptor-PKC-ERK-RSK-eNOS and Ca2+-eNOS signalling pathways, which are involved in regulation of blood pressure in the NTS. PMID:22708658

Cheng, Pei-Wen; Wu, Alexander TH; Lu, Pei-Jung; Yang, Ya-Chun; Ho, Wen-Yu; Lin, Hui-Ching; Hsiao, Michael; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

2012-01-01

88

RhoA Kinase (Rock) and p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (p90Rsk) phosphorylation of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) is required for lysophosphatidic acid-induced transport, cytoskeletal organization and migration.  

PubMed

The sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform one (NHE1) plays a critical role coordinating asymmetric events at the leading edge of migrating cells and is regulated by a number of phosphorylation events influencing both the ion transport and cytoskeletal anchoring required for directed migration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activation of RhoA kinase (Rock) and the Ras-ERK growth factor pathway induces cytoskeletal reorganization, activates NHE1 and induces an increase in cell motility. We report that both Rock I and II stoichiometrically phosphorylate NHE1 at threonine 653 in vitro using mass spectrometry and reconstituted kinase assays. In fibroblasts expressing NHE1 alanine mutants for either Rock (T653A) or ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk; S703A) we show that each site is partially responsible for the LPA-induced increase in transport activity while NHE1 phosphorylation by either Rock or Rsk at their respective site is sufficient for LPA stimulated stress fiber formation and migration. Furthermore, mutation of either T653 or S703 leads to a higher basal pH level and a significantly higher proliferation rate. Our results identify the direct phosphorylation of NHE1 by Rock and suggest that both RhoA and Ras pathways mediate NHE1-dependent ion transport and migration in fibroblasts. PMID:25578862

Wallert, Mark A; Hammes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tony; Kiefer, Lea; Berthelsen, Nick; Kern, Andrew; Anderson-Tiege, Kristina; Shabb, John B; Muhonen, Wallace W; Grove, Bryon D; Provost, Joseph J

2015-03-01

89

Elevated Protein Kinase D3 (PKD3) Expression Supports Proliferation of Triple-negative Breast Cancer Cells and Contributes to mTORC1-S6K1 Pathway Activation*  

PubMed Central

Here, we show that the expression of the Golgi-localized serine-threonine kinase protein kinase D3 (PKD3) is elevated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Using an antibody array, we identified PKD3 to trigger the activation of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a main downstream target of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway. Accordingly, PKD3 knockdown in TNBC cells led to reduced S6K1 phosphorylation, which was associated with impaired activation of mTORC1 at endolysosomal membranes, the accumulation of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor in and the recruitment of the autophagy marker light chain 3 to enlarged acidic vesicles. We further show that PKD3 depletion strongly inhibited cell spreading and proliferation of TNBC cells, identifying this kinase as a potential novel molecular therapeutic target in TNBC. Together, our data suggest that PKD3 in TNBC cells provides a molecular connection between the Golgi and endolysosomal compartments to enhance proliferative mTORC1-S6K1 signaling. PMID:24337579

Huck, Bettina; Duss, Stephan; Hausser, Angelika; Olayioye, Monilola A.

2014-01-01

90

Tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Promotes M1 Macrophage Survival through p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) and p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Pathway.  

PubMed

Macrophage accumulation is one of the hallmarks of progressive kidney disease. Resting macrophages have a finite lifespan, but become resistant to apoptosis in response to pathogenic cues, whereas the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), a protease up-regulated in the kidneys with chronic injury, has been shown to promote macrophage accumulation and renal inflammation. We hypothesized that tPA may be the endogenous factor that promotes macrophage survival and extends their lifespan that leads to their accumulation in the injured kidneys. We examined the role of tPA in macrophage survival, and found that tPA protected macrophages from both staurosporine and H2O2-induced apoptosis. tPA promoted the survival of both resting and lipopolysaccharide- or interferon-?-induced M1 macrophages, but failed to do so in the interleukin 4 (IL4)-induced M2 macrophages. In the kidneys with unilateral ureteral obstruction, there were significantly more apoptotic M1 macrophages in tPA-deficient mice than their wild-type counterparts, and obstruction-induced M1 macrophages accumulation and M1 chemokine expression were markedly reduced in these knock-out mice. The cytoprotective effect of tPA required its receptor, LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1). tPA induced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), and p38 in a temporal order. The tPA-mediated macrophage survival was eliminated by PD98059, BI-D1870, or sc68376, the specific inhibitors for Erk1/2, p90RSK, or p38, respectively. Thus, it is clear that tPA promoted M1 macrophage survival through its receptor LRP-1-mediated novel signaling cascade involving Erk1/2, p90RSK, and p38, which leads to the accumulation of these cells in the injured kidneys. PMID:25670857

Lin, Ling; Jin, Yang; Hu, Kebin

2015-03-20

91

Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389} and phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and phosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K{sup Thr389} and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at Ser{sup 9} and, to a lesser extent, Thr{sup 390}, the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 389}, and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 421} and Ser{sup 424}. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389}; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}, and p-70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our data show that proteasome inhibition regulates p38/GSK{sup Ser9}/p70S6K{sup Thr380} and ERK/GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}/p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} kinase signaling, which is involved in cell survival and cell death.

Choi, Cheol-Hee [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of) [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon [College of Pharmacy and Multiscreening Center for Drug Development, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy and Multiscreening Center for Drug Development, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee, E-mail: oshccw@hanmail.net [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-24

92

The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor BI-D1870 prevents gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis and mediates senescence via RSK- and p53-independent accumulation of p21WAF1/CIP1  

PubMed Central

The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family is a group of highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases that promote cell proliferation, growth, motility and survival. As they are almost exclusively activated downstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), therapeutic intervention by RSK inhibition is less likely to produce such severe side effects as those observed following inhibition of the upstream master regulators Raf, MEK and ERK1/2. Here, we report that BI-D1870, a potent small molecule inhibitor of RSKs, induces apoptosis, although preferentially, in a p21-deficient background. On the other hand, BI-D1870 also induces a strong transcription- and p53-independent accumulation of p21 protein and protects cells from gamma irradiation (?IR)-induced apoptosis, driving them into senescence even in the absence of ?IR. Although we identified p21 in in vitro kinase assays as a novel RSK substrate that specifically becomes phosphorylated by RSK1-3 at Ser116 and Ser146, RNA-interference, overexpression and co-immunoprecipitation studies as well as the use of SL0101, another specific RSK inhibitor, revealed that BI-D1870 mediates p21 accumulation via a yet unknown pathway that, besides its off-site targets polo-like kinase-1 and AuroraB, also does also not involve RSKs. Thus, this novel off-target effect of BI-D1870 should be taken into serious consideration in future studies investigating the role of RSKs in cellular signaling and tumorigenesis. PMID:24136223

Neise, D; Sohn, D; Stefanski, A; Goto, H; Inagaki, M; Wesselborg, S; Budach, W; Stühler, K; Jänicke, R U

2013-01-01

93

Overexpression of phospholipase D prevents actinomycin D-induced apoptosis through potentiation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling pathways in Chinese-hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed Central

To examine the roles of PLD (phospholipase D) in the regulation of the apoptotic process, PLD1 and PLD2 were stably overexpressed in S1P3-CHO cells [CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells expressing the S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) receptor S1P3]. Treatment of S1P3-CHO cells with ActD (actinomycin D) induced apoptosis, as shown by the occurrence of nuclear fragmentation and the caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] and protein kinase Cd. Overexpression of either PLD1 or PLD2 protected S1P3-CHO cells from ActD-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by an increased number of viable cells and inhibition of PARP and protein kinase Cd cleavage. However, in the early phase of apoptosis, ActD induced an increase in PLD activity and activation of key factors in the cell-survival signalling pathways, such as PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt, p70S6K (p70 S6 kinase) and ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase). Furthermore, the ActD-induced activation of these survival signalling enzymes was potentiated by overexpression of either PLD1 or PLD2. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited the ActD-induced activation of Akt and p70S6K, and completely abolished the effects of PLD1 or PLD2, whereas inhibition of ERK activity by the MEK inhibitor U0126 had a milder effect. The ActD-induced activation of p70S6K and ERKs was blocked by 1-butanol, but not by t-butanol; similar to S1P, exogenous PLD suppressed the ActD-induced events in the apoptosis signalling pathways. These results show that, in S1P3-CHO cells, increased expression of PLDs prevents ActD-induced apoptosis by enhanced activation of the PI3K signalling pathways. PMID:14640974

Yamada, Momoko; Banno, Yoshiko; Takuwa, Yoh; Koda, Masahiro; Hara, Akira; Nozawa, Yoshinori

2004-01-01

94

Glyceollin, a novel regulator of mTOR/p70S6 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An estimated 70% of breast cancer tumors utilize estrogen receptor (ER) signaling to maintain tumorigenesis, and targeting of the estrogen receptor is a common method of treatment for these tumor types. However, ER-positive (+) breast cancers often acquire drug resistant or altered ER activity in r...

95

Luteolin is a novel p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor that suppresses Notch4 signaling by blocking the activation of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1)  

PubMed Central

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are notoriously difficult to treat because they lack hormone receptors and have limited targeted therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is essential for TNBC growth and survival indicating it as a target for therapeutic development. RSK phosphorylates Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), an oncogenic transcription/translation factor, highly expressed in TNBC (~70% of cases) and associated with poor prognosis, drug resistance and tumor initiation. YB-1 regulates the tumor-initiating cell markers, CD44 and CD49f however its role in Notch signaling has not been explored. We sought to identify novel chemical entities with RSK inhibitory activity. The Prestwick Chemical Library of 1120 off-patent drugs was screened for RSK inhibitors using both in vitro kinase assays and molecular docking. The lead candidate, luteolin, inhibited RSK1 and RSK2 kinase activity and suppressed growth in TNBC, including TIC-enriched populations. Combining luteolin with paclitaxel increased cell death and unlike chemotherapy alone, did not enrich for CD44+ cells. Luteolin’s efficacy against drug-resistant cells was further indicated in the primary x43 cell line, where it suppressed monolayer growth and mammosphere formation. We next endeavored to understand how the inhibition of RSK/YB-1 signaling by luteolin elicited an effect on TIC-enriched populations. ChIP-on-ChIP experiments in SUM149 cells revealed a 12-fold enrichment of YB-1 binding to the Notch4 promoter. We chose to pursue this because there are several reports indicating that Notch4 maintains cells in an undifferentiated, TIC state. Herein we report that silencing YB-1 with siRNA decreased Notch4 mRNA. Conversely, transient expression of Flag:YB-1WT or the constitutively active mutant Flag:YB-1D102 increased Notch4 mRNA. The levels of Notch4 transcript and the abundance of the Notch4 intracellular domain (N4ICD) correlated with activation of P-RSKS221/7 and P-YB-1S102 in a panel of TNBC cell lines. Silencing YB-1 or RSK reduced Notch4 mRNA and this corresponded with loss of N4ICD. Likewise, the RSK inhibitors, luteolin and BI-D1870, suppressed P-YB-1 S102 and thereby reduced Notch4. In conclusion, inhibiting the RSK/YB-1 pathway with luteolin is a novel approach to blocking Notch4 signaling and as such provides a means of inhibiting TICs. PMID:23593654

Reipas, Kristen M.; Law, Jennifer H.; Couto, Nicole; Islam, Sumaiya; Li, Yvonne; Li, Huifang; Cherkasov, Artem; Jung, Karen; Cheema, Amarpal S.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Hassell, John A.; Dunn, Sandra E.

2013-01-01

96

The prometastatic ribosomal S6 kinase 2-cAMP response element-binding protein (RSK2-CREB) signaling pathway up-regulates the actin-binding protein fascin-1 to promote tumor metastasis.  

PubMed

Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with breast, lung, and head and neck cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metastases in these cancers remain unclear. We found that the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2)-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway is commonly activated in diverse metastatic human cancer cells, leading to up-regulation of a CREB transcription target Fascin-1. We also observed that the protein expression patterns of RSK2 and Fascin-1 correlate in primary human tumor tissue samples from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Moreover, knockdown of RSK2 disrupts filopodia formation and bundling in highly invasive cancer cells, leading to attenuated cancer cell invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas expression of Fascin-1 significantly rescues these phenotypes. Furthermore, targeting RSK2 with the small molecule RSK inhibitor FMK-MEA effectively attenuated the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Taken together, our findings for the first time link RSK2-CREB signaling to filopodia formation and bundling through the up-regulation of Fascin-1, providing a proinvasive and prometastatic advantage to human cancers. Therefore, protein effectors of the RSK2-CREB-Fascin-1 pathway represent promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the clinical prognosis and treatment of metastatic human cancers. PMID:24085294

Li, Dan; Jin, Lingtao; Alesi, Gina N; Kim, Young-Mee; Fan, Jun; Seo, Jae Ho; Wang, Dongsheng; Tucker, Meghan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Lee, Benjamin H; Taunton, Jack; Magliocca, Kelly R; Chen, Zhuo G; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Kang, Sumin

2013-11-01

97

?-Terpineol induces fatty liver in mice mediated by the AMP-activated kinase and sterol response element binding protein pathway.  

PubMed

The use of herbal medicines in disease prevention and treatment is growing rapidly worldwide, without careful consideration of safety issues. ?-Terpineol is a monoterpene alcoholic component of Melaleuca alternifolia, Salvia officinalis and Carthamus tinctorius that is used widely as a flavor and essential oil in food. The present study showed that ?-terpineol induces fatty liver via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mTOR-sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) pathway. ?-Terpineol-treated hepatocytes had significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation. ?-Terpineol suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, and increased p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and SREBP-1 activation. It also increased luciferase activity in cells transfected with LXRE-tk-Luc and SRE-tk-Luc. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by co-treatment with rapamycin or co-transfection with dominant negative p70S6K blocked completely the effects of ?-terpineol. ?-Terpineol oral administration to mice for 2weeks led to decreased AMPK phosphorylation and increased SREBP-1 activation in the liver, followed by hepatic lipid accumulation. Conversely, rapamycin co-treatment reversed ?-terpineol-induced SREBP-1 activation and fatty liver in mice. These data provide evidence that ?-terpineol causes fatty liver, an effect mediated by the AMPK/mTOR/SREBP-1 pathway. PMID:23274539

Choi, You-Jin; Sim, Woo-Cheol; Choi, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hoon

2013-05-01

98

Development of Organometallic S6K1 Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Aberrant activation of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is found in many diseases, including diabetes, aging, and cancer. We developed ATP competitive organometallic kinase inhibitors, EM5 and FL772, which are inspired by the structure of the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine, to specifically inhibit S6K1 using a strategy previously used to target other kinases. Biochemical data demonstrate that EM5 and FL772 inhibit the kinase with IC50 value in the low nanomolar range at 100 ?M ATP and that the more potent FL772 compound has a greater than 100-fold specificity over S6K2. The crystal structures of S6K1 bound to staurosporine, EM5, and FL772 reveal that the EM5 and FL772 inhibitors bind in the ATP binding pocket and make S6K1-specific contacts, resulting in changes to the p-loop, ?C helix, and ?D helix when compared to the staurosporine-bound structure. Cellular data reveal that FL772 is able to inhibit S6K phosphorylation in yeast cells. Together, these studies demonstrate that potent, selective, and cell permeable S6K1 inhibitors can be prepared and provide a scaffold for future development of S6K inhibitors with possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25356520

Feng, Li; Salami, Jemilat; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Domsic, John; Reyes-Uribe, Patricia; Liu, Haiying; Dang, Weiwei; Berger, Shelley L.; Villanueva, Jessie; Meggers, Eric; Marmorstein, Ronen

2014-01-01

99

The N-terminal region of p27 inhibits HIF-1? protein translation in ribosomal protein S6-dependent manner by regulating PHLPP-Ras-ERK-p90RSK axis  

PubMed Central

P27 was identified as a tumor suppressor nearly two decades, being implicated in cell-cycle control, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis and motility. Our present study, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, revealed a potential role of p27 in inhibiting S6-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) protein translation, which contributed to the protection from environmental carcinogen (sodium arsenite)-induced cell transformation. Our findings showed that depletion of p27 expression by knockout and knockdown approaches efficiently enhanced S6 phosphorylation in arsenite response via overactivating Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which consequently resulted in the stimulation of p90RSK (90?kDa ribosomal S6 kinase), a direct kinase for S6 phosphorylation. Although PI3K/AKT pathway was also involved in S6 activation, blocking AKT and p70S6K activation did not attenuate arsenite-induced S6 activation in p27?/? cells, suggesting p27 specifically targeted Ras/ERK pathway rather than PI3K/AKT pathway for inhibition of S6 activation in response to arsenite exposure. Further functional studies found that p27 had a negative role in cell transformation induced by chronic low-dose arsentie exposure. Mechanistic investigations showed that HIF-1? translation was upregulated in p27-deficient cells in an S6 phosphorylation-dependent manner and functioned as a driving force in arsenite-induced cell transformation. Knockdown of HIF-1? efficiently reversed arsenite-induced cell transformation in p27-depleted cells. Taken together, our findings provided strong evidence showing that by targeting Ras/ERK pathway, p27 provided a negative control over HIF-1? protein synthesis in an S6-dependent manner, and abrogated arsenite-induced cell transformation via downregulation of HIF-1? translation. PMID:25412313

Zhang, D; Liu, J; Mi, X; Liang, Y; Li, J; Huang, C

2014-01-01

100

Protein kinase C and P2Y12 take center stage in thrombin-mediated activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in human platelets  

PubMed Central

Background Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1), reduces platelet spreading, thrombus stability, and clot retraction. Despite an important role of mTORC1 in platelet function, little is known about how it is regulated. The objective of this study was to determine the signaling pathways that regulate mTORC1 in human platelets. Methods Mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 activation was assessed by measuring the phosphorylation of its downstream substrate ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K). Results Thrombin or the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbal 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulated activation of mTORC1 in a PKC-dependent, Akt-independent manner that correlated with phosphorylation of tuberin/tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) (Ser939 and Thr1462). In contrast, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)–stimulated TSC2 phosphorylation was completely dependent on phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)/Akt but did not result in any detectable mTORC1 activation. Early (Ser939 and Thr1462) and late (Thr1462) TSC2 phosphorylation in response to thrombin were directly PKC dependent, whereas later TSC2 (Ser939) and p70S6K phosphorylation were largely dependent on paracrine signaling through P2Y12. PKC-mediated adenosine diphosphate (ADP) secretion was essential for thrombin-stimulated mTORC1 activation, as (i) ADP rescued p70S6K phosphorylation in the presence of a PKC inhibitor and (ii) P2Y12 antagonism prevented thrombin-mediated mTORC1 activation. Rescue of mTORC1 activation with exogenous ADP was completely dependent on the Src family kinases but independent of PI3 kinase/Akt. Interestingly, although inhibition of Src blocked the ADP rescue, it had little effect on thrombin-stimulated p70S6K phosphorylation under conditions where PKC was not inhibited. Conclusion These results demonstrate that thrombin activates the mTORC1 pathway in human platelets through PKC-mediated ADP secretion and subsequent activation of P2Y12, in a manner largely independent of the canonical PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:24612393

Moore, S F; Hunter, R W; Hers, I

2014-01-01

101

S6K1 in the Central Nervous System Regulates Energy Expenditure via MC4R/CRH Pathways in Response to Deprivation of an Essential Amino Acid  

PubMed Central

It is well established that the central nervous system (CNS), especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. We have previously shown that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is critical for stimulating fat loss in response to dietary leucine deprivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the CNS regulation of leucine deprivation–stimulated fat loss are, however, still largely unknown. Here, we used intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral vectors to identify a novel role for hypothalamic p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a major downstream effector of the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin, in leucine deprivation stimulation of energy expenditure. Furthermore, we show that the effect of hypothalamic S6K1 is mediated by modulation of Crh expression in a melanocortin-4 receptor–dependent manner. Taken together, our studies provide a new perspective for understanding the regulation of energy expenditure by the CNS and the importance of cross-talk between nutritional control and regulation of endocrine signals. PMID:22787141

Xia, Tingting; Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Guo, Feifan

2012-01-01

102

The murine c-fgr gene product associated with Ly6C and p70 integral membrane protein is expressed in cells of a monocyte/macrophage lineage.  

PubMed Central

The c-fgr gene is a member of the Src family of protooncogene tyrosine kinases. A monoclonal antibody (2H2) that recognizes the specific region of the N-terminal domain of the murine c-fgr gene product (Fgr) has been established. With an immune complex kinase assay in a monocytic leukemia cell line, 2H2 monoclonal antibody was shown to precipitate a 59-kDa protein that corresponds in molecular mass to murine Fgr. Fgr was expressed highly in lymph nodes, slightly in spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes, and barely in the thymus and was not detected in bone marrow. In the presence of a mild detergent, Fgr was coimmunoprecipitated with a 70-kDa protein (p70) or with p70 plus several other molecules that were expressed on the cell-surface membrane of macrophage tumor cell lines PU5-1.8 and J774.1, respectively. By contrast, Fgr was not coimmunoprecipitated with a low-affinity receptor for the Fc portion of IgG that is associated with human Fgr. The molecule was also coimmunoprecipitated with the Ly6C molecule from a macrophage cell line (J774.1) that showed protein-tyrosine kinase activity. Peptide mapping revealed that this kinase activity was derived from Fgr. The similarity of relationship between this intramembrane p70 and/or Ly6C and cytoplasmic Fgr to relationships previously reported between T-cell antigen receptor complex, including CD4 and CD8 coreceptors, and Lck or Fyn in T cells and between surface IgM and Lyn or Blk in B cells, suggests that the Fgr and p70 or Ly6C are, indeed, associated with each other and in the murine system may be responsible for recognition of extracellular substances (either cellular or noncellular) and for signal transduction in cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Images PMID:8159769

Hatakeyama, S; Iwabuchi, K; Ogasawara, K; Good, R A; Onoé, K

1994-01-01

103

Follicle-stimulating hormone increases tuberin phosphorylation and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathway in rat granulosa cells.  

PubMed

FSH-mediated regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in proliferating granulosa cells and the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on this pathway were examined. Inhibiting mTOR activation using rapamycin significantly reduced the FSH-mediated increase in cyclin D2 mRNA expression, suggesting that mTOR plays a role in the FSH-mediated increase in granulosa cell proliferation. FSH treatment of granulosa cells showed a 2-fold increase in phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), the downstream target of mTOR. The increase in p70S6K phosphorylation by FSH treatment was abolished by prior exposure to DHT, suggesting that DHT inhibits FSH-mediated activation of mTOR signaling in cultured granulosa cells. The effect of FSH and DHT treatment on tuberin (TSC2), the upstream regulator of mTOR, was then examined. FSH treatment increased TSC2 phosphorylation, and pretreatment with DHT for 24 h reduced this stimulation. These results indicate that reduced p70S6K phosphorylation observed in DHT-treated cells might be the result of reduced TSC2 phosphorylation. Because Akt is the upstream activator of TSC2 phosphorylation, the effect of Akt inhibition was examined to test whether FSH-mediated TSC2 phosphorylation proceeds through an Akt-dependent pathway. Our results show that inhibiting Akt phosphorylation did not block FSH-stimulated TSC2 phosphorylation, whereas ERK inhibition reduced FSH-mediated stimulation. These results demonstrate the involvement of ERK rather than Akt in FSH-mediated TSC2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. Based on these observations, we conclude that in granulosa cells, FSH uses a protein kinase A-/ERK-dependent pathway to stimulate TSC2 phosphorylation and mTOR signaling, and DHT treatment significantly reduces this response. PMID:17510244

Kayampilly, Pradeep P; Menon, K M J

2007-08-01

104

Multiple implications of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 in human cancer  

PubMed Central

3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is a central mediator of cellular signaling between phosphoinositide-3 kinase and various intracellular serine/threonine kinases, including protein kinase B, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase, serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase, and protein kinase C. PDK1 activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases by phosphorylating serine/threonine residues in the activation loop. Here, we review the regulatory mechanisms of PDK1 and its roles in cancer. PDK1 is activated by autophosphorylation in the activation loop and other serine residues, as well as by phosphorylation of Tyr-9 and Tyr-373/376. Src appears to recognize PDK1 following tyrosine phosphorylation. The role of heat shock protein 90 in regulating PDK1 stability and PDK1-Src complex formation are also discussed. Furthermore, we summarize the subcellular distribution of PDK1. Finally, an important role for PDK1 in cancer chemotherapy is proposed. In conclusion, a better understanding of its molecular regulatory mechanisms in various signaling pathways will help to explain how PDK1 acts as an oncogenic kinase in various cancers, and will contribute to the development of novel cancer chemotherapies. PMID:21537480

Li, Yuwen; Yang, Keum-Jin; Park, Jongsun

2010-01-01

105

Bacteriophage P70: unique morphology and unrelatedness to other Listeria bacteriophages.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen, and its bacteriophages find many uses in detection and biocontrol of its host. The novel broad-host-range virulent phage P70 has a unique morphology with an elongated capsid. Its genome sequence was determined by a hybrid sequencing strategy employing Sanger and PacBio techniques. The P70 genome contains 67,170 bp and 119 open reading frames (ORFs). Our analyses suggest that P70 represents an archetype of virus unrelated to other known Listeria bacteriophages. PMID:22993158

Schmuki, Martina M; Erne, Doris; Loessner, Martin J; Klumpp, Jochen

2012-12-01

106

Removal of S6K1 and S6K2 Leads to Divergent Alterations in Learning, Memory, and Synaptic Plasticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Protein synthesis is required for the expression of enduring memories and long-lasting synaptic plasticity. During cellular proliferation and growth, S6 kinases (S6Ks) are activated and coordinate the synthesis of de novo proteins. We hypothesized that protein synthesis mediated by S6Ks is critical for the manifestation of learning, memory, and…

Antion, Marcia D.; Merhav, Maayan; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Reis, Gerald; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Schuman Erin M.; Rosenblum, Kobi; Klann, Eric

2008-01-01

107

S6K links cell fate, cell cycle and nutrient response in C. elegans germline stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Coupling of stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation to organismal physiological demands ensures the proper growth and homeostasis of tissues. However, in vivo mechanisms underlying this control are poorly characterized. We investigated the role of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) at the intersection of nutrition and the establishment of a stem/progenitor cell population using the C. elegans germ line as a model. We find that rsks-1 (which encodes the worm homolog of mammalian p70S6K) is required germline-autonomously for proper establishment of the germline progenitor pool. In the germ line, rsks-1 promotes cell cycle progression and inhibits larval progenitor differentiation, promotes growth of adult tumors and requires a conserved TOR phosphorylation site. Loss of rsks-1 and ife-1 (eIF4E) together reduces the germline progenitor pool more severely than either single mutant and similarly to reducing the activity of let-363 (TOR) or daf-15 (RAPTOR). Moreover, rsks-1 acts in parallel with the glp-1 (Notch) and daf-2 (insulin-IGF receptor) pathways, and does not share the same genetic dependencies with its role in lifespan control. We show that overall dietary restriction and amino acid deprivation cause germline defects similar to a subset of rsks-1 mutant phenotypes. Consistent with a link between diet and germline proliferation via rsks-1, loss of rsks-1 renders the germ line largely insensitive to the effects of dietary restriction. Our studies establish the C. elegans germ line as an in vivo model to understand TOR-S6K signaling in proliferation and differentiation and suggest that this pathway is a key nutrient-responsive regulator of germline progenitors. PMID:22278922

Korta, Dorota Z; Tuck, Simon; Hubbard, E Jane Albert

2012-03-01

108

Phosphotyrosine residues in the nerve-growth-factor receptor (Trk-A). Their role in the activation of inositolphospholipid metabolism and protein kinase cascades in phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells.  

PubMed

PC12 cells, which lack platelet derived-growth-factor (PDGF) receptors, have been stably transfected with a chimaera consisting of the extracellular domain of the beta-PDGF receptor and the intracellular and transmembrane domains of the nerve-growth-factor receptor Trk-A (termed PT-R). Mutation of the Trk-A residue Tyr490 to phenylalanine prevents the association with Shc, while similar mutations at Tyr751 or Tyr785 are reported to prevent interaction of Trk-A with the p85 subunit of inositol phospholipid 3-kinase and phospholipase C-gamma 1, respectively. The strong and sustained activation of p42 and p44 mitogen-activated-protein kinases induced by PDGF-B/B in PC12/PT-R cells was unaffected by mutation of Tyr785 or Tyr751 to phenylalanine, but was smaller and transient after mutation of Tyr490, and almost abolished by the double mutation of Tyr490 and Tyr785. Mutation of Tyr490 reduced by 70% the PDGF-induced increase in inositol phospholipid 3-kinase activity immunoprecipitated from cell extracts with antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and greatly suppressed the PDGF-induced increase in the intracellular products of inositol phospholipid 3-kinase, while mutation of Tyr751 or Tyr785 had no effect. Mutation of Tyr785 (but not mutation of Tyr490 or Tyr751) abolished PDGF-stimulated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Mutation of Tyr490, alone or in combination with mutation of Tyr751 and Tyr785, had no effect on the PDGF-induced activation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K). However, the activation of p70S6K by PDGF (or nerve growth factor), but not the activation of mitogen-activated-protein kinase, was prevented by two structurally unrelated inhibitors of inositol phospholipid 3-kinase, wortmannin or LY294002. Our results demonstrate the following: (1) the phosphorylation of Tyr490 plays a major role in the activation of inositol phospholipid 3-kinase and formation of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids and confirm that the phosphorylation of Tyr 785 triggers the activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 in vivo. (2) Tyr490 phosphorylation (but not inositol phospholipid 3-kinase activation) is also required for strong and sustained activation of mitogen-activated-protein kinase and neuronal differentiation, while the smaller and more transient activation of mitogen-activated-protein kinase, produced by the activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 is insufficient to trigger the neuronal differentiation of PT-R cells. (3) Inositol phospholipid 3-kinase is required for the activation of p70S6K, but only a small increase in inositol phospholipid 3-kinase activity and the level of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids is required for maximal p70S6K activation. PMID:8529673

Baxter, R M; Cohen, P; Obermeier, A; Ullrich, A; Downes, C P; Doza, Y N

1995-11-15

109

Artemisinin inhibits neuroblastoma proliferation through activation of AHP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling.  

PubMed

Recent population studies suggest that the use of artemisinin is associated with reduced incidence and improved prognosis of certain cancers. In the current study, we assessed the effect of artemisinin on neuroblastoma cells using SHSY5Y cells. We found that artemisinin inhibited growth and modulated expression of cell-cycle regulators in these cells. Treatment with artemisinin was also associated with activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/pS6 signaling in SHSY5Y cells. In addition, inhibition of AMPK signaling reversed impact on the anti-proliferative roles of artemisinin. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a mechanism that may contribute to the antineoplastic effects of artemisinin suggested by recent population studies and justify further work to explore its potential roles in neuroblastoma prevention and treatment. PMID:24974584

Tan, Wei-Qiang; Chen, Gang; Jia, Bing; Ye, Ming

2014-06-01

110

IL-12p70–producing patient DC vaccine elicits Tc1-polarized immunity  

PubMed Central

Background. Systemic administration of IL-12p70 has demonstrated clinical activity in cancer patients, but dose-limiting toxicities have hindered its incorporation in vaccine formulations. Here, we report on the immunological and clinical outcomes upon vaccination with CD40L/IFN-?–matured, IL-12p70–producing DCs. Methods. 7 HLA-A*0201+ newly diagnosed stage IV melanoma patients were immunized against the gp100 melanoma antigen using autologous peptide-pulsed, CD40L/IFN-?–matured DCs. PBMCs were taken weekly for immune monitoring by tetramer analysis and functional assays. CT imaging was performed at baseline, week 9, and week 18 for clinical assessment using RECIST. Results. 6 of 7 treated patients developed sustained T cell immunity to all 3 melanoma gp100 antigen–derived peptides. 3 of the 6 immunological responders developed confirmed clinical responses (1 complete remission >4 years, 2 partial response). Importantly, DC vaccine–derived IL-12p70 levels positively correlated with time to progression (P = 0.019, log-rank), as did T-cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) immunity, as assessed by IFN-?/IL-13 and IFN-?/IL-5 ratios (P = 0.035 and P = 0.030, respectively, log-rank). In contrast, a pathway-specific defect in IL-12p35 transcription was identified upon CD40L/IFN-? activation in clinical nonresponder patient DCs, and gp100-specific T cells from these patients displayed a Tc2 phenotype. Incorporation of TLR3 and TLR8 agonists into the CD40L/IFN-? activation protocol corrected the IL-12p70 production defect in DCs derived from clinical nonresponder patients. Conclusion. These findings underscore the essential role of IL-12p70 in the development of therapeutic type 1 antigen–specific CD8+ T cell immunity in humans with cancer. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00683670. Funding. Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation, Siteman Cancer Frontier Fund, Washington University/JNJ Translational Medicine Award, and NCI (P30 CA91842). PMID:23867552

Carreno, Beatriz M.; Becker-Hapak, Michelle; Huang, Alexander; Chan, Megan; Alyasiry, Amer; Lie, Wen-Rong; Aft, Rebecca L.; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Trinkaus, Kathryn M.; Linette, Gerald P.

2013-01-01

111

S6K1 DEFICIENCY PROTECTS AGAINST APOPTOSIS IN HEPATOCYTES  

PubMed Central

The mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway controls cell growth and proliferation. To assess the importance of S6K1 in the balance between death and survival in the liver, we have generated immortalized hepatocyte cell lines from wild-type and S6K1-deficient (S6K1?/?) mice. In S6K1?/? hepatocytes caspase-8 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bid were constitutively down-regulated as compared to wild-type. Moreover, S6K1?/? hepatocytes failed to respond to the apoptotic trigger of death receptor activation. Neither caspase-8 activation nor FLIPL degradation in response to TNF? or anti-Fas antibody (Jo2) was observed in cells lacking S6K1. Downstream events such as Bid cleavage, cytochrome C release, caspase-3 activation, DNA laddering, as well as the percentage of apoptotic cells were attenuated as compared to wild-type. In addition, the anti-apoptotic protein BclxL was down-regulated in TNF? or Jo2-treated wild-type hepatocytes, but this response was abolished in S6K1?/?cells. In vivo, S6K1-deficient mice were protected against concanavalin A-induced apoptosis. The withdrawal of growth factors strongly induced apoptosis in wild-type, but not in S6K1?/? hepatocytes. S6K1 deficiency did not decrease BclxL/Bim ratio upon serum withdrawal, thereby protecting cells from cytochrome C release and DNA fragmentation. At the molecular level, the lack of S6K1-mediated negative feed-back decreased IRS-1 serine phosphorylation resulting in activation of survival pathways mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K)/Akt and ERK. However, S6K1?/? hepatocytes underwent apoptosis upon serum withdrawal in combination of PI 3-K or ERK inhibitors. This finding might explain the mechanism of resistance to mTOR inhibitors in cancer treatments, and strongly suggests that the inhibition of S6K1 could protect against acute liver failure and, in combination with inhibitors that abrogate the sustained activation of Akt and ERK, could improve the efficacy of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) treatment. PMID:19437488

González-Rodriguez, Águeda; Alba, Javier; Zimmerman, Valeri; Kozma, Sara C; Valverde, Ángela M.

2009-01-01

112

3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 as an emerging target in the management of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

It should be noted that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is a protein encoded by the PDPK1 gene, which plays a key role in the signaling pathways activated by several growth factors and hormones. PDK1 is a crucial kinase that functions downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation and activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases, such as protein kinase B (Akt), protein kinase C (PKC), p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases, and serum glucocorticoid-dependent kinase, by phosphorylating serine/threonine residues in the activation loop. AGC kinases are known to play crucial roles in regulating physiological processes relevant to metabolism, growth, proliferation, and survival. Changes in the expression and activity of PDK1 and several AGC kinases have been linked to human diseases including cancer. Recent data have revealed that the alteration of PDK1 is a critical component of oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in breast cancer, suggesting that inhibition of PDK1 can inhibit breast cancer progression. Indeed, PDK1 is highly expressed in a majority of human breast cancer cell lines and both PDK1 protein and messenger ribonucleic acid are overexpressed in a majority of human breast cancers. Furthermore, overexpression of PDK1 is sufficient to transform mammary epithelial cells. PDK1 plays an essential role in regulating cell migration, especially in the context of phosphatase and tensin homologue deficiency. More importantly, downregulation of PDK1 levels inhibits migration and experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Thus, targeting PDK1 may be a valuable anticancer strategy that may improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic strategies in breast cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the evidence that has been reported to support the idea that PDK1 may be a key target in breast cancer management. PMID:24039447

Fyffe, Chanse; Falasca, Marco

2013-01-01

113

S6K1 and mTOR regulate Rac1-driven platelet activation and aggregation  

PubMed Central

Platelet activation and thrombus formation are under the control of signaling systems that integrate cellular homeostasis with cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, we identify a role for the ribosome protein S6 kinase (S6K1) and its upstream regulator mTOR in the control of platelet activation and aggregate formation under shear flow. Platelet engagement of fibrinogen initiated a signaling cascade that triggered the activation of S6K1 and Rac1. Fibrinogen-induced S6K1 activation was abolished by inhibitors of Src kinases, but not Rac1 inhibitors, demonstrating that S6K1 acts upstream of Rac1. S6K1 and Rac1 interacted in a protein complex with the Rac1 GEF TIAM1 and colocalized with actin at the platelet lamellipodial edge, suggesting that S6K1 and Rac1 work together to drive platelet spreading. Pharmacologic inhibitors of mTOR and S6K1 blocked Rac1 activation and prevented platelet spreading on fibrinogen, but had no effect on Src or FAK kinase activation. mTOR inhibitors dramatically reduced collagen-induced platelet aggregation and promoted the destabilization of platelet aggregates formed under shear flow conditions. Together, these results reveal novel roles for S6K1 and mTOR in the regulation of Rac1 activity and provide insights into the relationship between the pharmacology of the mTOR system and the molecular mechanisms of platelet activation. PMID:21757621

Tormoen, Garth W.; Loren, Cassandra P.; Pang, Jiaqing; McCarty, Owen J. T.

2011-01-01

114

Conservation of the Tsc/Rheb/TORC1/S6K/S6 Signaling in Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

The TSC/Rheb/TORC1/S6K/S6 signaling pathway plays critical roles in regulating protein synthesis and growth in eukaryotes. Our recent work using fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe revealed that this signaling pathway is conserved from humans to fission yeast. In addition to target of rapamycin (TOR) homologsand tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) homologs, fission yeast but not budding yeast, has a functional homolog of Rheb, a small G-protein acting as an activator of TOR complex 1 (TORC1). Several lines of genetic evidence suggest that the Tsc1–Tsc2 complex and Rheb act as upstream players of TORC1 in fission yeast. We have recently demonstrated that TORC1, but not TORC2, regulates phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in response to nutrient availability. Candidate S6 kinase (S6K) protein has been identified. In addition, we find that rapamycin prevents a subset of TORC1 activity to regulate S6 phosphorylation in fission yeast.

NAKASHIMA, AKIO; TAMANOI, FUYUHIKO

2015-01-01

115

Networking with mitogen-activated protein kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases and their target ribosomal protein S6 (RSK) kinases have been recognized as shared components in the intracellular signaling pathways of many diverse cytokines. Recent studies have extended this protein kinase cascade by identifying the major activator of vertebrate MAP kinases as a serine\\/threonine\\/tyrosine-protein kinase called MEK, which is related to yeast mating factor-regulated protein kinases

Steven L. Pelech; David L. Charest; Guy P. Mordret; Yaw Loong Siow; Chrystal Palaty; Donna Campbell; Lorin Charlton; Mitra Samiei; Jasbinder S. Sanghera

1993-01-01

116

Glycogen synthase kinase-3? mediates convergence of protection signaling to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore  

PubMed Central

Environmental stresses converge on the mitochondria that can trigger or inhibit cell death. Excitable, postmitotic cells, in response to sublethal noxious stress, engage mechanisms that afford protection from subsequent insults. We show that reoxygenation after prolonged hypoxia reduces the reactive oxygen species (ROS) threshold for the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in cardiomyocytes and that cell survival is steeply negatively correlated with the fraction of depolarized mitochondria. Cell protection that exhibits a memory (preconditioning) results from triggered mitochondrial swelling that causes enhanced substrate oxidation and ROS production, leading to redox activation of PKC, which inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Alternatively, receptor tyrosine kinase or certain G protein–coupled receptor activation elicits cell protection (without mitochondrial swelling or durable memory) by inhibiting GSK-3?, via protein kinase B/Akt and mTOR/p70s6k pathways, PKC pathways, or protein kinase A pathways. The convergence of these pathways via inhibition of GSK-3? on the end effector, the permeability transition pore complex, to limit MPT induction is the general mechanism of cardiomyocyte protection. PMID:15173880

Juhaszova, Magdalena; Zorov, Dmitry B.; Kim, Suhn-Hee; Pepe, Salvatore; Fu, Qin; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Ziman, Bruce D.; Wang, Su; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Antos, Christopher L.; Olson, Eric N.; Sollott, Steven J.

2004-01-01

117

Development of Novel Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Activators  

PubMed Central

In light of the unique ability of thiazolidinediones to mediate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?-independent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and suppression of interleukin (IL)-6 production, we conducted a screening of an in-house, thiazolidinedione-based focused compound library to identify novel agents with these dual pharmacological activities. Cell-based assays pertinent to the activation status of AMPK and mammalian homolog of target of rapamycin (i.e., phosphorylation of AMPK and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, respectively), and IL-6/IL-6 receptor signaling (i.e., IL-6 production and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, respectively) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 human macrophages were used to screen this compound library, which led to the identification of compound 53 (N-{4-[3-(1-Methylcyclohexylmethyl)-2,4-dioxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene-methyl]-phenyl}-4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-benzenesulfonamide) as the lead agent. Evidence indicates that this drug-induced suppression of LPS-stimulated IL-6 production was attributable to AMPK activation. Furthermore, compound 53-mediated AMPK activation was demonstrated in C-26 colon adenocarcinoma cells, indicating that it is not a cell line-specific event. PMID:20170185

Guh, Jih-Hwa; Chang, Wei-Ling; Yang, Jian; Lee, Su-Lin; Wei, Shuo; Wang, Dasheng; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih

2010-01-01

118

Growth and survival signals transmitted via two distinct NPXY motifs within leukocyte tyrosine kinase, an insulin receptor-related tyrosine kinase.  

PubMed

Leukocyte tyrosine kinase (LTK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the insulin receptor family and is mainly expressed in pre-B cells and brain. In this study, we show that LTK utilizes insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and Shc as major two substrates and possesses two NPXY motifs for them separately, tyrosine 485 of one NPXY motif at the juxtamembrane domain for IRS-1 and tyrosine 862 of another NPXY motif at the carboxyl-terminal domain for Shc. By using Ba/F3 cells expressing epidermal growth factor receptor-LTK chimeric receptors containing a mutation at each NPXY site, we showed that while both NPXY motifs equally contribute to activation of the Ras pathway and generation of mitogenic signals, only tyrosine 485 of LTK transmits cell survival signals. These data suggest that IRS-1 possesses anti-apoptotic function at least in LTK signaling. Moreover, our data indicate that the survival signaling pathway of LTK is distinct from the Ras pathway and the p70(S6) kinase pathway. Our results provide a useful insight in understanding the distinctive roles of Shc and IRS-1 in the signal transduction system of the insulin receptor family, and this anti-apoptotic function of IRS-1 may explain the survival effects of insulin, IGF-1, and interleukin 4. PMID:8910363

Ueno, H; Sasaki, K; Kozutsumi, H; Miyagawa, K; Mitani, K; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

1996-11-01

119

Activation of nuclear factor kappa B by diesel exhaust particles in mouse epidermal cells through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce intense inflammatory and allergic immune responses. The epidermal cells receive much exposure to DEP, and are an important source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), regulate the expression of these mediators. We hypothesize that the transcription factors are target of DEP action. The current study sought to determine whether DEP-activated NF-kappaB and AP-1 in a mouse epidermal cell line, JB6 P(+) cells. Using stable transfectants of JB6 P(+) cells expressing NF-kappaB or AP-1 luciferase reporter constructs, we demonstrated that exposure to DEP at a non-cytotoxic concentration significantly enhanced the transactivation of NF-kappaB, but not AP-1. Furthermore, DEP promoted phosphorylation of Akt, a substrate of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), on Ser-473 and Thr-308 in a PI3K-dependent manner, and enhanced phosphorylation of down-stream p70/p85 S6 kinases (p70/p85S6K) as well as glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Blockage of PI3K activation eliminated DEP-stimulated NF-kappaB transactivation. Although SAPK/JNK pathway was modestly activated by DEP, it was not involved in NF-kappaB transactivation. DEP had little effect on the phosphorylation of ERKs and p38 MAPK. Thus, DEP-induced transactivation of NF-kappaB is mediated by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:15130773

Ma, Cuiling; Wang, Jin; Luo, Jia

2004-05-15

120

Interleukin-12 p40/p70 ratio and in vivo responsiveness to IFN-alpha treatment in chronic hepatitis C.  

PubMed

To evaluate the relationship between cytokine balance and responsiveness to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), we investigated the production of IFN-gamma, interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12 p70, and IL-12 p40 by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) before and after 1 year of IFN-alpha treatment. Before the therapy, responder (R) patients exhibited lower IFN-gamma release, higher IL-10 production, and higher values of the IL12 p40/p70 ratio compared with nonresponders (NR). Increased sensitivity to the effects of IL-12 and IL-10, as well as higher IL-12-dependent IFN-gamma secretion, were also found in the R subset. After IFN-alpha therapy, an increase in IFN-gamma production and a decrease in the IL-12 p40/p70 ratio were observed in R patients, whereas opposite results were obtained in the NR group. Finally, the therapy induced downregulation of IL-10 production and cell responsiveness to recombinant IL-12 in all patients. These findings imply that predominance of a T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine profile in CHC patients favors the beneficial effects of IFN-alpha, thus suggesting a therapeutic role for Th1-driven stimulation of immune response. The findings also stress the primary importance of the IL-12 p40 and p70 balance in the modulation of immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:11506737

Piazzolla, G; Tortorella, C; Fiore, G; Fanelli, M; Pisconti, A; Antonaci, S

2001-07-01

121

Thyroid-stimulating hormone and cyclic AMP activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Involvement of protein kinase A, rac1, and reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38-MAPKs) are activated by cytokines, cellular stresses, growth factors, and hormones. We show here that p38-MAPKs are activated upon stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or cAMP. TSH caused the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the human TSH receptor but not in wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells. The effect of TSH was fully mimicked by the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, and by a permeant analog of cAMP. The effect of forskolin was reproduced in FRTL5 rat thyroid cells. TSH also stimulated the phosphorylation of MAPK kinase 3 or 6, over the same time scale as that of p38-MAPKs. TSH and forskolin stimulated the activity of the alpha-isoform of p38-MAPK assayed by phosphorylation of the transcription factor ATF2. The activity of MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 was stimulated by TSH and forskolin. This stimulation was abolished by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38-MAPKs. The protein kinase A inhibitor H89 inhibited the stimulation of phosphorylation of p38-MAPKs by forskolin, whereas inhibitors of protein kinase C, p70(S6k), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase were ineffective. Expression of the dominant negative form of Rac1, but not that of Ras, blocked forskolin-induced p38-MAPK activation. Diphenylene iodonium, a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase(s), and ascorbic acid, an effective free radical scavenger, suppressed TSH- or forskolin-stimulated p38-MAPK phosphorylation, indicating that the generation of reactive oxygen species plays a key role in signaling from cAMP to p38-MAPKs. Inhibition of the p38-MAPK pathway with SB203580 partially but significantly, attenuates cAMP- and TSH-induced expression of the sodium iodide symporter in FRTL-5 cells. These results point to a new signaling pathway for the G(s)-coupled TSH receptor, involving cAMP, protein kinase A, Rac1, and reactive oxygen species and resulting in the activation of a signaling kinase cascade that includes MAPK kinase 3 or 6, p38-MAPK, and MAPK-activated protein kinase-2. PMID:11006268

Pomerance, M; Abdullah, H B; Kamerji, S; Correze, C; Blondeau, J P

2000-12-22

122

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits high glucose-induced matrix protein synthesis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in renal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide, a signaling gas, affects several cell functions. We hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide modulates high glucose (30 mm) stimulation of matrix protein synthesis in glomerular epithelial cells. High glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis, cellular hypertrophy, and matrix laminin and type IV collagen content was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H(2)S donor. High glucose activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), shown by phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, was inhibited by NaHS. High glucose stimulated mTORC1 to promote key events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation: binding of eIF4A to eIF4G, reduction in PDCD4 expression and inhibition of its binding to eIF4A, eEF2 kinase phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation of eEF2; these events were inhibited by NaHS. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, was examined. NaHS dose-dependently stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and restored AMPK phosphorylation reduced by high glucose. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, abolished NaHS modulation of high glucose effect on events in mRNA translation as well as global and matrix protein synthesis. NaHS induction of AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by siRNA for calmodulin kinase kinase ?, but not LKB1, upstream kinases for AMPK; STO-609, a calmodulin kinase kinase ? inhibitor, had the same effect. Renal cortical content of cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase, hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes, was significantly reduced in mice with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, coinciding with renal hypertrophy and matrix accumulation. Hydrogen sulfide is a newly identified modulator of protein synthesis in the kidney, and reduction in its generation may contribute to kidney injury in diabetes. PMID:22158625

Lee, Hak Joo; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Feliers, Denis; Cavaglieri, Rita C; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Abboud, Hanna E; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

2012-02-10

123

Involvement of phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated inhibition of the phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We found that treatment with PTTH in vitro inhibited AMPK phosphorylation in time- and dose-dependent manners, as seen on Western blots of glandular lysates probed with antibody directed against AMPK? phosphorylated at Thr172. Moreover, in vitro inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by PTTH was also verified by in vivo experiments: injection of PTTH into day 7 last instar larvae greatly inhibited glandular AMPK phosphorylation. PTTH-inhibited AMPK phosphorylation appeared to be partially reversed by treatment with LY294002, indicating involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. A chemical activator of AMPK (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-d-ribofuranoside, AICAR) increased both basal and PTTH-inhibited AMPK phosphorylation. Treatment with AICAR also inhibited PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis of prothoracic glands. The mechanism underlying inhibition of PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis by AICAR was further investigated by determining the phosphorylation of eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), two known downstream signaling targets of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Upon treatment with AICAR, decreases in PTTH-stimulated phosphorylation of 4E-BP and S6K were detected. In addition, treatment with AICAR did not affect PTTH-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK phosphorylation is not upstream signaling for ERK phosphorylation. Examination of gene expression levels of AMPK?, ?, and ? by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that PTTH did not affect AMPK transcription. From these results, it is assumed that inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation, which lies upstream of PTTH-stimulated TOR signaling, may play a role in PTTH stimulation of ecdysteroidogenesis. PMID:23671658

Gu, Shi-Hong; Hsieh, Yun-Chin; Young, Shun-Chieh; Lin, Pei-Ling

2013-01-01

124

Exposure to asphalt fumes activates activator protein-1 through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in mouse epidermal cells.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to asphalt fumes may pose a health risk. Experimental studies using animal and in vitro models indicate that condensates from asphalt fumes are genotoxic and can promote skin tumorigenesis. Enhanced activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) is frequently associated with the promotion of skin tumorigenesis. The current study investigated the effect of exposure to asphalt fumes on AP-1 activation in mouse JB6 P+ epidermal cells and the skin of transgenic mice expressing the AP-1 luciferase reporter gene. Asphalt fumes were generated from a dynamic generation system that simulated road-paving conditions. Exposure to asphalt fumes significantly increased AP-1 activity in JB6 P+ cells as well as in cultured keratinocytes isolated from transgenic mice expressing AP-1 reporter. In addition, topical application of asphalt fumes by painting the tail skin of mice increased AP-1 activity by 14-fold. Exposure to asphalt fumes promoted basal as well as epidermal growth factor-stimulated anchorage-independent growth of JB6 P+ cells in soft agar. It activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and induced phosphorylation of Akt at Ser-473/Thr-308, and concurrently activated downstream p70 S6 kinase as well as glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. Asphalt fumes transiently activated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases without affecting extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Further study indicated that blockage of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation eliminated asphalt fume-stimulated AP-1 activation and formation of anchorage-independent colonies in soft agar. This is the first report showing that exposure to asphalt fumes can activate AP-1 and intracellular signaling that may promote skin tumorigenesis, thus providing important evidence on the potential involvement of exposure to asphalt fumes in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:12947100

Ma, Cuiling; Wang, Jin; Luo, Jia

2003-11-01

125

DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Rates soil column within 20 yr following culti- Carbon sequestration rates, with a change from CT to NT, can in approximately 40 to and returning to the original land cover or other peren- 60 yr. Carbon sequestration rates

126

WELDING RESEARCH JANUARY 2004-S6  

E-print Network

WELDING RESEARCH JANUARY 2004-S6 ABSTRACT. The influence of microstruc- ture on the fatigue crack with improved fatigue resistance relative to the base metal. The influence of grain size on fatigue resistance fatigue re- sistance occurred predominately at low stress intensity ranges where the plastic zone size

DuPont, John N.

127

Specificity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: Transient versus sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of different intracellular signaling pathways have been shown to be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases. These activation events include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, 70 kDa S6 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C-?, and the Jak\\/STAT pathways. The precise role of each of these pathways in cell signaling remains to be resolved, but studies on the differentiation of mammalian

C. J. Marshall

1995-01-01

128

Absence of S6K1 protects against age- and diet-induced obesity while enhancing insulin sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elucidating the signalling mechanisms by which obesity leads to impaired insulin action is critical in the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of diabetes. Recently, mice deficient for S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1), an effector of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that acts to integrate nutrient and insulin signals, were shown to be hypoinsulinaemic, glucose intolerant and have reduced

Sung Hee Um; Francesca Frigerio; Mitsuhiro Watanabe; Frédéric Picard; Manel Joaquin; Melanie Sticker; Stefano Fumagalli; Peter R. Allegrini; Sara C. Kozma; Johan Auwerx; George Thomas

2004-01-01

129

Targeting mTOR to Overcome Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Aims Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown dramatic clinical benefits in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, resistance remains a serious problem in clinical practice. The present study analyzed mTOR-associated signaling-pathway differences between the EGFR TKI-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cell lines and investigated the feasibility of targeting mTOR with specific mTOR inhibitor in EGFR TKI resistant NSCLC cells. Methods We selected four different types of EGFR TKI-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cells: PC9, PC9GR, H1650 and H1975 cells as models to detect mTOR-associated signaling-pathway differences by western blot and Immunoprecipitation and evaluated the antiproliferative effect and cell cycle arrest of ku-0063794 by MTT method and flow cytometry. Results In the present study, we observed that mTORC2-associated Akt ser473-FOXO1 signaling pathway in a basal state was highly activated in resistant cells. In vitro mTORC1 and mTORC2 kinase activities assays showed that EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines had higher mTORC2 kinase activity, whereas sensitive cells had higher mTORC1 kinase activity in the basal state. The ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor ku-0063794 showed dramatic antiproliferative effects and G1-cell cycle arrest in both sensitive and resistant cells. Ku-0063794 at the IC50 concentration effectively inhibited both mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation levels; the latter is an mTORC1 substrate and did not upregulate Akt ser473 phosphorylation which would be induced by rapamycin and resulted in partial inhibition of FOXO1 phosphorylation. We also observed that EGFR TKI-sensitive and -resistant clinical NSCLC tumor specimens had higher total and phosphorylated p70S6K expression levels. Conclusion Our results indicate mTORC2-associated signaling-pathway was hyperactivated in EGFR TKI-resistant cells and targeting mTOR with specific mTOR inhibitors is likely a good strategy for patients with EGFR mutant NSCLC who develop EGFR TKI resistance; the potential specific roles of mTORC2 in EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells were still unknown and should be further investigated. PMID:23874880

Fei, Shi-Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Dong, Song; Cheng, Hua; Zhang, Yi-Fang; Huang, Ling; Zhou, Hai-Yu; Xie, Zhi; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Yi-Long

2013-01-01

130

The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed. PMID:24705157

Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

2013-01-01

131

Macrophage IL-12p70 Signaling Prevents HSV-1–Induced CNS Autoimmunity Triggered by Autoaggressive CD4+ Tregs  

PubMed Central

Purpose. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain self-tolerance and function to suppress overly exuberant immune responses. However, it is unclear whether innate immune cells modulate Treg function. Here the authors examined the role of innate immunity in lymphomyeloid homeostasis. Methods. The involvement of B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells in central nervous system (CNS) demyelination in different strains of mice infected ocularly with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was investigated. Results. The authors found that depletion of macrophages, but not DCs, B cells, NK cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells, induced CNS demyelination irrespective of virus or mouse strain. As with macrophage depletion, mice deficient in interleukin (IL)-12p35 or IL-12p40 showed CNS demyelination after HSV-1 infection, whereas demyelination was undetectable in HSV-1–infected, IL-23p19–deficient, or Epstein-Barr virus–induced gene 3-deficient mice. Demyelination could be rescued in macrophage-depleted mice after the injection of IL-12p70 DNA and in IL-12p35?/? or IL-12p40?/? mice after injection with IL-12p35 or IL-12p40 DNA or with recombinant viruses expressing IL-12p35 or IL-12p40. Using FoxP3-, CD4-, CD8-, or CD25-depletion and gene-deficient mouse approaches, the authors demonstrated that HSV-1–induced demyelination was blocked in the absence of CD4, CD25, or FoxP3 in macrophage-depleted mice. Flow cytometry showed an elevation of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells in the spleens of infected macrophage-depleted mice, and adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells to infected macrophage-depleted severe combined immunodeficient mice induced CNS demyelination. Conclusions. The authors demonstrated that macrophage IL-12p70 signaling plays an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis in the CNS by preventing the development of autoaggressive CD4+ Tregs. PMID:21220560

Mott, Kevin R.; Gate, David; Zandian, Mandana; Allen, Sariah J.; Rajasagi, Naveen Kumar; van Rooijen, Nico; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Rouse, Barry T.; Flavell, Richard A.; Town, Terrence; Ghiasi, Homayon

2011-01-01

132

Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K): a potential therapeutic target in cancer.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K), encoded by the EEF2K gene, is well-known to be a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase which can negatively modulate protein synthesis. It is highly conserved among eukaryotes from mammals to invertebrates, of which human and mouse may have 99 % overall amino acid identity. This kinase can phosphorylate eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) or undergo the process of autophosphorylation at multiple sites to inhibit its function in translation elongation. Due to the fact that regulation of eEF2 by eEF2K is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, eEF2K activity may confer tumor cell adaption to metabolic stress under acute nutrient depletion, and the high expressed level of eEF2K has been found in several types of malignancies. eEF2K may modulate the expression of some apoptotic proteins such as XIAP, c-FLIPL, Bcl-XL, PI3KCI and p70(S6K) to inhibit apoptotic process in cancer. On the other hand, it plays a regulatory role in autophagy involved in mTORC1, AMPK and Atg8, thereby promoting cancer cell survival. Additionally, eEF2K may play a crucial role in the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in cancer. Collectively, these findings have led to the conclusions that eEF2K may contribute to carcinogenesis, and thus being utilized as a potential target for future cancer therapy. PMID:25023961

Fu, L L; Xie, T; Zhang, S Y; Liu, B

2014-10-01

133

Simultaneous inhibition of pan-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases and MEK as a potential therapeutic strategy in peripheral T-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are very aggressive hematologic malignancies for which there is no targeted therapy. New, rational approaches are necessary to improve the very poor outcome in these patients. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase is one of the most important pathways in cell survival and proliferation. We hypothesized that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitors could be rationally selected drugs for treating peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Several phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase isoforms were inhibited genetically (using small interfering RNA) and pharmacologically (with CAL-101 and GDC-0941 compounds) in a panel of six peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines. Cell viability was measured by intracellular ATP content; apoptosis and cell cycle changes were checked by flow cytometry. Pharmacodynamic biomarkers were assessed by western blot. The PIK3CD gene, which encodes the ? isoform of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, was overexpressed in cell lines and primary samples, and correlated with survival pathways. However, neither genetic nor specific pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase ? affected cell survival. In contrast, the pan-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor GDC-0941 arrested all T-cell lymphoma cell lines in the G1 phase and induced apoptosis in a subset of them. We identified phospho-GSK3? and phospho-p70S6K as potential biomarkers of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitors. Interestingly, an increase in ERK phosphorylation was observed in some GDC -0941-treated T-cell lymphoma cell lines, suggesting the presence of a combination of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and MEK inhibitors. A highly synergistic effect was found between the two inhibitors, with the combination enhancing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in all T-cell lymphoma cell lines, and reducing cell viability in primary tumor T cells ex vivo. These results suggest that the combined treatment of pan-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase + MEK inhibitors could be more effective than single phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor treatment, and therefore, that this combination could be of therapeutic value for treating peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. PMID:22801959

Martín-Sánchez, Esperanza; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro M; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Lombardía, Luis; Domínguez-González, Beatriz; Romero, Diana; Odqvist, Lina; García-Sanz, Pablo; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Kurz, Guido; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Mollejo, Manuela; Alves, F Javier; Menárguez, Javier; González-Palacios, Fernando; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L; García, Juan F; Bischoff, James R; Piris, Miguel A

2013-01-01

134

Simultaneous inhibition of pan-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases and MEK as a potential therapeutic strategy in peripheral T-cell lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are very aggressive hematologic malignancies for which there is no targeted therapy. New, rational approaches are necessary to improve the very poor outcome in these patients. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase is one of the most important pathways in cell survival and proliferation. We hypothesized that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitors could be rationally selected drugs for treating peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Several phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase isoforms were inhibited genetically (using small interfering RNA) and pharmacologically (with CAL-101 and GDC-0941 compounds) in a panel of six peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines. Cell viability was measured by intracellular ATP content; apoptosis and cell cycle changes were checked by flow cytometry. Pharmacodynamic biomarkers were assessed by western blot. The PIK3CD gene, which encodes the ? isoform of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, was overexpressed in cell lines and primary samples, and correlated with survival pathways. However, neither genetic nor specific pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase ? affected cell survival. In contrast, the pan-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor GDC-0941 arrested all T-cell lymphoma cell lines in the G1 phase and induced apoptosis in a subset of them. We identified phospho-GSK3? and phospho-p70S6K as potential biomarkers of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitors. Interestingly, an increase in ERK phosphorylation was observed in some GDC -0941-treated T-cell lymphoma cell lines, suggesting the presence of a combination of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and MEK inhibitors. A highly synergistic effect was found between the two inhibitors, with the combination enhancing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in all T-cell lymphoma cell lines, and reducing cell viability in primary tumor T cells ex vivo. These results suggest that the combined treatment of pan-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase + MEK inhibitors could be more effective than single phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor treatment, and therefore, that this combination could be of therapeutic value for treating peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. PMID:22801959

Martín-Sánchez, Esperanza; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro M.; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Lombardía, Luis; Domínguez-González, Beatriz; Romero, Diana; Odqvist, Lina; García-Sanz, Pablo; Wozniak, Magdalena B.; Kurz, Guido; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Mollejo, Manuela; Alves, F. Javier; Menárguez, Javier; González-Palacios, Fernando; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; García, Juan F.; Bischoff, James R.; Piris, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

135

PKA-Dependent Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Does Not Correlate with Translation Efficiency in Striatonigral and Striatopallidal Medium-Sized Spiny Neurons.  

PubMed

Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, is phosphorylated on several residues in response to numerous stimuli. Although commonly used as a marker for neuronal activity, its upstream mechanisms of regulation are poorly studied and its role in protein synthesis remains largely debated. Here, we demonstrate that the psychostimulant d-amphetamine (d-amph) markedly increases rpS6 phosphorylation at Ser235/236 sites in both crude and synaptoneurosomal preparations of the mouse striatum. This effect occurs selectively in D1R-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and requires the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32/PP-1 cascade, whereas it is independent of mTORC1/p70S6K, PKC, and ERK signaling. By developing a novel assay to label nascent peptidic chains, we show that the rpS6 phosphorylation induced in striatonigral MSNs by d-amph, as well as in striatopallidal MSNs by the antipsychotic haloperidol or in both subtypes by papaverine, is not correlated with the translation of global or 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract mRNAs. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic insights into the in vivo regulation of the post-translational modification of rpS6 in the striatum and point out the lack of a relationship between PKA-dependent rpS6 phosphorylation and translation efficiency. PMID:25762659

Biever, Anne; Puighermanal, Emma; Nishi, Akinori; David, Alexandre; Panciatici, Claire; Longueville, Sophie; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Meyuhas, Oded; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

2015-03-11

136

Interleukin-12 (IL-12p70) Promotes Induction of Highly Potent Th1-Like CD4+CD25+ T Regulatory Cells That Inhibit Allograft Rejection in Unmodified Recipients  

PubMed Central

In rat models, CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Treg) play a key role in the induction and maintenance of antigen-specific transplant tolerance, especially in DA rats with PVG cardiac allografts (1, 2). We have previously described generation of alloantigen-specific Treg (Ts1), by culture of naïve natural CD4+CD25+ Treg (nTreg) with specific alloantigen and IL-2 for 4?days. These cells express mRNA for IFN-? receptor (ifngr) and suppress donor but not third party cardiac allograft rejection mediated by alloreactive CD4+ T cells at ratios of <1:10. Here, we show that Ts1 also expressed the IL-12p70 specific receptor (il-12r?2) and that rIL-12p70 can induce their proliferation. Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-12p70 alone or rIL-12p70 and recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), suppressed proliferation of CD4+ T cells in mixed lymphocyte culture at <1:1024, whereas Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-2 and alloantigen only suppressed at 1:32–64. The rIL-12p70 alloactivated Ts1 cells markedly delayed PVG, but not third party Lewis, cardiac allograft rejection in normal DA recipients. Ts1 cells re-cultured for 4?days with rIL-12p70 alone, but not those re-cultured with rIL-12p70 and rIL-2, expressed more il-12r?2, t-bet, and ifn-?, and continued to express the markers of Ts1 cells, foxp3, ifngr, and il-5 indicating Th1-like Treg were induced. Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-2 and alloantigen remained of the Ts1 phenotype and did not suppress cardiac graft rejection in normal DA rats. We induced highly suppressive Th1-like Treg from naïve nTreg in 7?days by culture with alloantigen, first with rIL-2 then with rIL-12p70. These Th1-like Treg delayed specific donor allograft rejection demonstrating therapeutic potential. PMID:24847323

Verma, Nirupama Darshan; Hall, Bruce Milne; Plain, Karren Michelle; Robinson, Catherine M.; Boyd, Rochelle; Tran, Giang T.; Wang, Chuanmin; Bishop, G. Alex; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J.

2014-01-01

137

Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway. PMID:16397275

Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

2006-01-01

138

Protein Kinases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering the structure and function of protein kinases and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the genomics and evolutionary relationships among kinases and then proceeds to describe the structure-function relationships of specific kinases, the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate specificity, and selected issues in regulation of kinase activity.

Avrom Caplan (Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry REV)

2005-02-22

139

Rosiglitazone protects against palmitate-induced pancreatic beta-cell death by activation of autophagy via 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase modulation.  

PubMed

Promoting beta-cell survival is crucial for the prevention of beta-cell failure in diabetes. Thiazolidinediones, a widely used drug to improve insulin sensitivity in clinical practice, is found to have a protective effect on islet beta-cell. To date, the mechanism underlying the protective role of thiazolidinedione on beta-cell survival remain largely unknown. Activation of autophagy was detected by transmission electron microscopy, western blot, and GFP-LC3 transfection. Cell viability was examined by WST-8. Cell apoptosis was demonstrated by DAPI and Annexin V/PI staining. Colony formation assay was used to detect long-term cell viability. We demonstrated that rosiglitazone-treated beta-cells were more resistant to palmitate-induced apoptosis. The conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and accumulated autophagosomes were found to be upregulated in rosiglitazone-treated cells. Inhibition of autophagy augmented palmitate-induced apoptosis with rosiglitazone treatment, suggesting that autophagy plays an important role in the survival function of rosiglitazone on beta-cells. Furthermore, we showed that rosiglitazone could induce AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and reduce p70S6 kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of AMPK impaired autophagy activation and enhanced palmitate-induced apoptosis during rosiglitazone treatment. These findings reveal that rosiglitazone-induced autophagy contributes to its protective function on beta-cells during palmitate treatment. PMID:23109223

Wu, Jie; Wu, Jun-jie; Yang, Lin-jun; Wei, Li-xin; Zou, Da-jin

2013-08-01

140

70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein related protein (P70R/ABCD4) localizes to endoplasmic reticulum not peroxisomes, and NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic property determines the subcellular localization of ABC subfamily D proteins  

SciTech Connect

70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein related protein (P70R/ABCD4) is a member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein subfamily D. ABC subfamily D proteins are also known as peroxisomal ABC proteins. Therefore, P70R is thought to be a peroxisomal membrane protein. However, the subcellular localization of P70R is not extensively investigated. In this study, we transiently expressed P70R in fusion with HA (P70R-HA) in CHO cells and examined subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. Surprisingly, P70R-HA was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), not to peroxisomes. To examine the ER-targeting property of P70R, we expressed various NH{sub 2}-terminal deletion constructs of P70R. Among the NH{sub 2}-terminal deletion constructs, mutant proteins starting with hydrophobic transmembrane segment (TMS) were localized to ER, but the ones containing the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic cytosolic domain were not. ABC subfamily D proteins destined for peroxisomes have NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic region adjacent to TMS1. However, only P70R lacks the region and is translated with NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic TMS1. Furthermore, attachment of the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic domain to the NH{sub 2}-terminus of P70R excluded P70R from the ER-targeting pathway. These data suggest that P70R resides in the ER but not the peroxisomal membranes, and the hydrophobic property of NH{sub 2}-terminal region determines the subcellular localization of ABC subfamily D proteins.

Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Seki, Midori; Yasui, Akina; Murasaki, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Masashi [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yamashita, Yukari; Sakaguchi, Masao [Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Ako, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Imanaka, Tsuneo [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)], E-mail: imanaka@pha.u-toyama.ac.jp

2009-01-15

141

Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Corrupts Coronary Collateral Growth by Activating Adenosine Monophosphate Activated Kinase-? Signaling  

PubMed Central

Objective Our goal was to determine the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress impairs collateral growth in the heart. Approach and Results Rats were treated with rotenone (mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that increases reactive oxygen species production) or sham-treated with vehicle and subjected to repetitive ischemia protocol for 10 days to induce coronary collateral growth. In control rats, repetitive ischemia increased flow to the collateral-dependent zone; however, rotenone treatment prevented this increase suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress compromises coronary collateral growth. In addition, rotenone also attenuated mitochondrial complex I activity and led to excessive mitochondrial aggregation. To further understand the mechanistic pathway(s) involved, human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with 50 ng/ mL vascular endothelial growth factor, 1 µmol/L rotenone, and rotenone/vascular endothelial growth factor for 48 hours. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced robust tube formation; however, rotenone completely inhibited this effect (P<0.05 rotenone versus vascular endothelial growth factor treatment). Inhibition of tube formation by rotenone was also associated with significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation. Immunoblot analyses of human coronary artery endothelial cells with rotenone treatment showed significant activation of adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK)-? and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase. Activation of AMPK-? suggested impairments in energy production, which was reflected by decrease in O2 consumption and bioenergetic reserve capacity of cultured cells. Knockdown of AMPK-? (siRNA) also preserved tube formation during rotenone, suggesting the negative effects were mediated by the activation of AMPK-?. Conversely, expression of a constitutively active AMPK-? blocked tube formation. Conclusions We conclude that activation of AMPK-? during mitochondrial oxidative stress inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, which impairs phenotypic switching necessary for the growth of blood vessels. PMID:23788766

Pung, Yuh Fen; Sam, Wai Johnn; Stevanov, Kelly; Enrick, Molly; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Kolz, Christopher; Thakker, Prashanth; Hardwick, James P.; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Dyck, Jason R.B.; Yin, Liya; Chilian, William M.

2015-01-01

142

Tethering Small Molecules to a Phage Display Library: Discovery of a Selective Bivalent Inhibitor of Protein Kinase A  

E-print Network

adenosine was shown to inhibit several kinases with ~100-300 µM IC50 values. Furthermore, adenosine Inhibitor of Protein Kinase A Supporting Information Scott C. Meyer, Carolyn D. Shomin, Thomas Gaj, and Bivalent Inhibitor 4 S5.5. Millipore Kinase Profiler Screen S6. Structural Alignment of Kinases #12;S2 S1

Ghosh, Indraneel

143

Ncf1 provides a reactive oxygen species-independent negative feedback regulation of TLR9-induced IL-12p70 in murine dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Permanent exposure to pathogens requires decisions toward tolerance or immunity as a prime task of dendritic cells. The molecular mechanisms preventing uncontrolled immune responses are not completely clear. We investigated the regulatory function of Ncf1, an organizing protein of NADPH oxidase, in the signaling cascade of Toll-like receptors. TLR9-stimulated spleen cells from both Ncf1-deficient and B10.Q mice with a point mutation in exon 8 of Ncf1 exhibited increased IL-12p70 secretion compared with controls. This finding was restricted to stimulatory CpG2216 and not induced by CpG2088. Because only CpG/TLR9-induced IL-12p70 was regulated by Ncf1, we used TRIF(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) cells to show that TLR9/MyD88 was primarily affected. Interestingly, additional experiments revealed that spleen cells from NOX2/gp91(phox)-deficient mice and the blocking of electron transfer by diphenylene iodonium had no influence on CpG-induced IL-12p70, confirming an NADPH oxidase-independent function of Ncf1. Finally, proving the in vivo relevance CpG adjuvant-guided OVA immunization resulted in a strong augmentation of IL-12p70-dependent Th1 IFN-gamma response only in Ncf1-deficient mice. These data suggest for the first time an important role for Ncf1 in the fine tuning of the TLR9/MyD88 pathway in vitro and in vivo that is independent of its role as an activator of NOX2. PMID:19299716

Richter, Cornelia; Juan, Martina Herrero San; Will, Jutta; Brandes, Ralf P; Kalinke, Ulrich; Akira, Shizuo; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Hultqvist, Malin; Holmdahl, Rikard; Radeke, Heinfried H

2009-04-01

144

Metformin protects against systolic overload-induced heart failure independent of AMP-activated protein kinase ?2  

PubMed Central

Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) ?2 protects the heart against pressure overload-induced heart failure in mice. Although metformin is a known activator of AMPK, it is unclear whether its cardio-protection acts independently of an AMPK?2-dependent pathway. Because the role of AMPK?1 stimulation on remodeling of failing hearts is poorly defined, we first studied the effects of disruption of both the AMPK?1 and AMPK?2 genes on the response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice. AMPK?2 gene knockout (KO) significantly exacerbated the degree of TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, whereas AMPK?1 gene KO had no effect on the degree of TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction. Administration of metformin to both wild type (WT) and AMPKa2 KO mice attenuated the degree of TAC-induced LV remodeling, as evidenced by reduced LV and lung weights, a more favorable body weight to tibia length ratio, preserved LV ejection fraction, and lower levels of p-mTORser2481 and p-p70S6KThr389. These data support the notion that activation of AMPK?1 plays a negligible role in protecting the heart against the adverse effects of chronic pressure overload, and that metformin protects against adverse remodeling through a pathway that appears independent of AMPK?2. PMID:24420540

Xu, Xin; Lu, Zhongbing; Fassett, John; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Xinli; Liu, Xiaoyu; Kwak, Dongmin; Li, Jingxin; Zhu, Guangshuo; Tao, Yi; Hou, Mingxiao; Wang, Huan; Guo, Haipeng; Viollet, Benoit; McFalls, Edward O.; Bache, Robert J.; Chen, Yingjie

2014-01-01

145

Nuclear and nucleolar targeting of human ribosomal protein S6.  

PubMed Central

Chimeric proteins were constructed to define the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of human ribosomal protein S6. The complete cDNA sequence, different cDNA fragments and oligonucleotides of the human ribosomal proteins S6, respectively, were joined to the 5' end of the entire LacZ gene of Escherichia coli by using recombinant techniques. The hybrid genes were transfected into L cells, transiently expressed, and the intracellular location of the fusion proteins was determined by their beta-galactosidase activity. Three NLSs were identified in the C-terminal half of the S6 protein. Deletion mutagenesis demonstrated that a single NLS is sufficient for targeting the corresponding S6-beta-galactosidase chimera into the nucleus. Removal of all three putative NLSs completely blocked the nuclear import of the resulting S6-beta-galactosidase fusion protein, which instead became evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. Chimeras containing deletion mutants of S6 with at least one single NLS or unmodified S6 accumulated in the nucleolus. Analysis of several constructs reveals the existence of a specific domain that is essential but not sufficient for nucleolar accumulation of S6. Images PMID:8590812

Schmidt, C; Lipsius, E; Kruppa, J

1995-01-01

146

A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen in Mammalian Cells for Regulators of S6 Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

mTOR complex1, the major regulator of mRNA translation in all eukaryotic cells, is strongly activated in most cancers. We performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in a human cancer cell line, seeking genes that regulate S6 phosphorylation, readout of mTORC1 activity. Applying a stringent selection, we retrieved nearly 600 genes wherein at least two RNAis gave significant reduction in S6-P. This cohort contains known regulators of mTOR complex 1 and is significantly enriched in genes whose depletion affects the proliferation/viability of the large set of cancer cell lines in the Achilles database in a manner paralleling that caused by mTOR depletion. We next examined the effect of RNAi pools directed at 534 of these gene products on S6-P in TSC1 null mouse embryo fibroblasts. 76 RNAis reduced S6 phosphorylation significantly in 2 or 3 replicates. Surprisingly, among this cohort of genes the only elements previously associated with the maintenance of mTORC1 activity are two subunits of the vacuolar ATPase and the CUL4 subunit DDB1. RNAi against a second set of 84 targets reduced S6-P in only one of three replicates. However, an indication that this group also bears attention is the presence of rpS6KB1 itself, Rac1 and MAP4K3, a protein kinase that supports amino acid signaling to rpS6KB1. The finding that S6 phosphorylation requires a previously unidentified, functionally diverse cohort of genes that participate in fundamental cellular processes such as mRNA translation, RNA processing, DNA repair and metabolism suggests the operation of feedback pathways in the regulation of mTORC1 operating through novel mechanisms. PMID:25790369

Papageorgiou, Angela; Rapley, Joseph; Mesirov, Jill P.; Tamayo, Pablo; Avruch, Joseph

2015-01-01

147

Saporin-S6: A Useful Tool in Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Thirty years ago, the type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) saporin-S6 (also known as saporin) was isolated from Saponaria officinalis L. seeds. Since then, the properties and mechanisms of action of saporin-S6 have been well characterized, and it has been widely employed in the construction of conjugates and immunotoxins for different purposes. These immunotoxins have shown many interesting results when used in cancer therapy, particularly in hematological tumors. The high enzymatic activity, stability and resistance to conjugation procedures and blood proteases make saporin-S6 a very useful tool in cancer therapy. High efficacy has been reported in clinical trials with saporin-S6-containing immunotoxins, at dosages that induced only mild and transient side effects, which were mainly fever, myalgias, hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia and vascular leak syndrome. Moreover, saporin-S6 triggers multiple cell death pathways, rendering impossible the selection of RIP-resistant mutants. In this review, some aspects of saporin-S6, such as the chemico-physical characteristics, the structural properties, its endocytosis, its intracellular routing and the pathogenetic mechanisms of the cell damage, are reported. In addition, the recent progress and developments of saporin-S6-containing immunotoxins in cancer immunotherapy are summarized, including in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. PMID:24105401

Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Mercatelli, Daniele; Battelli, Maria Giulia; Bolognesi, Andrea

2013-01-01

148

Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib  

SciTech Connect

High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

Kinsella, Paula, E-mail: paula.kinsella@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Howley, Rachel, E-mail: rhowley@rcsi.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Doolan, Padraig, E-mail: padraig.doolan@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clarke, Colin, E-mail: colin.clarke@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Madden, Stephen F., E-mail: maddens@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clynes, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Clynes@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Farrell, Michael, E-mail: michaelfarrell@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland)] [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Amberger-Murphy, Verena, E-mail: Verena.Murphy@icorg.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland) [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

2012-03-10

149

Results of chronic dietary toxicity studies of high viscosity (P70H and P100H) white mineral oils in Fischer 344 rats.  

PubMed

Two-year dietary studies were conducted to determine the chronic toxicity and its reversibility, and the carcinogenicity of P70(H) and P100(H) white mineral oils in Fischer-344 rats (F-344). The studies were identical in design and followed the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Guidelines for Testing Chemicals, Guideline 453, 1981. Additional endpoints evaluated were: (1) extent of mineral hydrocarbon deposition in liver, kidneys, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen of female rats at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and (2) reversibility of effects following cessation of exposure. Dietary concentration were 60, 120, 240, and 1,200 mg/kg/day, adjusted periodically to account for bodyweight changes. Study results were consistent with preceding subchronic studies. No treatment-related mortality, neoplastic lesions, or changes in clinical health, hematology, serum chemistry, or urine chemistry were evident in any group administered either white oil. Statistically significant higher food consumption was noted in the 1,200 mg/kg group males and females exposed to either white oil and statistically significant higher body weights were noted in the 1,200-mg/kg males during the latter portion of the P100(H) study. Higher mesenteric lymph node weights were accompanied by increased severity of infiltrating histiocytes. This occurred to a greater extent with the P70(H) than the P100(H) oil. No other histopathology of significance was observed. Mineral hydrocarbons were detected in the liver following exposure to either oil. Maximal concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons in the liver were similar with both oils but occurred more rapidly with the P70(H) oil. Liver mineral hydrocarbon content returned to near-background levels during the reversibility phase. In conclusion, lifetime exposer of F344 rats to P70(H) and P100(H) white oils resulted in only minimal findings and with no consequence to clinical health. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, the No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for these studies was considered to be 1,200 mg/kg/day. PMID:15204967

Trimmer, Gary W; Freeman, James J; Priston, R A J; Urbanus, Jan

2004-01-01

150

S6K is a morphogenic protein with a mechanism involving Filamin-A phosphorylation and phosphatidic acid binding.  

PubMed

Change of cell shape in vivo plays many roles that are central to life itself, such as embryonic development, inflammation, wound healing, and pathologic processes such as cancer metastasis. Nonetheless, the spatiotemporal mechanisms that control the concerted regulation of cell shape remain understudied. Here, we show that ribosomal S6K, which is normally considered a protein involved in protein translation, is a morphogenic protein. Its presence in cells alters the overall organization of the cell surface and cell circularity [(4? × area)/(perimeter)(2)] from 0.47 ± 0.06 units in mock-treated cells to 0.09 ± 0.03 units in S6K-overexpressing macrophages causing stellation and arborization of cell shape. This effect was partially reversed in cells expressing a kinase-inactive S6K mutant and was fully reversed in cells silenced with small interference RNA. Equally important is that S6K is itself regulated by phospholipids, specifically phosphatidic acid, whereby 300 nM 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA), but not the control 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), binds directly to S6K and causes an ?2.9-fold increase in S6K catalytic activity. This was followed by an increase in Filamin A (FLNA) functionality as measured by phospho-FLNA (S(2152)) expression and by a subsequent elevation of actin nucleation. This reliance of S6K on phosphatidic acid (PA), a curvature-inducing phospholipid, explained the extra-large perimeter of cells that overexpressed S6K. Furthermore, the diversity of the response to S6K in several unrelated cell types (fibroblasts, leukocytes, and invasive cancer cells) that we report here indicates the existence of an underlying common mechanism in mammalian cells. This new signaling set, PA-S6K-FLNA-actin, sheds light for the first time into the morphogenic pathway of cytoskeletal structures that are crucial for adhesion and cell locomotion during inflammation and metastasis.-Henkels, K. M., Mallets, E. R., Dennis, P. B., Gomez-Cambronero, J. S6K is a morphogenic protein with a mechanism involving Filamin-A phosphorylation and phosphatidic acid binding. PMID:25512366

Henkels, Karen M; Mallets, Elizabeth R; Dennis, Patrick B; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

2015-04-01

151

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a potential therapeutic target independent of PI3K/Akt signaling in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Depletion of cellular energy activates the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) to favor energy-producing catabolic processes during tumorigenesis. Using a panel of in vitro cell lines and resected tumors, we investigated the therapeutic value of manipulating AMPK in prostate cancer (PC). Phospho-AMPK expression was significantly elevated in human PC cells and clinical PC samples. In clinical PC, we observed a trend for increasing phospho-AMPK with increasing Gleason sum score; Phospho-AMPK expression was associated with phospho-ACC (p=0.0023). Using the paired PC3 and PC3M cells to model progressive androgen-independent PC, treatment with either 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) or A-769662 suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion in both cell lines, and down-regulated mTOR and P70S6Ki levels regardless of the Akt status. Involvement of AMPK was confirmed by Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) and siRNA-mediated AMPK silencing. Despite similar functional responses in PC3 and PC3M cells, AMPK activation resulted in sustained phospho-Akt activation in PC3M cells, but not in PC3 cells. This prompted the addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 to AICAR treatment of PC3M cells in a proliferation assay. Interestingly, we found no synergistic effects upon combined treatment. Collectively, these findings support AMPK as a potential therapeutic target independent of PI3K/Akt signalling. PMID:25594043

Choudhury, Yashmin; Yang, Zichu; Ahmad, Imran; Nixon, Colin; Salt, Ian P.; Leung, Hing Y.

2014-01-01

152

Preclinical pharmacological evaluation of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor, ON123300, in brain tumor models.  

PubMed

ON123300 is a low molecular weight multikinase inhibitor identified through a series of screens that supported further analyses for brain tumor chemotherapy. Biochemical assays indicated that ON123300 was a strong inhibitor of Ark5 and CDK4, as well as growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases such as ?-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR?). ON123300 inhibited U87 glioma cell proliferation with an IC(50) 3.4 ± 0.1 ?mol/L and reduced phosphorylation of Akt, yet it also unexpectedly induced Erk activation, both in a dose- and time-dependent manner that subsequently was attributed to relieving Akt-mediated C-Raf S259 inactivation and activating a p70S6K-initiated PI3K-negative feedback loop. Cotreatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib produced synergistic cytotoxic effects. Pursuant to the in vitro studies, in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of ON123300 were completed in mice bearing intracerebral U87 tumors following intravenous doses of 5 and 25 mg/kg alone, and also at the higher dose concurrently with gefitinib. ON123300 showed high brain and brain tumor accumulation based on brain partition coefficient values of at least 2.5. Consistent with the in vitro studies, single agent ON123300 caused a dose-dependent suppression of phosphorylation of Akt as well as activation of Erk in brain tumors, whereas addition of gefitinib to the ON123300 regimen significantly enhanced p-Akt inhibition and prevented Erk activation. In summary, ON123300 demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics, and future development for brain tumor therapy would require use of combinations, such as gefitinib, that mitigate its Erk activation and enhance its activity. PMID:24568969

Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Hua; Zhou, Qingyu; Elkholi, Rana; Chipuk, Jerry E; Reddy, M V Ramana; Reddy, E Premkumar; Gallo, James M

2014-05-01

153

Effect of intervention in the diacylglycerol?protein kinase C signaling pathway on JNK1 expression and its downstream signaling in diabetic cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the expression of signaling molecules, such as c?Jun N?terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), in the myocardium of diabetic rats following intervention in the diacylglycerol?protein kinase C (DAG?PKC) signal transduction pathway. The rats were divided into three groups, the diabetic model, control and breviscapine?treated diabetes (intervention) group. Following modeling and drug treatment, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson staining and electron microscopy were used to observe the pathological changes in the rat myocardium. The expression of PKC??2, JNK1, and IRS1 was assessed in rat myocardium by immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The expression levels of PKC??2, JNK1, phosphorylated JNK (p?JNK) and IRS1 in the diabetic model group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, compared with the diabetic model group, expression levels of PKC??2, JNK1, p?JNK and IRS1 were significantly reduced following intervention in the DAG?PKC signal transduction pathway. The DAG?PKC pathway may affect downstream signaling through JNK1 (the common signal point of the G?protein receptor pathway and insulin receptor pathway at the cell membrane) to result in the occurrence and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The series of signal points DAG?PKC?JNK1?IRS1?Akt/PKB?mTOR?p70S6K1 is a potential pathway for inducing DCM by DAG?PKC signal transduction. Enhanced expression of JNK1, p?JNK and IRS1 may accelerate diabetic myocardial fibrosis. PMID:24435585

Liu, Xiaoliang; Qi, Fang; Wu, Wei

2014-03-01

154

Delayed phosphorylation of classical protein kinase C (PKC) substrates requires PKC internalization and formation of the pericentrion in a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent manner.  

PubMed

It was previously demonstrated that sustained activation (30-60 min) of protein kinase C (PKC) results in translocation of PKC ? and ?II to the pericentrion, a dynamic subset of the recycling compartment whose formation is dependent on PKC and phospholipase D (PLD). Here we investigated whether the formation of the pericentrion modulates the ability of PKC to phosphorylate substrates, especially if it reduces substrate phosphorylation by sequestering PKC. Surprisingly, using an antibody that detects phosphosubstrates of classical PKCs, the results showed that the majority of PKC phosphosubstrates are phosphorylated with delayed kinetics, correlating with the time frame of PKC translocation to the pericentrion. Substrate phosphorylation was blocked by PLD inhibitors and was not observed in response to activation of a PKC ?II mutant (F663D) that is defective in interaction with PLD and in internalization. Phosphorylation was also inhibited by blocking clathrin-dependent endocytosis, demonstrating a requirement for endocytosis for the PKC-dependent major phosphorylation effects. Serotonin receptor activation by serotonin showed a similar response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, implicating a potential role of delayed kinetics in G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Evaluation of candidate substrates revealed that the phosphorylation of the PKC substrate p70S6K kinase behaved in a similar manner. Gradient-based fractionation revealed that the majority of these PKC substrates reside within the pericentrion-enriched fractions and not in the plasma membrane. Finally, proteomic analysis of the pericentrion-enriched fractions revealed several proteins as known PKC substrates and/or proteins involved in endocytic trafficking. These results reveal an important role for PKC internalization and for the pericentrion as key determinants/amplifiers of PKC action. PMID:21478146

El-Osta, Mohamad A; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jola; Hannun, Yusuf A

2011-06-01

155

Delayed Phosphorylation of Classical Protein Kinase C (PKC) Substrates Requires PKC Internalization and Formation of the Pericentrion in a Phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent Manner*  

PubMed Central

It was previously demonstrated that sustained activation (30–60 min) of protein kinase C (PKC) results in translocation of PKC ? and ?II to the pericentrion, a dynamic subset of the recycling compartment whose formation is dependent on PKC and phospholipase D (PLD). Here we investigated whether the formation of the pericentrion modulates the ability of PKC to phosphorylate substrates, especially if it reduces substrate phosphorylation by sequestering PKC. Surprisingly, using an antibody that detects phosphosubstrates of classical PKCs, the results showed that the majority of PKC phosphosubstrates are phosphorylated with delayed kinetics, correlating with the time frame of PKC translocation to the pericentrion. Substrate phosphorylation was blocked by PLD inhibitors and was not observed in response to activation of a PKC ?II mutant (F663D) that is defective in interaction with PLD and in internalization. Phosphorylation was also inhibited by blocking clathrin-dependent endocytosis, demonstrating a requirement for endocytosis for the PKC-dependent major phosphorylation effects. Serotonin receptor activation by serotonin showed a similar response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, implicating a potential role of delayed kinetics in G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Evaluation of candidate substrates revealed that the phosphorylation of the PKC substrate p70S6K kinase behaved in a similar manner. Gradient-based fractionation revealed that the majority of these PKC substrates reside within the pericentrion-enriched fractions and not in the plasma membrane. Finally, proteomic analysis of the pericentrion-enriched fractions revealed several proteins as known PKC substrates and/or proteins involved in endocytic trafficking. These results reveal an important role for PKC internalization and for the pericentrion as key determinants/amplifiers of PKC action. PMID:21478146

El-Osta, Mohamad A.; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jola; Hannun, Yusuf A.

2011-01-01

156

Memory Accuracy Predicts Hippocampal mTOR Pathway Activation Following Retrieval of Contextual Fear Memory  

E-print Network

that hippocampus-dependent mem- ory undergoes a systems consolidation process such that recent memo- ries weakens as time passes between the training event and testing and older memories are often less detailed learning and for the reconsolidation of memory after retrieval. We tested whether p70s6 kinase (p70s6K

Helmstetter, Fred J.

157

Oncoprotein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

2001-02-27

158

AdS_6 solutions of type II supergravity  

E-print Network

Very few AdS_6 x M_4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space Sigma. M_4 is then a fibration of S^2 over Sigma; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of (p,q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT_5's. We also show that there are no AdS_6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

Fabio Apruzzi; Marco Fazzi; Achilleas Passias; Dario Rosa; Alessandro Tomasiello

2015-02-28

159

AdS_6 solutions of type II supergravity  

E-print Network

Very few AdS_6 x M_4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space Sigma. M_4 is then a fibration of S^2 over Sigma; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of (p,q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT_5's. We also show that there are no AdS_6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

Fabio Apruzzi; Marco Fazzi; Achilleas Passias; Dario Rosa; Alessandro Tomasiello

2015-04-03

160

AdS6 solutions of type II supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few AdS6 × M 4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space ?. M 4 is then a fibration of S 2 over ?; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of ( p, q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT5's. We also show that there are no AdS6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Passias, Achilleas; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

2014-11-01

161

Membrane localization of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is sufficient to activate multiple signal-transducing kinase pathways.  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase is a cytoplasmic signaling molecule recruited to the membrane by activated growth factor receptors. The p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase links the catalytic p110 subunit to activated growth factor receptors and is required for enzymatic activity of p110. In this report, we describe the effects of expressing novel forms of p110 that are targeted to the membrane by either N-terminal myristoylation or C-terminal farnesylation. The expression of membrane-localized p110 is sufficient to trigger downstream responses characteristic of growth factor action, including the stimulation of pp70 S6 kinase, Akt/Rac, and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These responses can also be triggered by expression of a form of p110 (p110*) that is cytosolic but exhibits a high specific activity. Finally, targeting of pl10* to the membrane results in maximal activation of downstream responses. Our data demonstrate that either membrane-targeted forms of p110 or a form of p110 with high specific activity can act as constitutively active PI 3-kinases and induce PI 3-kinase-dependent responses in the absence of growth factor stimulation. The results also show that PI 3-kinase activation is sufficient to stimulate several kinases that appear to function in different signaling pathways. PMID:8754810

Klippel, A; Reinhard, C; Kavanaugh, W M; Apell, G; Escobedo, M A; Williams, L T

1996-01-01

162

Molecular Architecture of a Sodium Channel S6 Helix  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are membrane proteins that consist of 24 transmembrane segments organized into four homologous domains and are essential for action potential generation and propagation. Although the S6 helices of NaV channels line the ion-conducting pore and participate in channel activation, their functional architecture is incompletely understood. Our recent studies show that a naturally occurring in-frame deletion mutation (Del-L955) of NaV1.7 channel, identified in individuals with a severe inherited pain syndrome (inherited erythromelalgia) causes a substantial hyperpolarizing shift of channel activation. Here we took advantage of this deletion mutation to understand the role of the S6 helix in the channel activation. Based on the recently published structure of a bacterial NaV channel (NaVAb), we modeled the WT and Del-L955 channel. Our structural model showed that Del-L955 twists the DII/S6 helix, shifting location and radial orientation of the activation gate residue (Phe960). Hypothesizing that these structural changes produce the shift of channel activation of Del-L955 channels, we restored a phenylalanine in wild-type orientation by mutating Ser961 (Del-L955/S961F), correcting activation by ?10 mV. Correction of the displaced Phe960 (F960S) together with introduction of the rescuing activation gate residue (S961F) produced an additional ?6-mV restoration of activation of the mutant channel. A simple point mutation in the absence of a twist (L955A) did not produce a radial shift and did not hyperpolarize activation. Our results demonstrate the functional importance of radial tuning of the sodium channel S6 helix for the channel activation. PMID:23536180

Yang, Yang; Estacion, Mark; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D.; Waxman, Stephen G.

2013-01-01

163

Effect of heat shock on S6 phosphorylation during the development of Blastocladiella emersonii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 during heat shock, induction of thermotolerance and recovery from heat shock at different stages of Blastocladiella emersonii development were investigated. Independently of the initial state of S6 phosphorylation (maximal or intermediate), a rapid and complete dephosphorylation of S6 is induced by heat shock and S6 remains unphosphorylated during the acquired thermotolerance. During recovery

Aline M. da Silva; Maria Helena Juliani; M. Christina M. Bonato

1987-01-01

164

The Attenuated Brucella abortus Strain 19 Invades, Persists in, and Activates Human Dendritic Cells, and Induces the Secretion of IL-12p70 but Not IL-23  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vectors have been proposed as novel vaccine strategies to induce strong cellular immunity. Attenuated strains of Brucella abortus comprise promising vector candidates since they have the potential to induce strong CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell mediated immune responses in the absence of excessive inflammation as observed with other Gram-negative bacteria. However, some Brucella strains interfere with the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which is essential for antigen-specific T-cell priming. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of human monocyte-derived DCs with the smooth attenuated B. abortus strain (S) 19, which has previously been employed successfully to vaccinate cattle. Methodology/Principal findings We first looked into the potential of S19 to hamper the cytokine-induced maturation of DCs; however, infected cells expressed CD25, CD40, CD80, and CD86 to a comparable extent as uninfected, cytokine-matured DCs. Furthermore, S19 activated DCs in the absence of exogeneous stimuli, enhanced the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, and was able to persist intracellularly without causing cytotoxicity. Thus, DCs provide a cellular niche for persisting brucellae in vivo as a permanent source of antigen. S19-infected DCs produced IL-12/23p40, IL-12p70, and IL-10, but not IL-23. While heat-killed bacteria also activated DCs, soluble mediators were not involved in S19-induced activation of human DCs. HEK 293 transfectants revealed cellular activation by S19 primarily through engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2. Conclusions/Significance Thus, as an immunological prerequisite for vaccine efficacy, B. abortus S19 potently infects and potently activates (most likely via TLR2) human DCs to produce Th1-promoting cytokines. PMID:23805193

Weinhold, Mario; Eisenblätter, Martin; Jasny, Edith; Fehlings, Michael; Finke, Antje; Gayum, Hermine; Rüschendorf, Ursula; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Moos, Verena; Allers, Kristina; Schneider, Thomas; Schaible, Ulrich E.; Schumann, Ralf R.; Mielke, Martin E.; Ignatius, Ralf

2013-01-01

165

S6K1 Phosphorylates and Regulates Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) with the Neuronal Protein Synthesis-dependent Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling Cascade*S?  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome is a common form of cognitive deficit caused by the functional absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a dendritic RNA-binding protein that represses translation of specific messages. Although FMRP is phosphorylated in a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activity-dependent manner following brief protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated dephosphorylation, the kinase regulating FMRP function in neuronal protein synthesis is unclear. Here we identify ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) as a major FMRP kinase in the mouse hippocampus, finding that activity-dependent phosphorylation of FMRP by S6K1 requires signaling inputs from mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ERK1/2, and PP2A. Further, the loss of hippocampal S6K1 and the subsequent absence of phospho-FMRP mimic FMRP loss in the increased expression of SAPAP3, a synapse-associated FMRP target mRNA. Together these data reveal a S6K1-PP2A signaling module regulating FMRP function and place FMRP phosphorylation in the mGluR-triggered signaling cascade required for protein-synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity. PMID:18474609

Narayanan, Usha; Nalavadi, Vijayalaxmi; Nakamoto, Mika; Thomas, George; Ceman, Stephanie; Bassell, Gary J.; Warren, Stephen T.

2008-01-01

166

S6K1 phosphorylates and regulates fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) with the neuronal protein synthesis-dependent mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome is a common form of cognitive deficit caused by the functional absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a dendritic RNA-binding protein that represses translation of specific messages. Although FMRP is phosphorylated in a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activity-dependent manner following brief protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated dephosphorylation, the kinase regulating FMRP function in neuronal protein synthesis is unclear. Here we identify ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) as a major FMRP kinase in the mouse hippocampus, finding that activity-dependent phosphorylation of FMRP by S6K1 requires signaling inputs from mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ERK1/2, and PP2A. Further, the loss of hippocampal S6K1 and the subsequent absence of phospho-FMRP mimic FMRP loss in the increased expression of SAPAP3, a synapse-associated FMRP target mRNA. Together these data reveal a S6K1-PP2A signaling module regulating FMRP function and place FMRP phosphorylation in the mGluR-triggered signaling cascade required for protein-synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity. PMID:18474609

Narayanan, Usha; Nalavadi, Vijayalaxmi; Nakamoto, Mika; Thomas, George; Ceman, Stephanie; Bassell, Gary J; Warren, Stephen T

2008-07-01

167

Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ochratoxin A Tumourigenesis in Rats and Urinary Tract Carcinoma in Humans; Mechanistic Significance of p-S6 Ribosomal Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is considered to be a possible human urinary tract carcinogen, based largely on a rat model, but no molecular genetic changes in the rat carcinomas have yet been defined. The phosphorylated-S6 ribosomal protein is a marker indicating activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a serine/threonine kinase with a key role in protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, transcription, cellular metabolism and apoptosis, while being functionally deregulated in cancer. To assess p-S6 expression we performed immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumours and normal tissues. Marked intensity of p-S6 expression was observed in highly proliferative regions of rat renal carcinomas and a rare angiosarcoma, all of which were attributed to prolonged exposure to dietary OTA. Only very small OTA-generated renal adenomas were negative for p-S6. Examples of rat subcutaneous fibrosarcoma and testicular seminoma, as well as of normal renal tissue, showed no or very weak positive staining. In contrast to the animal model, human renal cell carcinoma, upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were negative for p-S6. The combined findings are reminiscent of constitutive changes in the rat tuberous sclerosis gene complex in the Eker strain correlated with renal neoplasms, Therefore rat renal carcinogenesis caused by OTA does not obviously mimic human urinary tract tumourigenesis. PMID:23105973

Gazinska, Patrycja; Herman, Diana; Gillett, Cheryl; Pinder, Sarah; Mantle, Peter

2012-01-01

168

Polo-like kinase-activating kinases  

PubMed Central

The events of cell division are regulated by a complex interplay between kinases and phosphatases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), polo-like kinases (Plks) and Aurora kinases play central roles in this process. Polo kinase (Plk1 in humans) regulates a wide range of events in mitosis and cytokinesis. To ensure the accuracy of these processes, polo activity itself is subject to complex regulation. Phosphorylation of polo in its T loop (or activation loop) increases its kinase activity several-fold. It has been shown that Aurora A kinase, with its co-factor Bora, activates Plk1 in G2, and that this is essential for recovery from cell cycle arrest induced by DNA damage. In a recent article published in PLoS Biology, we report that Drosophila polo is activated by Aurora B kinase at centromeres, and that this is crucial for polo function in regulating chromosome dynamics in prometaphase. Our results suggest that this regulatory pathway is conserved in humans. Here, we propose a model for the collaboration between Aurora B and polo in the regulation of kinetochore attachment to microtubules in early mitosis. Moreover, we suggest that Aurora B could also function to activate Polo/Plk1 in cytokinesis. Finally, we discuss recent findings and open questions regarding the activation of polo and polo-like kinases by different kinases in mitosis, cytokinesis and other processes. PMID:22433949

Archambault, Vincent; Carmena, Mar

2012-01-01

169

hnRNPA1 couples nuclear export and translation of specific mRNAs downstream of FGF-2/S6K2 signalling  

PubMed Central

The increased cap-independent translation of anti-apoptotic proteins is involved in the development of drug resistance in lung cancer but signalling events regulating this are poorly understood. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) signalling-induced S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) activation is necessary, but the downstream mediator(s) coupling this kinase to the translational response is unknown. Here, we show that S6K2 binds and phosphorylates hnRNPA1 on novel Ser4/6 sites, increasing its association with BCL-XL and XIAP mRNAs to promote their nuclear export. In the cytoplasm, phosphoS4/6-hnRNPA1 dissociates from these mRNAs de-repressing their IRES-mediated translation. This correlates with the phosphorylation-dependent association of hnRNPA1 with 14-3-3 leading to hnRNPA1 sumoylation on K183 and its re-import into the nucleus. A non-phosphorylatible, S4/6A mutant prevented these processes, hindering the pro-survival activity of FGF-2/S6K2 signalling. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining of lung and breast cancer tissue samples demonstrated that increased S6K2 expression correlates with decreased cytoplasmic hnRNPA1 and increased BCL-XL expression. In short, phosphorylation on novel N-term sites of hnRNPA1 promotes translation of anti-apoptotic proteins and is indispensable for the pro-survival effects of FGF-2. PMID:25324306

Roy, Rajat; Durie, Danielle; Li, Hui; Liu, Bing-Qian; Skehel, John Mark; Mauri, Francesco; Cuorvo, Lucia Veronica; Barbareschi, Mattia; Guo, Lin; Holcik, Martin; Seckl, Michael J.; Pardo, Olivier E.

2014-01-01

170

Raf1 activates MAP kinase-kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE normal cellular homologue of the acutely transforming oncogene v-ra\\/is c-raf-l, which encodes a serine\\/threonine protein kinase that is activated by many extracellular stimuli1. The physiological substrates of the protein c-Raf-1 are unknown. The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ErkI and 2 are also activated by mitogens through phosphorylation of Erk tyrosine and threonine residues catalysed by a protein kinase of

John M. Kyriakis; Harald App; Xian-Feng Zhang; Papia Banerjee; David L. Brautigan; Ulf R. Rapp; Joseph Avruch

1992-01-01

171

TOR signalling and control of cell growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOR, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p70s6k, and 4E-BP1 have recently emerged as components of a major signalling pathway that is dedicated to protein translation and thus to cell growth. This pathway appears to be conserved, at least in part, in yeast, slime molds, plants, flies, and mammals. TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase control p70s6k and 4E-BP1, which, in turn, directly control the translation

George Thomas; Michael N Hall

1997-01-01

172

HIV-1 Tat-peptide inhibits protein kinase C and protein kinase A through substrate competition.  

PubMed

HIV-1 Tat-peptide is widely used as a vector for cargo delivery into intact cells. As a cationic, arginine-rich peptide it can readily penetrate the plasma membrane and facilitate the penetration of impermeable bioactive molecules such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids and drugs. Although at first considered as an inert vector, recent studies have however shown that it might have effects on its own on various cellular processes. In the present study we have investigated the effects of the Tat-peptide(48-60) on two basic serine/threonine kinases, protein kinase C and A, since earlier studies have shown that certain arginine-rich peptides or proteins might have a modulatory effect on their activity. In in vitro studies, Tat-peptide inhibited PKC alpha in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50)-value of 22nM and PKA with an IC(50)-value of 1.2 microM. The mode of inhibition was studied in the presence of increasing concentrations of a substrate peptide or ATP. Tat-peptide competed with the kinase substrates, however it did not compete with ATP. In a panel of 70 kinases Tat-peptide showed inhibitory activity at least towards other AGC-family kinases (PKB, SGK1, S6K1, MSK1), CAMK-family kinases (CAMK1 and MELK) and a STE family kinase (MKK1). In HeLa cells Tat-peptide inhibited the phorbol ester-evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that Tat inhibited PKC also in intact cells. In thyroid cells Tat-peptide attenuated sphingosylphosphorylcholine-evoked Ca(2+)-fluxes, which have earlier been shown to be dependent on PKC. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tat-peptide(48-60) is a potent inhibitor which binds to the substrate binding site of the basophilic kinase domain. PMID:20433920

Ekokoski, Elina; Aitio, Olli; Törnquist, Kid; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Tuominen, Raimo K

2010-08-11

173

AKT/mTOR and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy.  

PubMed

Chrysotile asbestos is closely associated with excess mortality from pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Although multiple mechanisms in which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, the role of autophagy in human lung epithelial cells has not been examined. In this study, we evaluated whether chrysotile asbestos induces autophagy in A549 human lung epithelial cells and then analyzed the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Chrysotile asbestos induced autophagy in A549 cells based on a series of biochemical and microscopic autophagy markers. We observed that asbestos increased expression of A549 cell microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II), an autophagy marker, in conjunction with dephosphorylation of phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-p70S6K. Notably, AKT1/AKT2 double-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) had negligible asbestos-induced LC3-II expression, supporting a crucial role for AKT signaling. Chrysotile asbestos also led to the phosphorylation/activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK, but not p38 MAPK, dramatically inhibited the protein expression of LC3-II. Moreover, JNK2(-/-) MEFs but not JNK1(-/-) MEFs blocked LC3-II levels induced by chrysotile asbestos. In addition, N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, attenuated chrysotile asbestos-induced dephosphorylation of P-AKT and completely abolished phosphorylation/activation of JNK. Finally, we demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos-induced apoptosis was not affected by the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or autophagy-related gene 5 siRNA, indicating that the chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy may be adaptive rather than prosurvival. Our findings demonstrate that AKT/mTOR and JNK2 signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy. These data provide a mechanistic basis for possible future clinical applications targeting these signaling pathways in the management of asbestos-induced lung disease. PMID:24735948

Lin, Ziying; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Zhou, Xu; Li, Donghong; Yang, Lawei; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Gang

2014-07-01

174

Protein Kinase C-mediated Phosphorylation and Activation of PDE3A Regulate cAMP Levels in Human Platelets*S?  

PubMed Central

The elevation of [cAMP]i is an important mechanism of platelet inhibition and is regulated by the opposing activity of adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase (PDE). In this study, we demonstrate that a variety of platelet agonists, including thrombin, significantly enhance the activity of PDE3A in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Stimulation of platelets with the PAR-1 agonist SFLLRN resulted in rapid and transient phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser312, Ser428, Ser438, Ser465, and Ser492, in parallel with the PKC (protein kinase C) substrate, pleckstrin. Furthermore, phosphorylation and activation of PDE3A required the activation of PKC, but not of PI3K/PKB, mTOR/p70S6K, or ERK/RSK. Activation of PKC by phorbol esters also resulted in phosphorylation of the same PDE3A sites in a PKC-dependent, PKB-independent manner. This was further supported by the finding that IGF-1, which strongly activates PI3K/PKB, but not PKC, did not regulate PDE3A. Platelet activation also led to a PKC-dependent association between PDE3A and 14-3-3 proteins. In contrast, cAMP-elevating agents such as PGE1 and forskolin-induced phosphorylation of Ser312 and increased PDE3A activity, but did not stimulate 14-3-3 binding. Finally, complete antagonism of PGE1-evoked cAMP accumulation by thrombin required both Gi and PKC activation. Together, these results demonstrate that platelet activation stimulates PKC-dependent phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser312, Ser428, Ser438, Ser465, and Ser492 leading to a subsequent increase in cAMP hydrolysis and 14-3-3 binding. PMID:19261611

Hunter, Roger W.; MacKintosh, Carol; Hers, Ingeborg

2009-01-01

175

Hyperactive S6K1 Mediates Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Aging: Inhibition by Resveratrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)\\/S6K1 signalling emerges as a critical regulator of aging. Yet, a role of mTOR\\/S6K1 in aging-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of S6K1 in aging-associated endothelial dysfunction and effects of the polyphenol resveratrol on S6K1 in aging endothelial cells. We show here that senescent endothelial cells displayed higher S6K1

Angana G. Rajapakse; Gautham Yepuri; João M. Carvas; Sokrates Stein; Christian M. Matter; Isabelle Scerri; Jean Ruffieux; Jean-Pierre Montani; Xiu-Fen Ming; Zhihong Yang

2011-01-01

176

Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2–RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase–kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK?MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 “docking” groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they “readjust,” whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state. PMID:25730857

Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gerg?; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszen?i, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

2015-01-01

177

Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2-RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase-kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK?MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 "docking" groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they "readjust," whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state. PMID:25730857

Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gerg?; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszen?i, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

2015-03-01

178

Planar dicyclic B6S6, B6S6-, and B6S62- clusters: Boron sulfide analogues of naphthalene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of current interest in chemistry. Based upon global structural searches and B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, we present herein the perfectly planar dicyclic boron sulfide clusters: D2h B6S6 (1, 1Ag), D2h B6S6- (2, 2B3u), and D2h B6S62- (3, 1Ag). These are the global minima of the systems, being at least 0.73, 0.81, and 0.53 eV lower in energy, respectively, than their alternative isomers at the CCSD(T) level. The D2h structures feature twin B3S2 five-membered rings, which are fused together via a B2 unit and terminated by two BS groups. Bonding analyses show that the closed-shell B6S62- (3) cluster possesses 10 delocalized ? electrons, closely analogous to the bonding pattern of the aromatic naphthalene C10H8. The B6S6- (2) and B6S6 (1) species are readily obtained upon removal of one or two ? electrons from B6S62- (3). The results build a new analogous relationship between boron sulfide clusters and their PAH counterparts. The B6S6- (2) monoanion and B6S62- (3) dianion can be effectively stabilized in neutral LiB6S6 and Li2B6S6 salts, respectively.

Li, Da-Zhi; Bai, Hui; Ou, Ting; Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

2015-01-01

179

Targeting Protein Kinases with Selective and Semi-Promiscuous Covalent Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Protein kinase inhibitors are an important class of therapeutics. In addition, selective kinase inhibitors can often reveal unexpected biological insights, augmenting genetic approaches and playing a decisive role in preclinical target validation studies. Nevertheless, developing protein kinase inhibitors with sufficient selectivity and pharmacodynamic potency presents significant challenges. Targeting noncatalytic cysteines with covalent inhibitors is a powerful approach to address both challenges simultaneously. Here, we describe our efforts to design irreversible and reversible electrophilic inhibitors with varying degrees of kinase selectivity. Highly selective covalent inhibitors have been used to elucidate the roles of p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (RSK) in animal models of atherosclerosis and diabetes. By contrast, semi-promiscuous covalent inhibitors have revealed new therapeutic targets in disease-causing parasites and have shown utility as chemoproteomic probes for interrogating kinase occupancy in living cells. PMID:25399643

Miller, Rand M.; Taunton, Jack

2014-01-01

180

Protein Kinases and Addiction  

PubMed Central

Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

2011-01-01

181

Expression of S6K1 in human visceral adipose tissue is upregulated in obesity and related to insulin resistance and inflammation.  

PubMed

The ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a component of the insulin signalling pathway that has been proposed as a key molecular factor in insulin resistance development under conditions of nutrient overload. The aim was to evaluate the involvement of S6K1 in obesity as well as to explore their association with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation. Samples obtained from 40 subjects were used. Gene expression levels of RPS6KB1 and key inflammatory markers were analysed in VAT. The effect of insulin on transcript levels of RPS6KB1 in human differentiated adipocytes was also explored. RPS6KB1 mRNA levels in VAT were increased (P < 0.05) in obese patients. Insulin treatment significantly enhanced (P < 0.01) gene expression levels of RPS6KB1 and a positive association (P < 0.05) of RPS6KB1 expression with different markers of insulin resistance was observed. Moreover, RPS6KB1 gene expression levels were positively correlated with VAT gene expression levels of the inflammatory markers CCL2, CD68, MMP2, MMP9, VEGFA and CHI3L1 as well as with mRNA levels of MTOR and MAPK8, representative players involved in signalling pathways related to S6K1. The increased levels of S6K1 in obesity and its positive association with insulin resistance and inflammation suggest a role for this protein in the changes that take place in VAT in obesity establishing a link between inflammation and a higher risk for the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:25118997

Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Andrada, Patricia; Rotellar, Fernando; Valentí, Víctor; Moncada, Rafael; Martí, Pablo; Silva, Camilo; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

2015-04-01

182

HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses in fractionated ?-irradiated mice by modulating the IL-12p70-STAT4 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Whole body irradiated mice appear to experience a down-regulation of the helper T (Th)1-like immune response, and maintain a persistent immunological imbalance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HemoHIM (an herbal product made from Angelica Radix, Cnidium officinale , and Paeonia japonica cultivated in Korea) to ameliorate the immunological imbalance induce in fractionated ?-irradiated mice. The mice were exposed to ? rays twice a week (0.5 Gy fractions) for a total dose of 5 Gy, and HemoHIM was administrated orally from 1 week before the first irradiation to 1 week before the final analysis. All experiments were performed 4 and 6 months after their first exposure. HemoHIM ameliorated the Th1- and Th2-related immune responses normally occur in irradiated mice with or without dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. HemoHIM also restored the natural killer cell activities without changing the percentage of natural killer cells in irradiated mice. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM prevented the reduction in levels of interleukin-12p70 in irradiated mice. Finally, we found that HemoHIM enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4 that was reduced in irradiated mice. Our findings suggest that HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses by modulating the IL-12p70/pSTAT4 signaling pathway. PMID:22439601

Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Choi, Nam-Hee; Jung, Uhee

2012-05-01

183

Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) activation in breast cancer: requirement for mTORC1 activity associates with ER-alpha expression.  

PubMed

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an attractive target for cancer treatment. While rapamycin and its derivatives (e.g., everolimus) have been shown to inhibit mTOR signaling and cell proliferation in preclinical models of breast cancer, mTOR inhibition has demonstrated variable clinical efficacy with a trend toward better responses in estrogen receptor alpha positive (ER?+) compared to ER? negative (ER?-) tumors. Recently, serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) was identified as a substrate of mTOR kinase activity. Previous studies have alternatively suggested that either mTORC1 or mTORC2 is exclusively required for SGK1's Ser422 phosphorylation and activation in breast cancer cells. We investigated the effect of rapamycin on the growth of several ER?+ and ER?- breast cancer cell lines and examined differences in the phosphorylation of mTOR substrates (SGK1, p70S6K, and Akt) that might account for the differing sensitivity of these cell lines to rapamycin. We also examined which mTOR complex contributes to SGK1-Ser422 phosphorylation in ER?+ versus ER?- breast cell lines. We then assessed whether inhibiting SGK1 activity added to rapamycin-mediated cell growth inhibition by either using the SGK1 inhibitor GSK650394A or expressing an SGK1 shRNA. We observed sensitivity to rapamycin-mediated growth inhibition and inactivation of insulin-mediated SGK1-Ser422 phosphorylation in ER?+ MCF-7 and T47D cells, but not in ER?- MDA-MB-231 or MCF10A-Myc cells. In addition, either depleting SGK1 with shRNA or inhibiting SGK1 with GSK650394A preferentially sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to rapamycin. Finally, we found that rapamycin-sensitive SGK1-Ser422 phosphorylation required ER? expression in MCF-7 derived cell lines. Therefore, targeting SGK1 activity may improve the efficacy of rapamycin and its analogs in the treatment of ER?- breast cancer. PMID:22842983

Hall, Ben A; Kim, Tae Yeon; Skor, Maxwell N; Conzen, Suzanne D

2012-09-01

184

Batrachotoxin-resistant Na+ channels derived from point mutations in transmembrane segment D4-S6.  

PubMed Central

Local anesthetics (LAs) block voltage-gated Na+ channels in excitable cells, whereas batrachotoxin (BTX) keeps these channels open persistently. Previous work delimited the LA receptor within the D4-S6 segment of the Na+ channel alpha-subunit, whereas the putative BTX receptor was found within the D1-S6. We mutated residues at D4-S6 critical for LA binding to determine whether such mutations modulate the BTX phenotype in rat skeletal muscle Na+ channels (mu1/rSkm1). We show that mu1-F1579K and mu1-N1584K channels become completely resistant to 5 microM BTX. In contrast, mu1-Y1586K channels remain BTX-sensitive; their fast and slow inactivation is eliminated by BTX after repetitive depolarization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cocaine elicits a profound time-dependent block after channel activation, consistent with preferential LA binding to BTX-modified open channels. We propose that channel opening promotes better exposure of receptor sites for binding with BTX and LAs, possibly by widening the bordering area around D1-S6, D4-S6, and the pore region. The BTX receptor is probably located at the interface of D1-S6 and D4-S6 segments adjacent to the LA receptor. These two S6 segments may appose too closely to bind BTX and LAs simultaneously when the channel is in its resting closed state. PMID:10354438

Wang, S Y; Wang, G K

1999-01-01

185

Residues in Na(+) channel D3-S6 segment modulate both batrachotoxin and local anesthetic affinities.  

PubMed Central

Batrachotoxin (BTX) alters the gating of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and causes these channels to open persistently, whereas local anesthetics (LAs) block Na(+) conductance. The BTX and LA receptors have been mapped to several common residues in D1-S6 and D4-S6 segments of the Na(+) channel alpha-subunit. We substituted individual residues with lysine in homologous segment D3-S6 of the rat muscle mu1 Na(+) channel from F1274 to N1281 to determine whether additional residues are involved in BTX and LA binding. Two mutant channels, mu1-S1276K and mu1-L1280K, when expressed in mammalian cells, become completely resistant to 5 microM BTX during repetitive pulses. The activation and/or fast inactivation gating of these mutants is substantially different from that of wild type. These mutants also display approximately 10-20-fold reduction in bupivacaine affinity toward their inactivated state but show only approximately twofold affinity changes toward their resting state. These results demonstrate that residues mu1-S1276 and mu1-L1280 in D3-S6 are critical for both BTX and LA binding interactions. We propose that LAs interact readily with these residues from D3-S6 along with those from D1-S6 and D4-S6 in close proximity when the Na(+) channel is in its inactivated state. Implications of this state-dependent binding model for the S6 alignment are discussed. PMID:10969000

Wang, S Y; Nau, C; Wang, G K

2000-01-01

186

S6K1 promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a model of metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of oncology-related death in US women. Of all invasive breast cancers, patients with tumors lacking expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have the poorest clinical prognosis. These referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represent an aggressive form of disease that is marked by early-onset metastasis, high tumor recurrence rate, and low overall survival during the first three years post-diagnosis. In this report, we discuss a novel model of early-onset TNBC metastasis to bone and lungs, derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast cancer cells injected intravenously produced rapid, osteolytic metastases in long bones and spines of athymic nude mice, with concurrent metastasis to lungs, liver, and soft tissues. From the bone metastases, we developed a highly metastatic luciferase-tagged cell line variant named MDA-231-LUC Met. In this report, we demonstrate that the Akt/mTOR/S6K1 axis is hyperactivated in these cells, leading to a dramatic increase in phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein at Ser235/236. Lastly, we provide evidence that inhibition of the furthest downstream kinase in the mTOR pathway, S6K1, with a highly specific inhibitor PF-4708671 inhibits cell migration, and thus may provide a potent anti-metastatic adjuvant therapy approach. PMID:25075253

Khotskaya, Yekaterina B; Goverdhan, Aarthi; Shen, Jia; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Chang, Shih-Shin; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Wei, Yongkun; Xia, Weiya; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

2014-01-01

187

Evolutionary conservation of nuclear and nucleolar targeting sequences in yeast ribosomal protein S6A.  

PubMed

Over 1 billion years ago, the animal kingdom diverged from the fungi. Nevertheless, a high sequence homology of 62% exists between human ribosomal protein S6 and S6A of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate whether this similarity in primary structure is mirrored in corresponding functional protein domains, the nuclear and nucleolar targeting signals were delineated in yeast S6A and compared to the known human S6 signals. The complete sequence of S6A and cDNA fragments was fused to the 5'-end of the LacZ gene, the constructs were transiently expressed in COS cells, and the subcellular localization of the fusion proteins was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. One bipartite and two monopartite nuclear localization signals as well as two nucleolar binding domains were identified in yeast S6A, which are located at homologous regions in human S6 protein. Remarkably, the number, nature, and position of these targeting signals have been conserved, albeit their amino acid sequences have presumably undergone a process of co-evolution with their corresponding rRNAs. PMID:15979583

Lipsius, Edgar; Walter, Korden; Leicher, Torsten; Phlippen, Wolfgang; Bisotti, Marc-Angelo; Kruppa, Joachim

2005-08-12

188

Electronic Structure and Phase Transition in Ferroelectic Sn2P2S6 Crystal  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the P2S6 cluster electronic structure and its comparison with the crystal valence band in the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases has been done by first-principles calculations for Sn2P2S6 ferroelectrics. The origin of ferroelectricity has been outlined. It was established that the spontaneous polarization follows from the stereochemical activity of the electron lone pair of tin cations, which is determined by hybridization with P2S6 molecular orbitals. The chemical bonds covalence increase and rearrangement are related to the valence band changes at transition from the paraelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase. PMID:23203069

Glukhov, Konstantin; Fedyo, Kristina; Banys, Juras; Vysochanskii, Yulian

2012-01-01

189

Stress induction of the mammalian GRP78/BiP protein gene: in vivo genomic footprinting and identification of p70CORE from human nuclear extract as a DNA-binding component specific to the stress regulatory element.  

PubMed Central

GRP78, also known as BiP, is one of the better-characterized molecular chaperones. It has been implicated in protein folding and also calcium sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum. When the cells are subjected to endoplasmic reticulum stress, in particular the depletion of stored calcium and/or the accumulation of abnormal proteins, the rate of transcription of grp78 is enhanced. Previous studies have shown that the core region of the rat grp78 promoter (-170 to -135), which is 95% conserved with the human grp78 core (-133 to -98), is one of the key regulatory elements. Using ligation-mediated PCR, we have found that there are specific changes in factor occupancy after stress induction and the major changes occur within a cluster of bases located in the 3' half of the grp core, whereas other regulatory elements are constitutively occupied. This inducible binding to the 3' half of the human grp78 core region is observed under diverse stress signals, suggesting a common mechanism for the grp stress response. Nonetheless, the lack of constitutive in vivo protection at this region is not due to the absence of a binding factor in nuclear extracts. Using in vitro gel mobility shift assays, we detected a constitutive binding activity which exhibits specificity and affinity to the stress-inducible region. Through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis size fractionation and renaturation analysis, the activity is found in polypeptides with molecular sizes of 65 to 75 kDa. After a three-step purification scheme including core affinity column chromatography, we purified p70CORE, which is about 70 kDa in its monomeric form. The purified p70CORE is sufficient to form a complex specific to the stress-inducible region. Images PMID:8035828

Li, W W; Sistonen, L; Morimoto, R I; Lee, A S

1994-01-01

190

Substrates of Mitotic Kinases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most signaling pathways in cells involve numerous phosphorylation reactions. Some of the rules for kinase-substrate specificity are known, but a complete description of all substrates is missing. Research published in Science Signaling addresses the process of mitosis and asks how the relevant kinases recognize substrate sequence motifs and, in the cellular context, what substrates are phosphorylated and where. The results increase our molecular understanding of how individual events are coordinated during the process of cell division and show the importance of both sequence epitopes for kinase specificity and the notion of a sense of place through localization in subcellular compartments.

Louise N. Johnson (University of Oxford; Department of Biochemistry REV)

2011-06-28

191

Kinase Suppressor of Ras Is Ceramide-Activated Protein Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proline-directed serine\\/threonine ceramide-activated protein (CAP) kinase mediates transmembrane signaling through the sphingomyelin pathway. CAP kinase reportedly initiates proinflammatory TNF? action by phosphorylating and activating Raf-1. The present studies delineate kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR), identified genetically in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, as CAP kinase. Mouse KSR, like CAP kinase, renatures and autophosphorylates as a 100-kDa membrane-bound polypeptide. KSR overexpression

Yuhua Zhang; Bei Yao; Sylvie Delikat; Shariff Bayoumy; Xin-Hua Lin; Subham Basu; Michael McGinley; Po-Ying Chan-Hui; Henri Lichenstein; Richard Kolesnick

1997-01-01

192

MAP kinase dynamics in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to

Frank van Drogen; Matthias Peter

2001-01-01

193

Nerve Growth Factor Activates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways To Stimulate CREB Serine 133 Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which growth factor-induced signals are propagated to the nucleus, leading to the activation of the transcription factor CREB, have been characterized. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was found to activate multiple signaling pathways that mediate the phosphorylation of CREB at the critical regulatory site, serine 133 (Ser-133). NGF activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which in turn activate the pp90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family of Ser/Thr kinases, all three members of which were found to catalyze CREB Ser-133 phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. In addition to the ERK/RSK pathway, we found that NGF activated the p38 MAPK and its downstream effector, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP kinase 2), resulting in phosphorylation of CREB at Ser-133. Inhibition of either the ERK/RSK or the p38/MAPKAP kinase 2 pathway only partially blocked NGF-induced CREB Ser-133 phosphorylation, suggesting that either pathway alone is sufficient for coupling the NGF signal to CREB activation. However, inhibition of both the ERK/RSK and the p38/MAPKAP kinase 2 pathways completely abolished NGF-induced CREB Ser-133 phosphorylation. These findings indicate that NGF activates two distinct MAPK pathways, both of which contribute to the phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB and the activation of immediate-early genes. PMID:9528766

Xing, Jun; Kornhauser, Jon M.; Xia, Zhengui; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Greenberg, Michael E.

1998-01-01

194

Chiral kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Small molecule kinase inhibitors are important tools for studying cellular signaling pathways, phenotypes and are, occasionally, useful clinical agents. With stereochemistry pervasive throughout the molecules of life it is no surprise that a single stereocenter can bestow a ligand with distinct binding affinities to various protein targets. While the majority of small molecule kinase inhibitors reported to date are achiral, a number of asymmetric compounds show great utility as tools for probing kinase-associated biomolecular events as well as promising therapeutic leads. The mechanism by which chirality is introduced varies but includes screening of chiral libraries, incorporation of chiral centers during optimization efforts and the rational installation of a chiral moiety as guided by structural and modeling efforts. Here we discuss several advanced chiral small molecule kinase inhibitors where stereochemistry plays an important role in terms of potency and selectivity. PMID:21291394

Jiang, Jian-kang; Shen, Min; Thomas, Craig J; Boxer, Mathew B

2011-01-01

195

Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 confers PARP inhibitor resistance in BRCA1-deficient cancers.  

PubMed

Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a promising therapeutic strategy for BRCA1 deficient cancers, however, the development of drug resistance limits clinical efficacy. Previously we found that the BRCA1-AKT1 pathway contributes to tumorigenesis and that the AKT1/mTOR is a novel therapeutic target for BRCA1-deficient cancers. Here, we report that phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, a mTOR downstream effector, is greatly increased in BRCA1 deficient cells resistant to PARP inhibition. Phosphorylation of S6 is associated with DNA damage and repair signaling during PARP inhibitor treatment. In BRCA1 deficient cells, expression of S6 lacking all five phosphorylatable sites renders the cells sensitive to PARP inhibitor and increases DNA damage signals. In addition, the S6 mutations reduce tumor formation induced by Brca1-deficiency in mice. Inhibition of S6 phosphorylation by rapamycin restores PARP sensitivity to resistant cells. Combined treatment with rapamycin and PARP inhibitor effectively suppresses BRCA1-deficient tumor growth in mice. These results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which BRCA1 deficient cancers acquire drug resistance and suggest a new therapeutic strategy to circumvent resistance. PMID:24831086

Sun, Chong-kui; Zhang, Fan; Xiang, Tao; Chen, Qianming; Pandita, Tej K; Huang, Yuping; Hu, Mickey C T; Yang, Qin

2014-05-30

196

Ponderosa pine Current Figure S6a. Projected habitat of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C.  

E-print Network

Ponderosa pine ­ Current Figure S6a. Projected habitat of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Figure S6d. Projected habitat of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) for the 2071­2100 normal period-2006 Recent Average1961-1990 Climate Normal #12;Ponderosa Pine ­ 2020s Figure S6b

Hamann, Andreas

197

Phosphatidylinositol kinase from rabbit reticulocytes  

SciTech Connect

Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase was isolated from the postribosomal supernatant of rabbit reticulocytes. This activity was identified by the formation of a product that comigrated with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) when purified PI was phosphorylated in the presence of (/sup 32/P)ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. Three major peaks of PI kinase activity were resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The first peak eluted at 50-100 mM NaCl together with several serine protein kinases, casein kinase (CK) I and protease activated kinase (PAK) I and II. The PI kinase was subsequently separated from the protein kinases by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The second peak eluted at 125-160 mM NaCl and contained another lipid kinase activity that produced a product which comigrated with phosphatidic acid on thin layer chromatography. The third peak, which eluted at 165-200 mM NaCl, partly comigrated with casein kinase (CK) II and an active protein kinase(s) which phosphorylated mixed histone and histone I. CK II and the histone kinase activities were also separated by chromatography on phosphocelluslose. The different forms of PI kinase were characterized and compared with respect to substrate and salt requirements.

Tuazon, P.T.; Heng, A.B.W.; Traugh, J.A.

1986-05-01

198

Drug Design: Protein Kinases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students "review protein structure and hydrophilic/phobic interactions, and then study kinases, small proteins that regulate numerous cell processes." The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment of demonstrations and simulations which allow them to print reports of data captured. There are six pages: an Introduction, Inter/intramolecular attractions: Types of Bonds, Inter/intramolecular attractions: Hydrophobic Interactions, Inter/intramolecular attractions: Hydrophilic Interactions, Protein Kinase Example: Tertiary Structure, and Protein Kinase Example: Ligand Bonding and Drug Design.

199

PAK family kinases  

PubMed Central

The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that are represented by six genes in humans (PAK 1–6), and are found in all eukaryotes sequenced to date. Genetic and knockdown experiments in frogs, fish and mice indicate group I PAKs are widely expressed, required for multiple tissue development, and particularly important for immune and nervous system function in the adult. The group II PAKs (human PAKs 4–6) are more enigmatic, but their restriction to metazoans and presence at cell-cell junctions suggests these kinases emerged to regulate junctional signaling. Studies of protozoa and fungal PAKs show that they regulate cell shape and polarity through phosphorylation of multiple cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule binding proteins, myosins and septins. This chapter discusses what we know about the regulation of PAKs and their physiological role in different model organisms, based primarily on gene knockout studies. PMID:23162738

Zhao, Zhuo-shen; Manser, Ed

2012-01-01

200

PKD1 is downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer and mediates the feedback inhibition of mTORC1-S6K1 axis in response to phorbol ester.  

PubMed

Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is increasingly implicated in multiple biological and molecular events that regulate the proliferation or invasiveness in several cancers. However, little is known about the expression and functions of PKD1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, 34 pairs of human NSCLC and matched normal bronchiolar epitheliums were enrolled and evaluated for PKD1 expression by quantitative real-time PCR. We showed that PKD1 was downregulated in 26 of 34 cancer tissues in comparison with matched normal epitheliums. Moreover, patients with venous invasion or lymph node metastasis showed significant lower expression of PKD1. Exposure of NSCLC A549 and H520 cells to the PKD family inhibitor kb NB 142-70(Kb), at concentrations that inhibited PKD1 activation, strikingly potentiated S6K1 phosphorylation at Thr(389) and S6 phosphorylation at Ser(235/236) in response to phorbol ester (PMA). Knockdown of PKD1 with siRNAs strikingly enhanced S6K1 phosphorylation whereas constitutively active PKD1 resulted in the S6K1 activity inhibition. Furthermore, the PI3K inhibitors LY294002, BKM120 and MEK inhibitors U0126, PD0325901 blocked the enhanced S6K1 activity induced by Kb. Collectively, our results identify decreased expression of the PKD1 as a marker for NSCLC and the loss of PKD1 expression increases the malignant potential of NSCLC cells. This may be due to the function of PKD1 as a negative regulator of mTORC1-S6K1. Our results suggest that re-expression or activation of PKD1 might serve as a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC treatment. PMID:25578563

Ni, Yang; Wang, Liguang; Zhang, Jihong; Pang, Zhaofei; Liu, Qi; Du, Jiajun

2015-03-01

201

Proteomic and biochemical analyses reveal the activation of unfolded protein response, ERK-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 signaling in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rat model  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis underlying myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM)-induced heart failure rat model that represents T cell mediated postinflammatory heart disorders. Results By performing unbiased 2-dimensional electrophoresis of protein extracts from control rat heart tissues and EAM rat heart tissues, followed by nano-HPLC-ESI-QIT-MS, 67 proteins were identified from 71 spots that exhibited significantly altered expression levels. The majority of up-regulated proteins were confidently associated with unfolded protein responses (UPR), while the majority of down-regulated proteins were involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria. Although there was no difference in AKT signaling between EAM rat heart tissues and control rat heart tissues, the amounts and activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) were significantly increased. By comparing our data with the previously reported myocardial proteome of the Coxsackie viruses of group B (CVB)-mediated myocarditis model, we found that UPR-related proteins were commonly up-regulated in two murine myocarditis models. Even though only two out of 29 down-regulated proteins in EAM rat heart tissues were also dysregulated in CVB-infected rat heart tissues, other proteins known to be involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria were also dysregulated in CVB-mediated myocarditis rat heart tissues, suggesting that impairment of mitochondrial functions may be a common underlying mechanism of the two murine myocarditis models. Conclusions UPR, ERK-1/2 and S6RP signaling were activated in both EAM- and CVB-induced myocarditis murine models. Thus, the conserved components of signaling pathways in two murine models of acute myocarditis could be targets for developing new therapeutic drugs or methods aimed at treating enigmatic myocarditis. PMID:22014063

2011-01-01

202

Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.  

PubMed

Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

2014-01-01

203

Dimerization in protein kinase signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The closely related mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2 have now been shown to have opposing roles in Ras-mediated cell proliferation. I propose that dimerization of these highly related protein kinases could underlie these surprising observations and that this could be a common paradigm for widespread regulation of protein phosphorylation by kinase-substrate interactions.

Steven Pelech; Wesbrook Mall

2006-01-01

204

Role of the S6 C-terminus in KCNQ1 channel gating  

PubMed Central

Co-assembly of KCNQ1 ?-subunits with KCNE1 ?-subunits results in the channel complex underlying the cardiac IKs current in vivo. Like other voltage-gated K+ channels, KCNQ1 has a tetrameric configuration. The S6 segment of each subunit lines the ion channel pore with the lower part forming the activation gate. To determine residues involved in protein–protein interactions in the C-terminal part of S6 (S6T), alanine and tryptophan perturbation scans were performed from residue 348–362 in the KCNQ1 channel. Several residues were identified to be relevant in channel gating, as substitutions affected the activation and/or deactivation process. Some mutations (F351A and V355W) drastically altered the gating characteristics of the resultant KCNQ1 channel, to the point of mimicking the IKs current. Furthermore, mutagenesis of residue L353 to an alanine or a charged residue impaired normal channel closure upon hyperpolarization, generating a constitutively open phenotype. This indicates that the L353 residue is essential for stabilizing the closed conformation of the channel gate. These findings together with the identification of several LQT1 mutations in the S6 C-terminus of KCNQ1 underscore the relevance of this region in KCNQ1 and IKs channel gating. PMID:17932138

Boulet, Inge R; Labro, Alain J; Raes, Adam L; Snyders, Dirk J

2007-01-01

205

A&S 6/28/12 Form E-1-A for Boston College Undergraduate Programs  

E-print Network

in other disciplines in the liberal arts (literature, theology, music, dance, philosophy) and to applyA&S 6/28/12 Form E-1-A for Boston College Undergraduate Programs Program: Art History 1) Have of art in its entirety from pre-history to the present. 2) Ability to identify the medium, chronological

Huang, Jianyu

206

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Linn, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

1996-01-01

207

A Novel (S)-6-Hydroxynicotine Oxidase Gene from Shinella sp. Strain HZN7  

PubMed Central

Nicotine is an important environmental toxicant in tobacco waste. Shinella sp. strain HZN7 can metabolize nicotine into nontoxic compounds via variations of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. However, the catabolic mechanism of this variant pathway at the gene or enzyme level is still unknown. In this study, two 6-hydroxynicotine degradation-deficient mutants, N7-M9 and N7-W3, were generated by transposon mutagenesis. The corresponding mutant genes, designated nctB and tnp2, were cloned and analyzed. The nctB gene encodes a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase that converts (S)-6-hydroxynicotine into 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and then spontaneously hydrolyzes into 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine. The deletion and complementation of the nctB gene showed that this enzyme is essential for nicotine or (S)-6-hydroxynicotine degradation. Purified NctB could also convert (S)-nicotine into N-methylmyosmine, which spontaneously hydrolyzed into pseudooxynicotine. The kinetic constants of NctB toward (S)-6-hydroxynicotine (Km = 0.019 mM, kcat = 7.3 s?1) and nicotine (Km = 2.03 mM, kcat = 0.396 s?1) indicated that (S)-6-hydroxynicotine is the preferred substrate in vivo. NctB showed no activities toward the R enantiomer of nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine. Strain HZN7 could degrade (R)-nicotine into (R)-6-hydroxynicotine without any further degradation. The tnp2 gene from mutant N7-W3 encodes a putative transposase, and its deletion did not abolish the nicotine degradation activity. This study advances the understanding of the microbial diversity of nicotine biodegradation. PMID:25002425

Qiu, Jiguo; Wei, Yin; Ma, Yun; Wen, Rongti; Wen, Yuezhong

2014-01-01

208

N E W S AN D V I E W S 6 VOLUME 9 | NUMBER 8 | AUGUST 2003 NATURE MEDICINE  

E-print Network

factor, ATP, adenosine triphosphate; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate. [AU: Who should be credited | AUGUST 2003 7 tein kinase kinases (MAPKKs), and edema factor is a calmodulin- and calcium-depend- ent

Starnbach, Michael

209

Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA. PMID:21861931

2011-01-01

210

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael (2565 Chalcedony, San Diego, CA 92122); Hibi, Masahiko (7528 Charmant Dr., No. 418, San Diego, CA 92122); Lin, Anning (8655 Via Mallorca Dr., Apt. 93, La Jolla, CA 92093)

1997-01-01

211

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

1997-02-25

212

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

1998-01-01

213

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

2004-03-16

214

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

1997-01-01

215

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

2005-03-08

216

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

2005-01-25

217

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

1999-01-01

218

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA); Davis, Roger (Princeton, MA); Derijard, Benoit (Shrewsbury, MA)

2003-02-04

219

Oncoprotein protein kinase  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

1999-11-30

220

Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets. PMID:24212825

Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

2011-01-01

221

Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

2015-01-01

222

MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.  

PubMed

MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

van Drogen, F; Peter, M

2001-09-01

223

DNA-damaging agents cause inactivation of translational regulators linked to mTOR signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents, such as etoposide, can cause growth arrest or apoptosis. Treatment of Swiss 3T3 or RAT-1 cells with etoposide led to the dephosphorylation of both p70 S6 kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), resulting in decreased p70 S6 kinase activity and an increase in 4E-BP1 binding to eIF4E. These effects were

Andrew R Tee; Christopher G Proud

2000-01-01

224

S6:S18 ribosomal protein complex interacts with a structural motif present in its own mRNA  

PubMed Central

Prokaryotic ribosomal protein genes are typically grouped within highly conserved operons. In many cases, one or more of the encoded proteins not only bind to a specific site in the ribosomal RNA, but also to a motif localized within their own mRNA, and thereby regulate expression of the operon. In this study, we computationally predicted an RNA motif present in many bacterial phyla within the 5? untranslated region of operons encoding ribosomal proteins S6 and S18. We demonstrated that the S6:S18 complex binds to this motif, which we hereafter refer to as the S6:S18 complex-binding motif (S6S18CBM). This motif is a conserved CCG sequence presented in a bulge flanked by a stem and a hairpin structure. A similar structure containing a CCG trinucleotide forms the S6:S18 complex binding site in 16S ribosomal RNA. We have constructed a 3D structural model of a S6:S18 complex with S6S18CBM, which suggests that the CCG trinucleotide in a specific structural context may be specifically recognized by the S18 protein. This prediction was supported by site-directed mutagenesis of both RNA and protein components. These results provide a molecular basis for understanding protein-RNA recognition and suggest that the S6S18CBM is involved in an auto-regulatory mechanism. PMID:23980204

Matelska, Dorota; Purta, Elzbieta; Panek, Sylwia; Boniecki, Michal J.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw

2013-01-01

225

The anti-tumor activator sMEK1 and paclitaxel additively decrease expression of HIF-1? and VEGF via mTORC1-S6K/4E-BP-dependent signaling pathways  

PubMed Central

Recently, we found that sMEK1 effectively regulates pro-apoptotic activity when combined with a traditional chemotherapeutic drug. Therefore, combinational therapeutic strategies targeting critical molecular and cellular mechanisms are urgently required. In this present work, we evaluated whether sMEK1 enhanced the pro-apoptotic activity of chemotherapeutic drugs in ovarian carcinoma cells. Combined with a chemotherapeutic drug, sMEK1 showed an additive effect on the suppression of ovarian cancer cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and regulating related gene expression levels or protein activities. In addition, the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was strongly inhibited by the combined treatment, showing de-repression of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and suppression of ras homolog enriched in the brain (Rheb) and mTOR and raptor in aggressive ovarian carcinoma cells and mouse xenograft models. Treatment with sMEK1 and paclitaxel reduced phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) and 4E-binding protein (4E-BP), two critical downstream targets of the mTOR-signaling pathway. Furthermore, both sMEK1 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited the expression of signaling components downstream of S6K/4E-BP, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our data suggest that the combination of sMEK1 and paclitaxel is a promising and effective targeted therapy for chemotherapy-resistant or recurrent ovarian cancers. PMID:25153728

Byun, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Seung Hee; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Rho, Seung Bae

2014-01-01

226

Catalytic Mechanisms and Regulation of Protein Kinases  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases transfer a phosphoryl group from ATP onto target proteins and play a critical role in signal transduction and other cellular processes. Here, we review the kinase kinetic and chemical mechanisms and their application in understanding kinase structure and function. Aberrant kinase activity has been implicated in many human diseases, in particular cancer. We highlight applications of technologies and concepts derived from kinase mechanistic studies that have helped illuminate how kinases are regulated and contribute to pathophysiology. PMID:25399640

Wang, Zhihong; Cole, Philip A.

2015-01-01

227

Flow-Induced DNA Synthesis Requires Signaling to a Translational Control Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The mTOR translational control pathway that signals to the P70\\/P85 S6 kinase (pp70S6k) is essential for mitogenesis. We have previously shown that pp70S6k is activated by fluid flow. We hypothesized that oscillatory fluid flow in the absence of exogenous mitogens would induce endothelial cells to synthesize DNA via activation of the mTOR pathway. For comparison, we also studied the

Larry W. Kraiss; Tina M. Ennis; Neal M. Alto

2001-01-01

228

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) downregulates HIF-1? protein expression through inhibition of PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in manganese-stimulated A549 human lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

High exposure of manganese is suggested to be a risk factor for many lung diseases. Evidence suggests anticancerous and antiangiogenic effects by products derived from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. In this study, we investigated the effect of noni fruit juice (NFJ) on the expression of HIF-1?, a tumor angiogenic transcription factor in manganese-chloride (manganese)-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Treatment with manganese largely induced expression of HIF-1? protein but did not affect HIF-1? mRNA expression in A549 cells, suggesting the metal-mediated co- and/or post-translational HIF-1? upregulation. Manganese treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1), protein kinase B (PKB), S6 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? (eIF-2?) in A549 cells. Of note, the exposure of NFJ inhibited the manganese-induced HIF-1? protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, as assessed by results of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA transfection studies, the effect of NFJ on HIF-1? protein downregulation seemed to be largely associated with the ability of NFJ to interfere with the metal's signaling to activate PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in A549 cells. It was further shown that NFJ could repress the induction of HIF-1? protein by desferoxamine or interleukin-1? (IL-1?), another HIF-1? inducer in A549 cells. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NFJ has the ability to strongly downregulate manganese-induced HIF-1? protein expression in A549 human lung cancer cells, which may suggest the NFJ-mediated beneficial effects on lung pathologies in which manganese and HIF-1? overexpression play pathogenic roles. PMID:22179285

Jang, Byeong-Churl

2012-03-01

229

Inhibition of Protein Synthesis Alters Protein Degradation through Activation of Protein Kinase B (AKT)*  

PubMed Central

The homeostasis of protein metabolism is maintained and regulated by the rates of protein biosynthesis and degradation in living systems. Alterations of protein degradation may regulate protein biosynthesis through a feedback mechanism. Whether a change in protein biosynthesis modulates protein degradation has not been reported. In this study, we found that inhibition of protein biosynthesis induced phosphorylation/activation of AKT and led to phosphorylation of AKT target substrates, including FoxO1, GSK3?/?, p70S6K, AS160, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 was also modulated by inhibition of protein biosynthesis. The AKT phosphorylation/activation was mediated mainly through the PI3K pathway because it was blocked by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. The activated AKT phosphorylated MDM2 at Ser166 and promoted degradation of the tumor suppressor p53. These findings suggest that inhibition of protein biosynthesis can alter degradation of some proteins through activation of AKT. This study reveals a novel regulation of protein degradation and calls for caution in blocking protein biosynthesis to study the half-life of proteins. PMID:23843462

Dai, Chun-Ling; Shi, Jianhua; Chen, Yanxing; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

2013-01-01

230

Immunotoxins and Other Conjugates Containing Saporin-S6 for Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a family of plant toxins that permanently damage ribosomes and possibly other cellular substrates, thus causing cell death. RIPs are mostly divided in two types: Type 1 RIPs that are single-chain enzymatic proteins, and type 2 RIPs that consist of an active A chain (similar to a type 1 RIP) linked to a B chain with lectin properties. RIP-containing conjugates have been used in many experimental strategies against cancer cells, often showing great efficacy in clinical trials. Saporin-S6, a type 1 RIP extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. seeds, has been extensively utilized to construct anti-cancer conjugates because of its high enzymatic activity, stability and resistance to conjugation procedures, resulting in the efficient killing of target cells. This review summarizes saporin-S6-containing conjugates and their application in cancer therapy, considering in-vitro and in-vivo studies both in animal models and in clinical trials. The review is structured on the basis of the targeting of hematological versus solid tumors and on the antigen recognized on the cell surface. PMID:22069735

Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Pedrazzi, Manuela; Bolognesi, Andrea

2011-01-01

231

Folding behavior of ribosomal protein S6 studied by modified Go¯ -like model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that, although topology is the determinant factor in protein folding, especially for small single-domain proteins, energetic factors also play an important role in the folding process. The ribosomal protein S6 has been subjected to intensive studies. A radical change of the transition state in its circular permutants has been observed, which is believed to be caused by a biased distribution of contact energies. Since the simplistic topology-only G? -like model is not able to reproduce such an observation, we modify the model by introducing variable contact energies between residues based on their physicochemical properties. The modified G? -like model can successfully reproduce the ? -value distributions, folding nucleus, and folding pathways of both the wild-type and circular permutants of S6. Furthermore, by comparing the results of the modified and the simplistic models, we find that the hydrophobic effect constructs the major force that balances the loop entropies. This may indicate that nature maintains the folding cooperativity of this protein by carefully arranging the location of hydrophobic residues in the sequence. Our study reveals a strategy or mechanism used by nature to get out of the dilemma when the native structure, possibly required by biological function, conflicts with folding cooperativity. Finally, the possible relationship between such a design of nature and amyloidosis is also discussed.

Wu, L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J.; Li, W. F.; Wang, W.

2007-03-01

232

SnGa2GeS6: synthesis, structure, linear and nonlinear optical properties.  

PubMed

A new sulfide, SnGa2GeS6, has been synthesized, which represents the first member in the quaternary Sn/M/M'/Q (M = Ga, In; M' = Si, Ge; Q = S, Se, Te) system. It adopts a new structure type in the non-centrosymmetric space group Fdd2. In the structure, Sn(2+) is coordinated to a distorted square-pyramid of five S atoms, demonstrating the stereochemical activity of the lone electron pair, while the Ge atom and Ga atom are both tetrahedrally coordinated to four S atoms. The SnS5 square-pyramids and the MS4 (M = Ga, Ge) tetrahedra are connected to each other via corner and edge-sharing to generate a three-dimensional framework. The compound exhibits a powder second harmonic generation signal at 2 ?m whose strength is about one-fourth that of the benchmark material AgGaS2, which may be explained in view of the macroscopic arrangement of the SnS5 square-pyramids and the MS4 tetrahedra. Moreover, based on UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy measurements and the electronic structure calculations, SnGa2GeS6 has two optical transitions at about 1.12 eV and 2.04 eV respectively. PMID:25801715

Lin, Zuohong; Li, Chao; Kang, Lei; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

2015-04-01

233

Phorbol ester, serum, and rous sarcoma virus transforming gene product induce similar phosphorylations of ribosomal protein S6.  

PubMed Central

The addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a potent tumor promoter, to serum-starved quiescent chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) or C127 murine cells resulted in increased phosphorylation of 40S ribosomal protein S6. The effect of PMA on S6 phosphorylation in quiescent CEF was half-maximal at approximately equal to 100 nM and was readily observed at 16 nM. In addition, S6 phosphorylation was increased in serum-starved CEF incubated with the diacylglycerol derivative, 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol. S6 phosphorylation in PMA-stimulated, serum-stimulated, and serum-starved Rous sarcoma virus-transformed CEF was analyzed by phospho amino acid analysis, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, limited proteolysis with V8 protease, and two-dimensional thin-layer electrophoresis of chymotryptic digests. Comparison of S6 phosphorylation by these methods suggests that phosphorylation of S6 stimulated by PMA, serum, or oncogenic transformation with Rous sarcoma virus occurs through common pathways. This is further supported by the observation that the simultaneous addition of PMA and serum to CEF or of either PMA or serum to Rous sarcoma virus-transformed CEF did not significantly further increase the incorporation of phosphate into S6. Images PMID:6093101

Blenis, J; Spivack, J G; Erikson, R L

1984-01-01

234

Curcumin Treatment Suppresses IKK? Kinase Activity of Salivary Cells of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether curcumin would inhibit IKK? kinase activity and suppress expression of proinflammatory cytokines in head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients. Experimental Design Saliva was collected before and after subjects chewed curcumin tablets. Protein was extracted and IKK? kinase activity measured. IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the salivary supernatants were measured using ELISA. IL-6, IL-8 and other interleukins were also measured independently with ELISA to confirm the inhibitory effect of curcumin on expression and secretion of salivary cytokines. Results Curcumin treatment led to a reduction in IKK? kinase activity in the salivary cells of HNSCC patients (p<0.05). Treatment of UM-SCC1 cells with curcumin as well as with post curcumin salivary supernatant showed a reduction of IKK? kinase activity. Significant reduction of IL-8 levels (p<0.05) was seen in post curcumin samples from patients with dental caries. Although there was reduced IL-8 expression in 8 of 21 post curcumin samples of HNSCC patients, the data did not reach statistical significance. Saliva samples from HNSCC patients were also analyzed in a blinded fashion for expression of cytokines. IL-10, IFN-?, IL-12p70, and IL-2 clustered together, and GM-CSF and TNF-? clustered together. Log10 ratio analysis demonstrated decrease in expression of all nine cytokines in both the salivary supernatant and salivary cells of curcumin treated samples. Conclusions Curcumin inhibited IKK? kinase activity in the saliva of HNSCC patients and this inhibition correlated with reduced expression of a number of cytokines. IKK? kinase could be a useful biomarker for detecting the effect of curcumin in head and neck cancer. PMID:21821700

Kim, Suejung G.; Veena, Mysore S.; Basak, Saroj K.; Han, Eugene; Tajima, Tracey; Gjertson, David W.; Starr, Joshua; Eidelman, Ofer; Pollard, Harvey B.; Srivastava, Meera; Srivatsan, Eri S.; Wang, Marilene B.

2011-01-01

235

New class of ruthenium sulfide clusters: Ru(4)S(6)(PPh(3))(4), Ru(5)S(6)(PPh(3))(5), and Ru(6)S(8)(PPh(3))(6).  

PubMed

Reaction of RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3) with S(2)(-) sources yields a family of phosphine-containing Ru-S clusters which have been characterized crystallographically and by MALDI-MS. Ru(4)S(6)(PPh(3))(4) (Ru-Ru(av) = 2.94 A) has idealized T(d)() symmetry whereas Ru(6)S(8)(PPh(3))(6) (Ru-Ru(av) = 2.82 A) adopts the idealized O(h)() symmetry characteristic of Chevrel clusters. Ru(5)S(6)(PPh(3))(5) is formally derived by the addition of Ru(PPh(3)) to one face of Ru(4)S(6)(PPh(3))(4). In terms of its M-S connectivity, the Ru(5)S(6) cluster resembles a fragment of the FeMo cluster in nitrogenase. PMID:11952352

Eckermann, Amanda L; Wunder, Markus; Fenske, Dieter; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Wilson, Scott R

2002-04-22

236

Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan activates ERK and p38 MAP kinase and induces production of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages through TLR2 and TLR4.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Leishmania promastigotes primarily infect macrophages in the host, where they transform into amastigotes and multiply. Lipophosphoglycan (LPG), the most abundant surface molecule of the parasite, is a virulence determinant that regulates the host immune response. Promastigotes are able to modulate this effect through LPG, creating a favourable environment for parasite survival, although the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain unknown. We analysed the participation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the production of cytokines and explored the possible phosphorylation of ERK and/or p38 MAP kinase signalling cascades in human macrophages stimulated with Leishmania mexicana LPG. The results show that LPG induced the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-12p40, IL-12p70 and IL-10 and led to phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAP kinase. Specific inhibitors of ERK or p38 MAP kinases and mAbs against TLR2 and TLR4 reduced cytokine production and phosphorylation of both kinases. Our results suggest that L. mexicana LPG binds TLR2 and TLR4 receptors in human macrophages, leading to ERK and MAP kinase phosphorylation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24512642

Rojas-Bernabé, A; Garcia-Hernández, O; Maldonado-Bernal, C; Delegado-Dominguez, J; Ortega, E; Gutiérrez-Kobeh, L; Becker, I; Aguirre-Garcia, M

2014-05-01

237

MAP kinase-interacting kinases--emerging targets against cancer.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-interacting kinases (Mnks) regulate the initiation of translation through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Mnk-mediated eIF4E activation promotes cancer development and progression. While the phosphorylation of eIF4E is necessary for oncogenic transformation, the kinase activity of Mnks seems dispensable for normal development. For this reason, pharmacological inhibition of Mnks could represent an ideal mechanism-based and nontoxic therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of Mnk biological roles, structures, and functions, as well as clinical implications. Importantly, we propose different strategies for identification of highly selective small molecule inhibitors of Mnks, including exploring a structural feature of their kinase domain, DFD motif, which is unique within the human kinome. We also argue that a combined targeting of Mnks and other pathways should be considered given the complexity of cancer. PMID:24613018

Diab, Sarah; Kumarasiri, Malika; Yu, Mingfeng; Teo, Theodosia; Proud, Christopher; Milne, Robert; Wang, Shudong

2014-04-24

238

Elastic and acoustooptic properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals: Effect of ferroelectric phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the studies for temperature dependences of elastic stiffness coefficients in Sn2P2S6 crystals. Basing on the construction of acoustic velocity surfaces, we have determined the parameters of the slowest acoustic wave that propagates in Sn2P2S6 crystals. The acoustooptic figure of merit for the case of acoustooptic interaction with this wave is estimated as ˜0.8 × 10-12 s3/kg. We have shown that Sn2P2S6 is very close to the conditions of tricritical point on the (x, T)- and (p, T)-phase diagrams of the solid solutions Sn2P2(SexS1-x)6. The critical exponent ? of the heat capacity for the Sn2P2S6 crystals is equal to 0.42 ± 0.03.

Mys, O.; Zapeka, B.; Martynyuk-Lototska, I.; Vlokh, R.

2012-12-01

239

Sarafotoxin S6c is a relatively weak displacer of specifically bound /sup 125/I-endothelin  

SciTech Connect

Sarafotoxin S6a, S6b and S6c are chemically related vasoconstrictor polypeptides obtained from the venom of the snake, Atractaspis engaddensis. Each contains twenty one amino acid residues, two intrachain cysteine linkages and a long hydrophobic tail. Structurally these polypeptides resemble endothelin. Binding studies with /sup 125/I-endothelin showed that /sup 125/I-endothelin bound to rat ventricular membranes is totally displaceable by sarafotoxin S6b and endothelin, with IC50 values of 0.21 and 0.16 nM, respectively. Sarafotoxin S6c, which differs from sarafotoxin S6b in containing threonine instead of serine at residue 2, arginine instead of lysine at residue 4, and glutamic acid instead of lysine at residue 9, only weakly displaced bound /sup 125/I-endothelin (IC50, 854 nM). These results indicate that the ability of the sarafotoxins to interact with the endothelin binding site is not solely dependent on the long hydrophobic tail or the cysteine linkages.

Nayler, W.G.; Gu, X.H.; Casley, D.J.

1989-05-30

240

TNF and MAP kinase signalling pathways.  

PubMed

The binding of tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNF?) that contribute to the biological activity of TNF?. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNF? receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNF?. PMID:24647229

Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J

2014-06-01

241

Neuronal migration and protein kinases  

PubMed Central

The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

Ohshima, Toshio

2015-01-01

242

Phosphatidylinositol kinase from rabbit reticulocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase was isolated from the postribosomal supernatant of rabbit reticulocytes. This activity was identified by the formation of a product that comigrated with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) when purified PI was phosphorylated in the presence of (³²P)ATP and Mg\\/sup 2 +\\/. Three major peaks of PI kinase activity were resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The first peak eluted at 50-100

P. T. Tuazon; A. B. W. Heng; J. A. Traugh

1986-01-01

243

Hsp90 Promotes Kinase Evolution  

PubMed Central

Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) promotes the maturation and stability of its client proteins, including many kinases. In doing so, Hsp90 may allow its clients to accumulate mutations as previously proposed by the capacitor hypothesis. If true, Hsp90 clients should show increased evolutionary rate compared with nonclients; however, other factors, such as gene expression and protein connectivity, may confound or obscure the chaperone’s putative contribution. Here, we compared the evolutionary rates of many Hsp90 clients and nonclients in the human protein kinase superfamily. We show that Hsp90 client status promotes evolutionary rate independently of, but in a small magnitude similar to that of gene expression and protein connectivity. Hsp90’s effect on kinase evolutionary rate was detected across mammals, specifically relaxing purifying selection. Hsp90 clients also showed increased nucleotide diversity and harbored more damaging variation than nonclient kinases across humans. These results are consistent with the central argument of the capacitor hypothesis that interaction with the chaperone allows its clients to harbor genetic variation. Hsp90 client status is thought to be highly dynamic with as few as one amino acid change rendering a protein dependent on the chaperone. Contrary to this expectation, we found that across protein kinase phylogeny Hsp90 client status tends to be gained, maintained, and shared among closely related kinases. We also infer that the ancestral protein kinase was not an Hsp90 client. Taken together, our results suggest that Hsp90 played an important role in shaping the kinase superfamily. PMID:25246701

Lachowiec, Jennifer; Lemus, Tzitziki; Borenstein, Elhanan; Queitsch, Christine

2015-01-01

244

Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

1991-01-01

245

Functionally distinct PI 3-kinase pathways regulate myelination in the peripheral nervous system  

PubMed Central

The PI 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling pathway is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Here we have characterized PI 3-K effectors activated during myelination by probing myelinating cultures and developing nerves with an antibody that recognizes phosphorylated substrates for this pathway. We identified a discrete number of phospho-proteins including the S6 ribosomal protein (S6rp), which is down-regulated at the onset of myelination, and N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), which is up-regulated strikingly with myelination. We show that type III Neuregulin1 on the axon is the primary activator of S6rp, an effector of mTORC1. In contrast, laminin-2 in the extracellular matrix (ECM), signaling through the ?6?4 integrin and Sgk1 (serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1), drives phosphorylation of NDRG1 in the Cajal bands of the abaxonal compartment. Unexpectedly, mice deficient in ?6?4 integrin signaling or Sgk1 exhibit hypermyelination during development. These results identify functionally and spatially distinct PI 3-K pathways: an early, pro-myelinating pathway driven by axonal Neuregulin1 and a later-acting, laminin–integrin-dependent pathway that negatively regulates myelination. PMID:24687281

Heller, Bradley A.; Ghidinelli, Monica; Voelkl, Jakob; Einheber, Steven; Smith, Ryan; Grund, Ethan; Morahan, Grant; Chandler, David; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Giancotti, Filippo; King, Rosalind H.; Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray; Fejes-Toth, Gerard; Feltri, Maria Laura; Lang, Florian

2014-01-01

246

The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway in Human Cancer: Genetic Alterations and Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently activated in human cancer and represents an attractive target for therapies based on small molecule inhibitors. PI3K isoforms play an essential role in the signal transduction events activated by cell surface receptors including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There are eight known PI3K isoforms in humans, which have been subdivided into three classes (I-III). Therefore PI3Ks show considerable diversity and it remains unclear which kinases in this family should be targeted in cancer. The class IA of PI3K comprises the p110?, p110? and p110? isoforms, which associate with activated RTKs. In human cancer, recent reports have described activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene encoding p110?, and inactivating mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) gene, a tumour suppressor and antagonist of the PI3K pathway. The PIK3CA mutations described in cancer constitutively activate p110? and, when expressed in cells drive oncogenic transformation. Moreover, these mutations cause the constitutive activation of downstream signaling molecules such as Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) that is commonly observed in cancer cells. In addition to p110?, the other isoforms of the PI3K family may also play a role in human cancer, although their individual functions remain to be precisely identified. In this review we will discuss the evidence implicating individual PI3K isoforms in human cancer and their potential as drug targets in this context. PMID:19384426

Arcaro, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Ana S

2007-01-01

247

Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) IV by CaM-kinase kinase in Jurkat T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-kinase IV), a member of the CaM-kinase family involved in transcriptional regulation, is stimulated by Ca2+/CaM but also requires phosphorylation by a CaM-kinase kinase for full activation. In this study we investigated the physiological role of a CaM-kinase cascade in Jurkat T human lymphocytes through antigen receptor (CD3) signaling. Total and Ca(2+)-independent CaM-kinase IV activities were increased 8-14-fold by anti-CD3 antibody. This CD3-mediated activation involved phosphorylation since the immunoprecipitated CaM-kinase IV from stimulated Jurkat cells could be subsequently inactivated in vitro by protein phosphatase 2A. CaM-kinase IV immunoprecipitated from unstimulated Jurkat cells or CD3-negative mutant Jurkat cells could be activated in vitro 10-40-fold by CaM-kinase kinase purified from rat brain or thymus, whereas CaM-kinase IV from CD3-stimulated wild-type Jurkat cells was only activated to 2-3-fold by exogenous CaM-kinase kinase. CaM-kinase IV activation was triggered by Ca2+ acting through calmodulin since activation could also be elicited by ionomycin treatment, and CD3-mediated activation was blocked by the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium. These data are consistent with a CaM-kinase cascade in which CaM-kinase IV is activated by a CaM-kinase kinase cascade triggered by elevated intracellular calcium in Jurkat cells. PMID:8530476

Park, I K; Soderling, T R

1995-12-22

248

Color-singlet J/? production at O(?s6) in ? decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To clarify the conflict between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of the inclusive J/? production in ? decay, we consider the ?s6 order color-singlet (CS) contributions of processes ??J/?+gg and ??J/?+gggg. Both the branching ratio and the J/? momentum spectrum are calculated, and the branching ratio (4.7×10-4) is larger than the leading-order contribution (?s5, ??J/?+cc¯g). Together with the QCD and QED leading-order contributions considered in our previous work, the CS prediction of the branching ratio for the direct J/? production is Br(??J/?direct+X)=0.90-0.31+0.49×10-4, which is still about 3.8 times less than the CLEO measurement. We also obtain a preliminary CS prediction of Rcc=(B(??J/?+cc¯+X))/(B(??J/?+X)) and find that the value 0.39-0.20+0.21 is much larger than the color-octet prediction, and suggest to measure this quality in future experimental analysis.

He, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Jian-Xiong

2010-11-01

249

Aspirin Inhibits mTOR Signaling, Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, and Induces Autophagy in Colorectal Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Aspirin reduces the incidence of and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) by unknown mechanisms. Cancer cells have defects in signaling via the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which regulates proliferation. We investigated whether aspirin affects adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mTOR signaling in CRC cells. METHODS The effects of aspirin on mTOR signaling, the ribosomal protein S6, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) were examined in CRC cells by immunoblotting. Phosphorylation of AMPK was measured; the effects of loss of AMPK? on the aspirin-induced effects of mTOR were determined using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in CRC cells and in AMPK?1/?2?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts. LC3 and ULK1 were used as markers of autophagy. We analyzed rectal mucosa samples from patients given 600 mg aspirin, once daily for 1 week. RESULTS Aspirin reduced mTOR signaling in CRC cells by inhibiting the mTOR effectors S6K1 and 4E-BP1. Aspirin changed nucleotide ratios and activated AMPK in CRC cells. mTOR was still inhibited by aspirin in CRC cells after siRNA knockdown of AMPK?, indicating AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent mechanisms of aspirin-induced inhibition of mTOR. Aspirin induced autophagy, a feature of mTOR inhibition. Aspirin and metformin (an activator of AMPK) increased inhibition of mTOR and Akt, as well as autophagy in CRC cells. Rectal mucosal samples from patients given aspirin had reduced phosphorylation of S6K1 and S6. CONCLUSIONS Aspirin is an inhibitor of mTOR and an activator of AMPK, targeting regulators of intracellular energy homeostasis and metabolism. These could contribute to its protective effects against development of CRC. PMID:22406476

DIN, FARHAT V. N.; VALANCIUTE, ASTA; HOUDE, VANESSA P.; ZIBROVA, DARIA; GREEN, KEVIN A.; SAKAMOTO, KEI; ALESSI, DARIO R.; DUNLOP, MALCOLM G.

2013-01-01

250

Comparison of Peptide Array Substrate Phosphorylation of c-Raf and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 8  

PubMed Central

Kinases are pivotal regulators of cellular physiology. The human genome contains more than 500 putative kinases, which exert their action via the phosphorylation of specific substrates. The determinants of this specificity are still only partly understood and as a consequence it is difficult to predict kinase substrate preferences from the primary structure, hampering the understanding of kinase function in physiology and prompting the development of technologies that allow easy assessment of kinase substrate consensus sequences. Hence, we decided to explore the usefulness of phosphorylation of peptide arrays comprising of 1176 different peptide substrates with recombinant kinases for determining kinase substrate preferences, based on the contribution of individual amino acids to total array phosphorylation. Employing this technology, we were able to determine the consensus peptide sequences for substrates of both c-Raf and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 8, two highly homologous kinases with distinct signalling roles in cellular physiology. The results show that although consensus sequences for these two kinases identified through our analysis share important chemical similarities, there is still some sequence specificity that could explain the different biological action of the two enzymes. Thus peptide arrays are a useful instrument for deducing substrate consensus sequences and highly homologous kinases can differ in their requirement for phosphorylation events. PMID:19649278

Parikh, Kaushal; Diks, Sander H.; Tuynman, Jurriaan H. B.; Verhaar, Auke; Löwenberg, Mark; Hommes, Daan W.; Joore, Jos; Pandey, Akhilesh; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

2009-01-01

251

Protein Kinases Curb Cell Death  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Networks of aspartic acid–directed caspases play a major role in the execution of programmed cell death. Studies have provided evidence that caspases or their substrates are subjected to phosphorylation, which suggests a potential convergence of protein kinase and caspase signaling pathways. Various caspase substrates, but also several procaspases, are protected from cleavage when they are phosphorylated at sites adjacent to caspase cleavage sites. Whereas many distinct protein kinases could potentially protect substrates from caspase-mediated cleavage, a study has identified protein kinase CK2 as the most prominent kinase that exerts a global inhibition of caspase signaling pathways. CK2 is a component of protein kinase networks that are involved in tumors derived from various tissues. Its dysregulation in many cancers, together with its dual function in promoting cell growth and in suppressing apoptosis, is particularly relevant to its oncogenic potential. Thus, this study suggests that the ability of CK2 to contribute to tumorigenesis resides, at least in part, in its ability to phosphorylate caspases or their targets.

Odile Filhol (Grenoble; INSERM REV)

2011-05-10

252

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Kwiatkowski, D.J., Zang, H., Bandura, JL, Heiberger, K.M, Glogauer, M., Hashemite, N., Onda, H. 2002 A mouse model of TSC1 reveals sex-dependent lethality from liver hemangiomas and up-regulation of p70S6 kinase activity in Tsc1 null cells.

253

A Genome-wide RNAi Screen for Polypeptides that Alter rpS6 Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a giant protein kinase that controls cell proliferation, growth, and metabolism. mTOR is regulated by nutrient availability, by mitogens, and by stress, and operates through two independently regulated hetero-oligomeric complexes. We have attempted to identify the cellular components necessary to maintain the activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), the amino acid-dependent, rapamycin-inhibitable complex, using a whole genome approach involving RNAi-induced depletion of cellular polypeptides. We have used a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell line, Mia-PaCa for this screen; as with many pancreatic cancers, these cells exhibit constitutive activation of mTORC1. PDAC is the most common form of pancreatic cancer and the 5-year survival rate remains 3–5% despite current nonspecific and targeted therapies. Although rapamycin-related mTOR inhibitors have yet to demonstrate encouraging clinical responses, it is now evident that this class of compounds is capable of only partial mTORC1 inhibition. Identifying previously unappreciated proteins needed for maintenance of mTORC1 activity may provide new targets and lead to the development of beneficial therapies for pancreatic cancer. PMID:22125066

Papageorgiou, Angela; Avruch, Joseph

2012-01-01

254

Structure of the pseudokinase-kinase domains from protein kinase TYK2 reveals a mechanism for Janus kinase (JAK) autoinhibition.  

PubMed

Janus kinases (JAKs) are receptor-associated multidomain tyrosine kinases that act downstream of many cytokines and interferons. JAK kinase activity is regulated by the adjacent pseudokinase domain via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report the 2.8-Å structure of the two-domain pseudokinase-kinase module from the JAK family member TYK2 in its autoinhibited form. We find that the pseudokinase and kinase interact near the kinase active site and that most reported mutations in cancer-associated JAK alleles cluster in or near this interface. Mutation of residues near the TYK2 interface that are analogous to those in cancer-associated JAK alleles, including the V617F and "exon 12" JAK2 mutations, results in increased kinase activity in vitro. These data indicate that JAK pseudokinases are autoinhibitory domains that hold the kinase domain inactive until receptor dimerization stimulates transition to an active state. PMID:24843152

Lupardus, Patrick J; Ultsch, Mark; Wallweber, Heidi; Bir Kohli, Pawan; Johnson, Adam R; Eigenbrot, Charles

2014-06-01

255

A tyrosine kinase profile of prostate carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine kinases play central roles in the growth and differentiation of normal and tumor cells. In this study, we have analyzed the general tyrosine kinase expression profile of a prostate carcinoma (PCA) xenograft, CWR22. We describe here an improved reverse transcriptase-PCR approach that permits identification of nearly 40 different kinases in a single screening; several of these kinases are newly cloned kinases and some are novel. According to this, there are 11 receptor kinases, 9 nonreceptor kinases, and at least 7 dual kinases expressed in the xenograft tissue. The receptor kinases include erbB2, erbB3, Ret, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, sky, nyk, eph, htk, sek (eph), ddr, and tkt. The nonreceptor kinases are lck, yes, abl, arg, JakI, tyk2, and etk/bmx. Most of the dual kinases are in the mitogen-activating protein (MAP) kinase-kinase (MKK) family, which includes MKK3, MKK4, MEK5, and a novel one. As a complementary approach, we also analyzed by specific reverse transcriptase-PCR primers the expression profile of erbB/epidermal growth factor receptor family receptors in a variety of PCA specimens, cell lines, and benign prostatic hyperplasia. We found that erbB1, -2, and -3 are often coexpressed in prostate tissues, but not in erbB4. The information established here should provide a base line to study the possible growth and oncogenic signals of PCA. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8650201

Robinson, D; He, F; Pretlow, T; Kung, H J

1996-01-01

256

Phosphoinositol 3-kinase, a novel target molecule for the inhibitory effects of juglone on TPA-induced cell transformation.  

PubMed

Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione) from black walnut trees induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of various malignant cells. Here, we investigated whether juglone affects 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell transformation through the phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. The results showed that TPA- and endothelial growth factor (EGF)-induced anchorage-independent colony formation were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by treatment of JB6 CI41 mouse skin epidermal cells with juglone (2.5 and 5 µM). We demonstrated that juglone suppressed PI3K activity via direct binding to PI3K by sepharose 4B pull-down assay and western blot analysis. Juglone significantly suppressed TPA-induced protein kinase B (AKT) and c-Jun phosphorylation and c-fos activation, but not mitogen-activated protein-kinase kinase (MEK), extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) or 90 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK) phosphorylation. Juglone significantly blocked activator protein-1 (AP-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activation more than the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. Overall, these results showed the anticancer efficacy of juglone targeting PI3K to prevent TPA-induced tumorigenesis. PMID:22505246

Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Kyung-Ae; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Nam, Hae-Seon; Woo, Kee-Min; Lee, Sang-Han; Shim, Jung-Hyun

2012-07-01

257

Redox regulation of Janus kinase  

PubMed Central

The redox regulation of Janus kinases (JAKs) is a complex subject. Due to other redox-sensitive kinases in the kinome, redox-sensitive phosphatases, and cellular antioxidant systems and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production systems, the net biological outcomes of oxidative stress on JAK-dependent signal transduction vary according to the specific biological system examined. This review begins with a discussion of the biochemical evidence for a cysteine-based redox switch in the catalytic domain of JAKs, proceeds to consider direct and indirect regulatory mechanisms involved in biological experiments, and ends with a discussion of the role(s) of redox regulation of JAKs in various diseases. PMID:24416654

Duhé, Roy J

2013-01-01

258

The protein P1 kinase  

SciTech Connect

The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase which catalyzes the phosphorylation of the ribosome-associated protein P1 and the alpha subunit of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) was characterized from interferon-treated human amnion U cells. The apparent molecular weight of the native kinase was about 65 KDa, similar to the apparent molecular weight of denatured phosphorylated P1, about 69 KDa. The phosphorylation of P1 was insensitive to dilution and was not inhibited by glycerol when Mn{sup ++} was included in the reaction mixture. When Mn{sup ++} was replaced by Mg{sup ++}, the reaction was dilution dependent and inhibited by glycerol. In addition, the Km for ATP of the P1 kinase was seven times lower in the presence of Mn{sup ++} as compared to the Km for ATP in the presence of Mg{sup ++}. The observation that P1 phosphorylation can be dilution independent suggests P1 is autophosphorylated. A protein with an apparent native molecular weight of 150,000 daltons that is antigenically related to protein P1 and that possesses RNA binding activity was identified. Protein P1 was covalently labeled with (alpha-{sup 32}P)ATP following ultraviolet irradiation. The photoaffinity labeling was dependent upon the presence of dsRNA. These results suggest that protein P1 possesses a dsRNA-dependent ATP-binding site. The ability of pure viral and cellular single-stranded RNAs to activate the P1 kinase was examined. The P1 kinase was activated by certain reovirus ssRNAs. The reovirus s1 mRNA was a potent activator of the kinase. Subsequent deletion analysis of the s1 mRNA identified a 161 nucleotide region which was sufficient for P1 kinase activation. Treatment of the reovirus sl mRNA transcript with either ssRNA- or dsRNA-specific ribonucleases, but not with heat, destroyed the ability of the s1 mRNA to activate the kinase.

Bischoff, J.R.

1989-01-01

259

Ribosomal Protein S6, a Target of Rapamycin, Is Involved in the Regulation of rRNA Genes by Possible Epigenetic Changes in Arabidopsis *  

PubMed Central

The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase pathway regulates various biological processes, including translation, synthesis of ribosomal proteins, and transcription of rRNA. The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is one of the well known downstream components of the TOR pathway. Ribosomal proteins have been known to have diverse functions in regulating cellular metabolism as well as protein synthesis. So far, however, little is known about other possible role(s) of RPS6 in plants, besides being a component of the 40 S ribosomal subunit and acting as a target of TOR. Here, we report that RPS6 may have a novel function via interaction with histone deacetylase 2B (AtHD2B) that belongs to the plant-specific histone deacetylase HD2 family. RPS6 and AtHD2B were localized to the nucleolus. Co-expression of RPS6 and AtHD2B caused a change in the location of both RPS6 and AtHD2B to one or several nucleolar spots. ChIP analysis suggests that RPS6 directly interacts with the rRNA gene promoter. Protoplasts overexpressing both AtHD2B and RPS6 exhibited down-regulation of pre-18 S rRNA synthesis with a concomitant decrease in transcription of some of the ribosomal proteins, suggesting their direct role in ribosome biogenesis and plant development. This is consistent with the mutation in rps6b that results in reduction in 18 S rRNA transcription and decreased root growth. We propose that the interaction between RPS6 and AtHD2B brings about a change in the chromatin structure of rDNA and thus plays an important role in linking TOR signaling to rDNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis in plants. PMID:24302738

Kim, Yun-Kyoung; Kim, Sunghan; Shin, Yun-jeong; Hur, Yoon-Sun; Kim, Woo-Young; Lee, Myung-Sok; Cheon, Choong-Ill; Verma, Desh Pal S.

2014-01-01

260

Anticancer Alkaloid Lamellarins Inhibit Protein Kinases  

PubMed Central

Lamellarins, a family of hexacyclic pyrrole alkaloids originally isolated from marine invertebrates, display promising anti-tumor activity. They induce apoptotic cell death through multi-target mechanisms, including inhibition of topoisomerase I, interaction with DNA and direct effects on mitochondria. We here report that lamellarins inhibit several protein kinases relevant to cancer such as cyclin-dependent kinases, dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation activated kinase 1A, casein kinase 1, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and PIM-1. A good correlation is observed between the effects of lamellarins on protein kinases and their action on cell death, suggesting that inhibition of specific kinases may contribute to the cytotoxicity of lamellarins. Structure/activity relationship suggests several paths for the optimization of lamellarins as kinase inhibitors. PMID:19172192

Baunbæk, Dianne; Trinkler, Nolwenn; Ferandin, Yoan; Lozach, Olivier; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi; Rucirawat, Somsak; Ishibashi, Fumito; Iwao, Masatomo; Meijer, Laurent

2008-01-01

261

The cellular geography of Aurora kinases   

E-print Network

Aurora is the name given to a family of highly conserved protein kinases with essential roles in many aspects of cell division. Yeasts have a single Aurora kinase, whereas mammals have three: Aurora A, B and C. During ...

Carmena, Mar; Earnshaw, William C.

262

MAP Kinase Cascades: Scaffolding Signal Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaffold proteins organize many MAP kinase pathways by interacting with several components of these cascades. Recent studies suggest that scaffold proteins provide local activation platforms that contribute to signal specificity by insulating different MAP kinase pathways.

Frank van Drogen; Matthias Peter

2002-01-01

263

MAP kinase cascades: scaffolding signal specificity.  

PubMed

Scaffold proteins organize many MAP kinase pathways by interacting with several components of these cascades. Recent studies suggest that scaffold proteins provide local activation platforms that contribute to signal specificity by insulating different MAP kinase pathways. PMID:11818078

van Drogen, Frank; Peter, Matthias

2002-01-22

264

Differential effects of spermine on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of phosphoinositides plays an important role in the signal transduction pathways. We report here that naturally occuring polyamines affect the activities of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and PI 4-phosphate (PIP) 5-kinase differently. While polyamines inhibited the PI 3-kinase activity, they stimulated the activity of PIP 5-kinase in the order of spermine > spermidine > putrescine. Spermine inhibited the PI

Surya S. Singh; Abha Chauhan; Hans Brockerhoff; Ved P. S. Chauhan

1995-01-01

265

Frank Masci (1)MIPS D/L Review (S6), August 7, 2001 24m Latent-Image Flagging  

E-print Network

determines the number of electron traps released. iLi startTendTT )()( -= ),,T_EXP()( iiLipred TDNfLDN = Lipred xLDN >)( Lx #12;Frank Masci (5)MIPS D/L Review (S6), August 7, 2001 Require from Instrument Team l

Masci, Frank

266

Electronic, optical properties, surface energies and work functions of Ag8SnS6: First-principles method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ternary metal chalcogenide semiconductor Ag8SnS6, which is an efficient photocatalyst under visible light radiation, is studied by plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. After geometry optimization, the electronic and optical properties are studied. A scissor operator value of 0.81 eV is introduced to overcome the underestimation of the calculation band gaps. The contribution of different bands is analyzed by virtue of total and partial density of states. Furthermore, in order to understand the optical properties of Ag8SnS6, the dielectric function, absorption coefficient, and refractive index are also performed in the energy range from 0 to 11 eV. The absorption spectrum indicates that Ag8SnS6 has a good absorbency in visible light area. Surface energies and work functions of , , , and (112) orientations have been calculated. These results reveal the reason for an outstanding photocatalytic activity of Ag8SnS6. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2012A0302015 and 2012B0302050).

Lu, Chun-Lin; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yun-Wang; Liu, Shen-Ye; Mei, Yang

2015-01-01

267

Ribosomal Protein S6-Ps240 Is Expressed in Lesional Skin from Patients with Autoimmune Skin Blistering Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: The in situ signaling transduction within skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases is not well-characterized. Aim: In autoimmune skin blistering diseases, autoantibodies seem to trigger several intracellular signaling pathways and we investigated the presence of the phosphorylated form of ribosomal protein S6-pS240 within autoimmune skin blistering diseases biopsies. Materials and Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate the presence of S6-pS240 in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases including patients with an endemic and nonendemic pemphigus foliaceus (non EPF), with bullous pemphigoid (BP), pemphigus vulgaris (PV), dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and the respective controls. Results: Most autoimmune bullous skin diseases biopsies stained positive for S6-pS240 around lesional blisters, including adjacent areas of the epidermis; and within upper dermal inflammatory infiltrates, and/or mesenchymal-endothelial cell junctions within the dermis. Conclusions: We document that S6-pS240 is expressed in lesional areas of skin biopsies from patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases, as well as on eccrine glands and piloerector muscles. Thus, the role of this molecule in autoimmune skin blistering diseases warrants further study. PMID:24350073

Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Googe, Paul B; Howard, Michael S

2013-01-01

268

Latest progress in tyrosine kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Here we discuss the latest progress in development of some kinase inhibitors such as inhibitors of c-MET, LIM and Bcr-Abl kinases. Importantly, many oncogenic kinases signal via the mTOR pathway, suggesting a common target for drug combinations. PMID:24727648

Pospelova, Tatiana V.; Pospelov, Valery A.

2014-01-01

269

Latest progress in tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Here we discuss the latest progress in development of some kinase inhibitors such as inhibitors of c-MET, LIM and Bcr-Abl kinases. Importantly, many oncogenic kinases signal via the mTOR pathway, suggesting a common target for drug combinations. PMID:24727648

Pospelova, Tatiana V; Pospelov, Valery A

2014-03-15

270

The cellular geography of Aurora kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aurora is the name given to a family of highly conserved protein kinases with essential roles in many aspects of cell division. Yeasts have a single Aurora kinase, whereas mammals have three: Aurora A, B and C. During mitosis, Aurora kinases regulate the structure and function of the cytoskeleton and chromosomes and the interactions between these two at the kinetochore.

Mar Carmena; William C. Earnshaw

2003-01-01

271

Protein Kinases (PowerPoint Slides)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lecture begins with a discussion of the genomics and evolutionary relationships among kinases and then proceeds to describe the structure-function relationships of specific kinases, the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate specificity, and selected issues in regulation of kinase activity.

Avrom Caplan (Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; )

2005-02-22

272

Targeting cancer with small molecule kinase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation of kinase activity has emerged as a major mechanism by which cancer cells evade normal physiological constraints on growth and survival. To date, 11 kinase inhibitors have received US Food and Drug Administration approval as cancer treatments, and there are considerable efforts to develop selective small molecule inhibitors for a host of other kinases that are implicated in cancer

Jianming Zhang; Priscilla L. Yang; Nathanael S. Gray

2009-01-01

273

Src Kinase and Pancreatic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The c-Src non-receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in a large number of human malignancies. It is linked to tumour development\\u000a and progression to distant metastases by promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and motility. Recently, promising anticancer\\u000a therapeutics targeting c-Src have been developed that are under clinical investigation.

Andreas Hilbig

274

Kinase signalling in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Alterations in numerous signal transduction pathways and aberrant activity of specific kinases have been identified in multiple cell and mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), as well as in human HD brain. The balance and integration of a network of kinase signalling pathways is paramount for the regulation of a wide range of cellular and physiological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, neuronal plasticity and apoptosis. Unbalanced activity within these pathways provides a potential mechanism for many of the pathological phenotypes associated with HD, such as transcriptional dysregulation, inflammation and ultimately neurodegeneration. The characterisation of aberrant kinase signalling regulation in HD has been inconsistent and may be a result of failure to consider integration between multiple signalling pathways, as well as alterations that may occur over time with both age and disease progression. Collating the information about the effect of mHTT on signalling pathways demonstrates that it has wide ranging effects on multiple pro- and anti-apoptotic kinases, resulting in the dysregulation of numerous complex interactions within a dynamic network. PMID:25062854

Bowles, Kathryn R; Jones, Lesley

2014-01-01

275

Diglyceride kinase in human platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human platelets contain diglyceride kinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol by adenosine 5'-triphosphate to yield phosphatidic acid. The ma- jority of the platelet enzyme is particulate-bound, and mem- brane fractions of platelet homogenates have a higher specific activity than granule fractions. Both deoxycholate and mag- nesium are necessary for optimal enzyme activity. The K, of the enzyme

Frank L. Call; Mary Rubert

276

The Origin and Evolution of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases  

PubMed Central

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play key role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. GRKs phosphorylate activated receptors, promoting high affinity binding of arrestins, which precludes G protein coupling. Direct binding to active GPCRs activates GRKs, so that they selectively phosphorylate only the activated form of the receptor regardless of the accessibility of the substrate peptides within it and their Ser/Thr-containing sequence. Mammalian GRKs were classified into three main lineages, but earlier GRK evolution has not been studied. Here we show that GRKs emerged at the early stages of eukaryotic evolution via an insertion of a kinase similar to ribosomal protein S6 kinase into a loop in RGS domain. GRKs in Metazoa fall into two clades, one including GRK2 and GRK3, and the other consisting of all remaining GRKs, split into GRK1-GRK7 lineage and GRK4-GRK5-GRK6 lineage in vertebrates. One representative of each of the two ancient clades is found as early as placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. Several protists, two oomycetes and unicellular brown algae have one GRK-like protein, suggesting that the insertion of a kinase domain into the RGS domain preceded the origin of Metazoa. The two GRK families acquired distinct structural units in the N- and C-termini responsible for membrane recruitment and receptor association. Thus, GRKs apparently emerged before animals and rapidly expanded in true Metazoa, most likely due to the need for rapid signalling adjustments in fast-moving animals. PMID:22442725

Mushegian, Arcady; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

2012-01-01

277

Mitochondrial and herpesvirus-specific deoxypyrimidine kinases.  

PubMed Central

To characterize and compare the thymidine (TdR) and deoxycytidine (CdR) kinase isozymes of uninfected and herpesvirus-infected cells: (i) the subcellular distribution of the isozymes has been studied; (ii) a specific assay for CdR kinase has been devised; (iii) the TdR kinase isozymes have been partially purified; and (iv) the purified enzymes have been analyzed by disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and glycerol gradient centrifugation and by substrate competition and dCTP inhibition studies. The results indicate that there are interesting individual differences with respect to nucleoside acceptor specificity between the cytosol and mitochondrial pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside kinases of uninfected cells and between the enzymes induced by different herpesviruses. In the cytosol of uninfected mouse, chicken, and owl monkey kidney cells, two different proteins, TdR kinase F and CdR kinase 2, catalyze the phosphorylations of TdR and CdR, respectively. TdR kinase F does not phosphorylate CdR, nor does CdR kinase 2 phosphorylate TdR. A second TdR kinase isozyme present in HeLa(BU25) mitochondria (TdR kinase B) also lacks CdR phosphorylating activity. In contrast, a genetically distinctive deoxypyrimidine kinase (TdR kinase A) of mouse, human, and chick mitochondria catalyzes the phosphorylation of both TdR and CdT. Three herpesviruses, marmoset herpesvirus and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, induce in the cytosol fraction of LM(TK-) mouse cells isozymes which share common properties with mitochondrial TdR kinase A, including the ability to catalyze the phosphorylation of both TdR and CdR. However, the herpesvirus-induced deoxypyrimidine kinases differ from mitochondrial TdR kinase A with respect to sedimentation coefficient, sensitivity to dCTP inhibition, and antigenic determinants. The herpesvirus-specific and the mitochondrial deoxypyrimidine kinases exhibit a preference for TdR over CdR as nucleoside acceptor. Pseudorabies virus and herpesvirus of turkeys induce cytosol TdR kinases resembling the other herpesvirus-induced TdR kinases in several properties, but like cellular TdR kinase F, the pseudorabies virus and herpesvirus of turkeys TdR kinases lack detectable CdR phosphorylating activities. Finally, a marmoset herpesvirus nutant resistant to bromodeoxyuridine, equine herpesvirus type 1, and Herpesvirus aotus induces neither TdR nor CdR phosphorylating enzymes during productive infections. PMID:169387

Leung, W C; Dubbs, D R; Trkula, D; Kit, S

1975-01-01

278

Role of MAP kinase in neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular stimuli such as neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, and growth factors in the brain regulate critical cellular\\u000a events, including synaptic transmission, neuronal plasticity, morphological differentiation and survival. Although many such\\u000a stimuli trigger Ser\\/Thr-kinase and tyrosine-kinase cascades, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases, ERK1 and ERK2, prototypic\\u000a members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, are most attractive candidates among protein kinases that mediate\\u000a morphological

Kohji Fukunaga; Eishichi Miyamoto

1998-01-01

279

Expression of an active tobacco mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase enhances freezing  

E-print Network

explanation for this is that H2O2 can induce the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs), which in turn Bibikova§ , Jen Sheen¶ , and Kan Wang Plant Transformation Facility, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State to freezing, salt, and heat stresses (14). Because the activation of a mitogen- activated protein kinase (MAPK

Sheen, Jen

280

A Synthetic S6 Segment Derived from KvAP Channel Self-assembles, Permeabilizes Lipid Vesicles, and Exhibits Ion Channel Activity in Bilayer Lipid Membrane*  

PubMed Central

KvAP is a voltage-gated tetrameric K+ channel with six transmembrane (S1–S6) segments in each monomer from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix. The objective of the present investigation was to understand the plausible role of the S6 segment, which has been proposed to form the inner lining of the pore, in the membrane assembly and functional properties of KvAP channel. For this purpose, a 22-residue peptide, corresponding to the S6 transmembrane segment of KvAP (amino acids 218–239), and a scrambled peptide (S6-SCR) with rearrangement of only hydrophobic amino acids but without changing its composition were synthesized and characterized structurally and functionally. Although both peptides bound to the negatively charged phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol model membrane with comparable affinity, significant differences were observed between these peptides in their localization, self-assembly, and aggregation properties onto this membrane. S6-SCR also exhibited reduced helical structures in SDS micelles and phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol lipid vesicles as compared with the S6 peptide. Furthermore, the S6 peptide showed significant membrane-permeabilizing capability as evidenced by the release of calcein from the calcein-entrapped lipid vesicles, whereas S6-SCR showed much weaker efficacy. Interestingly, although the S6 peptide showed ion channel activity in the bilayer lipid membrane, despite having the same amino acid composition, S6-SCR was significantly inactive. The results demonstrated sequence-specific structural and functional properties of the S6 wild type peptide. The selected S6 segment is probably an important structural element that could play an important role in the membrane interaction, membrane assembly, and functional property of the KvAP channel. PMID:21592970

Verma, Richa; Malik, Chetan; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Srivastava, Saurabh; Ghosh, Subhendu; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

2011-01-01

281

Ethanol Enhances the Stimulatory Effects of Lysophosphatidic Acid on DNA Synthesis but Not Cell Proliferation in Human and Mouse Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a constituent of serum, is a positive regulator of cell growth, while ethanol (EtOH) has been shown to exert both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on mitogenesis. In this work, we examined possible interactions between the effects of EtOH and LPA on DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, activating phosphorylation of p44\\/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and p70 S6 kinase

Jin-Sheng Huang; Karan S. Crilly; Zoltan Kiss

2000-01-01

282

Effects of Whey and Soy Protein Supplementation with a 9 Month Progressive Resistance Training Program on Intracellular Signaling Pathways of Muscle Protein Synthesis  

E-print Network

been associated with directly stimulating the anabolic pathway protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1)/ 70-kDa ribosomal protein kinase (p70s6k) (Wang & Proud, 2006). Within murine models, leucine has been shown to directly... of MPS than feeding within skeletal muscle. The anabolic response from skeletal muscle secondary to resistance training alone has been well established (Chesley, MacDougall, Tarnopolsky, Atkinson, & Smith, 1992; Phillips, Tipton, Aarsland, Wolf...

Emmons, Russell Scott

2013-08-31

283

Preparation, crystal structure and silver ionic conductivity of the new compound Ag 8TiS 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new compound Ag8TiS6 has been prepared by solid state reaction. The crystal structure, phase transition and transport properties have been studied using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, ionic conductivity measurement and the e.m.f method. The dc conductivities of silver ion of Ag8TiS8 reach values around 10?3 ??1 cm?1 at ambient temperatures. The transference numbers of silver ion are found to

H. Wada; M. Ishii; M. Onoda; M. Tansho; A. Sato

1996-01-01

284

Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit  

DOEpatents

An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA)

2008-12-23

285

Superoxide generation and tyrosine kinase.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidase is a multi-subunit enzyme complex responsible for superoxide generation in many cells, for example, B-lymphocytes and osteoclasts. NADPH oxidase is localized on the cell surface and generates superoxide extracellularly. After synthesis, components of this oxidase are transported to the cell membrane where the functional NADPH oxidase complex is assembled. The mechanism by which the membrane-bound components are transported to the cell surface of osteoclasts remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of tyrosine kinase activity in the transport of NADPH oxidase components. When B-lymphocytes and osteoclasts were treated with herbimycin A, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinase, superoxide production was significantly decreased. The amount of p91, the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, was decreased in the cellular membrane of herbimycin A treated cells compared to untreated controls. Similar results were obtained for the movement of a regulatory subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, p47, in B-lymphocytes. Thus, inhibition of tyrosine kinase decreases superoxide production by disrupting the translocation of the NADPH oxidase complex. PMID:10735559

Yang, S; Hardaway, M; Sun, G; Ries, W L; Key, L L

2000-01-01

286

Kinase inhibitors in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is a significant public health problem around the world. Once a patient has disease that is no longer addressable by local means, the cancer is considered incurable. Therapeutic goals at this point include not only extension of survival but also alteration of the natural history which may otherwise lead to significant pain and morbidity from the disease process- all related to metastases. While effective systemic therapies do currently exist, their roles are considered limited for many patients. Given the overwhelming incidence and annual mortality figures related to prostate cancer, there continues to be an urgent need for therapeutic advances. Protein kinases have emerged as "druggable" therapeutic targets as they control a multitude of basic cellular activities, including growth, survival, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Several of these kinases have oncogenic properties as in the setting of malignancy they may be overactive and/or dysregulated leading to the excessive proliferation and motility typical of cancer cells. Small molecule inhibitors have shown efficacy in several tumor models and are actively being studied in prostate cancer. This review summarizes historical and contemporary studies evaluating kinase inhibitors in the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:19925393

Limvorasak, Suwicha; Posadas, Edwin M

2009-12-01

287

Protein kinase C-associated kinase can activate NFkappaB in both a kinase-dependent and a kinase-independent manner.  

PubMed

Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as RIP4/DIK) activates NFkappaB when overexpressed in cell lines and is required for keratinocyte differentiation in vivo. However, very little is understood about the factors upstream of PKK or how PKK activates NFkappaB. Here we show that certain catalytically inactive mutants of PKK can activate NFkappaB, although to a lesser degree than wild type PKK. The deletion of specific domains of wild type PKK diminishes the ability of this enzyme to activate NFkappaB; the same deletions made on a catalytically inactive PKK background completely ablate NFkappaB activation. PKK may be phosphorylated by two specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases, MEKK2 and MEKK3, and this interaction may in part be mediated through a critical activation loop residue, Thr184. Catalytically inactive PKK mutants that block phorbol ester-induced NFkappaB activation do not interfere with, but unexpectedly enhance, the activation of NFkappaB by these two mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. Taken together, these data indicate that PKK may function in both a kinase-dependent as well as a kinase-independent manner to activate NFkappaB. PMID:12676934

Moran, Stewart T; Haider, Khaleda; Ow, Yongkai; Milton, Peter; Chen, Luojing; Pillai, Shiv

2003-06-13

288

Mitotic Kinases and p53 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Mitosis is tightly regulated and any errors in this process often lead to aneuploidy, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Deregulation of mitotic kinases is significantly associated with improper cell division and aneuploidy. Because of their importance during mitosis and the relevance to cancer, mitotic kinase signaling has been extensively studied over the past few decades and, as a result, several mitotic kinase inhibitors have been developed. Despite promising preclinical results, targeting mitotic kinases for cancer therapy faces numerous challenges, including safety and patient selection issues. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mitotic kinase signaling and its interactive network. Increasing evidence suggests that tumor suppressor p53 functions at the center of the mitotic kinase signaling network. In response to mitotic spindle damage, multiple mitotic kinases phosphorylate p53 to either activate or deactivate p53-mediated signaling. p53 can also regulate the expression and function of mitotic kinases, suggesting the existence of a network of mutual regulation, which can be positive or negative, between mitotic kinases and p53 signaling. Therefore, deciphering this regulatory network will provide knowledge to overcome current limitations of targeting mitotic kinases and further improve the results of targeted therapy. PMID:22852086

Ha, Geun-Hyoung; Breuer, Eun-Kyoung Yim

2012-01-01

289

Aurora kinase inhibitors as anticancer molecules.  

PubMed

Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed at detectable levels in all somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases leads to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Preclinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed. PMID:20863917

Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

2010-01-01

290

Staurosporine induces dopaminergic neurite outgrowth through AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Axonal degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is one of the pathological features in the early stages of Parkinson disease. Promotion of axonal outgrowth of the remaining dopaminergic neurons leads to the recovery of the nigrostriatal pathway. Staurosporine (STS), a wide-spectrum kinase inhibitor, induces neurite outgrowth in various cell types, although its mechanism of action remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed which protein kinase is involved in STS-induced neurite outgrowth. We have previously established the method to measure the length of dopaminergic neurites that extend from a mesencephalic cell region, which is formed on a coverslip by an isolation wall. By means of this method, we clarified that STS treatment causes dopaminergic axonal outgrowth in mesencephalic primary cultures. Among the specific protein kinase inhibitors we tested, compound C (C.C), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, promoted dopaminergic neurite outgrowth. STS as well as C.C elevated the phosphorylation level of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, a downstream target of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The STS- and C.C-induced dopaminergic neurite outgrowth was suppressed by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor. Furthermore, the application of C.C rescued 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurite degeneration. These results suggest that STS induces dopaminergic axonal outgrowth through mTOR signaling pathway activation as a consequence of AMPK inhibition. PMID:24067927

Wakita, Seiko; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshie; Adachi, Kanami; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Akaike, Akinori

2014-02-01

291

Identification of Direct Tyrosine Kinase Substrates Based on Protein Kinase Assay-Linked Phosphoproteomics*  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases are implicated in multiple diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and central nervous system disorders. Identification of kinase substrates is critical to dissecting signaling pathways and to understanding disease pathologies. However, methods and techniques used to identify bona fide kinase substrates have remained elusive. Here we describe a proteomic strategy suitable for identifying kinase specificity and direct substrates in high throughput. This approach includes an in vitro kinase assay-based substrate screening and an endogenous kinase dependent phosphorylation profiling. In the in vitro kinase reaction route, a pool of formerly phosphorylated proteins is directly extracted from whole cell extracts, dephosphorylated by phosphatase treatment, after which the kinase of interest is added. Quantitative proteomics identifies the rephosphorylated proteins as direct substrates in vitro. In parallel, the in vivo quantitative phosphoproteomics is performed in which cells are treated with or without the kinase inhibitor. Together, proteins phosphorylated in vitro overlapping with the kinase-dependent phosphoproteome in vivo represents the physiological direct substrates in high confidence. The protein kinase assay-linked phosphoproteomics was applied to identify 25 candidate substrates of the protein-tyrosine kinase SYK, including a number of known substrates and many novel substrates in human B cells. These shed light on possible new roles for SYK in multiple important signaling pathways. The results demonstrate that this integrated proteomic approach can provide an efficient strategy to screen direct substrates for protein tyrosine kinases. PMID:23793017

Xue, Liang; Geahlen, Robert L.; Tao, W. Andy

2013-01-01

292

Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), a novel membrane-associated, ankyrin repeat-containing protein kinase.  

PubMed

A novel murine membrane-associated protein kinase, PKK (protein kinase C-associated kinase), was cloned on the basis of its physical association with protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta). The regulated expression of PKK in mouse embryos is consistent with a role for this kinase in early embryogenesis. The human homolog of PKK has over 90% identity to its murine counterpart, has been localized to chromosome 21q22.3, and is identical to the PKCdelta-interacting kinase, DIK (Bahr, C., Rohwer, A., Stempka, L., Rincke, G., Marks, F., and Gschwendt, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36350-36357). PKK comprises an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal region containing 11 ankyrin repeats. PKK exhibits protein kinase activity in vitro and associates with cellular membranes. PKK exists in three discernible forms at steady state: an underphosphorylated form of 100 kDa; a soluble, cytosolic, phosphorylated form of 110 kDa; and a phosphorylated, detergent-insoluble form of 112 kDa. PKK is initially synthesized as an underphosphorylated soluble 100-kDa protein that is quantitatively converted to a detergent-soluble 110-kDa form. This conversion requires an active catalytic domain. Although PKK physically associates with PKCbeta, it does not phosphorylate this PKC isoform. However, PKK itself may be phosphorylated by PKCbeta. PKK represents a developmentally regulated protein kinase that can associate with membranes. The functional significance of its association with PKCbeta remains to be ascertained. PMID:11278382

Chen, L; Haider, K; Ponda, M; Cariappa, A; Rowitch, D; Pillai, S

2001-06-15

293

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

2014-01-01

294

Self-incompatibility (S) locus region of the mutated S6-haplotype of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) contains a functional pollen S allele and a non-functional pistil S allele.  

PubMed

This study characterizes the S6m-haplotype, a mutated S6-haplotype with an altered HindIII cut site, of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus). Inheritance and pollination studies of S-haplotypes from reciprocal crosses between 'Erdi Botermo' (EB; S4S6mSa) and 'Rheinische Schattenmorelle' (RS; S6SaSbSc) revealed that the S6m-haplotype conferred unilateral incompatibility with a non-functional pistil component and a functional pollen component. Expression analyses of S6-RNase and SFB6, a candidate gene for pollen-S, in the S6m-haplotype showed that SFB6 was transcribed in EB pollen, but S6-RNase was not transcribed in EB styles. These results were consistent with data from the inheritance and pollination studies. Inverse PCR for the flanking regions of S6-RNase in the S6- and S6m-haplotypes revealed an approximately 2600 bp insertion present at approximately 800 bp upstream of the S6-RNase in the S6m-haplotype, which is responsible for the alternation of the HindIII cut site and a possible cause of inhibition of the transcription of S6-RNase. SFB6 was present downstream of S6-RNase in both the S6- and S6m-haplotypes and expressed in the same way, supporting the idea that SFB is a good candidate for pollen-S in Prunus. PMID:14512382

Yamane, Hisayo; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

2003-11-01

295

The Role of Tec Family Kinases in Myeloid Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Tec kinase family (Bmx, Btk, Itk, Rlk and Tec) are primarily expressed in the hematopoietic system and form, after the Src kinase family, the second largest class of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases. During lymphocyte development and activation Tec kinases have important functions in signaling pathways downstream of the antigen receptors. Tec family kinases are also expressed in

Uwe Schmidt; Nicole Boucheron; Bernd Unger; Wilfried Ellmeier

2004-01-01

296

PCTK Proteins: The Forgotten Brain Kinases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCTAIRE kinases (PCTKs) are highly conserved serine\\/threonine kinases that are closely related to cyclin-dependent kinases. They are enriched in post-mitotic neurons of adult brains, suggesting they might perform important neuron-specific functions independent of the cell cycle. So far, the biological functions of PCTKs in the brain have been largely neglected and remain to be discovered. This review summarises preliminary investigations

Adam R. Cole

2009-01-01

297

Regulation of type II? phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase localisation by the protein kinase CK2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inositol lipid synthesis is regulated by several distinct families of enzymes [1]. Members of one of these families, the type II phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIP kinases), are 4-kinases and are thought to catalyse a minor route of synthesis of the multifunctional phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) from the inositide PI(5)P [2]. Here, we demonstrate the partial purification of a protein kinase that

Katherine A. Hinchliffe; Antonio Ciruela; Andrew J. Letcher; Nullin Divecha; Robin F. Irvine

1999-01-01

298

Regulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases by a Calcium\\/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Cascade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane depolarization of NG108 cells gives rapid (<5 min) activation of Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-KIV), as well as activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). To investigate whether the Ca2+-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38) might be mediated by the CaM kinase cascade, we have transfected PC12 cells, which lack CaM-KIV, with constitutively active mutants of

Herve Enslen; Hiroshi Tokumitsu; Philip J. S. Stork; Roger J. Davis; Thomas R. Soderling

1996-01-01

299

Proteolytic fragment of protein kinase C (kinase M) phosphorylates in vitro phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited tryptic proteolysis of homogeneous protein kinase C induces the formation of a catalytically active fragment of 50 kDa (kinase M) which, unlike native PK C acquires the ability to phosphorylate PIP. Both ATP and GTP were found to be capable of serving as phosphate donors in this process. Incubation of purified kinase M with a preparation of rat brain

O. K. Tusupov; S. E. Severin; V. I. Shvets

1991-01-01

300

ARTICLE IN PRESS 3 The RIO kinases: An atypical protein kinase family required for  

E-print Network

, structurally exemplified by the cyclic adenosine 30 monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKA) [2,3], are 31U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F ARTICLE IN PRESS 1 2 Review 3 The RIO kinases: An atypical protein kinase family required for 4 ribosome biogenesis and cell cycle progressioni 5 Nicole La

301

Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1  

E-print Network

Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1 Michael J of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD by phosphatases. AMPK is found in all eukaryotes. Yeast AMPK is more commonly known as SNF1 [1,6,7]. SNF1 has

Tong, Liang

302

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates TLR3 induced cytokines in human oral keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Recent studies implicate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the control of inflammatory responses following Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation in myeloid cells but its role in non-myeloid cells such as human keratinocytes is unknown. Here we show that TLR3 signaling can induce robust cytokine secretion including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), IL-12p70 and interferon beta (IFN-?), and our data reveal for the first time that inhibiting mTOR with rapamycin, suppresses these TLR3 induced responses but actually enhances bioactive IL-12p70 production in human oral keratinocytes. Rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and the 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP-1), and suppressed the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by decreasing phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We also show that TLR3 induces interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation by Akt via an mTOR-p70S6K-4EBP1 pathway. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Poly I:C induced expression of IL-1?, TNF?, IL-12p70 and IFN-? was blocked by JNK inhibitor SP600125. TLR3 preferentially phosphorylated IKK? through mTOR to activate nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) in human oral keratinocytes. Taken together, these data demonstrate p70S6K, p4EBP1, JNK, NF-kB and IRF3 are involved in the regulation of inflammatory mediators by TLR3 via the mTOR pathway. mTOR is a novel pathway modulating TLR3 induced inflammatory and antiviral responses in human oral keratinocytes. PMID:20728939

Zhao, Jiawei; Benakanakere, Manjunatha R.; Hosur, Kavita B.; Galicia, Johnah C.; Martin, Michael; Kinane, Denis F.

2010-01-01

303

NPK1, an MEKK1-like mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, regulates innate immunity and development in plants.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are rapidly activated upon plant recognition of invading pathogens. Here, we describe the use of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to study the role of candidate plant MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) homologs of human MEKK1 in pathogen-resistance pathways. We demonstrate that silencing expression of a tobacco MAPKKK, Nicotiana Protein Kinase 1 (NPK1), interferes with the function of the disease-resistance genes N, Bs2, and Rx, but does not affect Pto- and Cf4-mediated resistance. Further, NPK1-silenced plants also exhibit reduced cell size, defective cytokinesis, and an overall dwarf phenotype. Our results provide evidence that NPK1 functions in the regulation of N-, Bs2-, and Rx-mediated resistance responses and may play a role in one or more MAPK cascades, regulating multiple cellular processes. PMID:12194859

Jin, Hailing; Axtell, Michael J; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Ekwenna, Obi; Zhang, Shuqun; Staskawicz, Brian; Baker, Barbara

2002-08-01

304

Crystal structure of casein kinase-1, a phosphate-directed protein kinase.  

PubMed Central

The structure of a truncated variant of casein kinase-1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has been determined in complex with MgATP at 2.0 A resolution. The model resembles the 'closed', ATP-bound conformations of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, with clear differences in the structure of surface loops that impart unique features to casein kinase-1. The structure is of unphosphorylated, active conformation of casein kinase-1 and the peptide-binding site is fully accessible to substrate. Images PMID:7889932

Xu, R M; Carmel, G; Sweet, R M; Kuret, J; Cheng, X

1995-01-01

305

Inhibition of Rho-Kinase Leads to Rapid Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase Akt and Cardiovascular Protection  

PubMed Central

Objective Rho-Kinase activity is increased in cardiovascular diseases and in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. However, it is not known whether inhibition of Rho-kinase could lead to cardiovascular protection and, if so, by what mechanism. Methods and Results In human endothelial cells, the Rho-kinase inhibitor, hydroxyfasudil (HF) (1 to 100 ?mol/L), increased Akt serine-473 phosphorylation within 15 minutes, leading to a 2.2-fold and 4.0-fold increase in Akt kinase activity and nitric oxide (NO) release, respectively. Activation of Akt and eNOS by HF was completely blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor, LY294002 (10 ?mol/L). To determine the physiological relevance of this pathway, we used 2 models of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Acute administration of fasudil (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, 1 hour before ischemia) decreased leukocyte recruitment and adhesion to the mesenteric endothelium after I/R injury in wild-type but not eNOS?/? mice. Similarly, treatment with fasudil decreased myocardial infarct size by 38% in rats subjected to transient coronary artery occlusion. Cotreatment with 2 PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, or the eNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, blocked the cardiovascular protective effects of fasudil. Conclusions Inhibition of Rho-kinase leads to the activation of the PI3-kinase/Akt/eNOS pathway and cardiovascular protection. These findings suggest that Rho-kinase may play an important role in mediating the inflammatory response to I/R injury. PMID:15319269

Wolfrum, Sebastian; Dendorfer, Andreas; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki; Stalker, Timothy J.; Gong, Yulan; Scalia, Rosario; Dominiak, Peter; Liao, James K.

2009-01-01

306

mTORC1 Phosphorylates the ULK1-mAtg13-FIP200 Autophagy Regulatory Complex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High nutrient availability stimulates the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) to coordinately activate anabolic processes, such as protein synthesis, while inhibiting the cellular catabolism of autophagy. Positive regulation of protein synthesis through the mTORC1 substrates p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) has been well characterized. The complementary inhibitory mechanism in which mTORC1 phosphorylates the autophagy regulatory complex containing unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), the mammalian Atg13 protein, and focal adhesion kinase interacting protein of 200 kD (FIP200) has also been elucidated.

Edmond Y. Chan (University of Strathclyde; Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences REV)

2009-08-18

307

The Human Nm23\\/Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical experiments over the past 40 years have shown that nucleoside diphosphate(NDP) kinase activity, which catalyzes phosphoryl transfer from a nucleoside triphosphate toa nucleoside diphosphate, is ubiquitously found in organisms from bacteria to human. Overthe past 10 years, eight human genes of the nm23\\/NDP kinase family have been discoveredthat can be separated into two groups based on analysis of their

Marie-Lise Laurence Lacombe; Annie Munier; James G. Mehus; David O. Lambeth

2000-01-01

308

Ruthenium Complexes as Protein Kinase Inhibitors  

E-print Network

Ruthenium Complexes as Protein Kinase Inhibitors Lilu Zhang, Patrick Carroll, and Eric Meggers* Uni. A strategy is introduced for the creation of ruthenium complex-based protein kinase inhibitors 1 (X ) CO organic molecules. Our efforts are focused on ruthenium complex scaffolds because ruthenium offers

Meggers, Eric

309

Mammalian TOR signaling to the AGC kinases  

PubMed Central

The mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase, orchestrates cellular responses to growth, metabolic and stress signals. mTOR processes various extracellular and intracellular inputs as part of two mTOR protein complexes, mTORC1 or mTORC2. The mTORCs have numerous cellular targets but members of a family of protein kinases, the protein kinase (PK)A/PKG/PKC (AGC) family are the best characterized direct mTOR substrates. The AGC kinases control multiple cellular functions and deregulation of many members of this family underlies numerous pathological conditions. mTOR phosphorylates conserved motifs in these kinases to allosterically augment their activity, influence substrate specificity, and promote protein maturation and stability. Activation of AGC kinases in turn triggers the phosphorylation of diverse, often overlapping, targets that ultimately control cellular response to a wide spectrum of stimuli. This review will highlight recent findings on how mTOR regulates AGC kinases and how mTOR activity is feedback regulated by these kinases. We will discuss how this regulation can modulate downstream targets in the mTOR pathway that could account for the varied cellular functions of mTOR. PMID:21981278

Su, Bing; Jacinto, Estela

2011-01-01

310

Myofibrillar creatine kinase and cardiac contraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review on the organization and function of myofibrillar creatine kinase in striated muscle. The first part describes myofibrillar creatine kinase as an integral structural part of the complex organization of myofibrils in striated muscle. The second part considers the intrinsic biochemical and mechanical properties of myofibrils and the functional coupling between myofibrillar CK and myosin ATPase.

Reneé Ventura-Clapier; Vladimir Veksler; Jacqueline A. Hoerter

1994-01-01

311

Guanylate kinase of Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed

We have identified the gene gmk, in the same operon as rpoZ, spoT, and recG at about 82 minutes on the Escherichia coli chromosome. The gmk (GMP kinase) gene encodes a peptide of 23,592 Da, possessing extensive similarity to the amino acid sequence of guanylate kinase from yeast. To confirm that gmk truly encodes guanylate kinase and to explore some of its enzymatic features, we have overproduced the product of gmk and purified it to homogeneity. Unlike guanylate kinases purified from eukaryotic sources, E. coli guanylate kinase is multimeric, and ionic conditions dictate its protomeric state; under low ionic conditions it appears to be a tetramer while under high ionic conditions it is a dimer. Kinetic analysis reveals that guanylate kinase, again, unlike eukaryotic guanylate kinases, binds GMP cooperatively and that the observed cooperatively changes with ionic strength. These results indicate that, despite extensive sequence similarity to its eukaryotic counterparts, E. coli guanylate kinase is structurally and enzymatically different. PMID:8390989

Gentry, D; Bengra, C; Ikehara, K; Cashel, M

1993-07-01

312

Bacterial RNA motif in the 5? UTR of rpsF interacts with an S6:S18 complex  

PubMed Central

Approximately half the transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli include a structured RNA motif that interacts with a specific ribosomal protein to inhibit gene expression, thus allowing stoichiometric production of ribosome components. However, many of these RNA structures are not widely distributed across bacterial phyla. It is increasingly common for RNA motifs associated with ribosomal protein genes to be identified using comparative genomic methods, yet these are rarely experimentally validated. In this work, we characterize one such motif that precedes operons containing rpsF and rpsR, which encode ribosomal proteins S6 and S18. This RNA structure is widely distributed across many phyla of bacteria despite differences within the downstream operon, and examples are present in both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate a direct interaction between an example of the RNA from B. subtilis and an S6:S18 complex using in vitro binding assays, verify our predicted secondary structure, and identify a putative protein-binding site. The proposed binding site bears a strong resemblance to the S18 binding site within the 16S rRNA, suggesting molecular mimicry. This interaction is a valuable addition to the canon of ribosomal protein mRNA interactions. This work shows how experimental verification translates computational results into concrete knowledge of biological systems. PMID:24310371

Fu, Yang; Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Soo, Mark W.; Meyer, Michelle M.

2014-01-01

313

Crystal structure of the Golgi casein kinase  

PubMed Central

The family with sequence similarity 20 (Fam20) kinases phosphorylate extracellular substrates and play important roles in biomineralization. Fam20C is the Golgi casein kinase that phosphorylates secretory pathway proteins within Ser-x-Glu/pSer motifs. Mutations in Fam20C cause Raine syndrome, an osteosclerotic bone dysplasia. Here we report the crystal structure of the Fam20C ortholog from Caenorhabditis elegans. The nucleotide-free and Mn/ADP-bound structures unveil an atypical protein kinase-like fold and highlight residues critical for activity. The position of the regulatory ?C helix and the lack of an activation loop indicate an architecture primed for efficient catalysis. Furthermore, several distinct elements, including the presence of disulfide bonds, suggest that the Fam20 family diverged early in the evolution of the protein kinase superfamily. Our results reinforce the structural diversity of protein kinases and have important implications for patients with disorders of biomineralization. PMID:23754375

Xiao, Junyu; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.; Wen, Jianzhong; Kim, Soo-A; Dixon, Jack E.

2013-01-01

314

Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice.  

PubMed

Hypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons. PMID:25865886

Smith, Mark A; Katsouri, Loukia; Irvine, Elaine E; Hankir, Mohammed K; Pedroni, Silvia M A; Voshol, Peter J; Gordon, Matthew W; Choudhury, Agharul I; Woods, Angela; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Carling, David; Withers, Dominic J

2015-04-21

315

Activation of Multiple Protein Kinases Including a MAP Kinase upon FcεRI Cross-Linking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that protein-serine\\/threonine kinases and protein-tyrosine kinase(s) are activated by cross-linking of the high-affinity receptor for IgE, FcεRI, on mast cells and basophils. In vitro kinase assays (ISDR kinase assays) on cellular proteins immobilized on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane after denaturation and renaturation were employed to estimate the complexity of protein kinases expressed in mouse mast cells. The

Hiromi Fukamachi; Masao Takei; Toshiaki Kawakami

1993-01-01

316

Expression of an active tobacco mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic maize.  

PubMed

Cold acclimation is the major process that prepares plants for freezing tolerance. In addition to extensive transcription regulation by cold-inducible master transcription factors, oxidative stress signaling has been postulated to play a role in freezing tolerance. Activation of oxidative signaling through the expression of an active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase provided benefits in transgenic tobacco at freezing temperature bypassing cold acclimation. Because involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in oxidative stress signaling is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to mammals, we tested the effect of expressing a heterologous tobacco mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (Nicotiana PK1), which can mimic H(2)O(2) signaling, in a major cereal crop. We demonstrate that low-level but constitutive expression of the Nicotiana PK1 gene enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic maize plants that are normally frost sensitive. Our results suggest that a new molecular approach can be designed to genetically enhance freezing tolerance in important crops. PMID:14960727

Shou, Huixia; Bordallo, Patricia; Fan, Jian-Bing; Yeakley, Joanne M; Bibikova, Marina; Sheen, Jen; Wang, Kan

2004-03-01

317

A Human MAP Kinase Interactome  

PubMed Central

Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways form the backbone of signal transduction within the mammalian cell. Here, we apply a systematic experimental and computational approach to map 2,269 interactions between human MAPK-related proteins and other cellular machinery and to assemble these data into functional modules. A core network of 641 interactions is supported by multiple lines of evidence including conservation with yeast. Using siRNA knockdowns, we reveal that a significant number of novel interactors can modulate MAPK mediated signaling. We uncover the Na-H exchanger NHE1 as a scaffold for a novel set of MAPKs, link HSP90 chaperones to MAPK pathways, and identify MUC12 as the human analogue to the yeast signaling mucin Msb2. This study makes available a large resource of MAPK interactions along with the accompanying clone libraries. It illustrates a methodology for probing signaling networks based on functional refinement of experimentally-derived protein interaction maps. PMID:20936779

Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Chiang, Chih-yuan; Srivastava, Jyoti; Gersten, Merril; White, Suhaila; Bell, Russell; Kurschner, Cornelia; Martin, Christopher H.; Smoot, Mike; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Barber, Diane L.; Chanda, Sumit K.; Ideker, Trey

2010-01-01

318

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during pregnancy has become recently a matter of continuous debate. The introduction of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) in clinical practice has dramatically changed the prognosis of CML patients; in fact, patients diagnosed in chronic phase can reasonably expect many years of excellent disease control and good quality of life, as well as a normal life expectancy, including the necessity to address issues relating to fertility and pregnancy. Physicians are frequently being asked for advice regarding the need for, and/or the appropriateness of, stopping treatment in order to conceive. In this report, we will review the data published in terms of fertility, conception, pregnancy, pregnancy outcome and illness control for TKI treated CML patients, as well as how to manage a planned and/or unplanned pregnancy. PMID:24804001

Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Trawinska, Malgorzata Monika; Perrotti, Alessio Pio; De Fabritiis, Paolo

2014-01-01

319

Physiological roles of mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activated p38-regulated/activated protein kinase  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of proteins that constitute signaling pathways involved in processes that control gene expression, cell division, cell survival, apoptosis, metabolism, differentiation and motility. The MAPK pathways can be divided into conventional and atypical MAPK pathways. The first group converts a signal into a cellular response through a relay of three consecutive phosphorylation events exerted by MAPK kinase kinases, MAPK kinase, and MAPK. Atypical MAPK pathways are not organized into this three-tiered cascade. MAPK that belongs to both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways can phosphorylate both non-protein kinase substrates and other protein kinases. The latter are referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases. This review focuses on one such MAPK-activated protein kinase, MAPK-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) or p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK). This protein is highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and seems to be the target of both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways. Recent findings on the regulation of the activity and subcellular localization, bona fide interaction partners and physiological roles of MK5/PRAK are discussed. PMID:21666810

Kostenko, Sergiy; Dumitriu, Gianina; Lægreid, Kari Jenssen; Moens, Ugo

2011-01-01

320

Oncogenic Mutations of p110? Isoform of PI 3-Kinase Upregulate Its Protein Kinase Activity  

PubMed Central

In addition to lipid kinase activity, the class-I PI 3-kinases also function as protein kinases targeting regulatory autophosphorylation sites and exogenous substrates. The latter include a recently identified regulatory phosphorylation of the GM-CSF/IL-3 ?c receptor contributing to survival of acute myeloid leukaemia cells. Previous studies suggested differences in the protein kinase activity of the 4 isoforms of class-I PI 3-kinase so we compared the ability of all class-I PI 3-kinases and 2 common oncogenic mutants to autophosphorylate, and to phosphorylate an intracellular fragment of the GM-CSF/IL-3 ?c receptor (?ic). We find p110?, p110? and p110? all phosphorylate ?ic but p110? is much less effective. The two most common oncogenic mutants of p110?, H1047R and E545K have stronger protein kinase activity than wildtype p110?, both in terms of autophosphorylation and towards ?ic. Importantly, the lipid kinase activity of the oncogenic mutants is still inhibited by autophosphorylation to a similar extent as wildtype p110?. Previous evidence indicates the protein kinase activity of p110? is Mn2+ dependent, casting doubt over its role in vivo. However, we show that the oncogenic mutants of p110? plus p110? and p110? all display significant activity in the presence of Mg2+. Furthermore we demonstrate that some small molecule inhibitors of p110? lipid kinase activity (PIK-75 and A66) are equally effective against the protein kinase activity, but other inhibitors (e.g. wortmannin and TGX221) show different patterns of inhibition against the lipid and protein kinases activities. These findings have implications for the function of PI 3-kinase, especially in tumours carrying p110? mutations. PMID:23936502

Buchanan, Christina M.; Dickson, James M. J.; Lee, Woo-Jeong; Guthridge, Mark A.; Kendall, Jackie D.; Shepherd, Peter R.

2013-01-01

321

[Mitogen-activated protein kinases in atherosclerosis].  

PubMed

Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They may mediate inflammatory processes, endothelial cell activation, monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and T-lymphocyte differentiation, all of which represent crucial mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The specific inhibition of an activity of the respective MAP kinases may prove a new therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaque formation in the future. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge concerning MAP kinase-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:24491891

Bryk, Dorota; Olejarz, Wioletta; Zapolska-Downar, Danuta

2014-01-01

322

SAD-A and AMPK kinases  

PubMed Central

SAD-A kinase is a member of the AMPK-related family of kinases, which are under the control of LKB1 kinase. In the human kinome, SAD-A is most closely related to AMPK, a key energy sensor and master regulator of metabolism. In contrast to AMPK, little is known about the physiological function of the SAD-A kinase in metabolism. Recent studies using knockout mice have revealed a striking role of the SAD-A kinase in regulating dynamic functions of islet ? cells, from glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), islet ?-cell size and mass, to GLP-1 response as the first tissue-specific effector of mTORC1 signaling. These studies suggest that SAD-A and AMPK kinase may function as the positive and negative regulators of mTORC1 signaling in islet ? cells. Importantly, these findings have implicated SAD-A kinase as a novel drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24047693

Nie, Jia; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

2013-01-01

323

Hb S [?6(A3)Glu?Val, GAG>GTG] and ?-globin gene cluster haplotype distribution in Mauritania.  

PubMed

Of 1050 Mauritanian blood donors screened from the two main racial groups, i.e., the Moors and Black Africans, 60 were found to carry Hb S [?6(A3)Glu?Val, GAG>GTG], giving a global frequency of 5.71%. The prevalence observed in the Black African Mauritanians (10.69%) is almost five times that found in the Moor group (2.25%). Four of the five main ?(S) haplotypes were detected in this study: Senegal (77.8%), Benin (8.8%), Arab-Indian (5.5%) and Bantu (4.4%). These data showed that Hb S is a serious public health problem in Mauritania. They also confirm the ethnic heterogeneity of the Mauritanian population. PMID:22625666

Veten, Fatimetou M; Abdelhamid, Isselmou O; Meiloud, Ghlana M; Ghaber, Sidi M; Salem, Mohamed L; Abbes, Salem; Houmeida, Ahmed O

2012-01-01

324

Ab initio quantum chemical investigation of arsenic sulfide molecular diversity from As4S6 and As4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural diversity of arsenic sulfide molecules in compositions between As4S6 and As4 was investigated using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The As4S6 molecule consists of four trigonal pyramid coordinations of As atoms bonding to three S atoms. In the As4S5 composition, only one type of molecular configuration corresponds to an uzonite-type molecule. In the As4S4 composition, two molecular configurations exist with realgar-type and pararealgar-type molecules. Three molecular configurations are in the As4S3 composition. The first configuration comprises trigonal pyramidal As atom coordinations of two types: bonding to two S atoms and one As atom, and bonding to one S atom and two As atoms. The second is the molecular configuration of dimorphite. The third comprises trigonal pyramidal As atom coordinations of two types: bonding to three As atoms, and bonding to one As atom and two S atoms. The As4S2 composition allows molecular configurations of two types. One is comprised of trigonal pyramidal As atom configurations of one type bonding to two As atoms and one S atom. The other comprises trigonal pyramidal As atom coordinations of three types: bonding to two S atoms and one As atoms, bonding to one S atom and two As atoms, and bonding to three As atoms. The As4S molecule has trigonal pyramidal As atom coordinations of two types: bonding to one S atom and two As atoms, and bonding to three As atoms. The As4S composition permits only one molecular configuration, which suggests that the mineral duranusite comprises the As4S molecular geometry. In all, ten molecular configurations are predicted in the molecular hierarchy of the arsenic sulfide binary system. The simulated Raman spectral profiles are helpful in searching for undiscovered arsenic sulfide minerals.

Kyono, Atsushi

2013-10-01

325

Turnover of the Active Fraction of IRS1 Involves Raptor-mTOR- and S6K1Dependent Serine Phosphorylation in Cell Culture Models of Tuberous Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TSC1-TSC2\\/Rheb\\/Raptor-mTOR\\/S6K1 cell growth cassette has recently been shown to regulate cell autonomous insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) sensitivity by transducing a negative feedback signal that targets insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1 and -2). Using two cell culture models of the familial hamartoma syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, we show here that Raptor-mTOR and S6K1 are required for

O. Jameel Shah; Tony Hunter

2006-01-01

326

Acetate kinase: a triple-displacement enzyme.  

PubMed

Facts relating to the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by acetate kinase (ATP:acetate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.1) are reviewed. They point to the existence of at least one experimentally established phosphoenzyme (E-P) intermediate on the reaction pathway. Sterically, the phosphoryl transfer occurs with a net inversion of the configuration of the phosphorus atom. These facts are best in accord with a triple-displacement mode of action for acetate kinase, with two E-P intermediates and three steric inversions on phosphorus. It follows that a second E-P for acetate kinase must exist. PMID:6248856

Spector, L B

1980-05-01

327

Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Activation Status of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 Signaling Pathway in Oral Lichen Planus  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Aberrations of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 pathway have been linked to various types of human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activation status of Akt, mTOR, and pS6 in oral lichen planus (OLP) in comparison with oral premalignant and malignant lesions and normal oral mucosa (NM). Materials and Methods. Immunohistochemistry for p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 was performed in 40 OLP, 20 oral leukoplakias (OL), 10 OSCC, and 10 control samples of NM. Results. Nuclear p-Akt expression was detected in the vast majority of cases in all categories, being significantly higher in OL. Cytoplasmic p-Akt and p-mTOR staining was present only in a minority of OLP cases, being significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Phospho-pS6 showed cytoplasmic positivity in most OLP cases, which however was significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Conclusions. Overall, cytoplasmic p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 levels appear to be significantly lower in OLP compared to OL and OSCC. However, the expression of these molecules in a subset of OLP cases suggests that activation of Akt/mTOR/pS6 may occur in the context of OLP, possibly contributing to the premalignant potential of individual cases. PMID:24228033

Prodromidis, Georgios; Nikitakis, Nikolaos G.; Sklavounou, Alexandra

2013-01-01

328

Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

2000-01-01

329

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition: An Approach to Drug Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and signaling processes in the cells of the immune system. Uncontrolled signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to inflammatory responses and to diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and psoriasis. Thus, inhibitors that block the activity of tyrosine kinases and the signaling pathways they activate may provide

Alexander Levitzki; Aviv Gazit

1995-01-01

330

Creating Order from Chaos: Cellular Regulation by Kinase  

E-print Network

to compartmentalize the cyclic adenosine monophos- phate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (also known as protein kinaseCreating Order from Chaos: Cellular Regulation by Kinase Anchoring John D. Scott,1, Carmen W signaling, compartmentalization, cAMP, A-kinase anchoring proteins, protein phosphorylation Abstract Second

Scott, John D.

331

Self-incompatibility (S) locus region of the mutated S6-haplotype of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) contains a functional pollen S allele and a non-functional pistil S allele  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes the S6m-haplotype, a mutated S6-haplotype with an altered HindIII cut site, of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus). Inheritance and pollination studies of S-haplotypes from reciprocal crosses between 'Erdi Botermo' (EB; S4S6mSa) and 'Rheinische Schattenmorelle' (RS; S6SaSbSc) revealed that the S6m-haplotype conferred unilateral incompati- bility with a non-functional pistil component and a functional pollen component. Expression analyses of S6-RNase

Hisayo Yamane; Kazuo Ikeda; Nathanael R. Hauck; Amy F. Iezzoni; Ryutaro Tao

2003-01-01

332

Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate Kinase: A Link between Protein Kinase and Glutathione Synthase Folds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of serine\\/threonine protein kinase (PK) and type II? phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) structures with each other and also with other proteins reveal structural and functional similarity between the two kinases and proteins of the glutathione synthase fold (ATP-grasp). This suggests that these enzymes are evolutionarily related. The structure of PIPK, which clearly resembles both PK and ATP-grasp, provides a

Nick V. Grishin

1999-01-01

333

An Insulin-Stimulated Protein Kinase Similar to Yeast Kinases Involved in Cell Cycle Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein kinase characterized by its ability to phosphorylate microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2), is thought to be an early intermediate in an insulin-stimulated phosphorylation cascade and in a variety of other mammalian cell responses to extracellular signals. A complementary DNA that encodes this protein serine-threonine kinase has been cloned, and the protein designated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1). ERK1 has striking

Teri G. Boulton; George D. Yancopoulos; Jill S. Gregory; Clive Slaughter; Carolyn Moomaw; Joan Hsu; Melanie H. Cobb

1990-01-01

334

Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by protein kinase C ?: implications for regulation of ? phosphorylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in the hyperphosphorylation of ? was investigated in SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, induced transient (after 1 h) activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), hyperphosphorylation of ? and dose-dependent cytotoxicity. However, continuous inactivation of protein kinase (PK) B was observed from 1 to 24 h, suggesting the involvement

Ichiro Tsujio; Toshihisa Tanaka; Takashi Kudo; Takashi Nishikawa; Kazuhiro Shinozaki; Inge Grundke-Iqbal; Khalid Iqbal; Masatoshi Takeda

2000-01-01

335

Negative regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 targets by protein kinase C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed protein serine\\/threonine kinase essential for brain development and implicated in synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission, drug addiction, and neurodegenerative disorders. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity of Cdk5 in vivo. In order to determine whether protein kinase C (PKC) regulates Cdk5 activity in the central nervous system, the

Bogachan Sahin; Ammar H. Hawasli; Robert W. Greene; Jeffery D. Molkentin; James A. Bibb

2008-01-01

336

Strategies for the identification of kinase substrates using analog-sensitive kinases.  

PubMed

Phosphorylation of proteins is a prevalent post-translational modification, which affects intracellular signaling in many ways. About 2% of all eukaryotic genes code for protein kinases catalyzing phosphorylation events. Despite technological advances that have made it possible to identify thousands of phosphorylation sites simultaneously, identification of the substrates of a given kinase remains an exceptionally challenging task. Here, we summarize approaches for substrate identification that make use of genetically engineered 'analog-sensitive' kinases. PMID:20061049

Koch, André; Hauf, Silke

2010-01-01

337

Proteolytic fragment of protein kinase C (kinase M) phosphorylates in vitro phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate  

SciTech Connect

Limited tryptic proteolysis of homogeneous protein kinase C induces the formation of a catalytically active fragment of 50 kDa (kinase M) which, unlike native PK C acquires the ability to phosphorylate PIP. Both ATP and GTP were found to be capable of serving as phosphate donors in this process. Incubation of purified kinase M with a preparation of rat brain membrane fraction enhanced the level of phosphorylation of PIP in the presence and in the absence of exogenous PIP. A scheme of the interrelationship of phosphoinositide metabolism and the proteolytic processing of protein kinase C is proposed.

Tusupov, O.K.; Severin, S.E.; Shvets, V.I. (M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (USSR))

1991-05-15

338

Redundant kinase activation and resistance of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown dramatic effects against that tumors harboring EGFR activating mutations in the EGFR intracytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain and resulted in cell apoptosis. Unfortunately, a number of patients ultimately developed resistance by multiple mechanisms. Thus, elucidation of the mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKIs can provide strategies for blocking or reversing the situation. Recent studies suggested that redundant kinase activation plays pivotal roles in escaping from the effects of EGFR-TKIs. Herein, we aimed to characterize several molecular events involved in the resistance to EGFR-TKIs mediated by redundant kinase activation. PMID:25520855

Luo, Min; Fu, Li-Wu

2014-01-01

339

Systems Biology of AGC Kinases in Fungi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This STKE Review discusses the evidence that Sch9 is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevesiae homolog of mammalian protein kinase B. Protein kinase B and Sch9 are members of the AGC family of protein kinases, which are involved in diverse cellular functions, including nutrient-sensitive signaling that affects cell survival, cell size, cell cycle progression, and cellular response to stress. With 3 figures, 1 table, and 55 citations, this review provides a discussion of the methods for investigating AGC kinase function, with special emphasis on the challenges presented by the essential nature of these enzymes and their functional redundancy. There is also a discussion of how yeast cells can be used to study aging and longevity, with a description of the evidence for a role for Sch9 in aging and nutrient-sensitive processes.

Alex Sobko (Ontario; Iogen Corporation, Ottawa REV)

2006-09-12

340

How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?  

PubMed Central

This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, but instead is sometimes exploited to facilitate tight regulation of physiological processes. This multifunctionality can add to the complexity with which inositol signalling pathways interact. This review also assesses some proposed additional functions for the catalytic domains, including transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity and control by molecular 'switching', all in the context of growing interest in 'moonlighting' (gene-sharing) proteins. PMID:14567754

Shears, Stephen B

2004-01-01

341

Genetics Home Reference: Mevalonate kinase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Steroid hormones are needed for normal development and reproduction, and bile acids are used to digest fats. ... inherited ; injury ; joint ; kidney ; kinase ; lymph ; protein ; recessive ; reproduction ; sclera ; short stature ; stature ; stress ; surgery ; syndrome ; uveitis ...

342

Genetics Home Reference: Pyruvate kinase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... glucose is broken down to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell's main energy source. PKLR gene mutations ... pyruvate kinase enzyme function, causing a shortage of ATP in red blood cells and increased levels of ...

343

Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered. PMID:22584717

Schlumberger, Martin; Massicotte, Marie-Hélène; Nascimento, Camila L; Chougnet, Cécile; Baudin, Eric; Leboulleux, Sophie

2012-01-01

344

Isolation of Chloroplastic Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1  

PubMed Central

We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts (J Macioszek, LE Anderson [1987] Biochim Biophys Acta 892: 185-190). Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast. PMID:16667700

Macioszek, Jerzy; Anderson, James B.; Anderson, Louise E.

1990-01-01

345

Purification and characterization of a fatty acid-activated protein kinase (PKN) from rat testis.  

PubMed

PKN, a novel protein kinase with a catalytic domain homologous to that of the protein kinase C (PKC) family and unique N-terminal leucine-zipper-like sequences, was identified by molecular cloning from a human hippocampus cDNA library [Mukai and Ono (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199, 897-904]. Recently we partially purified recombinant PKN from COS7 cells transfected with the cDNA construct encoding human PKN, and demonstrated that the recombinant PKN was activated by unsaturated fatty acids and limited proteolysis [Mukai, Kitagawa, Shibata et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 204, 348-356]. The present work has focused on the further purification and characterization of PKN from native rat tissue. Immunochemical measurement revealed that PKN was found in every tissue, and was especially abundant in testis, spleen and brain; subcellular fractionation of rat brain showed that half of the PKN was localized in the soluble cytosolic fraction. PKN was purified approx. 8000-fold to apparent homogeneity from the cytosolic fraction of rat testis by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, ammonium sulphate fractionation and chromatography on butyl-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, Mono Q and protamine-CH-Sepharose. The enzyme migrates as a band of apparent molecular mass 120 kDa. Using serine-containing peptides based on the pseudosubstrate sequence of PKC-delta as phosphate acceptors, the kinase activity was stimulated several-fold by 40 microM unsaturated fatty acids or by detergents such as 0.04% sodium deoxycholate and 0.004% SDS. In the absence of modifiers, protamine sulphate, myelin basic protein and synthetic peptides based on the pseudosubstrate site of PKCs or ribosomal S6 protein were good substrates for phosphorylation by the kinase. In the presence of 40 microM arachidonic acid the kinase activity of PKN for these phosphate acceptors was increased 2-18-fold. The autophosphorylation activity of purified PKN was partially inhibited by pretreatment with alkaline phosphatase. These properties appear to distinguish PKN from many protein kinases isolated previously. PMID:7654208

Kitagawa, M; Mukai, H; Shibata, H; Ono, Y

1995-09-01

346

Regulation of type II PIP kinase by PKD phosphorylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type II PIP kinases phosphorylate the poorly understood inositol lipid PtdIns5P, producing the multi-functional lipid product PtdIns(4,5)P2. To investigate the regulation of these enzymes by phosphorylation, we partially purified a protein kinase from pig platelets that phosphorylated type II? PIP kinase on an activation loop threonine residue, T376. Pharmacological studies suggested this protein kinase was protein kinase D (PKD),

Katherine A. Hinchliffe; Robin F. Irvine

2006-01-01

347

Prospects for phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition as a cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3-kinases) are a family of lipid kinases that have a key role in the regulation of many cellular processes including proliferation, survival, carbohydrate metabolism, and motility. There is now strong evidence that some members of the PI3-kinase family have an important role in cancer. Emerging evidence for functional specialisation of PI3-kinase isoforms suggests that isoform selective inhibitors,

R C Stein

2001-01-01

348

A Structural Basis for Substrate Specificities of Protein Ser\\/Thr Kinases: Primary Sequence Preference of Casein Kinases I and II, NIMA, Phosphorylase Kinase, Calmodulin Dependent Kinase II, CDK5, and Erk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a method to study the primary sequence specificities of protein kinases by using an orienteddegeneratepeptidelibrary.WereportherethesubstratespecificitiesofeightproteinSer\\/Thrkinases. All of the kinases studied selected distinct optimal substrates. The identified substrate specificities of these kinases, together with known crystal structures of protein kinase A, CDK2, Erk2, twitchin, and casein kinase I, provide a structural basis for the substrate recognition of protein

Z. SONGYANG; KUN PING LU; YOUNG T. KWON; LI-HUEI TSAI; ODILE FILHOL; CLAUDE COCHET; DEBRA A. BRICKEY; THOMAS R. SODERLING; CHERYL BARTLESON; DONALD J. GRAVES; ANTHONY J. DEMAGGIO; MERL F. HOEKSTRA; JOHN BLENIS; TONY HUNTER; ANDLEWIS C. CANTLEY

1996-01-01

349

Different Protein Tyrosine Kinases Are Required for B Cell Antigen Receptor-mediated Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated kinase, c-Jun NH 2 -terminal Kinase 1, and p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary B cell antigen receptor (BCR) cross-linking activates three distinct families of nonreceptor pro- tein tyrosine kinases (PTKs): src-family kinases, Syk, and Btk; these PTKs are responsible for initiating downstream events. BCR cross-linking in the chicken DT40 B cell line also activates three distinct mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs): extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)2, c-jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK)1, and p38

Aimin Jiang; Andrew Craxton; Tomohiro Kurosaki; Edward A. Clark

350

Phosphoinositide3OH Kinase-Dependent Regulation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 and Protein Kinase B \\/ AKT by the Integrin-Linked Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an ankyrin-repeat containing serine-threonine protein kinase capable of interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of integrin beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 subunits. Overexpression of ILK in epithelial cells disrupts cell-extracellular matrix as well as cell-cell interactions, suppresses suspension-induced apoptosis (also called Anoikis), and stimulates anchorage-independent cell cycle progression. In addition, ILK induces nuclear translocation of

Marc Delcommenne; Clara Tan; Virginia Gray; Laurent Rue; James Woodgett; Shoukat Dedhar

1998-01-01

351

Phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase-dependent regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and protein kinase B/AKT by the integrin-linked kinase.  

PubMed

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an ankyrin-repeat containing serine-threonine protein kinase capable of interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of integrin beta1, beta2, and beta3 subunits. Overexpression of ILK in epithelial cells disrupts cell-extracellular matrix as well as cell-cell interactions, suppresses suspension-induced apoptosis (also called Anoikis), and stimulates anchorage-independent cell cycle progression. In addition, ILK induces nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, where the latter associates with a T cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer-binding factor 1 (TCF/LEF-1) to form an activated transcription factor. We now demonstrate that ILK activity is rapidly, but transiently, stimulated upon attachment of cells to fibronectin, as well as by insulin, in a phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase [Pi(3)K]-dependent manner. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate specifically stimulates the activity of ILK in vitro, and in addition, membrane targetted constitutively active Pi(3)K activates ILK in vivo. We also demonstrate here that ILK is an upstream effector of the Pi(3)K-dependent regulation of both protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). Specifically, ILK can directly phosphorylate GSK-3 in vitro and when stably, or transiently, overexpressed in cells can inhibit GSK-3 activity, whereas the overexpression of kinase-deficient ILK enhances GSK-3 activity. In addition, kinase-active ILK can phosphorylate PKB/AKT on serine-473, whereas kinase-deficient ILK severely inhibits endogenous phosphorylation of PKB/AKT on serine-473, demonstrating that ILK is involved in agonist stimulated, Pi(3)K-dependent, PKB/AKT activation. ILK is thus a receptor-proximal effector for the Pi(3)K-dependent, extracellular matrix and growth factor mediated, activation of PKB/AKT, and inhibition of GSK-3. PMID:9736715

Delcommenne, M; Tan, C; Gray, V; Rue, L; Woodgett, J; Dedhar, S

1998-09-15

352

Functional Evolution of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are serine\\/threonine protein kinases with a well established role in the regulation of the\\u000a eukaryotic cell cycle. Recent studies with animal cells have implicated CDK activity in additional diverse cellular processes,\\u000a including transcription, translation and mRNA processing. In plants, such CDK functions are poorly characterized and the implication\\u000a of CDK phosphorylation in regulation of gene expression is

John H. Doonan; Georgios Kitsios

2009-01-01

353

Protein Kinase A in Cancer  

PubMed Central

In the past, many chromosomal and genetic alterations have been examined as possible causes of cancer. However, some tumors do not display a clear molecular and/or genetic signature. Therefore, other cellular processes may be involved in carcinogenesis. Genetic alterations of proteins involved in signal transduction have been extensively studied, for example oncogenes, while modifications in intracellular compartmentalization of these molecules, or changes in the expression of unmodified genes have received less attention. Yet, epigenetic modulation of second messenger systems can deeply modify cellular functioning and in the end may cause instability of many processes, including cell mitosis. It is important to understand the functional meaning of modifications in second messenger intracellular pathways and unravel the role of downstream proteins in the initiation and growth of tumors. Within this framework, the cAMP system has been examined. cAMP is a second messenger involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. It acts mainly through its binding to cAMP-activated protein kinases (PKA), that were suggested to participate in the onset and progression of various tumors. PKA may represent a biomarker for tumor detection, identification and staging, and may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of tumors. PMID:24212646

Caretta, Antonio; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla

2011-01-01

354

Diacylglycerol kinase delta promotes lipogenesis.  

PubMed

We have studied the relationship between diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGK?) and lipogenesis. There is a marked increase in the expression of DGK? during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes, as well as in the synthesis of neutral and polar lipids. When 3T3-L1 undifferentiated fibroblasts are transfected to express DGK?, there is increased triglyceride synthesis without differentiation to adipocytes. Hence, expression of DGK? promotes lipogenesis. Lipid synthesis is decreased in DGK? knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts, especially for lipids with shorter acyl chains and limited unsaturation. This reduction occurs for both neutral and polar lipids. These findings suggest reduced de novo lipid synthesis. This is confirmed by measuring the incorporation of glycerol into polar and neutral lipids, which is higher in the wild type cells than in the DGK? knockouts. In comparison, there was no change in lipid synthesis in DGK? knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts. We also demonstrate that the DGK? knockout cells had a lower expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase as well as a lower degree of activation by phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase. These three enzymes are involved in the synthesis of long chain fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that DGK? markedly increases lipid synthesis, at least in part as a result of promoting the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. PMID:24090246

Shulga, Yulia V; Loukov, Dessi; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Milne, Stephen B; Myers, David S; Hatch, Grant M; Umeh, G; Jalan, Divyanshi; Fullerton, Morgan D; Steinberg, Gregory R; Topham, Matthew K; Brown, H Alex; Epand, Richard M

2013-11-01

355

Regulation of cellular growth by the Drosophila target of rapamycin dTOR  

PubMed Central

The TOR protein kinases (TOR1 and TOR2 in yeast; mTOR/FRAP/RAFT1 in mammals) promote cellular proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, but their role in development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the Drosophila TOR homolog dTOR is required cell autonomously for normal growth and proliferation during larval development, and for increases in cellular growth caused by activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. As in mammalian cells, the kinase activity of dTOR is required for growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) in vitro, and we demonstrate that overexpression of p70S6K in vivo can rescue dTOR mutant animals to viability. Loss of dTOR also results in cellular phenotypes characteristic of amino acid deprivation, including reduced nucleolar size, lipid vesicle aggregation in the larval fat body, and a cell type-specific pattern of cell cycle arrest that can be bypassed by overexpression of the S-phase regulator cyclin E. Our results suggest that dTOR regulates growth during animal development by coupling growth factor signaling to nutrient availability. PMID:11069888

Zhang, Hongbing; Stallock, James P.; Ng, Joyce C.; Reinhard, Christoph; Neufeld, Thomas P.

2000-01-01

356

Effects of methylmercury of protein kinase A and protein kinase C in the mouse brain  

SciTech Connect

The effects of methylmercury administration on adenosine 3[prime],5[prime]-cyclic monophyosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) and protein kinase C were investigated by determining their second messenger bindings ([[sup 3]H]cAMP binding for protein kinase A and [[sup 3]H]PDBu for protein kinase C) and enzymatic activities in the brains of methylmercury-treated mice. After single administrations of methylmercury (10 mgHg/kg, sc), no neurological symptoms were observed, while the mercury concentration in the brain reached 5.6 ppm. Neither second messenger bindings nor enzymatic activities of either protein kinase displayed significant changes. When methylmercury was administered repeatedly (10 mgHg/kg x 5), the mercury concentration was 11.7 ppm and the enzymatic activity of protein kinase C was reduced to 75% of the control level without significant change in [[sup 3]H]PDBu binding. Significant change has not been observed in either [[sup 3]H]cAMP binding or enzymatic activity of protein kinase A. The reduction of enzymatic activity of protein kinase C was reversed by the simultaneous administration of selenite (0.5 mgSe/kg x 5). However, the fact that selenite administration alone displayed not a significant but about a 20% increase in [[sup 3]H]PDBu binding suggested that selenite itself could affect the level of protein kinase C despite having no apparent effects on protein kinase C in vitro. Further investigation is necessary to assess whether protein kinase C is involved in the detoxication mechanism of selenite with respect to methylmercury. Since the mercury concentration in the brain was higher than the IC[sub 50]s for both protein kinase A and protein kinase C observed in vitro even after single administration, methylmercury might inhibit both protein kinases, which might impair intracellular signal transduction. This might in part conceal the symptoms during the early stages of methylmercury toxicity. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige (Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan)); Katsuyama, Hironobu; Lee, Meyeong Jin; Sumino, Kimiaki (Kobe Univ. School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan))

1993-11-01

357

Kinase-Independent Mechanisms of Resistance of Leukemia Stem Cells to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Summary Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib mesylate have changed the clinical course of chronic myeloid leukemia; however, the observation that these inhibitors do not target the leukemia stem cell implies that patients need to maintain lifelong therapy. The mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear: the question of whether tyrosine kinase inhibitors are inactive inside leukemia stem cells or whether leukemia stem cells do not require breakpoint cluster region (Bcr)-Abl signaling is currently under debate. Herein, I propose an alternative model: perhaps the leukemia stem cell requires Bcr-Abl, but is dependent on its kinase-independent functions. Kinases such as epidermal growth factor receptor and Janus kinase 2 possess kinase-independent roles in regulation of gene expression; it is worth investigating whether Bcr-Abl has similar functions. Mechanistically, Bcr-Abl is able to activate the Ras, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and/or the Src-kinase Hck/Stat5 pathways in a scaffolding-dependent manner. Whereas the scaffolding activity of Bcr-Abl with Grb2 is dependent on autophosphorylation, kinases such as Hck can use Bcr-Abl as substrate, inducing phosphorylation of Y177 to enable scaffolding ability in the absence of Bcr-Abl catalytic activity. It is worth investigating whether leukemia stem cells exclusively express kinases that are able to use Bcr-Abl as substrate. A kinase-independent role for Bcr-Abl in leukemia stem cells would imply that drugs that target Bcr-Abl’s scaffolding ability or its DNA-binding ability should be used in conjunction with current therapeutic regimens to increase their efficacy and eradicate the stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia PMID:24598782

2014-01-01

358

Kinase-independent mechanisms of resistance of leukemia stem cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib mesylate have changed the clinical course of chronic myeloid leukemia; however, the observation that these inhibitors do not target the leukemia stem cell implies that patients need to maintain lifelong therapy. The mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear: the question of whether tyrosine kinase inhibitors are inactive inside leukemia stem cells or whether leukemia stem cells do not require breakpoint cluster region (Bcr)-Abl signaling is currently under debate. Herein, I propose an alternative model: perhaps the leukemia stem cell requires Bcr-Abl, but is dependent on its kinase-independent functions. Kinases such as epidermal growth factor receptor and Janus kinase 2 possess kinase-independent roles in regulation of gene expression; it is worth investigating whether Bcr-Abl has similar functions. Mechanistically, Bcr-Abl is able to activate the Ras, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and/or the Src-kinase Hck/Stat5 pathways in a scaffolding-dependent manner. Whereas the scaffolding activity of Bcr-Abl with Grb2 is dependent on autophosphorylation, kinases such as Hck can use Bcr-Abl as substrate, inducing phosphorylation of Y177 to enable scaffolding ability in the absence of Bcr-Abl catalytic activity. It is worth investigating whether leukemia stem cells exclusively express kinases that are able to use Bcr-Abl as substrate. A kinase-independent role for Bcr-Abl in leukemia stem cells would imply that drugs that target Bcr-Abl's scaffolding ability or its DNA-binding ability should be used in conjunction with current therapeutic regimens to increase their efficacy and eradicate the stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:24598782

Ichim, Christine Victoria

2014-04-01

359

Protein Kinase Activity of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Regulates Cytokine-Dependent Cell Survival  

PubMed Central

The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110? by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting such pathways in cancer. PMID:23526884

Green, Benjamin D.; Barry, Emma F.; Ma, Yuefang; Woodcock, Joanna; Fitter, Stephen; Zannettino, Andrew C. W.; Pitson, Stuart M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Lopez, Angel F.; Shepherd, Peter R.; Wei, Andrew H.; Ekert, Paul G.; Guthridge, Mark A.

2013-01-01

360

The Roles of Two IB Kinase-related Kinases in Lipopolysaccharide and Double Stranded RNA Signaling and Viral Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infection and stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or double stranded RNA (dsRNA) induce phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)-3 and its translo- cation to the nucleus, thereby leading to the IFN- ? gene induction. Recently, two IB kinase (IKK)-related kinases, inducible IB kinase (IKK- i ) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), were suggested to act as IRF-3 kinases and

Hiroaki Hemmi; Osamu Takeuchi; Shintaro Sato; Masahiro Yamamoto; Tsuneyasu Kaisho; Hideki Sanjo; Taro Kawai; Katsuaki Hoshino; Kiyoshi Takeda; Shizuo Akira

361

Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase--Beclin1 complex mediates the amino acid-dependent regulation of autophagy in C2C12 myotubes.  

PubMed Central

Increased proteolysis contributes to muscle atrophy that prevails in many diseases. Elucidating the signalling pathways responsible for this activation is of obvious clinical importance. Autophagy is a ubiquitous degradation process, induced by amino acid starvation, that delivers cytoplasmic components to lysosomes. Starvation markedly stimulates autophagy in myotubes, and the present studies investigate the mechanisms of this regulation. In C(2)C(12) myotubes incubated with serum growth factors, amino acid starvation stimulated autophagic proteolysis independently of p38 and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases, but in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent manner. Starvation, however, did not alter activities of class I and class II PI3Ks, and was not sufficient to affect major signalling proteins downstream from class I PI3K (glycogen synthase kinase, Akt/protein kinase B and protein S6). In contrast, starvation increased class III PI3K activity in whole-myotube extracts. In fact, this increase was most pronounced for a population of class III PI3K that coimmunoprecipitated with Beclin1/Apg6 protein, a major determinant in the initiation of autophagy. Stimulation of proteolysis was reproduced by feeding myotubes with synthetic dipalmitoyl-PtdIns3 P, the class III PI3K product. Conversely, protein transfection of anti-class III PI3K inhibitory antibody into starved myotubes inverted the induction of proteolysis. Therefore, independently of class I PI3K/Akt, protein S6 and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, amino acid starvation stimulates proteolysis in myotubes by regulating class III PI3K-Beclin1 autophagic complexes. PMID:12967324

Tassa, Amina; Roux, Marie Paule; Attaix, Didier; Bechet, Daniel M

2003-01-01

362

Assembly of Cyclin D-Dependent Kinase and Titration of p27Kip1 Regulated by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (MEK1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constitutively active form of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1) was synthesized under control of a zinc-inducible promoter in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Zinc treatment of serum-starved cells activated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) and induced expression of cyclin D1. Newly synthesized cyclin D1 assembled with cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) to form holoenzyme complexes that phosphorylated the retinoblastoma protein inefficiently. Activation of

Mangeng Cheng; Veronika Sexl; Charles J. Sherr; Martine F. Roussel

1998-01-01

363

Charge-cloud alignment in the electron-impact excitation of 138Ba( . . .6s6p 1P1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined charge-cloud alignment parameters P+l and ? for electron-impact excitation of the (6s2 1S0) to (6s6p 1P1) transition in 138Ba by measuring the superelastic scattering of electrons from laser-excited 138Ba. Four electron-impact energies were studied and scattering-angle coverage in each case was sufficient to allow the observation of pronounced structure in the behavior of these parameters. Comparison of our measurements with two distorted-wave theories [R. E. H. Clark, J. Abdallah, Jr., G. Csanak, and S. P. Kramer, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2935 (1989); R. Srivastava, T. Zuo, R. P. McEachran, and A. D. Stauffer, J. Phys. B 25, 3709 (1992)] reveals generally excellent agreement except at the lowest impact energy studied where these theories fail completely to reproduce the observed behavior of P+l. Our low-impact-energy data have also been compared with a close-coupling calculation [I. I. Fabrikant, Izv. Akad. Nauk Latv. SSR, Ser. Fiz. Tekhn. 6, 11 (1985)] which qualitatively reproduces the observed behavior of P+l and ? but fails to give quantitative agreement.

Zetner, P. W.; Li, Y.; Trajmar, S.

1993-07-01

364

Single-crystal parallel-mode EPR spectroscopy of an S=6 ground-state transition-metal cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a parallel-mode EPR study of a very high-spin ground-state cluster complex [Cr12O9(OH)3(O2CCMe3)15], where Me indicates the methyl group. This high-symmetry (D3) molecule has a well-isolated S=6 ground state characterized by D=+0.088 cm-1, E=0, gzz=1.965, gxx=gyy=1.960. Low-temperature (5 K) single-crystal and powder parallel- and perpendicular-mode EPR spectra are presented. The forms of the spectra are discussed with respect to the composition of the wave functions as a function of the angle of the static magnetic field to the molecular Z axis, the selection rules of the two excitation modes, and the resultant transition probabilities. This is the largest spin state studied by parallel mode EPR spectroscopy to date, and the results demonstrate the applicability of parallel-mode EPR to high-spin ground-state molecular clusters such as single-molecule magnets.

Piligkos, Stergios; Collison, David; Oganesyan, Vasily S.; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Timco, Grigore A.; Thomson, Andrew J.; Winpenny, Richard E.; McInnes, Eric J.

2004-04-01

365

Lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} atomic state of radium.  

SciTech Connect

The lifetime of the 7s6d {sup 1}D{sub 2} state of atomic radium is determined to be 385(45) {mu}s using cold {sup 226}Ra atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap. The {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is populated from the decay of the {sup 1}P{sub 1} state which is excited by a pulse of 483 nm light. The decay of the {sup 1}D{sub 2} state is observed by detecting delayed fluorescence at 714 nm from the last step in the decay sequence {sup 1}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3}P{sub 1}-{sup 1}S{sub 0}. The measured lifetime is compared to a number of theoretical calculations. An improved value of the 7s7p {sup 1}P{sub 1} level of 20 715.598(6) cm{sup -1} is obtained.

Trimble, W. L.; Sulai, I. A.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Kentucky

2009-01-01

366

Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

2015-02-01

367

Magnetically stabilized Fe8(?4-S)6S8 clusters in Ba6Fe25S27.  

PubMed

We have prepared Ba6Fe25S27, and studied its magnetic properties and electronic structure. Single crystal diffraction revealed a cubic phase (Pm3[combining macron]m) with a = 10.2057(9) Å and Z = 1. Within the large cubic cell, tetrahedrally coordinated Fe atoms arrange into octonuclear Fe8(?4-S)6(S8) clusters, which can be described as a cube of Fe atoms with six face-capping and eight terminal S atoms. SQUID magnetometry measurements reveal an antiferromagnetic transition at 25 K and anomalous high-temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility that is non-Curie like-two magnetic signatures which mimic behavior seen in the parent phases of Fe-based superconductors. Using a combined DFT and molecular orbital based approach, we provide an interpretation of the bonding and stability within Ba6M25S27 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) and related M9S8 phases. Through a ?-bonding molecular orbital model of the transition metal coordination environments, we illustrate how the local stability can be enhanced through addition of Ba. In addition, we perform spin-polarized DFT calculations on Ba6Fe25S27 to determine the effect of adopting an antiferromagnetic spin state on its electronic structure. By studying the magnetic properties from an empirical and computational perspective, we hope to elucidate what aspects of the magnetic structure are significant to bonding. PMID:25140897

Stacey, Timothy E; Borg, Christopher K H; Zavalij, Peter J; Rodriguez, Efrain E

2014-10-21

368

CDPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases and tyrosine autophosphorylation attenuates kinase activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases but we made the surprising observation that soybean CDPK' and several Arabidopsis isoforms (AtCPK4 and AtCPK34) could also autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. In studies with His6-GmCDPK', we ide...

369

Yeast gene CDC8 encodes thymidylate kinase and is complemented by herpes thymidine kinase gene TK.  

PubMed Central

The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene TK complements the defect in five temperature-sensitive mutants and in vitro constructed insertion and deletion mutants of the CDC8 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The herpes thymidine kinase enzyme acts as both a thymidine kinase and a thymidylate kinase (dTMP kinase). The latter activity is responsible for the cdc8 complementation since all thermosensitive cdc8 mutants are deficient in dTMP kinase activity at all temperatures. However, an intragenic revertant, cdc8-320, which was selected by demanding mitotic growth at the restrictive temperature, exhibits thermolabile dTMP kinase activity. We conclude that CDC8 is the structural gene for dTMP kinase, which catalyzes an essential step in DNA precursor biosynthesis. Previously, it has been shown that the DNA replication defect of cdc8 mutants could not be bypassed by the addition of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates to permeabilized cells. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by hypothesizing a multiprotein yeast DNA replication complex containing the CDC8 protein. PMID:6091111

Sclafani, R A; Fangman, W L

1984-01-01

370

The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2–kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr–Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2–kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2–kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

2014-11-01

371

Arabidopsis putative MAP kinase kinase kinases Raf10 and Raf11 are positive regulators of seed dormancy and ABA response.  

PubMed

We isolated an Arabidopsis ABA-insensitive mutant, ais143, by activation tagging screen. T-DNA was found to be located in the coding region of a putative mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) gene, Raf10, thereby abolishing its expression in the mutant. ais143 exhibited reduced seed dormancy as well as reduced ABA sensitivity. The phenotypes were complemented by the wild-type Raf10 gene, and the overexpression (OX) of Raf10 resulted in delayed seed germination and enhanced ABA sensitivity. Raf10 has high sequence identity to another MAP3K, Raf11. Parallel analysis of Raf11 knockout (KO) and OX lines showed that their phenotypes were similar to those of Raf10 KO and OX lines. An ais143 raf11 double mutant exhibited stronger phenotypes than single mutants, indicating the functional redundancy between Raf10 and Raf11. Transcript analysis revealed that the expression of many ABA-associated genes, including the key regulatory genes ABI3 and ABI5, was altered in the Raf10 and Raf11 OX lines. Recombinant Raf10 and Raf11 proteins exhibited kinase activity, which was inhibited by the MAP3K inhibitor BAY 43-9006 but not by the MAP2K inhibitor U0126. Collectively, our data indicate that Raf10 and Raf11 kinases are important regulators of seed dormancy and ABA response and that they affect the expression of ABI3, ABI5 and other ABA-regulated genes. PMID:25324504

Lee, Sun-Ji; Lee, Mi Hun; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Soo Young

2015-01-01

372

The protein interaction landscape of the human CMGC kinase group.  

PubMed

Cellular information processing via reversible protein phosphorylation requires tight control of the localization, activity, and substrate specificity of protein kinases, which to a large extent is accomplished by complex formation with other proteins. Despite their critical role in cellular regulation and pathogenesis, protein interaction information is available for only a subset of the 518 human protein kinases. Here we present a global proteomic analysis of complexes of the human CMGC kinase group. In addition to subgroup-specific functional enrichment and modularity, the identified 652 high-confidence kinase-protein interactions provide a specific biochemical context for many poorly studied CMGC kinases. Furthermore, the analysis revealed a kinase-kinase subnetwork and candidate substrates for CMGC kinases. Finally, the presented interaction proteome uncovered a large set of interactions with proteins genetically linked to a range of human diseases, including cancer, suggesting additional routes for analyzing the role of CMGC kinases in controlling human disease pathways. PMID:23602568

Varjosalo, Markku; Keskitalo, Salla; Van Drogen, Audrey; Nurkkala, Helka; Vichalkovski, Anton; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias

2013-04-25

373

Diacylglycerol kinase ?: regulation and stability.  

PubMed

Given the well-established roles of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) in a variety of signaling cascades, it is not surprising that there is an increasing interest in understanding their physiological roles and mechanisms that regulate their cellular levels. One class of enzymes capable of coordinately regulating the levels of these two lipids is the diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs). These enzymes catalyze the transfer of the ?-phosphate of ATP to the hydroxyl group of DAG, which generates PtdOH while reducing DAG. As these enzymes reciprocally modulate the relative levels of these two signaling lipids, it is essential to understand the regulation and roles of these enzymes in various tissues. One system where these enzymes play important roles is the nervous system. Of the ten mammalian DGKs, eight of them are readily detected in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS): DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, DGK-?, and DGK-?. Despite the increasing interest in DGKs, little is known about their regulation. We have focused some attention on understanding the enzymology and regulation of one of these DGK isoforms, DGK-?. We recently showed that DGK-? is regulated by an accessory protein containing polybasic regions. We now report that this accessory protein is required for the previously reported broadening of the pH profile observed in cell lysates in response to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Our data further reveal DGK-? is regulated by magnesium and zinc, and sensitive to the known DGK inhibitor R599022. These data outline new parameters involved in regulating DGK-?. PMID:23266086

Tu-Sekine, Becky; Goldschmidt, Hana; Petro, Elizabeth; Raben, Daniel M

2013-01-01

374

Working Without Kinase Activity: Phosphotransfer-Independent Functions of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 are typical serine and threonine kinases that are members of the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases and are involved in the regulation of key cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, through the phosphorylation of nearly 200 substrates. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates that ERK1 and ERK2 can also function independently of their kinase activities in the control of critical biochemical and biological events, such as chromatin remodeling, DNA transcription, and cell cycle regulation. In this Review, which contains 1 figure and 72 references, we summarize findings from a number of studies that underline the importance of these kinase-independent roles of the ERKs.

Javier Rodriguez (Spain; Universidad de Cantabria REV)

2011-10-25

375

Genetic and Pharmacological Inhibition of PDK1 in Cancer Cells: Characterization of a Selective Allosteric Kinase Inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is a critical activator of multiple prosurvival and oncogenic protein kinases and has garnered considerable interest as an oncology drug target. Despite progress characterizing PDK1 as a therapeutic target, pharmacological support is lacking due to the prevalence of nonspecific inhibitors. Here, we benchmark literature and newly developed inhibitors and conduct parallel genetic and pharmacological queries into PDK1 function in cancer cells. Through kinase selectivity profiling and x-ray crystallographic studies, we identify an exquisitely selective PDK1 inhibitor (compound 7) that uniquely binds to the inactive kinase conformation (DFG-out). In contrast to compounds 1-5, which are classical ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors (DFG-in), compound 7 specifically inhibits cellular PDK1 T-loop phosphorylation (Ser-241), supporting its unique binding mode. Interfering with PDK1 activity has minimal antiproliferative effect on cells growing as plastic-attached monolayer cultures (i.e. standard tissue culture conditions) despite reduced phosphorylation of AKT, RSK, and S6RP. However, selective PDK1 inhibition impairs anchorage-independent growth, invasion, and cancer cell migration. Compound 7 inhibits colony formation in a subset of cancer cell lines (four of 10) and primary xenograft tumor lines (nine of 57). RNAi-mediated knockdown corroborates the PDK1 dependence in cell lines and identifies candidate biomarkers of drug response. In summary, our profiling studies define a uniquely selective and cell-potent PDK1 inhibitor, and the convergence of genetic and pharmacological phenotypes supports a role of PDK1 in tumorigenesis in the context of three-dimensional in vitro culture systems.

Nagashima, Kumiko; Shumway, Stuart D.; Sathyanarayanan, Sriram; Chen, Albert H.; Dolinski, Brian; Xu, Youyuan; Keilhack, Heike; Nguyen, Thi; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Li, Lixia; Lutterbach, Bart A.; Chi, An; Paweletz, Cloud; Allison, Timothy; Yan, Youwei; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Klippel, Anke; Kraus, Manfred; Bobkova, Ekaterina V.; Deshmukh, Sujal; Xu, Zangwei; Mueller, Uwe; Szewczak, Alexander A.; Pan, Bo-Sheng; Richon, Victoria; Pollock, Roy; Blume-Jensen, Peter; Northrup, Alan; Andersen, Jannik N. (Merck) [Merck

2013-11-20

376

c-Jun N-terminal kinase in synergistic neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells mediated through P90RSK  

PubMed Central

Background Synergistic multi-ligand treatments that can induce neuronal differentiation offer valuable strategies to regulate and modulate neurite outgrowth. Whereas the signaling pathways mediating single ligand-induced neurite outgrowth, such as Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38), have been extensively studied, the mechanisms underlying multi-ligand synergistic neurite outgrowth are poorly understood. In an attempt to gain insight into synergistic neurite outgrowth, PC12 cells were treated with one of three combinations: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) with epidermal growth factor (EP), basic fibroblast growth factor (FP), or nerve growth factor (NP) and then challenged with the appropriate kinase inhibitors to assess the signaling pathways involved in the process. Results Response surface analyses indicated that synergistic neurite outgrowth was regulated by distinct pathways in these systems. Synergistic increases in the phosphorylation of Erk and JNK, but not Akt or P38, were observed with the three growth factor-PACAP combinations. Unexpectedly, we identified a synergistic increase in JNK phosphorylation, which was involved in neurite outgrowth in the NP and FP, but not EP, systems. Inhibition of JNK using the SP600125 inhibitor reduced phosphorylation of 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (P90RSK) in the NP and FP, but not EP, systems. This suggested the involvement of P90RSK in mediating the differential effects of JNK in synergistic neurite outgrowth. Conclusions Taken together, these findings reveal the involvement of distinct signaling pathways in regulating neurite outgrowth in response to different synergistic growth factor-PACAP treatments. Our findings demonstrate a hitherto unrecognized mechanism of JNK-P90RSK in mediating synergistic neurite outgrowth induced by the co-treatment of growth factors and PACAP. PMID:24330599

2013-01-01

377

X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-ordered protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.

Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia; Burke, James; Chang, ChiehYing Y.; Gao, Mian; Tino, Joseph; Xie, Dianlin; Tebben, Andrew J. (BMS)

2012-06-27

378

Targeting RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase signaling to prevent cancer development and progression.  

PubMed

Elevated RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase signaling have been shown to promote cancer development and metastasis and have drawn much attention as potential targets of anti-cancer therapy. Elevated RhoA and Rho kinase activity promote cancer cell invasion and eventually lead to metastasis by disrupting E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Elevated p21-activated kinase activity promotes invasion by stimulating cell motility but also promotes cancer cell survival and growth. In this review we describe normal functions of RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase signaling, mechanisms that lead to constitutive activation of RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase pathways, and processes by which constitutive RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase activity promote cancer development and progression to more aggressive and metastatic phenotypes. In addition, we summarize relevant patents on RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase as targets of anti-cancer therapy and discuss the clinical potential of different approaches to modulate RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase signaling. PMID:19519534

Chang, Yu-Wen E; Bean, Ronald R; Jakobi, Rolf

2009-06-01

379

Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I  

SciTech Connect

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, the authors investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an in vitro assay containing ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when ({sup 32}P)GTP was substituted for ({sup 32}P)ATP in the protein