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Sample records for pacap ameliorates oxidative

  1. Rapid tachyphylaxis to hemodynamic effects of PACAP-27 after inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Travis, M. D.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The vasodilator effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-27 are subject to tachyphylaxis in rats treated with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). We examined whether this tachyphylaxis could be prevented by administration of the putative endothelium-derived nitrosyl factor S-nitroso-L-cysteine (L-SNC) and whether L-SNC may exert its effects via increases in cGMP levels in vascular smooth muscle. Five doses of PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline-treated rats. These responses were not subject to tachyphylaxis. The first injection of PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) in L-NAME-treated (50 micromol/kg iv) rats produced vasodilator responses similar to those in saline-treated rats, whereas subsequent injections produced progressively smaller responses. The injection of L-SNC (1,200 nmol/kg iv) before each injection of PACAP-27 prevented tachyphylaxis to the Gs protein-coupled receptor agonist in L-NAME-treated rats, whereas equihypotensive doses of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (100 micrograms/kg iv) did not. The injection of the membrane-permeant cGMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-CPT-cGMP; 30 micromol/kg iv) to L-NAME-treated rats restored resting hemodynamic values to pre-L-NAME levels but did not prevent the development of tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27. These results suggest that nitrosyl factors prevent the development of tachyphylaxis to the hemodynamic actions of PACAP-27. These nitrosyl factors may act independently of their ability to generate cGMP in vascular smooth muscle.

  2. Effects of PACAP on intracellular signaling pathways in human retinal pigment epithelial cells exposed to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fabian, E; Reglodi, D; Mester, L; Szabo, A; Szabadfi, K; Tamas, A; Toth, G; Kovacs, K

    2012-11-01

    The integrity of retinal pigment epithelial cells is critical for photoreceptor survival and vision. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) exerts retinoprotective effects against several types of injuries in vivo, including optic nerve transection, retinal ischemia, excitotoxic injuries, UVA-induced lesion, and diabetic retinopathy. In a recent study, we have proven that PACAP is also protective in oxidative stress-induced injury in human pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of this protection. ARPE cells were exposed to a 24-h hydrogen peroxide treatment. Expressions of kinases and apoptotic markers were studied by complex array kits and Western blot. Oxidative stress induced the activation of several apoptotic markers, including Bad, Bax, HIF-1α, several heat shock proteins, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and Fas-associated protein with death domain, while PACAP treatment decreased them. The changes in the expression of MAP kinases showed that PACAP activated the protective ERK1/2 and downstream CREB, and decreased the activation of the pro-apoptotic p38MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, an effect opposite to that observed with only oxidative stress. Furthermore, PACAP increased the activation of the protective Akt pathway. In addition, the effects of oxidative stress on several other signaling molecules were counteracted by PACAP treatment (Chk2, Yes, Lyn, paxillin, p53, PLC, STAT4, RSK). These play a role in cell death, cell cycle, inflammation, adhesion, differentiation and proliferation. In summary, PACAP, acting at several levels, influences the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors in favor of anti-apoptosis, thereby providing protection in oxidative stress-induced injury of human retinal pigment epithelial cells. PMID:22644900

  3. Ameliorative Effects of PACAP against Cartilage Degeneration. Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Evidence from in Vivo and in Vitro Models of Rat Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Giunta, Salvatore; Castorina, Alessandro; Marzagalli, Rubina; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Pichler, Karin; Mobasheri, Ali; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA); the most common form of degenerative joint disease, is associated with variations in pro-inflammatory growth factor levels, inflammation and hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte apoptosis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide endowed with a range of trophic effects in several cell types; including chondrocytes. However; its role in OA has not been studied. To address this issue, we investigated whether PACAP expression is affected in OA cartilage obtained from experimentally-induced OA rat models, and then studied the effects of PACAP in isolated chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β in vitro to mimic the inflammatory milieu of OA cartilage. OA induction was established by histomorphometric and histochemical analyses. Changes in PACAP distribution in cartilage, or its concentration in synovial fluid (SF), were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Results showed that PACAP abundance in cartilage tissue and SF was high in healthy controls. OA induction decreased PACAP levels both in affected cartilage and SF. In vitro, PACAP prevented IL-1β-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, as determined by MTT assay; Hoechst staining and western blots of apoptotic-related proteins. These changes were also accompanied by decreased i-NOS and COX-2 levels, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Altogether, these findings support a potential role for PACAP as a chondroprotective agent for the treatment of OA. PMID:25782157

  4. CGRP and Migraine: Could PACAP Play a Role Too?

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Eric A.; Russo, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects about 12% of the population. In the past decade, the role of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine has been firmly established by clinical studies. CGRP administration can trigger migraines, and CGRP receptor antagonists ameliorate migraine. In this review, we will describe multifunctional activities of CGRP that could potentially contribute to migraine. These include roles in light aversion, neurogenic inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization of nociceptive pathways, cortical spreading depression, and regulation of nitric oxide production. Yet clearly there will be many other contributing genes that could act in concert with CGRP. One candidate is pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), which shares some of the same actions as CGRP, including the ability to induce migraine in migraineurs and light aversive behavior in rodents. Interestingly, both CGRP and PACAP act on receptors that share an accessory subunit called receptor activity modifying protein-1 (RAMP1). Thus, comparisons between the actions of these two migraine-inducing neuropeptides, CGRP and PACAP, may provide new insights into migraine pathophysiology. PMID:24210136

  5. Oxidative Stress in Lead and Cadmium Toxicity and Its Amelioration

    PubMed Central

    Patra, R. C.; Rautray, Amiya K.; Swarup, D.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role, at least in part, in pathogenesis of many disease conditions and toxicities in animals. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and free radicals beyond the cells intrinsic capacity to neutralize following xenobiotics exposure leads to a state of oxidative stress and resultant damages of lipids, protein, and DNA. Lead and cadmium are the common environmental heavy metal pollutants and have widespread distribution. Both natural and anthropogenic sources including mining, smelting, and other industrial processes are responsible for human and animal exposure. These pollutants, many a times, are copollutants leading to concurrent exposure to living beings and resultant synergistic deleterious health effects. Several mechanisms have been explained for the damaging effects on the body system. Of late, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the lead- and cadmium-induced pathotoxicity. Several ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage to the body system aftermath or during exposure to these toxicants have been assessed with the use of antioxidants. The present review focuses on mechanism of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidate damages and the ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage and pathotoxicity with the use of supplemented antioxidants for their beneficial effects. PMID:21547215

  6. PACAP38 and PACAP6-38 exert cytotoxic activity against human retinoblastoma Y79 cells.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszak, Jakub; Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2014-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide expression of which has been found in various tumors of the brain and peripheral organs. Despite numerous studies, the exact role the peptide plays in the development and progression of tumors is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PACAP on human retinoblastoma Y79 cell viability. We found that both PACAP38 and PACAP6-38, a selective PAC1 receptor antagonist, did not affect Y79 cell viability at nanomolar concentrations, but when used at 1-5 μM potently reduced cell survival in a dose-dependent manner. PACAP27 and maxadilan, a high affinity agonist of PAC1 receptors, had negligible effects. Two membrane-penetrating analogs of PACAP38 inactive at PAC1/VPAC receptors, [Disc(6)]PACAP38 and FITC-Ahx-PACAP11-38, also decreased viability of Y79 cells, albeit with lower potency than PACAP38. The cytotoxic effect of PACAP38 was augmented by p38, MEK1/2, and JNK inhibitors, indicating that high concentrations of the peptide might decrease the activity of these kinases, leading to cell death. It is suggested that the cytotoxic activity of PACAP38 and PACAP6-38 against human retinoblastoma Y79 cell line may result from their interaction with target sites other than PAC1 and VPAC receptors, but this is yet unknown. PMID:24515671

  7. PACAP in the Defense of Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rudecki, Alexander P; Gray, Sarah L

    2016-09-01

    The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) mediates diverse physiology from neuroprotection to thermoregulation. PACAP is well established as a master regulator of the stress response, regulating psychological and physiological equilibrium via the autonomic nervous system. Neuroanatomical and functional evidence support a role for PACAP in energy metabolism, including thermogenesis, activity, mobilization of energy stores, and appetite. Through integration of this evidence we suggest PACAP be included in the growing list of neuropeptides that mediate energy homeostasis. Future work to uncover the intricacies of PACAP expression and the molecular pathways responsible for PACAP signaling may show potential for this neuropeptide as a therapeutic target as well as further elucidate the complex neuroanatomical networks involved in defending energy balance. PMID:27166671

  8. Pleiotropic and retinoprotective functions of PACAP.

    PubMed

    Shioda, Seiji; Takenoya, Fumiko; Wada, Nobuhiro; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Seki, Tamotsu; Nakamachi, Tomoya

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 27- or 38-amino acid neuropeptide, which belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues of the eye, including the retina, cornea and lacrimal gland, and PACAP is known to exert pleiotropic effects throughout the central nervous system. This review provides an overview of current knowledge regarding the cell protective effects, mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of PACAP in response to several types of eye injury. PMID:27324639

  9. Oleuropein ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogun, Metin; Ozcan, Ayla; Karaman, Musa; Merhan, Oguz; Ozen, Hasan; Kukurt, Abdulsamed; Karapehlivan, Mahmut

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential preventive effect of oleuropein in an experimental arsenic toxicity in mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to 5mg/kg/day sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) in drinking water and treated with 30mg/kg/day oleuropein for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and selected organs were processed for biochemical and histopahtological investigations. Blood, liver, kidney and brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined by colorimetric methods. Protein carbonyl content is measured by a commercial kit. Liver morphology and immunoreactivity for inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) was evaluated microscopically. Level of NO was determined to decrease in blood and tissues whereas MDA increased in arsenic given mice. Tissue protein carbonyl content also increased in this group. Immunoreactivity for iNOS and eNOS was noted to increase with arsenic treatment. Oleuropein treatment had significant effects in normalizing the MDA and NO levels as well as protein carbonyl content. Immunohistochemical staining also showed reduction of the expression of iNOS and eNOS in liver. The results indicate that oleuropein ameliorates oxidative tissue damage by scavenging free radicals. PMID:27259345

  10. Tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 after inhibition of NO synthesis: a loss of adenylate cyclase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The vasodilator effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27) are subject to tachyphylaxis in rats treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). This study examined whether this tachyphylaxis is due to the loss of vasodilator potency of cAMP generated by activation of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptors. Five successive treatments with PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline-treated rats that were not subject to tachyphylaxis. The first injection of PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) in L-NAME (50 micromol/kg iv)-treated rats produced vasodilator responses of similar magnitude to those in saline-treated rats, whereas four subsequent injections produced progressively and markedly smaller responses. The hemodynamic effects of the membrane-permeable cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP; 5-15 micromol/kg iv) were similar in L-NAME-treated rats and in L-NAME-treated rats that had received the five injections of PACAP-27. In addition, five injections of 8-CPT-cAMP (10 micromol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline- and L-NAME-treated rats that were not subject to the development of tachyphylaxis. These results suggest that a loss of biological potency of cAMP is not responsible for tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 in L-NAME-treated rats. This tachyphylaxis may be due to the inability of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptor to activate adenylate cyclase.

  11. Neurotrophic effects of PACAP in the cerebellar cortex.

    PubMed

    Botia, Béatrice; Basille, Magali; Allais, Aurélie; Raoult, Emilie; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Galas, Ludovic; Jolivel, Valérie; Wurtz, Olivier; Komuro, Hitoshi; Fournier, Alain; Vaudry, Hubert; Burel, Delphine; Gonzalez, Bruno J; Vaudry, David

    2007-09-01

    In the rodent cerebellum, PACAP is expressed by Purkinje neurons and PAC1 receptors are present on granule cells during both the development period and in adulthood. Treatment of granule neurons with PACAP inhibits proliferation, slows migration, promotes survival and induces differentiation. PACAP also protects cerebellar granule cells against the deleterious effects of neurotoxic agents. Most of the neurotrophic effects of PACAP are mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and often involve the ERK MAPkinase. Caspase-3 is one of the key enzymes implicated in the neuroprotective action of PACAP but PACAP also inhibits caspase-9 activity and increases Bcl-2 expression. PACAP and functional PAC1 receptors are expressed in the monkey and human cerebellar cortex with a pattern of expression very similar to that described in rodents, suggesting that PACAP could also exert neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective functions in the cerebellum of primates including human. PMID:17544170

  12. Dietary Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Delay Aging and Ameliorate Neurodegeneration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhuyao; Li, Xiaojiao; Wang, Lu; Yin, Min; Wang, Lihua; Chen, Nan; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Haiyun

    2016-02-17

    Dietary iron oxide nanoparticles are shown to ameliorate neurodegeneration in a Drosophelia Alzheimer's disease model. Iron oxide nanoparticles can mimic catalase and can decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). This has potential therapeutic uses for aging, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases, in which increased production of ROS is closely implicated. PMID:26643597

  13. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP): a regulator of the innate and acquired immune functions in juvenile fish.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Juana Maria; Carpio, Yamila; Oliva, Aymé; Morales, Antonio; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2010-09-01

    To date, published in-vivo studies on the action of the PACAP in fish are few and these are concerned with reproduction, brain development and feeding behavior. Recently, we demonstrated for the first time that PACAP, apart from its neuroendocrine role, influences immune functions in fish larvae. In this work, we have evaluated the effects of recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administration by intraperitoneal injection on important immune parameters in juvenile fish. We observed that a single injection of the recombinant peptide (0.1 microg per g of body weight) was able to increase the nitric oxide synthase-derived metabolites (NOS) and total immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentration in serum of juvenile catfish C. gariepinus and tilapia Orechromis niloticus respectively, after 24 h of its administration. In addition, our results showed that recombinant PACAP increases IgM, NOS and lysozyme in serum correlated with its ability to enhance growth performance in juvenile fish. Finally, the PACAP mRNA expression and PACAP immunoreactivity detected in peripheral blood leucocytes from juvenile catfish suggest a direct autocrine or/and paracrine mechanism of regulation of this peptide to mediate immune functions in fish. PMID:20510368

  14. Examination of PACAP-Like Immunoreactivity in Urogenital Tumor Samples.

    PubMed

    Tamas, Andrea; Javorhazy, Andras; Reglodi, Dora; Sarlos, Donat Peter; Banyai, Daniel; Semjen, David; Nemeth, Jozsef; Lelesz, Beata; Fulop, Daniel Balazs; Szanto, Zalan

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies investigated the localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors in different tumors and described the effects of analogs on tumor growth to show its potential role in oncogenesis. Recently, our research group has found significantly lower levels of PACAP27-like immunorreactivity (LI) and PACAP38-LI in different human samples of primary small cell lung cancer and colon cancer compared to normal healthy tissues. There are only few human studies showing the presence of PACAP and its receptors in urogenital tumors; therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare PACAP-LI in different healthy and pathological human samples from urogenital organs (kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis) with radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. Similar to our earlier observations, the PACAP27-LI was significantly lower compared to PACAP38-LI in all samples. We did not find significant alterations in PACAP-LI between healthy and tumoral samples from the urinary bladder and testis. On the other hand, we found significantly lower PACAP38-LI level in kidney tumors compared with healthy tissue samples, and we showed higher PACAP27-LI in prostatic cancer compared to samples from benign prostatic hyperplasia. These data indicate that PACAP levels of different tissue samples are altered under pathological conditions suggesting a potential role of PACAP in the development of different urogenital tumors. PMID:26454744

  15. PACAP and VIP differentially preserve neurovascular reactivity after global cerebral ischemia in newborn pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lenti, Laura; Zimmermann, Aliz; Kis, Dávid; Oláh, Orsolya; Tóth, Gábor K.; Hegyi, Orsolya; Busija, David W.; Bari, Ferenc; Domoki, Ferenc

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are neuroprotective in numerous models. Impairment of cerebrovascular reactivity (CR) contributes to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced neuronal damage. We tested whether PACAP and/or VIP preserve CR to I/R-sensitive dilator responses dependent on endothelial and/or neuronal function. Accordingly, changes in pial arteriolar diameters in response to hypercapnia (5–10% CO2 ventilation) or topical N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA, 10–4 M) were determined before and after I/R via intravital microscopy in anesthetized/ventilated piglets. Local pretreatment with non-vasoactive doses of PACAP (10–8 M) and VIP (10–9 M) prevented the attenuation of postischemic CR to hypercapnia; to 10% CO2, the CR values were 27±8% vs 92±5%* vs 88±13%* (vehicle vs PACAP38 vs VIP, CR expressed as a percentage of the response before I/R, mean±SEM, n=8–8, *p<0.05). PACAP, but not VIP, preserved CR to NMDA after I/R, with CR values of 31±10% vs 87±8%* vs 35±12% (vehicle vs PACAP38 vs VIP, n=6–6). Unlike PACAP, VIP-induced vasodilation has not yet been investigated in the piglet. We tested whether VIP-induced arteriolar dilation was sensitive to inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560, 1 mg/kg), COX-2 (NS-398, 1 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), and nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME, 15 mg/kg). VIP (10–8–10–7–10–6 M, n=8) induced reproducible, dose-dependent vasodilation of 16±3%, 33±6%*, and 70±8%*. The response was unaffected by all drugs, except that the vasodilation to 10–8 M VIP was abolished by SC-560 and indomethacin. In conclusion, PACAP and VIP differentially preserve postischemic CR; independent of their vasodilatory effect. PMID:19538945

  16. Nitric oxide ameliorates zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced phytotoxicity in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Chao; Yin, Shan-Shan; Li, Xiu-Ling; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Xiao, Qiang; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Peng, Xin-Xiang; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-10-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to function in enhancing plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, role of NO in relieving zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. Here, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) was used to investigate the possible roles and the regulatory mechanisms of NO in counteracting ZnO NPs toxicity in rice seedlings. Our results showed that 10 μM SNP significantly inhibited the appearance of ZnO NP toxicity symptoms. SNP addition significantly reduced Zn accumulation, reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation caused by ZnO NPs. The protective role of SNP in reducing ZnO NPs-induced oxidative damage is closely related to NO-mediated antioxidant system. A decrease in superoxide dismutase activity, as well as an increase in reduced glutathione content and peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed under SNP and ZnO NPs combined treatments, compared to ZnO NPs treatment alone. The relative transcript abundance of corresponding antioxidant genes exhibited a similar change. The role of NO in enhancing ZnO NPs tolerance was further confirmed by genetic analysis using a NO excess mutant (noe1) and an OsNOA1-silenced plant (noa1) of rice. Together, this study provides the first evidence indicating that NO functions in ameliorating ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity. PMID:25958266

  17. Glutamate toxicity in the lung and neuronal cells: prevention or attenuation by VIP and PACAP.

    PubMed

    Said, S I; Dickman, K; Dey, R D; Bandyopadhyay, A; De Stefanis, P; Raza, S; Pakbaz, H; Berisha, H I

    1998-12-11

    VIP, which has been demonstrated to reduce or prevent oxidant injury in the lungs and other organs, is shown here to protect against excitotoxic injury of the lung and excitotoxic death of cortical neuronal cells in primary culture. Glutamate killing of neuron-like PC-12 cells, attributable to oxidant stress rather that to excitotoxicity, is also reduced or prevented by VIP and by the closely related peptide PACAP. The exact mechanisms of this protection remain to be determined, but appear to include antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions, and suppression of glutamate-induced upregulation of its own receptor. Both VIP and PACAP offer the promise of novel and nontoxic means of defending against NMDA and glutamate toxicity. PMID:9928016

  18. Specioside ameliorates oxidative stress and promotes longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Yadav, A K; Pant, Aakanksha; Pandey, Swapnil; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2015-03-01

    Specioside (6-O-coumaroylcatalpol) is an iridoid glucoside which possesses multifunctional activities viz. analgesic, antidyspeptic, astringent, liver stimulating and wound healing properties. The present study for the first time delineates stress alleviating and lifespan prolonging action of specioside (SPC), isolated from Stereospermum suaveolens in the free living, multicellular nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans. A strong correlation between lifespan extension and stress modulation in adult worms was established in a dose dependent manner. The dietary intake of this phytomolecule elevated juglone induced oxidative and heat induced thermal stress tolerance in C. elegans. On evaluation, it was found that 25 μM dose of SPC significantly extended lifespan by 15.47% (P≤0.0001) with reduction in stress level. Furthermore, SPC enhanced mean survival in mev-1 mutant suggesting its oxidative stress reducing potential. Furthermore, SPC augmented stress modulatory enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) level in C. elegans. Altogether, these findings broaden current perspectives concerning stress alleviating potentials of SPC and have implications in development of therapeutics for curing age related disorders. PMID:25619942

  19. Cerium oxide nanoparticle treatment ameliorates peritonitis-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Shinichi; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Manne, Nandini DPK; Maheshwari, Mani; Ma, Bing; Rice, Kevin M; Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Blough, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    The severe inflammation observed during sepsis is thought to cause diaphragm dysfunction, which is associated with poor patient prognosis. Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities suggesting that these particles may be of potential use for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. To investigate this possibility, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham control, CeO2 nanoparticle treatment only (0.5 mg/kg iv), sepsis, and sepsis+CeO2 nanoparticles. Sepsis was induced by the introduction of cecal material (600 mg/kg) directly into the peritoneal cavity. Nanoparticle treatment decreased sepsis-associated impairments in diaphragmatic contractile (Po) function (sham: 25.6±1.6 N/cm2 vs CeO2: 23.4±0.8 N/cm2 vs Sep: 15.9±1.0 N/cm2 vs Sep+CeO2: 20.0±1.0 N/cm2, P<0.05). These improvements in diaphragm contractile function were accompanied by a normalization of protein translation signaling (Akt, FOXO-1, and 4EBP1), diminished proteolysis (caspase 8 and ubiquitin levels), and decreased inflammatory signaling (Stat3 and iNOS). Histological analysis suggested that nanoparticle treatment was associated with diminished sarcolemma damage and diminished inflammatory cell infiltration. These data indicate CeO2 nanoparticles may improve diaphragmatic function in the septic laboratory rat. PMID:26491293

  20. PACAP suppresses dry eye signs by stimulating tear secretion.

    PubMed

    Nakamachi, Tomoya; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Seki, Tamotsu; Yofu, Sachiko; Kagami, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi; Mark, Laszlo; Lanekoff, Ingela; Kiss, Peter; Farkas, Jozsef; Reglodi, Dora; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is caused by a reduction in the volume or quality of tears. Here, we show that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-null mice develop dry eye-like symptoms such as corneal keratinization and tear reduction. PACAP immunoreactivity is co-localized with a neuronal marker, and PACAP receptor (PAC1-R) immunoreactivity is observed in mouse infraorbital lacrimal gland acinar cells. PACAP eye drops stimulate tear secretion and increase cAMP and phosphorylated (p)-protein kinase A levels in the infraorbital lacrimal glands that could be inhibited by pre-treatment with a PAC1-R antagonist or an adenylate cyclase inhibitor. Moreover, these eye drops suppress corneal keratinization in PACAP-null mice. PACAP eye drops increase aquaporin 5 (AQP5) levels in the membrane and pAQP5 levels in the infraorbital lacrimal glands. AQP5 siRNA treatment of the infraorbital lacrimal gland attenuates PACAP-induced tear secretion. Based on these results, PACAP might be clinically useful to treat dry eye disorder. PMID:27345595

  1. PACAP suppresses dry eye signs by stimulating tear secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nakamachi, Tomoya; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Seki, Tamotsu; Yofu, Sachiko; Kagami, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi; Mark, Laszlo; Lanekoff, Ingela; Kiss, Peter; Farkas, Jozsef; Reglodi, Dora; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is caused by a reduction in the volume or quality of tears. Here, we show that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-null mice develop dry eye-like symptoms such as corneal keratinization and tear reduction. PACAP immunoreactivity is co-localized with a neuronal marker, and PACAP receptor (PAC1-R) immunoreactivity is observed in mouse infraorbital lacrimal gland acinar cells. PACAP eye drops stimulate tear secretion and increase cAMP and phosphorylated (p)-protein kinase A levels in the infraorbital lacrimal glands that could be inhibited by pre-treatment with a PAC1-R antagonist or an adenylate cyclase inhibitor. Moreover, these eye drops suppress corneal keratinization in PACAP-null mice. PACAP eye drops increase aquaporin 5 (AQP5) levels in the membrane and pAQP5 levels in the infraorbital lacrimal glands. AQP5 siRNA treatment of the infraorbital lacrimal gland attenuates PACAP-induced tear secretion. Based on these results, PACAP might be clinically useful to treat dry eye disorder. PMID:27345595

  2. Intermedin ameliorates IgA nephropathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhong; Tian, Jihua; Guo, Haixiu; Mi, Yang; Zhang, Ruijing; Li, Rongshan

    2016-05-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent form of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of IgAN has been reported. Intermedin (IMD) is a newly discovered peptide that is closely related to adrenomedullin. We have recently reported that IMD can significantly reduce renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by diminishing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation. The present study was designed to explore whether IMD ameliorates IgAN via oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent mechanisms. Our results showed that IMD administration resulted in the prevention of albuminuria and ameliorated renal pathomorphological changes. These findings were associated with (1) decreased renal TGF-β1 and collagen IV expression, (2) an increased SOD level and reduced MDA level, (3) the inhibition of the renal activation of NF-κB p65 and (4) the downregulation of the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, MCP-1 and MMP-9) in the kidney. These results indicate that IMD in the kidney protects against IgAN by reducing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation. PMID:25916508

  3. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Dan; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin is naturally occurring lignan from sesame oil with putative antioxidant property. The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of sesamin against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative liver injury. Male Wistar albino rats (180-200 g) were divided in to 5 groups (n=6). Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g bw., 50% v/v with olive oil) intraperitoneally. Sesamin was administered in two different dose (5 and 10 ml/kg bw) to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity. Sesamin significantly reduced the elevated serum liver marker enzymes (P<0.0001). Reduction of TBARS (P<0.01 and P<0.001) followed by enhancement of GSH., SOD and catalase (P<0.0001) in liver homogenate in sesamin treated groups shows the amelioration of oxidative stress induced by CCl4. Histopathological report also supported the hepatoprotection offered by sesamin. Sesamin effects in both the dose were in comparable to reference standard drug silymarin. From these above findings it has been concluded that sesamin ameliorate the oxidative liver injury in terms of reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of liver antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26191289

  4. Honey Supplementation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Elicits Antihypertensive Effect via Amelioration of Renal Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Wahab, Mohd S.; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N. S.; Salleh, Salzihan; Gurtu, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS) and activities of GST and catalase (CAT) were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR. PMID:22315654

  5. Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Yun; Zhu, Chuang; Qian, Tian-Wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet β cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. PMID:25452774

  6. Honey supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats elicits antihypertensive effect via amelioration of renal oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Sulaiman, Siti A; Ab Wahab, Mohd S; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N S; Salleh, Salzihan; Gurtu, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS) and activities of GST and catalase (CAT) were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR. PMID:22315654

  7. PACAP induces plasticity at autonomic synapses by nAChR-dependent NOS1 activation and AKAP-mediated PKA targeting.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, Selwyn S; Pugh, Phyllis C; Dale, Zack; Starr, Eric R; Cole, Samantha; Margiotta, Joseph F

    2014-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide found at synapses throughout the central and autonomic nervous system. We previously found that PACAP engages a selective G-protein coupled receptor (PAC1R) on ciliary ganglion neurons to rapidly enhance quantal acetylcholine (ACh) release from presynaptic terminals via neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) and cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) dependent processes. Here, we examined how PACAP stimulates NO production and targets resultant outcomes to synapses. Scavenging extracellular NO blocked PACAP-induced plasticity supporting a retrograde (post- to presynaptic) NO action on ACh release. Live-cell imaging revealed that PACAP stimulates NO production by mechanisms requiring NOS1, PKA and Ca(2+) influx. Ca(2+)-permeable nicotinic ACh receptors composed of α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs) are potentiated by PKA-dependent PACAP/PAC1R signaling and were required for PACAP-induced NO production and synaptic plasticity since both outcomes were drastically reduced following their selective inhibition. Co-precipitation experiments showed that NOS1 associates with α7-nAChRs, many of which are perisynaptic, as well as with heteromeric α3*-nAChRs that generate the bulk of synaptic activity. NOS1-nAChR physical association could facilitate NO production at perisynaptic and adjacent postsynaptic sites to enhance focal ACh release from juxtaposed presynaptic terminals. The synaptic outcomes of PACAP/PAC1R signaling are localized by PKA anchoring proteins (AKAPs). PKA regulatory-subunit overlay assays identified five AKAPs in ganglion lysates, including a prominent neuronal subtype. Moreover, PACAP-induced synaptic plasticity was selectively blocked when PKA regulatory-subunit binding to AKAPs was inhibited. Taken together, our findings indicate that PACAP/PAC1R signaling coordinates nAChR, NOS1 and AKAP activities to induce targeted, retrograde plasticity at autonomic synapses. Such

  8. Amelioration of oxidative stress by Tabernamontana divaricata on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanthlal, S. K.; Kumar, B. Anil; Joseph, Jipnomon; Aravind, R.; Frank, P. Royal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of Tabernamontana divaricata (L.) and its ameliorative effect on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (140 mg/kg body weight). Methanol extract of T. divaricata was administered at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in diabetic induced rats including glibenclamide (3 mg/kg) as a reference drug. In the continuous 21 days treatment, fasting blood glucose level was determined on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. On day 21, serum lipid profiles and glycosylated hemoglobin, liver antioxidant enzymes levels were estimated. Results: Experimental findings showed a significant anti-diabetic potential of the extract in terms of reduction in blood glucose levels and a correct effect on the altered biochemical parameters. Observed data were found statistically significant in correction of antioxidant enzyme level accompanied with diabetes, particularly at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the T. divaricata is found to be effective in type 2 diabetes in rats and to have an ameliorative effect on the associated oxidative stress. PMID:25593402

  9. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

  10. Genipin ameliorates age-related insulin resistance through inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Feng, Haiyan; Gong, Dezheng; Zhao, Xu; Cai, Li; Wu, Qiong; Yuan, Bo; Yang, Mei; Zhao, Jie; Zou, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) increases with age and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are supposed to be major factors leading to age-related IR. Genipin, an extract from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, has been reported to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet cells by regulating mitochondrial function. In this study, we first investigated the effects of genipin on insulin sensitivity and the potential mitochondrial mechanisms in the liver of aging rats. The rats were randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either 25mg/kg genipin or vehicle once daily for 12days. The aging rats showed hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance as examined by the decreased glucose decay constant rate during insulin tolerance test (kITT). The hepatic tissues showed steatosis and reduced glycogen content. Hepatic malondialdehyde level and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher, and levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP were lower as compared with the normal control rats. Administration of genipin ameliorated systemic and hepatic insulin resistance, alleviated hyperinsulinemia, hyperglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis, relieved hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in aging rats. Furthermore, genipin not only improved insulin sensitivity by promoting insulin-stimulated glucose consumption and glycogen synthesis, inhibited cellular ROS overproduction and alleviated the reduction of levels of MMP and ATP, but also reversed oxidative stress-associated JNK hyperactivation and reduced Akt phosphorylation in palmitate-treated L02 hepatocytes. In conclusion, genipin ameliorates age-related insulin resistance through inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24041487

  11. Propofol ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.C.; Yeh, Y.C.; Wang, L.C.; Ting, C.T.; Lee, W.L.; Lee, H.W.; Wang, K.Y.; Wu, A.; Su, C.S.; Liu, T.J.

    2011-12-15

    Background: Propofol is an anesthetic with pluripotent cytoprotective properties against various extrinsic insults. This study was designed to examine whether this agent could also ameliorate the infamous toxicity of doxorubicin, a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent against a variety of cancer diseases, on myocardial cells. Methods: Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were administrated with vehicle, doxorubicin (1 {mu}M), propofol (1 {mu}M), or propofol plus doxorubicin (given 1 h post propofol). After 24 h, cells were harvested and specific analyses regarding oxidative/nitrative stress and cellular apoptosis were conducted. Results: Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays disclosed that viability of cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced by doxorubicin. Contents of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were increased and antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, and GPx were decreased in these doxorubicin-treated cells. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and membrane potential were also depressed, along with activation of key effectors downstream of mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling. Besides, abundance of p53 was elevated and cleavage of PKC-{delta} was induced in these myocardial cells. In contrast, all of the above oxidative, nitrative and pro-apoptotic events could be suppressed by propofol pretreatment. Conclusions: Propofol could extensively counteract oxidative/nitrative and multiple apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in the heart; hence, this anesthetic may serve as an adjuvant agent to assuage the untoward cardiac effects of doxorubicin in clinical application. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how propofol prevents doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol reduces doxorubicin-imposed nitrative and oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol suppresses mitochondrion-, p53- and PKC-related apoptotic signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol ameliorates apoptosis and

  12. Role of curcuminoids in ameliorating oxidative modification in β-thalassemia/Hb E plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Weeraphan, Churat; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Subhasitanont, Pantipa; Hatairaktham, Suneerat; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Panichkul, Narumol; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Jisnuson; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2013-03-01

    Thalassemic patients often exhibit high levels of oxidative stress and iron overload, which can lead to hazardous complications. Curcuminoids, extracted from the spice turmeric, are known to have antioxidant and iron-chelating properties and have been proposed as a potential upstream therapy of thalassemia. Here we have applied proteomic techniques to study the protein profile and oxidative damage in the plasma of β-thalassemia/Hb E patients before and after treatment with curcuminoids. In this study, 10 β-thalassemia/Hb E patients were treated with 500 mg curcuminoids daily for 12 months. The plasma protein profile and protein carbonyl content were determined at baseline, 6 and 12 months using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and carbonyl immunoblotting, respectively. Other hematological, clinical, and biochemical parameters were also analyzed. Twenty-six spots, identified as coagulation factors and proteins involved in iron homeostasis, showed significantly decreased intensity in thalassemic plasma, compared to those of normal subjects. Treatment with curcuminoids up-regulated the plasma levels of these proteins and reduced their oxidative damage. Serum non-transferrin bound iron, platelet factor-3 like activity, oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant enzymes were also improved after curcuminoids treatment. This study is the first proteomic study of plasma in the thalassemic state and also shows the ameliorating role of curcuminoids towards oxidative stress and iron overload in the plasma proteome. PMID:22818714

  13. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27171111

  14. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27171111

  15. Protective effect of potato peel powder in ameliorating oxidative stress in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandita; Kamath, Vasudeva; Rajini, P S

    2005-06-01

    The potential of dietary potato peel (PP) powder in ameliorating oxidative stress (OS) and hyperglycemia was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In a 4-week feeding trial, incorporation of potato peel powder (5 and 10%) in the diet of diabetic rats was found to significantly reduce the plasma glucose level and also reduce drastically the polyuria of STZ diabetic rats. The total food intake was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats fed 10% PP powder compared to the control diabetic rats. However, the body weight gain over 28 days was nearly four times greater in PP powder supplemented diabetic rats (both at 5 and 10%) compared to the control diabetic rats. PP powder in the diet also decreased the elevated activities of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and nearly normalized the hepatic MDA and GSH levels as well as the activities of specific antioxidant enzymes in liver of diabetic rats. The result of these studies clearly establishes the modulatory propensity of PP against diabetes induced alterations. Considering that potato peels are discarded as waste and not effectively utilized, these results suggest the possibility that PP waste could be effectively used as an ingredient in health and functional food to ameliorate certain disease states such as diabetes. PMID:16021831

  16. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), super oxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and heat stress

  17. Camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Meena, Sunita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Pandey, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Singh, Raghvendar

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level. PMID:27600979

  18. Topical metal chelation therapy ameliorates oxidation-induced toxicity in diabetic cataract.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Shoeb, Mohammad; Liu, Ping; Xiao, Tianlin; Hogan, Dale; Wong, Ira G; Campbell, Gerald A; Ansari, Naseem H

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in cataractogenesis, the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Since transition metals generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, metal chelation therapy has been proposed for treatment of cataracts. However, the effectiveness of most chelators is limited by low tissue penetrability. This study is the first to demonstrate that the topically applied divalent metal chelator ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) combined with the carrier and permeability enhancer methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) ameliorates both oxidation-induced lens opacification and the associated toxic accumulation of protein-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) adducts. Both in vitro (rat lens culture) and in vivo (diabetic rats), EDTA-MSM (1) significantly reduced lens opacification by about 40-50%, (2) significantly diminished lens epithelial cell proliferation and fiber cell swelling in early stages of cataract formation in vivo, and (3) notably decreased the levels of protein-HNE adducts. These findings have important implications specifically for the treatment of cataract and generally for other diseases in which oxidative stress plays a key pathogenic role. PMID:21271438

  19. ERβ expression in the endothelium ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-mediated oxidative burst and vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ying; Liu, Zhaoyu; Li, Min; Ding, Ting; Zhang, Laxi; Lu, Qiaomei; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Ziyun; Vlessidis, Athanasios; Aw, Tak Yee; Liu, Zhengxiang; Yao, Dachun

    2016-07-01

    Estrogen and estrogen receptors (ERs) have been reported to play protective roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-mediated injury, but the detailed mechanism remains to be fully understood. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) also play important roles in the I/R process; however, due to the lack of sensitive and reproducible in vivo monitoring systems, we still do not have direct evidence for the effect of NO and ROS in vivo. In this study, we have established reliable in vivo monitoring systems to measure the variations in circulating ROS and NO during the I/R. We found that during the first few minutes of post-ischemia reperfusion, an oxidative burst occurred concurrent with a rapid loss of NO. Expression of ERβ in the endothelium reduced these effects that accompanied an attenuation in myocardial infarction and vascular damage. Further investigation showed that Tie2-driven lentivirus delivery of ERβ to the vascular wall in rats increased the expression of its target genes in the endothelium, including ERRα, SOD2 and eNOS. These changes modulate ROS generation, DNA damage, and mitochondrial function in rat endothelial cells. We also found that ERβ expression in the endothelium reduced ROS generation and restored mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes; this may be due to ERβ-mediated NO formation and its high diffusibility to cardiomyocytes. We conclude that ERβ expression in the endothelium ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-mediated oxidative burst and vascular injury. PMID:27130032

  20. The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Romano, B; Borrelli, F; Fasolino, I; Capasso, R; Piscitelli, F; Cascio, MG; Pertwee, RG; Coppola, D; Vassallo, L; Orlando, P; Di Marzo, V; Izzo, AA

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabichromene is known to activate the transient receptor potential ankyrin-type1 (TRPA1) and to inhibit endocannabinoid inactivation, both of which are involved in inflammatory processes. We examined here the effects of this phytocannabinoid on peritoneal macrophages and its efficacy in an experimental model of colitis. Experimental Approach Murine peritoneal macrophages were activated in vitro by LPS. Nitrite levels were measured using a fluorescent assay; inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors were analysed by RT-PCR (and/or Western blot analysis); colitis was induced by dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS). Endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Colonic inflammation was assessed by evaluating the myeloperoxidase activity as well as by histology and immunohistochemistry. Key Results LPS caused a significant production of nitrites, associated to up-regulation of anandamide, iNOS, COX-2, CB1 receptors and down-regulation of CB2 receptors mRNA expression. Cannabichromene significantly reduced LPS-stimulated nitrite levels, and its effect was mimicked by cannabinoid receptor and TRPA1 agonists (carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde) and enhanced by CB1 receptor antagonists. LPS-induced anandamide, iNOS, COX-2 and cannabinoid receptor changes were not significantly modified by cannabichromene, which, however, increased oleoylethanolamide levels. In vivo, cannabichromene ameliorated DNBS-induced colonic inflammation, as revealed by histology, immunohistochemistry and myeloperoxidase activity. Conclusion and Implications Cannabichromene exerts anti-inflammatory actions in activated macrophages – with tonic CB1 cannabinoid signalling being negatively coupled to this effect – and ameliorates experimental murine colitis. PMID:23373571

  1. Viral and bacterial septicaemic infections modulate the expression of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors in brown trout immune organs.

    PubMed

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Carpio, Yamila; Secombes, Christopher J; Taylor, Nick G H; Lugo, Juana María; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP-Related Peptide (PRP) are structurally similar peptides encoded in the same transcripts. Their transcription has been detected not only in the brain but also in a wide range of peripheral tissues, even including organs of the immune system. PACAP exerts pleiotropic activities through G-protein coupled membrane receptors: the PACAP-specific PAC-1 and the VPAC-1 and VPAC-2 receptors that exhibit similar affinities for the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and PACAP. Recent findings added PACAP and its receptors to the growing list of mediators that allow cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems in fish. In this study the expression of genes encoding for PACAP and PRP, as well as VIP/PACAP receptors was studied in laboratory-reared brown trout (Salmo trutta) after septicaemic infections. Respectively Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV-Ia) or the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri (ser. O1 - biot. 2) were used in infection challenges. Kidney and spleen, the teleost main lymphopoietic organs, were sampled during the first two weeks post-infection. RT-qPCR analysis assessed specific pathogens burden and gene expression levels. PACAP and PRP transcription in each organ was positively correlated to the respective pathogen burden, assessed targeting the VHSV-glycoprotein or Y. ruckeri 16S rRNA. Results showed as the transcription of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors is modulated in these organs during an acute viral and bacterial septicaemic infections in brown trout. These gene expression results provide clues as to how the PACAP system is modulated in fish, confirming an involvement during active immune responses elicited by both viral and bacterial aetiological agents. However, further experimental evidence is still required to fully elucidate and characterize the role of PACAP and PRP for an efficient immune response against pathogens. PMID:26481517

  2. Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogenic agent commonly used to induce colon cancer in rats; the cytotoxicity of AOM is considered to mediate oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemopreventive effect of three natural extracts [pomegranate peel extract (PomPE), papaya peel extract (PapPE) and seaweed extract (SE)] against AOM-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon. Methods Eighty Sprague–Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 rats/group). Control group was fed a basal diet; AOM-treated group was fed a basal diet and received AOM intraperitonial injections for two weeks at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight, whereas the other six groups were received oral supplementation of PomPE, PapPE or SE, in the presence or absence of AOM injection. All animals were continuously fed ad-libitum until aged 16 weeks, then all rats were sacrificed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for pathological changes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development, genotoxicity (induced micronuclei (MN) cells enumeration), and glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Results Our results showed that AOM-induced ACF development and pathological changes in the colonic mucosal tissues, increased bone marrow MN cells and oxidative stress (glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation) in rat colonic cells. The concomitant treatment of AOM with PomPE, PapPE or SE significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM. Conclusions The results of this study provide in-vivo evidence that PomPE, PapPE and SE reduced the AOM-induced colon cancer in rats, through their potent anti-oxidant activities. PMID:24533833

  3. Paeoniflorin ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis in rat models through oxidative stress, inflammation and cyclooxygenase 2

    PubMed Central

    JIA, ZHILIN; HE, JIAO

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorin has anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, immune regulatory and pain-relieving effects, amongst other roles. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of paeoniflorin on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain under investigation; the objective of the current study was to evaluate these protective effects in the context of an RA model. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, as follows: The control group, the RA rat model group, and the paeoniflorin groups, in which paeoniflorin was administered at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg for 3 weeks. The pain thresholds and arthritic symptoms of the RA rats were measured. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were also analyzed and western blot analysis was used to evaluate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression levels. Paeoniflorin significantly increased the pain threshold and decreased the arthritic symptoms in the RA rat model. Notably, paeoniflorin reduced the malondialdehyde concentration and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Furthermore, paeoniflorin attenuated the activity of nuclear factor-κB p65 unit, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and reduced the COX-2 protein expression level. The present study indicates that paeoniflorin ameliorates disease in rat models of RA through oxidative stress, inflammation and alterations to COX-2 expression. PMID:26893662

  4. PACAP promotes neuron survival in early experimental diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Szabadfi, Krisztina; Szabo, Aliz; Kiss, Peter; Reglodi, Dora; Setalo, Gyorgy; Kovacs, Krisztina; Tamas, Andrea; Toth, Gabor; Gabriel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes induced by diabetes lead to a multifactorial progressive disease of the retina with an extremely complex pathogenesis. One of the mechanisms of retinal cell death in diabetes is via apoptosis. Our previous results show that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) attenuates the morphological and neurochemical changes in a rat model of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of this protective effect. Retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were analyzed using apoptosis detection combined with immunolabeling. Western blot was used to measure levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways. Intraocular PACAP injection markedly attenuated diabetic retinal injury: increased levels of the anti-apoptotic p-Akt, p-ERK1, p-ERK2, PKC, Bcl-2, while decreased levels of the pro-apoptotic p-p38MAPK and activated caspases (8, 3, 12) were detected. The number of apoptotic cells increased in all nuclear layers of diabetic retinas, but significantly decreased after PACAP treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that the protective effects of PACAP are mediated, at least partly, by attenuating apoptosis, including also that of the dopaminergic amacrine cells. Inhibition of apoptosis is one of the PACAP-induced pathways with therapeutic potential in early experimental diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24262293

  5. Topical Nutraceutical Optixcare EH Ameliorates Experimental Ocular Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Changmei; Kawada, Hiroyoshi; Randazzo, James; Blessing, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Based on the hypothesis that oral nutraceuticals do not adequately reach all ocular tissues in the anterior segment, we evaluated the ability of a 3% concentration of the ingredients in a topical nutraceutical antioxidant formulation called Optixcare Eye Health (Optixcare EH) to ameliorate oxidative stress in rat models of age-related ocular diseases. Methods: Diabetes was induced by tail-vein injection of streptozotocin, and the development of cataracts was monitored by slit lamp. Young rats were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light, and the reduction in lens glutathione (GSH) levels and increase in 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) were measured. Oxidative stress in the neural retina was generated by exposure of dark-adapted rats to 1,000 lx of light, and oxidative stress markers were measured. Dry eye was induced in rats by twice daily (b.i.d.) subcutaneous scopolamine injections. Topical Optixcare EH was administered b.i.d. and compared in select experiments to the multifunctional antioxidant JHX-4, the topical aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) Kinostat™, oral Ocu-GLO™, and the topical ocular comfort agents Optixcare Eye Lube, Optixcare Eye Lube + Hyaluron, and Idrop Vet Plus hyaluronic acid. Results: In diabetic rats, topical ARI treatment prevented cataract formation while the nutraceuticals delayed their development with Optixcare EH>Ocu-GLO. In UV-exposed rats, the reduction of GSH and increase in 4-HNE in the lens were normalized in order JHX-4>Optixcare EH>Ocu-GLO. In the retina, oxidative stress markers were reduced better by oral JHX-4 compared with topical Optixcare EH. In the scopolamine-induced dry-eye rats, tear flow was maintained by Optixcare EH treatment, while none of the comfort agents examined altered tear flow. Conclusions: Topical administration of a 3% concentration of the ingredients in Optixcare EH reduces experimentally induced reactive oxygen species in rats exposed to several sources of ocular oxidative stress. In addition

  6. Whole Body Vibration Improves Insulin Resistance in db/db Mice: Amelioration of Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhai, Mingming; Guo, Fan; Shi, Tengrui; Liu, Jiangzheng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaodi; Jing, Da; Hai, Chunxu

    2016-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is one of the most important chronic noncommunicable diseases. Effective and feasible strategies to treat IR are still urgently needed. Previous research studies reported that whole body vibration (WBV) was beneficial for IR in clinical; however, its underlying mechanisms remains unknown. In the present study, db/db mice were treated with WBV administration 60 min/day for 12 weeks and the impaired insulin sensitivity was improved. Besides, liver steatosis was also ameliorated. Further explorations revealed that WBV could reduce the expression of SREBP1c and increase the expression of GSH-Px and consequently suppress oxidative stress. In conclusion, WBV attenuates oxidative stress to ameliorate liver steatosis and thus improves insulin resistance in db/db mice. Therefore, WBV administration is a promising treatment for individuals who suffered from central obesity and IR. PMID:26945578

  7. Ameliorative effect of Matricaria chamomilla .L on paraquat: Induced oxidative damage in lung rats

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Akram; Mohsenzadeh, Fariba; Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Khajavi, Farzad; Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa Hossini; Ghasemi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines have been long used for antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcholic extract Matricaria chamomilla. L (M. chamomilla) against Paraquat (PQ) induced pulmonary injury in association with its antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Effective doses of PQ (5 mg/kg/day) and M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, lung tissue of the animals was separated. The activity of enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant power (TAP) were measured. Results: In these samples, the LPO, SOD, and GPx were higher in the PQ group as compared with controls. M. chamomilla extract ameliorated LPO, SOD, GPx and increased TAP in plasma and lung tissue of PQ induced changes. Co administration of PQ with M. chamomilla improved LPO and SOD, and GPx. Conclusion: M. chamomilla as natural antioxidant may be considered beneficial for the protection oxidative lung injury in PQ poisoning. PMID:25002799

  8. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) was found to reduce body fat deposition and improve blood lipid in both healthy and obese rats. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of CCSKO in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. The obese rats were treated with CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil, respectively, for 12 wk. The level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and P65 were compared among CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. Our results showed that the level of T-AOC and activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased and the level of MDA was significantly decreased in CCSKO group. In addition, CCSKO treatment reduced the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and P65 through raising the level of PPAR-γ. In conclusion, CCSKO has, for the first time, been found to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27003858

  9. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) contributes to the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine bone marrow via PACAP-specific receptor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhifang; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Jun; Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Murai, Norimitsu; Sasaki, Shun; Matsumoto, Minako; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hiraizumi, Yutaka; Numazawa, Satoshi; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, encoded by adcyap1) plays an important role in ectodermal development. However, the involvement of PACAP in the development of other germ layers is still unclear. This study assessed the expression of a PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1) gene and protein in mouse bone marrow (BM). Cells strongly expressing PAC1+ were large in size, had oval nuclei, and merged with CD34+ cells, suggesting that the former were hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Compared with wild-type mice, adcyap1−/− mice exhibited lower multiple potential progenitor cell populations and cell frequency in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Exogenous PACAP38 significantly increased the numbers of colony forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) with two peaks in semi-solid culture. PACAP also increased the expression of cyclinD1 and Ki67 mRNAs. These increases were completely and partially inhibited by the PACAP receptor antagonists, PACAP6-38 and VIP6-28, respectively. Little or no adcyap1 was expressed in BM and the number of CFU-GM colonies was similar in adcyap1−/− and wild-type mice. However, PACAP mRNA and protein were expressed in paravertebral sympathetic ganglia, which innervate tibial BM, and in the sympathetic fibers of BM cavity. These results suggested that sympathetic nerve innervation may be responsible for PACAP-regulated hematopoiesis in BM, mainly via PAC1. PMID:26925806

  10. Molecular cloning and mRNA distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide in the lungfish.

    PubMed

    Lee, L T O; Tam, J K V; Chan, D W; Chow, B K C

    2009-04-01

    In this article, we report the isolation of a full-length cDNA clone encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from lungfish Protopterus dolloi. When comparing the deduced amino acid sequences, the lungfish PACAP was found to be highly conserved with other vertebrates; however, the PRP shares only lower levels of sequence identity with known PRP sequences. Consistently in phylogenetic analysis, the lungfish PRP, similar to sturgeon PRP, fails to cluster with other PRPs. In addition to the full-length clone, another cDNA encoding a short precursor that lacks the first 32 amino acids of the PRP was also isolated. Interestingly, similar isoforms were also identified in several nonmammalian vertebrates, and it was suggested that exon skipping of PRP/PACAP transcripts was a mechanism that regulated the expression ratio of PACAP to PRP in nonmammalian vertebrates. By real-time PCR, both long and short PRP/PACAP transcripts were found almost exclusively in the brain, and the short isoform is the more abundant transcript (3.7 times more), indicating that PACAP is the major product produced in lungfish brain. The expression patterns of lungfish and previously studied frog PRP/PACAP suggest that the PRP/PACAP gene in the tetrapod lineage may first express in the central nervous system; in the process of evolution, the functions of these peptides diversified and were later found in other tissues. PMID:19456341

  11. Role of beta-carotene in ameliorating the cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain and testis.

    PubMed

    El-Missiry, M A; Shalaby, F

    2000-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress in chronic cadmium (Cd) toxicity and its prevention by cotreatment with beta-carotene was investigated. Adult male rats were intragastrically administered 2 mg CdCl2/kg body weight three times a week intragastrically for 3 and 6 weeks. Brain and testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was elevated after 3 and 6 weeks of Cd administration, indicating increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and oxidative stress. Cellular damage was indicated by inhibition of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in brain and testicular tissues. Chronic Cd administration resulted in a decline in glutathione (GSH) content and a decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in both organs. Administration of beta-carotene (250 IU/kg i.g.) concurrent with Cd ameliorated Cd-induced LPO. The brain and testicular antioxidants, SOD, GST, and GSH, decreased by Cd alone, were restored by beta-carotene cotreatment. Concurrent treatment with beta-carotene also ameliorated the decrease in ATPase activity and the increase in LDH activity in brain and testis of Cd-treated rats, indicating a prophylactic action of beta-carotene on Cd toxicity. Therefore, the results indicate that the nutritional antioxidant beta-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that beta-carotene may control Cd-induced brain and testicular toxicity. PMID:10969995

  12. Ameliorative effect of vanadium on oxidative stress in stomach tissue of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz-Ozden, Tugba; Kurt-Sirin, Ozlem; Tunali, Sevim; Akev, Nuriye; Can, Ayse; Yanardag, Refiye

    2014-05-01

    Between their broad spectrum of action, vanadium compounds are shown to have insulin mimetic/enhancing effects. Increasing evidence in experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and on the onset of diabetic complications. Thus, preventive therapy can alleviate the possible side effects of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vanadyl sulfate supplementation on the antioxidant system in the stomach tissue of diabetic rats. Male Swiss albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control; control+vanadyl sulfate; diabetic; diabetic+vanadyl sulfate. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg body weight). Vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg body weight) was given daily by gavage for 60 days. At the last day of the experiment, stomach tissues were taken and homogenized to make a 10% (w/v) homogenate. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), myeloperoxidase (MPO), carbonic anhydrase (CA), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined in the stomach tissue. CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, GST, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were increased in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. Vanadium treatment significantly reduced the elevated activities of GR, GPx, GST compared with the diabetic group whereas the decreases in CAT, SOD, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were insignificant. No significant change was seen for MPO activity between the groups. It was concluded that vanadium could be used for its ameliorative effect against oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:24856383

  13. N-acetylcysteine pretreatment ameliorates mercuric chloride-induced oxidative renal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ekor, M; Adesanoye, O A; Farombi, E O

    2010-12-01

    The effectiveness of the antioxidant thiol, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in enhancing methylmercury (CH3HgCl) excretion and its utility as a possible antidote in CH3HgCl poisoning has been reported. NAC, however, has been reported to be ineffective in accelerating excretion of divalent toxic metals, including inorganic mercury, Hg2+. In this study, we evaluated the possible protective effect of short-term pretreatment with NAC against mercuric chloride (HgCl2) toxicity in rat model. This is aimed at determining its chemopreventive or prophylactic benefit in situations of high risk exposure (occupational/industrial) to mercury. Rats were divided into three treatment groups. Group I received saline (10 ml/kg) and served as control. Group II received HgCl2 (5mg/kg) and group III received NAC (10mg/kg) plus (5mg/kg). All administration was via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Saline and NAC were administered for 5days and HgCl2 was administered to rats in groups II and III on the 5th day. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after HgCl2 injection and samples obtained for biochemical evaluation. Results revealed that single i.p. injection of HgCl2 induced significant renal oxidative damage resulting in significant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in these rats. The activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NTD) (markers of microsomal damage) also decreased in these HgCl2 treated rats. The oxidative damage induced by HgCl2 led to significant alterations in renal histology and caused functional impairment (indicated by elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine) in these rats. NAC was effective in attenuating the oxidative damage, functional impairments and histopathological changes that characterized HgCl2 intoxication in this study. Renal antioxidant defense system was re-enforced by

  14. Tribulus terrestris ameliorates metronidazole-induced spermatogenic inhibition and testicular oxidative stress in the laboratory mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Mrinalini; Singh, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of the fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on the metronidazole (MTZ)-induced alterations in spermatogenesis, sperm count, testicular functions, and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult Swiss strain mice were divided into six groups. Animals of Groups I and II served as untreated and vehicle-treated controls, while that of Groups III and IV were administered with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) and TT (200 mg/kg BW/day) alone for 28 days, respectively. Low (100 mg/kg BW/day) and high (200 mg/kg BW/day) doses of TT along with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) were administered for 28 days in the mice of Groups V and VI, respectively. Twenty four hours after the last treatment, all the animals were euthanized to study the histological changes in the testis and sperm count in the epididymis. Testicular functional markers, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were also assessed in the mice of all the groups. Results: Metronidazole caused marked alterations in the testicular weight, spermatogenesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and the level of LPO. The epididymal sperm count also declined significantly in MTZ-treated group. These changes were partially restored following co-administration of 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 100 mg/kg BW/day of TT. However, in the mice co-administered with 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 200 mg/kg BW/day of TT, the changes reverted back completely, similar to that of the controls. Conclusion: The fruit extract of TT ameliorates the MTZ-induced alterations in the testis. PMID:26069369

  15. Brassinosteroid Ameliorates Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles-Induced Oxidative Stress by Improving Antioxidant Potential and Redox Homeostasis in Tomato Seedling.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqi; Ahammed, Golam J; Li, Caixia; Bao, Xiao; Yu, Jingquan; Huang, Chunlei; Yin, Hanqin; Zhou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades use of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) has been increased significantly that eventually contaminating agricultural land and limiting crop production worldwide. Moreover, contamination of food chain with MNPs has appeared as a matter of public concern due to risk of potential health hazard. Brassinosteroid has been shown to play a critical role in alleviating heavy metal stress; however, its function in relieving zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential role of 24-epibrassinolide (BR) in mitigating ZnO NPs-induced toxicity in tomato seedlings. Seedling growth, biomass production, and root activity gradually decreased, but Zn accumulation increased with increasing ZnO NPs concentration (10-100 mg/L) in growth media (½ MS). The augmentation of BR (5 nM) in media significantly ameliorated 50 mg/L ZnO NPs-induced growth inhibition. Visualization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and quantification of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in tomato roots confirmed that ZnO NPs induced an oxidative stress. However, combined treatment with BR and ZnO NPs remarkably reduced concentration of H2O2 and MDA as compared with ZnO NPs only treatment, indicating that BR supplementation substantially reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased by combined treatment of BR and ZnO NPs compared with ZnO NPs only treatment. BR also increased reduced glutathione (GSH), but decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] and thus improved cellular redox homeostasis by increasing GSH:GSSG ratio. The changes in relative transcript abundance of corresponding antioxidant genes such as Cu/Zn SOD, CAT1, GSH1, and GR1 were in accordance with the changes in those antioxidants under different treatments. More importantly, combined application of BR and ZnO NPs significantly

  16. Brassinosteroid Ameliorates Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles-Induced Oxidative Stress by Improving Antioxidant Potential and Redox Homeostasis in Tomato Seedling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengqi; Ahammed, Golam J.; Li, Caixia; Bao, Xiao; Yu, Jingquan; Huang, Chunlei; Yin, Hanqin; Zhou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades use of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) has been increased significantly that eventually contaminating agricultural land and limiting crop production worldwide. Moreover, contamination of food chain with MNPs has appeared as a matter of public concern due to risk of potential health hazard. Brassinosteroid has been shown to play a critical role in alleviating heavy metal stress; however, its function in relieving zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential role of 24-epibrassinolide (BR) in mitigating ZnO NPs-induced toxicity in tomato seedlings. Seedling growth, biomass production, and root activity gradually decreased, but Zn accumulation increased with increasing ZnO NPs concentration (10–100 mg/L) in growth media (½ MS). The augmentation of BR (5 nM) in media significantly ameliorated 50 mg/L ZnO NPs-induced growth inhibition. Visualization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and quantification of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in tomato roots confirmed that ZnO NPs induced an oxidative stress. However, combined treatment with BR and ZnO NPs remarkably reduced concentration of H2O2 and MDA as compared with ZnO NPs only treatment, indicating that BR supplementation substantially reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased by combined treatment of BR and ZnO NPs compared with ZnO NPs only treatment. BR also increased reduced glutathione (GSH), but decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] and thus improved cellular redox homeostasis by increasing GSH:GSSG ratio. The changes in relative transcript abundance of corresponding antioxidant genes such as Cu/Zn SOD, CAT1, GSH1, and GR1 were in accordance with the changes in those antioxidants under different treatments. More importantly, combined application of BR and ZnO NPs

  17. Administration of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum Ameliorated Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Poonam; Bhardwaj, Priyanka; Singh, Rambir

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was planned to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and antioxidant effect of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Single daily dose of 1 × 107 cfu/ml of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both was given to Wistar rats orally by gavaging for 28 days. Glucose tolerance test, fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured from blood. Glycogen from thigh muscles and liver and oxidative stress parameters from pancreas were analyzed. Results: Administration of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both to diabetic rats decreased serum FBG (60.47%, 55.89%, and 56.49%, respectively), HbA1c (28.11%, 28.61%, and 28.28%), total cholesterol (171.69%, 136.47%, and 173.58%), triglycerides (9.935%, 8.58%, and 7.91%), low-density lipoproteins (53.27%, 53.35%, and 52.91%) and very low-density lipoproteins (10%, 8.58%, and 11.15%, respectively) and increased high-density lipoproteins (13.73%, 15.47%, and 15.47%), and insulin (19.50%, 25.80%, and 29.47%, respectively). The treatment also resulted in increase in muscle (171.69%, 136.47%, and 173.58%) and liver (25.82%, 6.63%, and 4.02%) glycogen level. The antioxidant indexes in pancreas of diabetic rats returned to normal level with reduction in lipid peroxidation (30.89%, 46.46%, and 65.36%) and elevation in reduced glutathione (104.5%, 161.34%, and 179.04%), superoxide dismutase (38.65%, 44.32%, and 53.35%), catalase (13.08%, 27%, and 31.52%), glutathione peroxidase (55.56%, 72.23%, and 97.23%), glutathione reductase (49.27%, 88.40%, and 110.86%), and glutathione-S-transferase (140%, 220%, and 246.6%, respectively) on treatment with L. casei, B. bifidum, and combination treatment. Conclusions: Administration of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both ameliorated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress in STZ

  18. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Ameliorates Oxidative Phosphorylation Performance and Rescues Aβ-Induced Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Virginie; Giese, Maria; Baysang, Ginette; Meier, Fides; Rao, Stefania; Schulz, Kathrin L.; Hamburger, Matthias; Eckert, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy deficiency and mitochondrial failure have been recognized as a prominent, early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, we demonstrated that chronic exposure to amyloid-beta (Aβ) in human neuroblastoma cells over-expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulted in (i) activity changes of complexes III and IV of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) and in (ii) a drop of ATP levels which may finally instigate loss of synapses and neuronal cell death in AD. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether standardized Ginkgo biloba extract LI 1370 (GBE) is able to rescue Aβ-induced defects in energy metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a high-resolution respiratory protocol to evaluate OXPHOS respiratory capacity under physiological condition in control (stably transfected with the empty vector) and APP cells after treatment with GBE. In addition, oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria, activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as well as mitochondrial membrane mass and mitochondrial DNA content were determined. We observed a general antioxidant effect of GBE leading to an increase of the coupling state of mitochondria as well as energy homeostasis and a reduction of ROS levels in control cells and in APP cells. GBE effect on OXPHOS was even preserved in mitochondria after isolation from treated cells. Moreover, these functional data were paralleled by an up-regulation of mitochondrial DNA. Improvement of the OXPHOS efficiency was stronger in APP cells than in control cells. In APP cells, the GBE-induced amelioration of oxygen consumption most likely arose from the modulation and respective normalization of the Aβ-induced disturbance in the activity of mitochondrial complexes III and IV restoring impaired ATP levels possibly through decreasing Aβ and oxidative stress level. Conclusions/Significance Although the underlying

  19. The ameliorative effect of thymol against hydrocortisone-induced hepatic oxidative stress injury in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Aboelwafa, Hanaa R; Yousef, Hany N

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hydrocortisone induces oxidative stress in hepatocytes and to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of thymol against such hepatic injury. Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into control, thymol, hydrocortisone, and hydrocortisone+thymol groups. The 4 groups were treated daily for 15 days. Hydrocortisone significantly induced oxidative stress in the liver tissues, marked by increased serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total oxidative capacity (TOC), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) accompanied by marked decline of serum levels of total protein, albumin, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Also, marked elevation in the levels of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and TNF-α, beside significant decrease in the level of glutathione (GSH) in hepatic tissues were recorded. These biochemical alterations were accompanied by histopathological changes marked by destruction of the normal hepatic architecture, in addition to ultrastructural alterations represented by degenerative features covering almost all the cytoplasmic organelles of the hepatocytes. Supplementation of hydrocortisone-treated rats with thymol reversed most of the biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural alterations. The results of our study confirm that thymol has strong ameliorative effect against hydrocortisone-induced oxidative stress injury in hepatic tissues. PMID:25821896

  20. Pyrroloquinoline quinone ameliorates oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, characterized by hyperglycemia, leads to several complications through the generation of reactive oxygen species and initiates tissue damage. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be a strong antioxidant, as it protects cells from oxidative damage. In this study, we elucidated the hitherto unknown potential of PQQ to ameliorate the brain damage caused by diabetes mellitus and the associated hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage. Administration of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ), i.e., 150 mg·(kg body mass)(-1) significantly enhanced the brain tissue levels of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxidation and decreased the levels of antioxidants. It also increased the serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. However, when STZ-treated animals received PQQ (20 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·d(-1), for 15 days), this significantly decreased the serum levels of glucose and lipid peroxidation products, and increased the activities of antioxidants in the diabetic mouse brain. These findings suggest that PQQ has the potential to ameliorate STZ-induced oxidative damage in the brain, as well as the STZ-induced diabetes. PMID:25474723

  1. Green tea catechins are potent anti-oxidants that ameliorate sodium iodate-induced retinal degeneration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaping; Qin, Yong Jie; Yip, Yolanda W. Y.; Chan, Kwok Ping; Chu, Kai On; Chu, Wai Kit; Ng, Tsz Kin; Pang, Chi Pui; Chan, Sun On

    2016-01-01

    Green tea extracts exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions in different disease conditions. We hypothesized that green tea extract and its catechin constituents ameliorate sodium iodate-induced retinal degeneration in rats by counteracting oxidative stress. In this study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with a single dose of sodium iodate. Green tea extract (GTE; Theaphenon-E) or combinations of its catechin constituents, including (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), were administered intra-gastrically before injection. Live imaging analysis using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed a progressive increase of degenerating profile across the retinal surface and decrease in thickness of outer nuclear layer (ONL) at Day-14 of post-injection. These lesions were significantly ameliorated by Theaphenon-E and catechin combinations with EGCG. Catechins with exclusion of EGCG did not show obvious protective effect. Histological analyses confirmed that Theaphenon-E and catechins containing EGCG protect the retina by reducing ONL disruption. Retinal protective effects were associated with reduced expression of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and caspase-3, and suppression of 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α generation in the retina. In summary, GTE and its catechin constituents are potent anti-oxidants that offer neuroprotection to the outer retinal degeneration after sodium iodate insult, among which EGCG is the most active constituent. PMID:27383468

  2. Remote limb preconditioning protects against ischemia-induced neuronal death through ameliorating neuronal oxidative DNA damage and parthanatos.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei; Xu, Wei; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Lei; Ren, Chuancheng

    2016-07-15

    Remote limb preconditioning (RPC) ameliorates ischemia-induced cerebral infarction and promotes neurological function recovery; however, the mechanism of RPC hasn't been fully understood, which limits its clinical application. The present study aimed at exploring the underlying mechanism of RPC through testing its effects on neuronal oxidative DNA damage and parthanatos in a rat focal cerebral ischemia model. Infarct volume was investigated by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and neuronal survival was evaluated by Nissl staining. Oxidative DNA damage was investigated via analyzing the expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Besides, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA laddering were utilized to evaluate neuronal DNA fragmentation. Moreover, we tested whether RPC regulated poly(ADP-ribose) polymer (PAR) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) pathway; thus, PAR expression, AIF translocation and AIF/histone H2AX (H2AX) interaction were investigated. The results showed that RPC exerted neuroprotective effects by ameliorating oxidative DNA damage and neuronal parthanatos; additionally, RPC suppressed PAR/AIF pathway through reducing AIF translocation and AIF/H2AX interaction. The present study further exposed neuroprotective mechanism of RPC, and provided new evidence for the research on RPC and ICS. PMID:27288768

  3. Green tea catechins are potent anti-oxidants that ameliorate sodium iodate-induced retinal degeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaping; Qin, Yong Jie; Yip, Yolanda W Y; Chan, Kwok Ping; Chu, Kai On; Chu, Wai Kit; Ng, Tsz Kin; Pang, Chi Pui; Chan, Sun On

    2016-01-01

    Green tea extracts exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions in different disease conditions. We hypothesized that green tea extract and its catechin constituents ameliorate sodium iodate-induced retinal degeneration in rats by counteracting oxidative stress. In this study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with a single dose of sodium iodate. Green tea extract (GTE; Theaphenon-E) or combinations of its catechin constituents, including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), were administered intra-gastrically before injection. Live imaging analysis using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed a progressive increase of degenerating profile across the retinal surface and decrease in thickness of outer nuclear layer (ONL) at Day-14 of post-injection. These lesions were significantly ameliorated by Theaphenon-E and catechin combinations with EGCG. Catechins with exclusion of EGCG did not show obvious protective effect. Histological analyses confirmed that Theaphenon-E and catechins containing EGCG protect the retina by reducing ONL disruption. Retinal protective effects were associated with reduced expression of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and caspase-3, and suppression of 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α generation in the retina. In summary, GTE and its catechin constituents are potent anti-oxidants that offer neuroprotection to the outer retinal degeneration after sodium iodate insult, among which EGCG is the most active constituent. PMID:27383468

  4. PACAP protects against TNFα-induced cell death in olfactory epithelium and olfactory placodal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Shami; Gandham, Mahendra; Lucero, Mary T

    2010-01-01

    In mouse olfactory epithelium (OE), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) protects against axotomy-induced apoptosis. We used mouse OE to determine whether PACAP protects neurons during exposure to the inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Live slices of neonatal mouse OE were treated with 40 ng/ml TNFα ± 40 nM PACAP for 6 hours and dying cells were live-labeled with 0.5% propidium iodide. TNFα significantly increased the percentage of dying cells while co-incubation with PACAP prevented cell death. PACAP also prevented TNFα-mediated cell death in the olfactory placodal (OP) cell lines, OP6 and OP27. Although OP cell lines express all three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1,VPAC2), PACAP’s protection of these cells from TNFα was mimicked by the specific PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan and abolished by the PAC1 antagonist PACAP6–38. Treatment of OP cell lines with blockers or activators of the PLC and AC/MAPKK pathways revealed that PACAP-mediated protection from TNFα involved both pathways. PACAP may therefore function through PAC1 receptors to protect neurons from cell death during inflammatory cytokine release in vivo as would occur upon viral infection or allergic rhinitis-associated injury. PMID:20654718

  5. Baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaguo; Xu, Yongfu; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin belongs to glucuronic acid glycosides and after hydrolysisbaicalein and glucuronic acid come into being. It has such effects as clearing heat and removing toxicity, anti-inflammation, choleresis, bringing high blood pressure down, diuresis, anti-allergic reaction and so on. In this study, we investigated whether baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and its mechanism. Rat model of acute myocardial infarction was induced by isoproterenol. Casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and infarct size measurement were used to measure the protective effect of baicalin on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction. iNOS protein expression in rat was analyzed using western blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3 activation levels were explored using commercial ELISA kits. In the acute myocardial infarction experiment, baicalin effectively ameliorates the level of CK, CK-MB, LDH and cTnT, reduced infarct size in acute myocardial infarction rat model. Meanwhile, treatment with baicalin effectively decreased the iNOS protein expression, inflammatory factors and oxidative stresses in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. However, baicalin emerged that anti-apoptosis activity and suppressed the activation of caspase-3 in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The data suggest that the protective effect of baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat. PMID:26617721

  6. PACAP modulation of calcium ion activity in developing granule cells of the neonatal mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Mavis; Greig, Ann; Tvrdik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+ activity in the CNS is critical for the establishment of developing neuronal circuitry prior to and during early sensory input. In developing olfactory bulb (OB), the neuromodulators that enhance network activity are largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)-specific PAC1 receptors (PAC1Rs) expressed in postnatal day (P)2–P5 mouse OB are functional and enhance network activity as measured by increases in calcium in genetically identified granule cells (GCs). We used confocal Ca2+ imaging of OB slices from Dlx2-tdTomato mice to visualize GABAergic GCs. To address whether the PACAP-induced Ca2+ oscillations were direct or indirect effects of PAC1R activation, we used antagonists for the GABA receptors (GABARs) and/or glutamate receptors (GluRs) in the presence and absence of PACAP. Combined block of GABARs and GluRs yielded a 66% decrease in the numbers of PACAP-responsive cells, suggesting that 34% of OB neurons are directly activated by PACAP. Similarly, immunocytochemistry using anti-PAC1 antibody showed that 34% of OB neurons express PAC1R. Blocking either GluRs or GABARs alone indirectly showed that PACAP stimulates release of both glutamate and GABA, which activate GCs. The appearance of PACAP-induced Ca2+ activity in immature GCs suggests a role for PACAP in GC maturation. To conclude, we find that PACAP has both direct and indirect effects on neonatal OB GABAergic cells and may enhance network activity by promoting glutamate and GABA release. Furthermore, the numbers of PACAP-responsive GCs significantly increased between P2 and P5, suggesting that PACAP-induced Ca2+ activity contributes to neonatal OB development. PMID:25475351

  7. Preventing p38 MAPK-mediated MafA degradation ameliorates β-cell dysfunction under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    El Khattabi, Ilham; Sharma, Arun

    2013-07-01

    The reduction in the expression of glucose-responsive insulin gene transcription factor MafA accompanies the development of β-cell dysfunction under oxidative stress/diabetic milieu. Humans with type 2 diabetes have reduced MafA expression, and thus preventing this reduction could overcome β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. We previously showed that p38 MAPK, but not glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), is a major regulator of MafA degradation under oxidative stress. Here, we examined the mechanisms of this degradation and whether preventing MafA degradation under oxidative stress will overcome β-cell dysfunction. We show that under oxidative and nonoxidative conditions p38 MAPK directly binds to MafA and triggers MafA degradation via ubiquitin proteasomal pathway. However, unlike nonoxidative conditions, MafA degradation under oxidative stress depended on p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation at threonine (T) 134, and not T57. Furthermore the expression of alanine (A) 134-MafA, but not A57-MafA, reduced the oxidative stress-mediated loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which was independent of p38 MAPK action on protein kinase D, a regulator of insulin secretion. Interestingly, the expression of proteasomal activator PA28γ that degrades GSK3-phosphorylated (including T57) MafA was reduced under oxidative stress, explaining the dominance of p38 MAPK over the GSK3 pathway in regulating MafA stability under oxidative stress. These results identify two distinct pathways mediating p38 MAPK-dependent MafA degradation under oxidative and nonoxidative conditions and show that inhibiting MafA degradation under oxidative stress ameliorates β-cell dysfunction and could lead to novel therapies for diabetes. PMID:23660596

  8. Metal chelator combined with permeability enhancer ameliorates oxidative stress-associated neurodegeneration in rat eyes with elevated intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, P.; Zhang, M.; Shoeb, M.; Hogan, D.; Tang, Luosheng; Syed, M. F.; Wang, C. Z.; Campbell, G.A.; Ansari, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    Since as many as half of glaucoma patients on intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering therapy continue to experience optic nerve toxicity, it is imperative to find other effective therapies. Iron and calcium ions play key roles in oxidative stress, a hallmark of glaucoma. Therefore, we tested metal chelation by means of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) combined with the permeability enhancer methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) applied topically on the eye to determine if this non-invasive treatment is neuroprotective in rat optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells exposed to oxidative stress induced by elevated IOP. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was injected in the anterior chamber of the rat eye to elevate the IOP. EDTA-MSM was applied topically to the eye for 3 months. Eyeballs and optic nerves were processed for histological assessment of cytoarchitecture. Protein-lipid aldehyde adducts, and cyclooxygnease-2 (COX-2) were detected immunohistochemically. HA administration increased IOP and associated oxidative stress and inflammation. Elevated IOP was not affected by EDTA-MSM treatment. However oxidative damage and inflammation were ameliorated as reflected by decrease in formation of protein-lipid aldehyde adducts and COX-2 expression, respectively. Furthermore, EDTA-MSM treatment increased retinal ganglion cell survival and decreased demyelinization of optic nerve compared with untreated eyes. Chelation treatment with EDTA-MSM ameliorates sequelae of IOP-induced toxicity without affecting IOP. Since most current therapies aim at reducing IOP and damage occurs even in the absence of elevated IOP, EDTA-MSM has the potential to work in conjunction with pressure-reducing therapies to alleviate damage to the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells. PMID:24509160

  9. Metal chelator combined with permeability enhancer ameliorates oxidative stress-associated neurodegeneration in rat eyes with elevated intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Zhang, M; Shoeb, M; Hogan, D; Tang, Luosheng; Syed, M F; Wang, C Z; Campbell, G A; Ansari, N H

    2014-04-01

    Because as many as half of glaucoma patients on intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering therapy continue to experience optic nerve toxicity, it is imperative to find other effective therapies. Iron and calcium ions play key roles in oxidative stress, a hallmark of glaucoma. Therefore, we tested metal chelation by means of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) combined with the permeability enhancer methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) applied topically on the eye to determine if this noninvasive treatment is neuroprotective in rat optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells exposed to oxidative stress induced by elevated IOP. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was injected into the anterior chamber of the rat eye to elevate the IOP. EDTA-MSM was applied topically to the eye for 3 months. Eyeballs and optic nerves were processed for histological assessment of cytoarchitecture. Protein-lipid aldehyde adducts and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were detected immunohistochemically. HA administration increased IOP and associated oxidative stress and inflammation. Elevated IOP was not affected by EDTA-MSM treatment. However, oxidative damage and inflammation were ameliorated as reflected by a decrease in formation of protein-lipid aldehyde adducts and COX-2 expression, respectively. Furthermore, EDTA-MSM treatment increased retinal ganglion cell survival and decreased demyelination of optic nerve compared with untreated eyes. Chelation treatment with EDTA-MSM ameliorates sequelae of IOP-induced toxicity without affecting IOP. Because most current therapies aim at reducing IOP and damage occurs even in the absence of elevated IOP, EDTA-MSM has the potential to work in conjunction with pressure-reducing therapies to alleviate damage to the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells. PMID:24509160

  10. Regulation of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis PACAP expression by stress and corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Lezak, Kimberly R; Roman, Carolyn W; Braas, Karen M; Schutz, Kristin C; Falls, William A; Schulkin, Jay; May, Victor; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2014-11-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and the PAC1 receptor have been associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders. Although, from recent work, we have argued that stress-induced PACAP expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may mediate stress-related psychopathology, it is unclear whether stress-induced increases in BNST PACAP expression require acute or repeated stressor exposure and whether increased BNST PACAP expression is related to stress-induced increases in circulating glucocorticoids. In the current work, we have used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to assess transcript expression in brain punches from rats after stressor exposure paradigms or corticosterone injection. BNST PACAP and PAC1 receptor transcript expression was increased only after 7 days of repeated stressor exposure; no changes in transcript levels were observed 2 or 24 hours after a single-restraint session. Moreover, repeated corticosterone treatment for 7 days was not sufficient to reliably increase BNST PACAP transcript levels, suggesting that stress-induced elevations in corticosterone may not be the primary drivers of BNST PACAP expression. These results may help clarify the mechanisms and temporal processes that underlie BNST PACAP induction for intervention in stress-related anxiety disorders. PMID:24614974

  11. Expression of PACAP-like compounds during the caudal regeneration of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Varhalmi, Eszter; Somogyi, Ildiko; Kiszler, Gabor; Nemeth, Jozsef; Reglodi, Dora; Lubics, Andrea; Kiss, Peter; Tamas, Andrea; Pollak, Edit; Molnar, Laszlo

    2008-11-01

    The regeneration of the ventral nerve cord ganglion and peripheral tissues was investigated by radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry in the model animal, Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta). It is now well-established that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic factor, playing important roles in the development of the nervous system in vertebrate animals. Based on the apparent evolutionary conservation of PACAP and on the several common mechanisms of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous regeneration, the question was raised whether PACAP has any role in the regeneration of the earthworm nervous system. As a first step, we studied the distribution, concentration, and time-course of PACAP-like immunoreactivity during caudal regeneration of both lost segments and the ventral nerve cord ganglia in E. fetida. A strong upregulation of PACAP-like immunoreactivity was observed in most tissues following injury as determined by radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry. Significant increases in the concentration of PACAP-like compounds were found in the body wall, alimentary canal, and in coelomocytes. The most characteristic morphological feature was the accumulation of immunolabeled neoblasts in the injured tissues, especially in the ventral nerve cord ganglion that initiates and mediates regeneration processes. Our present results show that PACAP/PACAP-like peptides accumulate in the regenerating tissues of the earthworm, suggesting trophic functions of these compounds in earthworm tissues similarly to vertebrate species. PMID:18622585

  12. Expression and functional activity of PACAP and its receptors on cumulus cells: effects on oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Barberi, Marzia; Di Paolo, Virginia; Latini, Stefania; Guglielmo, Maria Cristina; Cecconi, Sandra; Canipari, Rita

    2013-08-15

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor PAC1-R (PACAP type 1 receptor) are transiently expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) of mouse preovulatory follicles and affect several parameters associated with the ovulatory process. We investigated the expression of PACAP and its receptors in cumulus cells (CCs) after the LH surge and their role on cumulus expansion/apoptosis and oocyte maturation. PACAP and PAC1-R expression increased in CCs isolated at different times after treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Moreover, PACAP was able to reverse the inhibition of oocyte meiotic maturation caused by hypoxantine in cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs) and efficiently promoted male pronuclear formation after fertilisation. PACAP was also able to induce cumulus expansion and prevent CC apoptosis. Our results demonstrated the induction of PACAP and its receptors in CCs by LH and EGF, suggesting that PACAP may play a significant role in the complex interactions of gonadotropin and growth factors during ovulation and fertilisation. PMID:23684890

  13. Hydroxytyrosol ameliorates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Granados-Principal, Sergio; El-Azem, Nuri; Pamplona, Reinald; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Vera-Ramirez, Laura; Quiles, Jose L; Sanchez-Rovira, Pedro; Naudí, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Ramirez-Tortosa, Mcarmen

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in several processes including cancer, aging and cardiovascular disease, and has been shown to potentiate the therapeutic effect of drugs such as doxorubicin. Doxorubicin causes significant cardiotoxicity characterized by marked increases in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Herein, we investigate whether doxorubicin-associated chronic cardiac toxicity can be ameliorated with the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol in rats with breast cancer. Thirty-six rats bearing breast tumors induced chemically were divided into 4 groups: control, hydroxytyrosol (0.5mg/kg, 5days/week), doxorubicin (1mg/kg/week), and doxorubicin plus hydroxytyrosol. Cardiac disturbances at the cellular and mitochondrial level, mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I-IV and apoptosis-inducing factor, and oxidative stress markers have been analyzed. Hydroxytyrosol improved the cardiac disturbances enhanced by doxorubicin by significantly reducing the percentage of altered mitochondria and oxidative damage. These results suggest that hydroxytyrosol improve the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This study demonstrates that hydroxytyrosol protect rat heart damage provoked by doxorubicin decreasing oxidative damage and mitochondrial alterations. PMID:24727461

  14. Emerging Role of PACAP as a New Potential Therapeutic Target in Major Diabetes Complications

    PubMed Central

    Marzagalli, Rubina; Drago, Filippo; Waschek, James A.; Castorina, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Enduring diabetes increases the probability of developing secondary damage to numerous systems, and these complications represent a cause of morbidity and mortality. Establishing the causes of diabetes remains the key step to eradicate the disease, but prevention as well as finding therapies to ameliorate some of the major diabetic complications is an equally important step to increase life expectancy and quality for the millions of individuals already affected by the disease or who are likely to develop it before cures become routinely available. In this review, we will firstly summarize some of the major complications of diabetes, including endothelial and pancreatic islets dysfunction, retinopathy, and nephropathy, and then discuss the emerging roles exerted by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) to counteract these ranges of pathologies that are precipitated by the prolonged hyperglycemic state. Finally, we will describe the main signalling routes activated by the peptide and propose possible future directions to focus on developing more effective peptide-based therapies to treat the major complications associated with longstanding diabetes. PMID:26074958

  15. PACAP Interactions in the Mouse Brain: Implications for Behavioral and Other Disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Acquaah-Mensah, George; Taylor, Ronald C.; Bhave, Sanjiv V.

    2012-01-10

    As an activator of adenylate cyclase, the neuropeptide Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP) impacts levels of cyclic AMP, a key second messenger available in brain cells. PACAP is involved in certain adult behaviors. To elucidate PACAP interactions, a compendium of microarrays representing mRNA expression in the adult mouse whole brain was pooled from the Phenogen database for analysis. A regulatory network was computed based on mutual information between gene pairs using gene expression data across the compendium. Clusters among genes directly linked to PACAP, and probable interactions between corresponding proteins were computed. Database 'experts' affirmed some of the inferred relationships. The findings suggest ADCY7 is probably the adenylate cyclase isoform most relevant to PACAP's action. They also support intervening roles for kinases including GSK3B, PI 3-kinase, SGK3 and AMPK. Other high-confidence interactions are hypothesized for future testing. This new information has implications for certain behavioral and other disorders.

  16. PACAP decides neuronal laminar fate via PKA signaling in the developing cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsuka, Masanari; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi Furukawa, Shoei

    2008-05-16

    Laminar formation in the developing cerebral cortex requires the precisely regulated generation of phenotype-specified neurons. To test the possible involvement of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in this formation, we investigated the effects of PACAP administered into the telencephalic ventricular space of 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. PACAP partially inhibited the proliferation of cortical progenitors and altered the position and gene-expression profiles of newly generated neurons otherwise expected for layer IV to those of neurons for the deeper layers, V and VI, of the cerebral cortex. The former and latter effects were seen only when the parent progenitor cells were exposed to PACAP in the later and in earlier G1 phase, respectively; and these effects were suppressed by co-treatment with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. These observations suggest that PACAP participates in the processes forming the neuronal laminas in the developing cortex via the intracellular PKA pathway.

  17. Green Tea Potentially Ameliorates Bisphenol A-Induced Oxidative Stress: An In Vitro and In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Hiral; Verma, R. J.; Patel, Saumya; Jasrai, Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was an attempt to elucidate oxidative stress induced by bisphenol A on erythrocytes and its amelioration by green tea extract. For this, venous blood samples from healthy human adults were collected in EDTA vials and used for preparation of erythrocytes suspension. When erythrocyte suspensions were treated with different concentrations of BPA/H2O2, a dose-dependent increase in hemolysis occurred. Similarly, when erythrocytes suspensions were treated with either different concentrations of H2O2 (0.05–0.25 mM) along with BPA (50 μg/mL) or 0.05 mM H2O2 along with different concentrations of BPA (50–250 μg/mL), dose-dependent significant increase in hemolysis occurred. The effect of BPA and H2O2 was found to be additive. For the confirmation, binding capacity of bisphenol A with erythrocyte proteins (hemoglobin, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) was inspected using molecular docking tool, which showed presence of various hydrogen bonds of BPA with the proteins. The present data clearly indicates that BPA causes oxidative stress in a similar way as H2O2 . Concurrent addition of different concentrations (10–50 μg/mL) of green tea extract to reaction mixture containing high dose of bisphenol A (250 μg/mL) caused concentration-dependent amelioration in bisphenol A-induced hemolysis. The effect was significant (P < 0.05). It is concluded that BPA-induced oxidative stress could be significantly mitigated by green tea extract. PMID:25180096

  18. Propionate Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis by Improving Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ling-chang; Wang, Yue; Wang, Zhi-bin; Liu, Wei-ye; Sun, Sheng; Li, Ling; Su, Ding-feng; Zhang, Li-chao

    2016-01-01

    Propionate is a short chain fatty acid that is abundant as butyrate in the gut and blood. However, propionate has not been studied as extensively as butyrate in the treatment of colitis. The present study was to investigate the effects of sodium propionate on intestinal barrier function, inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Animals in DSS group received drinking water from 1 to 6 days and DSS [3% (w/v) dissolved in double distilled water] instead of drinking water from 7 to 14 days. Animals in DSS+propionate (DSS+Prop) group were given 1% sodium propionate for 14 consecutive days and supplemented with 3% DSS solution on day 7–14. Intestinal barrier function, proinflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the colon were determined. It was found that sodium propionate ameliorated body weight loss, colon-length shortening and colonic damage in colitis mice. Sodium propionate significantly inhibited the increase of FITC-dextran in serum and the decrease of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin expression in the colonic tissue. It also inhibited the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and phosphorylation of STAT3 in colitis mice markedly, reduced the myeloperoxidase (MPO) level, and increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase level in colon and serum compared with DSS group. Sodium propionate inhibited macrophages with CD68 marker infiltration into the colonic mucosa of colitis mice. These results suggest that oral administration of sodium propionate could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis mainly by improving intestinal barrier function and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress via the STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27574508

  19. Propionate Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis by Improving Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling-Chang; Wang, Yue; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Wei-Ye; Sun, Sheng; Li, Ling; Su, Ding-Feng; Zhang, Li-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Propionate is a short chain fatty acid that is abundant as butyrate in the gut and blood. However, propionate has not been studied as extensively as butyrate in the treatment of colitis. The present study was to investigate the effects of sodium propionate on intestinal barrier function, inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Animals in DSS group received drinking water from 1 to 6 days and DSS [3% (w/v) dissolved in double distilled water] instead of drinking water from 7 to 14 days. Animals in DSS+propionate (DSS+Prop) group were given 1% sodium propionate for 14 consecutive days and supplemented with 3% DSS solution on day 7-14. Intestinal barrier function, proinflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the colon were determined. It was found that sodium propionate ameliorated body weight loss, colon-length shortening and colonic damage in colitis mice. Sodium propionate significantly inhibited the increase of FITC-dextran in serum and the decrease of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin expression in the colonic tissue. It also inhibited the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and phosphorylation of STAT3 in colitis mice markedly, reduced the myeloperoxidase (MPO) level, and increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase level in colon and serum compared with DSS group. Sodium propionate inhibited macrophages with CD68 marker infiltration into the colonic mucosa of colitis mice. These results suggest that oral administration of sodium propionate could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis mainly by improving intestinal barrier function and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress via the STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27574508

  20. Structural and Morphometric Comparison of Lower Incisors in PACAP-Deficient and Wild-Type Mice.

    PubMed

    Sandor, B; Fintor, K; Reglodi, D; Fulop, D B; Helyes, Z; Szanto, I; Nagy, P; Hashimoto, H; Tamas, A

    2016-06-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread distribution. PACAP plays an important role in the development of the nervous system, it has a trophic and protective effect, and it is also implicated in the regulation of various physiological functions. Teeth are originated from the mesenchyme of the neural crest and the ectoderm of the first branchial arch, suggesting similarities with the development of the nervous system. Earlier PACAP-immunoreactive fibers have been found in the odontoblastic and subodontoblastic layers of the dental pulp. Our previous examinations have shown that PACAP deficiency causes alterations in the morphology and structure of the developing molars of 7-day-old mice. In our present study, morphometric and structural comparison was performed on the incisors of 1-year-old wild-type and PACAP-deficient mice. Hard tissue density measurements and morphometric comparison were carried out on the mandibles and the lower incisors with micro-CT. For structural examination, Raman microscopy was applied on frontal thin sections of the mandible. With micro-CT morphometrical measurements, the size of the incisors and the relative volume of the pulp to dentin were significantly smaller in the PACAP-deficient group compared to the wild-type animals. The density of calcium hydroxyapatite in the dentin was reduced in the PACAP-deficient mice. No structural differences could be observed in the enamel with Raman microscopy. Significant differences were found in the dentin of PACAP-deficient mice with Raman microscopy, where increased carbonate/phosphate ratio indicates higher intracrystalline disordering. The evaluation of amide III bands in the dentin revealed higher structural diversity in wild-type mice. Based upon our present and previous results, it is obvious that PACAP plays an important role in tooth development with the regulation of morphogenesis, dentin, and enamel mineralization. Further studies are

  1. Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in Lymphocytes Induces Oxidative Stress and DNA Fragmentation: Possible Ameliorative Role of Nanoconjugated Vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Kar Mahapatra, Santanu; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar; Das, Sabyasachi; Tripathy, Satyajit; Dash, Sandeep; Pramanik, Panchanan; Roy, Somenath

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections and pneumonia. Lymphocyte is an important immune cell. The aim of the present paper was to test the ameliorative role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against Vancomycin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) infection-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes. VSSA and VRSA infections were developed in Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection of 5 × 106 CFU/mL bacterial solutions. Nanoconjugated vancomycin was adminstrated to VSSA- and VRSA-infected mice at its effective dose for 10 days. Vancomycin was adminstrated to VSSA- and VRSA-infected mice at a similar dose, respectively, for 10 days. Vancomycin and nanoconjugated vancomycin were adminstrated to normal mice at their effective doses for 10 days. The result of this study reveals that in vivo VSSA and VRSA infection significantly increases the level of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidized glutathione level, nitrite generation, nitrite release, and DNA damage and decreases the level of reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzyme status, and glutathione-dependent enzymes as compared to control group, which were increased or decreased significantly near to normal in nanoconjugated vancomycin-treated group. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VSSA and VRSA infection-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes. PMID:21941607

  2. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) induces protein oxidation and nitration in brain and liver of chicken: Ameliorative effect of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kadiam C; Valluru, Lokanatha; Rajendra, Wudayagiri; Ramamurthy, Chiteti; Thirunavukkarusu, Chinnasamy; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the therapeutic efficacy of vitamin E on oxidative injury in brain and liver of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenged chickens. We have analyzed the xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity; uric acid (UA) levels and superoxide radical generation by using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Further, protein oxidation, nitration and apoptosis were evaluated in the brain and liver of the control, NDV-infected and NDV+Vit. E treated groups. A significant elevation was observed in XOD activity and UA levels in brain (p<0.001) and liver (p<0.05) of NDV infected birds when compared to controls. Further, significant increase in the production of superoxides, enhanced intracellular protein carbonyls and nitrates were observed in the brain and liver of NDV-infected birds over healthy subjects. Apoptosis studies also suggested that a larger number of TUNEL positive cells were observed in brain and a moderately in liver of NDV-infected chickens. However, all these perturbations were significantly ameliorated in NDV+Vit. E treated chickens as compared to NDV-infected birds. Taken together, our results suggested that NDV-induced neuronal and hepatic damage at least in part mediates oxidative stress and on the other hand, supplementation of vitamin E mitigates NDV-induced oxidative damage thereby protects brain and liver of chickens. These findings could provide new insights into the understanding of NDV pathogenesis and therapeutic effects of dietary antioxidants. PMID:25849457

  3. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Extract Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Associated Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.; AlSaid, Mansour S.; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Massarani, Shaza M.; Ahmad, Ajaz; Hefnawy, Mohamed; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Basoudan, Omer A.; Rafatullah, Syed

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was designed to investigate the protective effect of (Beta vulgaris L.) beat root ethanolic extract (BVEE) on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Serum specific kidney function parameters (urea, uric acid, total protein, creatinine, and histopathology of kidney tissue) were evaluated to access gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The oxidative/nitrosative stress (Lipid peroxidation, MDA, NP-SH, Catalase, and nitric oxide levels) was assessed. The inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-6, MPO, NF-κB (p65), and NF-κB (p65) DNA binding) and apoptotic marker (Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) were also evaluated. BVEE (250 and 500 mg/kg) treatment along with gentamicin restored/increased the renal endogenous antioxidant status. Gentamicin-induced increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), nuclear protein expression of NF-κB (p65), NF-κB-DNA binding activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and nitric oxide level were significantly down regulated upon BVEE treatment. In addition, BVEE treatment significantly reduced the amount of cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, protein expression and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression. BVEE treatment also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced inflammatory infiltration in renal tubules. These findings suggest that BVEE treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the kidney. PMID:25400335

  4. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  5. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagib, Marwa M; Tadros, Mariane G; ElSayed, Moushira I; Khalifa, Amani E

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10mg/kg) was administered orally during 21days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5days after. Sulfasalazine (500mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PMID:23665423

  6. Satureja bachtiarica ameliorate beta-amyloid induced memory impairment, oxidative stress and cholinergic deficit in animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Soodi, Maliheh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Dashti, Abolfazl; Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Moradi, Shahla

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular deposition of Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which damages cholinergic neurons through oxidative stress and reduces the cholinergic neurotransmission. Satureja bachtiarica is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family which was widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of S. bachtiarica methanolic extract on Aβ induced spatial memory impairment in Morris Water Maze (MWM), oxidative stress and cholinergic neuron degeneration. Pre- aggregated Aβ was injected into the hippocampus of each rat bilaterally (10 μg/rat) and MWM task was performed 14 days later to evaluate learning and memory function. Methanolic extract of S.bachtiarica (10, 50 and 100 mg/Kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 19 consecutive days, after Aβ injection. After the probe test the brain tissue were collected and lipid peroxidation, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Cholin Acetyl Transferees (ChAT) immunorectivity were measured in the hippocampus. Intrahipocampal injection of Aβ impaired learning and memory in MWM in training days and probe trail. Methanolic extract of S. bachtiarica (50 and 100 mg/Kg) could attenuate Aβ-induced memory deficit. ChAT immunostaining revealed that cholinergic neurons were loss in Aβ- injected group and S. bachtiarica (100 mg/Kg) could ameliorate Aβ- induced ChAT reduction in the hippocampus. Also S. bachtiarica could ameliorate Aβ-induced lipid peroxidation and AChE activity increase in the hippocampus. In conclusion our study represent that S.bachtiarica methanolic extract can improve Aβ-induced memory impairment and cholinergic loss then we recommended this extract as a candidate for further investigation in treatment of AD. PMID:26638718

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nagib, Marwa M.; Tadros, Mariane G.; ELSayed, Moushira I.; Khalifa, Amani E.

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  8. Amelioration of Hyperglycaemia, Oxidative Stress and Dyslipidaemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Probiotic and Vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Aluwong, Tagang; Ayo, Joseph O.; Kpukple, Alkali; Oladipo, Olusola Olalekan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that hyperglycaemia is responsible for the oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. The study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of probiotic and vitamin C (Vit-C) treatments on hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Six groups of the animals received the following treatment regimens for four weeks: (1) Normal saline, per os; (2) alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.p.); (3) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + insulin (4 U/kg, subcutaneously); (4) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 106 CFU/100 mL per os); (5) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, i.m.); (6) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 106 CFU/100 mL per os) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, intramuscularly). Probiotic + Vit-C decreased (p < 0.05) blood glucose concentration in diabetic treated group, when compared with the untreated diabetic group. Probiotic + Vit-C reduced malondialdehyde concentration, in the serum, brain and kidneys, respectively, but increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Probiotic and Vit-C may be more effective than Vit-C alone, in ameliorating hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:27164129

  9. Green Synthesis of Oxovanadium(IV)/chitosan Nanocomposites and Its Ameliorative Effect on Hyperglycemia, Insulin Resistance, and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Jie, Xu; Guo, Yongli; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the preparation, characterization, and ameliorative effect on high-fat high-sucrose diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress in mice of novel oxovanadium(IV)/chitosan (OV/CS) nanocomposites were investigated. The nanobiocomposite was produced by chemical reduction by chitosan and L-ascorbic acid using microwave heating, under environment-friendly conditions, using aqueous solutions, and notably, by using both mediators as reducing and stabilizing agents. In addition, OV/CS nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle size, and zeta potential measurements. In vivo experiments were designed to examine whether the OV/CS nanocomposites would provide additional benefits on oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance in mice with type 2 diabetes. The results rendered insulin resistant by treating with OV/CS nanocomposites alleviate insulin resistance and improve oxidative stress. Such nanocomposite seem to be a valuable therapy to achieve and/or maintain glycemic control and therapeutic agents in the treatment arsenal for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26144273

  10. Nitric oxide mediated amelioration of arsenic toxicity which alters the alternative oxidase (Aox1) gene expression in Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, Shalini; Dubey, Pragyan; Singh, Aradhana; Singh, A K

    2015-10-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key molecule in the signal transduction pathway of a biotic stress response has already been described. Recent studies indicate that it also participate in the signaling of abiotic stresses. In the present study, we showed the altered expression of stress responsive gene alternative oxidase (Aox1) in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic toxicity decreased the germination percentage, biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoid content whereas, arsenic toxicity enhanced the MDA content and proline content in a dose dependent manner. Other enzyme activities like catalase and superoxide dismutase increased with the increase in concentrations but it fell down at higher concentration of arsenic. Pretreatment of nitric oxide results in the enhanced expression of alternative oxidase which showed the adaptation of alternative pathway during the arsenic stress and it also enhances the growth ability and adaptability towards the arsenic stress. The results support the conclusion that nitric oxide ameliorates the arsenic toxicity not only at the level of antioxidant defense but also by affecting other mechanism of detoxification. PMID:26036416

  11. Camel's milk ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis in rats via downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Arab, Hany H; Salama, Samir A; Eid, Ahmed H; Omar, Hany A; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A

    2014-07-01

    Current treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with several adverse effects, and thus, the search for effective agents with minimal side effects merits attention. Camel's milk (CM) is endowed with antioxidant/anti-inflammatory features and has been reported to protect against diabetes and hepatic injury, however, its effects on IBD have not been previously explored. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the potential alleviating effects of CM against TNBS-induced colitis in rats. CM (10 ml/kg b.i.d. by oral gavage) effectively suppressed the severity of colon injury as evidenced by amelioration of macroscopic damage, colon weight/length ratio, histopathological alterations, leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase activity. Administration of CM mitigated the colonic levels of TNF-α and IL-10 cytokines. The attenuation of CM to colon injury was also associated with suppression of oxidative stress via reduction of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide along with boosting the antioxidant defenses through restoration of colon glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity. In addition, caspases-3 activity, an apoptotic marker, was inhibited. Together, our study highlights evidences for the promising alleviating effects of CM in colitis. Thus, CM may be an interesting complementary approach for the management of IBD. PMID:24788059

  12. Repeated short-term daily exercise ameliorates oxidative cerebral damage and the resultant motor dysfunction after transient ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Noguchi, Taiji; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-07-01

    Long-term exercise prior to brain ischemia enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes and leads to a significant reduction in brain damage and neurological deficits in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, it has not been established whether relatively short-term exercise generates similar results following middle cerebral artery occlusion. We aimed to determine whether short-term exercise could reduce oxidative damage and prevent sensori-motor dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to perform daily exercise on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 15 m/min for 3 weeks, followed by a 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were assessed after middle cerebral artery occlusion for neurological deficits and sensori-motor function. Brain tissues were processed to evaluate infarct volume and oxidative damage. Oxidative stress was assessed using immunohistochemistry for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Antioxidant enzymes were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for thioredoxin and activity assay for superoxide dismutase. Exercise for 3 weeks decreased the severity of paralysis and impairment in forelimb motor coordination. Furthermore, exercise had effect on superoxide dismutase and reduced the infarct volume and the number of cells immunopositive for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Our results suggest that pre-conditioning treadmill exercise for 3 weeks is useful for ameliorating ischemia-induced brain injury. PMID:23874064

  13. Amelioration of Hyperglycaemia, Oxidative Stress and Dyslipidaemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Probiotic and Vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Ayo, Joseph O; Kpukple, Alkali; Oladipo, Olusola Olalekan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that hyperglycaemia is responsible for the oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. The study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of probiotic and vitamin C (Vit-C) treatments on hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Six groups of the animals received the following treatment regimens for four weeks: (1) Normal saline, per os; (2) alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.p.); (3) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + insulin (4 U/kg, subcutaneously); (4) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10⁶ CFU/100 mL per os); (5) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, i.m.); (6) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10⁶ CFU/100 mL per os) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, intramuscularly). Probiotic + Vit-C decreased (p < 0.05) blood glucose concentration in diabetic treated group, when compared with the untreated diabetic group. Probiotic + Vit-C reduced malondialdehyde concentration, in the serum, brain and kidneys, respectively, but increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Probiotic and Vit-C may be more effective than Vit-C alone, in ameliorating hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:27164129

  14. Ozone oxidative postconditioning ameliorates joint damage and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress in PG/PS-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Jaqueline Dranguet; Fraga, Angela; Díaz, María Teresa; Mallok, A; Viebahn-Hänsler, Renate; Fahmy, Ziad; Barberá, Ariana; Delgado, Liván; Menéndez, Silvia; Fernández, Olga Sonia León

    2013-08-15

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most prevalent chronic condition present in ~1% of the adult population. Many pro-inflammatory mediators are increased in RA, including Reactive Oxygen Species such as nitric oxide NO, pro-inflammatory cytokines as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and other molecules. Ozone oxidative postconditioning has regulatory effects on some pathological targets associated with RA. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ozone therapy in PG/PS-induced arthritis in rats in point of joints inflammation and morphology. Moreover, cytokines, nitric oxide and oxidative stress levels in spleen homogenates were evaluated. Ozone treatment ameliorated joint damage, reduced TNF-α concentrations as well as TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels. Besides, cellular redox balance, nitric oxide and fructolysine levels were reestablished after ozone oxidative postconditioning. It was concluded that pleiotropic ozone's effects clarify its therapeutic efficacy in RA. Decreasing inflammation and joint injury, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β transcripts and re-establishment of cellular redox balance after ozone treatment were demonstrated. PMID:23911887

  15. Agnathan VIP, PACAP and Their Receptors: Ancestral Origins of Today's Highly Diversified Forms

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Stephanie Y. L.; Chow, Billy K. C.; Kasamatsu, Jun; Kasahara, Masanori; Lee, Leo T. O.

    2012-01-01

    VIP and PACAP are pleiotropic peptides belonging to the secretin superfamily of brain-gut peptides and interact specifically with three receptors (VPAC1, PAC1 and VPAC2) from the class II B G protein-coupled receptor family. There is immense interest regarding their molecular evolution which is often described closely alongside gene and/or genome duplications. Despite the wide array of information available in various vertebrates and one invertebrate the tunicate, their evolutionary origins remain unresolved. Through searches of genome databases and molecular cloning techniques, the first lamprey VIP/PACAP ligands and VPAC receptors are identified from the Japanese lamprey. In addition, two VPAC receptors (VPACa/b) are identified from inshore hagfish and ligands predicted for sea lamprey. Phylogenetic analyses group these molecules into their respective PHI/VIP, PRP/PACAP and VPAC receptor families and show they resemble ancestral forms. Japanese lamprey VIP/PACAP peptides synthesized were tested with the hagfish VPAC receptors. hfVPACa transduces signal via both adenylyl cylase and phospholipase C pathways, whilst hfVPACb was only able to transduce through the calcium pathway. In contrast to the widespread distribution of VIP/PACAP ligands and receptors in many species, the agnathan PACAP and VPAC receptors were found almost exclusively in the brain. In situ hybridisation further showed their abundance throughout the brain. The range of VIP/PACAP ligands and receptors found are highly useful, providing a glimpse into the evolutionary events both at the structural and functional levels. Though representative of ancestral forms, the VIP/PACAP ligands in particular have retained high sequence conservation indicating the importance of their functions even early in vertebrate evolution. During these nascent stages, only two VPAC receptors are likely responsible for eliciting functions before evolving later into specific subtypes post-Agnatha. We also propose VIP and

  16. Activation of MEK/ERK Signaling by PACAP in Guinea Pig Cardiac Neurons.

    PubMed

    Clason, Todd A; Girard, Beatrice M; May, Victor; Parsons, Rodney L

    2016-06-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling can increase guinea pig cardiac neuron excitability in part through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. The present study examined the PACAP receptors and signaling cascades that stimulate guinea pig cardiac neuron ERK signaling using confocal microscopy to quantify PACAP-induced neuronal phosphorylated ERK (pERK) immunoreactivity. PACAP and maxadilan, but not vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), increased cardiac neuron pERK, implicating primary roles for PACAP-selective PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1) signaling rather than VPAC receptors (Vipr1 and Vipr2) in the generation of cardiac neuron pERK. The adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin, but not the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), increased pERK. Also, Bim1 did not blunt PACAP activation of pERK. Together, the results suggest PAC1 receptor signal transduction via Gs/adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cAMP rather than Gq/phospholipase C (PLC) generated neuronal pERK. Activator and inhibitor studies suggested that the PACAP-mediated pERK activation was PKA-dependent rather than an exchange protein directly activated by a cAMP (EPAC), PKA-independent mechanism. The PACAP-induced pERK was inhibited by the clathrin inhibitor Pitstop2 to block receptor internalization and endosomal signaling. We propose that the PACAP-mediated MEK/ERK activation in cardiac neurons involves both AC/cAMP/PKA signaling and PAC1 receptor internalization/activation of signaling endosomes. PMID:27194157

  17. Injury-Associated PACAP Expression in Rat Sensory and Motor Neurons Is Induced by Endogenous BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Lina M. E.; Geremia, Nicole M.; Ying, Zhengxin; Verge, Valerie M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury results in dramatic upregulation in pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) expression in adult rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal motor neurons mirroring that described for the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, we posited that injury-associated alterations in BDNF expression regulate the changes in PACAP expression observed in the injured neurons. The role of endogenous BDNF in induction and/or maintenance of PACAP mRNA expression in injured adult rat motor and sensory neurons was examined by intrathecally infusing or intraperitoneally injecting BDNF-specific antibodies or control IgGs immediately at the time of L4-L6 spinal nerve injury, or in a delayed fashion one week later for 3 days followed by analysis of impact on PACAP expression. PACAP mRNA in injured lumbar sensory and motor neurons was detected using in situ hybridization, allowing quantification of relative changes between experimental groups, with ATF-3 immunofluorescence serving to identify the injured subpopulation of motor neurons. Both the incidence and level of PACAP mRNA expression were dramatically reduced in injured sensory and motor neurons in response to immediate intrathecal anti-BDNF treatment. In contrast, neither intraperitoneal injections nor delayed intrathecal infusions of anti-BDNF had any discernible impact on PACAP expression. This impact on PACAP expression in response to BDNF immunoneutralization in DRG was confirmed using qRT-PCR or by using BDNF selective siRNAs to reduce neuronal BDNF expression. Collectively, our findings support that endogenous injury-associated BDNF expression is critically involved in induction, but not maintenance, of injury-associated PACAP expression in sensory and motor neurons. PMID:24968020

  18. PACAP is essential for the adaptive thermogenic response of brown adipose tissue to cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Nikolic, Nikolina; Rudecki, Alexander P; King, Shannon M; Bowie, Drew J; Gray, Sarah L

    2014-09-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, neurotropic factor, neuroprotectant, secretagogue, and neurohormone. Owing to its pleiotropic biological actions, knockout of Pacap (Adcyap1) has been shown to induce several abnormalities in mice such as impaired thermoregulation. However, the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. A previous report has shown that cold-exposed Pacap null mice cannot supply appropriate levels of norepinephrine (NE) to brown adipocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that exogenous NE would rescue the impaired thermogenic response of Pacap null mice during cold exposure. We compared the adaptive thermogenic capacity of Pacap(-/-) to Pacap(+/+) mice in response to NE when housed at room temperature (24 °C) and after a 3.5-week cold exposure (4 °C). Biochemical parameters, expression of thermogenic genes, and morphological properties of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) were also characterized. Results showed that there was a significant effect of temperature, but no effect of genotype, on the resting metabolic rate in conscious, unrestrained mice. However, the normal cold-induced increase in the basal metabolic rate and NE-induced increase in thermogenesis were severely blunted in cold-exposed Pacap(-/-) mice. These changes were associated with altered substrate utilization, reduced β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-Ar (Adrb3)) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl (Lipe)) gene expression, and increased fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) gene expression in BAT. Interestingly, Pacap(-/-) mice had depleted WAT depots, associated with upregulated uncoupling protein 1 expression in inguinal WATs. These results suggest that the impairment of adaptive thermogenesis in Pacap null mice cannot be rescued by exogenous NE perhaps in part due to decreased β3-Ar-mediated BAT activation. PMID:25056115

  19. Alkaline ameliorants increase nitrous oxide emission from acidified black soil in Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zuoqiang; Zhang, Xilin; Qiao, Yanjiao; Wang, Lianfeng

    2011-06-01

    Lime and plant ash are common management used to achieve optimum pH for plant growth and improve soil properties in agricultural soils. Laboratory incubation was conducted to assess N20 emissions as influenced by different soil amendments (lime and plant ash) in a slightly acidic arable soil (pH 5.34). The experimental treatments consisted of CK, lime and plant ash fertilized with NH4(+)-N or N03(-)-N as nitrogen resource. The results show that lime and plant ash dramatically increases the soil pH and N20 emission. For N03(-)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 421, 1669 and 921 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. For NH4(+)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 361, 576 and 559 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. N03(-)-N addition leads to more N20 emission than that of NH4(+)-N addition, and lime increases more N20 emission than that of plant ash. After incubation, N03(-)-N content decreased largely. The findings suggested that alkaline ameliorants increase N20 emissions due to enhancement of soil denitrification. PMID:25084592

  20. MSM ameliorates HIV-1 Tat induced neuronal oxidative stress via rebalance of the glutathione cycle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seol-Hee; Smith, Adam J; Tan, Jun; Shytle, R Douglas; Giunta, Brian

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat protein is a key neuropathological element in HIV associated neurogcognitive disorders (HAND); a type of cognitive syndrome thought to be at least partially mediated by increased levels of brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound known to reduce oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine whether administration of MSM attenuates HIV-1 Tat induced oxidative stress in mouse neuronal cells. MSM treatment significantly decreased neuronal cell NO and ROS secretion. Further, MSM significantly reversed HIV-1 Tat mediated reductions in reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as HIV-1 Tat mediated increases in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In addition, Tat reduced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key nuclear promoter of antioxidant activity, while MSM increased its translocation to the nucleus in the presence of Tat. These results suggest that HIV-1 Tat reduces the resiliency of neuron cells to oxidative stress which can be reversed by MSM. Given the clinical safety of MSM, future preclinical in vivo studies will be required to further confirm these results in effort to validate MSM as a neuroprotectant in patients at risk of, or who are already diagnosed with, HAND. PMID:25893035

  1. MSM ameliorates HIV-1 Tat induced neuronal oxidative stress via rebalance of the glutathione cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seol-hee; Smith, Adam J; Tan, Jun; Shytle, R Douglas; Giunta, Brian

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat protein is a key neuropathological element in HIV associated neurogcognitive disorders (HAND); a type of cognitive syndrome thought to be at least partially mediated by increased levels of brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound known to reduce oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine whether administration of MSM attenuates HIV-1 Tat induced oxidative stress in mouse neuronal cells. MSM treatment significantly decreased neuronal cell NO and ROS secretion. Further, MSM significantly reversed HIV-1 Tat mediated reductions in reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as HIV-1 Tat mediated increases in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In addition, Tat reduced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key nuclear promoter of antioxidant activity, while MSM increased its translocation to the nucleus in the presence of Tat. These results suggest that HIV-1 Tat reduces the resiliency of neuron cells to oxidative stress which can be reversed by MSM. Given the clinical safety of MSM, future preclinical in vivo studies will be required to further confirm these results in effort to validate MSM as a neuroprotectant in patients at risk of, or who are already diagnosed with, HAND. PMID:25893035

  2. Preconditioning L6 Muscle Cells with Naringin Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Increases Glucose Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Dhanya, R.; Arun, K. B.; Nisha, V. M.; Syama, H. P.; Nisha, P.; Santhosh Kumar, T. R.; Jayamurthy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to pathological changes in diabetes and its complications. Thus, strategies to reduce oxidative stress may alleviate these pathogenic processes. Herein, we have investigated Naringin mediated regulation of glutathione (GSH) & intracellular free radical levels and modulation of glucose uptake under oxidative stress in L6 cell lines. The results from the study demonstrated a marked decrease in glutathione with a subsequent increase in free radical levels, which was reversed by the pretreatment of Naringin. We also observed that the increased malondialdehyde level, the marker of lipid peroxidation on induction of oxidative stress was retrieved on Naringin pretreatment. Addition of Naringin (100 μM) showed approximately 40% reduction in protein glycation in vitro. Furthermore, we observed a twofold increase in uptake of fluorescent labeled glucose namely 2-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)Amino)-2-Deoxyglucose (2 - NBDG) on Naringin treatment in differentiated L6 myoblast. The increased uptake of 2-NBDG by L6 myotubes may be attributed due to the enhanced translocation of GLUT4. Our results demonstrate that Naringin activate GSH synthesis through a novel antioxidant defense mechanism against excessive Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, contributing to the prevention of oxidative damage in addition to its effect on glycemic control. PMID:26147673

  3. Amelioration of anti-tuberculosis drug induced oxidative stress in kidneys by Spirulina fusiformis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sherry Joseph; Sabina, Evan Prince

    2016-08-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a rare complication caused by anti-tuberculosis therapy-induced oxidative stress. The Cyanobacterium Spirulina fusiformis Voronikhin belonging to Oscillatoriaceae family is used traditionally as a source of antioxidants against oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of S. fusiformis in modifying isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF)-induced changes in Wistar rat kidneys. Animals were divided into six groups: normal control rats; toxic control (INH & RIF-50 mg/kg b.w./d each; p.o.); INH & RIF + S. fusiformis (400 mg/kg b.w./d); INH & RIF + S. fusiformis (800 mg/kg b.w./d); S. fusiformis (800 mg/kg b.w./d) alone-treated rats; INH & RIF + silymarin (25 mg/kg b.w./d). Study duration was 28 d after which blood and kidneys were analyzed. We also studied the binding and interactions of the transcription factors Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) with INH, RIF, and representative active compounds of S. fusiformis by in silico methods. INH & RIF treatment caused significant (p< 0.05) decrease in antioxidant levels and significant (p< 0.05) increase in the levels of creatinine, urea, and uric acid showing impaired kidney function. Spirulina fusiformis ameliorated these effects in a dose dependent manner. Histological examination of kidneys supported these findings. Results of the in silico analyses showed that selected active components of S. fusiformis interact with LXR and FXR and could be a possible mechanism of action. S. fusiformis rendered protection against anti-tuberculosis drugs-induced oxidative stress in kidney tissues of rats. PMID:27183989

  4. Flaxseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid combination ameliorates hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in comparison to lard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in NAFLD. Both flaxseed oil (FO) and α-lipoic acid (LA) exert potential benefit to NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the combination of FO and LA on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats induced by high-fat diet. Methods LA was dissolved in flaxseed oil to a final concentration of 8 g/kg (FO + LA). The rodent diet contained 20% fat. One-fifth of the fat was soybean oil and the others were lard (control group), or 75% lard and 25% FO + LA (L-FO + LA group), or 50% lard and 50% FO + LA (M-FO + LA group), or FO + LA (H-FO + LA group). Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed for 10 weeks and then killed for liver collection. Results Intake of high-fat lard caused a significant hepatic steatosis. Replacement with FO + LA was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. The combination of FO and LA also significantly elevated hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the remarkable increase in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. Conclusion The combination of FO and LA may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as NAFLD by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:23634883

  5. Dioclea violacea lectin ameliorates oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in an experimental model of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Flavia PS; Porto, Marcella L; Tranhago, Camilla P; Piontkowski, Rogerio; Miguel, Emilio C; Miguel, Thaiz BAR; Martins, Jorge L; Nascimento, Kyria S; Balarini, Camille M; Cavada, Benildo S; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Vasquez, Elisardo C; Gava, Agata L

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by rapid and potentially reversible decline in renal function; however, the current management for AKI is nonspecific and associated with limited supportive care. Considering the need for more novel therapeutic approaches, we believe that lectins from Dioclea violacea (Dvl), based on their anti-inflammatory properties, could be beneficial for the treatment of AKI induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Dvl (1 mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle (100 µL) was administered to Wistar rats prior to the induction of bilateral renal ischemia (45 min). Following 24 hours of reperfusion, inulin and para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearances were performed to determine glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), renal blood flow (RBF) and renal vascular resistance (RVR). Renal inflammation was assessed using myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Kidney sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to evaluate morphological changes. Intracellular superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, nitric oxide and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. IR resulted in diminished GFR, RPF, RBF, and increased RVR; however, these changes were ameliorated in rats receiving Dvl. AKI-induced histomorphological changes, such as tubular dilation, tubular necrosis and proteinaceous casts, were attenuated by Dvl administration. Treatment with Dvl resulted in diminished renal MPO activity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats submitted to IR. Our data reveal that Dvl has a protective effect in the kidney, improving renal function after IR injury, probably by reducing neutrophil recruitment and oxidative stress. These results indicate that Dvl can be considered a new therapeutic approach for AKI-induced kidney injury. PMID:26885258

  6. Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst ameliorates behavioral alterations and oxidative markers in sodium valproate induced autism in rats.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, T; Sowjanya, J; Veeresh, B

    2012-05-01

    Early prenatal or post natal exposure to environmental insults such as valproic acid (VPA), thalidomide and ethanol could induce behavioral alterations similar to autistic symptoms. Bacopa monniera, a renowned plant in ayurvedic medicine is useful in several neurological disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of B. monniera on VPA induced autism. On 12.5 day of gestation the female pregnant rats were divided into control and VPA treated groups. They were administered saline/VPA (600 mg/kg, i.p.) respectively and allowed to raise their own litters. Group I-male pups of saline treated mothers. On postnatal day (PND) 21 VPA induced autistic male pups were divided into two groups (n = 6); Group II-received saline and Group III-received B. monniera (300 mg/kg/p.o.) from PND 21-35. Behavioral tests (nociception, locomotor activity, exploratory activity, anxiety and social behavior) were performed in both adolescence (PND 30-40) and adulthood (PND 90-110) period. At the end of behavioral testing animals were sacrificed, brain was isolated for biochemical estimations (serotonin, glutathione, catalase and nitric oxide) and histopathological examination. Induction of autism significantly affected normal behavior, increased oxidative stress and serotonin level, altered histoarchitecture of cerebellum (decreased number of purkinje cells, neuronal degeneration and chromatolysis) when compared with normal control group. Treatment with B. monniera significantly (p < 0.05) improved behavioral alterations, decreased oxidative stress markers and restored histoarchitecture of cerebellum. In conclusion, the present study suggests that B. monniera ameliorates the autistic symptoms possibly due to its anti-anxiety, antioxidant and neuro-protective activity. PMID:22322665

  7. D-004 ameliorates phenylephrine-induced urodynamic changes and increased prostate and bladder oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oyarzábal, Ambar; Pérez, Yohani; Mas, Rosa; Ravelo, Yazmin; Jiménez, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mainly depend on alpha1-adrenoreceptors (α1-ADR) stimulation, but a link with oxidative stress (OS) is also involved. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia fruits, antagonizes ADR-induced responses and produces antioxidant effects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether D-004 produce antioxidant effects in rats with phenylephrine (PHE)-induced urodynamic changes. Methods Rats were randomized into eight groups (ten rats/group): a negative vehicle control and seven groups injected with PHE: a positive control, three treated with D-004 (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) and three others with tamsulosin (0.4 mg/kg), grape seed extract (GSE) (250 mg/kg) and vitamin E (VE) (250 mg/kg), respectively. Results Effects on urinary total volume (UTV), volume voided per micturition (VM), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl groups (CG) concentrations in prostate and bladder homogenates were study outcomes. While VM and UTV lowered significantly in the positive control as compared to the negative control group, the opposite occurred with prostate and bladder MDA and CG values. D-004 (200-800 mg/kg) increased significantly both VM and UTV, lowered significantly MDA in prostate and bladder homogenates, and reduced GC levels only in the prostate. Tamsulosin increased significantly VM and UTV, but unchanged oxidative variables. GSE and VE unchanged the UTV, whereas VE, not GSE, modestly but significantly attenuated the PHE-induced decrease of VM. Conclusions Single oral administration of D-004 (200-800 mg/kg) was the only treatment that ameliorated the urodynamic changes and reduced increased oxidative variables in the prostate of rats with PHE-induced prostate hyperplasia. PMID:26816837

  8. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Ameliorated Diabetic Nephropathy by Attenuating Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Cao, Aili; Wang, Li; Chen, Xia; Guo, Hengjiang; Chu, Shuang; Zhang, Xuemei; Peng, Wen

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress has a great role in diabetes and diabetes induced organ damage. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the onset of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesize that ER stress inhibition could protect against kidney injury through anti-oxidative effects. To test whether block ER stress could attenuate oxidative stress and improve diabetic nephropathy in vivo and in vitro, the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), an ER stress inhibitor, on spontaneous diabetic nephropathy db/db mice, ER stress inducer or high glucose-triggered podocytes were studied. Mice were assigned to 3 groups (n=6 per group): control group (treated with vehicle), db/db group (treated with vehicle), and UDCA group (db/db mice treated with 40 mg/kg/d UDCA). After 8 weeks treatment, mice were sacrificed. Blood and kidneys were collected for the assessment of albumin/creatinine ratio, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), the expressions of SOD isoforms and glutathione peroxidase 1, as well as histopathological examination. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by 2'7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence. The results showed that UDCA alleviated renal ER stress-evoked cell death, oxidative stress, renal dysfunction, ROS production, upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and suppressed Bax in vivo and in vitro. Hence, inhibition ER stress diminishes oxidative stress and exerts renoprotective effects. PMID:27193377

  9. Amelioration of scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by Inonotus obliquus - a medicinal mushroom.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory. PMID:21779570

  10. Ameliorative effects of pycnogenol on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Tai-Hwan; Yang, Young-Su; Lee, Jong-Chan; Moon, Chang-Jong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Jun, Woojin; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2007-11-01

    This study evaluated the putative antioxidant activity of Pycnogenol (PYC) against CCl4-induced hepatic oxidative damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. A single oral dose of CCl4 (1.25 mL/kg) produced significantly increased levels of serum aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. In addition, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and decreased catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were observed in the hepatic tissues. However, concomitant administration with PYC (10 or 20 mg/kg) significantly improved CCl4-induced hepatic injury, as evidenced by the decline of serum AST and ALT activities in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, PYC reduced MDA concentration and increased GSH levels and catalase, SOD and GST activities in hepatic tissues, indicating that concomitant administration with PYC efficiently prevent the CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats. The free radical scavenging assay showed that PYC has a dose-dependent scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. These results indicate that PYC has an antioxidant effect against CCl4-induced hepatic oxidative damage and is useful as a hepatoprotective agent against various liver diseases induced by oxidative stress. PMID:17886222

  11. Bovine lactoferrin ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced renal oxidative damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Yasumasa; Kono, Isato; Kuriki, Takayoshi; Funahashi, Satomi; Fushimi, Soichiro; Iqbal, Mohammad; Okada, Shigeru; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    Milk provides a well-balanced source of amino acids and other ingredients. One of the functional ingredients in milk is lactoferrin (LF). LF presents a wide variety of bioactivities and functions as a radical scavenger in models using iron-ascorbate complexes and asbestos. Human clinical trials of oral LF administration for the prevention of colon polyps have been successful and demonstrated that dietary compounds exhibit direct interactions. However, antioxidative properties of LF in distant organs require further investigation. To study the antioxidant property of LF, we employed bovine lactoferrin (bLF) using the rat model of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced renal tubular oxidative injury. We fed rats with bLF (0.05%, w/w) in basal chow for 4 weeks and sacrificed them after Fe-NTA treatment. After intraperitoneal administration of 9.0 mg iron/kg Fe-NTA for 4 and 24 h, bLF pretreatment suppressed elevation of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. In addition, we observed protective effects against renal oxidative tubular damage and maintenance of antioxidant enzyme activities in the bLF-pretreated group. We thus demonstrated the antioxidative effect of bLF against Fe-NTA-induced renal oxidative injury. These results suggest that LF intake is useful for the prevention of renal tubular oxidative damage mediated by iron. PMID:22962523

  12. Astaxanthin ameliorates aluminum chloride-induced spatial memory impairment and neuronal oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Saadi, Hasan Mahmud; Mahmud, Waich; Ibrahim, Abdirahman Adam; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Saifullah, A R M; Tropa, Sarjana Tarannum; Quddus, A H M Ruhul

    2016-04-15

    Aluminum chloride induces neurodegenerative disease in animal model. Evidence suggests that aluminum intake results in the activation of glial cells and generation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, astaxanthin is an antioxidant having potential neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigate the effect of astaxanthin on aluminum chloride-exposed behavioral brain function and neuronal oxidative stress (OS). Male Swiss albino mice (4 months old) were divided into 4 groups: (i) control (distilled water), (ii) aluminum chloride, (iii) astaxanthin+aluminum chloride, and (iv) astaxanthin. Two behavioral tests; radial arm maze and open field test were conducted, and OS markers were assayed from the brain and liver tissues following 42 days of treatment. Aluminum exposed group showed a significant reduction in spatial memory performance and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, aluminum group exhibited a marked deterioration of oxidative markers; lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and advanced oxidation of protein products (AOPP) in the brain. To the contrary, co-administration of astaxanthin and aluminum has shown improved spatial memory, locomotor activity, and OS. These results indicate that astaxanthin improves aluminum-induced impaired memory performances presumably by the reduction of OS in the distinct brain regions. We suggest a future study to determine the underlying mechanism of astaxanthin in improving aluminum-exposed behavioral deficits. PMID:26927754

  13. Boldine Ameliorates Vascular Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction: Therapeutic Implication for Hypertension and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yeh Siiang; Ling, Wei Chih; Murugan, Dharmani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that a growing list of natural products, as components of the daily diet or phytomedical preparations, are a rich source of antioxidants. Boldine [(S)-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxy-aporphine], an aporphine alkaloid, is a potent antioxidant found in the leaves and bark of the Chilean boldo tree. Boldine has been extensively reported as a potent “natural” antioxidant and possesses several health-promoting properties like anti-inflammatory, antitumor promoting, antidiabetic, and cytoprotective. Boldine exhibited significant endothelial protective effect in animal models of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In isolated thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and db/db mice, repeated treatment of boldine significantly improved the attenuated acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations. The endothelial protective role of boldine correlated with increased nitric oxide levels and reduction of vascular reactive oxygen species via inhibition of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits, p47phox and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2, and angiotensin II–induced bone morphogenetic protein-4 oxidative stress cascade with downregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and bone morphogenetic protein-4 expression. Taken together, it seems that boldine may exert protective effects on the endothelium via several mechanisms, including protecting nitric oxide from degradation by reactive oxygen species as in oxidative stress–related diseases. The present review supports a complimentary therapeutic role of the phytochemical, boldine, against endothelial dysfunctions associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus by interfering with the oxidative stress–mediated signaling pathway. PMID:25469805

  14. Boldine Ameliorates Vascular Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction: Therapeutic Implication for Hypertension and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yeh Siiang; Ling, Wei Chih; Murugan, Dharmani; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that a growing list of natural products, as components of the daily diet or phytomedical preparations, are a rich source of antioxidants. Boldine [(S)-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxy-aporphine], an aporphine alkaloid, is a potent antioxidant found in the leaves and bark of the Chilean boldo tree. Boldine has been extensively reported as a potent "natural" antioxidant and possesses several health-promoting properties like anti-inflammatory, antitumor promoting, antidiabetic, and cytoprotective. Boldine exhibited significant endothelial protective effect in animal models of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In isolated thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and db/db mice, repeated treatment of boldine significantly improved the attenuated acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations. The endothelial protective role of boldine correlated with increased nitric oxide levels and reduction of vascular reactive oxygen species via inhibition of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits, p47 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2, and angiotensin II-induced bone morphogenetic protein-4 oxidative stress cascade with downregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and bone morphogenetic protein-4 expression. Taken together, it seems that boldine may exert protective effects on the endothelium via several mechanisms, including protecting nitric oxide from degradation by reactive oxygen species as in oxidative stress-related diseases. The present review supports a complimentary therapeutic role of the phytochemical, boldine, against endothelial dysfunctions associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus by interfering with the oxidative stress-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:25469805

  15. Myricetin protects against diet-induced obesity and ameliorates oxidative stress in C57BL/6 mice*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hong-ming; Feng, Li-na; Zheng, Xiao-dong; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myricetin is a naturally occurring antioxidant commonly found in various plants. However, little information is available with respect to its direct anti-obesity effects. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of myricetin on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Results: Administration of myricetin dramatically reduced the body weight of diet-induced obese mice compared with solely HFD-induced mice. Several parameters related to obesity including serum glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were significantly decreased in myricetin-treated mice. Moreover, obesity-associated oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) were ameliorated in myricetin-treated mice. Further investigation revealed that the protective effect of myricetin against HFD-induced obesity in mice appeared to be partially mediated through the down-regulation of mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Conclusions: Consumption of myricetin may help to prevent obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. PMID:27256677

  16. Lignans from Schisandra chinensis ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate brain oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26847610

  17. Pentoxifylline ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice by upregulating fatty acid β-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jia-Hung; Chao, Jung; Chang, Ming-Ling; Peng, Wen-Huang; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pao, Li-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which includes simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, is characterised by abnormal fat accumulation in the liver in the absence of excessive alcohol intake. In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), concurrent NAFLD might increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and the mortality rate. Although several studies have examined the effectiveness of pentoxifylline (PTX) in NAFLD treatment, no results are available to verify the effectiveness of PTX in treating T2D associated with NAFLD. In this study, we developed a combined high-fat diet-induced obesity and low-dose streptozocin-induced hyperglycaemia mouse model to mimic the concurrent NAFLD and T2D pathological condition. By combining physiological assessments, pathological examinations, metabolomics studies on blood, urine, and liver, and measurements of gene and protein expression, we elucidated the effectiveness and the underlying mechanism of action of PTX in the hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice. Our results revealed that PTX ameliorated NAFLD in the hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice by upregulating fatty acid β-oxidation. Furthermore, the glycolysis pathway and branched-chain amino acid-related pathways in these mice were restored by PTX. PMID:27612024

  18. Pentoxifylline ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice by upregulating fatty acid β-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jia-Hung; Chao, Jung; Chang, Ming-Ling; Peng, Wen-Huang; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pao, Li-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which includes simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, is characterised by abnormal fat accumulation in the liver in the absence of excessive alcohol intake. In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), concurrent NAFLD might increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and the mortality rate. Although several studies have examined the effectiveness of pentoxifylline (PTX) in NAFLD treatment, no results are available to verify the effectiveness of PTX in treating T2D associated with NAFLD. In this study, we developed a combined high-fat diet-induced obesity and low-dose streptozocin-induced hyperglycaemia mouse model to mimic the concurrent NAFLD and T2D pathological condition. By combining physiological assessments, pathological examinations, metabolomics studies on blood, urine, and liver, and measurements of gene and protein expression, we elucidated the effectiveness and the underlying mechanism of action of PTX in the hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice. Our results revealed that PTX ameliorated NAFLD in the hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice by upregulating fatty acid β-oxidation. Furthermore, the glycolysis pathway and branched-chain amino acid-related pathways in these mice were restored by PTX. PMID:27612024

  19. Glutamate ameliorates copper-induced oxidative injury by regulating antioxidant defences in fish intestine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the protective effect of glutamate (Glu) in Cu-induced oxidative injury in fish intestine in vivo and enterocytes in vitro. The results indicated that exposure to 6 mg/l Cu for 72 h induced the production of reactive oxygen species, thereby increasing protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in enterocytes of grass carp in vitro. Cells exposed to Cu alone resulted in a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase release, which is accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxy radical (AHR) activities and GSH content. Pre-treatment with Glu remarkably prevented the toxic effects of Cu on the T-SOD, GST, GR, AHR, and ASA activities and GSH content in enterocytes. However, Cu induced an adaptive increase in the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Glu supplementation further increased GPx activity in enterocytes. Interestingly, the experiment in vivo showed that Glu pre-supplementation significantly elevated SOD, GPx, GST, GR, ASA and AHR activities, as well as GSH content. Further results showed that pre-treatment with Glu could alleviate Cu-induced oxidative injury by elevating antioxidant enzyme activities through regulating the expression of NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA. Together, these results indicated that Glu could attenuate Cu-induced cellular oxidative damage in fish intestine, likely mediated through Nrf2 signalling pathways regulating mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzyme genes and synthesis of GSH. PMID:27184647

  20. Amelioration of the haloperidol-induced memory impairment and brain oxidative stress by cinnarizine

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Salem, Neveen A.; El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E.M.K.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms and impaired memory, owing to blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. Cinnarizine is a calcium channel blocker with D2 receptor blocking properties which is widely used in treatment of vertiginous disorders. The present study aimed to see whether cinnarizine would worsen the effect of haloperidol on memory function and on oxidative stress in mice brain. Cinnarizine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), haloperidol, or haloperidol combined with cinnarizine was administered daily via the subcutaneous route and mice were examined on weekly basis for their ability to locate a submerged plate in the water maze test. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting drug injection. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (nitrite/nitrate) were determined in brain. Haloperidol substantially impaired water maze performance. The mean time taken to find the escape platform (latency) was significantly delayed by haloperidol (2 mg/kg, i.p.) on weeks 1-8 of the test, compared with saline control group. In contrast, those treated with haloperidol and cinnarizine showed significantly shorter latencies, which indicated that learning had occurred immediately. Haloperidol resulted in increased MDA in cortex, striatum, cerebellum and midbrain. GSH decreased in cortex, striatum and cerebellum and nitric oxide increased in cortex. Meanwhile, treatment with cinnarizine (20 mg/kg) and haloperidol resulted in significant decrease in MDA cortex, striatum, cerebellum and midbrain and an increase in GSH in cortex and striatum, compared with haloperidol group. These data suggest that cinnarizine improves the haloperidol induced brain oxidative stress and impairment of learning and memory in the water maze test in mice.

  1. Ameliorative effects of Trichosanthes dioica Extract in suppressing inflammatory mediators and attenuating oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Chetna; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Hamid, Hinna; Javed, Kalim; Bano, Sameena; Ali, Yakub; Nazreen, Syed; Haider, Saqlain

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Trichosanthes dioica and its successive fractions. The effect on oxidative stress involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation was evaluated. The ethanolic extract and its successive fractions were administered at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg b. w. for testing their anti-inflammatory activity by a carrageenan-induced edema model. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited significant potency against inflammation. Pertaining to mechanistic insight, the anti-inflammatory effect might be attributed to the attenuation in tumor necrosis factor-α level (ELISA assay) and reduced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear transcription factor-κB (immunohistochemistry). The alleviation in oxidative stress has been pertinent to the elevation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione) by active fractions. Furthermore, the ulcerogenic effect was insignificant even at a three times higher dose. Finally, it was concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction which showed significant biological potential against inflammation and oxidative stress could be viewed as a source of effective treatment. PMID:25782035

  2. Stanniocalcin-1 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shih-En; Wu, Chin-Pyng; Wu, Shu-Yu; Peng, Chung-Kan; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Chu, Shi-Jye; Huang, Kun-Lun

    2014-06-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) is an endogenous glycoprotein whose anti-inflammatory effects occur through induction of uncoupling proteins to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous recombinant human STC1 (rhSTC1) protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice underwent intratracheal spraying of LPS (20 µg/10 g body wt), and lung injury was assessed 24h later by analyzing pulmonary edema, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung histopathology. Lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and expression of STC1 and its downstream uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were analyzed at specific time points. Expression of UCP2 was suppressed initially but was subsequently upregulated after STC1 elevation in response to intratracheal administration of LPS. Intratracheal rhSTC1 treatment 1h before or after LPS spraying significantly attenuated pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, and acute lung injury. Pretreatment with STC1 short interfering RNA 48 h before LPS spraying inhibited the expression of STC1 and UCP2 and significantly increased the extent of lung injury. These findings suggest that STC1 is an endogenous stress protein that may counteract LPS-induced lung injury by inhibiting the inflammatory cascade and inducing antioxidant and antiapoptotic mechanisms. However, the potential clinical application of STC1 and the direct linkage between UCP2 and LPS-induced lung injury remain to be further investigated. PMID:24685991

  3. Origanum majorana Attenuates Nephrotoxicity of Cisplatin Anticancer Drug through Ameliorating Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Amel M; Desouky, Shreen; Marzouk, Mohamed; Sayed, Amany A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that cisplatin is an important anticancer drug, its clinical utilization is limited by nephrotoxicity during long term medication. Combined cisplatin chemotherapy with plant extracts can diminish toxicity and enhance the antitumor efficacy of the drug. This study evaluated the effect of Originum majorana ethanolic extract (OMEE) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups as follows: a control group, a group treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg body weight), and a group that received both cisplatin and OMEE (500 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Cisplatin induced a significant increase in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels. However, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly diminished. Conversely, OMEE significantly modulated the renal and oxidative markers negatively impacted by cisplatin. OMEE significantly reduced the effects of cisplatin-induced changes in renal and oxidative markers, possibly through its free radical scavenging activity. Thus, OMEE may be combined with cisplatin to alleviate nephrotoxicity in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27164131

  4. Ochratoxin-induced toxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis ameliorated by quercetin--modulation by Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Ramyaa, Periasamy; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya

    2013-12-01

    Ochratoxin (OTA) is one of the most abundant food contaminating mycotoxins and is commonly present in the food chain. Many of the effects associated with OTA, appear to be mediated through oxidative stress. Although the toxicity of OTA is fairly well characterized, antidotes for alleviating the toxicity are sparsely reported. Dietary antioxidants have gained much importance in the recent years for their antioxidative and therapeutic properties. In the present study the therapeutic strategy was directed towards use of quercetin, a dietary antioxidant to combat OTA-induced toxicity in Vero cell line. Our results demonstrate that quercetin pre-treatment suppressed OTA-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. It modulated OTA-induced alteration on the antioxidant defence through activation of Nrf2 pathway. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cell cycle analysis indicated that quercetin prevented OTA-induced apoptosis. It also inhibited the activation of caspase cascade that leads to DNA fragmentation. Quercetin also exhibited antigenotoxic potential by attenuating OTA-induced DNA damage and micronucleus (MN) formation. The results of the study demonstrate for the first time that quercetin pre-treatment prevents OTA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in Vero cell line. PMID:23994659

  5. Origanum majorana Attenuates Nephrotoxicity of Cisplatin Anticancer Drug through Ameliorating Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M.; Desouky, Shreen; Marzouk, Mohamed; Sayed, Amany A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that cisplatin is an important anticancer drug, its clinical utilization is limited by nephrotoxicity during long term medication. Combined cisplatin chemotherapy with plant extracts can diminish toxicity and enhance the antitumor efficacy of the drug. This study evaluated the effect of Originum majorana ethanolic extract (OMEE) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups as follows: a control group, a group treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg body weight), and a group that received both cisplatin and OMEE (500 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Cisplatin induced a significant increase in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels. However, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly diminished. Conversely, OMEE significantly modulated the renal and oxidative markers negatively impacted by cisplatin. OMEE significantly reduced the effects of cisplatin-induced changes in renal and oxidative markers, possibly through its free radical scavenging activity. Thus, OMEE may be combined with cisplatin to alleviate nephrotoxicity in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27164131

  6. PACAP protects against inflammatory-mediated toxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells: implication for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dwayne; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Tizabi, Yousef

    2014-10-01

    There has been a growing recognition of the role of neuroinflammation caused by microglia-exaggerated release of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino acid containing neuropeptide that has been shown to possess neurotrophic as well as neuroprotective properties. In this study, we sought to determine whether PACAP could protect SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells against toxicity induced by inflammatory mediators. For this purpose, THP-1 cells which possess microglia-like property were stimulated by a combination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and the media containing inflammatory mediators were isolated and applied to SH-SY5Y cells. Such treatment resulted in approximately 54 % cell death as well as a reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). Pretreatment of the SH-SY5Y cells with PACAP (1-38) dose-dependently attenuated toxicity induced by the inflammatory mediators. PACAP effects, in turn, were dose-dependently blocked by the PACAP receptor antagonist (PACAP 6-38). These results suggest protective effects of PACAP against inflammatory-induced toxicity in a cellular model of PD that is likely mediated by enhancement of cell survival markers through activation of PACAP receptors. Hence, PACAP or its agonists could be of therapeutic benefit in inflammatory-mediated PD. PMID:24740430

  7. Isotetrandrine ameliorates tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress through upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lidong; Ci, Xinxin; Lv, Hongming; Wang, Xiaosong; Qin, F Xiaofeng; Cheng, Genhong

    2016-08-01

    1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine, a naturally occurring plant alkaloid found in Mahonia of Berberidaceae, possesses anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral properties, but the antioxidative activity and mechanism action remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidative effect and mechanism of 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. We found that 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine suppressed cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, and glutathione depletion. Additionally, our study confirmed that 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 expression and nuclear translocation of factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Specifically, the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 induced by 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine was associated with Nrf2 negative regulatory protein Keap1 inactivation and phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Preincubation with thiol-reducing agents reduced 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression, and treatment with either extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase or c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitors attenuated the levels of 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine-induced Nrf2 activation and heme oxygenase-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effect of 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine was abolished by heme oxygenase-1, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitors. These results indicated that the 1R, 1'S-isotetrandrine ameliorated tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage through upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression by the dissociation of Nrf2 from Nrf2-Keap1 complex via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation and Keap1 inactivation. PMID:27190261

  8. Ameliorative effect of Opuntia ficus indica juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice (OFIj) on reversing oxidative damages induced by chronic ethanol intake in rat erythrocytes. OFIj was firstly analyzed with HPLC for phenolic and flavonoids content. Secondly, 40 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups and treated for 90 days as follows: control (C), ethanol-only 3 g/kg body weight (b.w) (E), low dose of OFIj 2 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Ldj+E), high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Hdj+E), and only a high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100g b.w (Hdj). HPLC analysis indicated high concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OFIj. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Changes in the erythrocyte's antioxidant ability were accompanied by enhanced oxidative modification of lipids (increase of malondialdeyde level) and proteins (increase in carbonyl groups). Interestingly, pre-administration of either 2 ml/100 g b.w or 4 ml/100 g b.w of OFIj to ethanol-intoxicated rats significantly reversed decreases in enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants parameters in erythrocytes. Also, the administration of OFIj significantly protected lipids and proteins against ethanol-induced oxidative modifications in rat erythrocytes. The beneficial effect of OFIj can result from the inhibition of ethanol-induced free radicals chain reactions in rat erythrocytes or from the enhancement of the endogenous antioxidants activities. PMID:22285760

  9. Diphenyl diselenide ameliorates behavioral and oxidative parameters in an animal model of mania induced by ouabain.

    PubMed

    Brüning, César Augusto; Prigol, Marina; Luchese, Cristiane; Pinton, Simone; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2012-08-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and severe mood disorder associated with higher rates of suicide and disability. Ouabain, a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, induces behavioral changes in rats and has been used as a model of mania. The aim of this study was to investigate if diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)(2)], an organoselenium compound with pharmacological properties, is effective against ouabain-induced hyperactivity and alterations in cerebral oxidative status of rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of (PhSe)(2) (50 mg/kg, p.o.) 30 min before i.c.v. injection of ouabain (5 μl, 10(-5) M) or with the mood stabilizer, lithium chloride (LiCl) (45 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day, for 7 days before the administration of ouabain. Open-field locomotion was quantified after ouabain administration. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidatively modified proteins, tyrosine nitration, ascorbic acid and non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were determined in the whole brain. Ouabain increased locomotor activity in the open-field test and pretreatment with (PhSe)(2) or LiCl blocked this effect. In addition, ouabain increased lipid peroxidation and oxidatively modified proteins, demonstrated by a significant increase in TBARS levels and carbonyl content, which were attenuated by pretreatment with (PhSe)(2) or LiCl. The activities of SOD and CAT were increased by ouabain. LiCl was effective on preventing the increases of both enzyme activities, but (PhSe)(2) attenuated the ouabain effect in SOD activity. GPx and GR activities, ascorbic acid, NPSH and tyrosine nitration levels were not altered in all experimental groups. Similarly to LiCl, (PhSe)(2) produced an antimanic-like action, since it was effective against the locomotor hyperactivity elicited by ouabain. The results also indicated that (PhSe)(2) was effective against oxidative stress

  10. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Lili; Shu, Xugang; Sun, Xiaohong; Mi, Shumei; Yang, Yuhui; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-22

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes that are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. PMID:26740181

  11. Amelioration of Isoproterenol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Myocardium by Withania somnifera Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Ahmmed, Istiyak; Ahmed, Romana; Tanvir, E. M.; Afroz, Rizwana; Paul, Sudip; Gan, Siew Hua; Alam, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective role of Withania somnifera leaf extract (WSLEt) on isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) administered to rats for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels and serum lipid profiles, as well as the activities of some marker enzymes. In addition to these diagnostic markers, there were increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) in the myocardium. However, oral pretreatment (100 mg/kg b.w.) with WSLEt for 4 weeks elicited a significant cardioprotective activity by lowering the levels of cTnI, lipid profiles, and marker enzymes. The levels of LPO products were also significantly decreased. Elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes were also observed in rats pretreated with WSLEt. As further confirmed histopathologically, our findings strongly suggest that the cardioprotective effect of WSLEt on myocardium experiencing ISO-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidant system and an inhibition of LPO in the myocardial membrane. We conclude that WSLEt confers some protection against oxidative damage in ISO-induced MI in rats. PMID:26539517

  12. A Beverage Containing Fermented Black Soybean Ameliorates Ferric Nitrilotriacetate-Induced Renal Oxidative Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Yasumasa; Iqbal, Mohammad; Kawakami, Norito; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Toyokuni, Shinya; Okada, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    It is beneficial to seek scientific basis for the effects of functional foods. Natural pigments derived from plants are widely known as possible antioxidants. Black soybean contains a larger amount of anthocyanins than regular soybean. Here we studied the antioxidative effect of a beverage obtained via citric acid fermentation of black soybean (BBS), using a rat model of renal oxidative injury induced by a renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate. BBS (10 ml/kg) was orally administered 30 min before ferric nitrilotriacetate treatment. Renal lipid peroxidation was significantly suppressed in the BBS-pretreated animals concomitant with decrease in 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Maintenance of renal activities of antioxidative enzymes including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and quinone reductase was significantly better in the BBS-pretreated rats. Elevation of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen was significantly suppressed in the BBS-pretreated rats. These data suggest that dietary intake of BBS is useful for the prevention of renal tubular oxidative damage mediate by iron, and warrant further investigation. PMID:21103028

  13. Benzothiazole Amphiphiles Ameliorate Amyloid β-Related Cell Toxicity and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, Jessica L; Chung, Tim S; Liu, Haiyan; Prangkio, Panchika; Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry

    2016-06-15

    Oxidative stress from the increase of reactive oxygen species in cells is a common part of the normal aging process and is accelerated in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we report the evaluation of three benzothiazole amphiphiles (BAMs) that exhibit improved biocompatibility without loss of biological activity against amyloid-β induced cell damage compared to a previously reported hexa(ethylene glycol) derivative of benzothiazole aniline (BTA-EG6). The reduced toxicity of these BAM agents compared to BTA-EG6 corresponded with their reduced propensity to induce membrane lysis. In addition, all of the new BAMs were capable of protecting differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from toxicity and concomitant oxidative stress induced by AD-related aggregated Aβ (1-42) peptides. Binding and microscopy studies support that these BAM agents target Aβ and inhibit the interactions of catalase with Aβ in cells, which, in turn, can account for an observed inhibition of Aβ-induced increases in hydrogen peroxide in cells treated with these compounds. These results support that this family of benzothiazole amphiphiles may have therapeutic potential for treating cellular damage associated with AD and other Aβ-related neurologic diseases. PMID:27055069

  14. Amelioration of Isoproterenol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Myocardium by Withania somnifera Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Ahmmed, Istiyak; Ahmed, Romana; Tanvir, E M; Afroz, Rizwana; Paul, Sudip; Gan, Siew Hua; Alam, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective role of Withania somnifera leaf extract (WSLEt) on isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) administered to rats for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels and serum lipid profiles, as well as the activities of some marker enzymes. In addition to these diagnostic markers, there were increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) in the myocardium. However, oral pretreatment (100 mg/kg b.w.) with WSLEt for 4 weeks elicited a significant cardioprotective activity by lowering the levels of cTnI, lipid profiles, and marker enzymes. The levels of LPO products were also significantly decreased. Elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes were also observed in rats pretreated with WSLEt. As further confirmed histopathologically, our findings strongly suggest that the cardioprotective effect of WSLEt on myocardium experiencing ISO-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidant system and an inhibition of LPO in the myocardial membrane. We conclude that WSLEt confers some protection against oxidative damage in ISO-induced MI in rats. PMID:26539517

  15. Andrographis paniculata ameliorates carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-dependent hepatic damage and toxicity: diminution of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (hempedu bumi) is a plant that possesses many medicinal values in treating several diseases and for health care maintenance. However, its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of A. paniculata and its mechanism of action in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) challenge of rats at a dose of 1.2 ml/kg body weight-induced oxidative stress in the liver. This was evidenced by augmentation in lipid peroxidation, which was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and depletion in the level of reduced glutathione (P < 0.05). Parrallel to these changes, CCl(4) challenge too, enhanced hepatic damage as evidenced by sharp increase in serum transaminases (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) (P < 0.05). Additionally, the impairment of liver function corresponded to histolopathological changes. However, most of these changes were reversed in a dose-dependent fashion by pre-treatment of animals with A. paniculata (P < 0.05). The ability of A. paniculata to scavenge the 2,2-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was determined through its EC(50) value. The EC(50) value of A. paniculata was 583.60 ± 4.25 µg/ml. In addition, A. paniculata was found to contain 65.37 ± 1.20 mg/g total phenolics expressed as gallic acid equivalent. From these studies, it is concluded that A. paniculata could be used as a hepatoprotective agent and possesses the potential to treat or prevent degenerative diseases where oxidative stress is implicated. PMID:21801496

  16. Zinc supplementation ameliorates glycoprotein components and oxidative stress changes in the lung of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sacan, Ozlem; Turkyilmaz, Ismet Burcu; Bayrak, Bertan Boran; Mutlu, Ozgur; Akev, Nuriye; Yanardag, Refiye

    2016-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a component of numerous enzymes that function in a wide range of biological process, including growth, development, immunity and intermediary metabolism. Zn may play a role in chronic states such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Zn acts as cofactor and for many enzymes and proteins and has antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Taking into consideration that lung is a possible target organ for diabetic complications, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of zinc on the glycoprotein content and antioxidant enzyme activities of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat tissues. Female Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I, control; Group II, control + zinc sulfate; Group III, STZ-diabetic; Group IV, diabetic + zinc sulfate. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Zinc sulfate was given daily by gavage at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight every day for 60 days to groups II and IV. At the last day of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, lung tissues were taken. Also, glycoprotein components, tissue factor (TF) activity, protein carbonyl (PC), advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP), hydroxyproline, and enzyme activities in lung tissues were determined. Glycoprotein components, TF activity, lipid peroxidation, non enzymatic glycation, PC, AOPP, hydroxyl proline, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase, adenosine deaminase and prolidase significantly increased in lung tissues of diabetic rats. Also, glutathione levels, paraoxonase, arylesterase, carbonic anhydrase, and Na(+)/K(+)- ATPase activities were decreased. Administration of zinc significantly reversed these effects. Thus, the study indicates that zinc possesses a significantly beneficial effect on the glycoprotein components and oxidant/antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:26817646

  17. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  18. Ukrain (NSC 631570) ameliorates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute lung injury by reducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Cengiz; Kocak, Fatma Emel; Akcilar, Raziye; Akcilar, Aydin; Savran, Bircan; Zeren, Sezgin; Bayhan, Zulfu; Bayat, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes severe destruction in remote organs. Lung damage is a frequently seen complication after intestinal I/R. Ukrain (NSC 631570) is a synthetic thiophosphate derivative of alkaloids from the extract of the celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) plant. We investigated the effect of Ukrain in animals with lung injury induced by intestinal I/R. Adult male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, Ukrain, I/R, I/R with Ukrain. Before intestinal I/R was induced, Ukrain was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 7.0 mg/body weight. After 1 h ischemia and 2 h reperfusion period, lung tissues were excised. Tissue levels of total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured and oxidative stress indices (OSI) were calculated. Lung tissues were also examined histopathologically. TOS and OSI levels markedly increased and TAS levels decreased in the I/R group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). TOS and OSI levels markedly decreased and TAS levels increased in the I/R with Ukrain group compared with the group subjected to IR only (P < 0.05). Severe hemorrhage, alveolar septal thickening, and leukocyte infiltration were observed in the I/R group. In the I/R with Ukrain group, morphologic changes occurring as a result of lung damage attenuated and histopathological scores reduced compared to the I/R group (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that Ukrain pretreatment could reduce lung injury induced by intestinal I/R induced via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PMID:26773189

  19. Synergistic antioxidant action of vitamin E and rutin SNEDDS in ameliorating oxidative stress in a Parkinson’s disease model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shrestha; Narang, Jasjeet K.; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-09-01

    helping in ameliorating oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease.

  20. Water Spinach, Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), Ameliorates Lead Toxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Dua, Tarun K.; Khanra, Ritu; Das, Shilpa; Barma, Sujata; Joardar, Swarnalata; Bhattacharjee, Niloy; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), an aquatic edible plant, is traditionally used against heavy metal toxicity in India. The current study intended to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous) extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against experimentally induced Pb-intoxication. Methods The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on mouse hepatocytes by cell viability assay followed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometric assay. The effect on ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, intracellular redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with Pb-acetate (6.8 μM) along with AEIA (400 μg/ml). The effects on the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins were estimated by western blotting. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, serum biochemical, tissue redox status, Pb bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to estimate the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication. Results Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes showed a gradual reduction of cell viability dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 6.8 μM. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly enhanced levels (p < 0.01) of ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion (p < 0.01) of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. However, AEIA treatment could significantly restore the aforementioned parameters in murine hepatocytes near to normalcy. Besides, AEIA significantly reversed (p < 0.05–0.01) the alterations of transcription levels of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl 2, Bad, Cyt C, Apaf-1, cleaved caspases [caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9], Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, Pb-acetate treatment caused significantly high intracellular Pb burden and oxidative pressure in the kidney, liver, heart, brain and testes in mice. In addition, the haematological and serum biochemical factors were changed significantly in Pb-acetate-treated animals. AEIA

  1. Ursodeoxycholic acid ameliorates experimental ileitis counteracting intestinal barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bernardes-Silva, Carlos Felipe; Damião, Adérson O M C; Sipahi, Aytan M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Iriya, Kiyoshi; Lopasso, Fabio P; Buchpiguel, Carlos A; Lordello, Maria Laura L; Agostinho, Carmem L O; Laudanna, Antonio A

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on intestinal permeability (IP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in indomethacin-induced enteropathy, a well-known experimental model of Crohn's disease. Seventy-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive indomethacin, indomethacin + UDCA, or vehicles. Indomethacin induced a significant increase in the fraction of urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA following oral administration (7.9 +/- 1.3 vs 2.3 +/- 0.2%; P < 0.05) and lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence in intestinal fragments ex vivo (10.1 +/- 1.9 vs 2.6 +/- 0.4 cpm x 10(3)/mg; P < 0.05) compared to controls. UDCA significantly reversed these effects (P < 0.05), without being incorporated in biliary bile acid composition (HPLC analysis). These findings support a local protective effect of UDCA in experimental ileitis by the modulation of intestinal barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress. In short, they provide insights into mechanisms of action of UDCA in intestinal inflammation and a new perspective on the treatment of Crohn's disease. PMID:15573906

  2. Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Awasthi, Surabhi; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice is a major problem for South-East Asia. In the present study, the effect of selenium (Se) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to As was studied in hydroponic culture. Arsenic accumulation, plant growth, thiolic ligands and antioxidative enzyme activities were assayed after single (As and Se) and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). The results indicated that the presence of Se (25 µM) decreased As accumulation by threefold in roots and twofold in shoots as compared to single As (25 µM) exposed plants. Arsenic induced oxidative stress in roots and shoots was significantly ameliorated by Se supplementation. The observed positive response was found associated with the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) and induced levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) in As + Se exposed plants as compared to single As treatment. Selenium supplementation modulated the thiol metabolism enzymes viz., γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15). Gene expression analysis of several metalloid responsive genes (LOX, SOD and MATE) showed upregulation during As stress, however, significant downregulation during As + Se exposure as compared to single As treatment. Gene expressions of enzymes of antioxidant and GSH and PC biosynthetic systems, such as APX, CAT, GPx, γ-ECS and PCS were found to be significantly positively correlated with their enzyme activities. The findings suggested that Se supplementation could be an effective strategy to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice plants. PMID:24985886

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an islet substance serving as an intra-islet amplifier of glucose-induced insulin secretion in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yada, T; Sakurada, M; Ishihara, H; Nakata, M; Shioda, S; Yaekura, K; Hamakawa, N; Yanagida, K; Kikuchi, M; Oka, Y

    1997-01-01

    1. We examined whether pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide with 38 or 27 residues (PACAP-38 or PACAP-27) serves as an intra-islet regulator of glucose-induced insulin secretion in rats. PACAP antiserum specific for PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 was used to neutralize the effect of endogenous PACAP in islets. PACAP release from islets was bioassayed using the response of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in single beta-cells, monitored by dual-wavelength fura-2 microfluorometry. Expression of PACAP mRNA was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while expression of PACAP was studied by metabolic labelling and immunoblotting. Localization of PACAP receptors was studied immunohistochemically. 2. High glucose-stimulated insulin release from isolated islets was attenuated by PACAP antiserum but not by non-immune sera. 3. The islet incubation medium with high glucose (Med) possessed a capacity, which was neutralized by PACAP antiserum, to increase [Ca2+]i in beta-cells. PACAP antiserum also neutralized the [Ca2+]i-increasing action of synthetic PACAP-38 and PACAP-27, but not that of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and glucagon. 4. Both Med and synthetic PACAP increased [Ca2+]i in beta-cells only in the presence of stimulatory, but not basal, glucose concentrations. In contrast, ATP, a substance that is known to be released from beta-cells, increased [Ca2+]i in beta-cells at both and stimulatory glucose concentrations. 5. Expression of PACAP mRNA and biosynthesis of PACAP-38 were detected in islets and a beta-cell line, MIN6. 6. Immunoreactivity for PACAP-selective type-I receptor was observed in islets. 7. [Ca2+]i measurements combined with immunocytochemistry with insulin antiserum revealed a substantial population of glucose-unresponsive beta-cells, many of which were recruited by PACAP-38 into [Ca2+]i responses. 8. These results indicate that PACAP-38 is a novel islet substance that is synthesized and released by islet

  4. Ameliorative effect of Sida cordifolia in rotenone induced oxidative stress model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Navneet; Gajbhiye, Asmita

    2013-12-01

    Present study focused on the evaluation of aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia (AESC), and its different fractions; hexane (HFSC), chloroform (CFSC) and aqueous (AFSC), against rotenone induced biochemical, neurochemical, histopathological and behavioral alterations in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). An estimation of the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) along with superoxide anion generation (SAG) in different brain regions (cortex, midbrain and cerebellum) was carried out to assess biochemical changes. Behavioral evaluation tests (catalepsy, rearing behavior and posture instability) and neurochemical estimations (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin level) along with histopathological evaluations of different brain regions were also performed. The varying doses (50, 100, 250mg/kg; p.o.) of different test treatments (AESC, HFSC, CFSC and AFSC) were co-administered along with rotenone (2mg/kg; s.c.), for a period of 35 days to rats of various groups and compared with rotenone per se (negative control) and l-deprenyl (positive control; 10mg/kg; p.o.) treated groups for the above mentioned parameters. The increase in catalepsy and posture instability along with decrease in rearing behavior observed due to rotenone treatment was significantly attenuated by co-treatment with varying doses of AESC and AFSC. Results of the histopathological studies of different brain regions of rats showed eosinophilic lesions in the mid brain region due to rotenone treatment. The eosinophilic lesions were significantly attenuated in co-treated groups of AESC-100mg/kg and AFSC-100mg/kg. Rotenone induced oxidative damage, revealed by increased level of TBARS, SAG and decreased level of GSH and CAT in mid brain region of rats, was attenuated by the co-treatment of AESC and AFSC. The rotenone induced decrease of dopamine level in the midbrain region of rats was also attenuated by co-treatment of AESC-100mg/kg and AFSC

  5. Induction of serpinb1a by PACAP or NGF is required for PC12 cells survival after serum withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Seaborn, Tommy; Ravni, Aurélia; Au, Ruby; Chow, Bill K C; Fournier, Alain; Wurtz, Olivier; Vaudry, Hubert; Eiden, Lee E; Vaudry, David

    2014-10-01

    PC12 cells are used to study the signaling mechanisms underlying the neurotrophic and neuroprotective activities of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and nerve growth factor (NGF). Previous microarray experiments indicated that serpinb1a was the most induced gene after 6 h of treatment with PACAP or NGF. This study confirmed that serpinb1a is strongly activated by PACAP and NGF in a time-dependent manner with a maximum induction (~ 50-fold over control) observed after 6 h of treatment. Co-incubation with PACAP and NGF resulted in a synergistic up-regulation of serpinb1a expression (200-fold over control), suggesting that PACAP and NGF act through complementary mechanisms. Consistently, PACAP-induced serpinb1a expression was not blocked by TrkA receptor inhibition. Nevertheless, the stimulation of serpinb1a expression by PACAP and NGF was significantly reduced in the presence of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, calcineurin, protein kinase A, p38, and PI3K inhibitors, indicating that the two trophic factors share some common pathways in the regulation of serpinb1a. Finally, functional investigations conducted with siRNA revealed that serpinb1a is not involved in the effects of PACAP and NGF on PC12 cell neuritogenesis, proliferation or body cell volume but mediates their ability to block caspases 3/7 activity and to promote PC12 cell survival. PMID:24899316

  6. Induction of Serpinb1a by PACAP or NGF is required for PC12 cells survival after serum withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Seaborn, Tommy; Ravni, Aurélia; Au, Ruby; Chow, Bill K.C.; Fournier, Alain; Wurtz, Olivier; Vaudry, Hubert; Eiden, Lee E.; Vaudry, David

    2014-01-01

    PC12 cells are used to study the signaling mechanisms underlying the neurotrophic and neuroprotective activities of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and nerve growth factor (NGF). Previous microarray experiments indicated that serpinb1a was the most induced gene after 6 h of treatment with PACAP or NGF. The present study confirmed that serpinb1a is strongly activated by PACAP and NGF in a time-dependent manner with a maximum induction (~50-fold over control) observed after 6 h of treatment. Co-incubation with PACAP and NGF resulted in a synergistic up-regulation of serpinb1a expression (200-fold over control), suggesting that PACAP and NGF act through complementary mechanisms. Consistently, PACAP-induced serpinb1a expression was not blocked by TrkA receptor inhibition. Nevertheless, the stimulation of serpinb1a expression by PACAP and NGF was significantly reduced in the presence of ERK, calcineurin, PKA, p38 and PI3K inhibitors, indicating that the two trophic factors share some common pathways in the regulation of serpinb1a. Finally, functional investigations conducted with siRNA revealed that serpinb1a is not involved in the effects of PACAP and NGF on PC12 cell neuritogenesis, proliferation or body volume but mediates their ability to block caspase-3/7 activity and to promote PC12 cell survival. PMID:24899316

  7. PACAP receptor pharmacology and agonist bias: analysis in primary neurons and glia from the trigeminal ganglia and transfected cells

    PubMed Central

    Walker, C S; Sundrum, T; Hay, D L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A major challenge in the development of new medicines targeting GPCRs is the ability to quantify drug action in physiologically relevant models. Primary cell models that closely resemble the clinically relevant in vivo site of drug action are important translational tools in drug development. However, pharmacological studies in these models are generally very limited due to the methodology used. Experimental Approach We used a neuropeptide system to demonstrate the applicability of using highly sensitive signalling assays in primary cells. We quantified the action of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)-38, PACAP-27 and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in primary cultures of neurons and glia derived from rat trigeminal ganglia (TG), comparing our observations to transfected cells. Key Results PACAP-responsive receptors in rat trigeminal neurons, glia and transfected PAC1n receptors were pharmacologically distinct. PACAP-38, but not PACAP-27, activated ERK in glia, while both forms stimulated cellular cAMP production. PACAP(6–38) also displayed cell-type-dependent, agonist-specific, antagonism. Conclusions and Implications The complexity of PACAP pharmacology in the TG may help to direct, more effectively, the development of disease treatments targeting the PACAP receptor. We suggest that these methodologies are broadly applicable to other primary cell types of human or animal origin, and that our approach may allow more thorough characterization of ligand properties in physiologically relevant cell types. PMID:24303997

  8. The biological role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in growth and feeding behavior in juvenile fish.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Juana Maria; Oliva, Aymé; Morales, Antonio; Reyes, Osvaldo; Garay, Hilda Elisa; Herrera, Fidel; Cabrales, Ania; Pérez, Ever; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2010-11-01

    To date, many technologies have been developed to increase efficiency in aquaculture, but very few successful biotechnology molecules have arrived on the market. In this context, marine biotechnology has an opportunity to develop products to improve the output of fish in aquaculture. Published in vivo studies on the action of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in fish are scarce. Recently, our group, for the first time, demonstrated the biological role of this neuropeptide administrated by immersion baths in the growth and development of larval fish. In this work, we have evaluated the effects of recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administration by intraperitoneal injection on growth performance and feeding behavior in juvenile fish. Our results showed the physiological role of this peptide for growth control in fish, including the juvenile stage, and confirm that its biological functions are well conserved in fish, since C. gariepinus PACAP stimulated growth in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In addition, we have observed that the growth-promoting effect of PACAP in juvenile tilapia was correlated with higher GH concentration in serum. With regard to the neuroendocrine regulation of growth control by PACAP, it was demonstrated that PACAP stimulates food intake in juvenile tilapia. In general, PACAP appears to act in the regulation of the growth control in juvenile fish. These findings propose that PACAP is a prominent target with the potential to stimulate fish growth in aquaculture. PMID:20853308

  9. Baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation, oxidative stress and P38MAPK pathway in rat

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shen-Jie; Wu, Xiao-Peng; Song, Heng-Liang; Li, Gui-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin is one of the active ingredients in the skullcap, with a variety of pharmacological effects, such as blood pressure reduction, sedation, liver-protection, gallbladder-protection, anti-bacteria, anti-inflammation, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inflammation, oxidative stress and P38MAPK passageway in rat. Rat model of AMI was induced by isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) and then treated baicalin (various does of baicalin: 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively) for 24 h. Infarct size, the heart weight to body weight ratio and creatine kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) of rats with AMI induced by isoproterenol were used to evaluate curative effect of baicalin on AMI. Meanwhile, iNOS and phosphorylation-p38 MAPK (p-p38) protein expressions, inflammatory factor and oxidative stress were inspected using western blot and commercial kits, respectively. In the present study, pre-treatment with baicalin (10 or 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated infarct size, the heart weight to body weight ratio and CK, CK-MB, LDH and cTnT levels in rats with AMI induced by isoproterenol. iNOS protein expression, the serum TNF-α, IL-6, MDA and SOD levels and p-38 protein expressions were significantly suppressed by treatment with baicalin (10 or 100 mg/kg). These results suggest that acute treatment with baicalin ameliorates AMI, iNOS, inflammation, oxidative stress and P38MAPK pathway in rat with AMI induced by isoproterenol. PMID:26885181

  10. Alpha-tocopherol quinine ameliorates spatial memory deficits by reducing beta-amyloid oligomers, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Wei; Yang, Shi-Gao; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yang-Xin; Xu, Peng-Xin; Wang, Teng; Ling, Tie-Jun; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2016-01-01

    The pathologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with soluble beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Decreasing the levels of Aβ oligomer, glial activation and oxidative stress are potential therapeutic approaches for AD treatment. We previously found alpha-tocopherol quinine (α-TQ) inhibited Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity, decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. However, whether α-TQ ameliorates memory deficits and other neuropathologies in mice or patients with AD remains unknown. In this study, we reported that orally administered α-TQ ameliorated memory impairment in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice, decreased oxidative stress and the levels of Aβ oligomer in the brains of mice, prevented the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β, and inhibited microglial activation by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings suggest that α-TQ has potential therapeutic value for AD treatment. PMID:26358659

  11. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1HOP1 Receptor Activation Coordinates Multiple Neurotrophic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    May, Victor; Lutz, Eve; MacKenzie, Christopher; Schutz, Kristin C.; Dozark, Kate; Braas, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    MAPK and Akt pathways are predominant mediators of trophic signaling for many neuronal systems. Among the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/glucagon family of related peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) binding to specific PAC1 receptor isoforms can engage multiple signaling pathways and promote neuroprotection through mechanisms that are not well understood. Using a primary sympathetic neuronal system, the current studies demonstrate that PACAP activation of PAC1HOP1 receptors engages both MAPK and Akt neurotrophic pathways in an integrated program to facilitate neuronal survival after growth factor withdrawal. PACAP not only stimulated prosurvival ERK1/2 and ERK5 activation but also abrogated SAPK/JNK and p38 MAPK signaling in parallel. In contrast to the potent and rapid effects of PACAP in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, PACAP stimulated Akt phosphorylation in a late phase of PAC1HOP1 receptor signaling. From inhibitor and immunoprecipitation analyses, the PACAP/PAC1HOP1 receptor-mediated Akt responses did not represent transactivation mechanisms but appeared to depend on Gαq/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ activity and vesicular internalization pathways. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ-selective inhibitors blocked PACAP-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in primary neuronal cultures and in PAC1HOP1-overexpressing cell lines; RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the receptor effectors attenuated PACAP-mediated Akt activation. Similarly, perturbation of endocytic pathways also blocked Akt phosphorylation. Between ERK and Akt pathways, PACAP-stimulated Akt signaling was the primary cascade that attenuated cultured neuron apoptosis after growth factor withdrawal. The partitioning of PACAP-mediated Akt signaling in endosomes may be a key mechanism contributing to the high spatial and temporal specificity in signal transduction necessary for survival pathways. PMID:20093365

  12. PACAP Controls Adrenomedullary Catecholamine Secretion and Expression of Catecholamine Biosynthetic Enzymes at High Splanchnic Nerve Firing Rates Characteristic of Stress Transduction in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stroth, N.; Kuri, B. A.; Mustafa, T.; Chan, S.-A.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) is a cotransmitter of acetylcholine at the adrenomedullary synapse, where autonomic regulation of hormone secretion occurs. We have previously reported that survival of prolonged metabolic stress in mice requires PACAP-dependent biosynthesis and secretion of adrenomedullary catecholamines (CAs). In the present experiments, we show that CA secretion evoked by direct high-frequency stimulation of the splanchnic nerve is abolished in native adrenal slices from male PACAP-deficient mice. Further, we demonstrate that PACAP is both necessary and sufficient for CA secretion ex vivo during stimulation protocols designed to mimic stress. In vivo, up-regulation of transcripts encoding adrenomedullary CA-synthesizing enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase) in response to both psychogenic and metabolic stressors (restraint and hypoglycemia) is PACAP-dependent. Stressor-induced alteration of the adrenomedullary secretory cocktail also appears to require PACAP, because up-regulation of galanin mRNA is abrogated in male PACAP-deficient mice. We further show that hypoglycemia-induced corticosterone secretion is not PACAP-dependent, ruling out the possibility that glucocorticoids are the main mediators of the aforementioned effects. Instead, experiments with bovine chromaffin cells suggest that PACAP acts directly at the level of the adrenal medulla. By integrating prolonged CA secretion, expression of biosynthetic enzymes and production of modulatory neuropeptides such as galanin, PACAP is crucial for adrenomedullary function. Importantly, our results show that PACAP is the dominant adrenomedullary neurotransmitter during conditions of enhanced secretory demand. PMID:23221599

  13. The novel VIP-like hypothalamic polypeptide PACAP interacts with high affinity receptors in the human neuroblastoma cell line NB-OK

    SciTech Connect

    Cauvin, A.; Buscail, L.; Gourlet, P.; De Neef, P.; Gossen, D.; Arimura, A.; Miyata, A.; Coy, D.H.; Robberecht, P.; Christophe, J. )

    1990-07-01

    We investigated the ability of two forms of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP-38, the 38 amino acid peptide isolated from ovine hypothalamus, and PACAP-27, a shorter N-terminal (1-27) amidated version) to interact with specific receptors in membranes from the human neuroblastoma cell line NB-OK. ({sup 125}I)PACAP-27 bound rapidly and specifically to one class of high affinity sites (Kd 0.5 nM). VIP inhibited ({sup 125}I)PACAP-27 binding 300- to 1000-fold less potently than PACAP-27 and PACAP-38. One microM PHI prevented tracer binding only partially and secretin, glucagon and GRF(1-29)NH2 were ineffective in this respect. PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 stimulated adenylate cyclase activity dose dependently and with similar efficacy (Kact 0.2-0.3 nM), this activation being compatible with the occupancy of specific high affinity PACAP receptor. VIP was markedly less potent and less efficient on this enzyme than PACAP. Chemical cross-linking of ({sup 125}I)PACAP-27 followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography revealed specific cross-linking with a 68 kDa protein.

  14. Pretreatment with nonselective cationic channel inhibitors blunts the PACAP-induced increase in guinea pig cardiac neuron excitability.

    PubMed

    Merriam, Laura A; Roman, Carolyn W; Baran, Caitlin N; Girard, Beatrice M; May, Victor; Parsons, Rodney L

    2012-11-01

    Calcium influx is required for the pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)-induced increase in guinea pig cardiac neuron excitability, noted as a change from a phasic to multiple action potential firing pattern. Intracellular recordings indicated that pretreatment with the nonselective cationic channel inhibitors, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), 1-[β-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole HCl (SKF 96365), and flufenamic acid (FFA) reduced the 20-nM PACAP-induced excitability increase. Additional experiments tested whether 2-APB, FFA, and SKF 96365 could suppress the increase in excitability by PACAP once it had developed. The increased action potential firing remained following application of 2-APB but was diminished by FFA. SKF 96365 transiently depressed the PACAP-induced excitability increase. A decrease and recovery of action potential amplitude paralleled the excitability shift. Since semiquantitative PCR indicated that cardiac neurons express TRPC subunit transcripts, we hypothesize that PACAP activates calcium-permeable, nonselective cationic channels, which possibly are members of the TRPC family. Our results are consistent with calcium influx being required for the initiation of the PACAP-induced increase in excitability, but suggest that it may not be required to sustain the peptide effect. The present results also demonstrate that nonselective cationic channel inhibitors could have other actions, which might contribute to the inhibition of the PACAP-induced excitability increase. PMID:22528456

  15. Ameliorating effect of chicory (Chichorium intybus L.) fruit extract against 4-tert-octylphenol induced liver injury and oxidative stress in male rats.

    PubMed

    Saggu, Shalini; Sakeran, Mohamed I; Zidan, Nahla; Tousson, Ehab; Mohan, Anand; Rehman, Hasibur

    2014-10-01

    The current study was carried out to elucidate the modulating effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) fruit extract (CFR) against 4-tert-OP induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Rats were divided into four groups and treated for 8 weeks as follow: group 1: normal control-treated (saline); group 2: chicory fruit extract-treated (100 mg/kg); group 3: 4-tert-OP treated; group 4: 4-tert-OP plus chicory fruit extract. The obtained results revealed that rats which received 4-tert-OP showed a significant increase in liver TBARS and bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) activities. While a significant decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD, catalase recorded. On the other hand, CFR extract succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from 4-tert-OP as indicated by the reduction of TBARS and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Histopathological evidence, together with observed PCNA and DNA fragmentation, supported the detrimental effect of 4-tert-OP and the ameliorating effect of CFR extract on liver toxicity. So, it could be concluded that chicory has a promising role and it worth to be considered as a natural substance for ameliorating the oxidative stress and hepatic injury induced by 4-tert-OP compound. PMID:25010453

  16. Calcium influx, but not intracellular calcium release, supports PACAP-mediated ERK activation in HEK PAC1 receptor cells.

    PubMed

    May, Victor; Clason, Todd A; Buttolph, Thomas R; Girard, Beatrice M; Parsons, Rodney L

    2014-11-01

    In HEK cells expressing GFP-tagged PAC1Hop1 receptors, PACAP augments ERK phosphorylation through two parallel pathways: one through PACAP/PAC1 receptor internalization/endosome MEK/ERK signaling and the other through PLC/DAG/PKC activation. We examined whether elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) was required for either of the PACAP/PAC1 receptor-mediated ERK activation mechanisms. The PACAP (25 nM)-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)]i was greater with cells maintained in Ca(2+)-containing than in Ca(2+)-deficient solution, suggesting that both calcium release from internal stores and calcium influx contributed to the rise in [Ca(2+)]i. A thapsigargin-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i also was greater with calcium in the external solution. OAG, the cell permeable analogue of DAG, increased [Ca(2+)]i, but only in Ca(2+)-containing solution. Decreasing external calcium or depleting internal calcium stores did not block PACAP-induced PAC1 receptor internalization. Omission of calcium from the external solution, but not thapsigargin pretreatment, significantly blunted PACAP-stimulated ERK phosphorylation. The PKC inhibitor BimI decreased PACAP-mediated ERK activation in both Ca(2+)-containing or Ca(2+)-deficient solutions. In contrast, following Pitstop 2 pretreatment to block endocytic mechanisms, PACAP activated ERK only when calcium was present in the external solution. We conclude that the endosome signaling pathway is largely calcium-independent whereas calcium influx appears necessary for the PLC/DAG/PKC component of PACAP-induced ERK activation. PMID:24723666

  17. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has potential to ameliorate streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in mice: A histopathological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced oxidative stress and hyperglycemia are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). As pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is known to protect cells from oxidative stress, the present study was undertaken to reveal the hitherto unknown effects of PQQ in DM and associated problems in different tissues. Forty two mice were randomly divided into six groups. Group I receiving only citrate buffer served as the normal control, while group II animals were injected with citrate buffer and PQQ at 20 mg/kg for 15 days and served as test drug control. Animals of groups III-VI were rendered diabetic by single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 150 mg/kg body weight), following which PQQ at a dose of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, was injected to the animals of group IV, V and VI respectively for 15 days. At the end, alterations in serum indices such as glucose, different lipids, insulin, amylase, urea, uric acid, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase; tissue antioxidants and histopathological alterations in liver, kidney and pancreas were evaluated. STZ-treated animals developed oxidative stress as indicated by a significant increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and lipid hydroperoxide, serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and urea, with a parallel decrease in the levels of serum insulin and tissue antioxidants. When diabetic animals received different doses of PQQ, these adverse effects were ameliorated. However, 20 mg/kg of PQQ appeared to be most effective. Findings revealed for the first time that PQQ has the potential to mitigate STZ-induced DM and oxidative damage in different organs of mice, suggesting that it may ameliorate diabetes mellitus and associated problems. PMID:26343954

  18. Balanced effect of PACAP and FasL on granule cell death during cerebellar development: a morphological, functional and behavioural characterization.

    PubMed

    Allais, Aurélie; Burel, Delphine; Roy, Vincent; Arthaud, Sébastien; Galas, Ludovic; Isaac, Emma Rachel; Desfeux, Arnaud; Parent, Bénédicte; Fournier, Alain; Chapillon, Pierre; Sherwood, Nancy McKeown; Vaudry, Hubert; Gonzalez, Bruno José

    2010-04-01

    It is now established that the development of the CNS requires equilibrium between cell survival and apoptosis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exerts a powerful protective effect on cerebellar granule cells by inhibiting the caspase 3. In contrast, Fas ligand (FasL) plays an essential role during ontogenesis in eliminating supernumerary neurons by apoptosis. To determine if PACAP and FasL interact during cerebellar development, we characterized the effects of these factors on cerebellar morphogenesis and caspase 3 activity in PACAP+/+ and PACAP-/- mice. First, we demonstrated in vivo that PACAP is able to reverse the diminution of internal granule cell layer thickness induced by FasL in PACAP+/+ and PACAP-/- mice. Second, ex vivo and immunohistochemical studies revealed that interaction between FasL and PACAP occurs through the caspase 3 activity. Third, behavioural study showed a significant difference for the PACAP + FasL group in the righting reflex test at P8 which does not persist at P60. Finally, a time course study revealed that the pro-apoptotic effect of FasL characterized at P8 was followed by a progressive compensatory mechanism in caspase 3 activity and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. These data suggest that PACAP and FasL interact during cerebellar development to control apoptosis of granule cells and may affect some motor cerebellar functions. PMID:20050979

  19. PACAP system evolution and its role in melanophore function in teleost fish skin.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Martins, Rute S T; Trindade, Marlene; Fonseca, Vera G; Fuentes, Juan; Power, Deborah M

    2015-08-15

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) administered to tilapia melanophores ex-vivo causes significant pigment aggregation and this is a newly identified function for this peptide in fish. The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), adcyap1r1a (encoding Pac1a) and vipr2a (encoding Vpac2a), are the only receptors in melanophores with appreciable levels of expression and are significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated in the absence of light. Vpac2a is activated exclusively by peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), which suggests that Pac1a mediates the melanin aggregating effect of PACAP on melanophores. Paradoxically activation of Pac1a with PACAP caused a rise in cAMP, which in fish melanophores is associated with melanin dispersion. We hypothesise that the duplicate adcyap1ra and vipr2a genes in teleosts have acquired a specific role in skin and that the melanin aggregating effect of PACAP results from the interaction of Pac1a with Ramp that attenuates cAMP-dependent PKA activity and favours the Ca(2+)/Calmodulin dependent pathway. PMID:25933704

  20. PACAP receptor gene polymorphism impacts fear responses in the amygdala and hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jennifer Strafford; Almli, Lynn M.; Fani, Negar; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D.; Reiser, Emily; Ely, Timothy D.; Dhanani, Rahim; Glover, Ebony M.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently found higher circulating levels of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a highly traumatized cohort of women but not men. Furthermore, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the PACAP receptor gene ADCYAP1R1, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 receptor type 1, was associated with individual differences in PTSD symptoms and psychophysiological markers of fear and anxiety. The current study outlines an investigation of individual differences in brain function associated with ADCYAP1R1 genotype. Forty-nine women who had experienced moderate to high levels of lifetime trauma participated in a functional MRI task involving passive viewing of threatening and neutral face stimuli. Analyses focused on the amygdala and hippocampus, regions that play central roles in the pathophysiology of PTSD and are known to have high densities of PACAP receptors. The risk genotype was associated with increased reactivity of the amygdala and hippocampus to threat stimuli and decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus. The findings indicate that the PACAP system modulates medial temporal lobe function in humans. Individual differences in ADCYAP1R1 genotype may contribute to dysregulated fear circuitry known to play a central role in PTSD and other anxiety disorders. PMID:24516127

  1. S-allyl cysteine ameliorates the quality of sperm and provides protection from age-related sperm dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Shigekazu; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species play a central role in the pathophysiology of the age-related decrease in male fertility. It has been reported that the total protein of DJ-1 was decreased in a proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients and a DJ-1 protein acts as a sensor of cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, we evaluated the age-related changes in the ratio of the oxidized/reduced forms of the DJ-1 protein in the epididymis. In addition, the protective effects of S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a potent antioxidant, were evaluated against sperm dysfunction. Male rats aged 15-75 weeks were used to assess age-associated sperm function and oxidative stress. Sperm count increased until 25 weeks, but then decreased at 50 and 75 weeks. The rate of sperm movement at 75 weeks was decreased to approximately 60% of the rate observed at 25 weeks. Expression of DJ-1 decreased, but oxidized-DJ-1 increased with age. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins in the epididymis increased until 50 weeks of age. The total number and DNA synthetic potential of the sperm increased until 25 weeks, and then decreased. In rats 75 weeks of age, SAC (0.45% diet) attenuated the decrease in the number, motility, and DNA synthesis of sperm and inhibited the oxidized proteins. These results suggest that SAC ameliorates the quality of sperm subjected to age-associated oxidative stress. PMID:25411519

  2. Direct renin inhibitor ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin signaling and oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle from post-infarct heart failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Arata; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsumoto, Junichi; Furihata, Takaaki; Mizushima, Wataru; Tsuda, Masaya; Yokota, Takashi; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-15

    Insulin resistance can occur as a consequence of heart failure (HF). Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play a crucial role in this phenomenon. We thus investigated the effect of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on insulin resistance in HF after myocardial infarction (MI). MI and sham operation were performed in male C57BL/6J mice. The mice were divided into 4 groups and treated with sham-operation (Sham, n=10), sham-operation and aliskiren (Sham+Aliskiren; 10mg/kg/day, n=10), MI (n=11), or MI and aliskiren (MI+Aliskiren, n=11). After 4 weeks, MI mice showed left ventricular dilation and dysfunction, which were not affected by aliskiren. The percent decrease of blood glucose after insulin load was significantly smaller in MI than in Sham (14±5% vs. 36±2%), and was ameliorated in MI+Aliskiren (34±5%) mice. Insulin-stimulated serine-phosphorylation of Akt and glucose transporter 4 translocation were decreased in the skeletal muscle of MI compared to Sham by 57% and 69%, and both changes were ameliorated in the MI+Aliskiren group (91% and 94%). Aliskiren administration in MI mice significantly inhibited plasma renin activity and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. Moreover, (pro)renin receptor expression and local Ang II production were upregulated in skeletal muscle from MI and were attenuated in MI+Aliskiren mice, in tandem with a decrease in superoxide production and NAD(P)H oxidase activities. In conclusion, aliskiren ameliorated insulin resistance in HF by improving insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle, at least partly by inhibiting systemic and (pro)renin receptor-mediated local RAS activation, and subsequent NAD(P)H oxidase-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26988296

  3. The Antidiabetic Effect of Garlic Oil is Associated with Ameliorated Oxidative Stress but Not Ameliorated Level of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Skeletal Muscle of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Hsu, Tien-Wei; Chen, Ke-Ming; Tan, Ya-Ping; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory condition has been broadly accepted being associated with the progression of diabetes. On the other hand, garlic (大蒜 dà suàn, bulb of Allium sativum) has been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action in several clinical conditions. Our previous study demonstrated that treatment with garlic oil improves oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance and improves the insulin-stimulated utilization of glucose to synthesize glycogen in skeletal muscle in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic oil (GO) in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. Rats with STZ-induced diabetes received GO (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil by gavage every other day for 3 weeks. Control rats received corn oil only. GO dose-dependently improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the insulin tolerance test, and oral glucose tolerance. GO significantly elevated total glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and lowered the nitrate/nitrite content in skeletal muscle at 50 and 100 mg/kg and significantly elevated glutathione reductase activity and lowered lipid peroxidation at 100 mg/kg. By contrast, GO did not reverse diabetes-induced elevation of IL-1β and TNF-α in skeletal muscle at any tested dose. On the other hand, GO elevated the expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle along with glycogen content as observed with PAS staining. In conclusion, the antidiabetic effect of garlic oil is associated with ameliorated oxidative stress in skeletal muscle. PMID:24716126

  4. Ameliorative effects of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract and Vitamin C on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Al-Anazi, Marim Saleh; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai; Siddiqui, Muzammil Iqbal

    2015-11-01

    The present studywas undertaken to assess the bioaccumulation potential of cadmium in liver, kidney, gills and muscles of freshwater fish, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney with or without simultaneous treatment with waterborne vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. Adult tilapia were divided into seven groups. Six groups were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cd, three groups to 5 ppm, while other three to 10 ppm. Two groups from each of the Cd exposed groups were treated with Vitamin C (5ppm) and rosemary leaf extract (2.5 ppm) for a period of 21 days. Cadmium concentration in liver, kidneys and gills was significantly higher in the cadmium exposed groups being invariably high in the groups exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O.Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced cadmium concentration in comparison to non-treated Cd exposed groups. Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced oxidative stress in Cd exposed fish as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and reduced activity of catalase and higher activity of superoxide dismutase in liver and kidney as compared to control fish. Reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress and bioaccumulation was comparable between the two antioxidant treatments, Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. The key findings suggest that both the antioxidants used showed ameliorative potential to reduce tissue accumulation of Cd and associated oxidative stress in fresh water fish, Nile tilapia. PMID:26688980

  5. Multimodal Neuroprotection Induced by PACAP38 in Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation and Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Chen, Jieli; Zhang, Chunling; Chopp, Michael; Jiang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), a potent neuropeptide which crosses the blood–brain barrier, is known to provide neuroprotection in rat stroke models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by mechanism(s) which deserve clarification. We confirmed that following i.v. injection of 30 ng/kg of PACAP38 in rats exposed to 2 h of MCAO focal cerebral ischemia and 48 h reoxygenation, 50 % neuroprotection was measured by reduced caspase-3 activity and volume of cerebral infarction. Similar neuroprotective effects were measured upon PACAP38 treatment of oxygen–glucose deprivation and reoxygenation of brain cortical neurons. The neuroprotection was temporally associated with increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylation of its receptor—tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (trkB), activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt, and reduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation. PACAP38 increased expression of neuronal markers beta-tubulin III, microtubule-associated protein-2, and growth-associated protein-43. PACAP38 induced stimulation of Rac and suppression of Rho GTPase activities. PACAP38 down-regulated the nerve growth factor receptor (p75NTR) and associated Nogo-(Neurite outgrowth-A) receptor. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo results propose that PACAP exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia by three mechanisms: a direct one, mediated by PACAP receptors, and two indirect, induced by neurotrophin release, activation of the trkB receptors and attenuation of neuronal growth inhibitory signaling molecules p75NTR and Nogo receptor. PMID:22678884

  6. Neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) slows down Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in amyloid precursor protein-transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Rat, Dorothea; Schmitt, Ulrich; Tippmann, Frank; Dewachter, Ilse; Theunis, Clara; Wieczerzak, Ewa; Postina, Rolf; van Leuven, Fred; Fahrenholz, Falk; Kojro, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties and is a potent α-secretase activator. As PACAP peptides and their specific receptor PAC1 are localized in central nervous system areas affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD), this study aims to examine the role of the natural peptide PACAP as a valuable approach in AD therapy. We investigated the effect of PACAP in the brain of an AD transgenic mouse model. The long-term intranasal daily PACAP application stimulated the nonamyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and increased expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. In addition, it caused a strong reduction of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mRNA level. PACAP, by activation of the somatostatin-neprilysin cascade, also enhanced expression of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin in the mouse brain. Furthermore, daily PAC1-receptor activation via PACAP resulted in an increased mRNA level of both the PAC1 receptor and its ligand PACAP. Our behavioral studies showed that long-term PACAP treatment of APP[V717I]-transgenic mice improved cognitive function in animals. Thus, nasal application of PACAP was effective, and our results indicate that PACAP could be of therapeutic value in treating AD.—Rat, D., Schmitt, U., Tippmann, F., Dewachter, I., Theunis, C., Wieczerzak, E, Postina, R., van Leuven, F., Fahrenholz, F., Kojro, E. Neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) slows down Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in amyloid precursor protein-transgenic mice. PMID:21593432

  7. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Juhász, Tamás; Szentléleky, Eszter; Szűcs Somogyi, Csilla; Takács, Roland; Dobrosi, Nóra; Engler, Máté; Tamás, Andrea; Reglődi, Dóra; Zákány, Róza

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load. PMID:26230691

  8. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Tamás; Szentléleky, Eszter; Somogyi, Csilla Szűcs; Takács, Roland; Dobrosi, Nóra; Engler, Máté; Tamás, Andrea; Reglődi, Dóra; Zákány, Róza

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load. PMID:26230691

  9. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2011-01-01

    Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling. PMID:19965962

  10. SOD3 Ameliorates H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Wei, Li; Fu, Qing-Qing; Wang, Hua; You, Hua; Yu, Hua-Rong

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this beneficial effect. SOD3-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells were generated by adenoviral vector-mediated infection, and H2O2 was then added into the cell culture system to establish an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Cell viability, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, the levels of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes, and calcium imaging were examined. Following H2O2 exposure, the over-expression of SOD3 promoted the survival of SH-SY5Y cells; decreased the production of ROS, MDA levels, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax gene expression, and calcium levels; and increased the expression and activity of antioxidant enzyme genes and the expression level of Bcl-2. Together, our data demonstrate that SOD3 ameliorates H2O2-induced oxidative damage in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway and provide new insights into the functional actions of SOD3 on oxidative stress-induced cell damage. PMID:27084770

  11. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits via oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and the PPARγ signaling pathway in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhonghua; Xu, Yinghui; Liang, Zhanhua; Li, Sheng; Wang, Jie; Wei, Yi; Dong, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Naringenin is a flavonoid polyphenolic compound, which facilitates the removal of free radicals, oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study aimed to obtain a better understanding of the effects of curcumin on the regulation of diabetes‑associated cognitive decline, and its underlying mechanisms. An experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) rat model was induced by streptozoticin (50 mg/kg). Following treatment with naringin (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 16 weeks, the body weight and blood glucose levels of the DM rats were measured. A morris water maze test was used to analyze the effects of naringin on the cognitive deficit of the DM rats. The levels of oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors, caspase‑3 and caspase‑9, and the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were quantified in the DM rats using a commercially‑available kit and western blot assay, respectively. In addition, a GW9662 PPARγ inhibitor (0.3 mg/kg) was administered to the DM rats to determine whether PPARγ affected the effects of naringin on the cognitive deficit of the DM rats. The results demonstrated that naringin increased the body weight, blood glucose levels, and cognitive deficits of the DM rats. The levels of oxidative stress and proinflammatory factors in the naringin‑treated rats were significantly lower, compared with those of the DM rats. In addition, naringin activated the protein expression of PPARγ, and administration of the PPARγ inhibitor decreased the protein expression of PPARγ, and attenuated the effects of naringin on cognitive deficit. The results also demonstrated that naringin decreased the expression levels of caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 in the DM rats. These results suggested that naringin ameliorated cognitive deficits via oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and the PPARγ signaling pathway in the type 2 diabetic rat model. Furthermore, oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and PPARγ signaling may be

  12. Igf1 and Pacap rescue cerebellar granule neurons from apoptosis via a common transcriptional program

    PubMed Central

    Maino, Barbara; D'Agata, Velia; Severini, Cinzia; Ciotti, Maria T.; Calissano, Pietro; Copani, Agata; Chang, Yi-Chien; DeLisi, Charles; Cavallaro, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    A shift of the delicate balance between apoptosis and survival-inducing signals determines the fate of neurons during the development of the central nervous system and its homeostasis throughout adulthood. Both pathways, promoting or protecting from apoptosis, trigger a transcriptional program. We conducted whole-genome expression profiling to decipher the transcriptional regulatory elements controlling the apoptotic/survival switch in cerebellar granule neurons following the induction of apoptosis by serum and potassium deprivation or their rescue by either insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1) or pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (Pacap). Although depending on different upstream signaling pathways, the survival effects of Igf1 and Pacap converged into common transcriptional cascades, thus suggesting the existence of a general transcriptional program underlying neuronal survival. PMID:26941962

  13. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Impairs the Regulation of Apoptosis in Megakaryocytes by Activating NF-κB: a Proteomic Study*

    PubMed Central

    Di Michele, Michela; Peeters, Karen; Loyen, Serena; Thys, Chantel; Waelkens, Etienne; Overbergh, Lutgart; Hoylaerts, Marc; Van Geet, Christel; Freson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor VPAC1 are negative regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet function, but their downstream signaling pathway that inhibits this process still remained unknown. A combined proteomic, transcriptomic, and bioinformatic approach was here used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying PACAP signaling via VPAC1 in megakaryocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and tandem MS were applied to detect differentially expressed proteins in megakaryocytic CHRF cells stimulated with PACAP. The majority of the 120 proteins modulated by PACAP belong to the class of “cell cycle and apoptosis” proteins. The up- or down-regulated expression of some proteins was confirmed by immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis. A meta-analysis of our data and 12 other published studies was performed to evaluate signaling pathways involved in different cellular models of PACAP response. From 2384 differentially expressed genes/proteins, 83 were modulated by PACAP in at least three independent studies and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis further identified apoptosis as the highest scored network with NF-κB as a key-player. PACAP inhibited serum depletion-induced apoptosis of CHRF cells via VPAC1 stimulation. In addition, PACAP switched on NF-κB dependent gene expression since higher nuclear levels of the active NF-κB p50/p65 heterodimer were found in CHRF cells treated with PACAP. Finally, a quantitative real time PCR apoptosis array was used to study RNA from in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes from a PACAP overexpressing patient, leading to the identification of 15 apoptotic genes with a 4-fold change in expression and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis again revealed NF-κB as the central player. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PACAP interferes with the regulation of apoptosis in megakaryocytes, probably via stimulation of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:21972247

  14. Lycopene ameliorates atrazine-induced oxidative damage in adrenal cortex of male rats by activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Abass, Marwa Ahmed; Elkhateeb, Shereen Ahmed; Abd El-Baset, Samia Adel; Kattaia, Asmaa Alhosiny; Mohamed, Eman Mosallam; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2016-08-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most commonly used herbicides contaminating plants, soil and water resources. Several strategies have been used to counteract ATZ toxicity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that lycopene could ameliorate ATZ-induced toxicity in the adrenal cortex. For this purpose, 35 adult male albino rats were randomized into five equal groups: untreated control, vehicle control (received 0.5 mL corn oil/day), lycopene (treated with lycopene dissolved in 0.5 mL corn oil, 10 mg/kg b.w./day), ATZ (received ATZ dissolved in 0.5 mL corn oil 300 mg/kg b.w./day), and ATZ + lycopene (treated with ATZ and lycopene at the same previously mentioned doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 4 weeks. We found that ATZ exposure significantly increased relative adrenal weight, plasma ACTH levels, and adrenal oxidative stress as manifested by elevated malondialdehyde levels, decreased reduced glutathione content and depressed antioxidant enzyme activities in adrenal cortex tissues with respect to control groups. Furthermore, the transcription of adrenal cortex nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor kappa B, and caspase-3 genes was increased significantly compared with the control groups. This was accompanied with DNA fragmentation and structural and ultrastructural changes in zona glomerulosa and zona fasiculata of the adrenal cortex. Notably, all these changes were partially ameliorated in rats treated concomitantly with ATZ and lycopene. Our results showed that lycopene exerts protective effects against ATZ-induced toxicity in rat adrenal cortex. These effects may be attributed to the antioxidative property of lycopene and its ability to activate the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PMID:27102619

  15. High-throughput functional genomics identifies genes that ameliorate toxicity due to oxidative stress in neuronal HT-22 cells: GFPT2 protects cells against peroxide.

    PubMed

    Zitzler, Jürgen; Link, Dieter; Schäfer, Rolf; Liebetrau, Wolfgang; Kazinski, Michael; Bonin-Debs, Angelika; Behl, Christian; Buckel, Peter; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2004-08-01

    We describe a novel genetic screen that is performed by transfecting every individual clone of an expression clone collection into a separate population of cells in a high-throughput mode. We combined high-throughput functional genomics with experimental validation to discover human genes that ameliorate cytotoxic responses of neuronal HT-22 cells upon exposure to oxidative stress. A collection of 5,000 human cDNAs in mammalian expression vectors were individually transfected into HT-22 cells, which were then exposed to H(2)O(2). Five genes were found that are known to be involved in pathways of detoxification of peroxide (catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, peroxiredoxin-1, peroxiredoxin-5, and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). The presence of those genes in our "hit list" validates our screening platform. In addition, a set of candidate genes was found that has not been previously described as involved in detoxification of peroxide. One of these genes, which was consistently found to reduce H(2)O(2) -induced toxicity in HT-22, was GFPT2. This gene is expressed at significant levels in the central nervous system (CNS) and encodes glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (GFPT) 2, a rate-limiting enzyme in hexosamine biosynthesis. GFPT has recently also been shown to ameliorate the toxicity of methylmercury in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methylmercury causes neuronal cell death in part by protein modification as well as enhancing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The protective effect of GFPT2 against H(2)O(2) toxicity in neuronal HT-22 cells may be similar to its protection against methylmercury in yeast. Thus, GFPT appears to be conserved among yeast and men as a critical target of methylmercury and ROS-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:15181156

  16. Functional characterization of neural-restrictive silencer element in mouse pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Hideki; Tominaga, Aiko; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamada, Katsushi; Miyata, Atsuro

    2014-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is predominantly localized in the nervous system, but the underlying mechanism in its neuron-specific expression remains unclear. In addition to two neural-restrictive silencer-like element (NRSLE1 and 2), as reported previously, we have identified the third element in -1,601 to -1,581 bp from the translational initiation site of mouse PACAP gene and termed it as NRSLE3, of which, the sequence and location were highly conserved among mouse, rat, and human PACAP genes. In luciferase reporter assay, the deletion or site-directed mutagenesis of NRSLE3 in the reporter gene construct, driven by heterologous SV40 promoter, cancelled the repression of luciferase activity in non-neuronal Swiss-3T3 cells. Furthermore, its promoter activity was significantly repressed in Swiss-3T3 cells, but not in neuronal-differentiated PC12 cells. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) with nuclear extracts of Swiss-3T3 cells demonstrated a specific complex with NRSLE3 probe that exhibited the same migration with the neural-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) probe of rat type II sodium channel gene. During neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells, the increment of PACAP mRNA exhibited the correlation with that of REST4 mRNA, which is a neuron-specific variant form of neural-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF). In undifferentiated PC12 cells, trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which indirectly inhibits NRSF-mediated gene silencing, increased PACAP mRNA level and attenuated the repression of promoter activity of 5' flanking region of mouse PACAP gene containing NRSLEs. These suggest that the NRSE-NRSF system implicates in the regulatory mechanism of neuron-specific expression of PACAP gene. PMID:24939248

  17. Combined treatment of mulberry leaf and fruit extract ameliorates obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Hwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Myoungsook; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity. PMID:23957352

  18. Yhhu981, a novel compound, stimulates fatty acid oxidation via the activation of AMPK and ameliorates lipid metabolism disorder in ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-liang; Huang, Su-ling; Xie, Fu-chun; Zeng, Li-min; Hu, You-hong; Leng, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Defects in fatty acid metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity. In this study, we investigated the effects of a novel compound yhhu981 on fatty acid metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The capacity to stimulate fatty acid oxidation was assessed in C2C12 myotubes. The fatty acid synthesis was studied in HepG2 cells using isotope tracing. The phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was examined with Western blot analysis. For in vivo experiments, ob/ob mice were orally treated with yhhu981 acutely (300 mg/kg) or chronically (150 or 300 mg·kg−1·d−1 for 22 d). On the last day of treatment, serum and tissue samples were collected for analysis. Results: Yhhu981 (12.5–25 μmol/L) significantly increased fatty acid oxidation and the expression of related genes (Sirt1, Pgc1α and Mcad) in C2C12 myotubes, and inhibited fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, yhhu981 dose-dependently increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in both C2C12 myotubes and HepG2 cells. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, blocked fatty acid oxidation in yhhu981-treated C2C12 myotubes and fatty acid synthesis decrease in yhhu981-treated HepG2 cells. Acute administration of yhhu981 decreased the respiratory exchange ratio in ob/ob mice, whereas chronic treatment with yhhu981 ameliorated the lipid abnormalities and ectopic lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and liver of ob/ob mice. Conclusion: Yhhu981 is a potent compound that stimulates fatty acid oxidation, and exerts pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism by activating AMPK. PMID:25732571

  19. Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) ameliorate obesity-induced hepatic lipogenesis, fibrosis, and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ann, Ji-Young; Eo, Hyeyoon; Lim, Yunsook

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases such as fatty liver, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and severe metabolic syndrome. Obesity causes metabolic impairment including excessive lipid accumulation and fibrosis in the hepatic tissue as well as the increase in oxidative stress. In order to investigate the effect of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) extract (MLE) on obesity-induced oxidative stress, lipogenesis, and fibrosis in liver, MLE has been gavaged for 12 weeks in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. MLE treatment significantly ameliorated LXRα-mediated lipogenesis and hepatic fibrosis markers such as α-smooth muscle actin, while MLE up-regulated lipolysis-associated markers such as lipoprotein lipase in the HFD-fed mice. Moreover, MLE normalized the activities of antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione peroxidase in accordance with protein levels of 4-hydroxynonenal in the HFD-fed mice. MLE has beneficial effects on obesity-related fatty liver disease by regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, fibrosis, and antioxidant defense system. MLE supplementation might be a potential therapeutic approach for obesity-related disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26463593

  20. Oxidative stress induced NMDA receptor alteration leads to spatial memory deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy: ameliorative effects of Withania somnifera and Withanolide A.

    PubMed

    Soman, Smijin; Korah, P K; Jayanarayanan, S; Mathew, Jobin; Paulose, C S

    2012-09-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of Withania somnifera (WS) root extract and Withanolide A (WA) in restoring spatial memory deficit by inhibiting oxidative stress induced alteration in glutamergic neurotransmission. We demonstrate significant cellular loss in hippocampus of epileptic rats, visualized through decreased TOPRO stained neurons. Impaired spatial memory was observed in epileptic rats after Radial arm maze test. Treatment with WS and WA has resulted in increased number of TOPRO stained neurons. Enhanced performance of epileptic rats treated with WS and WA was observed in Radial arm maze test. The antioxidant activity of WS and WA was studied using superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) assays in the hippocampus of experimental rats. The SOD activity and CAT activity decreased significantly in epileptic group, treatment with WS and WA significantly reversed the enzymatic activities to near control. Real time gene expression studies of SOD and GPx showed significant up-regulation in epileptic group compared to control. Treatment with WS and WA showed significant reversal to near control. Lipid peroxidation quantified using TBARS assay, significantly increased in epileptic rats. Treatment with WS and WA showed significant reversal to near control. NMDA receptor expression decreased in epileptic rats. The treatment with WS and WA resulted in physiological expression of NMDA receptors. This data suggests that oxidative stress effects membrane constitution resulting in decreased NMDA receptor density leading to impaired spatial memory. Treatment with WS and WA has ameliorated spatial memory deficits by enhancing antioxidant system and restoring altered NMDA receptor density. PMID:22700086

  1. Intravesical PAC1 Receptor Antagonist, PACAP(6-38), Reduces Urinary Bladder Frequency and Pelvic Sensitivity in NGF-OE Mice.

    PubMed

    Girard, Beatrice M; Malley, Susan E; Mathews, Morgan M; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2016-06-01

    Chronic NGF overexpression (OE) in the urothelium, achieved through the use of a highly urothelium-specific uroplakin II promoter, stimulates neuronal sprouting in the urinary bladder, produces increased voiding frequency and non-voiding contractions, and referred somatic sensitivity. Additional NGF-mediated pleiotropic changes might contribute to increased voiding frequency and pelvic hypersensitivity in NGF-OE mice such as neuropeptide/receptor systems including PACAP(Adcyap1) and PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1). Given the presence of PAC1-immunoreactive fibers and the expression of PAC1 receptor expression in bladder tissues, and PACAP-facilitated detrusor contraction, whether PACAP/receptor signaling contributes to increased voiding frequency and somatic sensitivity was evaluated in NGF-OE mice. Intravesical administration of the PAC1 receptor antagonist, PACAP(6-38) (300 nM), significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased intercontraction interval (2.0-fold) and void volume (2.5-fold) in NGF-OE mice. Intravesical instillation of PACAP(6-38) also decreased baseline bladder pressure in NGF-OE mice. PACAP(6-38) had no effects on bladder function in WT mice. Intravesical administration of PACAP(6-38) (300 nM) significantly (p ≤ 0.01) reduced pelvic sensitivity in NGF-OE mice but was without effect in WT mice. PACAP/receptor signaling contributes to the increased voiding frequency and pelvic sensitivity observed in NGF-OE mice. PMID:27146136

  2. Melatonin can Ameliorate Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation-Related Deterioration of Bone Quality in Rat Femur.

    PubMed

    Çakir, Zelal Ünlü; Demirel, Can; Kilciksiz, Sevil Cagiran; Gürgül, Serkan; Zincircioğlu, S Burhanedtin; Erdal, Nurten

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effects of melatonin on the biomechanical properties of bone in comparison to amifostine (WR-2721). Forty Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into 5 groups namely; control (C), irradiation (R; single dose of 50 Gy), irradiation + WR-2721 (R + WR-2721; irradiation + 200 mg/kg WR-2721) radiation + melatonin 25 mg/kg (R + M25; irradiation + 25 mg/kg melatonin), and radiation + melatonin 50 mg/kg (R + M50; irradiation + 50 mg/kg melatonin). In order to measure extrinsic (organ-level mechanical properties of bone; the ultimate strength, deformation, stiffness, energy absorption capacity) and intrinsic (tissue-level mechanical properties of bone; ultimate stress, ultimate strain, elastic modulus, toughness) features of the bone, a three-point bending (TPB) test was performed for biomechanical evaluation. In addition, a bone mineral density (BMD) test was carried out. The BMD and extrinsic properties of the diaphyseal femur were found to be significantly higher in the R + M25 group than in group R (p < 0.05). A significant increase was observed in R + M50 (p < 0.05) in comparison to group R in the cross-sectional area of the femoral shaft and elastic modulus parameter. The protective effect of melatonin was similar to that of WR-2721. Thus, biomechanical quality of irradiated bone can be ameliorated by free radical scavenger melatonin. PMID:27052631

  3. Altered Circadian Food Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in PACAP Receptor 1 (PAC1) Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Light signals from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) entrain the circadian clock and regulate negative masking. Two neurotransmitters, glutamate and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP), found in the ipRGCs transmit light signals to the brain via glutamate receptors and the specific PACAP type 1 (PAC1) receptor. Light entrainment occurs during the twilight zones and has little effect on clock phase during daytime. When nocturnal animals have access to food only for a few hours during the resting phase at daytime, they adapt behavior to the restricted feeding (RF) paradigm and show food anticipatory activity (FAA). A recent study in mice and rats demonstrating that light regulates FAA prompted us to investigate the role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling in the light mediated regulation of FAA. PAC1 receptor knock out (PAC1-/-) and wild type (PAC1+/+) mice placed in running wheels were examined in a full photoperiod (FPP) of 12:12 h light/dark (LD) and a skeleton photoperiod (SPP) 1:11:1:11 h L:DD:L:DD at 300 and 10 lux light intensity. Both PAC1-/- mice and PAC1+/+ littermates entrained to FPP and SPP at both light intensities. However, when placed in RF with access to food for 4–5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold increase in amplitude compared to PAC1+/+ mice when placed in SPP at 300 lux. The same pattern of FAA was observed at 10 lux during both FPP and SPP. The present study indicates a role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling during light regulated FAA. Most likely, PACAP found in ipRGCs mediating non-image forming light information to the brain is involved. PMID:26757053

  4. Altered Circadian Food Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in PACAP Receptor 1 (PAC1) Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Light signals from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) entrain the circadian clock and regulate negative masking. Two neurotransmitters, glutamate and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP), found in the ipRGCs transmit light signals to the brain via glutamate receptors and the specific PACAP type 1 (PAC1) receptor. Light entrainment occurs during the twilight zones and has little effect on clock phase during daytime. When nocturnal animals have access to food only for a few hours during the resting phase at daytime, they adapt behavior to the restricted feeding (RF) paradigm and show food anticipatory activity (FAA). A recent study in mice and rats demonstrating that light regulates FAA prompted us to investigate the role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling in the light mediated regulation of FAA. PAC1 receptor knock out (PAC1-/-) and wild type (PAC1+/+) mice placed in running wheels were examined in a full photoperiod (FPP) of 12:12 h light/dark (LD) and a skeleton photoperiod (SPP) 1:11:1:11 h L:DD:L:DD at 300 and 10 lux light intensity. Both PAC1-/- mice and PAC1+/+ littermates entrained to FPP and SPP at both light intensities. However, when placed in RF with access to food for 4-5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold increase in amplitude compared to PAC1+/+ mice when placed in SPP at 300 lux. The same pattern of FAA was observed at 10 lux during both FPP and SPP. The present study indicates a role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling during light regulated FAA. Most likely, PACAP found in ipRGCs mediating non-image forming light information to the brain is involved. PMID:26757053

  5. Epac2 contributes to PACAP-induced astrocytic differentiation through calcium ion influx in neural precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyunhyo; Lee, Kyungmin

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes play a critical role in normal brain functions and maintaining the brain microenvironment, and defects in astrocytogenesis during neurodevelopment could give rise to severe mental illness and psychiatric disorders. During neuro-embryogenesis, astrocytogenesis involves astrocytic differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) induced by signals from ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). However, in contrast to the CNTF signaling pathway, the exact mechanism underlying astrocytic differentiation induced by PACAP is unknown. In the present study, we aimed to verify a signaling pathway specific to PACAP-induced astrocytogenesis, using exchange protein directly activated by cAMP2 (Epac2)-knockout mice. We found that PACAP could trigger astrocytic differentiation of NPCs via Epac2 activation and an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration via a calcium ion influx. Taken together, we concluded that astrocytogenesis stimulated by PACAP occurs through a novel signaling pathway independent from CNTF-JAK/STAT signaling, that is the well-known pathway of astrocytogenesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(2): 128-133] PMID:26645637

  6. Epac2 contributes to PACAP-induced astrocytic differentiation through calcium ion influx in neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyunhyo; Lee, Kyungmin

    2016-02-01

    Astrocytes play a critical role in normal brain functions and maintaining the brain microenvironment, and defects in astrocytogenesis during neurodevelopment could give rise to severe mental illness and psychiatric disorders. During neuro-embryogenesis, astrocytogenesis involves astrocytic differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) induced by signals from ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). However, in contrast to the CNTF signaling pathway, the exact mechanism underlying astrocytic differentiation induced by PACAP is unknown. In the present study, we aimed to verify a signaling pathway specific to PACAP-induced astrocytogenesis, using exchange protein directly activated by cAMP2 (Epac2)-knockout mice. We found that PACAP could trigger astrocytic differentiation of NPCs via Epac2 activation and an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration via a calcium ion influx. Taken together, we concluded that astrocytogenesis stimulated by PACAP occurs through a novel signaling pathway independent from CNTF-JAK/STAT signaling, that is the well-known pathway of astrocytogenesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(2): 128-133]. PMID:26645637

  7. VIP, CRF, and PACAP Act at Distinct Receptors to Elicit Different cAMP/PKA Dynamics in the Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Emilie; Demmou, Lynda; Cauli, Bruno; Gallopin, Thierry; Geoffroy, Hélène; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M.; Paupardin-Tritsch, Danièle; Lambolez, Bertrand; Vincent, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The functional significance of diverse neuropeptide coexpression and convergence onto common second messenger pathways remains unclear. To address this question, we characterized responses to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), pituitary adenylate cyclase–activating peptide (PACAP), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in rat neocortical slices using optical recordings of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) sensors, patch-clamp, and single-cell reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Responses of pyramidal neurons to the 3 neuropeptides markedly differed in time-course and amplitude. Effects of these neuropeptides on the PKA-sensitive slow afterhyperpolarization current were consistent with those observed with cAMP/PKA sensors. CRF-1 receptors, primarily expressed in pyramidal cells, reportedly mediate the neocortical effects of CRF. PACAP and VIP activated distinct PAC1 and VPAC1 receptors, respectively. Indeed, a selective VPAC1 antagonist prevented VIP responses but had a minor effect on PACAP responses, which were mimicked by a specific PAC1 agonist. While PAC1 and VPAC1 were coexpressed in pyramidal cells, PAC1 expression was also frequently detected in interneurons, suggesting that PACAP has widespread effects on the neuronal network. Our results suggest that VIP and CRF, originating from interneurons, and PACAP, expressed mainly by pyramidal cells, finely tune the excitability and gene expression in the neocortical network via distinct cAMP/PKA-mediated effects. PMID:20699230

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Bhavya B.; Yang, Cheng; Ou, Yang; Feng, Xiaoke; Muhoza, Djamali; Holmes, Alexandrea F.; Theus, Sue; Deshmukh, Sarika; Haun, Randy S.; Kaushal, Gur P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase–3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase–3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26444017

  9. Growth Hormone Ameliorates the Radiotherapy-Induced Ovarian Follicular Loss in Rats: Impact on Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and IGF-1/IGF-1R Axis

    PubMed Central

    Mahran, Yasmen F.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Nada, Ahmed S.; El-Naga, Reem N.; Ali, Azza A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the standard cytotoxic therapies for cancer. However, it has a profound impact on ovarian function leading to premature ovarian failure and infertility. Since none of the currently available methods for fertility preservation guarantees future fertility, the need for an effective radioprotective agent is highly intensified. The present study investigated the mechanisms of the potential radioprotective effect of growth hormone (GH) on γ irradiation-induced ovarian failure and the impact of the insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the underlying protection. Immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were either exposed to single whole body irradiation (3.2 Gy) and/or treated with GH (1 mg/kg s.c). Experimental γ-irradiation produced an array of ovarian dysfunction that was evident by assessment of hormonal changes, follicular development, proliferation marker (PCNA), oxidative stress as well as apoptotic markers. In addition, IGF-1/IGF-1R axis expression was assessed using real-time PCR and immunolocalization techniques. Furthermore, after full maturity, fertility assessment was performed. GH significantly enhanced follicular development and restored anti-Mullerian hormone serum level as compared with the irradiated group. In addition, GH significantly ameliorated the deleterious effects of irradiation on oxidative status, PCNA and apoptosis. Interestingly, GH was shown to enhance the ovarian IGF-1 at transcription and translation levels, a property that contributes significantly to its radioprotective effect. Finally, GH regained the fertility that was lost following irradiation. In conclusion, GH showed a radioprotective effect and rescued the ovarian reserve through increasing local IGF-1 level and counteracting the oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26465611

  10. γ-Glutamylcysteine Ameliorates Oxidative Injury in Neurons and Astrocytes In Vitro and Increases Brain Glutathione In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Le, Truc M.; Jiang, Haiyan; Cunningham, Gary R.; Magarik, Jordan A.; Barge, William S.; Cato, Marilyn C.; Farina, Marcelo; Rocha, Joao B. T.; Milatovic, Dejan; Lee, Eunsook; Aschner, Michael; Summar, Marshall L.

    2011-01-01

    γ-Glutamylcysteine (γ-GC) is an intermediate molecule of the glutathione (GSH) synthesis pathway. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that γ-GC pretreatment in cultured astrocytes and neurons protects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury. We demonstrate that pretreatment with γ-GC increases the ratio of reduced:oxidized GSH levels in both neurons and astrocytes and increases total GSH levels in neurons. In addition, γ-GC pretreatment decreases isoprostane formation both in neurons and astrocytes, as well as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation in astrocytes in response to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, GSH and isoprostane levels significantly correlate with increased neuron and astrocyte viability in cells pretreated with γ-GC. Finally, we demonstrate that administration of a single intravenous injection of γ-GC to mice significantly increases GSH levels in the brain, heart, lungs, liver, and in muscle tissues in vivo. These results support a potential therapeutic role for γ-GC in the reduction of oxidant stress-induced damage in tissues including the brain. PMID:21159318

  11. PACAP Interacts with PAC1 Receptors to Induce Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Expression and Activity in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Alessandro; Waschek, James A.; Marzagalli, Rubina; Cardile, Venera; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures. PMID:25658447

  12. Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Christopher B; Farhadi, Ashkan; Jakate, Shriram M; Tang, Yueming; Shaikh, Maliha; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2009-03-01

    Because only 30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a factor other than heavy alcohol consumption must be involved in the development of alcohol-induced liver injury. Animal and human studies suggest that bacterial products, such as endotoxins, are the second key co-factors, and oxidant-mediated gut leakiness is one of the sources of endotoxemia. Probiotics have been used to prevent and treat diseases associated with gut-derived bacterial products and disorders associated with gut leakiness. Indeed, "probiotic"Lactobacillus rhamnosus has been successfully used to treat alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. However, the mechanism of action involved in the potential beneficial effects of L. rhamnosus in alcohol liver injury is not known. We hypothesized that probiotics could preserve normal barrier function in an animal model of ALD by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative stress and thus prevent the development of hyperpermeability and subsequent alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with alcohol twice daily (8 gm/kg) for 10 weeks. In addition, alcoholic rats were also treated with once daily gavage of either 2.5 x 10(7) live L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin (LGG) or vehicle (V). Intestinal permeability (baseline and at 10 weeks) was determined using a sugar bolus and GC analysis of urinary sugars. Intestinal and liver tissues were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, livers were assessed histologically for severity of ASH and total fat (steatosis). Alcohol+LGG (ALC+LGG)-fed rats had significantly (P< or =.05) less severe ASH than ALC+V-fed rats. L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin also reduced alcohol-induced gut leakiness and significantly blunted alcohol-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in both intestine and the liver. L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin probiotic gavage significantly ameliorated ASH in rats. This improvement was associated with reduced markers of intestinal and liver

  13. Outcoupling-Enhanced Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Ameliorated Plastic Substrate with Built-in Indium-Tin-Oxide-Free Transparent Electrode.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Heng-Yang; Li, Yan-Qing; Zhou, Lei; Xie, Hao-Jun; Li, Chi; Ou, Qing-Dong; Chen, Lin-Sen; Lee, Chun-Sing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2015-07-28

    Enhancing light outcoupling in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) is an important task for increasing their efficiencies for display and lighting applications. Here, a strategy for an angularly and spectrally independent boost in light outcoupling of FOLEDs is demonstrated by using plastic substrates with a low refractive index, consisting of a bioinspired optical coupling layer and a transparent conductive electrode composed of a silver network. The good transmittance to full-color emission (>94% over the whole visible wavelength range), ultralow sheet resistance to carrier injection (<5 Ω sq(-1)), and high tolerance to mechanical bending of the ameliorated plastic substrates synergistically optimize the device performance of FOLEDs. The maximum power efficiencies reach 47, 93, 56, and 52 lm W(-1) for red, green, blue, and white emissions, which are competitive with similarly structured OLEDs fabricated on traditional indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass. This paradigm for light outcoupling enhancement in ITO-free FOLEDs offers additional features and design freedoms for highly efficient flexible optoelectronics in large-scale and low-cost manufacturing without the need for a high-refractive-index plastic substrate. PMID:26143652

  14. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Piper cubeba Extract in the Amelioration of CCl4-Induced Liver Injuries and Oxidative Damage in the Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    AlSaid, Mansour; Mothana, Ramzi; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Ahmad, Ajaz; Al-Dosari, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver diseases still represent a major health burden worldwide. Moreover, medicinal plants have gained popularity in the treatment of several diseases including liver. Thus, the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Piper cubeba fruits in the amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in the rodent model. Methods. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, γ-GGT, ALP, total bilirubin, LDH, and total protein. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as LPO, NP-SH, and CAT were measured in rat liver as well as mRNA expression of cytokines such as TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 and stress related genes iNOS and HO-1 were determined by RT-PCR. The extent of liver damage was also analyzed through histopathological observations. Results. Treatment with PCEE significantly and dose dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, PCEE significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defense antioxidant enzymes NP-SH and CAT towards normal levels. The administration of PCEE significantly downregulated the CCl4-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression in dose dependent manner, while it upregulated the IL-10 and induced hepatoprotective effect by downregulating mRNA expression of iNOS and HO-1 gene. PMID:25654097

  15. Effects of Berberine on Amelioration of Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in High Glucose and High Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Hamsters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cong; Wang, Zhuo; Song, Yulong; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Xuan; Li, Ping; Jin, Jin; Xu, Nannan; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of berberine on amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and the mechanism involved in high glucose and high fat diet-induced diabetic hamsters. Golden hamsters fed with high glucose and high fat diet were medicated with metformin, simvastatin, and low or high dose of berberine (50 and 100 mg·kg−1) for 6 weeks. The results showed that the body weights were significantly lower in berberine-treated groups than control group. Histological analyses revealed that the treatment of berberine inhibited hepatic fat accumulation. Berberine significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and 8-isoprostane level but significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity. Glucose and insulin levels were significantly reduced in metformin and berberine-treated groups. Glucose tolerance tests documented that berberine-treated mice were more glucose tolerant. Berberine treatment increased expression of skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 mRNA and significantly decreased liver low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression. The study suggested that berberine was effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids levels, reducing the body weight, and alleviating the oxidative stress in diabetic hamsters, which might be beneficial in reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes. PMID:25705654

  16. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garcés-Rimón, M.; González, C.; Uranga, J. A.; López-Miranda, V.; López-Fandiño, R.; Miguel, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications. PMID:26985993

  17. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced depressive-like behaviour and reduces oxidative stress in brain and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Petronilho, Fabricia; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in oxidative stress are associated with the pathophysiology of both diabetes mellitus and major depressive disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine on behaviour and oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats. To this aim, after induction of diabetes by a single dose of alloxan, Wistar rats were treated with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine for 14 days, and then depressive-like behaviour was evaluated. Oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas. Diabetic rats displayed depressive-like behaviour, and treatment with N-acetylcysteine reversed this alteration. Carbonyl protein levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and pancreas of diabetic rats, and both N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reversed these alterations. Lipid damage was increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and pancreas; however, treatment with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine reversed lipid damage only in the hippocampus and pancreas. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas of diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, there was a decrease in catalase enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas, but an increase in the hippocampus. Treatment with antioxidants did not have an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, animal model of diabetes produced depressive-like behaviour and oxidative stress in the brain and periphery. Treatment with antioxidants could be a viable alternative to treat behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26432993

  18. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute myocardial infarction of rats by inhibiting inflammation and inducible nitric oxide synthase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang; Du, Ping; Wang, Junjie

    2015-09-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is the main active component of the commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine peony, Paeonia Suffruticosa. PF has diverse biological functions and exhibits anti‑oxidative, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic activity. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a catalyzing enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). NO has an important regulatory role in the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems. PF has previously been demonstrated to inhibit the gene expression of iNOS. The present study aimed to identify a potentially novel cytoprotective function of PF, and to elucidate its effects against myocardial ischemic damage in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). PF was able to significantly decrease the myocardial infarct size as well as the activities of creatine kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of CK, lactate dehydrogenase and cardiac troponin T. In addition, in the PF‑treated groups, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and nuclear factor‑κB were markedly inhibited. Furthermore, treatment with PF inhibited the activities and protein expression levels of iNOS. Decreased caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 activities were also observed in the AMI rat model treated with various doses of PF. The results of the present study indicated that the cardioprotective effects of PF may be associated with the inhibition of inflammation and iNOS signaling pathways. PMID:26035555

  19. Ascorbic acid ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Haiyan; Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaoqin; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has been shown to exert beneficial effects, including mitigating oxidative stress and inhibiting inflammation. However, the preventative effect of vitamin C in chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. In our study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of AA and possible mechanism involved in inhibiting dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to three groups: control group, DSS group, and DSS plus ascorbic acid treated group. Several clinical and inflammatory parameters as well as oxidative stress were evaluated. The results demonstrated that ascorbic acid significantly reduced clinical signs, inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) activities, whereas the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in DSS-induced mice. In addition, ascorbic acid was capable of inhibiting NF-κB, COX-2 and iNOS expression in the colonic. Taken together, these findings suggest that ascorbic acid contributes to the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in DSS-induced colitis and exerts the potential to prevent and clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26884937

  20. Root extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum ameliorates seizures, seizure-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, Monika; Mehla, Jogender; Reeta, K H; Joshi, Sujata; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2012-02-01

    In Ayurveda, Anacyclus pyrethrum has been used as a brain tonic. The present study evaluates the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. pyrethrum (HEAP) root against seizures, seizure-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in experimental models of seizures. Male Wistar rats were used in the study. HEAP was administered in doses of 50, 100, 250, 500 in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model and 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in maximal electroshock (MES) model. Myoclonic jerk latency and generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) were noted in PTZ whereas occurrence of tonic hind limb extension (THLE) was observed in MES seizures. Cognitive deficit was assessed using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. Whole brain reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde levels and cholinesterase activity were measured. HEAP showed 50, 66.7, 83.3 and 100% protection at 50,100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively against GTCS in PTZ induced seizures. In MES induced seizures, HEAP produced 16.7, 33.3 and 50% protection against THLE at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. HEAP administration significantly prevented seizure induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in a dose-dependent manner. HEAP also normalized the decrease in cholinesterase activity caused by seizures. Thus, HEAP showed protective effect against seizures, seizure-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in rats. PMID:21993359

  1. Ascorbic acid ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Haiyan; Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaoqin; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has been shown to exert beneficial effects, including mitigating oxidative stress and inhibiting inflammation. However, the preventative effect of vitamin C in chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. In our study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of AA and possible mechanism involved in inhibiting dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to three groups: control group, DSS group, and DSS plus ascorbic acid treated group. Several clinical and inflammatory parameters as well as oxidative stress were evaluated. The results demonstrated that ascorbic acid significantly reduced clinical signs, inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) activities, whereas the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in DSS-induced mice. In addition, ascorbic acid was capable of inhibiting NF-κB, COX-2 and iNOS expression in the colonic. Taken together, these findings suggest that ascorbic acid contributes to the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in DSS-induced colitis and exerts the potential to prevent and clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26884937

  2. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Kadasa, Naif Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRD), and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats. PMID:26581756

  3. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A; Kadasa, Naif Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRD), and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats. PMID:26581756

  4. Ameliorative effects of bombesin and neurotensin on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis, oxidative damage and apoptosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akcan, Alper; Muhtaroglu, Sebahattin; Akgun, Hulya; Akyildiz, Hizir; Kucuk, Can; Sozuer, Erdogan; Yurci, Alper; Yilmaz, Namik

    2008-01-01

    .92, 219.76 ± 25.77 and 220.34 ± 36.95; caspase-3 levels, 451.70 ± 68.27 and 216.20 ± 28.17 vs 28.60 ± 6.46, 170.50 ± 32.37 and 166.50 ± 30.95, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest BBS and NTS, through their anti-inflammatory actions, support the maintenance of colonic integrity and merit consideration as potential agents for ameliorating colonic inflammation. PMID:18300348

  5. Geraniol, alone and in combination with pioglitazone, ameliorates fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats via the modulation of both inflammatory and oxidative stress status.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sherehan M; El-Denshary, Ezzedin S; Abdallah, Dalaal M

    2015-01-01

    Geraniol (GO) potent antitumor and chemopreventive effects are attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, the potential efficacy of GO (250 mg/kg) in ameliorating metabolic syndrome (MetS) induced by fructose in drinking water was elucidated. Moreover, the effect of pioglitazone (5 and 10 mg/kg; PIO) and the possible interaction of the co-treatment of GO with PIO5 were studied in the MetS model. After 4 weeks of treatment, GO and/or PIO reduced the fasting blood glucose and the glycemic excursion in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. GO and PIO5/10 restrained visceral adiposity and partly the body weight gain. The decreased level of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ transcriptional activity in the visceral adipose tissue of MetS rats was increased by single treatment regimens. Though GO did not affect MetS-induced hyperinsulinemia, PIO5/10 lowered it. Additionally, GO and PIO5/10 suppressed glycated hemoglobin and the receptor for advanced glycated end products (RAGE). These single regimens also ameliorated hyperuricemia, the disrupted lipid profile, and the elevated systolic blood pressure evoked by MetS. The rise in serum transaminases, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as hepatic lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) was lowered by the single treatments to different extents. Moreover, hepatic non-protein thiols, as well as serum NO and adiponectin were enhanced by single regimens. Similar effects were reached by the combination of GO with PIO5; however, a potentiative interaction was noted on fasting serum insulin level, while synergistic effects were reflected as improved insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced RAGE and triglycerides. Therefore, GO via the transcriptional activation of PPAR-γ reduces inflammation and free radical injury produced by MetS. Thereby, these effects provide novel mechanistic insights on GO management of MetS associated critical risk factors

  6. Calycosin ameliorates diabetes-induced cognitive impairments in rats by reducing oxidative stress via the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Linhui

    2016-04-29

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), but there is currently no effective method of prevention nor proven therapeutic regimen for it. In this study, we investigated the effects of calycosin on cognitive behavior and the potential mechanism involved in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. The effects of diabetes and calycosin treatment on spatial learning and memory were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze, passive avoidance and motor coordination tests. Histological analysis of the hippocampus cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region was conducted in rats. The decreased expression of the synapsin (SYN) and postsynatptic density protein (PSD-95), as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in diabetic rats was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Treatment with calycosin promoted a reduction in the expression of SYN, PSD-95 and BDNF. In addition, diabetic rats showed increased MDA levels, and decreased SOD levels and GSH-Px activities in the hippocampus, as well as increased AChE activity in the cerebral cortex; these changes were reversed by calycosin supplementation. Thus, the impairment of learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats was alleviated by calycosin, and that the degree of alleviation was associated with oxidative stress. We also found that calycosin treatment significantly stimulated Akt phosphorylation and decreased GSK-3β and tau phosphorylation, and that these changes could be restored by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, calycosin had a beneficial effect on the amelioration, prevention and treatment of diabetes-associated cognitive deficits, through its involvement in oxidative stress, synaptic function and the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26970304

  7. Iron reduction by deferoxamine leads to amelioration of adiposity via the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation in obese and type 2 diabetes KKAy mice.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Soichiro; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sawada, Kaori; Yamano, Noriko; Horinouchi, Yuya; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Minakuchi, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential trace metal for most organisms. However, excess iron causes oxidative stress through production of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction. Iron storage in the body is reported to be associated with fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the role of iron in adiposity by using KKAy mice and obese and diabetic model mice. Eight-week-old KKAy mice were divided into two groups and treated with deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator agent, or a vehicle for 2 wk. DFO treatment diminished fat iron concentration and serum ferritin levels in KKAy mice. Fat weight and adipocyte size were reduced significantly in DFO-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Macrophage infiltration into fat was also decreased in DFO-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Superoxide production and NADPH oxidase activity in fat, as well as urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion, were decreased in KKAy mice after DFO treatment while p22(phox) expression in adipose tissue was diminished in such mice. Ferritin expression in the fat of DFO-treated KKAy mice was decreased. In addition, F4/80-positive cells also presented through both p22(phox) and ferritin expression. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were also reduced in fat tissue of DFO-treated mice. These findings suggest that reduction of iron levels ameliorates adipocyte hypertrophy via suppression of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and macrophage infiltration, thereby breaking a vicious cycle in obesity. PMID:21917632

  8. Danshen injection ameliorates STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in association with suppression of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory factors and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linhao; Shen, Peiqiang; Bi, Yanli; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Zhangang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most frequent complications in diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to explore whether Danshen injection is protective to renal tissue in diabetes. Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg) was used to induce diabetes in rats. Some STZ-induced diabetic rats were also intraperitoneally injected with Danshen solution at two different dosages (0.5 or 1ml/kg/day) for 6weeks. Our results showed that serum creatinine (sCr) and blood urea nitrogen were significantly increased in STZ-induced diabetic rats, which was alleviated upon Danshen injection. Danshen injection was also found to ameliorate hypertrophy and dilatation of renal tubule and glomeruli possibly by decreasing the expression of collagen and fibronectin in association with suppression of TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Further investigation revealed that Danshen injection could increase the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats, indicating suppression of oxidative stress. In addition, we also found that Danshen injection could suppress IκB/NF-κB signaling pathway and reduce the level of a number of pro-inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the diabetic renal tissue, indicating suppression of inflammation. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Danshen injection may rescue STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy, possibly via suppressing the oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and fibrosis progression. PMID:27355131

  9. Paeoniflorin attenuates amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity by ameliorating oxidative stress and regulating the NGF-mediated signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Lan, Zhou; Chen, Lvyi; Fu, Qiang; Ji, Weiwei; Wang, Shuyuan; Liang, Zhaohui; Qu, Rong; Kong, Lingyi; Ma, Shiping

    2013-03-01

    Paeoniflorin is a monoterpene glycoside isolated from the aqueous extract of the dry root of Paeonia. It has been identified to exhibit many pharmacological effects including enhancing the cognitive ability, producing anti-depressant-like effect and reducing the MTPT-induced toxicity. In our previous study, it has shown that paeoniflorin improved the cognitive ability and attenuated the oxidative stress in the Aβ(1-42)-treated rats. In order to further elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms of paeoniflorin on the cognitive ability, rats were injected with Aβ(1-42) (1 μg/μL) and later with paeoniflorin (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) and donepezil hydrochloride (2mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 20 days in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of paeoniflorin or donepezil enhanced the cognitive performances in the Morris water maze test, restored the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the increased level of malondialdehyde, and reversed the alterations of matrix metallopeptidase-9 and tissue-inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the hippocampus of Aβ(1-42)-treated rats. Paeoniflorin also up-regulated the activity of choline acetyltrasferase and the expression of tyrosine kinase A receptor, and down-regulated the activity of acetylcholine esterase in the hippocampus of Aβ(1-42)-treated rats. These results demonstrate that paeoniflorin ameliorates the spatial learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the nerve growth factor-mediated signaling to reinforce cholinergic functions in the hippocampus of the Aβ(1-42)-treated rats. PMID:23295189

  10. Targeting oxidative/nitrergic stress ameliorates motor impairment, and attenuates synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in two models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Elinos-Calderón, Diana; Robledo-Arratia, Yolanda; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Ali, Syed F; Santamaría, Abel

    2009-05-16

    In this study, we reproduced two toxic models resembling some motor/kinetic deficits of Huntington's disease induced by bilateral intrastriatal injections of either quinolinic acid (QUIN, 120 nmol/microl per side) or 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP, 250 nmol/microl per side) to rats. Motor skills (including total distance walked/traveled and total horizontal and vertical activities) were evaluated in a box-field system at 1 and 7 days post-lesion. In order to investigate whether these alterations were associated with the oxidative/nitrergic stress evoked by the nitrogen reactive species peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in the striatum, some rats were pretreated with the ONOO(-) decomposition catalyst iron porphyrinate (Fe(TPPS), 10 mg/kg, i.p.) 120 min prior to toxins infusion. With the aim to further characterize some possible mechanisms by which motor tasks were affected and/or preserved, biochemical analysis of peroxidative damage to lipids and mitochondrial dysfunction were both assessed in synaptic membranes isolated from the striata of QUIN-, 3-NP- and/or Fe(TPPS)-treated animals. Our results show that targeting oxidative/nitrergic stress by Fe(TPPS) in these toxic models results in amelioration of motor deficits linked to inhibition of peroxidative damage and recovery of mitochondrial function in synaptic membranes. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the protection exerted by Fe(TPPS) on the biochemical markers analyzed reflects the possible preservation of the functional status of the nerve tissue by limiting the deleterious actions of ONOO(-), further accounting for partial recovery of integrative motor functions. PMID:19100293

  11. Genetic blockade of the dopamine D3 receptor enhances hippocampal expression of PACAP and receptors and alters their cortical distribution.

    PubMed

    Marzagalli, R; Leggio, G M; Bucolo, C; Pricoco, E; Keay, K A; Cardile, V; Castorina, S; Salomone, S; Drago, F; Castorina, A

    2016-03-01

    Dopamine D3 receptors (D3Rs) are implicated in several aspects of cognition, but their role in aversive conditioning has only been marginally uncovered. Investigations have reported that blockade of D3Rs enhances the acquisition of fear memories, a phenomenon tightly linked to the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). However, the impact of D3R ablation on the PACAPergic system in regions critical for the formation of new memories remains unexplored. To address this issue, levels of PACAP and its receptors were compared in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex (CX) of mice devoid of functional D3Rs (D3R(-/-)) and wild-types (WTs) using a series of comparative immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. Morphometric and stereological data revealed increased hippocampal area and volume in D3R(-/-) mice, and augmented neuronal density in CA1 and CA2/3 subfields. PACAP levels were increased in the hippocampus of D3R(-/-) mice. Expression of PACAP receptors was also heightened in mutant mice. In the CX, PACAP immunoreactivity (IR), was restricted to cortical layer V in WTs, but was distributed throughout layers IV-VI in D3R(-/-) mice, along with increased mRNAs, protein concentration and staining scores. Consistently, PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2 IRs were variably redistributed in CX, with a general upregulation in cortical layers II-IV in knockout animals. Our interpretation of these findings is that disturbed dopamine neurotransmission due to genetic D3R blockade may enhance the PACAP/PAC1-VPAC axis, a key endogenous system for the processing of fear memories. This could explain, at least in part, the facilitated acquisition and consolidation of aversive memories in D3R(-/-) mice. PMID:26718601

  12. Increased oxidative stress and coenzyme Q10 deficiency in juvenile fibromyalgia: amelioration of hypercholesterolemia and fatigue by ubiquinol-10 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Takako; Seki, Manabu; Naga, Tomoko; Uchino, Shinya; Asazuma, Haruki; Yoshida, Takuma; Iizuka, Yuki; Kikuchi, Masako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Yokota, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by generalized pain and chronic fatigue of unknown etiology. To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in this disorder, we measured plasma levels of ubiquinone-10, ubiquinol-10, free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol esters (CE), and free fatty acids (FFA) in patients with juvenile FM (n=10) and in healthy control subjects (n=67). Levels of FC and CE were significantly increased in juvenile FM as compared with controls, suggesting the presence of hypercholesterolemia in this disease. However, plasma level of ubiquinol-10 was significantly decreased and the ratio of ubiquinone-10 to total coenzyme Q10 (%CoQ10) was significantly increased in juvenile FM relative to healthy controls, suggesting that FM is associated with coenzyme Q10 deficiency and increased oxidative stress. Moreover, plasma level of FFA was significantly higher and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in total FFA was significantly lower in FM than in controls, suggesting increased tissue oxidative damage in juvenile FM. Interestingly, the content of monoenoic acids, such as oleic and palmitoleic acids, was significantly increased in FM relative to controls, probably to compensate for the loss of PUFA. Next, we examined the effect of ubiquinol-10 supplementation (100 mg/day for 12 weeks) in FM patients. This resulted in an increase in coenzyme Q10 levels and a decrease in %CoQ10. No changes were observed in FFA levels or their composition. However, plasma levels of FC and CE significantly decreased and the ratio of FC to CE also significantly decreased, suggesting that ubiquinol-10 supplementation improved cholesterol metabolism. Ubiquinol-10 supplementation also improved chronic fatigue scores as measured by the Chalder Fatigue Scale. PMID:23394493

  13. Chrysin protects against cisplatin-induced colon. toxicity via amelioration of oxidative stress and apoptosis: Probable role of p38MAPK and p53

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Rehan; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Qamar, Wajhul; Lateef, Abdul; Tahir, Mir; Rehman, Muneeb U; Ali, Farrah; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-02-01

    Cisplatin, an antineoplastic drug, is widely used as a foremost therapy against numerous forms of cancer but it has pronounced adverse effects viz., nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity etc. CDDP-induced emesis and diarrhea are also marked toxicities that may be due to intestinal injury. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavone commonly found in many plants possesses multiple biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of chrysin against CDDP-induced colon toxicity. The plausible mechanism of CDDP-induced colon toxicity and damage includes oxidative stress, activation of p38MAPK and p53, and colonic epithelial cell apoptosis via upregulating the expression of Bak and cleaved caspase-3. Chrysin was administered to Wistar rats once daily for 14 consecutive days at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight orally in corn oil. On day 14, a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin was given at the dose of 7.5 mg/kg body weight and animals were euthanized after 24 h of cisplatin injection. Chrysin ameliorated CDDP-induced lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase activity, glutathione depletion, decrease in antioxidant (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase) and phase-II detoxifying (glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase) enzyme activities. Chrysin also attenuated goblet cell disintegration, expression of phospho-p38MAPK and p53, and apoptotic tissue damage which were induced by CDDP. Histological findings further supported the protective effects of chrysin against CDDP-induced colonic damage. The results of the present study suggest that the protective effect of chrysin against CDDP-induced colon toxicity was related with attenuation of oxidative stress, activation of p38MAPK and p53, and apoptotic tissue damage. Highlights: ► Cisplatin-induced colon toxicity is associated with oxidative stress and

  14. Ameliorative Effects of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on Alcoholic Liver Oxidative Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:25622257

  15. Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. exhibits antihypertrophic effect in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyoblasts via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Vandana; Pangayarselvi, Balasubramaniam; Prathapan, Ayyappan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to increased workload, such as hypertension or valvular heart disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and in its transition to heart failure. This study was taken up with the objective to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in cardiomyoblast hypertrophy and its modulation by Desmodium gangeticum (DG) that has been traditionally used in Ayurveda, an Indian system of medicine. The methanolic root extract was analyzed for total phenolic content and tested for antioxidant potential. Hypertrophy was induced by exposing H9c2 cell line to β-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol (ISO), for 96 hours. Analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential ([INCREMENT]Ψm), and integrity of permeability transition were performed in ISO as well as Desmodium and ISO-cotreated cells. The results demonstrated potent free radical scavenging activity of DG. Cell line studies showed significant increase in ROS generation, dissipation of [INCREMENT]Ψm, and permeability transition pore opening in ISO-treated cells. Desmodium was found to attenuate ISO-induced hypertrophy by reduction of ROS generation, restoration of [INCREMENT]Ψm, and prevention of permeability transition pore opening. This study is the first documentation of the modulatory effect of DG on cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23052030

  16. Ameliorative effect of Withania coagulans on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Dikshit, Piyush; Tyagi, Mool Kumar; Shukla, Rimi; Gambhir, Jasvinder K

    2012-10-01

    Present study aims to evaluate the effect of Withania coagulans fruit (aqWC) on diabetic-dyslipidemia and antioxidant/oxidant status in DM. Diabetic animals were treated with aqWC at a dose of 250 mg/kg bw for 30 days. Lipid profile, MDA, GSH, SOD, FRAP, HMG CoA reductase and acetyl CoA carboxylase activities were estimated in blood and tissues. Total cholesterol, TAG and LDL were significantly elevated whereas HDL was decreased in diabetic animals (p<0.05), simultaneously the lipid content and HMG CoA reductase activities were also increased, whereas acetyl CoA carboxylase activity decreased significantly in tissues of diabetic animals. MDA was increased and antioxidants such as SOD, GSH and FRAP decreased significantly in DM (p<0.05). Oral administration of aqWC to diabetic animals produced significant improvement in serum lipid profile and tissue lipid content. Activity of HMG CoA reductase decreased, whereas acetyl CoA carboxylase activity increased significantly in tissues after aqWC treatment. Administration of aqWC to diabetic animals also showed significant increase in antioxidant levels i.e., GSH, SOD, FRAP and reduced level of MDA in blood and tissue homogenates as compared to diabetic controls (p<0.05). These results suggest that aqWC treatment improved lipid profile and decreased oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. PMID:22842119

  17. Naringenin suppresses K562 human leukemia cell proliferation and ameliorates Adriamycin-induced oxidative damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    LI, RUI-FANG; FENG, YING-QIAN; CHEN, JUN-HUI; GE, LIN-TONG; XIAO, SHU-YUAN; ZUO, XUE-LAN

    2015-01-01

    Treatments for leukemia remain unsatisfactory. Conventional chemotherapy agents that aim to kill tumor cells may also damage normal cells and thus result in severe side-effects. Naringenin, a natural polyphenolic compound with antioxidant effects, has been revealed to have significant antitumor effects with low toxicity in preliminary studies. Thus, it is considered as one of the most promising flavonoids in the treatment of leukemia. In the present study, the effects of naringenin on the K562 human leukemia cell line and the underlying mechanisms were explored in vitro. In addition, human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were used as a normal control in order to evaluate the effects of naringenin on normal granulocytes and in the mediation of Adriamycin (ADM)-induced oxidative damage. The results revealed that K562 proliferation was significantly inhibited by naringenin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; however, minimal cytotoxic effects were observed in PMNs when naringenin was used at concentrations <400 μmol/l. Morphological changes indicative of apoptosis were observed in naringenin-treated K562 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the K562 cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a significantly upregulated rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, in the naringenin-treated K562 cells, the labeling index of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was observed to be increased by immunochemical staining, the mRNA and protein expression levels of p21/WAF1 were strongly upregulated in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, whereas p53 gene expression was not significantly changed. In PMNs to which naringenin (50~80 μmol/l) was added 1 h subsequent to ADM, the cell damage induced by ADM was significantly reduced, coincident with reductions in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and increases in the activity of superoxide dismutase and

  18. Amelioration of Ozone-Induced Oxidative Damage in Wheat Plants Grown under High Carbon Dioxide (Role of Antioxidant Enzymes).

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. V.; Hale, B. A.; Ormrod, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    O3-induced changes in growth, oxidative damage to protein, and specific activities of certain antioxidant enzymes were investigated in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Roblin) grown under ambient or high CO2. High CO2 enhanced shoot biomass of wheat plants, whereas O3 exposure decreased shoot biomass. The shoot biomass was relatively unaffected in plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. O3 exposure under ambient CO2 decreased photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and enhanced oxidative damage to proteins, but these effects were not observed in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. O3 exposure initially enhanced the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase irrespective of growth in ambient or high CO2. However, the specific activities decreased in plants with prolonged exposure to O3 under ambient CO2 but not in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. Native gels revealed preferential changes in the isoform composition of superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, and ascorbate peroxidase of plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. Furthermore, growth under high CO2 and O3 led to the synthesis of one new isoform of glutathione reductase. This could explain why plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3 are capable of resisting O3-induced damage to growth and proteins compared to plants exposed to O3 under ambient CO2. PMID:12228603

  19. Amelioration of Prallethrin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatotoxicity in Rat by the Administration of Origanum majorana Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mossa, Abdel-Tawab H.; Refaie, Amel A.; Ramadan, Amal; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the adverse effects of exposure to prallethrin on oxidant/antioxidant status and liver dysfunction biomarkers and the protective role of Origanum majorana essential oil (EO) in rat. Male rats were divided into 4 groups: (i) received only olive oil (ii) treated with 64.0 mg/kg body weight prallethrin (1/10 LD50) in olive oil via oral route daily for 28 days, (iii) treated with 64.0 mg/kg body weight prallethrin (1/10 LD50) and EO (160 μL/kg b.wt.) in olive oil and (iv) received EO (160 μL/kg b.wt.) in olive oil via oral route twice daily for 28 days. Prallethrin treatment caused decrease in body weight gain and increase in relative liver weight. There was a significant increase in the activity of serum marker enzymes, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase. It caused increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reduction in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase in liver. Consistent histological changes were found in the liver of prallethrin treatment. EO showed significant protection with the depletion of serum marker enzymes and replenishment of antioxidant status and brought all the values to near normal, indicating the protective effect of EO. We can conclude that prallethrin caused oxidative damage and liver injury in male rat and co-administration of EO attenuated the toxic effect of prallethrin. These results demonstrate that administration of EO may be useful, easy, and economical to protect human against pyrethroids toxic effects. PMID:24381944

  20. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus and olfactory bulb in lithium/pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    González-Reyes, Susana; Santillán-Cigales, Juan Jair; Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica Saraí; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-10-01

    Glycyrrhizin (GL) is a triterpene present in the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra that has anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects. Recently, it was demonstrated that GL produced neuroprotective effects on the postischemic brain as well as on the kainic acid injury model in rats. In addition to this, GL also prevented excitotoxic effects on primary cultures. The aims of the present study were to evaluate GL scavenging properties and to investigate GL's effect on oxidative stress and inflammation in the lithium/pilocarpine-induced seizure model in two cerebral regions, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, at acute time intervals (3 or 24h) after status epilepticus (SE). Fluorometric methods showed that GL scavenged three reactive oxygen species: hydrogen peroxide, peroxyl radicals and superoxide anions. In contrast, GL was unable to scavenge peroxynitrite, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen and 2,2-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals suggesting that GL is a weak scavenger. Additionally, administration of GL (50mg/kg, i.p.) 30min before pilocarpine administration significantly suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, malondialdehyde levels were diminished and glutathione levels were maintained at control values in both cerebral regions at 3 and 24 after SE. At 24h after SE, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activity increased in the hippocampus, while both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity were unchanged in the olfactory bulb at that time. In addition, GL suppressed the induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in both cerebral regions evaluated. These results suggest that GL confers protection against pilocarpine damage via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27490898

  1. (−)-EPICATECHIN IMPROVES MITOCHONDRIAL RELATED PROTEIN LEVELS AND AMELIORATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DYSTROPHIC DELTA SARCOGLYCAN NULL MOUSE STRIATED MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; De los Santos, Sergio; Gonzalez-Basurto, Silvia; Canto, Patricia; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive striated muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The presence of oxidative stress (OS) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of the MD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in MD and likely represents an important determinant of increased OS. Experimental antioxidant therapies have been implemented with the aim of protecting against disease progression, but results from clinical trials have been disappointing. In this study, we explored the capacity of the cacao flavonoid (−)-epicatechin (Epi) to mitigate OS by acting as a positive regulator of mitochondrial structure/function endpoints and redox balance control systems in skeletal and cardiac muscles of dystrophic, δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG) null mice. Wild type or δ-SG null 2.5 month old male mice were treated via oral gavage with either water (control animals) or Epi (1 mg/kg, twice/day) for 2 weeks. Results evidence a significant normalization of total protein carbonylation, recovery of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio) and enhanced superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and citrate synthase activities with Epi treatment. These effects were accompanied by increases in protein levels for thiolredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and mitochondrial endpoints. Furthermore, we evidence decreases in heart and skeletal muscle fibrosis, accompanied with an improvement in skeletal muscle function with treatment. These results warrant the further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD associated muscle degeneration. PMID:25284161

  2. (-)-Epicatechin improves mitochondrial-related protein levels and ameliorates oxidative stress in dystrophic δ-sarcoglycan null mouse striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; De los Santos, Sergio; Gonzalez-Basurto, Silvia; Canto, Patricia; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon

    2014-12-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive striated muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism of disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The presence of oxidative stress (OS) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of the MD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in MD, and probably represents an important determinant of increased OS. Experimental antioxidant therapies have been implemented with the aim of protecting against disease progression, but results from clinical trials have been disappointing. In this study, we explored the capacity of the cacao flavonoid (-)-epicatechin (Epi) to mitigate OS by acting as a positive regulator of mitochondrial structure/function endpoints and redox balance control systems in skeletal and cardiac muscles of dystrophic, δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG) null mice. Wild-type or δ-SG null 2.5-month-old male mice were treated via oral gavage with either water (controls) or Epi (1 mg·kg(-1) , twice daily) for 2 weeks. The results showed significant normalization of total protein carbonylation, recovery of the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and enhanced superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and citrate synthase activities with Epi treatment. These effects were accompanied by increases in the protein levels of thioredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, catalase, and mitochondrial endpoints. Furthermore, we found decreases in heart and skeletal muscle fibrosis, accompanied by an improvement in skeletal muscle function, with treatment. These results warrant further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD-associated muscle degeneration. PMID:25284161

  3. Functional Pairing of Class B1 Ligand-GPCR in Cephalochordate Provides Evidence of the Origin of PTH and PACAP/Glucagon Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    On, Jason S.W.; Duan, Cumming; Chow, Billy K.C.; Lee, Leo T.O.

    2015-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of the secretin family of peptides and receptors. However, identification of homologous ligand–receptor pairs in invertebrates and vertebrates is difficult because of the low levels of sequence identity between orthologs of distant species. In this study, five receptors structurally related to the vertebrate class B1 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family were characterized from amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). Phylogenetic analysis showed that they clustered with vertebrate parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/glucagon receptors. These PTHR-like receptors shared synteny with several PTH and PACAP/glucagon receptors identified in spotted gar, Xenopus, and human, indicating that amphioxus preserves the ancestral chordate genomic organization of these receptor subfamilies. According to recent data by Mirabeau and Joly, amphioxus also expresses putative peptide ligands including homologs of PTH (bfPTH1 and 2) and PACAP/GLUC-like peptides (bfPACAP/GLUCs) that may interact with these receptors. Functional analyses showed that bfPTH1 and bfPTH2 activated one of the amphioxus receptors (bf98C) whereas bfPACAP/GLUCs strongly interacted with bf95. In summary, our data confirm the presence of PTH and PACAP/GLUC ligand–receptor pairs in amphioxus, demonstrating that functional homologs of vertebrate PTH and PACAP/glucagon GPCR subfamilies arose before the cephalochordate divergence from the ancestor of tunicates and vertebrates. PMID:25841489

  4. Functional Pairing of Class B1 Ligand-GPCR in Cephalochordate Provides Evidence of the Origin of PTH and PACAP/Glucagon Receptor Family.

    PubMed

    On, Jason S W; Duan, Cumming; Chow, Billy K C; Lee, Leo T O

    2015-08-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of the secretin family of peptides and receptors. However, identification of homologous ligand-receptor pairs in invertebrates and vertebrates is difficult because of the low levels of sequence identity between orthologs of distant species. In this study, five receptors structurally related to the vertebrate class B1 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family were characterized from amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). Phylogenetic analysis showed that they clustered with vertebrate parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/glucagon receptors. These PTHR-like receptors shared synteny with several PTH and PACAP/glucagon receptors identified in spotted gar, Xenopus, and human, indicating that amphioxus preserves the ancestral chordate genomic organization of these receptor subfamilies. According to recent data by Mirabeau and Joly, amphioxus also expresses putative peptide ligands including homologs of PTH (bfPTH1 and 2) and PACAP/GLUC-like peptides (bfPACAP/GLUCs) that may interact with these receptors. Functional analyses showed that bfPTH1 and bfPTH2 activated one of the amphioxus receptors (bf98C) whereas bfPACAP/GLUCs strongly interacted with bf95. In summary, our data confirm the presence of PTH and PACAP/GLUC ligand-receptor pairs in amphioxus, demonstrating that functional homologs of vertebrate PTH and PACAP/glucagon GPCR subfamilies arose before the cephalochordate divergence from the ancestor of tunicates and vertebrates. PMID:25841489

  5. Bushen-Yizhi formula ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative stress-related neuronal apoptosis in scopolamine-induced senescence in mice

    PubMed Central

    HOU, XUE-QIN; WU, DIAN-WEI; ZHANG, CHUN-XIA; YAN, RONG; YANG, CONG; RONG, CUI-PING; ZHANG, LEI; CHANG, XIANG; SU, RU-YU; ZHANG, SHI-JIE; HE, WEN-QING; QU, ZHAO; LI, SHI; SU, ZI-REN; CHEN, YUN-BO; WANG, QI; FANG, SHU-HUAN

    2014-01-01

    Bushen-Yizhi formula (BSYZ), a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of six herbs has been reported to possess a neuroprotective effect. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BSYZ on learning and memory abilities, as well as oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of scopolamine (SCOP)-induced senescence in mice, in order to reveal whether BSYZ is a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint was applied to provide a chemical profile of BSYZ. Extracts of BSYZ were orally administered to mice with SCOP-induced memory impairment for two weeks. The learning and memory abilities were determined by the Morris water maze test. The oxidant stress-related indices, such as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined in hippocampus of SCOP-treated mice. The cell death ratio was assessed by TUNEL staining, while apoptotic-related proteins including Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis. Caspase-3 was determined by western blot analysis. Consequently, a chromatographic condition, which was conducted at 35°C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min on the Gemini C18 column with mobile phase of acetonitrile and water-phosphoric acid (100:0.1, v/v), was established to yield common fingerprint chromatography under 203 nm with a similarity index of 0.986 within 10 batches of BSYZ samples. BSYZ at a dose of 2.92 g/kg significantly improved the cognitive ability, restored the abnormal activity of SOD and increased the levels of MDA and GSH induced by SCOP. Moreover, the neural apoptosis in the hippocampus of SCOP-treated mice was reversed by BSYZ by regulating the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3. The results demonstrated that BSYZ had neuroprotective effects in SCOP-induced senescence in mice by ameliorating oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in the

  6. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Regulates the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Thyroid (HPT) Axis via Type 2 Deiodinase in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Egri, P; Fekete, C; Dénes, Á; Reglődi, D; Hashimoto, H; Fülöp, B D; Gereben, Balázs

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic activation of thyroid hormones by type 2 deiodinase (D2), catalyzing the conversion of thyroxine to T3, is critical for the proper function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Regulation of D2 expression in tanycytes alters the activity of the HPT axis. However, signals that regulate D2 expression in tanycytes are poorly understood. The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) increases intracellular cAMP level, a second messenger known to stimulate the DIO2 gene; however, its importance in tanycytes is not completely characterized. Therefore, we tested whether this ubiquitously expressed neuropeptide regulates the HPT axis through stimulation of D2 in tanycytes. PACAP increased the activity of human DIO2 promoter in luciferase reporter assay that was abolished by mutation of cAMP-response element. Furthermore, PAC1R receptor immunoreactivity was identified in hypothalamic tanycytes, suggesting that these D2-expressing cells could be regulated by PACAP. Intracerebroventricular PACAP administration resulted in increased D2 activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus, suppressed Trh expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and decreased Tshb expression in the pituitary demonstrating that PACAP affects the D2-mediated control of the HPT axis. To understand the role of endogenous PACAP in the regulation of HPT axis, the effect of decreased PACAP expression was studied in heterozygous Adcyap1 (PACAP) knockout mice. These animals were hypothyroid that may be the consequence of altered hypothalamic T3 degradation during set-point formation of the HPT axis. In conclusion, PACAP is an endogenous regulator of the HPT axis by affecting T3-mediated negative feedback via cAMP-induced D2 expression of tanycytes. PMID:27046436

  7. Impact of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor Deficiency on the Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress in Male C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Tomris; Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Adrian M.; Weihe, Eberhard; Thistlethwaite, Ian; Eiden, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    Acute restraint stress (ARS) for 3 hours causes CORT elevation in venous blood, which is accompanied by Fos up-regulation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male C57BL/6 mice. CORT elevation by ARS is attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but unaffected in PAC1-deficient mice. Correspondingly, Fos up-regulation by ARS is greatly attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but much less so in PAC1-deficient animals. We noted that both PACAP- and PAC1-deficiency greatly attenuate CORT elevation after ARS when CORT measurements are performed on trunk blood following euthanasia by abrupt cervical separation: this latter observation is of critical importance in assessing the role of PACAP neurotransmission in ARS, based on previous reports in which serum CORT was sampled from trunk blood. Seven days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces non-habituating CORT elevation, and weight loss consequent to hypophagia, in wild-type male C57BL/6 mice. Both CORT elevation and weight loss following seven day CRS are severely blunted in PACAP-deficient mice, but only slightly in PAC1 deficient mice. However, longer periods of daily restraint (14–21 days) resulted in sustained weight loss and elevated CORT in wild-type mice, and these effects of long-term chronic stress were attenuated or abolished in both PACAP- and PAC1-deficient mice. We conclude that while a PACAP receptor in addition to PAC1 may mediate some of the PACAP-dependent central effects of acute restraint stress and short-term (<7 days) chronic restraint stress on the HPA axis, the PAC1 receptor plays a prominent role in mediating PACAP-dependent HPA axis activation, and hypophagia, during long-term (>7 days) chronic restraint stress. PMID:25853791

  8. Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate Ameliorates Bile Duct Ligation Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Modulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rong; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Cholestatic liver fibrosis was achieved by bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice. Liver injury associated with BDL for 15 days included significant reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generation, liver inflammation, cell death and fibrosis. Administration of Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate (EGCG) in animals reduced liver fibrosis involving parenchymal cells in BDL model. EGCG attenuated BDL-induced gene expression of pro-fibrotic markers (Collagen, Fibronectin, alpha 2 smooth muscle actin or SMA and connective tissue growth factor or CTGF), mitochondrial oxidative stress, cell death marker (DNA fragmentation and PARP activity), NFκB activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, MIP1α, IL1β, and MIP2). EGCG also improved BDL induced damages of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes and antioxidant defense enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase. EGCG also attenuated hydrogen peroxide induced cell death in hepatocytes in vitro and alleviate stellate cells mediated fibrosis through TIMP1, SMA, Collagen 1 and Fibronectin in vitro. In conclusion, the reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generated from mitochondria plays critical pathogenetic role in the progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis and this study indicate that EGCG might be beneficial for reducing liver inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:25955525

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of the chloroform extract of Pulicaria guestii ameliorated the neutrophil infiltration and nitric oxide generation in rats.

    PubMed

    Alghaithy, A A; El-Beshbishy, H A; Abdel-Naim, A B; Nagy, A A; Abdel-Sattar, E M

    2011-11-01

    Pulicaria guestii Rech.f. & Rawi is a fragrant, perennial herb, which grows wild, west of Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Several reports were published on the anti-inflammatory activity of the sesquiterpene lactones, phenolics and flavonoids, which constitute the main active constituents of the members of the genus Pulicaria. The present study was designed to explore the potential anti-inflammatory effect of P. guestii in several experimental models. The methanol extract of the dried aerial parts of P. guestii was extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. The chloroform extract was analysed on TLC and examined under UV and visible light in presence of AlCl(3) spray. The free radical scavenging activity and the total phenolic content in the CHCl(3) extract were estimated. The crude methanol extract and the CHCl(3) fraction were examined against carrageenin-induced paw edema and ear edema induced by croton oil application. The crude methanolic extract significantly reduced carrageenin-induced rat paw edema. After fractionation, the chloroform fraction caused significant reduction in carrageenin-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the inflammatory exudates. Topical application of chloroform fraction significantly reduced rat ear edema induced by croton oil application. In the same model, chloroform fraction reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by the significant decrease in myeloperoxidase activity, and ameliorated histopathological changes induced by croton oil application. In lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in rat air pouch, chloroform fraction significantly reduced the nitric oxide level and tumor necrosis factor-α release. In conclusion, the chloroform fraction of P. guestii extract possesses anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for this anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:21505007

  10. Silybum marianum oil attenuates oxidative stress and ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in mice treated with D-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu Yun; Dong, Ying; Tu, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Zhou, Xing Hua; Xu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Silybum marianum has been used as herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and to prevent liver cancer in Europe and Asia since ancient times. Silybum marianum oil (SMO), a by-product of silymarin production, is rich in essential fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols, and vitamin E. However, it has not been very good development and use. Objective: In the present study, we used olive oil as a control to investigate the antioxidant and anti-aging effect of SMO in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice. Materials and Methods: D-gal was injected intraperitoneally (500 mg/kg body weight daily) for 7 weeks while SMO was simultaneously administered orally. The triglycerides (TRIG) and cholesterol (CHOL) levels were estimated in the serum. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), monoamine oxidase (MAO), malondialdehyde (MDA), caspase-3, and Bcl-2 were determined in the liver and brain. The activities of Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, membrane potential (ΔΨm), and membrane fluidity of the liver mitochondrial were estimated. Results: SMO decreased levels of TRIG and CHOL in aging mice. SMO administration elevated the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC, which are suppressed by aging. The levels of MAO and MDA in the liver and brain were reduced by SMO administration in aging mice. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that SMO significantly decreased the concentration of caspase-3 and improved the activity of Bcl-2 in the liver and brain of aging mice. Furthermore, SMO significantly attenuated the D-gal induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, membrane potential (ΔΨm), and membrane fluidity. Conclusion: These results indicate that SMO effectively attenuated oxidative damage and improved apoptosis related factors as well as liver mitochondrial dysfunction in aging mice. PMID:24914315

  11. The herbal extract KCHO-1 exerts a neuroprotective effect by ameliorating oxidative stress via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Song, Bong-Keun; Son, Ilhong; Kim, Dong-Woung; Kang, Dae-Gil; Lee, Ho-Sub; Oh, Hyuncheol; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-06-01

    KCHO-1 is a novel product comprised of 30% ethanol extracts obtained from nine medical herbs, which are commonly used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine. The nine herbs include Curcuma longa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Gastrodia elata, Chaenomeles sinensis, Polygala tenuifolia, Paeonia japonica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Atractylodes japonica and processed Aconitum carmichaeli. Recent studies have reported the beneficial effects of these herbs. The present study aimed to investigate the direct neuroprotective effects of KCHO‑1 on HT22 mouse hippocampal cells, and to determine the possible underlying mechanisms. KCHO‑1 significantly suppressed glutamate‑ and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced cell damage, and reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, KCHO‑1 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of heme oxygenase (HO)‑1. Tin protoporphyrin, which is an inhibitor of HO activity, partially suppressed the effects of KCHO‑1. Furthermore, KCHO‑1 significantly upregulated nuclear factor erythroid‑derived 2‑related factor‑2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. Extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) activation also appeared to be associated with KCHO‑1‑induced HO‑1 expression, since the ERK inhibitor PD98059 suppressed HO‑1 expression and prevented KCHO‑1‑induced cytoprotection. The results of the present study suggested that KCHO‑1 may effectively prevent glutamate‑ or H2O2‑induced oxidative damage via Nrf2/ERK mitogen‑activated protein kinase‑dependent HO‑1 expression. These data suggest that KCHO‑1 may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27082826

  12. Rutin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy by lowering plasma glucose and decreasing oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ruifeng; Yang, Wenqing; Xue, Qiang; Gao, Liang; Huo, Junli; Ren, Dongqing; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-15

    Rutin exhibits antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which makes rutin an attractive candidate for diabetic complications. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. After induction of diabetic neuropathy, rutin (5mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) were daily given to the diabetic rats for 2 weeks. At the end of rutin administration, rutin produced a significant inhibition of mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as partial restoration of nerve conduction velocities in diabetic rats. Furthermore, rutin significantly increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities in sciatic nerves and decreased caspase-3 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRG). In addition, rutin significantly decreased plasma glucose, attenuated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Further studies showed that rutin significantly increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) level, up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in DRG. The evidences suggest the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Additionally, insulin (2 IU) and BG-12 (15mg/kg) were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Insulin achieved lower plasma glucose and BG-12 achieved comparable Nrf2 expression than/to rutin (50mg/kg), respectively. In contrast, the beneficial effect of insulin and BG-12 was inferior to that of rutin (50mg/kg), suggesting that both lowered plasma glucose and Nrf2 signaling contribute to the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, rutin produces significant protection in diabetic neuropathy, which makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26688570

  13. Dairy cheese consumption ameliorates single-meal sodium-induced cutaneous microvascular dysfunction by reducing ascorbate-sensitive oxidants in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Alba, Billie K; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-08-01

    Chronic dairy product intake is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, whereas high dietary Na impairs endothelial function through increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of acute cheese consumption with consumption of Na from non-dairy sources on microvascular function. We hypothesised that dairy cheese ingestion would augment NO-dependent vasodilation compared with Na from non-dairy sources. On five visits, fourteen subjects (61 (sem 2) years, eight male/six female) consumed either 85 g dairy cheese (560 mg Na), 85 g soya cheese (560 mg Na), 65 g pretzels (560 mg Na), 170 g dairy cheese (1120 mg Na) or 130 g pretzels (1120 mg Na). Two intradermal microdialysis fibres were inserted in the ventral forearm for delivery of lactated Ringer's solution or 10 mm-ascorbate (antioxidant) during local skin heating (approximately 50 min). Erythrocyte flux was measured continuously by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC=LDF/mean arterial pressure) was normalised as %CVCmax (28 mm-sodium nitroprusside). Following a plateau in CVC, 15 mm-N G -nitro-l-arginine-methyl-ester was perfused to quantify NO-dependent vasodilation (approximately 45 min). NO-dependent vasodilation was greater following consumption of dairy products (560 mg Na 57 (sem 3) %) (1120 mg Na 55 (sem 5) %) compared with soya (560 mg Na 42 (sem 3) %; P=0·002) or pretzels (560 mg Na 43 (sem 4) %; P=0·004) (1120 mg Na 46 (sem 3) %; P=0·04). Ascorbate augmented NO-dependent vasodilation following intake of soya (control: 42 (sem 3) v. ascorbate: 54 (sem 3) %; P=0·01) or pretzels (560 mg Na; control: 43 (sem 4) v. ascorbate: 56 (sem 3) %; P=0·006) (1120 mg Na; control: 46 (sem 5) v. ascorbate: 56 (sem 3) %; P=0·02), but not dairy products. Na ingestion via dairy products was associated with greater NO-dependent vasodilation compared with non-dairy products, a difference that was

  14. Thymoquinone Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Nephrotoxicity, Apoptosis, and Oxidative Stress in Rats is Based on its Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Erboga, Mustafa; Kanter, Mehmet; Aktas, Cevat; Sener, Umit; Fidanol Erboga, Zeynep; Bozdemir Donmez, Yeliz; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), an environmental and industrial pollutant, generates free radicals responsible for oxidative stress. Cd can also lead to various renal toxic damage such as the proximal tubules and glomerulus dysfunction. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main constituent of the essential oil obtained from black seeds (Nigella sativa) and has various pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the nephroprotective, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic effect of the TQ against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 24 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control, Cd-treated, and Cd-treated with TQ; each group contain eight animals. The Cd-treated group was injected subcutaneously with CdCl2 dissolved in saline in the amount of 2 ml/kg/day for 30 days, resulting in a dosage of 1 mg/kg Cd. The rats in TQ-treated groups were given TQ (50 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally together with first Cd injection during the study period. The histopathological studies in the kidney of rats also showed that TQ markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the normal histological architecture of the renal tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TQ significantly decreased the Cd-induced over expression of nuclear factor-κB in renal tissue. Furthermore, TQ treatment resulted in decreased the number of apoptotic cells. TQ significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, compensated deficits in the anti-oxidant defenses (reduced superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) in renal tissue resulted from Cd administration. These findings suggest that the nephroprotective potential of TQ in Cd toxicity might be due to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26226832

  15. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Targets Down Syndrome Candidate Region 1 (DSCR1/RCAN1) to control Neuronal Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Seon Sook; Lee, Seul; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic peptide involved in a wide range of nervous functions, including development, differentiation, and survival, and various aspects of learning and memory. Here we report that PACAP induces the expression of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1, also known as DSCR1), which is abnormally expressed in the brains of Down syndrome patients. Increased RCAN1 expression is accompanied by activation of the PKA-cAMP response element-binding protein pathways. EMSA and ChIP analyses demonstrate the presence of a functional cAMP response element in the RCAN1 promoter. Moreover, we show that PACAP-dependent neuronal differentiation is significantly disturbed by improper RCAN1 expression. Our data provide the first evidence of RCAN1, a Down syndrome-related gene, as a novel target for control of the neurotrophic function of PACAP. PMID:26157140

  16. Parabrachial nucleus (PBn) pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the amygdala: implication for the sensory and behavioral effects of pain

    PubMed Central

    Missig, Galen A.; Roman, Carolyn W.; Vizzard, Margaret A.; Braas, Karen M.; May, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The intricate relationships that associate pain, stress responses and emotional behavior have been well established. Acute stressful situations can decrease nociceptive sensations and conversely, chronic pain can enhance other pain experiences and heighten the emotional and behavioral consequences of stress. Accordingly, chronic pain is comorbid with a number of behavioral disorders including depression, anxiety abnormalities and associated stress-related disorders including post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) represents a convergence of pathways for pain, stress and emotion, and we have identified pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) immunoreactivity in fiber elements in the lateral capsular division of the CeA (CeLC). The PACAP staining patterns colocalized in part with those for calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP); anterograde fiber tracing and excitotoxic lesion studies demonstrated that the CeLC PACAP/CGRP immunoreactivities represented sensory fiber projections from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBn) along the spino-parabrachioamygdaloid tract. The same PBn PACAP/CGRP fiber system also projected to the BNST. As in the BNST, CeA PACAP signaling increased anxiety-like behaviors accompanied by weight loss and decreased feeding. But in addition to heightened anxiety-like responses, CeA PACAP signaling also altered nociception as reflected by decreased latency and threshold responses in thermal and mechanical sensitivity tests, respectively. From PACAP expression in major pain pathways, the current observations are novel and suggest that CeA PACAP nociceptive signaling and resulting neuroplasticity via the spino-parabrachioamygdaloid tract may represent mechanisms that associate chronic pain with sensory hypersensitivity, fear memory consolidation and severe behavioral disorders. PMID:24998751

  17. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, ameliorates interleukin 2-induced capillary leakage and reduces tumour growth in adenocarcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Orucevic, A.; Lala, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    We tested whether NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, can prevent interleukin 2 (IL-2)-induced capillary leakage in tumour-bearing mice without compromising the therapeutic benefits of IL-2. C3H/HeJ female mice transplanted s.c. with 2.5 x 10(5) C3-L5 mammary carcinoma cells were treated with: nothing, IL-2 (ten injections of 15,000 Cetus units i.p. every 8 h), L-NAME (0.1, 0.5, or 1 mg ml-1 drinking water), IL-2 + L-NAME (0.1 or 0.5 or 1 mg ml-1 drinking water). Therapies were given in one round (IL-2, days 10-13; L-NAME, days 9-13) or in two rounds (IL-2, days 10-13 and 20-23; L-NAME, days 9-13 and days 19-23) after tumour transplantation. Capillary leakage was measured from the water contents of the pleural cavities, lungs, spleen and kidneys. Effects of the therapies on the primary tumour size and the number of spontaneous lung metastases were also recorded. NO production was measured as the nitrite + nitrate levels in the serum and in the pleural effusion. After the first round of therapies, addition of L-NAME significantly reduced IL-2-induced pulmonary oedema and water retention in the spleen in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly reduced the IL-2-induced rise in NO levels in the serum and pleural fluid, but did not affect IL-2-induced pleural effusion or water retention in the kidney. At later stages of tumour growth (day 23), tumours themselves induced significant fluid retention in the lungs and the kidney, which was not aggravated further with the second round of IL-2 therapy. At this time, L-NAME therapy alone ameliorated tumour-induced pulmonary oedema. During both rounds of therapy different doses of L-NAME alone caused a reduction of primary tumour growth as well as spontaneous lung metastases, which improved further with the addition of IL-2. The combination therapy was at least as effective as IL-2 therapy. In summary, L-NAME had anti-tumour effects in vivo, reduced the severity of IL-2

  18. Protective effect of panax notoginseng saponins on acute ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and reducing ethanol-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ren-Bo; Tian, Ke; Cao, Yi-Wei; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Wang, Meng; He, Chengwei; Hu, Yuanjia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2015-03-11

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) against acute ethanol-induced liver injury and further to elucidate its probable mechanisms. Mice were treated with PNS (100 or 300 mg/kg) once daily for seven consecutive days priors to ethanol gavage (4.7 g/kg) every 12 h for a total of three doses. Acute alcohol gavage dramatically significantly increased serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (23.4 ± 5.0 IU/L vs 11.7 ± 4.1 IU/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (52.6 ± 14.9 IU/L vs 31.1 ± 12.9 IU/L), and hepatic triglyceride level (4.04 ± 0.64 mg/g vs 1.92 ± 0.34 mg/g), these elevations were significantly diminished by pretreatment with PNS at dose of 100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg. Alcohol exposure markedly induced the lipolysis of white adipose tissue (WAT), up-regulated protein expression of the phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL, p < 0.01), and total HSL (p < 0.01), and enhanced fatty acid uptake capacity in liver as indicated by increasing hepatic CD36 expression (p < 0.01), these effects were attenuated by PNS treatment. Additionally, PNS suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels, restored glutathione (GSH) level, enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver, and abrogated cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction. These data demonstrated that pretreatment with PNS protected against acute ethanol-induced liver injury, possibly through ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and reducing CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress. Our findings also suggested that PNS may be potential to be developed as an effective agent for acute ethanol-induced liver injury. PMID:25665731

  19. Protective Effect of Sevoflurane Postconditioning against Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Ameliorating Mitochondrial Impairment, Oxidative Stress and Rescuing Autophagic Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuchun; Luo, Zhenzhong; Hua, Fuzhou; Yuan, Linhui; Zhou, Zhidong; Liu, Qin; Du, Xiaohong; Chen, Sisi; Zhang, Lieliang; Xu, Guohai

    2015-01-01

    ameliorating mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress and rescuing autophagic clearance. PMID:26263161

  20. Involvement of endogenous antioxidant systems in the protective activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damages in cultured rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Douiri, Salma; Bahdoudi, Seyma; Hamdi, Yosra; Cubì, Roger; Basille, Magali; Fournier, Alain; Vaudry, Hubert; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Vaudry, David; Masmoudi-Kouki, Olfa

    2016-06-01

    Astroglial cells possess an array of cellular defense mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase antioxidant enzymes, to prevent damages caused by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, astroglial cell viability and functionality can be affected by significant oxidative stress. We have previously shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent glioprotective agent that prevents hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced apoptosis in cultured astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of PACAP against oxidative-generated alteration of astrocytic antioxidant systems. Incubation of cells with subnanomolar concentrations of PACAP inhibited H2 O2 -evoked reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial respiratory burst, and caspase-3 mRNA level increase. PACAP also stimulated SOD and catalase activities in a concentration-dependent manner, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2 O2 on the activity of these two antioxidant enzymes. The protective action of PACAP against H2 O2 -evoked inhibition of antioxidant systems in astrocytes was protein kinase A, PKC, and MAP-kinase dependent. In the presence of H2 O2 , the SOD blocker NaCN and the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole, both suppressed the protective effects of PACAP on SOD and catalase activities, mitochondrial function, and cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-apoptotic effect of PACAP on astroglial cells can account for the activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduction in respiration rate, thus preserving mitochondrial integrity and preventing caspase-3 expression provoked by oxidative stress. Considering its powerful anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties, the PACAPergic signaling system should thus be considered for the development of new therapeutical approaches to cure various pathologies involving oxidative neurodegeneration. We propose the following cascade for the

  1. A recombinant slow-release PACAP-derived peptide alleviates diabetes by promoting both insulin secretion and actions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Fang, Shixiong; Zhao, Shaojun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Dongbo; Ma, Min; Luo, Tianjie; Hong, An

    2015-05-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuroendocrine factor that activates both the receptor VPAC1 and VPAC2. Although PACAP possesses insulinotropic activity, its therapeutic application is limited by the extremely short acting half-life and the stimulatory effects on glucagon production via a VPAC1-dependent mechanism. Here we have generated a recombinant PACAP-derived peptide (named as MHDBAY) comprising a 7-mer albumin-binding peptide identified by phage display screening (WQRPSSW), a cleavage peptide for Factor Xa (FXa) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), and a 31-amino acid PACAP-derived peptide (DBAY) that can specifically bind to the VPAC2 receptor. MHDBAY binds to albumin both in vitro and in animals, thereby leading to an orderly slow release of the active peptide DBAY via the protease cleavage. In db/db mice and New Zealand rabbits, the circulating half-life of MHDBAY is approximately 12.2 h, which is 146-fold longer than DBAY (∼5 min). A single injection of MHDBAY into db/db diabetic mice markedly increases insulin secretion, thereby leading to sustained alleviation of hyperglycemia. The potency and duration of MHDBAY in increasing insulin secretion and decreasing blood glucose levels is much greater than Exendin-4, an anti-diabetic drug via its insulinotropic actions. Furthermore, chronic administration of MHDBAY by daily injection for 8 weeks significantly improves both glucose and lipid profiles and also greatly increases insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. These findings suggest that serum albumin may act as a reservoir for slow-release of small bioactive peptides, and MHDBAY may represent a promising therapeutic peptide for diabetes. PMID:25771000

  2. Developmental changes in the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of PACAP and its receptor PAC1 and their sensitivity to fasting in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Maira; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    The actions and responses of hypothalamic appetite regulatory and factors change markedly during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been found to play pivotal roles in the regulation of metabolic and nutritional status through its specific receptor PAC1. PACAP/PAC1 have anorectic roles, and their functions are regulated by leptin in adulthood. In the present study, we showed that hypothalamic PACAP mRNA expression decreases during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period (from postnatal day 10-30) in both male and female rats. During this period, hypothalamic PACAP mRNA expression was not affected by 24h fasting in either sex, while the serum leptin levels (leptin is a positive regulator of hypothalamic PACAP expression in adulthood) of both sexes were decreased by fasting. On the other hand, hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA expression did not change during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period in either sex; however, its levels were consistently higher in males than in females. Hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA expression was decreased by 24h fasting in males, but no such changes were observed in females. These results indicate while hypothalamic PACAP expression is sensitive to a negative energy state and the serum leptin level in adulthood, no such relationships are seen in the pre-pubertal period. In addition, we speculate that differences in the gonadal steroidal milieu might induce sexual dimorphism in the basal hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA level and its response to fasting. The mechanisms responsible for and the physiological effects of such changes in hypothalamic PACAP and PAC1 expression during the developmental period remain to be clarified. PMID:27181029

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide enhances saliva secretion via direct binding to PACAP receptors of major salivary glands in mice.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Yuko; Nonaka, Naoko; Takagi, Yoshitoki; Imamura, Eisaku; Narukawa, Masayuki; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shioda, Seiji; Banks, William A; Nakamura, Masanori

    2016-09-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common syndrome that is generally treated with artificial saliva; however, no other effective methods have yet been established. Saliva secretion is mainly under the control of the autonomic nervous system. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is recognized as a multifunctional neuropeptide in various organs. In this study, we examined the effect of PACAP on saliva secretion, and detected the distribution of the PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R) in major salivary glands, including the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands, in 9-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Intranasal administration of PACAP 38 increased the amount of saliva secreted, which was not inhibited by atropine pretreatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PAC1R was distributed in the three major salivary glands. In the parotid and sublingual glands, PAC1R was detected in striated duct cells, whereas in the submandibular gland, a strong PAC1R immunoreaction was detected in tall columnar epithelial cells in the granular ducts (i.e., pillar cells), as well as in some striated duct cells. PACAP significantly increased the concentration of epidermal growth factor in saliva. These results suggest that PACAP directly regulates saliva secretion by controlling the absorption activity in the ducts, and that pillar cells regulate the function of granular epithelial cells in the granular duct, such as the secretion of growth factors into the saliva. Collectively, these results suggest the possibility of PACAP as a new effective treatment of xerostomia. Anat Rec, 299:1293-1299, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27339371

  4. PACAP and VIP Inhibit the Invasiveness of Glioblastoma Cells Exposed to Hypoxia through the Regulation of HIFs and EGFR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Grazia; Grazia D’Amico, Agata; Reitano, Rita; Magro, Gaetano; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; Salomone, Salvatore; D’Agata, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) through the binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VIPRs), perform a wide variety of effects in human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This tumor is characterized by extensive areas of hypoxia, which triggers the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs not only mediate angiogenesis but also tumor cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, HIFs activation is linked to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression. Previous studies have shown that VIP interferes with the invasive nature of gliomas by regulating cell migration. However, the role of VIP family members in GBM infiltration under low oxygen tension has not been clarified yet. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated, for the first time, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-invasive effect of PACAP or VIP in U87MG glioblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia induced by treatment with desferrioxamine (DFX). The results suggest that either PACAP or VIP exert an anti-infiltrative effect under low oxygen tension by modulating HIFs and EGFR expression, key elements involved in cell migration and angiogenesis. These peptides act through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, which are known to have a crucial role in HIFs regulation. PMID:27303300

  5. PACAP and VIP Inhibit the Invasiveness of Glioblastoma Cells Exposed to Hypoxia through the Regulation of HIFs and EGFR Expression.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Grazia; Grazia D'Amico, Agata; Reitano, Rita; Magro, Gaetano; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; Salomone, Salvatore; D'Agata, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) through the binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VIPRs), perform a wide variety of effects in human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This tumor is characterized by extensive areas of hypoxia, which triggers the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs not only mediate angiogenesis but also tumor cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, HIFs activation is linked to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression. Previous studies have shown that VIP interferes with the invasive nature of gliomas by regulating cell migration. However, the role of VIP family members in GBM infiltration under low oxygen tension has not been clarified yet. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated, for the first time, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-invasive effect of PACAP or VIP in U87MG glioblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia induced by treatment with desferrioxamine (DFX). The results suggest that either PACAP or VIP exert an anti-infiltrative effect under low oxygen tension by modulating HIFs and EGFR expression, key elements involved in cell migration and angiogenesis. These peptides act through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, which are known to have a crucial role in HIFs regulation. PMID:27303300

  6. VIP and PACAP. Recent insights into their functions/roles in physiology and disease from molecular and genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Terry W.; Ito, Tetsuhide; Osefo, Nuramy; Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review VIP and PACAP as well as the three classes of G-protein-coupled receptors mediating their effects, are widely distributed in the CNS and peripheral tissues. These peptides are reported to have many effects in different tissues, which are physiological or pharmacological, and which receptor mediates which effect, has been difficult to determine, primarily due to lack of potent, stable, selective agonists/antagonists. Recently the use of animals with targeted knockout (KO) of the peptide or a specific receptor has provided important insights into the role of their role in normal physiology and disease states. Recent findings During the review period, considerable progress and insights has occurred in the understanding of the role of VIP/PACAP as well as their receptors in a number of different disorders/areas. Particularly, insights into their roles in energy metabolism, glucose regulation, various gastrointestinal processes including GI inflammatory conditions and motility and their role in the CNS as well as CNS diseases has greatly expanded. Summary PACAP/VIP as well as there three classes of receptors are important in many physiological/pathophysiological processes, some of which are identified in these studies using knockout animals. These studies may lead to new novel treatment approaches. Particularly important are their roles in glucose metabolism and on islets leading to possible novel approaches in diabetes; their novel anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective effects, their CNS neuroprotective effects, and their possible roles in diseases such as schizophrenia and chronic depression. PMID:21157320

  7. Unraveling the Specific Ischemic Core and Penumbra Transcriptome in the Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mouse Model Brain Treated with the Neuropeptide PACAP38

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Motohide; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our group has been systematically investigating the effects of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain. To do so, we have established and utilized the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) mouse model, in which PACAP38 (1 pmol) injection is given intracerebroventrically and compared to a control saline (0.9% sodium chloride, NaCl) injection, to unravel genome-wide gene expression changes using a high-throughput DNA microarray analysis approach. In our previous studies, we have accumulated a large volume of data (gene inventory) from the whole brain (ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres) after both PMCAO and post-PACAP38 injection. In our latest research, we have targeted specifically infarct or ischemic core (hereafter abbreviated IC) and penumbra (hereafter abbreviated P) post-PACAP38 injections in order to re-examine the transcriptome at 6 and 24 h post injection. The current study aims to delineate the specificity of expression and localization of differentially expressed molecular factors influenced by PACAP38 in the IC and P regions. Utilizing the mouse 4 × 44 K whole genome DNA chip we show numerous changes (≧/≦ 1.5/0.75-fold) at both 6 h (654 and 456, and 522 and 449 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) and 24 h (2568 and 2684, and 1947 and 1592 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) after PACAP38 treatment. Among the gene inventories obtained here, two genes, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and transthyretin (Ttr) were found to be induced by PACAP38 treatment, which we had not been able to identify previously using the whole hemisphere transcriptome analysis. Using bioinformatics analysis by pathway- or specific-disease-state focused gene classifications and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) the differentially expressed genes are functionally classified and discussed. Among these, we specifically discuss some novel and previously

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) inhibits the slow afterhyperpolarizing current sIAHP in CA1 pyramidal neurons by activating multiple signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ruth DT; Madsen, Marita Grønning; Krause, Michael; Sampedro-Castañeda, Marisol; Stocker, Martin; Pedarzani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The slow afterhyperpolarizing current (sIAHP) is a calcium-dependent potassium current that underlies the late phase of spike frequency adaptation in hippocampal and neocortical neurons. sIAHP is a well-known target of modulation by several neurotransmitters acting via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present in the hippocampal formation. In this study we have investigated the effect of PACAP on the sIAHP and the signal transduction pathway used to modulate intrinsic excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We show that PACAP inhibits the sIAHP, resulting in a decrease of spike frequency adaptation, in rat CA1 pyramidal cells. The suppression of sIAHP by PACAP is mediated by PAC1 and VPAC1 receptors. Inhibition of PKA reduced the effect of PACAP on sIAHP, suggesting that PACAP exerts part of its inhibitory effect on sIAHP by increasing cAMP and activating PKA. The suppression of sIAHP by PACAP was also strongly hindered by the inhibition of p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK). Concomitant inhibition of PKA and p38 MAPK indicates that these two kinases act in a sequential manner in the same pathway leading to the suppression of sIAHP. Conversely, protein kinase C is not part of the signal transduction pathway used by PACAP to inhibit sIAHP in CA1 neurons. Our results show that PACAP enhances the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons by inhibiting the sIAHP through the activation of multiple signaling pathways, most prominently cAMP/PKA and p38 MAPK. Our findings disclose a novel modulatory action of p38 MAPK on intrinsic excitability and the sIAHP, underscoring the role of this current as a neuromodulatory hub regulated by multiple protein kinases in cortical neurons. © 2013 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23996525

  9. STC1 induction by PACAP is mediated through cAMP and ERK1/2 but not PKA in cultured cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Holighaus, Yvonne; Weihe, Eberhard; Eiden, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    The neuroprotective actions of PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) in vitro and in vivo suggest that activation of its cognate G protein-coupled receptor PAC1 or downstream signaling molecules, and thus activation of PACAP target genes, could be of therapeutic benefit. Here we show, that cultured rat cortical neurons predominantly expressed the PAC1hop and null variants, activation of which resulted in elevation of the two second messengers cAMP and Ca2+ and expression of the putative neuroprotectant stanniocalcin 1 (STC1). PACAP signaling to the STC1 gene proceeded through the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), but not through the cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA), and was mimicked by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. PACAP- and forskolin-mediated activation of ERK1/2 occurred through cAMP, but not PKA. These results suggest that STC1 gene induction proceeds through cAMP and ERK1/2, independently of PKA, the canonical cAMP effector. In contrast, PACAP signaling to the BDNF gene proceeded through PKA, suggesting that two different neuroprotective cAMP pathways co-exist in differentiated cortical neurons. The selective activation of a potentially neuroprotective cAMP dependent pathway different from the canonical cAMP pathway used in many physiological processes, such as memory storage, has implications for pharmacological activation of neuroprotection in vivo. PMID:21975601

  10. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  11. Cromoglycate, not ketotifen, ameliorated the injured effect of warm ischemia/reperfusion in rat liver: role of mast cell degranulation, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine, and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    El-Shitany, Nagla A; El-Desoky, Karema

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (ISCH/REP) is a major clinical problem that is considered to be the most common cause of postoperative liver failure. Recently, mast cells have been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of ISCH/REP in many organs. In contrast, the role played by mast cells during ISCH/REP-induced liver damage has remained an issue of debate. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of mast cells in order to search for an effective therapeutic agent that could protect against fatal ISCH/REP-induced liver damage. A model of warm ISCH/REP was induced in the liver of rats. Four groups of rats were used in this study: Group I: SHAM (normal saline, intravenously [iv]); Group II: ISCH/REP; Group III: sodium cromoglycate + ISCH/REP (CROM + ISCH/REP), and Group IV: ketotifen (KET) + ISCH/REP (KET + ISCH/REP). Liver damage was assessed both histopathologically and biochemically. Mast cell degranulation was assessed histochemically. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), the formation of nitric oxide (NO), and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. The results of this study revealed increased mast cell degranulation in the liver during the acute phase of ISCH/REP. Moreover, CROM, but not KET, decreased the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase and maintained normal liver tissue histology. Both CROM and KET protected against mast cell degranulation in the liver. In addition, both CROM and KET decreased IL-6 and TNF-α. However, CROM, but not KET, decreased MDA formation and increased GSH. Furthermore, KET, but not CROM, increased both NO formation and iNOS expression. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated mast cell degranulation in warm ISCH/REP in the liver of rats. More importantly, CROM, but not KET, ameliorated the effect of ISCH

  12. Cromoglycate, not ketotifen, ameliorated the injured effect of warm ischemia/reperfusion in rat liver: role of mast cell degranulation, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine, and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    El-Shitany, Nagla A; El-Desoky, Karema

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (ISCH/REP) is a major clinical problem that is considered to be the most common cause of postoperative liver failure. Recently, mast cells have been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of ISCH/REP in many organs. In contrast, the role played by mast cells during ISCH/REP-induced liver damage has remained an issue of debate. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of mast cells in order to search for an effective therapeutic agent that could protect against fatal ISCH/REP-induced liver damage. A model of warm ISCH/REP was induced in the liver of rats. Four groups of rats were used in this study: Group I: SHAM (normal saline, intravenously [iv]); Group II: ISCH/REP; Group III: sodium cromoglycate + ISCH/REP (CROM + ISCH/REP), and Group IV: ketotifen (KET) + ISCH/REP (KET + ISCH/REP). Liver damage was assessed both histopathologically and biochemically. Mast cell degranulation was assessed histochemically. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), the formation of nitric oxide (NO), and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. The results of this study revealed increased mast cell degranulation in the liver during the acute phase of ISCH/REP. Moreover, CROM, but not KET, decreased the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase and maintained normal liver tissue histology. Both CROM and KET protected against mast cell degranulation in the liver. In addition, both CROM and KET decreased IL-6 and TNF-α. However, CROM, but not KET, decreased MDA formation and increased GSH. Furthermore, KET, but not CROM, increased both NO formation and iNOS expression. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated mast cell degranulation in warm ISCH/REP in the liver of rats. More importantly, CROM, but not KET, ameliorated the effect of ISCH

  13. Alterations in the Intestinal Assimilation of Oxidized PUFAs Are Ameliorated by a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Seed Extract in an In Vitro Model and Caco-2 Cells123

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Rodrigo; Douglass, John D.; Kodukula, Sarala; Medina, Isabel; Storch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The (n-3) PUFAs 20:5 (n-3) (EPA) and 22:6 (n-3) (DHA) are thought to benefit human health. The presence of prooxidant compounds in foods, however, renders them susceptible to oxidation during both storage and digestion. The development of oxidation products during digestion and the potential effects on intestinal PUFA uptake are incompletely understood. In the present studies, we examined: 1) the development and bioaccessibility of lipid oxidation products in the gastrointestinal lumen during active digestion of fatty fish using the in vitro digestive tract TNO Intestinal Model-1 (TIM-1); 2) the mucosal cell uptake and metabolism of oxidized compared with unoxidized PUFAs using Caco-2 intestinal cells; and 3) the potential to limit the development of oxidation products in the intestine by incorporating antioxidant polyphenols in food. We found that during digestion, the development of oxidation products occurs in the stomach compartment, and increased amounts of oxidation products became bioaccessible in the jejunal and ileal compartments. Inclusion of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) during the digestion decreased the amounts of oxidation products in the stomach compartment and intestinal dialysates (P < 0.05). In Caco-2 intestinal cells, the uptake of oxidized (n-3) PUFAs was ~10% of the uptake of unoxidized PUFAs (P < 0.05) and addition of GSE or epigallocatechin gallate protected against the development of oxidation products, resulting in increased uptake of PUFAs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that addition of polyphenols during active digestion can limit the development of (n-3) PUFA oxidation products in the small intestine lumen and thereby promote intestinal uptake of the beneficial, unoxidized, (n-3) PUFAs. PMID:23325921

  14. Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway by R65 ribozyme gene via adeno-associatedvirus serotype 9 ameliorated oxidized LDL induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Hui; Chen, Qing-Jie; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Yi-Tong; Chen, Bang-Dang; Yu, Zi-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Fen; Xiang, Yang; Xie, Jia; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Objective: NF-κB signaling plays a central role in the regulation of inflammatory responses in atherosclerosis. R65 ribozyme gene suppresses activation of NF-κB pathway, therefore we studied whether R65 gene therapy can ameliorate oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injury. Methods and results: Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (rAVV9) vector was used to transfect the R65 ribozyme gene (rAVV9-R65) into HUVECs then following ox-LDL stimulation, expression of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits, inflammatory mediators and cell apoptosis were examined. First, rAVV9-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-R65 at 1×107 v.g./cell multiplicity of infection reached a long-lasting and significant increase in R65 gene expression. Second, ox-LDL treatment led to time- and dose-dependent activation of NF-κB pathway, and enhanced inflammatory response and cell death evidenced by increased expression of nuclear NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits, greater production of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and von willebrand factor and 20.57% increasedapoptotic HUVECs. Third, over-expression ofR65 gene was 2-fold increased in HUVECs attenuated ox-LDL induced unclear accumulation and expression of p65 subunit and ameliorated inflammation and cell death (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: rAAV9-mediated R65 ribozyme gene transfection in cultured HUVECs effectively inhibits ox-LDL induced activation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines and prevents cell apoptosis. PMID:26617700

  15. Ameliorative effect of vanadyl(IV)-ascorbate complex on high-fat high-sucrose diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Jie; Guo, Yongli; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2015-10-01

    There is mounting evidence demonstrating causative links between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance, the core pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using a combinational approach, we synthesized a vanadium-antioxidant (i.e., l-ascorbic acid) complex and examined its effect on insulin resistance and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine whether vanadyl(IV)-ascorbate complex (VOAsc) would reduce oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance in high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD)-induced type 2 diabetes in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFSD for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance, rendering them diabetic. Diabetic mice were treated with rosiglitazone, sodium l-ascorbate, or VOAsc. At the end of treatment, fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and serum adipocytokine levels were measured. Serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) parameters were also determined. The liver was isolated and used for determination of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. VOAsc groups exhibited significant reductions in serum adipocytokine and NO levels, and oxidative stress parameters compared to the corresponding values in the untreated diabetic mice. The results indicated that VOAsc is non-toxic. In conclusion, we identified VOAsc as a potentially effective adjunct therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26302923

  16. Amelioration of oxidative stress and insulin resistance by soy isoflavones (from Glycine max) in ovariectomized Wistar rats fed with high fat diet: the molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sankar, P; Zachariah, Bobby; Vickneshwaran, V; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Sridhar, M G

    2015-03-01

    Estrogen deficiency after menopause accelerates the redox imbalance and insulin signaling, leading to oxidative stress (OS) and insulin resistance (IR). The molecular mechanisms by which the loss of ovarian hormone leads to OS and IR remain unclear. In the present study we found that rats when subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) resulted in reduction of whole blood antioxidants and elevation of oxidant markers. The expression of anti-oxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was suppressed whereas the pro-oxidative enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX4) and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK 1/2 and p38 were increased at different tissues. Treatment with soy (SIF, 150 mg/kg BW for 12 weeks) extract markedly reversed these metabolic changes and improved OS. Ovariectomized rats also displayed glucose intolerance (GI) and IR as evident from the impaired glucose tolerance test, and reduced expression of adipose and hepatic insulin receptor beta (IRβ) and adipose tissue GLUT4. Treatment with SIF reversed the ovariectomy induced GI and IR. On the other hand, all these metabolic changes were further augmented when ovariectomy was followed by a high fat diet, and these changes were also reversed by SIF. Taken together, these findings emphasized the antioxidant property and anti-diabetic effects of soy isoflavones suggesting the use of this natural phytoestrogen as a strategy for relieving oxidative stress and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. PMID:25660477

  17. Mitochondrial modulation by Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate ameliorates cisplatin induced renal injury through decreasing oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation and NF-kB in mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hao; Chen, Jun; Shen, Kezhen; Wang, Xueping; Wang, Ping; Fu, Guanghou; Meng, Hongzhou; Wang, Yimin; Jin, Baiye

    2015-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drug cisplatin is known for its nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate (EGCG) can reduce cisplatin mediated side effect in kidney and to understand its mechanism of protection against tissue injury. We used a well-established 3-day cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity mice model where EGCG were administered. EGCG is a major active compound in Green Tea and have strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG protected against cisplatin induced renal dysfunction as measured by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). EGCG improved cisplatin induced kidney structural damages such as tubular dilatation, cast formation, granulovaculoar degeneration and tubular cell necrosis as evident by PAS staining. Cisplatin induced kidney specific mitochondrial oxidative stress, impaired activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme complexes, impaired anti-oxidant defense enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in mitochondria, inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β), increased accumulation of NF-κB in nuclear fraction, p53 induction, and apoptotic cell death (caspase 3 activity and DNA fragmentation). Treatment of mice with EGCG markedly attenuated cisplatin induced mitochondrial oxidative/nitrative stress, mitochondrial damages to electron transport chain activities and antioxidant defense enzyme activities in mitochondria. These mitochondrial modulations by EGCG led to protection mechanism against cisplatin induced inflammation and apoptotic cell death in mice kidney. As a result, EGCG improved renal function in cisplatin mediated kidney damage. In addition to that, EGCG attenuated cisplatin induced apoptotic cell death and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human kidney tubular cell line HK-2. Thus, our data suggest that EGCG may represent new promising adjunct candidate for

  18. Mitochondrial Modulation by Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Renal Injury through Decreasing Oxidative/Nitrative Stress, Inflammation and NF-kB in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueping; Wang, Ping; Fu, Guanghou; Meng, Hongzhou; Wang, Yimin; Jin, Baiye

    2015-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drug cisplatin is known for its nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate (EGCG) can reduce cisplatin mediated side effect in kidney and to understand its mechanism of protection against tissue injury. We used a well-established 3-day cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity mice model where EGCG were administered. EGCG is a major active compound in Green Tea and have strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG protected against cisplatin induced renal dysfunction as measured by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). EGCG improved cisplatin induced kidney structural damages such as tubular dilatation, cast formation, granulovaculoar degeneration and tubular cell necrosis as evident by PAS staining. Cisplatin induced kidney specific mitochondrial oxidative stress, impaired activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme complexes, impaired anti-oxidant defense enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in mitochondria, inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β), increased accumulation of NF-κB in nuclear fraction, p53 induction, and apoptotic cell death (caspase 3 activity and DNA fragmentation). Treatment of mice with EGCG markedly attenuated cisplatin induced mitochondrial oxidative/nitrative stress, mitochondrial damages to electron transport chain activities and antioxidant defense enzyme activities in mitochondria. These mitochondrial modulations by EGCG led to protection mechanism against cisplatin induced inflammation and apoptotic cell death in mice kidney. As a result, EGCG improved renal function in cisplatin mediated kidney damage. In addition to that, EGCG attenuated cisplatin induced apoptotic cell death and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human kidney tubular cell line HK-2. Thus, our data suggest that EGCG may represent new promising adjunct candidate for

  19. Dihydromyricetin ameliorates the oxidative stress response induced by methylglyoxal via the AMPK/GLUT4 signaling pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Baoping; Le, Liang; Pan, Huimin; Hu, Keping; Xu, Lijia; Xiao, Peigen

    2014-10-01

    Dihydromyricetin (DMY), the major bioactive flavonoid ingredient extracted from the leaves of Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz) W.T. Wang, displays multiple pharmacological activities, including oxidation resistance, antitumor properties and free radical scavenging capacities. However, the role of DMY in methylglyoxal (MG)-induced diabetes-associated cognitive decline and its underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of DMY on oxidative stress and glucose transport activity in a MG-induced PC12 cell line and to explore the related mechanisms. The effects of DMY on cell survival and apoptosis were examined, and the dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) was determined. Oxidative stress was evaluated by monitoring ROS production and the glutathione to glutathione disulfide ratio. The effects of DMY on glucose metabolism were investigated using a fluorescently labeled deoxyglucose analog and by measuring ATP and lactate production. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the protein levels of glyoxalase I (Glo-1), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) and phosphorylated AMPKα (p-AMPKα). The results revealed that DMY suppressed cellular oxidative stress in PC12 cells and balanced glucose metabolism. Additionally, DMY reduced GLUT4 translocation dysfunction and increased Glo-1 and p-AMPKα expression. We found that DMY protected PC12 cells against MG-induced apoptosis and glycometabolic disorders, at least in part by restraining the hyperactivation of p-AMPK activity and normalizing the translocation of GLUT4 from the intracellular compartment, resulting in a balance in glucose uptake. This result indicates that DMY may serve as a novel and effective candidate agent to treat diabetic encephalopathy by reducing the toxicity of MG. PMID:25451453

  20. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  1. Amelioration of oxidative DNA damage in mouse peritoneal macrophages by Hippophae salicifolia due to its proton (H+) donation capability: Ex vivo and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mainak; Karmakar, Indrajit; Haldar, Sagnik; Das, Avratanu; Bala, Asis; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present study evaluates the antioxidant effect of methanol extract of Hippophae salicifolia (MEHS) bark with special emphasis on its role on oxidative DNA damage in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Material and Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was estimated by standard antioxidant assays whereas the antioxidant activity concluded the H+ donating capacity. Mouse erythrocytes’ hemolysis and peritoneal macrophages’ DNA damage were determined spectrophotometrically. In vivo antioxidant activity of MEHS was determined in carbon tetrachloride-induced mice by studying its effect on superoxide anion production in macrophages cells, superoxide dismutase in the cell lysate, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and reduces glutathione. Results: The extract showed good in vitro antioxidant activities whereas the inhibitory concentrations values ranged from 5.80 to 106.5 μg/ml. MEHS significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the oxidative DNA damage. It also attenuated the oxidative conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin and elevation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant in cells. Conclusion: The result indicates MEHS has good in vitro-in vivo antioxidant property as well as the protective effect on DNA and red blood cell may be due to its H+ donating property. PMID:27413349

  2. Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficits in Ischemic Rats via Its Active Component Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kuo-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Wu, Chi-Rei; Wood, W. Gibson; Chen, Yuh-Fung

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic stroke results in brain damage and behavioral deficits including memory impairment. Protective effects of green tea extract (GTex) and its major functional polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on memory were examined in cerebral ischemic rats. GTex and EGCG were administered 1 hr before middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. GTex, EGCG, and pentoxifylline (PTX) significantly improved ishemic-induced memory impairment in a Morris water maze test. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased by long-term treatment with GTex and EGCG. Both compounds were also associated with reduced cerebral infraction breakdown of MDA and GSH in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, EGCG had anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 microglia cells. EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced nitric oxide production and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 cells. GTex and its active polyphenol EGCG improved learning and memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia animal model and such protection may be due to the reduction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. PMID:22919410

  3. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    PubMed

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  4. A prescribed Chinese herbal medicine improves glucose profile and ameliorates oxidative stress in Goto-Kakisaki rats fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Hongguang; Xu, Ping; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet β cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn't show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation "Qing Huo Yi Hao" (QHYH) improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet β cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD) in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n = 20) and chow diet feeding group (n = 10). Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d) or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet β cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet β cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT) and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving β cell function partly via its antioxidant effect

  5. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries

  6. Zisheng Shenqi decoction ameliorates monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jieru; Xie, Ying; Sui, Fangyu; Liu, Chunhong; Du, Xiaowei; Liu, Chenggang; Feng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Deyou

    2016-09-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicinal theories on gouty arthritis, Zisheng Shenqi decoction (ZSD), a novel Chinese medicinal formula, was developed due to its multiple functions, including reinforcing renal function, promoting blood circulation and relieving pain. In the present study, the effect of ZSD on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were examined. The data from these investigations showed that the injection of MSU crystals into the ankle joint cavity caused significant elevations in ankle swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration into the synovium, whereas these abnormal changes were markedly suppressed by oral administration of ZSD (40 mg/kg) for 7 days. Mechanically, ZSD treatment prevented MSU crystal‑induced inflammatory responses, as evidenced by downregulation in the expression levels of NACHT domain, leucine‑rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein (NALP) 1 and NALP6 inflammasomes, decreased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑1β, and inhibited activation of nuclear factor‑κB. In addition, ZSD administration markedly enhanced the anti-oxidant status in MSU crystal‑induced rats by the increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and the levels of reduced glutathione. These results indicated that ZSD effectively prevented MSU crystal-induced gouty arthritis via modulating multiple anti‑oxidative and anti‑inflammatory pathways, suggesting a promising herbal formula for the prevention and treatment of gouty arthritis. PMID:27432278

  7. Amelioration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced behavioural dysfunction and oxidative stress by Pycnogenol in mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Hoda, Md Nasrul; Ishrat, Tauheed; Ahmad, Ajmal; Khan, Mohammad Badruzzaman; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Raza, Syed Shadab; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

    2010-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease in which dopaminergic neurons are intrinsically susceptible to oxidative damage. Swiss albino mice were pretreated with Pycnogenol (PYC), an extract of Pinus maritime bark [20 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] once daily for 15 days. Thereafter, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (20 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) was given four times at 2-hour intervals on 1 day only. Behaviours were altered in the MPTP group as compared with the vehicle-treated group and were restored in the PYC-pretreated MPTP group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of glutathione were significantly depleted in the MPTP-induced Parkinsonian group. The MPTP group pretreated with PYC showed significant protection of the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content when compared with the vehicle-treated MPTP group. A significantly elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the MPTP group was decreased significantly in the animals pretreated with PYC. An increase in the number of dopaminergic D2 receptors and decrease in the level of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid in the striatum were observed after MPTP injection, and restored significantly after PYC pretreatment. Thus, PYC may be used to prevent or reduce the deterioration caused by free radicals, thereby preventing subsequent behavioural and biochemical changes that occur in Parkinsonian mice. PMID:20657266

  8. Citrus flavanones prevent systemic inflammation and ameliorate oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paula S; Spolidorio, Luis C; Manthey, John A; Cesar, Thais B

    2016-06-15

    The flavanones hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol were investigated for their prevention of the oxidative stress and systemic inflammation caused by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. The mice received a standard diet (9.5% kcal from fat), high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet supplemented with hesperidin, eriocitrin or eriodictyol for a period of four weeks. Hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol increased the serum total antioxidant capacity, and restrained the elevation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In addition, the liver TBARS levels and spleen mass (g per kg body weight) were lower for the flavanone-treated mice than in the unsupplemented mice. Eriocitrin and eriodictyol reduced TBARS levels in the blood serum, and hesperidin and eriodictyol also reduced fat accumulation and liver damage. The results showed that hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol had protective effects against inflammation and oxidative stress caused by high-fat diet in mice, and may therefore prevent metabolic alterations associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases in other animals. PMID:27182608

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Saffron Aqueous Extract on Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, and Oxidative Stress on Diabetic Encephalopathy in Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Samini, Fariborz

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the severe complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Findings indicate that saffron extract has antioxidant properties but its underlying beneficial effects on diabetic encephalopathy were unclear. In the present study, the protective activities of saffron were evaluated in diabetic encephalopathy. Saffron at 40 and 80 mg/kg significantly increased body weight and serum TNF-α and decreased blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum proteins, and serum advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) levels. Furthermore, significant increase in HDL and decrease (P < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL were observed after 28 days of treatment. At the end of experiments, the hippocampus tissue was used for determination of glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. Furthermore, saffron significantly increased GSH, SOD, and CAT but remarkably decreased cognitive deficit, serum TNF-α, and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in hippocampus tissue. Our findings indicated that saffron extract may reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduce the oxidative stress in diabetic encephalopathy rats. This study suggested that saffron extract might be a promising candidate for the improvement of chemically induced diabetes and its complications. PMID:25114929

  10. Dietary flaxseed oil and fish oil ameliorates renal oxidative stress, protein glycation, and inflammation in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jangale, Nivedita M; Devarshi, Prasad P; Bansode, Sneha B; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Harsulkar, Abhay M

    2016-06-01

    Protective and prophylactic effects of omega-3 fatty acids on oxidative stress and inflammation are well known. We assessed beneficial effects of flaxseed oil and fish oil on streptozotocin (65 mg/kg; i.p.)-nicotinamide (110 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetic rats by studying renal expression of antioxidant and inflammatory genes. Diabetic rats given 10 % flaxseed oil or 10 % fish oil diet for 35 days showed significant decrease in renal lipid peroxidation. Flaxseed oil diet resulted in up-regulation of renal superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) (activity and expression) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) expression. Furthermore, both diets up-regulated catalase (CAT) (activity and expression) and down-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Both diets were able to limit the renal advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation and reduced receptor of AGE (RAGE) protein expression significantly. Expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and NF-κB p65 subunit were down-regulated significantly by flaxseed oil or fish oil diet. The histological tubular injuries were also lowered by both diets. These results suggest that dietary ω-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) associated with oxidative stress, glycation, and inflammation in the kidney. PMID:27048415

  11. Zisheng Shenqi decoction ameliorates monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jieru; Xie, Ying; Sui, Fangyu; Liu, Chunhong; Du, Xiaowei; Liu, Chenggang; Feng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Deyou

    2016-01-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicinal theories on gouty arthritis, Zisheng Shenqi decoction (ZSD), a novel Chinese medicinal formula, was developed due to its multiple functions, including reinforcing renal function, promoting blood circulation and relieving pain. In the present study, the effect of ZSD on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were examined. The data from these investigations showed that the injection of MSU crystals into the ankle joint cavity caused significant elevations in ankle swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration into the synovium, whereas these abnormal changes were markedly suppressed by oral administration of ZSD (40 mg/kg) for 7 days. Mechanically, ZSD treatment prevented MSU crystal-induced inflammatory responses, as evidenced by downregulation in the expression levels of NACHT domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein (NALP) 1 and NALP6 inflammasomes, decreased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, and inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB. In addition, ZSD administration markedly enhanced the anti-oxidant status in MSU crystal-induced rats by the increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and the levels of reduced glutathione. These results indicated that ZSD effectively prevented MSU crystal-induced gouty arthritis via modulating multiple anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory pathways, suggesting a promising herbal formula for the prevention and treatment of gouty arthritis. PMID:27432278

  12. Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 Ameliorates Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Increasing Intestinal Feruloyl Esterase Activity and Modulating Microbiota in Caloric-Restricted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Matias; Fabersani, Emanuel; Abeijón-Mukdsi, María C.; Ross, Romina; Fontana, Cecilia; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gauffin-Cano, Paola; Medina, Roxana B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of the feruloyl esterase (FE)-producing strain Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 enhances metabolic and oxidative parameters in caloric-restricted (CR) mice. Balb/c male mice were divided into ad libitum fed Group (ALF Group), CR diet Group (CR Group) and CR diet plus L. fermentum Group (CR-Lf Group). CR diet was administered during 45 days and CRL1446 strain was given in the dose of 108 cells/mL/day/mouse. FE activity was determined in intestinal mucosa and content at Day 1, 20 and 45. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and glutathione reductase activity were determined in plasma. Gut microbiota was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. At Day 45, total intestinal FE activity in CR-Lf Group was higher (p = 0.020) than in CR and ALF groups and an improvement in both metabolic (reductions in triglyceride (p = 0.0025), total cholesterol (p = 0.005) and glucose (p < 0.0001) levels) and oxidative (decrease of TBARS levels and increase of plasmatic glutathione reductase activity (p = 0.006)) parameters was observed, compared to ALF Group. CR diet increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and CRL1446 administration increased abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genus. L. fermentun CRL1446 exerted a bifidogenic effect under CR conditions. PMID:27399766

  13. Ameliorating of Memory Impairment and Apoptosis in Amyloid β-Injected Rats Via Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase: Possible Participation of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Shariatpanahi, Marjan; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ashabi, Ghorbangol; Aghazadeh Khasraghi, Azar; Azimi, Leila; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that appearance of amyloid beta (Aβ) in hippocampus is one of the characteristic features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The role of Nitric oxide (NO) in neurodegenerative disorders is controversy in different contexts. Here, we examined the effect of NO on spatial memory. For this purpose, we compared the effects of three different concentrations of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) as a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. We used Morris water maze (MWM) for evaluation of behavioral alterations. We also assessed the apoptosis and autophagy markers as two possible interfering pathways with NO signaling by western blot method. We found that in Aβ pretreated rats, intra-hippocampal injection of 1or 2 (μg/side) of L-NAME caused a significant reduction in escape latency and traveled distance comparing to Aβ-treatment group. Our molecular findings revealed that L-NAME could induce autophagy and attenuate apoptosis dose dependently. The protective role of autophagy and the deteriorative role of apoptosis is the hypothesis that can vindicate our findings. Thus using NOS inhibitors at low concentrations can be one of the therapeutic approaches in the future studies. PMID:26330869

  14. Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 Ameliorates Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Increasing Intestinal Feruloyl Esterase Activity and Modulating Microbiota in Caloric-Restricted Mice.

    PubMed

    Russo, Matias; Fabersani, Emanuel; Abeijón-Mukdsi, María C; Ross, Romina; Fontana, Cecilia; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gauffin-Cano, Paola; Medina, Roxana B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of the feruloyl esterase (FE)-producing strain Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 enhances metabolic and oxidative parameters in caloric-restricted (CR) mice. Balb/c male mice were divided into ad libitum fed Group (ALF Group), CR diet Group (CR Group) and CR diet plus L. fermentum Group (CR-Lf Group). CR diet was administered during 45 days and CRL1446 strain was given in the dose of 10⁸ cells/mL/day/mouse. FE activity was determined in intestinal mucosa and content at Day 1, 20 and 45. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and glutathione reductase activity were determined in plasma. Gut microbiota was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. At Day 45, total intestinal FE activity in CR-Lf Group was higher (p = 0.020) than in CR and ALF groups and an improvement in both metabolic (reductions in triglyceride (p = 0.0025), total cholesterol (p = 0.005) and glucose (p < 0.0001) levels) and oxidative (decrease of TBARS levels and increase of plasmatic glutathione reductase activity (p = 0.006)) parameters was observed, compared to ALF Group. CR diet increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and CRL1446 administration increased abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genus. L. fermentun CRL1446 exerted a bifidogenic effect under CR conditions. PMID:27399766

  15. Probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 producing pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) ameliorates 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative damage in colon and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Kumar, Prasant; Chaudhari, Archana; Nareshkumar, G

    2014-06-01

    Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) genesis. Alleviation of oxidative stress is achieved by using antioxidants and probiotics. Present study investigates a synergistic effect of the probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 containing Vitreoscilla haemoglobin gene (vgb), green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene and pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) gene cluster on oxidative stress induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Adult virgin Charles foster male rats (3-4 months) weighing 200-250 g were administered with DMH (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) twice a week for eight consecutive weeks. Rats receiving only DMH dose showed increased lipid peroxidation in liver and intestinal tissues with reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Oral dose of E. coli CFR 16::vgb-gfp harbouring pqq gene cluster increased rat faecal PQQ concentration by twofold, reduced lipid peroxidation and retained SOD, CAT and GPx activities close to normal levels in liver and colonic tissues following DMH treatment. In addition, significant protection was found in colonic histological sections of these rat groups. This study demonstrates a protective efficacy in the following order: E. coli CFR 16 < E. coli CFR 16::vgb-gfp < vitamin C = PQQ < E. coli CFR 16::vgb-gfp (pqq). PMID:24718737

  16. Reduced response to chronic mild stress in PACAP mutant mice is associated with blunted FosB expression in limbic forebrain and brainstem centers.

    PubMed

    Kormos, Viktória; Gáspár, László; Kovács, László Á; Farkas, József; Gaszner, Tamás; Csernus, Valér; Balogh, András; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Reglődi, Dóra; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Gaszner, Balázs

    2016-08-25

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in stress adaptation with potential relevance in mood disorder management. PACAP deficient (KO) mice on CD1 background were shown to have depression-like phenotype. Here we aimed at investigating effects of chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) in non-injected, vehicle and imipramine-treated KO mice vs. wildtype (WT) counterparts. We hypothesized reduced FosB neuronal activity in stress-related centers, altered activity and peptide/neurotransmitter content of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cells of the oval (ovBST) bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), urocortin 1 (Ucn1) neurons of centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (cpEW) and serotonin (5HT) cells of dorsal raphe (DR) in PACAP deficiency. CVMS caused decreased body weight and increased adrenal size, corticosterone (CORT) titers and depression-like behavior in WT mice, in contrast to KO animals. CVMS increased FosB in the central (CeA) and medial amygdala, dorsomedial (dmBST), ventral (vBST), ovBST, CA1 area, dentate gyrus (DG), ventral lateral septum, parvo- (pPVN) and magnocellular paraventricular nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray, cpEW and DR. Lack of PACAP blunted the CVMS-induced FosB rise in the CeA, ovBST, dmBST, vBST, CA1 area, pPVN and DR. The CVMS-induced FosB expression in ovBST-CRF and cpEW-Ucn1 neurons was abolished in KO mice. Although CVMS did not induce FosB in 5HT-DR neurons, PACAP KO mice had increased 5HT cell counts and 5HT content. We conclude that PACAP deficiency affects neuronal reactivity in a brain area-specific manner in stress centers, as well as in ovBST-CRF, cpEW-Ucn1 and 5HT-DR neurons leading to reduced CVMS response and altered depression level. PMID:27282087

  17. BAY 11-7082 ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by attenuating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Kolati, Sambasiva Rao; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Mahareddy, Jalandhar Reddy; Uppulapu, Shravan Kumar; Gogoi, Ranadeep; Barua, Chandana C; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious microvascular complication for patients associated with diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have suggested that NF-κB is the main transcription factor for the inflammatory response mediated progression of diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the present study is hypothesized to explore the renoprotective nature of BAY 11-7082 an IκB phosphorylation inhibitor on Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Male SD rats were divided into five groups, group I sham control, group II drug control, group III diabetic control (STZ 50mg/kg), group IV and V are test drug groups to which a single dose of STZ 50mg/kg was injected initially and later received BAY 11-7082 1mg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively from 5th to 8th week. Eight weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited significant renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood glucose, urea nitrogen and creatinine, which were reversed to near normal by BAY 11-7082. BAY 11-7082 treated rats showed significant improvement in the decreased enzymatic antioxidant SOD, non-enzymatic antioxidant GSH levels, and elevated lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels as observed in the diabetic rats. BAY 11-7082 treatment was found to significantly recover kidney histological architecture in the diabetic rats. Altered levels of inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and nuclear transcriptional factor subunit NF-κB p65 were reverted to the normal level upon treatment with BAY 11-7082. Our results suggest that by limiting the activation of NF-κB, thereby reducing the expression of inflammatory cytokines and by inhibiting the oxidative damage BAY 11-7082 protect the rats against diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25704036

  18. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced rat acute interstitial cystitis though inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress-in vitro and in vivo experiment studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ling; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Huang, Tein-Hung; Chang, Chia-Lo; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) therapy can attenuate cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced acute interstitial cystitis (AIC) in rats. Methods and Results: Eighteen male-adult Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (AIC induced by 150 mg/kg CYP by intra-peritoneal injection) and group 3 (AIC + ECSW 200 impulses at 0.11 mJ/mm2 to the urinary bladder at 3 and 24 h after CYP treatment). Smooth-muscle cells co-culture with menadione (25 µM) with and without ECSW treatment was performed. Western-blot results demonstrated that ECSW significant attenuated oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in this in-vitro studies (all p < 0.001). 24-hour urine amount and microscopic findings of red-blood-cell count (i.e., hematuria) were higher in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3, and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (all p < 0.001). The urine levels of albumin and interleukin-6 showed an identical pattern of hematuria among all three groups (all p < 0.001). The cellular and mRNA expressions of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)+, CD74+, CD68+, substance p+, and Cox-2+ cells in the bladder tissue exhibited an identical pattern of hematuria among all groups (all p < 0.0001). The integrity of epithelial layer and collagen-deposition area as stained by Sirius red displayed an opposite pattern of hematuria among the three groups (p < 0.0001). The protein expression of IL-12, iNOS, TNF-α, NF-κB, MMP-9, NOX-1, NOX-2, RANTES, and Oxyblot displayed an identical pattern of hematuria among all groups (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: ECSW therapy markedly attenuated CYP-induced AIC through inhibitions of the inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25628776

  19. Total Flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xufeng; Sun, Xiance; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Han, Xu; Qi, Yan; Xu, Youwei; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against liver damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have been reported, but its action on hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. In this work, the effects and possible mechanisms of TFs against hepatic I/R injury were examined using a 70% partial hepatic warm ischemia rat model. The results demonstrated TFs decreased serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, improved liver histopathology and ultrastructure through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscope observation. In addition, TFs significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), which indicated that TFs alleviated oxidative stress caused by I/R injury. RT-PCR results proved that TFs downregulated the gene levels of inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-1 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Further research indicated that TF-induced hepatoprotection was completed through inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 and activating Sirt1/Nrf2 signaling pathways. Blockade of the TLR4 pathway by TFs inhibited NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activities and inflammatory reaction. Activation of Sirt1/Nrf2 pathway by TFs increased the protein levels of HO-1 and GST to improve oxidative stress. Collectively, these findingsconfirmed the potent effects of TFs against hepatic I/R injury, which should be developed as a candidate for the prevention of this disease. PMID:27399769

  20. Total Flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xufeng; Sun, Xiance; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Han, Xu; Qi, Yan; Xu, Youwei; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against liver damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have been reported, but its action on hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. In this work, the effects and possible mechanisms of TFs against hepatic I/R injury were examined using a 70% partial hepatic warm ischemia rat model. The results demonstrated TFs decreased serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, improved liver histopathology and ultrastructure through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscope observation. In addition, TFs significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), which indicated that TFs alleviated oxidative stress caused by I/R injury. RT-PCR results proved that TFs downregulated the gene levels of inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-1 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Further research indicated that TF-induced hepatoprotection was completed through inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 and activating Sirt1/Nrf2 signaling pathways. Blockade of the TLR4 pathway by TFs inhibited NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activities and inflammatory reaction. Activation of Sirt1/Nrf2 pathway by TFs increased the protein levels of HO-1 and GST to improve oxidative stress. Collectively, these findingsconfirmed the potent effects of TFs against hepatic I/R injury, which should be developed as a candidate for the prevention of this disease. PMID:27399769

  1. Rutin ameliorates renal fibrosis and proteinuria in 5/6-nephrectomized rats by anti-oxidation and inhibiting activation of TGFβ1-smad signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Lu, Jin-Shan; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, was reported to have beneficial effect on drug induced nephropathy. The present study aimed to introduce 5/6 nephrectomized rat model to further evaluate its renal protective effect. Methods: Adult Wistar rats were induced to develop chronic renal failure through 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx). After that, animals were treated orally with saline, rutin at 15 and 45 mg/kg, and losartan (10 mg/kg) daily for 20 weeks; sham-operated animals were also involved as control. After treatment for 8 and 20 weeks, blood and urine samples were collected for biochemical examination; all the kidney remnants were collected for histological examination. The protein levels of TGF-β1, smad2 and phosphorylated-smad2 (p-smad2) in kidney were measured. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin and collagen IV in kidney tissues. Results: Results suggested that rutin could reduce the proteinurea, blood urine nitrogen and blood creatinine in 5/6 Nx animals significantly, as well as oxidation stress in the kidney. By histological examination, rutin administration alleviated glomerular sclerosis scores and tubulointerstitial injuries in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry also suggested rutin could reduce the expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin and collagen IV in kidney tissues. By western blot, we found the rutin could reduce the TGF-β1, p-smad2 expression in the kidney tissues of rats. Conclusions: This study suggests that the rutin can improve renal function in 5/6 Nx rats effectively. Its effect may be due to its anti-oxidation and inhibiting TGFβ1-Smad signaling. PMID:26191162

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis through modulating oxidative stress and suppressing nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yinhang; Li, Siming; Liu, Yaonan; Tian, Guiyou; Yuan, Qingyan; Bai, Fuliang; Wang, Wenfei; Zhang, Zhiyi; Ren, Guiping; Zhang, Yu; Li, Deshan

    2015-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that circulating FGF21 levels are elevated in the serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study is to investigate efficacy of FGF21 for treatment of RA and the molecular mechanisms of the therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Mice with CIA were subcutaneously administered with FGF21 (5, 2 or 1mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), IL-1β antibody (5mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), IL-17A antibody (5mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) and dexamethasone (DEX) (1mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), respectively. The effects of treatment were determined by arthritis severity score, histological damage and cytokine production. The activation of NF-κB was analyzed by Western blotting. We also detected the levels of oxidative stress parameters. Our results showed that FGF21 had beneficial effects on clinical symptom and histological lesion of CIA mice. Similar to antibody and DEX, FGF21 treatment alleviated the severity of arthritis by reducing humoral and cellular immune responses and down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. FGF21 treatment also reduced the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and MMP-3 and increased level of IL-10 in the spleen tissue or the plasma of CIA mice in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, FGF21 inhibited IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and induced significant changes of oxidative stress parameters (MDA, SOD, CAT, GSH-PX and GSH) in the plasma. FGF21 exerts therapeutic efficacy for RA through antioxidant reaction and inhibiting NF-κB inflammatory pathway. This study provides evidence that FGF21 may be a promising therapeutic agent for RA patients. PMID:25601498

  3. Anatabine ameliorates experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Patrizio; De Remigis, Alessandra; Ferlito, Marcella; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A; Iwama, Shintaro; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Ladenson, Paul W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco smoking favorably influences the course of Hashimoto thyroiditis, possibly through the antiinflammatory proprieties of nicotine. In this study we tested anatabine, another tobacco alkaloid, in a model of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced by different doses of thyroglobulin, to produce a disease of low, moderate, or high severity, in 88 CBA/J female mice: 43 drank anatabine supplemented water and 45 regular water. Mice were bled after immunization and killed to assess thyroid histopathology, thyroglobulin antibodies, T(4), and thyroid RNA expression of 84 inflammatory genes. We also stimulated in vitro a macrophage cell line with interferon-γ or lipopolysaccharide plus or minus anatabine to quantitate inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression. Anatabine reduced the incidence and severity of thyroiditis in the moderate disease category: only 13 of 21 mice (62%) developed thyroid infiltrates when drinking anatabine as compared with 22 of 23 (96%) controls (relative risk 0.59, P = 0.0174). The median thyroiditis severity was 0.5 and 2.0 in anatabine and controls, respectively (P = 0.0007 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). Anatabine also reduced the antibody response to thyroglobulin on d 14 (P = 0.029) and d 21 (P = 0.045) after immunization and improved the recovery of thyroid function on d 21 (P = 0.049). In the thyroid transcriptome, anatabine restored expression of IL-18 and IL-1 receptor type 2 to preimmunization levels. Finally, anatabine suppressed in a dose-dependent manner macrophage production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Anatabine ameliorates disease in a model of autoimmune thyroiditis, making the delineation of its mechanisms of action and potential clinical utility worthwhile. PMID:22807490

  4. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C.

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  5. Ethanolic Extract of Bark from Salix aegyptiaca Ameliorates 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice by Reducing Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Bounaama, Abdelkader; Enayat, Shabnam; Ceyhan, Muserref Seyma; Moulahoum, Hichem; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Banerjee, Sreeparna

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanolic extract from bark (EEB) of Salix aegyptiaca (Musk Willow) can inhibit proliferation and motility and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed EEB to be rich in catechin, catechol, and salicin. The present study investigated the chemopreventive effect of HPLC-fingerprinted EEB on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in mice. DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) was weekly injected subcutaneously to mice for the first 2 weeks. EEB (100 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was provided orally from the 7th to 14th week, after which colon tissues were evaluated histologically and biochemically. DMH treatment induced high number of ACF; EEB significantly reduced the number and multiplicity of ACF, along with a restoration in goblet cells and mucin accumulation. EEB supplementation improved the markers of inflammation (myeloperoxidase and neutrophil infiltration) and oxidative stress. More importantly, EEB amplified apoptosis of neoplastic cells in the colon mucosa of DMH-treated mice. It also lowered levels of markers for early transformation events such as EGFR, nuclear β-catenin, and COX-2 in colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and HCT-116. The innocuity of EEB (up to 1600 mg/kg) to mice reinforces its potential as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:27093594

  6. Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorates Pain and Cartilage Degradation in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis by Regulating Nitric Oxide and Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jeong Hee; Yang, Eun Ji; Jhun, Joo Yeon; Park, Mi Kyoung; Jung, Young Ok; Min, Jun Ki; Kim, Ho Youn; Park, Sung Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of CoenzymeQ10 (CoQ10) on pain severity and cartilage degeneration in an experimental model of rat osteoarthritis (OA). Materials and Methods OA was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) to the knee. Oral administration of CoQ10 was initiated on day 4 after MIA injection. Pain severity was assessed by measuring secondary tactile allodynia using the von Frey assessment test. The degree of cartilage degradation was determined by measuring cartilage thickness and the amount of proteoglycan. The mankin scoring system was also used. Expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-15, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results Treatment with CoQ10 demonstrated an antinociceptive effect in the OA animal model. The reduction in secondary tactile allodynia was shown by an increased pain withdrawal latency and pain withdrawal threshold. CoQ10 also attenuated cartilage degeneration in the osteoarthritic joints. MMP-13, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15, iNOS, nitrotyrosine and RAGE expressions were upregulated in OA joints and significantly reduced with CoQ10 treatment. Conclusion CoQ10 exerts a therapeutic effect on OA via pain suppression and cartilage degeneration by inhibiting inflammatory mediators, which play a vital role in OA pathogenesis. PMID:23894457

  7. Periplogenin induces necroptotic cell death through oxidative stress in HaCaT cells and ameliorates skin lesions in the TPA- and IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Song, Zhen-Bo; Bao, Yong-Li; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Chun-Lei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Huang, Yan-Xin; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease that inconveniences many patients. Considering the side effects and drug resistance of the current therapy, it is urgent to discover more effective and safer anti-psoriatic drugs. In the present study, we screened over 250 traditional Chinese medicine compounds for their ability to inhibit the cell viability of cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes, a psoriasis-relevant in vitro model, and found that periplogenin was highly effective. Mechanistic studies revealed that apoptosis and autophagy were not induced by periplogenin in HaCaT cells. However, periplogenin caused PI to permeate into cells, increased lactate LDH release and rapidly increased the number of necrotic cells. Additionally, the typical characteristics of necrosis were observed in the periplogenin-treated HaCaT cells. Notably, the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1 and NSA were able to rescue the cells from necrotic cell death, supporting that necroptosis was involved in periplogenin-induced cell death. Furthermore, the ROS levels were elevated in the periplogenin-treated cells, NAC (an antioxidant) and Nec-1 could inhibit the ROS levels, and NAC could attenuate necroptotic cell death, indicating that the periplogenin-induced necroptotic cell death was mediated by oxidative stress. More importantly, in the murine models of TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and IMQ-induced skin inflammation, topical administration of periplogenin ameliorated skin lesions and inflammation. In sum, our results indicate, for the first time, that periplogenin is a naturally occurring compound with potent anti-psoriatic effects in vitro and in vivo, making it a promising candidate for future drug research. PMID:26850986

  8. Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract ameliorates membranous glomerulonephritis by attenuating oxidative stress and renal inflammation via the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Liu, Chungang; Huang, Yan; He, Liying; Cai, Xueying; Lu, Jiahui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Di

    2016-04-01

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a common pathogenesis of nephritic syndrome in adult patients. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) serves as the main transcription factor for the inflammatory response mediated nephropathy. Cordyceps militaris, containing various pharmacological components, has been used as a kind of crude drug and folk tonic food for improving immunity and reducing inflammation. The current study aims to investigate the renoprotective activity of Cordyceps militaris aqueous extract (CM) in the cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA)-induced rat model of membranous glomerulonephritis. Significant renal dysfunction was observed in MGN rats; comparatively, 4-week CM administration strongly decreased the levels of 24 h urine protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, and increased the levels of serum albumin and total serum protein. Strikingly, recovery of the kidney histological architecture was noted in CM-treated MGN rats. A significant improvement in the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels, and a reduced malondialdehyde concentration were observed in the serum and kidney of CM-treated rats. Altered levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukins, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor-α, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, and nuclear transcriptional factor subunit NF-κB p65 reverted to normal levels upon treatment with CM. The present data suggest that CM protects rats against membranous glomerulonephritis via the normalization of NF-κB activity, thereby inhibiting oxidative damage and reducing inflammatory cytokine levels, which further provide experimental evidence in support of the clinical use of CM as an effective renoprotective agent. PMID:27008597

  9. QCM-4, a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist ameliorates plasma HPA axis hyperactivity, leptin resistance and brain oxidative stress in depression and anxiety-like behavior in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj

    2015-01-01

    Several preclinical studies have revealed antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. In our earlier study, we have reported the antidepressive-like effect of 3-methoxy-N-p-tolylquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCM-4) in obese mice subjected to chronic stress. The present study deals with the biochemical mechanisms associated with depression co-morbid with obesity. Mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, further subjected for treatment with QCM-4 (1 and 2mg/kg p.o.) and standard antidepressant escitalopram (ESC) (10mg/kg p.o.) for 28 days. Behavioral assays for depression such as sucrose preference test (SPT), forced swim test (FST) and for anxiety such as light and dark test (LDT) and hole board test (HBT) were performed in obese mice. Biochemical assessments including plasma leptin and corticosterone concentration followed by brain oxidative stress parameters malonaldehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were performed. Results confirmed that QCM-4 exhibits antidepressive effect by increasing the sucrose consumption in SPT, reducing immobility time in FST and anxiolytic effect by increasing transitions and time in light chamber in LDT, increasing head dip and crossing score in HBT. Furthermore, QCM-4 attenuated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity by reducing the plasma corticosterone, reversing altered plasma leptin, restoring the imbalance of brain MDA and GSH concentration. In conclusion, QCM-4 showed antidepressive and anxiolytic effect by reversing the behavioral alterations that were supported by biochemical estimations in obese mice. PMID:25446100

  10. Amelioration of oxidative stress by dandelion extract through CYP2E1 suppression against acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung Mu; Cha, Yeon Suk; Youn, Hyun Joo; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

    2010-09-01

    The protective effects of common dandelion leaf water extract (DLWE) were investigated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatitis in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups: normal control, DLWE control, CCl4 control, and two DLWE groups (0.5 and 2 g/kg bw). After 1 week of administering corresponding vehicle or DLWE, a single dose of CCl4 (50% CCl4/olive oil; 0.5 mL/kg bw) was administered 24 h before killing in order to produce acute liver injury. The DLWE treatment significantly decreased CCl4-induced hepatic enzyme activities (AST, ALT and LDH) in a dose dependent manner. Also, the obstructed release of TG and cholesterol into the serum was repaired by DLWE administration. Hepatic lipid peroxidation was elevated while the GSH content and antioxidative enzyme activities were reduced in the liver as a result of CCl4 administration, which were counteracted by DLWE administration. Furthermore, the hepatocytotoxic effects of CCl4 were confirmed by significantly elevated Fas and TNF-α mRNA expression levels, but DLWE down-regulated these expressions to the levels of the normal control. Highly up-regulated cytochrome P450 2E1 was also lowered significantly in the DLWE groups. These results indicate that DLWE has a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatic damage with at least part of its effect being attributable to the attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammatory processes resulting from cytochrome P450 activation by CCl4. PMID:20812277

  11. Berberine exerts an anticonvulsant effect and ameliorates memory impairment and oxidative stress in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang-feng; Wang, Li; Li, Ya-jun

    2014-01-01

    Though new antiepileptic drugs are emerging, approximately a third of epileptic patients still suffer from recurrent convulsions and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether berberine (Ber), a vegetable drug, has an anticonvulsant property and attenuates memory impairment in a pilocarpine (Pilo)-induced epilepsy model in rats. The rats were injected with 400 mg/kg Pilo to induce convulsions, and Ber 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were administrated by the intragastric route once daily 7 days before Pilo injection until the experiment was over. Convulsions were observed after Pilo injection. For the rats that developed status epilepticus (SE), malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in the hippocampus were measured 24 hours after SE. The rats received the Morris water-maze test 2 weeks after SE, and then were killed for fluoro-jade B staining to detect the degenerating neurons. We found Ber delayed latency to the first seizure and the time to develop SE in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde levels were decreased, while glutathione and catalase activity were strengthened in Ber-injected SE rats. In the Morris water-maze test, Ber decreased escape latency compared to saline-treated SE rats. Additionally, Ber reduced the number of fluoro-jade B-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Our data suggest that Ber exerts anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on Pilo-induced epilepsy in rats. Simultaneously, Ber attenuates memory impairment. The beneficial effect may be partly due to mitigation of the oxidative stress burden. PMID:25419137

  12. Sevoflurane ameliorates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury by inhibiting the synergistic action between mast cell activation and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    LUO, CHENFANG; YUAN, DONGDONG; ZHAO, WEICHENG; CHEN, HUIXIN; LUO, GANGJIAN; SU, GUANGJIE; HEI, ZIQING

    2015-01-01

    Preconditioning with sevoflurane (SEV) can protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in several organs, however, the benefits of SEV against acute lung injury (ALI), induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR), and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of SEV preconditioning on IIR-mediated ALI and the associated mechanisms in a rat model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 2.3% SEV or apocynin (AP), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, were subjected to 75 min superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 2 h reperfusion in the presence or absence of the mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 (CP). SEV and AP were observed to downregulate the protein expression levels of p47phox and gp91phox in the lungs of normal rats. IIR resulted in severe lung injury, characterized by significant increases in pathological injury scores, lung wet/dry weight ratio, protein expression levels of p47phox, gp91phox and ICAM-1, the presence of hydrogen peroxide, malondydehyde and interleukin-6, and the activity of myeloperoxidase. In addition, significant reductions were observed in the expression of prosurfactant protein C, accompanied by an increase in MC degranulation, demonstrated by significant elevations in the number of mast cells, expression levels of tryptase and the concentration of β-hexosaminidase. These changes were further augmented in the presence of CP. In addition, SEV and AP preconditioning significantly alleviated the above alterations induced by IIR alone or in combination with CP. These findings suggested that SEV and AP attenuated IIR-induced ALI by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and the synergistic action between oxidative stress and mast cell activation. PMID:25815524

  13. Neuroprotection of a Novel Cyclopeptide C*HSDGIC* from the Cyclization of PACAP (1–5) in Cellular and Rodent Models of Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huanhuan; Ding, Yong; Yu, Rongjie; Chen, Jiansu; Wu, Chunyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the protective effects of a novel cyclopeptide C*HSDGIC* (CHC) from the cyclization of Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) (1–5) in cellular and rodent models of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Double-labeling immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Thy-1 and PACAP receptor type 1 in a retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. The apoptosis of RGC-5 cells was induced by 0.02 J/cm2 Ultraviolet B irradiation. MTT assay, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate the viability, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis of RGC-5 cells respectively. CHC attenuated apoptotic cell death induced by Ultraviolet B irradiation and inhibited the excessive generation of ROS. Moreover, CHC treatment resulted in decreased expression of Bax and concomitant increase of Bcl-2, as was revealed by western-blot analysis. The in vivo apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells was induced by injecting 50 mM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) (100 nmol in a 2 µL saline solution) intravitreally, and different dosages of CHC were administered. At day 7, rats in CHC+ NMDA-treated groups showed obvious aversion to light when compared to NMDA rats. Electroretinogram recordings revealed a marked decrease in the amplitudes of a-wave, b-wave, and photopic negative response due to NMDA damage. In retina receiving intravitreal NMDA and CHC co-treatment, these values were significantly increased. CHC treatment also resulted in less NMDA-induced cell loss and a decrease in the proportion of dUTP end-labeling-positive cells in ganglion cell line. Conclusions C*HSDGIC*, a novel cyclopeptide from PACAP (1–5) attenuates apoptosis in RGC-5 cells and inhibits NMDA-induced retinal neuronal death. The beneficial effects may occur via the mitochondria pathway. PACAP derivatives like CHC may serve as a promising candidate for neuroprotection in glaucoma. PMID:25286089

  14. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Aerva javanica aerial parts in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, Ahmed H.; Parvez, Mohammad K.; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.; Ibrahim, Khalid E.; Alam, Perwez; Alsaid, Mansour S.; Rafatullah, Syed

    2016-01-01

    of ex vivo and in vivo hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage. This further suggests its therapeutic value in various liver diseases. However, isolations of the active principles, their mechanisms of action, and other therapeutic contributions remain to be addressed. PMID:27059702

  16. Similarities and differences between alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in amelioration of inflammation, oxidative stress and pre-fibrosis in hyperglycemia induced acute kidney inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hanna; Eo, Hyeyoon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major chronic disease which increases global health problems. Diabetes-induced renal damage is associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Alpha (AT) and gamma-tocopherols (GT) have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in inflammation-mediated injuries. The primary aim of this study was to investigate effects of AT and GT supplementations on hyperglycemia induced acute kidney inflammation in alloxan induced diabetic mice with different levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG). MATERIALS/METHODS Diabetes was induced by injection of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p) in ICR mice (5.5-week-old, male) and mice were subdivided according to their FBG levels and treated with different diets for 2 weeks; CON: non-diabetic mice, m-DMC: diabetic control mice with mild FBG levels (250 mg/dl ≤ FBG ≤ 450 mg/dl), m-AT: m-DM mice fed AT supplementation (35 mg/kg diet), m-GT: m-DM mice with GT supplementation (35 mg/kg diet), s-DMC: diabetic control mice with severe FBG levels (450 mg/dl < FBG), s-AT: s-DM mice with AT supplementation, s-GT: s-DM mice with GT supplementation. RESULTS Both AT and GT supplementations showed similar beneficial effects on NFκB associated inflammatory response (phosphorylated inhibitory kappa B-α, interleukin-1β, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and pre-fibrosis (tumor growth factor β-1 and protein kinase C-II) as well as an antioxidant emzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in diabetic mice. On the other hands, AT and GT showed different beneficial effects on kidney weight, FBG, and oxidative stress associated makers (malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) except HO-1. In particular, GT significantly preserved kidney weight in m-DM and improved FBG levels in s-DM and malondialdehyde and catalase in m- and s-DM, while AT significantly attenuated FBG levels in m-DM and improved glutathione peroxidase in m- and s-DM. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that AT and

  17. Candesartan ameliorates acute myocardial infarction in rats through inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor‑κB, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1, activator protein‑1 and restoration of heat shock protein 72.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuefeng; Wu, Min; Liu, Bo; Wang, Junkui; Guan, Gongchang; Ma, Aiqun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, has a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anticancer activities, with specific pharmacological effects. The present study investigated the mechanisms and protective effect of candesartan on acute myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (8‑week‑old) were induced as a model of acute myocardial infarction and treated with candesartan (0.25 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. The present study first measured the activities of casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK‑MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the level of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and infarct size. Subsequently, western blot analysis was performed to analyze the protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) in the rats. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect iNOS and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) activity. In addition, gene expression levels of monocyte chemotactic protein‑1 (MCP‑1) and activating protein‑1 (AP‑1) were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Finally, the activities of caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 were examined using colorimetric assay kits. In the serum of the rat model of acute myocardial infarction, candesartan significantly increased the activities of CK, CK‑MB and LDH, and the level of cTnT. The infarction size was perfected by candesartan treatment. Candesartan significantly reduced the protein expression and activity of iNOS, the activity of NF‑κB p65, and the gene expression levels of MCP‑1 and AP‑1 in the rat model of acute myocardial infarction. Candesartan increased the protein expression of HSP‑72 in the acute myocardial infarction rat model. However, candesartan did not effect the levels of caspase‑3 or caspase‑9 in the rat model of acute myocardial infarction. These results suggested that candesartan ameliorates

  18. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26657007

  19. Cortical-layer-specific effects of PACAP and tPA on interneuron migration during post-natal development of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Emilie; Bénard, Magalie; Komuro, Hitoshi; Lebon, Alexis; Vivien, Denis; Fournier, Alain; Vaudry, Hubert; Vaudry, David; Galas, Ludovic

    2014-07-01

    During early post-natal development of the cerebellum, granule neurons (GN) execute a centripetal migration toward the internal granular layer, whereas basket and stellate cells (B/SC) migrate centrifugally to reach their final position in the molecular layer (ML). We have previously shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates in vitro the expression and release of the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from GN, but the coordinated role of PACAP and tPA during interneuron migration has not yet been investigated. Here, we show that endogenous PACAP is responsible for the transient arrest phase of GN at the level of the Purkinje cell layer (PCL) but has no effect on B/SC. tPA is devoid of direct effect on GN motility in vitro, although it is widely distributed along interneuron migratory routes in the ML, PCL, and internal granular layer. Interestingly, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 reduces the migration speed of GN in the ML and PCL, and that of B/SC in the ML. Taken together, these results reveal for the first time that tPA facilitates the migration of both GN and fast B/SC at the level of their intersection in the ML through degradation of the extracellular matrix. Crucial role of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in interneuron migration. Interneuron migration is a critical step for normal establishment of neuronal network. This study indicates that, in the post-natal cerebellum, tPA facilitates the opposite migration of immature excitatory granule neurons (GN) and immature inhibitory basket/stellate cells (B/SC) along the same migratory route. These data show that tPA exerts a pivotal role in neurodevelopment. PMID:24646324

  20. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) withdrawal masks gene expression differences in the study of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) activation of primary neural stem cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Sievertzon, Maria; Wirta, Valtteri; Mercer, Alex; Frisén, Jonas; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2005-01-01

    Background The recently discovered adult neural stem cells, which maintain continuous generation of new neuronal and glial cells throughout adulthood, are a promising and expandable source of cells for use in cell replacement therapies within the central nervous system. These cells could either be induced to proliferate and differentiate endogenously, or expanded and differentiated in culture before being transplanted into the damaged site of the brain. In order to achieve these goals effective strategies to isolate, expand and differentiate neural stem cells into the desired specific phenotypes must be developed. However, little is known as yet about the factors and mechanisms influencing these processes. It has recently been reported that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) promotes neural stem cell proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. Results We used cDNA microarrays with the aim of analysing the transcriptional changes underlying PACAP induced proliferation of neural stem cells. The primary neural stem/progenitor cells used were neurospheres, generated from the lateral ventricle wall of the adult mouse brain. The results were compared to both differentiation and proliferation controls, which revealed an unexpected and significant differential expression relating to withdrawal of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the neurosphere growth medium. The effect of EGF removal was so pronounced that it masked the changes in gene expression patterns produced by the addition of PACAP. Conclusion Experimental models aiming at transcriptional analysis of induced proliferation in primary neural stem cells need to take into consideration the significant effect on transcription caused by removal of EGF. Alternatively, EGF-free culture conditions need to be developed. PMID:16124881

  1. XANES of Chromium in Sludges Used as Soil Ameliorants

    SciTech Connect

    Naftel, S.J.; Martin, R.R.; Sham, T.K.; Hart, B.; Powell, M.A.

    2010-12-01

    Samples of sewage sludges proposed for use as soil ameliorants in an Indo-Canadian project were tested for chromium content. Standard aqua regia extractions found one sludge to have excessive amounts of Cr. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, however, indicated that the Cr was present in the relatively benign Cr(III) oxidation state in all the sludge samples.

  2. PACAP27 prevents Parkinson-like neuronal loss and motor deficits but not microglia activation induced by prostaglandin J2.

    PubMed

    Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Machlovi, Saima Ishaq; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E

    2014-09-01

    Neuroinflammation is a major risk factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alternative approaches are needed to treat inflammation, as anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can produce devastating side effects, including heart attack and stroke. New therapeutic strategies that target factors downstream of COX-2, such as prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), hold tremendous promise because they will not alter the homeostatic balance offered by COX-2 derived prostanoids. In the current studies, we report that repeated microinfusion of PGJ2 into the substantia nigra of non-transgenic mice, induces three stages of pathology that mimic the slow-onset cellular and behavioral pathology of PD: mild (one injection) when only motor deficits are detectable, intermediate (two injections) when neuronal and motor deficits as well as microglia activation are detectable, and severe (four injections) when dopaminergic neuronal loss is massive accompanied by microglia activation and motor deficits. Microglia activation was evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C](R)PK11195 to provide a regional estimation of brain inflammation. PACAP27 reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor deficits induced by PGJ2, without preventing microglia activation. The latter could be problematic in that persistent microglia activation can exert long-term deleterious effects on neurons and behavior. In conclusion, this PGJ2-induced mouse model that mimics in part chronic inflammation, exhibits slow-onset PD-like pathology and is optimal for testing diagnostic tools such as PET, as well as therapies designed to target the integrated signaling across neurons and microglia, to fully benefit patients with PD. PMID:24970746

  3. PACAP27 prevents Parkinson-like neuronal loss and motor deficits but not microglia activation induced by prostaglandin J2

    PubMed Central

    Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Machlovi, Saima Ishaq; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a major risk factor in Parkinson disease (PD). Alternative approaches are needed to treat inflammation, as anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can produce devastating side effects, including heart attack and stroke. New therapeutic strategies that target factors downstream of COX-2, such as prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), hold tremendous promise because they will not alter the homeostatic balance offered by COX-2 derived prostanoids. In the current studies, we report that repeated microinfusion of PGJ2 into the substantia nigra of non-transgenic mice, induces three stages of pathology that mimic the slow-onset cellular and behavioral pathology of PD: mild (one injection) when only motor deficits are detectable, intermediate (two injections) when neuronal and motor deficits as well as microglia activation are detectable, and severe (four injections) when dopaminergic neuronal loss is massive accompanied by microglia activation and motor deficits. Microglia activation was evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C](R)PK11195 to provide a regional estimation of brain inflammation. PACAP27 reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor deficits induced by PGJ2, without preventing microglia activation. The latter could be problematic in that persistent microglia activation can exert long-term deleterious effects on neurons and behavior. In conclusion, this PGJ2-induced mouse model that mimics in part chronic inflammation, exhibits slow-onset PD-like pathology and is optimal for testing diagnostic tools such as PET, as well as therapies designed to target the integrated signaling across neurons and microglia, to fully benefit patients with PD. PMID:24970746

  4. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Xia, Junhong; Yang, Sen; Li, Mingming; You, Xinxin; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH). PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP) is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388) and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp). Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C) were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q < 0.05), explaining 9.0%–17.0% of the phenotypic variance. The association of KR269823.1:g.2143T>C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05). The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be used for breeding purposes. PMID:26540042

  5. Enhanced autophagy ameliorates cardiac proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, Md. Shenuarin; Pattison, J. Scott; Osinska, Hanna; James, Jeanne; Gulick, James; McLendon, Patrick M.; Hill, Joseph A.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Basal autophagy is a crucial mechanism in cellular homeostasis, underlying both normal cellular recycling and the clearance of damaged or misfolded proteins, organelles and aggregates. We showed here that enhanced levels of autophagy induced by either autophagic gene overexpression or voluntary exercise ameliorated desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC). To increase levels of basal autophagy, we generated an inducible Tg mouse expressing autophagy-related 7 (Atg7), a critical and rate-limiting autophagy protein. Hearts from these mice had enhanced autophagy, but normal morphology and function. We crossed these mice with CryABR120G mice, a model of DRC in which autophagy is significantly attenuated in the heart, to test the functional significance of autophagy activation in a proteotoxic model of heart failure. Sustained Atg7-induced autophagy in the CryABR120G hearts decreased interstitial fibrosis, ameliorated ventricular dysfunction, decreased cardiac hypertrophy, reduced intracellular aggregates and prolonged survival. To determine whether different methods of autophagy upregulation have additive or even synergistic benefits, we subjected the autophagy-deficient CryABR120G mice and the Atg7-crossed CryABR120G mice to voluntary exercise, which also upregulates autophagy. The entire exercised Atg7-crossed CryABR120G cohort survived to 7 months. These findings suggest that activating autophagy may be a viable therapeutic strategy for improving cardiac performance under proteotoxic conditions. PMID:24177425

  6. Brown Alga Ecklonia cava polyphenol extract ameliorates hepatic lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation by activation of AMPK and SIRT1 in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyeyoon; Jeon, You-jin; Lee, Myoungsook; Lim, Yunsook

    2015-01-14

    Obesity is considered to be a metaflammatory condition. Ecklonia cava, brown algae rich in polyphenols, has shown strong antioxidant activity in vitro. This study investigated the effect of E. cava polyphenol extract (ECPE) on the regulation of fat metabolism, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in high fat diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), the mice were administered ECPE by gavage for 5 days/12 weeks. ECPE supplementation reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic fat deposition, insulin resistance, and the plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio derived from HFD-induced obesity. Moreover, ECPE supplementation selectively ameliorated hepatic protein levels associated with lipogenesis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system as well as activation of AMPK and SIRT1. Collectively, ECPE supplement might have potential antiobesity effects via regulation of AMPK and SIRT1 in HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25479240

  7. Ensete superbum ameliorates renal dysfunction in experimental diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sreekutty, MS; Mini, S

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications like nephropathy. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of Ensete superbum seeds (ESSE) on renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Glucose, HbA1c, total protein, albumin, renal function markers (urea, uric acid and creatinine), and lipid peroxidation levels were evaluated. Renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were examined along with renal histopathological study. Results: ESSE (400 mg/kg BW t) administration reduced glucose and HbA1c, and improved serum total protein and albumin in diabetic rats. ESSE in diabetic rats recorded decrement in renal function markers and renal lipid peroxidation products along with significant increment in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Renal morphological abnormalities of diabetic rats were markedly ameliorated by E. superbum. Conclusion: These results suggest that the antioxidant effect of E. superbum could ameliorate oxidative stress and delay/prevent the progress of diabetic nephropathy in diabetes mellitus. PMID:27096072

  8. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  9. Dietary amelioration of Helicobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wallace, Alison J

    2015-06-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability, and cultural acceptability. This review, therefore, highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (eg, honey and propolis); probiotics; dairy products; vegetables; fruits; oils; essential oils; and herbs, spices, and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and preclinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  10. GL-V9, a new synthetic flavonoid derivative, ameliorates DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 expression via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Youxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Wenjun; Huang, Shaoliang; Li, Zhiyu; Kong, Lingyi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-01-01

    GL-V9, a new synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to possess anti-cancer properties in our previous studies. Uncontrolled overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in oxidative damage of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of GL-V9 against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. GL-V9 also inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities. Moreover, GL-V9 inhibited ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, but enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity. GL-V9 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production in serum and colon as well. Mechanically, GL-V9 could increase Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a to suppress DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress. Furthermore, GL-V9 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and ROS production and increased the antioxidant defenses in the mouse macrophage cells RAW264.7 by promoting Trx-1 expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway, suggesting that GL-V9 might be a potential effective drug for colitis. PMID:26327408

  11. GL-V9, a new synthetic flavonoid derivative, ameliorates DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 expression via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Sun, Yang; Ding, Youxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Wenjun; Huang, Shaoliang; Li, Zhiyu; Kong, Lingyi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-09-22

    GL-V9, a new synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to possess anti-cancer properties in our previous studies. Uncontrolled overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in oxidative damage of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of GL-V9 against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. GL-V9 also inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities. Moreover, GL-V9 inhibited ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, but enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity. GL-V9 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production in serum and colon as well. Mechanically, GL-V9 could increase Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a to suppress DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress. Furthermore, GL-V9 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and ROS production and increased the antioxidant defenses in the mouse macrophage cells RAW264.7 by promoting Trx-1 expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway, suggesting that GL-V9 might be a potential effective drug for colitis. PMID:26327408

  12. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  13. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Fitton, J. Helen; Patel, Rahul P.; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore

  14. Schisandrin B Ameliorates ICV-Infused Amyloid β Induced Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Dysfunction through Inhibiting RAGE/NF-κB/MAPK and Up-Regulating HSP/Beclin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Vijayasree V.; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Mizuno, Makoto; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kenji; Ko, Kam M.; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity is a major pathological mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our previous studies have demonstrated that schisandrin B (Sch B), an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis, could protect mouse brain against scopolamine- and cisplatin-induced neuronal dysfunction. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of Sch B against intracerebroventricular (ICV)-infused Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction in rat cortex and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results showed that 26 days co-administration of Sch B significantly improved the behavioral performance of Aβ (1–40)-infused rats in step-through test. At the same time, Sch B attenuated Aβ-induced increases in oxidative and nitrosative stresses, inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide syntheses, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and DNA damage. Several proteins such as receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), nuclear factor-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and apoptosis markers were over expressed in Aβ-infused rats but were significantly inhibited by Sch B treatment. Furthermore, Sch B negatively modulated the Aβ level with simultaneous up-regulation of HSP70 and beclin, autophagy markers in Aβ-infused rats. The aforementioned effects of Sch B suggest its protective role against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through intervention in the negative cycle of RAGE-mediated Aβ accumulation during AD patho-physiology. PMID:26556721

  15. Ameliorative effect of fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Agronomic effectiveness and environmental impact of fly ashes used to reclaim pyritic acid mine spoils were investigated in the laboratory and field. Mine spoils at two abandoned sites were amended with three rates of fly ash, three rates of rock phosphate, and seeded with alfalfa and wheat. Application of fly ash decreased bulk density and increased moisture retention capacity of spoils. Fly ash application reduced cation exchange capacity, acidity, toxic levels of Al, Fe, and Mn in soils by buffering soil pH at 6.5, and retarded pyrite oxidation. The reduction in cation exchange capacity was compensated by release of plant nutrients through diffusion and dissolution of plerospheres in fly ash. Improvement of spoil physical, chemical and microbial properties resulted in higher yield, more nitrogen fixation, and utilization of P from rock phosphate by alfalfa. Laboratory investigations demonstrated that neutralization potential and the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron were more important for classifying fly ashes than the total elemental analysis presently used in a taxonomic classification system. Contamination of the food chain through plant removal of Mo and As in fly ash treated mine spoils was observed only for Mo and only for the first year of cropping. Plant available As and Mo decreased with time. Laboratory leaching and adsorption studies and a field experiment showed that trace metals do not leach from fly ashes at near neutral pH and more oxyanions will leach from fly ashes with low neutralization potential and low amounts of amorphous oxides of iron.

  16. Short communication: Camel milk ameliorates inflammatory responses and oxidative stress and downregulates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Wei; Kong, Gui-Qing; Ma, Ming-Ming; Li, Yan; Huang, Xiao; Wang, Li-Peng; Peng, Zhen-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex syndrome disorder with high mortality rate. Camel milk (CM) contains antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties and protects against numerous diseases. This study aimed to demonstrate the function of CM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS in rats. Camel milk reduced the lung wet:dry weight ratio and significantly reduced LPS-induced increases in neutrophil infiltration, interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, thickness of the alveolar wall, and lung injury scores of lung tissues. It also had antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects on LPS-induced ARDS. After LPS stimulation, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, and IL-1β) in serum and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and total antioxidant capacity) in lung tissue were notably attenuated by CM. Camel milk also downregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Given these results, CM is a potential complementary food for ARDS treatment. PMID:26601576

  17. Amelioration of oxidative stress-induced phenotype loss of parvalbumin interneurons might contribute to the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao R; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Hong T; Ji, Mu H; Li, Hui H; Wu, Jing; Li, Kuan Y; Yang, Jian J

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disease following exposure to a severe traumatic event or physiological stress, which is characterized by anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Parvalbumin (PV) interneurons that are susceptible to oxidative stress are a subset of inhibitory GABAergic neurons regulating the excitability of pyramidal neurons, while dysfunction of PV interneurons is casually linked to many mental disorders including PTSD. We therefore hypothesized that environmental enrichment (EE), a method of enhanced cognitive, sensory and motor stimulation, can reverse the behavioral impairments by normalizing PV interneurons in a rat model of PTSD induced by inescapable foot shocks (IFS). Behavioral changes were determined by the open field, elevated plus maze, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze tests. The levels of nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2), NOX4, PV, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD-67), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined. Our results showed that in this PTSD model, rats displayed the anxiety-like behavior, enhanced fear learning behavior, and hippocampus- dependent spatial memory deficit, which were accompanied by the up-regulation of NOX2, 8-OH-dG, and down-regulation of PV and GAD-67. Notably, EE reversed all these abnormalities. These results suggest that restoration of PV interneurons by inhibiting oxidative stress in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex might represent a mechanism through which EE reverses the behavioral impairments in a rat model of PTSD induced by IFS. PMID:27297027

  18. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2...

  19. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other fruit... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust the fixed acid level by adding ameliorating material (water, sugar, or a combination of both)...

  20. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other fruit... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust the fixed acid level by adding ameliorating material (water, sugar, or a combination of both)...

  1. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other fruit... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust the fixed acid level by adding ameliorating material (water, sugar, or a combination of both)...

  2. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust... acid level of the juice or wine by 0.1 gram per liter (the fixed acid level of the juice or wine may not be less than 5.0 gram per liter after the addition of ameliorating material). (b) Limitations....

  3. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust... acid level of the juice or wine by 0.1 gram per liter (the fixed acid level of the juice or wine may not be less than 5.0 gram per liter after the addition of ameliorating material). (b) Limitations....

  4. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Tsugunobu; Ouchi, Kenji; Inatomi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI). Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 μg/site/mouse) induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE)) 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection. PMID:24799939

  5. Dexmedetomidine preconditioning ameliorates kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lempiäinen, Juha; Finckenberg, Piet; Mervaala, Elina E; Storvik, Markus; Kaivola, Juha; Lindstedt, Ken; Levijoki, Jouko; Mervaala, Eero M

    2014-01-01

    Kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common cause of acute kidney injury. We tested whether dexmedetomidine (Dex), an alpha2 adrenoceptor (α2-AR) agonist, protects against kidney I/R injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) Sham-operated group; (2) I/R group (40 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion); (3) I/R group + Dex (1 μg/kg i.v. 60 min before the surgery), (4) I/R group + Dex (10 μg/kg). The effects of Dex postconditiong (Dex 1 or 10 μg/kg i.v. after reperfusion) as well as the effects of peripheral α2-AR agonism with fadolmidine were also examined. Hemodynamic effects were monitored, renal function measured, and acute tubular damage along with monocyte/macrophage infiltration scored. Kidney protein kinase B, toll like receptor 4, light chain 3B, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), sirtuin 1, adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions were measured, and kidney transciptome profiles analyzed. Dex preconditioning, but not postconditioning, attenuated I/R injury-induced renal dysfunction, acute tubular necrosis and inflammatory response. Neither pre- nor postconditioning with fadolmidine protected kidneys. Dex decreased blood pressure more than fadolmidine, ameliorated I/R-induced impairment of autophagy and increased renal p38 and eNOS expressions. Dex downregulated 245 and upregulated 61 genes representing 17 enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, in particular, integrin pathway and CD44. Ingenuity analysis revealed inhibition of Rac and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 pathways, whereas aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway was activated. Dex preconditioning ameliorates kidney I/R injury and inflammatory response, at least in part, through p38-CD44-pathway and possibly also through ischemic preconditioning. PMID:25505591

  6. Sialic acid supplementation ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Pawluczyk, Izabella Z A; Najafabadi, Maryam G; Brown, Jeremy R; Bevington, Alan; Topham, Peter S

    2015-09-01

    Defects in sialylation are known to have serious consequences on podocyte function leading to collapse of the glomerular filtration barrier and the development of proteinuria. However, the cellular processes underlying aberrant sialylation in renal disease are inadequately defined. We have shown in cultured human podocytes that puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) downregulates enzymes involved in sialic acid metabolism and redox homeostasis and these can be rescued by co-treatment with free sialic acid. The aim of the current study was to ascertain whether sialic acid supplementation could improve renal function and attenuate desialylation in an in vivo model of proteinuria (PAN nephrosis) and to delineate the possible mechanisms involved. PAN nephrotic rats were supplemented with free sialic acid, its precursor N-acetyl mannosamine or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Glomeruli, urine, and sera were examined for evidence of kidney injury and therapeutic efficacy. Of the three treatment regimens, sialic acid had the broadest efficacy in attenuating PAN-induced injury. Proteinuria and urinary nephrin loss were reduced. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that podocyte ultrastructure, exhibited less severe foot process effacement. PAN-induced oxidative stress was ameliorated as evidenced by a reduction in glomerular NOX4 expression and a downregulation of urine xanthine oxidase levels. Sialylation dysfunction was improved as indicated by reduced urinary concentrations of free sialic acid, restored electrophoretic mobility of podocalyxin, and improved expression of a sialyltransferase. These data indicate that PAN induces alterations in the expression of enzymes involved in redox control and sialoglycoprotein metabolism, which can be ameliorated by sialic acid supplementation possibly via its properties as both an antioxidant and a substrate for sialylation. PMID:26121320

  7. PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, ameliorates age-related renal injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Nim; Lim, Ji Hee; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik; Choi, Bum Soon

    2016-08-01

    The kidney ages quickly compared with other organs. Expression of senescence markers reflects changes in the energy metabolism in the kidney. Two important issues in aging are mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα plays a major role as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in various processes. In this study, 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, the control group (n=7) and the fenofibrate-treated group (n=7) was fed the normal chow plus fenofibrate for 6months. The PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, improved renal function, proteinuria, histological change (glomerulosclerosis and tubular interstitial fibrosis), inflammation, and apoptosis in aging mice. This protective effect against age-related renal injury occurred through the activation of AMPK and SIRT1 signaling. The activation of AMPK and SIRT1 allowed for the concurrent deacetylation and phosphorylation of their target molecules and decreased the kidney's susceptibility to age-related changes. Activation of the AMPK-FOXO3a and AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathways ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that activation of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling may have protective effects against age-related renal injury. Pharmacological targeting of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling molecules may prevent or attenuate age-related pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27130813

  8. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar S

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress) and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. PMID:25673470

  9. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of supranutritional selenium on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rungsung, Soya; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Sood, Naresh Kumar; Rampal, Satyavan; Singh Saini, Simrat Pal

    2016-05-25

    The study was designed to assess the ameliorative potential of selenium (Se) on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. There was a significant decrease in body weight and non-significant decrease in mean testicular weight of enrofloxacin treated rats. In enrofloxacin treated rats, total sperm count and viability decreased where as sperm abnormalities increased. Testicular histopathology revealed dose dependent dysregulation of spermatogenesis and presence of necrotic debris in seminiferous tubules which was marginally improved with Se. Enrofloxacin also produced a dose dependent decrease in testosterone level. The activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes decreased where as lipid peroxidation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Se supplementation partially restored oxidative stress and sperm damage and did not affect the plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacain. The results indicate that enrofloxacin produces a dose-dependent testicular toxicity in rats that is moderately ameliorated with supranutritional Se. PMID:27083143

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment ameliorates lung injury in paraquat intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Akcılar, Raziye; Akcılar, Aydın; Şimşek, Hasan; Koçak, Fatma Emel; Koçak, Cengiz; Yümün, Gündüz; Bayat, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is an agrochemical agent commonly used worldwide, which can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and death. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is a therapeutic method, but the mechanisms of the protective effect of HBOT on ALI remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HBOT on acute lung injury induced by PQ in rats. Wistar Albino rats (n=21) were separated into three groups of seven animals each: control (C), PQ, and PQ + HBOT groups. 20 mg/kg PQ was administered intraperitoneally in PQ and PQ + HBOT groups to induce experimental lung injury. Three days after PQ treatment, PQ + HBOT group was administered 100% O2 at 2.0 ATA for 1 hour per day, for five consecutive days. At the end of the study, lung tissue was obtained for determining total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and histopathological determination. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 mRNA levels were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level in the plasma was determined. Plasma iNOS, OSI, tissue TNF-α, TGF-β1 and bFGF mRNA levels, and histological injury scores in PQ + HBOT group were significantly lower than PQ group. TAS level in PQ + HBOT group was significantly higher than PQ group. The findings suggest that HBOT could effectively ameliorate PQ-induced lung injury in rats. PMID:26722498

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment ameliorates lung injury in paraquat intoxicated rats

    PubMed Central

    Akcılar, Raziye; Akcılar, Aydın; Şimşek, Hasan; Koçak, Fatma Emel; Koçak, Cengiz; Yümün, Gündüz; Bayat, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is an agrochemical agent commonly used worldwide, which can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and death. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is a therapeutic method, but the mechanisms of the protective effect of HBOT on ALI remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HBOT on acute lung injury induced by PQ in rats. Wistar Albino rats (n=21) were separated into three groups of seven animals each: control (C), PQ, and PQ + HBOT groups. 20 mg/kg PQ was administered intraperitoneally in PQ and PQ + HBOT groups to induce experimental lung injury. Three days after PQ treatment, PQ + HBOT group was administered 100% O2 at 2.0 ATA for 1 hour per day, for five consecutive days. At the end of the study, lung tissue was obtained for determining total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and histopathological determination. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 mRNA levels were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level in the plasma was determined. Plasma iNOS, OSI, tissue TNF-α, TGF-β1 and bFGF mRNA levels, and histological injury scores in PQ + HBOT group were significantly lower than PQ group. TAS level in PQ + HBOT group was significantly higher than PQ group. The findings suggest that HBOT could effectively ameliorate PQ-induced lung injury in rats. PMID:26722498

  12. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    DOEpatents

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  13. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS) protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive. PMID:22433906

  14. Evidence for VIP1/PACAP receptors in the afferent pathway mediating surgery-induced fundic relaxation in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Boeckxstaens, G E; Hollmann, M; Heisterkamp, S H; Robberecht, P; de Jonge, W J; van den Wijngaard, R M J G J; Tytgat, G N J; Blommaart, P J E

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported activation of an inhibitory adrenergic and a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) pathway during abdominal surgery relaxing the rat gastric fundus. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the NANC part of the surgery-induced fundic relaxation. The effect of the NO biosynthesis inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), the non-selective VIP receptor antagonist [D-p-Cl-Phe6,Leu17]-VIP and the selective VIP1 receptor antagonist [Acetyl-His1,D-Phe2,Lys15,Arg16,Leu17]-VIP was investigated on the non-adrenergic fundic relaxation induced by manipulation of the small intestine followed by resection of the caecum. Guanethidine partly reduced the manipulation-induced fundic relaxation. Addition of L-NOARG reduced this non-adrenergic component, whereas the non-selective VIP receptor antagonist had no significant effect. Combination of L-NOARG and the non-selective VIP antagonist however further reduced the relaxation to manipulation. The selective VIP1 receptor antagonist reduced the mean and maximal relaxation induced by abdominal surgery in the presence of guanethidine. When combined with L-NOARG, the relaxation of the gastric fundus was almost completely abolished. The VIP1 receptor antagonist alone had no significant effect on the mean and maximal relaxation, but enhanced recovery of fundic tone. In conclusion, as VIP1 receptors are not present in the rat gastric fundus, these results suggest that the NANC inhibitory pathway activated during abdominal surgery involves VIP1 receptors, most likely in the afferent limb. The inhibitory neurotransmitters released at the level of the gastric fundus smooth muscle are NO and a substance different from VIP. PMID:11030719

  15. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.

    Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  16. Tenuigenin ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhao-Lin; Wang, Chun-Yang; Gu, Xing-Yang; Wang, Na-Jie; Wang, Jin-Jing; Liu, Wen-Xiao; Xiao, Peng; Li, Chu-Hua

    2013-06-13

    Estrogen deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has proven to be effective in preventing and reversing the memory and learning deficiencies. However, conventional estrogenic treatment could increase the risks of breast cancer and venous thromboembolism. Tenuigenin (TEN) is putatively believed as the active component extracted from a Chinese herb Polygala tenuifolia root. Although TEN has been shown to enhance learning and memory in healthy mice, it remains unknown whether or not TEN could ameliorate learning and memory impairments. In the present study, mice were divided into four groups: sham-operated (sham), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+estradiol benzoate (EB) and OVX+TEN groups. Step-through passive avoidance and Y-maze tests were used to assess learning and memory abilities, and the number of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) positive neurons and the synaptic measurement of hippocampal CA1 area were examined. The results showed that TEN was given orally to OVX mice, leading to the improvement of learning and memory in step-through passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. TEN could reduce the loss of NOS positive neurons and prevent the synaptic morphological changes induced by ovariectomy. Our results suggest that TEN may exert a potential therapeutic value for menopause cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23688946

  17. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianchu; Liu, Ming; Mo, Yanzhi; Peng, Huan; Gong, Jingbo; Li, Zhuang; Chen, Jiaxue; Xie, Jingtao

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD). In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d) for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6) were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT)-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD. PMID:27279986

  18. Ameliorative effects of phycocyanin against gibberellic acid induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohamed M A; Ali, Haytham A; Ahmed, Mona M

    2015-03-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) was used extensively unaware in agriculture in spite of its dangerous effects on human health. The current study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of the co-administration of phycocyanin with GA3 induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the liver. Forty male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (control group) received normal saline for 6 weeks, Group II (GA3 treated group) received 3.85 mg/kg body weight GA3 once daily for 6 weeks, Group III (phycocyanin treated group) received Phycocyanin 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks orally dissolved in distilled water and Group IV was treated with GA3 and phycocyanin at the same doses as groups 2 and 3. All treatments were given daily using intra-gastric intubation and continued for 6 weeks. Our results revealed significant downregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities and their mRNA levels (CAT, GPx and Cu-Zn, SOD) with marked elevation of liver enzymes and extensive fibrous connective tissue deposition with large biliary cells in hepatic tissue of GA3 treated rats, while treatment with phycocyanin improved the antioxidant defense system, liver enzymes and structural hepatocytes recovery in phycocyanin treated group with GA3. These data confirm the antioxidant potential of Phycocyanin and provide strong evidence to support the co-administration of Phycocyanin during using GA3. PMID:25868813

  19. Pathways Implicated in Tadalafil Amelioration of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    De Arcangelis, Valeria; Strimpakos, Georgios; Gabanella, Francesca; Corbi, Nicoletta; Luvisetto, Siro; Magrelli, Armando; Onori, Annalisa; Passananti, Claudio; Pisani, Cinzia; Rome, Sophie; Severini, Cinzia; Naro, Fabio; Mattei, Elisabetta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Monaco, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous therapeutic approaches for Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and BMD), the most common X-linked muscle degenerative disease, have been proposed. So far, the only one showing a clear beneficial effect is the use of corticosteroids. Recent evidence indicates an improvement of dystrophic cardiac and skeletal muscles in the presence of sustained cGMP levels secondary to a blocking of their degradation by phosphodiesterase five (PDE5). Due to these data, we performed a study to investigate the effect of the specific PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, on dystrophic skeletal muscle function. Chronic pharmacological treatment with tadalafil has been carried out in mdx mice. Behavioral and physiological tests, as well as histological and biochemical analyses, confirmed the efficacy of the therapy. We then performed a microarray-based genomic analysis to assess the pattern of gene expression in muscle samples obtained from the different cohorts of animals treated with tadalafil. This scrutiny allowed us to identify several classes of modulated genes. Our results show that PDE5 inhibition can ameliorate dystrophy by acting at different levels. Tadalafil can lead to (1) increased lipid metabolism; (2) a switch towards slow oxidative fibers driven by the up-regulation of PGC-1α; (3) an increased protein synthesis efficiency; (4) a better actin network organization at Z-disk. PMID:26097015

  20. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Y I; Hegazy, H G

    2016-01-01

    Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition. Aged hepatocytes were characterized by hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a significant increase in the volume densities of the nuclei, mitochondria and dense bodies. Lipofuscin accumulation and decreased microvilli in bile canaliculi and space of Disse also were observed. The adverse alterations were ameliorated significantly by both ginger and ALA supplementation; ALA was more effective than ginger. Ginger and ALA appear to be promising anti-aging agents based on their amelioration of ultrastructural alterations in livers of old rats. PMID:26528730

  1. Ameliorated GA approach for base station planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Andong; Sun, Hongyue; Wu, Xiaomin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at locating base station (BS) rationally to satisfy the most customs by using the least BSs. An ameliorated GA is proposed to search for the optimum solution. In the algorithm, we mesh the area to be planned according to least overlap length derived from coverage radius, bring into isometric grid encoding method to represent BS distribution as well as its number and develop select, crossover and mutation operators to serve our unique necessity. We also construct our comprehensive object function after synthesizing coverage ratio, overlap ratio, population and geographical conditions. Finally, after importing an electronic map of the area to be planned, a recommended strategy draft would be exported correspondingly. We eventually import HongKong, China to simulate and yield a satisfactory solution.

  2. Amelioration of doxorubicin‑induced cardiotoxicity by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Al-Harthi, Sameer E; Alarabi, Ohoud M; Ramadan, Wafaa S; Alaama, Mohamed N; Al-Kreathy, Huda M; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Khan, Lateef M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M

    2014-09-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), is a highly active anticancer agent, but its clinical use is limited by its severe cardiotoxic side‑effects associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Resveratrol (RSVL) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) found primarily in root extracts of the oriental plant Polygonum cuspidatum and of numerous additional plant species. It has recently been shown that RSVL has a number of beneficial effects in different biological systems, which include anti-oxidant, antineoplastic, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective and antiviral effects. In this study, we examined whether RSVL has protective effects against DOX‑induced free radical production and cardiotoxicity in male rats. The tested dose of DOX (20 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in the serum activities of the cardiac enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the heart tissue. However, there was a significant decrease in the glutathione level in the heart tissue. Simultaneous treatment of rats with RSVL [10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection] reduced the activity of LDH and CPK and significantly reduced MDA production in the heart. The total antioxidant capacity was increased following RSVL administration. Electron microscopy examination of the heart tissue showed that DOX treatment results in massive fragmentation and lysis of the myofibrils, and that mitochondria show either vacuolization or complete loss of the cristae. Simultaneous treatment with RSVL ameliorated the effect of DOX administration on cardiac tissue, with cardiomyocytes appearing normal compared to the control samples, and mitochondria retaining their normal structure. PMID:25059399

  3. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. It is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type-2 diabetes. Consumption of fructose is linked to increased prevalence of MS. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a steroid bile acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and has been shown to improve insulin resistance. The current study aims to investigate the effect of UDCA (150 mg/kg) on MS induced in rats by fructose administration (10%) in drinking water for 12 weeks. The effects of UDCA were compared to fenofibrate (100 mg/kg), an agonist of PPAR-α receptors. Treatment with UDCA or fenofibrate started from the 6th week after fructose administration once daily. Fructose administration resulted in significant increase in body weight, elevations of blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), uric acid levels, insulin resistance index and blood pressure compared to control rats. Moreover, fructose increased oxidative stress in aortic tissues indicated by significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), expression of iNOS and reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) content. These disturbances were associated with decreased eNOS expression, increased infiltration of leukocytes and loss of aortic vascular elasticity. Treatment with UDCA successfully ameliorated the deleterious effects of fructose. The protective effect of UDCA could be attributed to its ability to decrease uric acid level, improve insulin resistance and diminish oxidative stress in vascular tissues. These results might support possible clinical application of UDCA in MS patients especially those present with liver diseases, taking into account its tolerability and safety. However, further investigations on human subjects are needed before the clinical application of UDCA for this indication. PMID:25202970

  4. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Won

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  5. siRNA-Based Therapy Ameliorates Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Hideki; Hori, Yuichi; Kaname, Shinya; Yamada, Koei; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Matsumoto, Satoru; Miyata, Kanjiro; Oba, Makoto; Yamada, Akira; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    RNA interference by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) holds promise as a therapeutic strategy, but use of siRNAs in vivo remains limited. Here, we developed a system to target delivery of siRNAs to glomeruli via poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine)-based vehicles. The siRNA/nanocarrier complex was approximately 10 to 20 nm in diameter, a size that would allow it to move across the fenestrated endothelium to access to the mesangium. After intraperitoneal injection of fluorescence-labeled siRNA/nanocarrier complexes, we detected siRNAs in the blood circulation for a prolonged time. Repeated intraperitoneal administration of a mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) siRNA/nanocarrier complex suppressed glomerular MAPK1 mRNA and protein expression in a mouse model of glomerulonephritis; this improved kidney function, reduced proteinuria, and ameliorated glomerular sclerosis. Furthermore, this therapy reduced the expression of the profibrotic markers TGF-β1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and fibronectin. In conclusion, we successfully silenced intraglomerular genes with siRNA using nanocarriers. This technique could aid the investigation of molecular mechanisms of renal disease and has potential as a molecular therapy of glomerular diseases. PMID:20203158

  6. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A.; Yaylali, Aslı; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments. PMID:26246013

  7. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A; Yaylali, Asl; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments. PMID:26246013

  8. Amelioration of Stroke-Induced Neurological Deficiency by Lyophilized Powder of Catapol and Puerarin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xue, Qiang; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jifen; Fu, Zhifeng; Feng, Binbin; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Catalpol and puerarin are active ingredients isolated from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch and Radix Puerariae, respectively. They are popular in research for their poly-pharmacological effects. This research focused on effect of anti-stroke by lyophilized powder of catalpol and puerarin (C-P) and potential mechanisms. At the beginning of research, C-P was identified and analyzed by HPLC. Neurological function was evaluated by Longa score, neurological complex function score and beam balance score after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) in mice. Infarct volume and water content were evaluated after treatment of C-P. Anti-oxidative stress, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were investigated by ELISA, WB and immunohistochemical stain respectively. With treatment of C-P, neurological deficiency of PMCAO mice was ameliorated. Morphologically, infarct volume and water content in ischemic hemisphere were significantly reduced by C-P. In vivo and in vitro, oxidative stress injury was extenuated by C-P. Meanwhile, Caspase-3 was down-regulated and Bxl-2 was up-regulated by C-P in vivo. In addition, C-P enhanced angiogenesis around the infarct of cortex and neurogenesis in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus (DG). Hence, C-P ameliorated stroke-induced neurological deficiency through its multiple neuroprotections. What's more, this article provides us a novel formula of active ingredients for stroke. PMID:24719562

  9. Salvianolic acid A as a multifunctional agent ameliorates doxorubicin-induced nephropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua-Ying; Yang, Ming-Yan; Qi, Dong; Zhang, Zuo-Kai; Zhu, Lin; Shang-Guan, Xiu-Xin; Liu, Ke; Xu, Hui; Che, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is still a therapeutic challenge. To date there is no ideal treatment. Evidence suggest that multidrug therapy has more effect than monotherapy in amelioration of renal injury. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is the major active component of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge. Previous studies have demonstrated that SAA is a multi-target agent and has various pharmacological activities. The pleiotropic properties of SAA predict its potential in the treatment of NS. The study investigated the effect of SAA on doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The kidney function related-biochemical changes, hemorheological parameters and oxidative stress status were determined, and histological examination using light and transmission electron microcopies and western blot analysis were also performed. Results revealed that treatment with SAA alleviated histological damages, relieved proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, reduced oxidative stress, as well as improving hemorheology. Furthermore, SAA restored podocin expression, down-regulated the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα while up-regulating IκBα protein expression. Overall, as a multifunctional agent, SAA has a favorable renoprotection in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The anti-inflammation, antioxidant, amelioration of podocyte injury, improvement of hemorheology and hypolipidemic properties may constituent an important part of its therapeutic effects. All these indicate that SAA is likely to be a promising agent for NS. PMID:26194431

  10. Esculetin Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Mediated Hepatic Apoptosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Yun-Chen; Liao, Jung-Chun; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Huang, Tai-Hung; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wen-Te; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2011-01-01

    Esculetin (ESC) is a coumarin that is present in several plants such as Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Artemisia capillaris. Our previous study found that FR ethanol extract (FREtOH) significantly ameliorated rats’ liver function. This study was intended to investigate the protective mechanism of ESC in hepatic apoptosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride. Rat hepatic apoptosis was induced by oral administration of CCl4. All rats were administered orally with CCl4 (20%, 0.5 mL/rat) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the ESC groups were treated daily with ESC, and silymarin group were treated daily with silymarin. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase in the liver were measured. In addition, expression of liver apoptosis proteins and anti-apoptotic proteins were detected. ESC (100, 500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the elevated activities of serum ALT and AST caused by CCl4 and significantly increased the activities of catalase, GPx and SOD. Furthermore, ESC (100, 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased the levels of the proapoptotic proteins (t-Bid, Bak and Bad) and significantly increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL). ESC inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In addition, the levels of activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 were significantly decreased in rats treated with ESC than those in rats treated with CCl4 alone. ESC significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic apoptosis in rats. PMID:21747724

  11. Puerarin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchu; Mo, Yanzhi; Gong, Jingbo; Li, Zhuang; Peng, Huan; Chen, Jiaxue; Wang, Qichao; Ke, Zhaowen; Xie, Jingtao

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has indicated that Diabetes is a high risk of learning and memory deficits. Puerarin, an isoflavonoid extracted from Kudzu roots, has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-diabetic properties which are useful in the treatment of various diseases. Recently, Puerarin was found to have the effects on learning and memory performances in humans and animal models. However, up to now, there is no detailed evidence on the effect of Puerarin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD). In this study, we designed to assess the effects of Puerarin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) using a streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model and exploring its potential mechanism. Diabetic rats were treated with Puerarin (100 mg/kg per d) for 7 days. The learning and memory function was evaluated by morris water maze test. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetylase (ChAT), oxidative indicators [malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-a, IL-1β and IL-6) were measured in hippocampus by using corresponding commercial kits. mRNA and Protein levels of Bcl-2 were analyzed by RT-PCR and Westernblot. The results showed that supplementation of Puerarin improved the learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group by the morris water maze test. In addition, Puerarin supplement significantly prevented AChE and MDA activities, increased ChAT and SOD activities, and alleviated the protein level of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the hippocampus compared with the STZ group. Moreover, the pretreatment with Puerarin also significantly increased the Bcl-2 expression. It is concluded that Puerarin possesses neuroprotection to ameliorate cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapototic effects. PMID:26686502

  12. Apricot Kernel Oil Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Associated Immunosuppression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Honglei; Yan, Haiyan; Tan, Siwei; Zhan, Ping; Mao, Xiaoying; Wang, Peng; Wang, Zhouping

    2016-08-01

    The effects of dietary apricot kernel oil (AKO), which contains high levels of oleic and linoleic acids and lower levels of α-tocopherol, were evaluated in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Rats had intraperitoneal injection with cyclophosphamide to induce immunosuppression and were then infused with AKO or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect antimicrobial factors in lymphocytes and anti-inflammatory factors in hepatocytes. Hematoxylin & eosin staining was conducted prior to histopathological analysis of the spleen, liver, and thymus. Significant differences were observed between the immune functions of the healthy control group, the normal saline group, and the AKO group. Compared to the normal saline-treated group, lymphocytes isolated from rats administered AKO showed significant improvement in immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgM, IgG, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels (p < 0.01). Liver tissue levels of malondialdehyde and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase indicated reduced oxidative stress in rats treated with AKO (p < 0.01). Dietary AKO positively affected rat growth and inhibited cyclophosphamide-associated organ degeneration. These results suggested that AKO may enhance the immune system in vivo. These effects may reflect the activities of intermediate oleic and linoleic acid metabolites, which play a vital role in the immune system, and the α-tocopherol in AKO may further enhance this phenomenon. Thus, the use of AKO as a nutritional supplement can be proposed to ameliorate chemotherapy-associated immunosuppression. PMID:27262314

  13. Ozone treatment ameliorates oil sands process water toxicity to the mammalian immune system.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Ge, Jun Qing; Oladiran, Ayoola; Montgomery, Benjamin; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas C; Stafford, James L; Martin, Jonathan W; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2011-11-15

    We evaluated whether ozonation ameliorated the effects of the organic fraction of oil sands process water (OSPW) on immune functions of mice. Ozonation of OSPW eliminated the capacity of its organic fraction to affect various mouse bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) functions in vitro. These included the production of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, the production of reactive oxygen intermediates and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, phagocytosis, and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Ozone treatment also eliminated the ability of OSPW organic fraction to down-regulate the expression of various pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes in the liver of mice, one week after oral exposure. We conclude that ozone treatment may be a valuable process for the remediation of large volumes of OSPW. PMID:21940034

  14. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  15. Antiapoptotic Effect of Simvastatin Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Najah R.; Al-amran, Fadhil; Yousif, Maitham; Zamil, Suhaad T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Myocardial ischemial reperfusion represents a clinically relevant problem associated with thrombolysis, angioplasty, and coronary bypass surgery. Injury of myocardium due to ischemial reperfusion includes cardiac contractile dysfunction, arrhythmias, and irreversible myocytes damage. These changes are considered to be the consequence of imbalance between the formation of oxidants and the availability of endogenous antioxidants in the heart. Objective. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of Simvastatin in the amelioration of myocardial I/R injury induced by ligation of coronary artery in a rat model. Materials and Methods. Adult male Swiss Albino rats were randomized into 4 equal groups. Group (1): sham group: rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedures as those in the control group except ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (2): control group: rats were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (3): control vehicle group: rats received vehicle of Simvastatin (normal saline) via IP injection and were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (4): Simvastatin treated group: rats were pretreated with Simvastatin 1 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before ligation of LAD coronary artery. At the end of experiment (2 hr of reperfusion), blood samples were collected from the heart for the measurement of plasma level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). After that the heart was harvested and divided into 3 parts; one part was used for measurement of apoptosis, another part was homogenized for the measurement of tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and the last part for histopathology study. Results. Compared with the sham group, levels of myocardial TNF-α and IL-1β, IL-6

  16. Ameliorative Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract against Dietary-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver in Rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaaibi, Siham N K; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Subhi, Lyutha; Tageldin, Mohamed H; Al-Balushi, Nada M; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2016-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by fat accumulation and is associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract (PPE) against oxidative stress in the liver of rats with NAFLD. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD), 20% corn oil, or palm oil for 8 weeks in the presence or absence of PPE. The control group was fed a basal diet. The progression of NAFLD was evaluated histologically and by measuring liver enzymes (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase), serum lipids (triglycerides and total cholesterol), and oxidative stress markers. The HFD feeding increased the body weight and caused NAFLD, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and elevated liver enzymes. Administration of PPE ameliorated the hepatic morphology, reduced body weight, improved liver enzymes, and inhibited lipogenesis. Furthermore, PPE enhanced the cellular redox status in the liver tissue of rats with NAFLD. Our findings suggest that PPE could improve HFD-induced NAFLD via abolishment of hepatic oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia. PPE might be considered as a potential lead material in the treatment of NAFLD and obesity through the modulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:27069901

  17. Ameliorative Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract against Dietary-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shaaibi, Siham N. K.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Subhi, Lyutha; Tageldin, Mohamed H.; Al-Balushi, Nada M.; Rahman, Mohammad S.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by fat accumulation and is associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract (PPE) against oxidative stress in the liver of rats with NAFLD. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD), 20% corn oil, or palm oil for 8 weeks in the presence or absence of PPE. The control group was fed a basal diet. The progression of NAFLD was evaluated histologically and by measuring liver enzymes (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase), serum lipids (triglycerides and total cholesterol), and oxidative stress markers. The HFD feeding increased the body weight and caused NAFLD, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and elevated liver enzymes. Administration of PPE ameliorated the hepatic morphology, reduced body weight, improved liver enzymes, and inhibited lipogenesis. Furthermore, PPE enhanced the cellular redox status in the liver tissue of rats with NAFLD. Our findings suggest that PPE could improve HFD-induced NAFLD via abolishment of hepatic oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia. PPE might be considered as a potential lead material in the treatment of NAFLD and obesity through the modulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:27069901

  18. Capsaicin Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Renal Injury through Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Shen, AiHua; Lee, Subin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil; So, Hong-Seob

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents. However, its use is limited due to its toxicity in normal tissues, including the kidney and ear. In particular, nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin is closely associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme metabolism, has been implicated in a various cellular processes, such as inflammatory injury and anti-oxidant/oxidant homeostasis. Capsaicin is reported to have therapeutic potential in cisplatin-induced renal failures. However, the mechanisms underlying its protective effects on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrated that administration of capsaicin ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction by assessing the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) as well as tissue histology. In addition, capsaicin treatment attenuates the expression of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress markers for renal damage. We also found that capsaicin induces HO-1 expression in kidney tissues and HK-2 cells. Notably, the protective effects of capsaicin were completely abrogated by treatment with either the HO inhibitor ZnPP IX or HO-1 knockdown in HK-2 cells. These results suggest that capsaicin has protective effects against cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction through induction of HO-1 as well as inhibition oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24642709

  19. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy; Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna; Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2014-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  20. Mitochondrial decay in the brains of old rats: ameliorating effect of alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiangang; Gao, Feng; Tong, Liqi; Cotman, Carl W; Ames, Bruce N; Liu, Jiankang

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the mitochondrial decay and oxidative damage resulting from aging, the activities/kinetics of the mitochondrial complexes were examined in the brains of young and old rats as well as in old rats fed R-alpha-lipoic acid plus acetyl-L-carnitine (LA/ALC). The brain mitochondria of old rats, compared with young rats, had significantly decreased endogenous antioxidants and superoxide dismutase activity; more oxidative damage to lipids and proteins; and decreased activities of complex I, IV and V. Complex I showed a decrease in binding affinity (increase in K(m)) for substrates. Feeding LA/ALC to old rats partially restored age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction to the levels of the young rats. These results indicate that oxidative mitochondrial decay plays an important role in brain aging and that a combination of nutrients targeting mitochondria, such as LA/ALC, could ameliorate mitochondrial decay through preventing mitochondrial oxidative damage. PMID:18846423

  1. Mitochondrial Decay in the Brains of Old Rats: Ameliorating Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jiangang; Gao, Feng; Tong, Liqi; Cotman, Carl W.; Ames, Bruce N.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the mitochondrial decay and oxidative damage resulting from aging, the activities/kinetics of the mitochondrial complexes were examined in the brains of young and old rats as well as in old rats fed R-α-lipoic acid plus acetyl-L-carnitine (LA/ALC). The brain mitochondria of old rats, compared with young rats, had significantly decreased endogenous antioxidants and superoxide dismutase activity; more oxidative damage to lipids and proteins; and decreased activities of complex I, IV and V. Complex I showed a decrease in binding affinity (increase in Km) for substrates. Feeding LA/ALC to old rats partially restored age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction to the levels of the young rats. These results indicate that oxidative mitochondrial decay plays an important role in brain aging and that a combination of nutrients targeting mitochondria, such as LA/ALC, could ameliorate mitochondrial decay through preventing mitochondrial oxidative damage. PMID:18846423

  2. Ameliorative role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Randhir; Krishan, Pawan

    2015-04-01

    Fibrates are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists and are clinically used for treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Fenofibrate is reported as a cardioprotective agent in various models of cardiac dysfunction; however, limited literature is available regarding the role of gemfibrozil as a possible cardioprotective agent, especially in a non-obese model of cardiac remodelling. The present study investigated the role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by partial abdominal aortic constriction in rats and they survived for 4 weeks. The cardiac hypertrophy was assessed by measuring left ventricular weight to body weight ratio, left ventricular wall thickness, and protein and collagen content. The oxidative stress in the cardiac tissues was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The haematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red staining was used to observe cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen deposition, respectively. Moreover, serum levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and glucose were also measured. Gemfibrozil (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered since the first day of partial abdominal aortic constriction and continued for 4 weeks. The partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy are indicated by significant change in various parameters used in the present study that were ameliorated with gemfibrozil treatment in rats. No significant change in serum parameters was observed between various groups used in the present study. It is concluded that gemfibrozil ameliorates partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy and in rats. PMID:24905340

  3. Carvedilol Ameliorates Early Diabetic Nephropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, Mohamed A.; Ibrahim, Salwa A.; Amin, Entesar F.; Kamel, Maha Y.; Abdelwahab, Soha A.; Hassan, Magdy K.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy results in end-stage renal disease. On the other hand, carvedilol has been reported to have various pharmacological properties. The aim of this study therefore is to evaluate the possible protective effect of carvedilol on streptozotocin-induced early diabetic nephropathy and various mechanisms underlie this effect in rats. Single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) was administered to induce early diabetic nephropathy in Wistar rats. Oral administration of carvedilol at a dose level of 1 and 10 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks resulted in nephroprotective effect as evident by significant decrease in serum creatinine level, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, and kidney index as well as renal levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 with a concurrent increase in creatinine clearance and renal reduced glutathione level compared to diabetic untreated rats. The protective effect of carvedilol was confirmed by renal histopathological examination. The electron microscopic examination indicated that carvedilol could effectively ameliorate glomerular basement membrane thickening and podocyte injury. In conclusion, carvedilol protects rats against streptozotocin-induced early diabetic nephropathy possibly, in part, through its antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities, and ameliorating podocyte injury. PMID:24991534

  4. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Changrun; Ding, Gang; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhenzhong; Meng, Zhaoqing; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition. Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD) on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s). Methods Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination. Results The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Conclusion This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. PMID:26966352

  5. Pyrroloquinoline quinone ameliorates l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism and associated problems in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda

    2014-08-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be a strong antioxidant. In this study, we have evaluated its hitherto unknown role in l-thyroxin (L-T4 )-induced hyperthyroidism considering laboratory rat as a model. Alterations in the serum concentration of thyroxin (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ); lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver, kidney, heart, muscles and brain; in the endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione and in serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien, triglycerides, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and urea were evaluated. Administration of l-T4 (500-µg kg(-1) body weight) enhanced not only the serum T3 and T4 levels but also the tissue LPO, serum SGOT, SGPT and urea with a parallel decrease in the levels of antioxidants and serum lipids. However, on simultaneous administration of PQQ (5 mg kg(-1) for 6 days), all these adverse effects were ameliorated, indicating the potential of PQQ in the amelioration of hyperthyroidism and associated problems. Possibly, the curative effects were mediated through inhibition of oxidative stress. We suggest that PQQ may be considered for therapeutic use for hyperthyroidism after dose standardization. PMID:25048014

  6. Age-related decrease in cerebrovascular-derived neuroprotective proteins: effect of acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Debjani; Sanchez, Alma; Yin, Xiangling; Martinez, Joseph; Grammas, Paula

    2012-01-01

    As the population ages, the need for effective methods to maintain brain function in older adults is increasingly pressing. Vascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders commonly co-occur in older persons. Cerebrovascular products contribute to the neuronal milieu and have important consequences for neuronal viability. In this regard vascular derived neuroprotective proteins, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) are important for maintaining neuronal viability, especially in the face of injury and disease. The objective of this study is to measure and compare levels of VEGF, PEDF and PACAP released from isolated brain microvessels of Fischer 344 rats at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Addition of acetaminophen to isolated brain microvessels is employed to determine whether this drug affects vascular expression of these neuroprotective proteins. Experiments on cultured brain endothelial cells are performed to explore the mechanisms/mediators that regulate the effect of acetaminophen on endothelial cells. The data indicate cerebrovascular expression of VEGF, PEDF and PACAP significantly decreases with age. The age-associated decrease in VEGF and PEDF is ameliorated by addition of acetaminophen to isolated brain microvessels. Also, release of VEGF, PEDF, and PACAP from cultured brain endothelial cells decreases with exposure to the oxidant stressor menadione. Acetaminophen treatment upregulates VEGF, PEDF and PACAP in brain endothelial cells exposed to oxidative stress. The effect of acetaminophen on cultured endothelial cells is in part inhibited by the selective thrombin inhibitor hirudin. The results of this study suggest that acetaminophen may be a useful agent for preserving cerebrovascular function. If a low dose of acetaminophen can counteract the decrease in vascular-derived neurotrophic factors evoked by age and oxidative stress, this drug

  7. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Ameliorate Cancer Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlert, Sarah; Coleman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Although much attention has been paid to health disparities in the past decades, interventions to ameliorate disparities have been largely unsuccessful. One reason is that the interventions have not been culturally tailored to the disparity populations whose problems they are meant to address. Community-engaged research has been successful in…

  8. Social buffering ameliorates conditioned fear responses in female rats.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akiko; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    The stress experienced by an animal is ameliorated when the animal is exposed to distressing stimuli along with a conspecific animal(s). This is known as social buffering. Previously, we found that the presence of an unfamiliar male rat induced social buffering and ameliorated conditioned fear responses of a male rat subjected to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). However, because our knowledge of social buffering is highly biased towards findings in male subjects, analyses using female subjects are crucial for comprehensively understanding the social buffering phenomenon. In the present studies, we assessed social buffering of conditioned fear responses in female rats. We found that the estrus cycle did not affect the intensity of the rats' fear responses to the CS or their degree of vigilance due to the presence of a conspecific animal. Based on these findings, we then assessed whether social buffering ameliorated conditioned fear responses in female rats without taking into account their estrus cycles. When fear conditioned female rats were exposed to the CS without the presence of a conspecific, they exhibited behavioral responses, including freezing, and elevated corticosterone levels. By contrast, the presence of an unfamiliar female rat suppressed these responses. Based on these findings, we conclude that social buffering can ameliorate conditioned fear responses in female rats. PMID:27060333

  9. Pycnogenol ameliorates depression-like behavior in repeated corticosterone-induced depression mice model.

    PubMed

    Mei, Lin; Mochizuki, Miyako; Hasegawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT-) treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL) was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity. PMID:24901001

  10. Design and synthesis of novel arctigenin analogues for the amelioration of metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shudong; Huang, Suling; Gong, Jian; Shen, Yu; Zeng, Limin; Feng, Ying; Ren, Wenming; Leng, Ying; Hu, Youhong

    2015-04-01

    Analogues of the natural product (-)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (-)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure-activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes. PMID:25941553

  11. Design and Synthesis of Novel Arctigenin Analogues for the Amelioration of Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Analogues of the natural product (−)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (−)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure–activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes. PMID:25941553

  12. Tetramethylpyrazine ameliorates high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiong; Xia, Pu; Li, Xi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Zhenqi; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is an active compound isolated from a Chinese herbal prescription that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported that TMP acts as a potent antioxidant protecting endothelial cells against high glucose-induced damages. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the antioxidant effect of TMP remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that TMP increases nitric oxide production in endothelial cells and promotes endothelium-dependent relaxation in rate aortic rings. The antioxidant effect of TMP appears attributable to its ability to activate the mitochondrial biogenesis, as reflected in an up-regulation of complex III and amelioration of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, TMP is able to reverse high glucose-induced suppression of SIRT1 and the biogenesis-related factors, including PGC-1α, NRF1 and TFAM, suggesting a new molecular mechanism underlying the protective effect of TMP on the endothelium. PMID:24505445

  13. Tetramethylpyrazine Ameliorates High Glucose-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiong; Xia, Pu; Li, Xi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Zhenqi; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is an active compound isolated from a Chinese herbal prescription that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported that TMP acts as a potent antioxidant protecting endothelial cells against high glucose-induced damages. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the antioxidant effect of TMP remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that TMP increases nitric oxide production in endothelial cells and promotes endothelium-dependent relaxation in rate aortic rings. The antioxidant effect of TMP appears attributable to its ability to activate the mitochondrial biogenesis, as reflected in an up-regulation of complex III and amelioration of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, TMP is able to reverse high glucose-induced suppression of SIRT1 and the biogenesis-related factors, including PGC-1α, NRF1 and TFAM, suggesting a new molecular mechanism underlying the protective effect of TMP on the endothelium. PMID:24505445

  14. Ameliorative Effects of Curcumin on Artesunate-Induced Subchronic Toxicity in Testis of Swiss Albino Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Dhrupadsinh K.; Patel, Pragnesh B.; Highland, Hyacinth N.

    2015-01-01

    India is one of the endemic areas where control of malaria has become a formidable task. Artesunate is the current antimalarial drug used to treat malaria, especially chloroquine resistant. The objective of the present study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of oral administration of artesunate on the oxidative parameters in testes of adult male Swiss albino mice and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin, a widely used antioxidant. An oral dose of 150 mg/kg body weight (bwt; low dose) and 300 mg/kg bwt (high dose) of artesunate was administered for a period of 45 days to male mice, and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin was also assessed. The results revealed that artesunate caused significant alteration in oxidative parameters in dose-dependent manner. Administration of artesunate brought about significant decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, whereas lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activity were found to be significantly increased. The results obtained show that oxidative insult is incurred upon the intracellular antioxidant system of testis tissue by artesunate treatment. Further, administration of curcumin at the dose level of 80 mg/kg bwt along with both doses of artesunate attenuated adverse effects in male mice. PMID:26673878

  15. Ameliorative effects of amide derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles on scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Akanksha; Piplani, Poonam

    2016-10-21

    The present study reports the effect of amide derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadizoles on scopolamine induced deficit cholinergic neurotransmission and oxidative stress serving as promising leads for the therapeutics of cognitive dysfunction. Fourteen compounds (2c-8d) have been synthesised and evaluated against behavioural alterations using step down passive avoidance protocol and morris water maze and at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg with reference to the standard, Rivastigmine. All the synthesised compounds were evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition at five different concentrations using mice brain homogenate as the source of the enzyme. Biochemical estimation of markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, plasma nitrite, catalase) has also been carried out to assess the role of synthesised molecules on the oxidative damage induced by scopolamine. The compounds 5c, 6c and 8c displayed appreciable activity with an IC50 value of 3 μM, 3.033 μM and 2.743 μM, respectively towards acetylcholinesterase inhibition. These compounds also decreased scopolamine induced oxidative stress, thus serving as promising leads for the amelioration of oxidative stress induced cognitive decline. The molecular docking study performed to predict the binding mode of the compounds also suggested that these compounds bind appreciably with the amino acids present in the active site of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rhAChE). The results indicated that these compounds could be further traversed as inhibitors of AChE and oxidative stress for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27448914

  16. Simvastatin treatment ameliorates injury of rat testes induced by cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Albuali, Waleed H; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-06-01

    Cadmium-induced testicular toxicity is mediated through oxidative stress and inflammation which eventually lead to cell death. Simvastatin, the antihyperlipidemic agent, exhibits additional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the present work was to investigate the protective effect of simvastatin against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. The rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Simvastatin treatment (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for three consecutive days, starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Cadmium significantly decreased serum testosterone, and testicular reduced glutathione and catalase activity, and significantly increased testicular malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and cadmium ion levels. Simvastatin significantly ameliorated the biochemical changes induced by cadmium. Cadmium-induced testicular tissue injury observed by histopathological examination was attenuated by simvastatin. In addition, simvastatin significantly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB, and caspase-3, and increased heme oxygenase-1 expression in testicular tissue of rats exposed to cadmium toxicity. It was concluded that simvastatin, through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, provided a significant protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. However, starting treatment with simvastatin before cadmium exposure, as done in the present work, is not clinically applicable. Therefore, other investigations are needed to assess the protective effect of simvastatin treatment following induction of cadmium testicular toxicity. PMID:23625729

  17. β-caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Béla; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Kechrid, Malek; Patel, Vivek; Tanashian, Galin; Wink, David A.; Gertsch, Jürg; Pacher, Pál

    2012-01-01

    (E)-β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural sequiterpene found in many essential oils of spice (best known for contributing to the spiciness of black pepper) and food plants with recognized anti-inflammatory properties. Recently it was shown that BCP is a natural agonist of endogenous cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors, which are expressed in immune cells and mediate anti-inflammatory effects. In this study we aimed to test the effects of BCP in a clinically relevant murine model of nephropathy (induced by the widely used antineoplastic drug cisplatin) in which the tubular injury is largely dependent on inflammation and oxidative/nitrative stress. β-caryophyllene dose-dependently ameliorated cisplatin-induced kidney dysfunction, morphological damage, and renal inflammatory response (chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-2, cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration). It also markedly mitigated oxidative/nitrative stress (NOX-2, NOX-4 expression, 4-HNE and 3-NT content) and cell death. The protective effects of BCP against biochemical and histological markers of nephropathy were absent in CB2 knockout mice. Thus, BCP may be an excellent therapeutic agent to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through a CB2 receptor dependent pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of BCP in humans it has tremendous therapeutic potential in multitude of diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:22326488

  18. Lycopene Pretreatment Ameliorates Acute Ethanol Induced NAD+ Depletion in Human Astroglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Jade; Heng, Benjamin; Grant, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with reduced brain volume and cognition. While the mechanisms by which ethanol induces these deleterious effects in vivo are varied most are associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative processes. In order to further characterise the effect of acute ethanol exposure on oxidative damage and NAD+ levels in the brain, human U251 astroglioma cells were exposed to physiologically relevant doses of ethanol (11 mM, 22 mM, 65 mM, and 100 mM) for ≤ 30 minutes. Ethanol exposure resulted in a dose dependent increase in both ROS and poly(ADP-ribose) polymer production. Significant decreases in total NAD(H) and sirtuin 1 activity were also observed at concentrations ≥ 22 mM. Similar to U251 cells, exposure to ethanol (≥22 mM) decreased levels of NAD(H) in primary human astrocytes. NAD(H) depletion in primary astrocytes was prevented by pretreatment with 1 μM of lycopene for 3.5 hours. Unexpectedly, in U251 cells lycopene treatment at concentrations ≥ 5 μM resulted in significant reductions in [NAD(H)]. This study suggests that exposure of the brain to alcohol at commonly observed blood concentrations may cause transitory oxidative damage which may be at least partly ameliorated by lycopene. PMID:26075038

  19. Endothelial cell transfusion ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Pacurari, Maricica; Xing, Dongqi; Hilgers, Rob H. P.; Guo, Yuan Yuan; Yang, Zhengqin

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is prevalent in chronic kidney disease. This study tested the hypothesis that transfusion of rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs) ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of chronic kidney disease. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham surgery or 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Five weeks after Nx, EC (1.5 × 106 cells/rat) or vehicle were transfused intravenously. One week later, vascular reactivity of mesenteric artery was assessed on a wire myograph. Sensitivity of endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and maximum vasodilation were impaired by Nx and improved by EC transfusion. Using selective pharmacological nitric oxide synthase isoform inhibitors, we demonstrated that the negative effect of Nx on endothelial function and rescue by EC transfusion are, at least in part, endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine was increased by Nx and decreased by EC transfusion, whereas mRNA expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases 1 (DDAH1) was decreased by Nx and restored by EC transfusion. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that local expression of DDAH1 is decreased by Nx and increased by EC transfusion. In conclusion, EC transfusion attenuates Nx-induced endothelium-dependent vascular dysfunction by regulating DDAH1 expression and enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. These results suggest that EC-based therapy could provide a novel therapeutic strategy to improve vascular function in chronic kidney disease. PMID:23955716

  20. Novel Strategies to Ameliorate Radiation Injury: A Possible Role for Tetrahydrobiopterin

    PubMed Central

    Berbée, Maaike; Fu, Qiang; Kumar, K. Sree; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Novel pharmacological strategies are urgently needed to prevent or reduce radiation-induced tissue injury. Microvascular injury is a prominent feature of both early and delayed radiation injury. Radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of post-irradiation tissue injury. Hence, strategies that could prevent or improve endothelial malfunction are expected to ameliorate the severity of radiation injury. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) cofactor 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as an agent to reduce radiation toxicity. BH4 is an essential cofactor for all NOS enzymes and a critical determinant of NOS function. Inadequate availability of BH4 leads to uncoupling of the NOS enzyme. In an uncoupled state, NOS produces the highly oxidative radicals superoxide and peroxynitrite at the cost of NO. Under conditions of oxidative stress, such as after radiation exposure, BH4 availability might be reduced due to the rapid oxidation of BH4 to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH2). As a result, free radical–induced BH4 insufficiency may increase the oxidative burden and hamper NO-dependent endothelial function. Given the growing evidence that BH4 depletion and subsequent endothelial NOS uncoupling play a major role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in various diseases, there is substantial reason to believe that improving post-irradiation BH4 availability, by either supplementation with it or modulation of its metabolism, might be a novel strategy to reduce radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent tissue injury. PMID:20583982

  1. Evaluation of Soil Salinity Amelioration Technologies in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, Ioanna; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2015-04-01

    Salinization is a soil threat that adversely affects ecosystem services and diminishes soil functions in many arid and semi-arid regions. Soil salinity management depends on a range of factors, and can be complex expensive and time demanding. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. The WOCAT Technologies Questionnaire is a standardized methodology for monitoring, evaluating and documenting sustainable land management practices through interaction with the stakeholders. Here we use WOCAT for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinization amelioration measures, for the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the Timpaki basin, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization due to irrigation with brackish water. Amelioration technologies that have already been applied in the case study by the stakeholders are examined and classified depending on the function they promote and/or improve. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements. Preliminary results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity such as composting, mulching, rain water harvesting and seed biopriming are preferred by the stakeholders. Further work will include result validation using qualitative approaches. Keywords: soil salinity; salinization; evaluation of soil salinization amelioration techniques; WOCAT; RECARE FP7 project; Timpaki Crete

  2. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  3. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum--brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma--red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  4. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  5. NF-kappaB inhibition ameliorates angiotensin II-induced inflammatory damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Muller, D N; Dechend, R; Mervaala, E M; Park, J K; Schmidt, F; Fiebeler, A; Theuer, J; Breu, V; Ganten, D; Haller, H; Luft, F C

    2000-01-01

    We recently reported that the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) promotes inflammation in rats harboring both human renin and angiotensinogen genes (double-transgenic rats [dTGR]). We tested the hypothesis that the antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) inhibits NF-kappaB and ameliorates renal and cardiac end-organ damage. dTGR feature hypertension, severe renal and cardiac damage, and a 40% mortality rate at 7 weeks. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed increased NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in hearts and kidneys of dTGR. Chronic PDTC (200 mg/kg SC) treatment decreased blood pressure (162+/-8 versus 190+/-7 mm Hg; P=0.02) in dTGR compared with dTGR controls. The cardiac hypertrophy index was also significantly reduced (4.90+/-0.1 versus 5.77+/-0.1 mg/g; P<0. 001). PDTC reduced 24-hour albuminuria by >95% (2.5+/-0.8 versus 57. 1+/-8.7 mg/d; P<0.001) and prevented death. Vascular injury was ameliorated in small renal and cardiac vessels. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that PDTC inhibited NF-kappaB binding activity in heart and kidney, whereas AP-1 activity in the kidney was not decreased. dTGR exhibited increased left ventricular c-fos and c-jun mRNA expression. PDTC treatment reduced c-fos but not c-jun mRNA. Immunohistochemistry showed increased p65 NF-kappaB subunit expression in the endothelium and smooth muscle cells of damaged small vessels, as well as infiltrating cells in glomeruli, tubules, and collecting ducts of dTGR. PDTC markedly reduced the immunoreactivity of p65. PDTC also prevented the NF-kappaB-dependent transactivation of the intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Monocyte infiltration was markedly increased in dTGR kidneys and hearts. Chronic treatment reduced monocyte/macrophage infiltration by 72% and 64%, respectively. Thus, these results demonstrate that PDTC inhibits NF-kappaB activity, ameliorates inflammation, and protects against angiotensin II-induced end

  6. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Khedr, Lobna H; Nassar, Noha N; El-Denshary, Ezzeldin S; Abdel-tawab, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS) model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX) in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally). Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT) was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c), caspase-3 (Casp-3), as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001) as well as the changes in adenos-ine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001). Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression. PMID:26622178

  7. Palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin ameliorate development of arthritis caused by injection of collagen type II in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the family of the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Recently, several studies demonstrated that PEA is an important analgesic, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective mediator. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of co-ultramicronized PEA + luteolin formulation on the modulation of the inflammatory response in mice subjected to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods CIA was induced by an intradermally injection of 100 μl of the emulsion (containing 100 μg of bovine type II collagen (CII)) and complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) at the base of the tail. On day 21, a second injection of CII in CFA was administered. Mice subjected to CIA were administered PEA (10 mg/kg 10% ethanol, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or co-ultramicronized PEA + luteolin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) every 24 hours, starting from day 25 to 35. Results Mice developed erosive hind-paw arthritis when immunized with CII in CFA. Macroscopic clinical evidence of CIA first appeared as periarticular erythema and edema in the hindpaws. The incidence of CIA was 100% by day 28 in the CII-challenged mice, and the severity of CIA progressed over a 35-day period with a resorption of bone. The histopathology of CIA included erosion of the cartilage at the joint. Treatment with PEA or PEA + luteolin ameliorated the clinical signs at days 26 to 35 and improved histologic status in the joint and paw. The degree of oxidative and nitrosative damage was significantly reduced in PEA + luteolin-treated mice, as indicated by nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly reduced by PEA + luteolin treatment. Conclusions We demonstrated that PEA co-ultramicronized with luteolin exerts an antiinflammatory effect during chronic inflammation and ameliorates CIA. PMID:24246048

  8. Combination of telmisartan with sildenafil ameliorate progression of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic model.

    PubMed

    El-Mahdy, Nageh Ahmed; El-Sayad, Magda El-Sayed; El-Kadem, Aya Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the world. Several signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of DN including elevation in level of angiotensin II, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), activation of protein kinase c (PKC), and lipid accumulation. These pathways activate one another mutually leading to oxidative stress, increasing expression of transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-β 1) and release of interleukins and adhesion molecules, so the aim of this study is to interrupt more than pathogenic pathway to ameliorate the progression of DN. In the present study, white male rats (N=48) were divided into six groups (8 rats each), the first two groups served as normal control and a control vehicle group while the remaining four groups were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) and being left for 4 weeks to develop DN. Thereafter, the rats were divided into DN group, DN group receiving Telmisartan or Sildenafil or Telmisartan Sildenafil combination. After the specified treatment period, urine samples were collected (using metabolic cages) to measure proteinuria, animals were then euthanized, blood and tissue samples were collected for measurement of Blood glucose,BUN, S.Cr, LDL, NO, TGF-β1, IL-1β, AGEPs, and SOD. The combination therapy showed significant decrease in BUN, S.Cr,LDL, TGF-β1, IL-1β, Proteinuria and AGEPs and significant increase in SOD and NO. The findings showed that combination therapy was able to ameliorate DN and that the effects were superior to the single drugs alone. PMID:27261587

  9. Atorvastatin ameliorates endothelium-specific insulin resistance induced by high glucose combined with high insulin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ou; Li, Jinliang; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Jie; Kong, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish an endothelial cell model of endothelium-specific insulin resistance to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on insulin resistance-associated endothelial dysfunction and to identify the potential pathway responsible for its action. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with different concentrations of glucose with, or without, 10‑5 M insulin for 24 h, following which the cells were treated with atorvastatin. The tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS‑1), the production of nitric oxide (NO), the activity and phosphorylation level of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) on serine1177, and the mRNA levels of endothelin‑1 (ET‑1) were assessed during the experimental procedure. Treatment of the HUVECs with 30 mM glucose and 10‑5 M insulin for 24 h impaired insulin signaling, with reductions in the tyrosine phosphorylation of IR and protein expression of IRS‑1 by almost 75 and 65%, respectively. This, in turn, decreased the activity and phosphorylation of eNOS on serine1177, and reduced the production of NO by almost 80%. By contrast, the mRNA levels of ET‑1 were upregulated. All these changes were ameliorated by atorvastatin. Taken together, these results demonstrated that high concentrations of glucose and insulin impaired insulin signaling leading to endothelial dysfunction, and that atorvastatin ameliorated these changes, acting primarily through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:27484094

  10. Role of Ferulic Acid in the Amelioration of Ionizing Radiation Induced Inflammation: A Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ujjal; Manna, Krishnendu; Sinha, Mahuya; Datta, Sanjukta; Das, Dipesh Kr; Chakraborty, Anindita; Ghosh, Mahua; Saha, Krishna Das; Dey, Sanjit

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is responsible for oxidative stress by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which alters the cellular redox potential. This change activates several redox sensitive enzymes which are crucial in activating signaling pathways at molecular level and can lead to oxidative stress induced inflammation. Therefore, the present study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory role of ferulic acid (FA), a plant flavonoid, against radiation-induced oxidative stress with a novel mechanistic viewpoint. FA was administered (50 mg/kg body wt) to Swiss albino mice for five consecutive days prior to exposing them to a single dose of 10 Gy 60Co γ-irradiation. The dose of FA was optimized from the survival experiment and 50 mg/kg body wt dose showed optimum effect. FA significantly ameliorated the radiation induced inflammatory response such as phosphorylation of IKKα/β and IκBα and consequent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). FA also prevented the increase of cycloxygenase-2 (Cox-2) protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS-2) gene expression, lipid peroxidation in liver and the increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum. It was observed that exposure to radiation results in decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the pool of reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, FA treatment prior to irradiation increased the activities of the same endogenous antioxidants. Thus, pretreatment with FA offers protection against gamma radiation induced inflammation. PMID:24854039

  11. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohamed Naguib; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Barakat, Waleed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE), AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS) complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP) diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze), neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining), AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde). These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications. PMID:26491434

  12. Ameliorative Effect of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin and Ischemic Preconditioning on Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshiekh, Mohammed; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Seifi, Behjat; Ranjbaran, Mina; Ahghari, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is one of the most common causes of renal dysfunction. There is increasing evidence about the role of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these injuries and endogenous antioxidants seem to have an important role in decreasing the renal tissue injury. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on renal IR injury. Materials and Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were allocated into four experimental groups: sham-operated, IR, EPO + IR, and IPC + IR. Rats were underwent 50 minutes bilateral ischemia followed by 24 hours reperfusion. Erythropoietin (5000 IU/kg, i.p) was administered 30 minutes before onset of ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning was performed by three cycles of 3 minutes ischemia followed by 3 minutes reperfusion. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine were measured. Kidney samples were taken for reactive oxidative species (ROS) measurement including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) contents, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Results: Compared to the sham group, IR led to renal dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher plasma urea and creatinine. Treatment with EPO or IPC decreased urea, creatinine, and renal MDA levels and increased SOD activity and GSH contents in the kidney. Conclusions: Pretreatment with EPO and application of IPC significantly ameliorated the renal injury induced by bilateral renal IR. However, both treatments attenuated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in kidney tissues. There were no significant differences between pretreatment with EPO or application of IPC. PMID:26866008

  13. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency ameliorates renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstructive kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Chia; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chen, Li-Ping; Chiang, Chih-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important pathogenic feature in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, regardless of the initiating insults. A recent study has shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) is involved in acute ischemia/reperfusion-related acute kidney injury through oxidative stress induction. However, the influence of CHOP on chronic kidney disease-correlated renal fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CHOP in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced experimental chronic tubulointerstital fibrosis. The CHOP knockout and wild type mice with or without UUO were used. The results showed that the increased expressions of renal fibrosis markers collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the kidneys of UUO-treated wild type mice were dramatically attenuated in the kidneys of UUO-treated CHOP knockout mice. CHOP deficiency could also ameliorate lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes depletion, tubular apoptosis, and inflammatory cells infiltration in the UUO kidneys. These results suggest that CHOP deficiency not only attenuates apoptotic death and oxidative stress in experimental renal fibrosis, but also reduces local inflammation, leading to diminish UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Our findings support that CHOP may be an important signaling molecule in the progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26942460

  14. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency ameliorates renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstructive kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Huang, Kuo-How; Wang, Ching-Chia; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chen, Li-Ping; Chiang, Chih-Kang

    2016-04-19

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important pathogenic feature in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, regardless of the initiating insults. A recent study has shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) is involved in acute ischemia/reperfusion-related acute kidney injury through oxidative stress induction. However, the influence of CHOP on chronic kidney disease-correlated renal fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CHOP in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced experimental chronic tubulointerstital fibrosis. The CHOP knockout and wild type mice with or without UUO were used. The results showed that the increased expressions of renal fibrosis markers collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the kidneys of UUO-treated wild type mice were dramatically attenuated in the kidneys of UUO-treated CHOP knockout mice. CHOP deficiency could also ameliorate lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes depletion, tubular apoptosis, and inflammatory cells infiltration in the UUO kidneys. These results suggest that CHOP deficiency not only attenuates apoptotic death and oxidative stress in experimental renal fibrosis, but also reduces local inflammation, leading to diminish UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Our findings support that CHOP may be an important signaling molecule in the progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26942460

  15. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohamed Naguib; El-Bassossy, Hany M.; Barakat, Waleed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE), AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS) complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP) diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze), neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining), AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde). These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications. PMID:26491434

  16. Amelioration of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by Rhodobacter sphaeroides extract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Man-Chin; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria can produce some compounds in response to their environment. These compounds are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Some probiotics have immunomodulatory activities and modulate the symptoms of several diseases. Autoimmune diseases represent a complex group of conditions that are thought to be mediated through the development of autoreactive immunoresponses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is common autoimmune disease that affects many individuals worldwide. Previously, we found that the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Lycogen) inhibited nitric oxide production and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression in activated macrophages. In this study, the effect of Lycogen, a potent anti-inflammatory agent, was evaluated in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of Lycogen reduced the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in female BABL/c mice. In addition, the increased number of bacterial flora in the colon induced by DSS was amelirated by Lycogen. The histological score of intestinal inflammation in 5% DSS-treated mice after oral administration of Lycogen was lower than that of control mice. Meanwhile, Lycogen dramatically prolonged the survival of mice with severe colitis. These findings identified that Lycogen is an anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to ameliorate DSS-induced colitis. PMID:23159923

  17. Amelioration of LPS-Induced Inflammation Response in Microglia by AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Chen; Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Cheng, Yi-Fang; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Huang, Chun-Fang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liang, Yao-Jen; Cheng, Ching-Yi; Chen, Han-Min

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis via modulating metabolism of glucose, lipid, and protein. In addition to energy modulation, AMPK has been demonstrated to associate with several important cellular events including inflammation. The results showed that ENERGI-F704 identified from bamboo shoot extract was nontoxic in concentrations up to 80 μM and dose-dependently induced phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr-172) in microglia BV2 cells. Our findings also showed that the treatment of BV2 with ENERGI-F704 ameliorated the LPS-induced elevation of IL-6 and TNF-α production. In addition, ENERGI-F704 reduced increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), respectively. Moreover, ENERGI-F704 decreased activated nuclear translocation and protein level of NF-κB. Inhibition of AMPK with compound C restored decreased NF-κB translocation by ENERGI-F704. In conclusion, ENERGI-F704 exerts inhibitory activity on LPS-induced inflammation through manipulating AMPK signaling and exhibits a potential therapeutic agent for neuroinflammatory disease. PMID:25025067

  18. Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xue; Zhang, Xiuli; Lv, Changjun; Li, Chunli; Yu, Yan; Wang, Xiaozhi; Han, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26419512

  19. Edaravone injection ameliorates cognitive deficits in rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Wang, Qingjun; Li, Fang; Li, Jian; Liu, Xuewen

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress plays important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Edaravone is a potent free radical scavenger that exerts antioxidant effects. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate neuroprotective effects of edaravone for AD. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 15): control group, model group, and treatment group, which were injected with phosphate buffered saline, Aβ1-40, and Aβ1-40 together with 5 mg/kg edaravone, respectively, into the right hippocampal dentate gyrus. Spatial learning and memory of the rats were examined by Morris water maze test. 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) level in rat hippocampus was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetylase (ChAT) activities were assayed by commercial kits. We found that edaravone ameliorated spatial learning and memory deficits in the rats. 4-HNE level in the hippocampus as well as AChE and ChAT activities in the hippocampus was significantly lower in treatment group than in model group. In conclusion, edaravone may be developed as a novel agent for the treatment of AD for improving cholinergic system and protecting neurons from oxidative toxicity. PMID:26163224

  20. Potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture during tableting.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S; Adogah, J T

    2009-01-01

    Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch mucilage (20%w/v). Resulting granules were separated into different size fractions which were separately compressed into tablets with and without a centre hole (as in- built defect) using different compression loads. The tablets were evaluated for tensile strength and the data used to calculate the brittle fracture index (BFI), using the expression: BFI = 0.5(T/T(0)-1) where T0 and T are the tensile strength of tablets with and without a centre hole respectively. The BFI values were significantly lower (p<0.05) in tablets made with carnuba wax compared with tablets made with maize starch as binders. Increase in particle size of the granules or lowering of the compression load further ameliorated the brittle fracture tendency of the tablets. Using granules with the larger particle size (850microm) and applying the lowest unit of load (6 arbitrary unit on the load scale of the tableting machine) the BFI values were 0.03 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.11 (maize starch tablets). When the conditions were reversed (i.e., a highest load, 8 units and the smallest particle size, 212microm) the BFI values now became 0.17 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.26 (maize starch tablets). The indication is that the use of large granules and low compression loads to form tablets can further enhance the potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture tendency of tablets during their manufacture. PMID:19168422

  1. Roscovitine ameliorates endotoxin-induced uveitis through neutrophil apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhao-Xin; Qiu, Suo; Lou, Bing-Sheng; Yang, Yao; Wang, Wen-Cong; Lin, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils have been recognized as critical response cells during the pathogenesis of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Apoptosis of neutrophils induced by roscovitine has previously been demonstrated to ameliorate inflammation in several in vivo models. The present study aimed to assess whether roscovitine ameliorates EIU. EIU was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by a single intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 ng). The mice were divided into three groups as follows: LPS alone, LPS plus vehicle, LPS plus roscovitine (50 mg/kg). The mice were euthanized 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after LPS-induced uveitis. Accumulation of inflammatory cells in the vitreous body was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and quantified following hematoxylin and eosin staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling was performed to detect of apoptotic cells. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the changes in protein levels were analyzed by western blotting. Inflammatory cells accumulated in the vitreous near the optic nerve head and the quantity peaked at 24 h after LPS injection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the majority of the inflammatory cells were neutrophils. The number of infiltrating cells was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups, while there were significantly less in the roscovitine group at 24 h. Apoptosis of neutrophils was observed between 12 and 48 h after roscovitine injection, while no apoptosis was observed in the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of GMCSF, CINC-1 and ICAM-1 peaked at 12 h after LPS injection, and decreased to normal levels at 72 h. This trend in mRNA expression was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups; however, the expression levels decreased more quickly in the roscovitine group at 24 and 48 h. Following roscovitine administration, upregulated cleaved caspase 3 expression levels and downregulated Mcl-1

  2. Roscovitine ameliorates endotoxin-induced uveitis through neutrophil apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao-Xin; Qiu, Suo; Lou, Bing-Sheng; Yang, Yao; Wang, Wen-Cong; Lin, Xiao-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Neutrophils have been recognized as critical response cells during the pathogenesis of endotoxin‑induced uveitis (EIU). Apoptosis of neutrophils induced by roscovitine has previously been demonstrated to ameliorate inflammation in several in vivo models. The present study aimed to assess whether roscovitine ameliorates EIU. EIU was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by a single intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 ng). The mice were divided into three groups as follows: LPS alone, LPS plus vehicle, LPS plus roscovitine (50 mg/kg). The mice were euthanized 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after LPS‑induced uveitis. Accumulation of inflammatory cells in the vitreous body was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and quantified following hematoxylin and eosin staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling was performed to detect of apoptotic cells. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the changes in protein levels were analyzed by western blotting. Inflammatory cells accumulated in the vitreous near the optic nerve head and the quantity peaked at 24 h after LPS injection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the majority of the inflammatory cells were neutrophils. The number of infiltrating cells was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups, while there were significantly less in the roscovitine group at 24 h. Apoptosis of neutrophils was observed between 12 and 48 h after roscovitine injection, while no apoptosis was observed in the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of GMCSF, CINC‑1 and ICAM‑1 peaked at 12 h after LPS injection, and decreased to normal levels at 72 h. This trend in mRNA expression was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups; however, the expression levels decreased more quickly in the roscovitine group at 24 and 48 h. Following roscovitine administration, upregulated cleaved caspase 3 expression levels

  3. Pioglitazone ameliorates the lowered exercise capacity and impaired mitochondrial function of the skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shingo; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Yokota, Takashi; Matsushima, Shouji; Suga, Tadashi; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Mizushima, Wataru; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Katsuyama, Ryoichi; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-10-01

    We have reported that exercise capacity is reduced in high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, and that this reduction is associated with impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle (SKM). However, it remains to be clarified whether the treatment of diabetes ameliorates the reduced exercise capacity. Therefore, we examined whether an insulin-sensitizing drug, pioglitazone, could improve exercise capacity in HFD mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, then treated with or without pioglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) to yield the following 4 groups: ND+vehicle, ND+pioglitazone, HFD+vehicle, and HFD+pioglitazone (n=10 each). After 8 weeks, body weight, plasma glucose, and insulin in the HFD+vehicle were significantly increased compared to the ND+vehicle group. Pioglitazone normalized the insulin levels in HFD-fed mice, but did not affect the body weight or plasma glucose. Exercise capacity determined by treadmill tests was significantly reduced in the HFD+vehicle, and this reduction was almost completely ameliorated in HFD+pioglitazone mice. ADP-dependent mitochondrial respiration, complex I and III activities, and citrate synthase activity were significantly decreased in the SKM of the HFD+vehicle animals, and these decreases were also attenuated by pioglitazone. NAD(P)H oxidase activity was significantly increased in the HFD+vehicle compared with the ND+vehicle, and this increase was ameliorated in HFD+pioglitazone mice. Pioglitazone improved the exercise capacity in diabetic mice, which was due to the improvement in mitochondrial function and attenuation of oxidative stress in the SKM. Our data suggest that pioglitazone may be useful as an agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24964389

  4. Ethanol and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, A Y; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Neve, E; Matsumoto, H; Nishitani, Y; Minowa, Y; Fukui, Y; Bailey, S M; Patel, V B; Cunningham, C C; Zima, T; Fialova, L; Mikulikova, L; Popov, P; Malbohan, I; Janebova, M; Nespor, K; Sun, G Y

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chair was Albert Y. Sun. The presentations were (1) Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-4502E1 in alcoholic liver disease, by Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg and Etienne Neve; (2) Regulation of NF-kappaB by ethanol, by H. Matsumoto, Y. Nishitani, Y. Minowa, and Y. Fukui; (3) Chronic ethanol consumption increases concentration of oxidized proteins in rat liver, by Shannon M. Bailey, Vinood B. Patel, and Carol C. Cunningham; (4) Antiphospholipids antibodies and oxidized modified low-density lipoprotein in chronic alcoholic patients, by Tomas Zima, Lenka Fialova, Ludmila Mikulikova, Ptr Popov, Ivan Malbohan, Marta Janebova, and Karel Nespor; and (5) Amelioration of ethanol-induced damage by polyphenols, by Albert Y. Sun and Grace Y. Sun. PMID:11391077

  5. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Ameliorates Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction via the Activation of the Nrf2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shouzhen; Zhu, Yaofeng; Liu, Zhifeng; Gao, Zhaoyun; Li, Baoying; Zhang, Dongqing; Zhang, Zhaocun; Jiang, Xuewen; Liu, Zhengfang; Meng, Lingquan; Yang, Yue; Shi, Benkang

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM)-induced bladder dysfunction is predominantly due to the long-term oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic properties against oxidative stress. However, its protective effects against diabetic bladder dysfunction have not been clarified. This study focuses on the effects of GSPE on bladder dysfunction in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. After 8 weeks of GSPE administration, the bladder function of the diabetic rats was improved significantly, as indicated by both urodynamics analysis and histopathological manifestation. Moreover, the disordered activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GSH-Px) and abnormal oxidative stress levels were partly reversed by treatment with GSPE. Furthermore, the level of apoptosis in the bladder caused by DM was decreased following the administration of GSPE according to the Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay. Additionally, GSPE affected the expression of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3. Furthermore, GSPE showed neuroprotective effects on the bladder of diabetic rats, as shown by the increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and decreased expression of the precursor of nerve growth factor (proNGF). GSPE also activated nuclear erythroid2-related factor2 (Nrf2), which is a key antioxidative transcription factor, with the concomitant elevation of downstream hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). These findings suggested that GSPE could ameliorate diabetic bladder dysfunction and decrease the apoptosis of the bladder in diabetic rats, a finding that may be associated with its antioxidant activity and ability to activate the Nrf2 defense pathway. PMID:25974036

  6. Oral Administration of Ginseng Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Pancreatic Injury in an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sun Woo; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Jin, Long; Piao, Shang Guo; Heo, Seong Beom; Zheng, Yu Fen; Bae, Soo Kyung; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to investigate whether ginseng has a protective effect in an experimental mouse model of cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury. Methods Mice were treated with cyclosporine (30 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) and Korean red ginseng extract (0.2 or 0.4 g/kg/day, oral gavage) for 4 weeks while on a 0.01% salt diet. The effect of ginseng on cyclosporine-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction was investigated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and measurements of serum insulin level, β cell area, macrophage infiltration, and apoptosis. Using an in vitro model, we further examined the effect of ginseng on a cyclosporine-treated insulin-secreting cell line. Oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in serum, tissue sections, and culture media. Results Four weeks of cyclosporine treatment increased blood glucose levels and decreased insulin levels, but cotreatment with ginseng ameliorated the cyclosporine-induced glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Pancreatic β cell area was also greater with ginseng cotreatment compared with cyclosporine monotherapy. The production of proinflammatory molecules, such as induced nitric oxide synthase and cytokines, and the level of apoptotic cell death also decreased in pancreatic β cell with ginseng treatment. Consistent with the in vivo results, the in vitro study showed that the addition of ginseng protected against cyclosporine-induced cytotoxicity, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. These in vivo and in vitro changes were accompanied by decreases in the levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in pancreatic β cell in tissue section, serum, and culture media during cotreatment of ginseng with cyclosporine. Conclusions The results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that ginseng has a protective effect against cyclosporine-induced pancreatic β cell injury via reducing oxidative stress. PMID:24009697

  7. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)—a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms. PMID:26194911

  8. Guanfacine ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial working memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Kauser, H; Sahu, S; Kumar, S; Panjwani, U

    2014-01-17

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) observed at high altitude causes mild cognitive impairment specifically affecting attention and working memory. Adrenergic dysregulation and neuronal damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in hypoxia induced memory deficits. Optimal stimulation of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor in PFC facilitates the spatial working memory (SWM) under the conditions of adrenergic dysregulation. Therefore the present study was designed to test the efficacy of alpha 2A adrenergic agonist, Guanfacine (GFC), to restore HH induced SWM deficits and PFC neuronal damage. The rats were exposed to chronic HH equivalent to 25,000ft for 7days in an animal decompression chamber and received daily treatment of GFC at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight via the intramuscular route during the period of exposure. The cognitive performance was assessed by Delayed Alternation Task (DAT) using T-Maze and PFC neuronal damage was studied by apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers. Percentage of correct choice decreased significantly while perseverative errors showed a significant increase after 7days HH exposure, GFC significantly ameliorated the SWM deficits and perseveration. There was a marked and significant increase in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, neuronal pyknosis and fluoro Jade positive cells in layer II of the medial PFC in hypoxia exposed group, administration of GFC significantly reduced the magnitude of these changes. Modulation of adrenergic mechanisms by GFC may serve as an effective countermeasure in amelioration of prefrontal deficits and neurodegenerative changes during HH. PMID:24184415

  9. The ameliorative effects of a hypnotic bromvalerylurea in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Satoshi; Nishihara, Tasuku; Kawasaki, Shun; Abe, Naoki; Kuwabara, Jun; Choudhury, Mohammed E; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Yano, Hajime; Nagaro, Takumi; Watanabe, Yuji; Aibiki, Mayuki; Tanaka, Junya

    2015-04-01

    Sepsis is a severe pathologic event, frequently causing death in critically ill patients. However, there are no approved drugs to treat sepsis, despite clinical trials of many agents that have distinct targets. Therefore, a novel effective treatment should be developed based on the pathogenesis of sepsis. We recently observed that an old hypnotic drug, bromvalerylurea (BU) suppressed expression of many kinds of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in LPS- or interferon-γ activated alveolar and peritoneal macrophages (AMs and PMs). Taken the anti-inflammatory effects of BU on macrophages, we challenged it to septic rats that had been subjected to cecum-ligation and puncture (CLP). BU was subcutaneously administered to septic rats twice per day. Seven days after CLP treatment, 85% of septic rats administrated vehicle had died, whereas administration of BU reduce the rate to 50%. Septic rats showed symptoms of multi-organ failure; respiratory, circulatory and renal system failures as revealed by histopathological analyses, blood gas test and others. BU ameliorated these symptoms. BU also prevented elevated serum-IL-6 level as well as IL-6 mRNA expression in septic rats. Collectively, BU might be a novel agent to ameliorate sepsis by preventing the onset of MOF. PMID:25732089

  10. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-09-01

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)-a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms. PMID:26194911

  11. Curcumin ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by diverse immune cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Li, Heng; Zhang, Min; Yue, Long-Tao; Wang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2016-07-28

    Curcumin is a traditional Asian medicine with diverse immunomodulatory properties used therapeutically in the treatment of many autoimmune diseases. However, the effects of curcumin on myasthenia gravis (MG) remain undefined. Here we investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of curcumin in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Our results demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated the clinical scores of EAMG, suppressed the expression of T cell co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) and MHC class II, down-regulated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α) and up-regulated the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, shifted the balance from Th1/Th17 toward Th2/Treg, and increased the numbers of NKR-P1(+) cells (natural killer cell receptor protein 1 positive cells, including NK and NKT cells). Moreover, the administration of curcumin promoted the differentiation of B cells into a subset of B10 cells, increased the anti-R97-166 peptide IgG1 levels and decreased the relative affinity indexes of anti-R97-116 peptide IgG. In summary, curcumin effectively ameliorate EAMG, indicating that curcumin may be a potential candidate therapeutic agent for MG. PMID:27181511

  12. Purified Betacyanins from Hylocereus undatus Peel Ameliorate Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Chu, Qiang; Xu, Dongdong; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-13

    Natural bioactive compounds in food have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that betacyanins possess free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting their beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify the betaycanins from Hylocereus undatus (white-fleshed pitaya) peel and evaluate their ability to ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The purified pitaya peel betacyanins (PPBNs) were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and the male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet, HFD, or HFD supplemented with PPBNs for 14 weeks. Our results showed that the white-fleshed pitaya peel contains 14 kinds of betacyanins and dietary PPBNs reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and ameliorated adipose tissue hypertrophy, hepatosteatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that PPBN supplementation increased the expression levels of lipid-metabolism-related genes (AdipoR2, Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Acox1, PPARγ, Insig1, and Insig2) and FGF21-related genes (β-Klotho and FGFR1/2) but decreased the expression level of Fads2, Fas, and FGF21, suggesting that the protective effect of PPBNs might be associated with the induced fatty acid oxidation, decreased fatty acid biosynthesis, and alleviated FGF21 resistance. PMID:26653843

  13. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power... § 2.23 Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. The... opportunity for hearing by the licensee and all interested parties. Hydropower licenses also contain...

  14. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power... § 2.23 Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. The... opportunity for hearing by the licensee and all interested parties. Hydropower licenses also contain...

  15. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power... § 2.23 Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. The... opportunity for hearing by the licensee and all interested parties. Hydropower licenses also contain...

  16. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power... § 2.23 Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. The... opportunity for hearing by the licensee and all interested parties. Hydropower licenses also contain...

  17. Ameliorative effect of Partysmart in rat model of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gopumadhavan, S; Rafiq, Mohammed; Azeemuddin, M; Mitra, S K

    2008-02-01

    Present study was designed to investigate the effect of polyherbal formulation PartySmart in experimental model of alcoholic liver disease in male Wistar strain rats. Alcohol plus fish oil were administered to animals for 8 weeks to induce liver injury. PartySmart was administered at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. After 8 weeks, parameters such as liver weight, liver function serum markers alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lipid peroxidation were studied. Livers from all the groups were subjected for histological evaluation. Treatment with PartySmart at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight showed significant reduction in the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP with a decrease in liver weight as compared to ethanol-fed rats. A significant decrease was also observed in malondialdehyde levels following treatment with PartySmart at 500 mg/kg body weight. Histological profile of liver tissue in PartySmart-treated animals showed lesser vacuolar degeneration and intactness of hepatic architecture along with improved glycogen deposition as demonstrated by PAS staining. PartySmart ameliorated alcohol-induced liver injury by preventing cell membrane disturbances, reduction of oxidative stress by free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity and normalization of altered intracellular redox status. Thus, PartySmart can be beneficial in the treatment of alcohol-induced liver damage. PMID:18335812

  18. FGF21 treatment ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver through activation of AMPK-SIRT1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shenglong; Ma, Lei; Wu, Yunzhou; Ye, Xianlong; Zhang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Qingyang; Rasoul, Lubna Muhi; Liu, Yunye; Guo, Mo; Zhou, Bing; Ren, Guiping; Li, Deshan

    2014-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a recently identified member of the FGF superfamily, is mainly secreted from the liver and adipose tissues and plays an important role in improving metabolic syndrome and homeostasis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of FGF21 in alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) and to determine if it has a therapeutic effect on AFLD. In this paper, we tested the effect of FGF21 on alcohol-induced liver injury in a murine model of chronic ethanol gavage and alcohol-treated HepG2 cells. Male KM mice received single dose of 5 g/kg ethanol gavage every day for 6 weeks, which induced significant fatty liver and liver injury. The alcohol-induced fatty liver cell model was achieved by adding ethanol into the medium of HepG2 cell cultures at a final concentration of 75 mM for 9 days. Results showed that treatment with recombinant FGF21 ameliorated alcoholic fatty liver and liver injury both in a murine model of chronic ethanol gavage and alcohol-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, FGF21 treatment down-regulated the hepatic expression of fatty acid synthetic key enzyme, activated hepatic AMPK-SIRT1 pathway and significantly down-regulated hepatic oxidative stress protein. Taken together, FGF21 corrects multiple metabolic parameters of AFLD in vitro and in vivo by activation of the AMPK-SIRT1 pathway. PMID:25355486

  19. The ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor induced ovarian toxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Eman E; Kames, Amany O G; Sayed, S M; Nisr, Neveen A E L; Wahba, Nahed M; Elsherif, Walaa M; Nafady, Allam M; Abdel-Hafeez, M M; Aamer, A A

    2014-12-01

    A study was designed to evaluate ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor (MXC) induced ovarian toxicity in rat. The organochlorine pesticide (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether chronic exposure to MXC could cause ovarian dysfunction, two groups of Sprague-Dawley adult female rats were exposed to MXC alone in a dose of 200mg/kg, twice/weekly, orally or MXC dose as previous plus propolis in a dose of 200mg/l/day, in drinking water for 10 months. Another two groups of rat were given corn oil (control) or propolis. Multiple reproductive parameters, ovarian weight, serum hormone levels, ovarian oxidative status and ovarian morphology were examined. In MXC-exposed group, there is a significant decrease in body and ovarian weight vs. control. MXC decreases serum estradiol and progesterone levels. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation was obtained while a significant decrease of the total antioxidant was recorded. Ovarian histopathology showed primary, secondary and vesicular follicles displaying an atretic morphology. Increase in the ovarian surface epithelium height accompanied with vacuolated, pyknotic oocytes were obtained. The previous toxic effects were neutralized by the administration of propolis in MXC+propolis group. The present results suggest that propolis may be effective in decreasing of MXC-induced ovarian toxicity in rat. PMID:25034310

  20. Cobrotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom Ameliorates Adriamycin Nephropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Zhi; Xu, Yin-li; Zhu, Qi; Kou, Jian-qun; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) becomes a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. Adriamycin- (ADR-) induced rodent chronic nephropathy is a classic experimental model of human minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome. The present study investigated the effect of cobrotoxin (CTX) on ADR-induced nephropathy. Rats were given 6 mg/kg ADR once through the tail vein to replicate ADR nephropathy model. CTX was administered to rats daily by placing a fast dissolving CTX membrane strip under the tongue starting from 5 days prior to ADR administration until the end of experiment. The results showed that CTX ameliorated the symptoms of ADR nephropathy syndrome with reduced body weight loss, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, dyslipidemia, serum electrolyte imbalance, oxidative stress, renal function abnormities, and kidney pathological lesions. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression was elevated after CTX administration in ADR nephropathy model. CTX inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Meanwhile, CTX upregulated the protein level of podocyte-specific nephrin and downregulated the level of fibrosis-related TGF-β. These findings suggest that CTX may be a potential drug for chronic kidney diseases. PMID:26640497

  1. Punicalagin, an active component in pomegranate, ameliorates cardiac mitochondrial impairment in obese rats via AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Pu, Wenjun; Dong, Zhizhong; Sun, Lei; Zang, Weijin; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Yong; Feng, Zhihui; Liu, Jiankang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. It is of paramount importance to reduce obesity-associated cardiac dysfunction and impaired energy metabolism. In this study, the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway by punicalagin (PU), a major ellagitannin in pomegranate was investigated in the heart of a rat obesity model. In male SD rats, eight-week administration of 150 mg/kg pomegranate extract (PE) containing 40% punicalagin sufficiently prevented high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity associated accumulation of cardiac triglyceride and cholesterol as well as myocardial damage. Concomitantly, the AMPK pathway was activated, which may account for prevention of mitochondrial loss via upregulating mitochondrial biogenesis and amelioration of oxidative stress via enhancing phase II enzymes in the hearts of HFD rats. Together with the normalized expression of uncoupling proteins and mitochondrial dynamic regulators, PE significantly prevented HFD-induced cardiac ATP loss. Through in vitro cultures, we showed that punicalagin was the predominant component that activated AMPK by quickly decreasing the cellular ATP/ADP ratio specifically in cardiomyocytes. Our findings demonstrated that punicalagin, the major active component in PE, could modulate mitochondria and phase II enzymes through AMPK pathway to prevent HFD-induced cardiac metabolic disorders. PMID:26369619

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen ameliorates worsening signs and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Eovaldi, Benjamin; Zanetti, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 2.4 atmospheric pressure absolutes for 90 minutes per day ameliorated the signs and symptoms of agitation, confusion, and emotional distress in a 27-year-old male seven days following a traumatic accident. Hyperbaric oxygen was used to treat the patient’s crush injury and underlying nondisplaced pelvic fractures which were sustained in a bicycle versus automobile traffic accident. Its effect on the patient’s neuropsychiatric symptoms was surprising and obvious immediately following the initial hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Complete cognitive and psychiatric recovery was achieved by the seventh and final hyperbaric oxygen treatment. We propose that hyperbaric oxygen was effective in improving the patient’s neuropsychiatric symptoms by reducing cerebral oxidative stress, inflammation, vasogenic edema, and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. Further investigation into the use of hyperbaric oxygen as a novel therapy for the secondary prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder that often accompanies post-concussive syndrome may be warranted. We acknowledge that hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been shown to have a strong placebo effect on neurologic and psychiatric diseases. PMID:21212826

  3. Targeting of Rho Kinase Ameliorates Impairment of Diabetic Endothelial Function in Intrarenal Artery

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hongping; Ru, Hailong; Yu, Liping; Kang, Yanhua; Lin, Guohua; Liu, Chuanfei; Sun, Lixian; Shi, Liyun; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction in kidney vasculature is the initial and key element for nephropathy in diabetes mellitus. Accumulating evidence suggests the protective role of Rho kinase inhibitors in endothelial dysfunction via modulating eNOS activity and NO production. However, the role of Rho kinase in diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction in kidney vasculature and the relevant mechanisms remain unknown. We assessed whether pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase attenuates endothelial dysfunction in intrarenal arteries from type 1 diabetic rats. Fasudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor effectively decreased the phosphorylated level of MYPT1 without affecting the expression of ROCKs in the kidney. Fasudil treatment showed no improvement in diabetes-related abnormality in metabolic indices, but it significantly ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in intrarenal arteries and lessened the mesangial matrix expansion in the kidney cortex. Mechanistically, superoxide production in the intrarenal artery and NOX4 member of NADPH oxidase in the renal cortex that contribute to diabetic nephropathy were also prevented by the Rho kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Rho kinase is involved in endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes via enhancement of oxidative stress and provides new evidence for Rho kinase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24129169

  4. Geldanamycin Derivative Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Renal Failure in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Dang, Howard; Kamat, Amrita; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Zhang, Bin-Xian

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of longstanding diabetes and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Oxidative stress may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) induce peroxynitrite generation in primary human kidney mesangial cells and heat shock protein 90β1 (hsp90β1) is indispensable for the PUFA action. Here we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD) on kidney function and structure of db/db mice, a widely used rodent model of type 2 diabetes. Our results indicated that HFD dramatically increased the 24 h-urine output and worsened albuminuria in db/db mice. Discontinuation of HFD reversed the exacerbated albuminuria but not the increased urine output. Prolonged HFD feeding resulted in early death of db/db mice, which was associated with oliguria and anuria. Treatment with the geldanamycin derivative, 17-(dimethylaminoehtylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), an hsp90 inhibitor, preserved kidney function, and ameliorated glomerular and tubular damage by HFD. 17-DMAG also significantly extended survival of the animals and protected them from the high mortality associated with renal failure. The benefit effect of 17-DMAG on renal function and structure was associated with a decreased level of kidney nitrotyrosine and a diminished kidney mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux in HFD-fed db/db mice. These results suggest that hsp90β1 is a potential target for the treatment of nephropathy and renal failure in diabetes. PMID:22412919

  5. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis‑induced acute renal injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti‑inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 were measured with enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor‑κB signal pathway. PMID:27279569

  6. Coffee bean polyphenols ameliorate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy male adults.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the effect of coffee bean polyphenols (CBPs) on blood vessels, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CBPs on acute postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen healthy non-diabetic men (mean age, 44.9 ± 1.4 years) consumed a test beverage (active: containing CBPs, placebo: no CBPs) before a 554-kcal test meal containing 14 g of protein, 30 g of fat and 58 g of carbohydrates. Then, a crossover analysis was performed to investigate the time-dependent changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery. In the active group, the postprandial impairment of FMD was significantly improved, the two-hour postprandial nitric oxide metabolite levels were significantly increased and the six-hour postprandial urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α levels were significantly reduced compared to the placebo group. The test meal increased the levels of blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides in both groups with no significant intergroup differences. These findings indicate that CBPs intake ameliorates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy men. PMID:25666414

  7. Huperzine A ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Cao, Dan-Feng; Li, Xi; Yin, Ji-Ye; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Ying; Mao, Chen-Xue; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA) on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) using a streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:24857910

  8. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis-induced acute renal injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor-κB signal pathway. PMID:27279569

  9. Sodium aescinate ameliorates liver injury induced by methyl parathion in rats.

    PubMed

    DU, Yuan; Wang, Tian; Jiang, Na; Ren, Ru-Tong; Li, Chong; Li, Chang-Kun; Fu, Feng-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Methyl parathion, a highly cytotoxic insecticide, has been used in agricultural pest control for several years. The present study investigated the protective effect of sodium aescinate (SA, the sodium salt of aescin) against liver injury induced by methyl parathion. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 8 animals: the control group; the methyl parathion (15 mg/kg) poisoning (MP) group; and the MP plus SA at doses of 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 mg/kg groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the plasma were assayed. Nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidative parameters were measured. Histopathological examination of the liver was also performed. The results revealed that SA had no effect on AChE. Treatment with SA decreased the activities of ALT and AST, and the levels of malondialdehyde and NO. Treatment with SA also increased the level of glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. SA administration also ameliorated liver injury induced by methyl parathion poisoning. The findings indicate that SA protects against liver injury induced by methyl parathion and that the mechanism of action is related to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of SA. PMID:22969975

  10. Physalis alkekengi and Alhagi maurorum ameliorate the side effect of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Changizi-Ashtiyani, S; Alizadeh, M; Najafi, H; Babaei, S; Khazaei, M; Jafari, M; Hossaini, N; Avan, A; Bastani, B

    2016-07-01

    Cisplatin is frequently being used for the treatment of different tumors, although the application of this agent is associated with nephrotoxicity. Here, we explored the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis alkekengi and Alhagi maurorum; 400 mg kg(-1) per day P. alkekengi and 100 mg kg(-1) per day A. maurorum were administered in rats, orally for 10 days after a single dose of 7 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneal cisplatin. The concentrations of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, and relative and absolute excretion of sodium/potassium were evaluated before/after therapy. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured to assess the oxidative stress induced by cisplatin. Moreover, tissues sections were used for histological analyses and evaluation of the degree of tissue damage. Cisplatin increased serum levels of creatinine and urea-nitrogen, relative/absolute excretion of sodium/potassium, and MDA, whereas decreased FRAP level. Interestingly, P. alkekengi or A. maurorum were able to reduce the level of the renal function markers as well as the levels of sodium/potassium. This effect was more pronounced by P. alkekengi. Moreover, cisplatin induced pathological damage in kidney, whereas treatment with these agents improved this condition. Our findings demonstrate the potential therapeutic impact of P. alkekengi and A. maurorum for improving cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, supporting further investigations on the novel potential clinical application of these agents for patients being treated with cisplatin to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27255563

  11. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A.; Khalaf, A. A.; Galal, Mona K.; Ogaly, Hanan A.; H. M. Hassan, Azza

    2015-09-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  12. Platycodin D, a triterpenoid sapoinin from Platycodon grandiflorum, ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Song, In-Bae; Lee, Hong-Ki; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Sang; Son, Hwa-Young; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yun, Hyo-In

    2012-12-01

    Platycodin D (PD) is well known as a potent triterpenoid saponin having various pharmacological activities isolated from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (Campanulaceae). We aimed to evaluate protective effect of PD on cisplatin (CDDP)-induced nephrotoxicity. Male ICR mice were allocated into five groups as follows: Negative control, CDDP alone and CDDP with PD (0.1, 1 and 5 mg/kg) treated group. PD was given for three consecutive days before CDDP injection. Increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels in CDDP alone treated mice were decreased to normal range by pretreatment with PD. It also decreased nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxidation with increased antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in PD pretreated mice. In histopathological examination, pretreatment with PD showed ameliorated renal injury such as intraluminal cast formation and epithelial desquamation. Furthermore, over-expression of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 and apoptotic cells were suppressed by PD pretreatment. Taken together, PD pretreatment might be beneficial to CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:22617354

  13. Amelioration of ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats by diallylsulfide.

    PubMed

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2016-03-01

    Garlic contains diallylsulfide (DAS) and other structurally related compounds that are widely believed to be active agents in preventing cancer. This study shows the effect of DAS (a phenolic antioxidant used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products) on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 125-150 g were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg kg(-1) body weight, intraperitoneally) after 1 week of treatment with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) DAS in corn oil respectively administered through the gavage. Fe-NTA administration led to 2.5-fold increase in the values of both alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively, and 3.2-fold increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, microsomal lipid peroxidation to approximately 2.0-fold compared to saline-treated control. The activities of glutathione (GSH) and other antioxidant enzymes decreased to a range of 2.2-2.5-fold. These changes were reversed significantly (p < 0.001) in animals receiving a pretreatment of DAS. DAS protected against hepatic lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide generation, preserved GSH levels, and GSH metabolizing enzymes to 60-80% as compared to Fe-NTA alone-treated group. Present data suggest that DAS can ameliorate the toxic effects of Fe-NTA and suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:25904316

  14. Salvianolic acid B ameliorates CNS autoimmunity by suppressing Th1 responses.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhihui; Ma, Dihui; Gong, Ye; Yu, Tingmin; Yao, Gang

    2016-04-21

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is a Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated CNS autoimmune disease. Therefore, immune regulation is a key target for therapy. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a major water-soluble bioactive component of the famous traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is notable for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus Sal B, by impairing Th1 or Th17 responses in EAE/MS, might ameliorate the crippling symptoms. Here we show that the intraperitoneal administration of 30mg/kg Sal B daily for 14 days after the onset of MOG-induced EAE in mice effectively reduced its severity. Additionally, Sal B treatment downgraded the infiltration of inflammatory cells, limited astrogliosis and blocked Th1 responses other than that of Th17. These results indicated that Sal B may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for MS/EAE by inhibiting Th1 cell responses. PMID:26777627

  15. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates intestinal mitochondrial injury by increasing antioxidant effects and activity of respiratory complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Ruan, Zheng; Mi, Shumei; Jiang, Min; Li, Xiaolan; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyphenols are thought to be beneficial for human health by acting as antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is abundant in plant-based foods as an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of CGA on mitochondrial protection. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with CGA ameliorated the intestinal mitochondrial injury induced by H2O2; membrane potential was increased, mitochondrial swelling, levels of reactive oxygen species, contents of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and cytochrome c released were decreased. The beneficial effects of CGA were accompanied by an increase in antioxidant and respiratory-chain complex I, IV, and V activities. In trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid-induced colitic rats indicated that CGA supplementation improved mitochondria ultrastructure and decreased mitochondrial injury. Our results suggest a promising role for CGA as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant in combating intestinal oxidative injury. Daily intake of diets containing CGA, such as coffee and honeysuckle, may be useful for prevention of intestinal diseases. PMID:26824685

  16. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hui-Ya; Wu, Jin-Bin; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae), a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME) inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A), was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME. PMID:19942664

  17. Droplet confinement and leakage: Causes, underlying effects, and amelioration strategies

    PubMed Central

    Debon, Aaron P.; Wootton, Robert C. R.

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of droplet-based microfluidic systems to many research fields stems from the fact that droplets are generally considered individual and self-contained reaction vessels. This study demonstrates that, more often than not, the integrity of droplets is not complete, and depends on a range of factors including surfactant type and concentration, the micro-channel surface, droplet storage conditions, and the flow rates used to form and process droplets. Herein, a model microfluidic device is used for droplet generation and storage to allow the comparative study of forty-four different oil/surfactant conditions. Assessment of droplet stability under these conditions suggests a diversity of different droplet failure modes. These failure modes have been classified into families depending on the underlying effect, with both numerical and qualitative models being used to describe the causative effect and to provide practical solutions for droplet failure amelioration in microfluidic systems. PMID:26015831

  18. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hui-Ya; Wu, Jin-Bin; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae), a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME) inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A), was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME. PMID:19942664

  19. Acetoacetate Accelerates Muscle Regeneration and Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoting; Meng, Jiao; Li, Li; Han, Wanhong; Li, Changyin; Zhong, Ran; Miao, Xuexia; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Dahai

    2016-01-29

    Acetoacetate (AA) is a ketone body and acts as a fuel to supply energy for cellular activity of various tissues. Here, we uncovered a novel function of AA in promoting muscle cell proliferation. Notably, the functional role of AA in regulating muscle cell function is further evidenced by its capability to accelerate muscle regeneration in normal mice, and it ameliorates muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Mechanistically, our data from multiparameter analyses consistently support the notion that AA plays a non-metabolic role in regulating muscle cell function. Finally, we show that AA exerts its function through activation of the MEK1-ERK1/2-cyclin D1 pathway, revealing a novel mechanism in which AA serves as a signaling metabolite in mediating muscle cell function. Our findings highlight the profound functions of a small metabolite as signaling molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:26645687

  20. Riluzole Ameliorates Harmaline-induced Tremor in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Shourmasti, Fatemeh Rahimi; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Laskarbolouki, Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive olivo-cerebellar burst-firing occurs during harmaline-induced tremor. We hypothesized that antiglutamatergic agents would suppress harmaline tremor. From this point of view, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of riluzole on harmaline-induced tremor in rat. Methods Four groups of Wistar rats weighing 80–100 g were injected with harmaline (30 mg/ kg i.p.) for inducing experimental tremors. The rats in group 1 served as control, whereas the animals in groups 2, 3 and 4 were also given riluzole intraperitonealy at doses of 2, 4 and 8 mg/ kg 30 min before and 90 min after harmaline administration. The onset latency, intensity and duration of tremor were recorded. Results The results of this study demonstrated that riluzole could significantly increase latency period, and reduce duration and intensity of tremor. Discussion It is concluded that pretreatment of riluzole can ameliorate harmaline-induced tremor in rats. PMID:25337372

  1. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    PubMed

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  2. Somatic Antigens of Tropical Liver Flukes Ameliorate Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Umar, Sadiq; Abidi, Syed M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminths polarize immune response of their vertebrate hosts towards anti-inflammatory Th2 type and therefore it is hypothesized that they may suppress the inflammatory conditions in autoimmune disorders. The present study was undertaken to investigate in vivo immunomodulatory and therapeutic potential of somatic antigens (Ag) of liver infecting digenetic trematodes [Fasciola gigantica (Fg) and Gigantocotyle explanatum (Ge)] in collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) Wistar rats. The CIA rats were administered subcutaneously with different doses (50 μg, 100 μg and 150 μg) of somatic antigens of Fg and Ge, daily for 21 days, the time period required to establish infection in natural host (Bubalus bubalis). Thereafter, the control, diseased and treated rats were compared for different parameters viz. hind paw thickness; serum interleukins, IL-4 and IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ); expression level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2, -9, -13 and nitric oxide (NO) in knee joints and patellar morphology. The CIA rats treated with different antigens, Fg-Ag and Ge-Ag, show significant amelioration of the disease by down regulation of serum TNF-α and IFN-γ (p< 0.05) and upregulation of IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines (p< 0.05); inhibition (p< 0.05) of MMPs (-2,-9,-13) and NO in knee joints and improved patellar morphology with decreased synovial hypertrophy and redu