Science.gov

Sample records for pacientes na fase

  1. The Moon Phases in a Paper Box. (Spanish Title: Las Fases de la Luna en Una Caja de Cartón.) As Fases da Lua Numa Caixa de Papelão

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima O. Saraiva, Maria; Amador, Cláudio B.; Kemper, Érico; Goulart, Paulo; Muller, Angela

    2007-12-01

    We present a very simple concrete model to demonstrate the concept of phases of an illuminated body. The main objective of our model is to help the understanding of the Moon phases as viewed from the perspective of an observer on Earth. The material allows the visualization of two important effects: (1st) even though all the time half Moon is illuminated by the Sun, we see different fractions of the illuminated Moon surface, depending on our angle of sight; (2nd) the orientation of the convex part of the Moon in the crescent and waning phases on the sky also depends on our perspective from Earth. The use of a closed box allows one to see the contrast among the different phases with no need of a dark room. We also present a text on the Moon phases, emphasizing the dependence of the aspect of the bright part on the angle of sight. En este trabajo proponemos la construcción de material didáctico de bajo costo para demostración del concepto de fases de un cuerpo iluminado. El principal objetivo de nuestro material es facilitar la comprensión de las fases de la Luna desde la perspectiva de un observador en la Tierra. El material ayuda la visualización de dos efectos importantes: (1º) a pesar de tener siempre la mitad de la Luna (representada por una bolita de espuma plástica o de ping-pong), iluminada por el Sol ( representado por una fuente de luz natural o artificial), vemos diferentes fracciones de su superficie iluminada, dependiendo del ángulo por el cual la vemos; (2º) la orientación del borde convexo de la Luna en las fases Creciente y Menguante también depende de la perspectiva por la cual la miramos desde la Tierra. El uso de una caja cerrada permite observar el contraste entre las diferentes fases sin necesidad de estar en un recinto oscuro. Presentamos también un texto explicativo sobre las fases de la Luna, enfatizando la dependencia de la apariencia de la parte iluminada con el ángulo de visión. Neste trabalho propomos a construção de material didático de baixo custo para demonstração do conceito de fases de um corpo iluminado. O principal objetivo de nosso material é facilitar a compreensão das fases da Lua da perspectiva de um observador na Terra. O material ajuda na visualização de dois efeitos importantes: (1º) mesmo tendo sempre a metade da "Lua" (representada por uma bolinha de isopor ou de ping-pong) iluminada pelo "Sol" (representado por uma fonte de luz natural ou artificial), nós vemos diferentes frações de sua superfície iluminada, dependendo do ângulo pelo qual a olhamos; (2º) a orientação da borda convexa da Lua nas fases Crescente e Minguante também depende da perspectiva pela qual a olhamos da Terra. O uso de uma caixa fechada permite observar o contraste entre as diferentes fases sem necessidade de estar em uma sala escurecida. Apresentamos também um texto explicativo sobre fases da Lua, enfatizando a dependência da aparência da parte iluminada com o ângulo de visada.

  2. The FASES instrument development and experiment preparation for the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picker, Gerold; Gollinger, Klaus; Greger, Ralf; Dettmann, Jan; Winter, Josef; Dewandre, Thierry; Castiglione, Luigi; Vincent-Bonnieu, Sebastien; Liggieri, Libero; Clausse, Daniele; Antoni, Mickael

    The FASES experiments target the investigation of the stability of emulsions. The main objec-tives are the study of the surfactant adsorption at the liquid / liquid interfaces, the interaction of the droplets as well as the behaviour of the liquid film between nearby drops. Particular focus is given to the dynamic droplet evolution during emulsion destabilisation. The results of the experiments shall support development of methods for the modelling of droplet size distri-butions, which are important to many industries using stable emulsions like food production, cosmetics and pharmaceutics or unstable emulsions as required for applications in waste water treatment or crude oil recovery. The development of the experimental instrumentation was initiated in 2002. The flight instru-ment hardware development was started in 2004 and finally the flight unit was completed in 2009. Currently the final flight preparation is proceeding targeting a launch to the International Space Station (ISS) with Progress 39P in September 2010. The experiment setup of the instrument is accommodated in a box type insert called Experiment Container (EC), which will be installed in the Fluid Science Laboratory part of the European Columbus module of the ISS. The EC is composed of two diagnostics instruments for the investigation of transparent and opaque liquid emulsion. The transparent emulsions will be subject to the experiment called "Investigations on drop/drop interactions in Transparent Emulsions" (ITEM). The opaque emulsion samples will be studied in the experiment called "Investigations on concentrated or opaque Emulsions and on Phase Inversions" (EMPI). The thermal conditioning unit (TCU) allows performing homogeneous thermalization, tem-perature sweeps, emulsion preparation by stirrer, and optical diagnostics with a scanning mi-croscope. The objective of the instrument is the 3D reconstruction of the emulsion droplet distribution in the liquid matrix in terms of the droplet sizes, location and their time depen-dent evolution. The TCU will be used for the stability experiment ITEM-S and the droplet freezing experiment ITEM-F. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) will give an information about the evolution of the emulsion through the droplet size distribution and the dispersion state of the droplets within the emulsion during a controlled temperature sweep by measuring the latent heat of droplet freezing and melting during the EMPI experiments. For this purpose the calorimeter is equipped with a reference sample filled with a pure liquid matrix and a similar measurement sample filled with the specific emulsion under investigation. The differential heat flux between measurement sample and reference sample is measured with a sensitive heat flux sensor. Each instrument is serviced by a robotic sample stowage system, which accommodates in total 44 different ITEM and EMPI emulsion samples each filled with a specific composition of the emulsion. Currently the flight preparation is ongoing with particular focus on the preparation of the emulsion flight sample set and the instrument's operating parameters. The FASES flight instrument was developed by ASTRIUM Space Transportation Germany with support of RUAG Aerospace Wallisellen under ESA / ESTEC contract. The science team of FASES is supported by ESA/ESTEC (Microgravity Application Programme, AO99-052).

  3. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua contínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  4. Detecção da fase impulsiva de uma explosão solar gigante até 405 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Makhmutov, V.; Kaufmann, P.; Pacini, A. A.; Luethi, T.; Hudson, H. S.; Gary, D. E.; Yoshimori, M.

    2003-08-01

    A explosão ocorrida no dia 25/08/2001 foi uma das mais intensas do presente ciclo solar em ondas de rádio de altas frequências. Foram medidas em ondas milimétricas e submilimétricas, aproximadamente, 105 e vários milhares de unidades de fluxo solar, respectivamente. Apresentamos um estudo deste evento em múltiplas frequências, desde microondas (1GHz), até ondas submilimétricas (405 GHz) detectadas pelo Telescópio Solar para ondas Submilimétricas (SST). Esta base de dados foi complementada utilizando-se o experimento Yohkoh, incluindo a emissão em raios-X duros e raios-g (até 100 MeV), e imagens em raios-X moles da região ativa envolvida. Enfocamos e discutimos principalmente os seguintes aspectos da fase impulsiva do evento: (i) as implicações deduzidas do espectro eletromagnético, obtido pela primeira vez até 405 GHz; (ii) a dinâmica da região ativa. Os resultados mostram que para explicar o espectro rádio observado, são necessários entre 3.5×1037 e 1.5×1039 elétrons acelerados acima de 20 keV em uma região de campo magnético entre 300 e 800 Gauss. A estimativa do fluxo de fótons que seria produzido por estes elétrons, mostra que grande parte deles não precipitou na baixa atmosfera. A evolução temporal da emissão em raios-X moles revela que a configuração magnética da região ativa foi muito dinâmica durante a fase impulsiva da explosão. Em particular, mostramos que a produção dos elétrons altamente energéticos foi iniciada junto com a aparição, na baixa coroa solar, de um novo sistema compacto de estruturas magnéticas. Este fato sugere que os locais de aceleração estão localizados na baixa atmosfera do Sol, como resultado da interação entre o novo sistema compacto e o campo magnético ambiente da região ativa.

  5. Lunar Phases and Earthly Events: Beliefs from Different Education Levels. (Spanish Title: Fases de la Luna y Acontecimientos Terrestres: Creencia de Distintos Niveles de Instrucción.) As Fases da Lua e os Acontecimentos Terrestres: a Crença de Diferentes Níveis de Instrução

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Teresinha Werner; Alves Vizzotto, Patrick; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro

    2013-12-01

    This article presents the result of a research carried out in the first semester of 2013 with a group of 80 subjects from different education levels. In this research, we sought to investigate the earthly events that this group of people attributes to the phenomenon of lunar phases. For data collection we used semi-structured interviews guided by questions that aimed to keep the focus on subjects of the investigation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and the results were compared to scientific studies in the area after being quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Research data showed that the Moon and the phenomenon of lunar phases still fascinate and raise the interest of people. However, the lack of knowledge to find correct explanations to the phenomena involving the moon ends up originating a series of beliefs about its influence on earthly events. En este artículo se presenta el resultado de una investigación realizada en el primer semestre de 2013 con a un grupo de 80 individuos de distintos niveles de instrucción. En esta investigación, tratamos de averiguar cuáles son los acontecimientos terrestres que este grupo de personas atribuye al fenómeno las fases lunares. Como instrumento de colecta de datos, se emplearon entrevistas semiestructuradas guiadas por preguntas que trataban de mantener la atención de los entrevistados en el objeto investigado. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcriptas, y los resultados, después de ser analizados cuantitatativa y cualitativamente, fueron confrontados con estudios científicos del área. Los datos de la investigación demuestran que la Luna y de sus fases continúan fascinando y despertando el interés de la población. Sin embargo, la falta de conocimientos para encontrar explicaciones correctas relacionadas a los fenómenos que ocurren con el astro acaba originando una serie de creencias en la población sobre su influencia en los sucesos terrestres. Apresenta-se neste artigo o resultado de uma pesquisa realizada no primeiro semestre de 2013 junto a um grupo de 80 sujeitos de diferentes níveis de instrução. Nesta pesquisa, buscou-se averiguar os acontecimentos terrestres que esse grupo de pessoas atribui ao fenômeno das fases lunares. Como instrumento de coleta de dados, foram empregadas entrevistas semiestruturadas guiadas por questões que buscavam manter a atenção dos entrevistados no objeto de investigação. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas, e os resultados, após serem analisados quanti e qualitativamente, foram confrontados com estudos científicos da área. Os dados da pesquisa demonstram que a Lua e suas fases continuam fascinando e despertando o interesse da população. No entanto, a falta de conhecimentos para proferir explicações corretas relativas aos fenômenos que ocorrem com o astro acaba originando uma série de crenças na população sobre sua influência nos acontecimentos terrestres.

  6. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teoría del Aprendizaje Significativo de David Ausubel, se buscó desenvolver la propuesta a partir de un modelo didáctico que simula las Fases de la Luna, usando como base las concepciones previas de los estudiantes. Los indicios del aprendizaje fueron verificados a través de registros de memorias de la actividad. Por los resultados obtenidos creemos que la propuesta alcanzó sus objetivos, una vez que los estudiantes consiguieron identificar y transferir el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna para nuevos contextos. Así, se concluye que una metodología con enfoque en un contenido significativo para el estudiante es fundamental para la construcción y comprensión genuina de lo que está siendo aprendido.

  7. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do teste notamos que a porcentagem de acertos a respeito de alguns conceitos teve um aumento significativo associado à reformulação da pergunta, ressaltando a importância de tomar cuidado para evitar respostas erradas geradas por perguntas pouco claras e não por ignorância do respondente sobre o assunto. Confirmamos os resultados de outros estudos de que as maiores dificuldades dos alunos sobre o tema Fases da Lua dizem respeito a relacionar a fase que a Lua apresenta com a sua posição no céu em determinada hora. Por outro lado, nossos resultados sugerem que, em geral, os estudantes de Física entendem melhor o fenômeno das fases lunares do que a média dos estudantes universitários.

  8. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  9. Framework for automated spatio-temporal enhancement of coarse resolution leaf area index (FASE-LAI) – Application to MODIS LAI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-scale satellite-based Framework for Automated Spatio-temporal Enhancement of coarse-resolution leaf area index (LAI) products (FASE-LAI) has ben established to generate 4-day time-series of Landsat-scale LAI, thereby meeting the critical demands of applications needing frequent and high spat...

  10. Etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos sobre el tratamiento y la atención del paciente de cáncer desde los últimos días hasta las últimas horas de vida; esto incluye los síntomas comunes, los dilemas éticos que pueden surgir y la función que desempeña el oncólogo en proveer cuidados al paciente y su familia durante este período.

  11. Drugs preventing Na+ and Ca2+ overload.

    PubMed

    Ravens, U; Himmel, H M

    1999-03-01

    Cardiac intracellular Na+and Ca2+homeostasis is regulated by the concerted action of ion channels, pumps and exchangers. The Na+, K+-ATPase produces the electrochemical concentration gradient for Na+, which is the driving force for Ca2+removal from the cytosol via the Na+/Ca2+exchange. Reduction of this gradient by increased intracellular Na+concentration leads to cellular Ca2+overload resulting in arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. Na+and Ca2+overload-associated arrhythmias can be produced experimentally by inhibition of Na+efflux (digitalis-induced intoxication) and by abnormal Na+influx via modulated Na+channels (veratridine, DPI 201-106; hypoxia) or via the Na+, H+exchanger. Theoretically, blockers of Na+and Ca2+channels, inhibitors of abnormal oscillatory release of Ca2+from internal stores or modulators of the Na+, Ca2+and Na+, H+exchanger activities could protect against cellular Na+and Ca2+overload. Three exemplary drugs that prevent Na+and Ca2+overload, i.e. the benzothiazolamine R56865, the methylenephenoxydioxy-derivative CP-060S, and the benzoyl-guanidine Hoe 642, a Na+, H+exchange blocker, are briefly reviewed with respect to their efficacy on digitalis-, veratridine- and ischaemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. PMID:10094840

  12. Na Deposition on MnO(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Cox, David F.

    2016-03-01

    Na deposition on the MnO(100) surface was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Na TPD and XPS results indicate that adsorbed Na interacts strongly with the MnO substrate to form an irreversibly-adsorbed, oxidic Na compound on the surface for coverages up to 1 monolayer (ML). This strongly-bound Na diffuses into the MnO subsurface and bulk at elevated temperatures above 500 K. For Na coverages above 1 ML, metallic Na is present and desorbs from the surface below 500 K. The deposition of Na on MnO(100) follows a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode, with the formation of metallic Na islands following completion of the first Na monolayer. After Na deposition, the surface exhibits a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern, suggesting the formation of disordered Na overlayers. After heating to 1000 K, the surface presents a (2 × 2) LEED pattern indicating that a surface reconstruction is induced by the diffusion of Na into the near surface region. CO2 can be used as a probe molecule in TPD to distinguish between metallic Na islands and oxidic Na in the first ML, and to indicate when Na that is still observable by XPS goes subsurface.

  13. Ultraviolet and blue NaHg and NaCd excimer bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azinović, D.; Pichler, G.

    1990-12-01

    We present the current-reversal spectra of the high pressure Na-Hg-Xe and Na-Cd-Xe lamps, from which the specific NaHg and NaCd structured continua have been observed. Detailed analysis revealed the existence of additional structure in the case of NaCd and NaHg blue diffuse bands. In the NaHg case the neighbourhood of the 330 nm sodium line revealed two satellite bands of NaHg origin, but almost no structure around the 330 nm sodium atomic line was found in the case of Na-Cd-Xe discharge lamp.

  14. Ultraviolet and blue NaHg and NaCd excimer bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azinovic, D.; Pichler, G.

    1990-12-01

    This paper presents the current-reversal spectra of the high pressure Na-Hg-Xe and Na-Cd-Xe lamps, from which the specific NaHg and NaCd structured continua have been observed. Detailed analysis revealed the existence of additional structure in the case of NaCd and NaHg blue diffuse bands. In the NaHg case, the neighborhood of the 330 nm sodium line revealed two satellite bands of NaHg origin, but almost no structure around the 330 nm sodium atomic line was found in the case of Na-Cd-Xe discharge lamp.

  15. Capacitación del personal y de los pacientes en torno a los cuidados terminales

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre programas innovadores de base científica para ayudar a médicos y pacientes a hablar sobre la transición de un tratamiento activo para el cáncer a los cuidados en la etapa final de la vida.

  16. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunción de la glándula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de cáncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia dirigida a la cabeza y el cuello.

  17. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de novos métodos pedagógicos.

  18. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  19. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  20. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, na62.web.cern.ch/NA62/Documents/TD_Full_doc_v1.pdf> [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work both in an input or an output mode. The trigger rates will be permanently monitored by reading counters at regular intervals. This paper describes the overall NA62 trigger system focusing on the setup for the dry and technical runs in 2012.

  1. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG workshops and in addition there were numerous smaller NA2 WG meetings during the conferences (EPSC, EGU, etc.) and other events. The total number of NA2 meetings and workshops was 37. There were three NA2 supported ISSI workshops within the Europlanet project. The first ISSI workshop "Comparison of the plasma-spheres of Mars, Venus, and Titan" organized by K. Szego was held in December 2009. The second workshop "Quantifying the Martian Geochemical Reservoirs" by M. Toplis was held in April 2011. The third one, themed "Giant Planet Magnetodiscs and Aurorae" by N. Krupp, N. Achilleos and C. Arridge, was in November 2012. All three ISSI workshops were selected by the ISSI scientific committee to be organized within the frame of ISSI/Europlanet agreement and held in Bern. The main objective of the Expert Exchange Program was to support the activities of Europlanet RI with experts whenever needed. The programme provided funding for short visits (up to one week) of expert with the goal of improving infrastructure facilities and services offered to the scientific community by the Europlanet RI participant (contractor) laboratories or institutes. Between July 2009 and September 2012 26 applications were selected. Acknowledgement: Europlanet RI was funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program, grant 228319 "Capacities Specific Programme" - Research Infrastructures Action. References: [1] http://www.europlanet-ri.eu/ [2] https://europlanet-scinet.fi/

  2. NA61/SHINE ion program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, Maja; NA61 Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN covers one of the most interesting regions of the phase diagram (T - ?B) of strongly interacting matter. The study of central Pb+Pb collisions by NA49 indicate that the threshold for deconfinement is reached already at the low SPS energies. Theoretical considerations predict a critical point of strongly interacting matter at energies accessible at the SPS. The NA61/SHINE experiment, a successor of the NA49 project, will study hadron production in p+p, p+A, h+A, and A+A reactions at various energies. The broad physics program includes the investigation of the properties of strongly interacting matter, as well as precision measurements of hadron spectra for the T2K neutrino experiment and for the Pierre Auger Observatory and KASCADE cosmic-ray projects. The main physics goals of the NA61/SHINE ion program are to study the properties of the onset of deconfinement at low SPS energies and to find signatures of the critical point of strongly interacting matter. To achieve these goals a broad range in the (T - ?B) phase diagram will be covered by performing an energy (10A-158A GeV/c) and system size (p+p, B+C, Ar+Ca, Xe+La) scan. The first data for this 2-D scan were taken in 2009, i.e. p+p interactions at 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 GeV/c beam energy. This contribution will summarize physics arguments for the NA61/SHINE ion program, show the detector performance and present the current status of the experiment and plans for the next years.

  3. Na+ Tolerance and Na+ Transport in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    TESTER, MARK; DAVENPORT, ROMOLA

    2003-01-01

    Tolerance to high soil [Na+] involves processes in many different parts of the plant, and is manifested in a wide range of specializations at disparate levels of organization, such as gross morphology, membrane transport, biochemistry and gene transcription. Multiple adaptations to high [Na+] operate concurrently within a particular plant, and mechanisms of tolerance show large taxonomic variation. These mechanisms can occur in all cells within the plant, or can occur in specific cell types, reflecting adaptations at two major levels of organization: those that confer tolerance to individual cells, and those that contribute to tolerance not of cells per se, but of the whole plant. Salt?tolerant cells can contribute to salt tolerance of plants; but we suggest that equally important in a wide range of conditions are processes involving the management of Na+ movements within the plant. These require specific cell types in specific locations within the plant catalysing transport in a coordinated manner. For further understanding of whole plant tolerance, we require more knowledge of cell?specific transport processes and the consequences of manipulation of transporters and signalling elements in specific cell types. PMID:12646496

  4. Compensatory regulation of Na+ absorption by Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+-Cl- cotransporter in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In mammals, internal Na+ homeostasis is maintained through Na+ reabsorption via a variety of Na+ transport proteins with mutually compensating functions, which are expressed in different segments of the nephrons. In zebrafish, Na+ homeostasis is achieved mainly through the skin/gill ionocytes, namely Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3b)-expressing H+-ATPase rich (HR) cells and Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC)-expressing NCC cells, which are functionally homologous to mammalian proximal and distal convoluted tubular cells, respectively. The present study aimed to investigate whether or not the functions of HR and NCC ionocytes are differentially regulated to compensate for disruptions of internal Na+ homeostasis and if the cell differentiation of the ionocytes is involved in this regulation pathway. Results Translational knockdown of ncc caused an increase in HR cell number and a resulting augmentation of Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae, while NHE3b loss-of-function caused an increase in NCC cell number with a concomitant recovery of Na+ absorption. Environmental acid stress suppressed nhe3b expression in HR cells and decreased Na+ content, which was followed by up-regulation of NCC cells accompanied by recovery of Na+ content. Moreover, knockdown of ncc resulted in a significant decrease of Na+ content in acid-acclimated zebrafish. Conclusions These results provide evidence that HR and NCC cells exhibit functional redundancy in Na+ absorption, similar to the regulatory mechanisms in mammalian kidney, and suggest this functional redundancy is a critical strategy used by zebrafish to survive in a harsh environment that disturbs body fluid Na+ homeostasis. PMID:23924428

  5. RELACIÓN MÉDICO PACIENTE: DERECHOS DEL ADULTO MAYOR

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados. La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones. PMID:20379380

  6. The effect of Na vapor on the Na content of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. Dean; Lofgren, Gary E.; Franzen, Hugo F.; Windom, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    Chondrules contain higher concentrations of volatiles (Na) than expected for melt droplets in the solar nebula. Recent studies have proposed that chondrules may have formed under non-canonical nebular conditions such as in particle/gas-rich clumps. Such chondrule formation areas may have contained significant Na vapor. To test the hypothesis of whether a Na-rich vapor would minimize Na volatilization reaction rates in a chondrule analog and maintain the Na value of the melt, experiments were designed where a Na-rich vapor could be maintained around the sample. A starting material with a melting point lower that typical chondrules was required to keep the logistics of working with Na volatilization from NaCl within the realm of feasibility. The Knippa basalt, a MgO-rich alkali olivine basalt with a melting temperature of 1325 +/- 5 C and a Na2O content of 3.05 wt%, was used as the chondrule analog. Experiments were conducted in a 1 atm, gas-mixing furnace with the fO2 controlled by a CO/CO2 gas mixture and fixed at the I-W buffer curve. To determine the extent of Na loss from the sample, initial experiments were conducted at high temperatures (1300 C - 1350 C) for duration of up to 72 h without a Na-rich vapor present. Almost all (up to 98%) Na was volatilized in runs of 72 h. Subsequent trials were conducted at 1330 C for 16 h in the presence of a Na-rich vapor, supplied by a NaCl-filled crucible placed in the bottom of the furnace. Succeeding Knudsen cell weight-loss mass-spectrometry analysis of NaCl determined the P(sub Na) for these experimental conditions to be in the 10(exp -6) atm range. This value is considered high for nebula conditions but is still plausible for non-canonical environments. In these trials the Na2O content of the glass was maintained or in some cases increased; Na2O values ranged from 2.62% wt to 4.37% wt. The Na content of chondrules may be controlled by the Na vapor pressure in the chondrule formation region. Most heating events capable of producing chondrules are sufficient to volatile Na. Sodium volatilization reaction rates will be reduced to varying degrees from melt droplets, depending on the magnitude of the P(sub Na) generated. A combination of Na vapor during, and Na diffusion back into chondrules after, formation could maintain and/or enrich Na concentrations in chondrules.

  7. Growth of binary organic NLO crystals: m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to grow 3.Nitroaniline (m.NA) crystals doped with 4.Nitroaniline (p.NA) and 2.chloro 4.Nitroaniline (CNA). The measured undercooling for m.NA, p.NA, and CNA were 0.21 tm K, 0.23 tm K, and 0.35 tm K respectively, where tm represents the melting temperature of the pure component. Because of the crystals' large heat of fusion and large undercooling, it was not possible to grow good quality crystals with low thermal gradients. In the conventional two-zone Bridgman furnace we had to raise the temperature of the hot zone above the decomposition temperature of CNA, p.NA, and m.NA to achieve the desired thermal gradient. To avoid decomposition, we used an unconventional Bridgman furnace. Two immiscible liquids, silicone oil and ethylene glycol, were used to build a special two-zone Bridgman furnace. A temperature gradient of 18 K/cm was achieved without exceeding the decomposition temperature of the crystal. The binary crystals, m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA, were grown in centimeter size in this furnace. X-ray and optical characterization showed good optical quality.

  8. Maintaining the Na atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Morgan, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  9. The effect of NA vapor on the NA content of chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. Dean; Lofgren, Gary E.; Franzen, Hugo F.; Windom, Kenneth E.

    1993-12-01

    Chondrules contain higher concentrations of volatiles (Na) than expected for melt droplets in the solar nebula. Recent studies have proposed that chondrules may have formed under non-canonical nebular conditions such as in particle/gas-rich clumps. Such chondrule formation areas may have contained significant Na vapor. To test the hypothesis of whether a Na-rich vapor would minimize Na volatilization reaction rates in a chondrule analog and maintain the Na value of the melt, experiments were designed where a Na-rich vapor could be maintained around the sample. A starting material with a melting point lower that typical chondrules was required to keep the logistics of working with Na volatilization from NaCl within the realm of feasibility. The Knippa basalt, a MgO-rich alkali olivine basalt with a melting temperature of 1325 +/- 5 C and a Na2O content of 3.05 wt%, was used as the chondrule analog. Experiments were conducted in a 1 atm, gas-mixing furnace with the fO2 controlled by a CO/CO2 gas mixture and fixed at the I-W buffer curve. To determine the extent of Na loss from the sample, initial experiments were conducted at high temperatures (1300 C - 1350 C) for duration of up to 72 h without a Na-rich vapor present. Almost all (up to 98%) Na was volatilized in runs of 72 h. Subsequent trials were conducted at 1330 C for 16 h in the presence of a Na-rich vapor, supplied by a NaCl-filled crucible placed in the bottom of the furnace. Succeeding Knudsen cell weight-loss mass-spectrometry analysis of NaCl determined the PNa for these experimental conditions to be in the 10-6 atm range. This value is considered high for nebula conditions but is still plausible for non-canonical environments. In these trials the Na2O content of the glass was maintained or in some cases increased; Na2O values ranged from 2.62% wt to 4.37% wt. The Na content of chondrules may be controlled by the Na vapor pressure in the chondrule formation region. Most heating events capable of producing chondrules are sufficient to volatile Na. Sodium volatilization reaction rates will be reduced to varying degrees from melt droplets, depending on the magnitude of the PNa generated. A combination of Na vapor during, and Na diffusion back into chondrules after, formation could maintain and/or enrich Na concentrations in chondrules.

  10. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  11. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  12. NA62 Low Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, V.

    2014-06-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN aims at a precision measurement of the ultra-rare decay K^+ rightarrow ?^+?bar?. A low mass ( 1.8%X0) spectrometer, whose construction is ongoing, has been designed to track charged kaon decays products. The system operates in vacuum, and will be operative in October 2014, when the first physics run is scheduled. The straw detector is made of 4 stations, each equipped with 1792 straws, arranged in 4 views (X, Y, U and V). A high aperture magnet (MNP33), placed between the second and the third chamber, provides a 0.36T dipole vertical B-field, required to measure the momentum of the charged particles. A 64-straws prototype was constructed in 2010. It was used as test bench for electronics commissioning and detector characterization. Time resolution and space-time relation were measured. A first test with a full chamber and final beam setup was performed in November 2012.

  13. Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Michael J; Ottolia, Michela; Bers, Donald M; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Bossuyt, Julie; Bridge, John H B; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Edwards, Andrew; Goldhaber, Joshua; Kaplan, Jack; Lingrel, Jerry B; Pavlovic, Davor; Philipson, Kenneth; Sipido, Karin R; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). While the relevance of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac function has been extensively investigated, the role of Na+ regulation in shaping heart function is often overlooked. Small changes in the cytoplasmic Na+ content have multiple effects on the heart by influencing intracellular Ca2+ and pH levels thereby modulating heart contractility. Therefore it is essential for heart cells to maintain Na+ homeostasis. Among the proteins that accomplish this task are the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/K+ pump (NKA). By transporting three Na+ ions into the cytoplasm in exchange for one Ca2+ moved out, NCX is one of the main Na+ influx mechanisms in cardiomyocytes. Acting in the opposite direction, NKA moves Na+ ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space against their gradient by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. A fine balance between these two processes controls the net amount of intracellular Na+ and aberrations in either of these two systems can have a large impact on cardiac contractility. Due to the relevant role of these two proteins in Na+ homeostasis, the emphasis of this review is on recent developments regarding the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and Na+/K+ pump and the controversies that still persist in the field. PMID:25772291

  14. Epithelial Na(+) channels are regulated by flow.

    PubMed

    Satlin, L M; Sheng, S; Woda, C B; Kleyman, T R

    2001-06-01

    Na(+) absorption in the renal cortical collecting duct (CCD) is mediated by apical epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs). The CCD is subject to continuous variations in intraluminal flow rate that we speculate alters hydrostatic pressure, membrane stretch, and shear stress. Although ENaCs share limited sequence homology with putative mechanosensitive ion channels in Caenorhabditis elegans, controversy exists as to whether ENaCs are regulated by biomechanical forces. We examined the effect of varying the rate of fluid flow on whole cell Na(+) currents (I(Na)) in oocytes expressing mouse alpha,beta,gamma-ENaC (mENaC) and on net Na(+) absorption in microperfused rabbit CCDs. Oocytes injected with mENaC but not water responded to the initiation of superfusate flow (to 4-6 ml/min) with a reversible threefold stimulation of I(Na) without a change in reversal potential. The increase in I(Na) was variable among oocytes. CCDs responded to a threefold increase in rate of luminal flow with a twofold increase in the rate of net Na(+) absorption. An increase in luminal viscosity achieved by addition of 5% dextran to the luminal perfusate did not alter the rate of net Na(+) absorption, suggesting that shear stress does not influence Na(+) transport in the CCD. In sum, our data suggest that flow stimulation of ENaC activity and Na(+) absorption is mediated by an increase in hydrostatic pressure and/or membrane stretch. We propose that intraluminal flow rate may be an important regulator of channel activity in the CCD. PMID:11352841

  15. Reduced Na+ uptake in the NaCl-hypersensitive sos1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, L; Zhu, J K

    1997-01-01

    Sos1 is an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with > 20 times higher sensitivity toward Na+ inhibition due to a defective high-affinity potassium-uptake system. We report here that sos1 accumulates less Na+ than the wild type in response to NaCl stress. The Na+ contents in sos1 seedlings exposed to 25 mM NaCl for 2 or more d are about 43% lower than those in the wild type. When assayed at 20 mM external NaCl, sos1 seedlings pretreated with low potassium have 32% lower Na+ uptake than the wild type. However, little difference in Na+ uptake could be measured when the seedlings were not pretreated with low potassium. Low-potassium treatment was shown to induce high-affinity potassium-uptake activity in Arabidopsis seedlings. No substantial difference in Na+ efflux between sos1 and the wild type was detected. The results show that the reduced Na+ accumulation in sos1 is due to a lower Na+ influx rate. Therefore, the sos1 mutation appears to disrupt low-affinity Na+ uptake in addition to its impairment of high-affinity K+ uptake. PMID:9085573

  16. Inelastic processes in Na+-Ne, Na+-Ar, Ne+-Na, and Ar+-Na collisions in the energy range 0.5-14 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomsadze, R. A.; Gochitashvili, M. R.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2015-12-01

    Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization, and excitation in Na+-Ne and Na+-Ar collisions were measured in the ion energy range 0.5 -10 keV using a refined version of a capacitor method and collision and optical spectroscopy methods simultaneously in the same experimental setup. Ionization cross sections for Ne+-Na and Ar+-Na collisions are measured at energies of 2 -14 keV using a crossed-beam spectroscopy method. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. For the charge-exchange process in Na+-Ar collisions two nonadiabatic regions are revealed and mechanisms responsible for these regions are explained. Structural peculiarity on the excitation function for the resonance lines of argon atoms in Na+-Ar collisions are observed and the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are explored. The measured ionization cross sections for Na+-Ne and Ne+-Na collisions in conjunction with the Landau-Zener formula are used to determine the coupling matrix element and transition probability in a region of pseudocrossing of the potential curves.

  17. Genome Sequence of Salmonella Phage 9NA.

    PubMed

    Casjens, Sherwood R; Leavitt, Justin C; Hatfull, Graham F; Hendrix, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    The virulent double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage 9NA infects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and has a long noncontractile tail. We report its complete 52,869-bp genome sequence. Phage 9NA and two closely related S. enterica serovar Newport phages represent a tailed phage type whose molecular lifestyle has not yet been studied in detail. PMID:25146133

  18. Genome Sequence of Salmonella Phage 9NA

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Justin C.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The virulent double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage 9NA infects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and has a long noncontractile tail. We report its complete 52,869-bp genome sequence. Phage 9NA and two closely related S. enterica serovar Newport phages represent a tailed phage type whose molecular lifestyle has not yet been studied in detail. PMID:25146133

  19. Na3DyCl6

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Christian M.; Meyer, Gerd; Schleid, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, tris­odium hexa­chloridodysprosate, Na3DyCl6, were obtained as a by-product of synthesis using dysprosium(III) chloride and sodium chloride among others. The monoclinic structure with its typical β angle close to 90° [90.823 (4)°] is isotypic with the mineral cryolite (Na3AlF6) and the high-temperature structure of the Na3 MCl6 series, with M = Eu–Lu, Y and Sc. The isolated, almost perfect [DyCl6]3− octa­hedra are inter­connected via two crystallographically different Na+ cations: while one Na+ resides on centres of symmetry (as well as Dy3+) and also builds almost perfect, isolated [NaCl6]5− octa­hedra, the other Na+ is surrounded by seven chloride anions forming a distorted [NaCl7]6− trigonal prism with just one cap as close secondary contact. PMID:21754259

  20. Regulation of Na+ fluxes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Maathuis, Frans J. M.; Ahmad, Izhar; Patishtan, Juan

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to salt, every plant takes up Na+ from the environment. Once in the symplast, Na+ is distributed within cells and between different tissues and organs. There it can help to lower the cellular water potential but also exert potentially toxic effects. Control of Na+ fluxes is therefore crucial and indeed, research shows that the divergence between salt tolerant and salt sensitive plants is not due to a variation in transporter types but rather originates in the control of uptake and internal Na+ fluxes. A number of regulatory mechanisms has been identified based on signaling of Ca2+, cyclic nucleotides, reactive oxygen species, hormones, or on transcriptional and post translational changes of gene and protein expression. This review will give an overview of intra- and intercellular movement of Na+ in plants and will summarize our current ideas of how these fluxes are controlled and regulated in the early stages of salt stress. PMID:25278946

  1. Cytosolic Na+ Controls an Epithelial Na+ Channel Via the Go Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Regulatory Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komwatana, P.; Dinudom, A.; Young, J. A.; Cook, D. I.

    1996-07-01

    In tight Na+-absorbing epithelial cells, the rate of Na+ entry through amiloride-sensitive apical membrane Na+ channels is matched to basolateral Na+ extrusion so that cell Na+ concentration and volume remain steady. Control of this process by regulation of apical Na+ channels has been attributed to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration or pH, secondary to changes in cytosolic Na+ concentration, although cytosolic Cl- seems also to be involved. Using mouse mandibular gland duct cells, we now demonstrate that increasing cytosolic Na+ concentration inhibits apical Na+ channels independent of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, pH, or Cl-, and the effect is blocked by GDP-β -S, pertussis toxin, and antibodies against the α -subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Go). In contrast, the inhibitory effect of cytosolic anions is blocked by antibodies to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Gi1/Gi2. It thus appears that apical Na+ channels are regulated by Go and Gi proteins, the activities of which are controlled, respectively, by cytosolic Na+ and Cl-.

  2. Extracellular Na+ levels regulate formation and activity of the NaX/alpha1-Na+/K+-ATPase complex in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Berret, Emmanuelle; Smith, Pascal Y.; Henry, Mélaine; Soulet, Denis; Hébert, Sébastien S.; Toth, Katalin; Mouginot, Didier; Drolet, Guy

    2014-01-01

    MnPO neurons play a critical role in hydromineral homeostasis regulation by acting as sensors of extracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]out). The mechanism underlying Na+-sensing involves Na+-flow through the NaX channel, directly regulated by the Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform which controls Na+-influx by modulating channel permeability. Together, these two partners form a complex involved in the regulation of intracellular sodium ([Na+]in). Here we aim to determine whether environmental changes in Na+ could actively modulate the NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase complex activity. We investigated the complex activity using patch-clamp recordings from rat MnPO neurons and Neuro2a cells. When the rats were fed with a high-salt-diet, or the [Na+] in the culture medium was increased, the activity of the complex was up-regulated. In contrast, drop in environmental [Na+] decreased the activity of the complex. Interestingly under hypernatremic condition, the colocalization rate and protein level of both partners were up-regulated. Under hyponatremic condition, only NaX protein expression was increased and the level of NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase remained unaltered. This unbalance between NaX and Na+/K+-ATPase pump proportion would induce a bigger portion of Na+/K+-ATPase-control-free NaX channel. Thus, we suggest that hypernatremic environment increases NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform activity by increasing the number of both partners and their colocalization rate, whereas hyponatremic environment down-regulates complex activity via a decrease in the relative number of NaX channels controlled by the pump. PMID:25538563

  3. Na and K Dependence of the Na/K Pump in Cystic Fibrosis Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Vivian M.; Schneider, Jerry A.; Mendoza, Stanley A.

    1981-11-01

    The Na and K dependence of the Na/K pump was measured in skin fibroblasts from patients with cystic fibrosis and age/sex-matched controls. Under basal conditions, there was no difference between control and cystic fibrosis cells in protein per cell, intracellular Na and K content, or Na/K pump activity (measured as ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake). There was no difference in the Na dependence of the Na/K pump between cystic fibrosis cells and control cells. In cells from patients with cystic fibrosis, the Na/K pump had a significantly lower affinity for K (Km = 1.6 mM) when compared to normals (Km = 0.9 mM). This difference was demonstrated by using two independent experimental designs.

  4. Electrogenic Na+/Ca2+ Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Danaceau, Jonathan P.; Lucero, Mary T.

    2000-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) from the squid, Lolliguncula brevis, respond to the odors l-glutamate or dopamine with increases in internal Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i). To directly asses the effects of increasing [Ca2+]i in perforated-patched squid ORNs, we applied 10 mM caffeine to release Ca2+ from internal stores. We observed an inward current response to caffeine. Monovalent cation replacement of Na+ from the external bath solution completely and selectively inhibited the caffeine-induced response, and ruled out the possibility of a Ca2+-dependent nonselective cation current. The strict dependence on internal Ca2+ and external Na+ indicated that the inward current was due to an electrogenic Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Block of the caffeine-induced current by an inhibitor of Na+/Ca2+ exchange (50–100 μM 2′,4′-dichlorobenzamil) and reversibility of the exchanger current, further confirmed its presence. We tested whether Na+/Ca2+ exchange contributed to odor responses by applying the aquatic odor l-glutamate in the presence and absence of 2′,4′-dichlorobenzamil. We found that electrogenic Na+/Ca2+ exchange was responsible for ∼26% of the total current associated with glutamate-induced odor responses. Although Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are known to be present in ORNs from numerous species, this is the first work to demonstrate amplifying contributions of the exchanger current to odor transduction. PMID:10828249

  5. NMR studies on Na+ transport in Synechococcus PCC 6311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitschmann, W. H.; Packer, L.

    1992-01-01

    The freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6311 is able to adapt to grow after sudden exposure to salt (NaCl) stress. We have investigated the mechanism of Na+ transport in these cells during adaptation to high salinity. Na+ influx under dark aerobic conditions occurred independently of delta pH or delta psi across the cytoplasmic membrane, ATPase activity, and respiratory electron transport. These findings are consistent with the existence of Na+/monovalent anion cotransport or simultaneous Na+/H+ +anion/OH- exchange. Na+ influx was dependent on Cl-, Br-, NO3-, or NO2-. No Na+ uptake occurred after addition of NaI, NaHCO3, or Na2SO4. Na+ extrusion was absolutely dependent on delta pH and on an ATPase activity and/or on respiratory electron transport. This indicates that Na+ extrusion via Na+/H+ exchange is driven by primary H+ pumps in the cytoplasmic membrane. Cells grown for 4 days in 0.5 m NaCl medium, "salt-grown cells," differ from control cells by a lower maximum velocity of Na+ influx and by lower steady-state ratios of [Na+]in/[Na+]out. These results indicate that cells grown in high-salt medium increase their capacity to extrude Na+. During salt adaptation Na+ extrusion driven by respiratory electron transport increased from about 15 to 50%.

  6. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  7. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase: Clinical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2003-01-01

    The specific binding of digitalis glycosides to Na,K-ATPase is used as a tool for Na,K-ATPase quantification with high accuracy and precision. In myocardial biopsies from patients with heart failure, total Na,K-ATPase concentration is decreased by around 40%; a correlation exists between a decrease in heart function and a decrease in Na,K-ATPase concentration. During digitalization, around 30% of remaining pumps are occupied by digoxin. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase is also influenced by other drugs used for the treatment of heart failure. Thus, potassium loss during diuretic therapy has been found to reduce myocardial Na,K-ATPase, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may stimulate Na,K pump activity. Furthermore, hyperaldosteronism induced by heart failure has been found to decrease Na,K-ATPase activity. Accordingly, treatment with the aldosterone antagonist, spironolactone, may also influence Na,K-ATPase activity. The importance of Na,K pump modulation with heart disease, inhibition in digitalization and other effects of medication should be considered in the context of sodium, potassium and calcium regulation. It is recommended that digoxin be administered to heart failure patients who, after institution of mortality-reducing therapy, still have heart failure symptoms, and that the therapy be continued if symptoms are revealed or reduced. Digitalis glycosides are the only safe inotropic drugs for oral use that improve hemodynamics in heart failure. An important aspect of myocardial Na,K pump affection in heart disease is its influence on extracellular potassium (Ke) homeostasis. Two important aspects should be considered: potassium handling among myocytes, and effects of potassium entering the extracellular space of the heart via the bloodstream. It should be noted that both of these aspects of Ke homeostasis are affected by regulatory aspects, eg, regulation of the Na,K pump by physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as by medical treatments. Digitalization has been shown to affect both parameters. Furthermore, in experimental animals, potassium loading and depletion are found to significantly affect Ke handling. The effects of potassium depletion are of special interest because this condition often occurs in patients treated with diuretics. In human congenital long QT syndrome caused by mutations in genes coding for potassium channels, exercise and potassium depletion are well known for their potential to elicit arrhythmias and sudden death. There is a need for further evaluation of the dynamic aspects of potassium handling in the heart, as well as in the periphery. It is recommended that resting plasma potassium be maintained at around 4 mmol/L. PMID:19641704

  8. Capsazepine, a synthetic vanilloid that converts the Na,K-ATPase to Na-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A.

    2008-01-01

    Capsazepine (CPZ), a synthetic capsaicin analogue, inhibits ATP hydrolysis by Na,K-ATPase in the presence but not in the absence of K+. Studies with purified membranes revealed that CPZ reduced Na+-dependent phosphorylation by interference with Na+ binding from the intracellular side of the membrane. Kinetic analyses showed that CPZ stabilized an enzyme species that constitutively occluded K+. Low-affinity ATP interaction with the enzyme was strongly reduced after CPZ treatment; in contrast, indirectly measured interaction with ADP was much increased, which suggests that composite regulatory communication with nucleotides takes place during turnover. Studies with lipid vesicles revealed that CPZ reduced ATP-dependent digitoxigenin-sensitive 22Na+ influx into K+-loaded vesicles only at saturating ATP concentrations. The drug apparently abolishes the regulatory effect of ATP on the pump. Drawing on previous homology modeling studies of Na,K-ATPase to atomic models of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase and on kinetic data, we propose that CPZ uncouples an Na+ cycle from an Na+/K+ cycle in the pump. The Na+ cycle possibly involves transport through the recently characterized Na+-specific site. A shift to such an uncoupled mode is believed to produce pumps mediating uncoupled Na+ efflux by modifying the transport stoichiometry of single pump units. PMID:18230728

  9. Glutathionylation-Dependence of Na(+)-K(+)-Pump Currents Can Mimic Reduced Subsarcolemmal Na(+) Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alvaro; Liu, Chia-Chi; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2016-03-01

    The existence of a subsarcolemmal space with restricted diffusion for Na(+) in cardiac myocytes has been inferred from a transient peak electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current beyond steady state on reexposure of myocytes to K(+) after a period of exposure to K(+)-free extracellular solution. The transient peak current is attributed to enhanced electrogenic pumping of Na(+) that accumulated in the diffusion-restricted space during pump inhibition in K(+)-free extracellular solution. However, there are no known physical barriers that account for such restricted Na(+) diffusion, and we examined if changes of activity of the Na(+)-K(+) pump itself cause the transient peak current. Reexposure to K(+) reproduced a transient current beyond steady state in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes as reported by others. Persistence of it when the Na(+) concentration in patch pipette solutions perfusing the intracellular compartment was high and elimination of it with K(+)-free pipette solution could not be reconciled with restricted subsarcolemmal Na(+) diffusion. The pattern of the transient current early after pump activation was dependent on transmembrane Na(+)- and K(+) concentration gradients suggesting the currents were related to the conformational poise imposed on the pump. We examined if the currents might be accounted for by changes in glutathionylation of the ?1 Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the pump. Susceptibility of the ?1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na(+)-K(+) pump, and glutathionylation with the pump stabilized in conformations equivalent to those expected to be imposed on voltage-clamped myocytes supported this hypothesis. So did elimination of the transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current when we included glutaredoxin 1 in patch pipette solutions to reverse glutathionylation. We conclude that transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current reflects the effect of conformation-dependent ?1 pump subunit glutathionylation, not restricted subsarcolemmal diffusion of Na(+). PMID:26958887

  10. Catalysis of Na+ permeation in the bacterial sodium channel Na(V)Ab.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Nilmadhab; Ing, Christopher; Payandeh, Jian; Zheng, Ning; Catterall, William A; Pomès, Régis

    2013-07-01

    Determination of a high-resolution 3D structure of voltage-gated sodium channel Na(V)Ab opens the way to elucidating the mechanism of ion conductance and selectivity. To examine permeation of Na(+) through the selectivity filter of the channel, we performed large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of Na(V)Ab in an explicit, hydrated lipid bilayer at 0 mV in 150 mM NaCl, for a total simulation time of 21.6 μs. Although the cytoplasmic end of the pore is closed, reversible influx and efflux of Na(+) through the selectivity filter occurred spontaneously during simulations, leading to equilibrium movement of Na(+) between the extracellular medium and the central cavity of the channel. Analysis of Na(+) dynamics reveals a knock-on mechanism of ion permeation characterized by alternating occupancy of the channel by 2 and 3 Na(+) ions, with a computed rate of translocation of (6 ± 1) × 10(6) ions⋅s(-1) that is consistent with expectations from electrophysiological studies. The binding of Na(+) is intimately coupled to conformational isomerization of the four E177 side chains lining the extracellular end of the selectivity filter. The reciprocal coordination of variable numbers of Na(+) ions and carboxylate groups leads to their condensation into ionic clusters of variable charge and spatial arrangement. Structural fluctuations of these ionic clusters result in a myriad of ion binding modes and foster a highly degenerate, liquid-like energy landscape propitious to Na(+) diffusion. By stabilizing multiple ionic occupancy states while helping Na(+) ions diffuse within the selectivity filter, the conformational flexibility of E177 side chains underpins the knock-on mechanism of Na(+) permeation. PMID:23803856

  11. Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in NaBH4-NaBF4.

    PubMed

    Rude, L H; Filsø, U; D'Anna, V; Spyratou, A; Richter, B; Hino, S; Zavorotynska, O; Baricco, M; Sørby, M H; Hauback, B C; Hagemann, H; Besenbacher, F; Skibsted, J; Jensen, T R

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in the NaBH4-NaBF4 system is investigated using a range of experimental methods combined with DFT calculations and a possible mechanism for the reactions is proposed. Fluorine substitution is observed using in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) as a new Rock salt type compound with idealized composition NaBF2H2 in the temperature range T = 200 to 215 °C. Combined use of solid-state (19)F MAS NMR, FT-IR and DFT calculations supports the formation of a BF2H2(-) complex ion, reproducing the observation of a (19)F chemical shift at -144.2 ppm, which is different from that of NaBF4 at -159.2 ppm, along with the new absorption bands observed in the IR spectra. After further heating, the fluorine substituted compound becomes X-ray amorphous and decomposes to NaF at ~310 °C. This work shows that fluorine-substituted borohydrides tend to decompose to more stable compounds, e.g. NaF and BF3 or amorphous products such as closo-boranes, e.g. Na2B12H12. The NaBH4-NaBF4 composite decomposes at lower temperatures (300 °C) compared to NaBH4 (476 °C), as observed by thermogravimetric analysis. NaBH4-NaBF4 (1:0.5) preserves 30% of the hydrogen storage capacity after three hydrogen release and uptake cycles compared to 8% for NaBH4 as measured using Sievert's method under identical conditions, but more than 50% using prolonged hydrogen absorption time. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity tends to decrease possibly due to the formation of NaF and Na2B12H12. On the other hand, the additive sodium fluoride appears to facilitate hydrogen uptake, prevent foaming, phase segregation and loss of material from the sample container for samples of NaBH4-NaF. PMID:24071912

  12. Substitutional NaCl hydration in ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feibelman, Peter J.

    2007-03-01

    Na^+ and Cl^- can replace water molecules in ice Ih, with minimal lattice strain and without disrupting the crystal's H-bond network. Ab initio calculations show that substitutional solvation is optimally endothermic by only 0.50 eV per NaCl formula unit. Consistent with Na^+ and Cl^- ionic radii of 1.0 and 1.8 å, Na^+ ions in the optimal structure lie 2.43 å from their four equidistant, nearest O-atom neighbors, and the Cl^- ions 3.02 å from theirs. Solvation of interstitial ions is less favorable by at least 1.5 eV. These results are cautionary for molecular dynamics simulations of ionic solvation in ice; a correction for the presence of water interstitials is needed if the number of molecules in the simulation cell is chosen too large, and another for the generation of free Bjerrum defects, if anion and cation solvation are treated separately.

  13. Anamorphic high-NA EUV lithography optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migura, Sascha; Kneer, Bernhard; Neumann, Jens Timo; Kaiser, Winfried; van Schoot, Jan

    2015-09-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) for a limit resolution below 8 nm requires the numerical aperture (NA) of the projection optics to be larger than 0.50. For such a high-NA optics a configuration of 4x magnification, full field size of 26 x 33 mm² and 6'' mask is not feasible anymore. The increased chief ray angle and higher NA at reticle lead to non-acceptable mask shadowing effects. These shadowing effects can only be controlled by increasing the magnification, hence reducing the system productivity or demanding larger mask sizes. We demonstrate that the best compromise in imaging, productivity and field split is a so-called anamorphic magnification and a half field of 26 x 16.5 mm² but utilizing existing 6'' mask infrastructure. We discuss the optical solutions for such anamorphic high-NA EUVL.

  14. Two-step melting of Na41+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamith, Sébastien; Labastie, Pierre; Chirot, Fabien; L'Hermite, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    The heat capacity of the mass selected Na41+ cluster has been measured using a differential nanocalorimetry method. A two-peak structure appears in the heat capacity curve of Na41+, whereas Schmidt and co-workers [M. Schmidt, J. Donges, Th. Hippler, and H. Haberland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103401 (2003)] observed, within their experimental accuracy, a smooth caloric curve. They concluded from the absence of any structure that there is a second order melting transition in Na41+ with no particular feature such as premelting. The observed difference with the latter results is attributed to the better accuracy of our method owing to its differential character. The two structures in the heat capacity are ascribed to melting and premelting of Na41+. The peak at lower temperature is likely due to an anti-Mackay to Mackay solid-solid transition.

  15. Two-step melting of Na(41)(+).

    PubMed

    Zamith, Sébastien; Labastie, Pierre; Chirot, Fabien; L'hermite, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-21

    The heat capacity of the mass selected Na(41) (+) cluster has been measured using a differential nanocalorimetry method. A two-peak structure appears in the heat capacity curve of Na(41) (+), whereas Schmidt and co-workers [M. Schmidt, J. Donges, Th. Hippler, and H. Haberland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103401 (2003)] observed, within their experimental accuracy, a smooth caloric curve. They concluded from the absence of any structure that there is a second order melting transition in Na(41) (+) with no particular feature such as premelting. The observed difference with the latter results is attributed to the better accuracy of our method owing to its differential character. The two structures in the heat capacity are ascribed to melting and premelting of Na(41) (+). The peak at lower temperature is likely due to an anti-Mackay to Mackay solid-solid transition. PMID:20969397

  16. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3, KNO3-NaNO3, and NaCl-KNO3 Salt Mixtures From 90 to 120?C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Craig, L; Wolery, T J

    2004-10-20

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems from 90 to 120 C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Discrepancy between model prediction and experimental code can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25 C models for Cl-NO{sub 3} and K-NO{sub 3} ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the non-ideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

  17. Adaptación al cáncer: ansiedad y sufrimiento (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las difíciles respuestas emocionales que se presentan en muchos de los pacientes con cáncer. Este sumario se enfoca en asuntos de la adaptación normal, alteración psicosocial y trastornos de adaptación.

  18. Laser light-induced drift of radioactive {sup 22}Na and {sup 24}Na

    SciTech Connect

    Gangrskii, Y.P.; Zemlyanoi, S.G.; Zuzaan, P.

    1994-09-01

    Laser light-induced drift of {sup 22}Na and {sup 24}Na in Kr as the buffer gas is investigated. The resonance frequency at which the {sup 22}Na and {sup 24}Na atoms drift in opposite directions is determined for the D{sub 2} line. The distribution of both isotopes along the drift tube was measured at 300 K and 1000 K. These measurements were performed by recording the {gamma}-rays emitted as the isotopes decay. An isotope separation factor of up to 20 with an efficiency of 50% and drift velocity of 1.1 m/s was achieved. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain- sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS- treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES- buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o. Addition of 10 mM Ko to tartrate i,o ghosts, with or without Cli,o, resulted in full activation of Na/K exchange and the pump's electrogenicity. Although it can be concluded that Na efflux in the uncoupled mode occurs by means of a cotransport with cellular anions, the molecular basis for this change in the internal charge structure of the pump and its change in ion selectivity is at present unknown. PMID:2212979

  20. Na clusters on metal supported Ar layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, B.; Dinh, P. M.; Reinhard, P. G.; Suraud, E.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate from a theoretical perspective structure and dynamics of Na clusters on a surface built from Ar layers grown on a metal support. The system is modeled by a hierarchical quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) approach treating the cluster electrons with time-dependent density-functional theory, the Ar atoms classically, and the metal support as a continuous dielectric medium. Caution has been taken to describe properly the dynamical polarizability of the Ar substrate. We study the effect of the Ar substrate and particularly of the metal support on the cluster structure and dynamics. The binding of Na6 and Na8 to the Ar surface is found to by very weak and the effect of the dielectric response of the metal (DRM) turns out to be negligible. The global properties of the optical response of the Na clusters are slightly changed by the Ar substrate and the DRM while the detailed spectral fragmentation depends sensitively on any change of the environment. The deposition dynamics of small Na clusters is crucially influenced by the mechanical hardness of the metal support while the DRM makes little effect. We also study the dependence on the number of Ar layers. For the first few layers (from two to four), the deposition dynamics changes dramatically with the number of layers. The results stabilize from six layers on upwards.

  1. Na-ion dynamics in Quasi-1D compound NaV2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Månsson, M.; Umegaki, I.; Nozaki, H.; Higuchi, Y.; Kawasaki, I.; Watanabe, I.; Sakurai, H.; Sugiyama, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have used the pulsed muon source at ISIS to study high-temperature Na-ion dynamics in the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) metallic antiferromagnet NaV2O4. By performing systematic zero-field and longitudinal-field measurements as a function of temperature we clearly distinguish that the hopping rate increases exponentially above Tdiff ≈ 250 K. The data is well fitted to an Arrhenius type equation typical for a diffusion process, showing that the Na-ions starts to be mobile above Tdiff. Such results make this compound very interesting for the tuning of Q1D magnetism using atomic-scale ion-texturing through the periodic potential from ordered Na-vacancies. Further, it also opens the door to possible use of NaV2O4 and related compounds in energy related applications.

  2. Long-Range Effects of Na(+) Binding in Na,K-ATPase Reported by ATP.

    PubMed

    Middleton, David A; Fedosova, Natalya U; Esmann, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the question of long-range interactions between the intramembranous cation binding sites and the cytoplasmic nucleotide binding site of the ubiquitous ion-transporting Na,K-ATPase using (13)C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. High-affinity ATP binding is induced by the presence of Na(+) as well as of Na-like substances such as Tris(+), and these ions are equally efficient promoters of nucleotide binding. CP-MAS analysis of bound ATP with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney membranes reveals subtle differences in the nucleotide interactions within the nucleotide site depending on whether Na(+) or Tris(+) is used to induce binding. Differences in chemical shifts for ATP atoms C1' and C5' observed in the presence of Na(+) or Tris(+) suggest alterations in the residues surrounding the bound nucleotide, hydrogen bonding, and/or conformation of the ribose ring. This is taken as evidence of a long-distance communication between the Na(+)-filled ion sites in the membrane interior and the nucleotide binding site in the cytoplasmic domain and reflects the first conformational change ultimately leading to phosphorylation of the enzyme. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements with the nucleotide analogue eosin show that the dissociation rate constant for eosin is larger in Tris(+) than in Na(+), giving kinetic evidence of the difference in structural effects of Na(+) and Tris(+). According to the recent crystal structure of the E1·AlF4(-)·ADP·3Na(+) form, the coupling between the ion binding sites and the nucleotide side is mediated by, among others, the M5 helix. PMID:26538123

  3. Molecular mechanisms of NaCl cotransport.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M R; Mount, D B; Delpire, E

    1996-01-01

    Electroneutral Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters are present in most cell types, where they play an important role in both sodium-chloride absorption and secretion and cell volume regulation. Recent advances in the molecular identification of these cotransporters have provided a new level of insight into the mechanisms of sodium-chloride-coupled cotransport and its regulation. Here we review what is known about the Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters cloned to date and what can be deduced about their structure and function and summarize recent physiological investigations of the regulation of Na-(K)-Cl cotransport. These studies represent the beginning of an exciting and rapidly expanding field examining the molecular mechanisms of sodium-chloride-coupled cotransport. PMID:8815813

  4. NaCd excimer emission bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, G.; Veža, D.; Fijan, D.

    1988-06-01

    The analysis of the visible spectrum of a high pressure sodium lamp filled with sodium, cadium and xenon revealed the existence of NaCd excimer spectral features. These are four red satellite bands at 691, 697, 709 and 726.5 nm and diffuse bands peaking at 479.1 and 484.3 nm. Both spectral phenomena are related to those found earlier for the NaHg system. An interpretation of the red satellite bands origin is given in terms of a qualitative model for the four lowest potential curves of the NaCd excimer. In this model the essential feature is the avoided crossing between B 2∑ 1/2 and A 2∏ 1/2 electronic states, which causes a complex structure of the satellite bands in the very far red wing of the sodium D lines broadened by cadmium.

  5. Possible pathway of Na(+) flux into mitochondria in ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Tanonaka, Kouichi; Motegi, Kanataka; Arino, Toru; Marunouchi, Tetsuro; Takagi, Norio; Takeo, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that myocardial Na(+) overload during ischemia directly induced mitochondrial damage. The pathway for Na(+) flux into mitochondria remains unclear. We examined possible routes for Na(+) flux into mitochondria in the ischemic heart. Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 15- to 35-min ischemia followed by 60-min reperfusion and then Na(+) content and respiratory function in mitochondria of the ischemic heart were determined. The mitochondrial Na(+) content of the ischemic heart was ischemic duration-dependently increased, associated with a reduction in mitochondrial respiratory function. To mimic induction of mitochondrial Na(+) overload in vitro, isolated mitochondria were incubated with 6.25 to 50 mM NaCl or sodium lactate, a metabolite of anaerobic glycolysis, in the presence and absence of a mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor CGP37157 and a monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHCA). Incubation of mitochondria with NaCl or sodium lactate increased the mitochondrial Na(+) concentration. This increase in mitochondrial Na(+) was partially attenuated by the presence of either inhibitor. Combined treatment of mitochondria with both inhibitors attenuated sodium lactate-induced increase in Na(+) content to a greater degree than that treated with either agent. These results suggest that mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and MCT inhibitor-sensitive Na(+) transporter are possible pathways for the mitochondrial Na(+) overload in the ischemic myocardium. PMID:23037156

  6. Concentration dependence of Li+/Na+ diffusion in manganese hexacyanoferrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takachi, Masamitsu; Fukuzumi, Yuya; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Manganese hexacyanoferrates (Mn-HCFs) with a jungle-gym-type structure are promising cathode materials for Li+/Na+ secondary batteries (LIBs/SIBs). Here, we investigated the diffusion constants D Li/D Na of Li+/Na+ against the Li+/Na+ concentration x Na/x Li and temperature (T) of A 1.32Mn[Fe(CN)6]0.833.6H2O (A = Li and Na). We evaluated the activation energy E\\text{a}\\text{Li}/E\\text{a}\\text{Na} of D Li/D Na against x Na/x Li. We found that E\\text{a}\\text{Na} steeply increases with x Na from 0.41 eV at x Na = 0.69 to 0.7 eV at 1.1. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Na} is ascribed to the occupancy effect of the Na+ site. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Li} is suppressed, probably because the number of Li+ sites is three times that of Na+ sites.

  7. Peripheral effects of thyroid hormones: alteration of intracellular Na-concentration, ouabain-sensitive Na-transport, and Na-Li countertransport in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, U; Gless, K H; Schaz, K; Hüfner, M; Schütz, V; Hunstein, W

    1984-06-15

    To investigate the effect of thyroid hormones on erythrocyte cation transport systems and intracellular electrolyte content we have measured the activity of Na-K ATPase, Na-Li countertransport, as well as red cell sodium and potassium contents in patients with hyperthyroidism and in euthyroid controls. Intracellular Na- and K-concentrations were determined in erythrocytes washed three times in isotonic MgCl2 solution. Ouabain-sensitive Na-transport was estimated as the increase of Na before and after addition of ouabain in an erythrocyte suspension in isotonic Na-free medium. Na-Li countertransport was measured according to the method described by Canessa et al. [2]. The patients with hyperthyroidism exhibited a significantly elevated intracellular sodium content as well as a highly increased Na-K ATPase activity. Intracellular potassium content was not altered in the hyperthyroid subjects, but Na-Li countertransport was markedly decreased as compared to the controls. The results indicate that different ion transport systems of the erythrocyte membrane are influenced by thyroid hormones. We suggest that the elevation of Na-K ATPase activity might be due to the increased intracellular sodium concentration which is caused by the diminished countertransport pathway. Furthermore, the activity of Na-K ATPase, Na-Li countertransport, and intracellular sodium content in erythrocytes might be a useful peripheral indicator of thyroid hormone excess. PMID:6090760

  8. Role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in voltage generation and Na(+) extrusion in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, Thomas; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Brosig, Alexander; Bok, Eva; Schunke, Emina; Steffen, Wojtek; Mayer, Sonja; Götz, Friedrich; Möller, Heiko M; Steuber, Julia

    2016-04-01

    For Vibrio cholerae, the coordinated import and export of Na(+) is crucial for adaptation to habitats with different osmolarities. We investigated the Na(+)-extruding branch of the sodium cycle in this human pathogen by in vivo (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy. The Na(+) extrusion activity of cells was monitored after adding glucose which stimulated respiration via the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR). In a V. cholerae deletion mutant devoid of the Na(+)-NQR encoding genes (nqrA-F), rates of respiratory Na(+) extrusion were decreased by a factor of four, but the cytoplasmic Na(+) concentration was essentially unchanged. Furthermore, the mutant was impaired in formation of transmembrane voltage (ΔΨ, inside negative) and did not grow under hypoosmotic conditions at pH8.2 or above. This growth defect could be complemented by transformation with the plasmid encoded nqr operon. In an alkaline environment, Na(+)/H(+) antiporters acidify the cytoplasm at the expense of the transmembrane voltage. It is proposed that, at alkaline pH and limiting Na(+) concentrations, the Na(+)-NQR is crucial for generation of a transmembrane voltage to drive the import of H(+) by electrogenic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. Our study provides the basis to understand the role of the Na(+)-NQR in pathogenicity of V. cholerae and other pathogens relying on this primary Na(+) pump for respiration. PMID:26721205

  9. Na+ Inhibits the Epithelial Na+ Channel by Binding to a Site in an Extracellular Acidic Cleft*

    PubMed Central

    Kashlan, Ossama B.; Blobner, Brandon M.; Zuzek, Zachary; Tolino, Michael; Kleyman, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) has a key role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. ENaC belongs to a family of ion channels that sense the external environment. These channels have large extracellular regions that are thought to interact with environmental cues, such as Na+, Cl−, protons, proteases, and shear stress, which modulate gating behavior. We sought to determine the molecular mechanism by which ENaC senses high external Na+ concentrations, resulting in an inhibition of channel activity. Both our structural model of an ENaC α subunit and the resolved structure of an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC1) have conserved acidic pockets in the periphery of the extracellular region of the channel. We hypothesized that these acidic pockets host inhibitory allosteric Na+ binding sites. Through site-directed mutagenesis targeting the acidic pocket, we modified the inhibitory response to external Na+. Mutations at selected sites altered the cation inhibitory preference to favor Li+ or K+ rather than Na+. Channel activity was reduced in response to restraining movement within this region by cross-linking structures across the acidic pocket. Our results suggest that residues within the acidic pocket form an allosteric effector binding site for Na+. Our study supports the hypothesis that an acidic cleft is a key ligand binding locus for ENaC and perhaps other members of the ENaC/degenerin family. PMID:25389295

  10. Intracellular Na(+) and metabolic modulation of Na/K pump and excitability in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chi; Yang, Jyh-Jeen; Huang, Rong-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Na/K pump activity and metabolic rate are both higher during the day in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that houses the circadian clock. Here we investigated the role of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity and neuronal excitability. Removal of extracellular K(+) to block the Na/K pump excited SCN neurons to fire at higher rates and return to normal K(+) to reactivate the pump produced rebound hyperpolarization to inhibit firing. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to block the action potentials, both zero K(+)-induced depolarization and rebound hyperpolarization were blocked by the cardiac glycoside strophanthidin. Ratiometric Na(+) imaging with a Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye indicated saturating accumulation of intracellular Na(+) in response to pump blockade with zero K(+). The Na(+) ionophore monensin also induced Na(+) loading and hyperpolarized the membrane potential, with the hyperpolarizing effect of monensin abolished in zero Na(+) or by pump blockade. Conversely, Na(+) depletion with Na(+)-free pipette solution depolarized membrane potential but retained residual Na/K pump activity. Cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation blocked the Na/K pump to depolarize resting potential and increase spontaneous firing in most cells, and to raise intracellular Na(+) levels in all cells. Nonetheless, the Na/K pump was incompletely blocked by cyanide but completely blocked by iodoacetate to inhibit glycolysis, indicating the involvement of both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in fueling the Na/K pump. Together, the results indicate the importance of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity as well as neuronal excitability in the SCN neurons. PMID:22773774

  11. The NA48 liquid krypton calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CERN, Edinburgh, Ferrara, Mainz, Perugia, Pisa, Saclay, Siegen, Torino; Vienna Collaboration

    1992-05-01

    The NA48 proposal for a new precision measurement of ɛ'/ɛ in CP violating K 0 → 2 π decays is presented. The main emphasis is on the liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter and a status report of the work on a prototype is given.

  12. Substitutional NaCl hydration in ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feibelman, Peter J.

    2007-06-01

    Na+ and Cl- can replace water molecules in ice Ih with minimal lattice strain and without disrupting the crystal’s H-bond network. First-principles calculations show that substitutional solvation is endothermic by as little as 0.49eV per ion pair. Interstitial ion solvation is less favorable by >1.5eV .

  13. Comunicación en la atención del cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de la información revisada por expertos acerca de la comunicación con el paciente de cáncer y sus familiares, que incluye los aspectos distintivos de la comunicación con pacientes de cáncer, los factores que afectan la comunicación y la capacitación en aptitudes para la comunicación.

  14. Tratamiento Quirúrgico de los Meningiomas del Foramen Óptico, Técnicay Resultados de una Serie de 18 Pacientes

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Álvaro; Landriel, Federico; Sposito, Maximiliano; Carrizo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los meningiomas del foramen óptico producen un rápido deterioro de la función visual aún cuando su tamaño es pequeño, por eso su diagnóstico y manejo difiere del resto de los meningiomas clinoideos. El propósito de este estudio es presentar la técnica y los resultados de nuestro manejo quirúrgico de meningiomas foraminales (MF). Pacientes y Métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión de las historias clínicas de 47 pacientes con meningiomas primarios intraorbitarios. Se realizaron 52 cirugías en los pacientes con MF. Se empleó una craneotomía fronto-orbitaria, seguida de una descompresión extradural del canal óptico, resección del componente intraorbitario y exploración intradural del nervio óptico. Resultados: de los 12 pacientes con MF que presentaban la visión conservada, la agudeza visual fue preservada en 7 casos, mejoró en 2, y empeoró en 3. En 18 pacientes, el principal síntoma fue exoftalmos y en 35 pacientes ceguera unilateral. Ocurrieron 6 recurrencias, 2 a 10 años después de la resección quirúrgica. Cinco de ellos fueron reoperados. Se indicó radioterapia después de la recurrencia en 3 pacientes. Conclusión: el manejo de los MF continúa siendo controvertido y frecuentemente se propone un tratamiento conservador. Basados en nuestros hallazgos de frecuente extensión intracraneal, proponemos realizar una resección total o subtotal del tumor, preservando el nervio óptico en pacientes con visión prequirúrgica conservada. PMID:25165616

  15. OSR1-sensitive small intestinal Na+ transport.

    PubMed

    Pasham, Venkanna; Pathare, Ganesh; Fajol, Abul; Rexhepaj, Rexhep; Michael, Diana; Pakladok, Tatsiana; Alesutan, Ioana; Rotte, Anand; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2012-12-01

    The oxidative stress responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) contributes to WNK (with no K)-dependent regulation of renal tubular salt transport, renal salt excretion, and blood pressure. Little is known, however, about a role of OSR1 in the regulation of intestinal salt transport. The present study thus explored whether OSR1 is expressed in intestinal tissue and whether small intestinal Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), small intestinal Na(+)-glucose cotransport (SGLT1), and/or colonic epithelium Na(+) channel (ENaC) differ between knockin mice carrying one allele of WNK-resistant OSR1 (osr1(+/KI)) and wild-type mice (osr1(+/+)). OSR1 protein abundance was determined by Western blotting, cytosolic pH from BCECF fluorescence, NHE activity from Na(+)-dependent realkalinization following an ammonium pulse, SGLT1 activity from glucose-induced current, and colonic ENaC activity from amiloride-sensitive transepithelial current in Ussing chamber experiments. As a result, OSR1 protein was expressed in small intestine of both osr1(+/KI) mice and osr1(+/+) mice. Daily fecal Na(+), K(+), and H(2)O excretion and jejunal SGLT1 activity were lower, whereas small intestinal NHE activity and colonic ENaC activity were higher in osr1(+/KI) mice than in osr1(+/+) mice. NHE3 inhibitor S-3226 significantly reduced NHE activity in both genotypes but did not abrogate the difference between the genotypes. Plasma osmolarity, serum antidiuretic hormone, plasma aldosterone, and plasma corticosterone concentrations were similar in both genotypes. Small intestinal NHE3 and colonic α-ENaC protein abundance were not significantly different between genotypes, but colonic phospho-β-ENaC (ser633) was significantly higher in osr1(+/KI) mice. In conclusion, OSR1 is expressed in intestine and partial WNK insensitivity of OSR1 increases intestinal NHE activity and colonic ENaC activity. PMID:23019198

  16. Laser trapping of {sup 21}Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    1994-09-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive {sup 21}Na (t{sub l/2} = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped {sup 21}Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of {sup 21}Na {yields} {sup 21}Ne + {Beta}{sup +} + v{sub e}, which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, {sup 21}Na atoms were produced by bombarding {sup 24}Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The {sup 21}Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined.

  17. 24Mg( p, α)21Na reaction study for spectroscopy of 21Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Kim, A.; Lee, E. J.; Ahn, S.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chipps, K. A.; Cizewski, J. A.; Howard, M. E.; Manning, B.; O'Malley, P. D.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Strauss, S.; Kozub, R. L.; Matos, M.; Pain, S. D.; Pittman, S. T.; Smith, M. S.; Peters, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    The 24Mg( p, α)21Na reaction was measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to better constrain the spins and parities of the energy levels in 21Na for the astrophysically important 17F( α, p)20Ne reaction rate calculation. 31-MeV proton beams from the 25-MV tandem accelerator and enriched 24Mg solid targets were used. Recoiling 4He particles from the 24Mg( p, α)21Na reaction were detected by a highly segmented silicon detector array which measured the yields of 4He particles over a range of angles simultaneously. A new level at 6661 ± 5 keV was observed in the present work. The extracted angular distributions for the first four levels of 21Na and the results from distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations were compared to verify and extract the angular momentum transfer.

  18. K+ Congeners That Do Not Compromise Na+ Activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A.; Kopec, Wojciech; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase is essential for ionic homeostasis in animal cells. The dephosphoenzyme contains Na+ selective inward facing sites, whereas the phosphoenzyme contains K+ selective outward facing sites. Under normal physiological conditions, K+ inhibits cytoplasmic Na+ activation of the enzyme. Acetamidinium (Acet+) and formamidinium (Form+) have been shown to permeate the pump through the outward facing sites. Here, we show that these cations, unlike K+, are unable to enter the inward facing sites in the dephosphorylated enzyme. Consistently, the organic cations exhibited little to no antagonism to cytoplasmic Na+ activation. Na+,K+-ATPase structures revealed a previously undescribed rotamer transition of the hydroxymethyl side chain of the absolutely conserved Thr772 of the α-subunit. The side chain contributes its hydroxyl to Na+ in site I in the E1 form and rotates to contribute its methyl group toward K+ in the E2 form. Molecular dynamics simulations to the E1·AlF4−·ADP·3Na+ structure indicated that 1) bound organic cations differentially distorted the ion binding sites, 2) the hydroxymethyl of Thr772 rotates to stabilize bound Form+ through water molecules, and 3) the rotamer transition is mediated by water traffic into the ion binding cavity. Accordingly, dehydration induced by osmotic stress enhanced the interaction of the congeners with the outward facing sites and profoundly modified the organization of membrane domains of the α-subunit. These results assign a catalytic role for water in pump function, and shed light on a backbone-independent but a conformation-dependent switch between H-bond and dispersion contact as part of the catalytic mechanism of the Na+,K+-ATPase. PMID:25533461

  19. Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherng, Jing-Yih; Bennion, Douglas N.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of a high specific energy battery based on a sodium negative electrode and a chlorine positive electrode with molten AlCl3-NaCl electrolyte and a solid beta alumina separator. The basic performance of a Na beta-alumina NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell at 200 C was demonstrated. This cell can be started at 150 C. The use of melting sodium chloroaluminate electrolyte overcomes some of the material problems associated with the high working temperatures of present molten salt systems, such as Na/S and LiAl/FeS, and retains the advantages of high energy density and relatively efficient electrode processes. Preliminary investigations were conducted on a sodium-chlorine static cell, material compability, electrode design, wetting, and theoretical calculations to assure a better chance of success before assembling a Na/Cl2 circulating cell. Mathematical models provide a theoretical explanation for the performance of the NaCl2 battery. The results of mathematical models match the experimental results very well. According to the result of the mathematical modeling, an output at 180 mA/sq cm and 3.2 V can be obtained with optimized cell design.

  20. Final-state symmetry of Na 1s core-shell excitons in NaCl and NaF

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, K.P.; Seidler, G.T.; Shirley, E.L.; Fister, T.T.; Bradley, J.A.; Brown, F.C.

    2009-08-13

    We report measurements of the Na 1s contribution to the nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) from NaCl and NaF. Prior x-ray absorption studies have observed two pre-edge excitons in both materials. The momentum-transfer dependence (q dependence) of the measured NRIXS cross section and of real-space full multiple scattering and Bethe-Salpeter calculations determine that the higher-energy core excitons are s type for each material. The lower-energy core excitons contribute at most weakly to the NRIXS signal and we propose that these may be surface core excitons, as have been observed in several other alkali halides. The analysis of the orbital angular momentum of these features leads to a discussion of the limited sensitivity of NRIXS measurements to d-type final states when investigating 1s initial states. In this case the s- and p-type final density of states can be characterized by measurements at a small number of momentum transfers. This is in contrast to the case of more complex initial states for which measurements at a large number of momentum transfers are needed to separate the rich admixture of accessible and contributing final-state symmetries.

  1. An enhancement to the NA4 gear vibration diagnostic parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1994-01-01

    A new vibration diagnostic parameter for health monitoring of gears, NA4*, is proposed and tested. A recently developed gear vibration diagnostic parameter NA4 outperformed other fault detection methods at indicating the start and initial progression of damage. However, in some cases, as the damage progressed, the sensitivity of the NA4 and FM4 parameters tended to decrease and no longer indicated damage. A new parameter, NA4* was developed by enhancing NA4 to improve the trending of the parameter. This allows for the indication of damage both at initiation and also as the damage progresses. The NA4* parameter was verified and compared to the NA4 and FM4 parameters using experimental data from single mesh spur and spiral bevel gear fatigue rigs. The primary failure mode for the test cases was naturally occurring tooth surface pitting. The NA4* parameter is shown to be a more robust indicator of damage.

  2. U. S. EPA’S NA APPROACH FOR PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most evaluations of NA of petroleum hydrocarbons use geochemical data to document the NA through biodegradation. The expected trends during biodegradation (plume interior vs. background concentrations) are Dissolved oxygen concentrations below background, Nitrate concentrations ...

  3. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  4. Rescue of Na+ Affinity in Aspartate 928 Mutants of Na+,K+-ATPase by Secondary Mutation of Glutamate 314*

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Rikke; Einholm, Anja P.; Andersen, Jens P.; Vilsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase binds Na+ at three transport sites denoted I, II, and III, of which site III is Na+-specific and suggested to be the first occupied in the cooperative binding process activating phosphorylation from ATP. Here we demonstrate that the asparagine substitution of the aspartate associated with site III found in patients with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism or alternating hemiplegia of childhood causes a dramatic reduction of Na+ affinity in the α1-, α2-, and α3-isoforms of Na+,K+-ATPase, whereas other substitutions of this aspartate are much less disruptive. This is likely due to interference by the amide function of the asparagine side chain with Na+-coordinating residues in site III. Remarkably, the Na+ affinity of site III aspartate to asparagine and alanine mutants is rescued by second-site mutation of a glutamate in the extracellular part of the fourth transmembrane helix, distant to site III. This gain-of-function mutation works without recovery of the lost cooperativity and selectivity of Na+ binding and does not affect the E1-E2 conformational equilibrium or the maximum phosphorylation rate. Hence, the rescue of Na+ affinity is likely intrinsic to the Na+ binding pocket, and the underlying mechanism could be a tightening of Na+ binding at Na+ site II, possibly via movement of transmembrane helix four. The second-site mutation also improves Na+,K+ pump function in intact cells. Rescue of Na+ affinity and Na+ and K+ transport by second-site mutation is unique in the history of Na+,K+-ATPase and points to new possibilities for treatment of neurological patients carrying Na+,K+-ATPase mutations. PMID:25713066

  5. Rescue of Na+ affinity in aspartate 928 mutants of Na+,K+-ATPase by secondary mutation of glutamate 314.

    PubMed

    Holm, Rikke; Einholm, Anja P; Andersen, Jens P; Vilsen, Bente

    2015-04-10

    The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase binds Na(+) at three transport sites denoted I, II, and III, of which site III is Na(+)-specific and suggested to be the first occupied in the cooperative binding process activating phosphorylation from ATP. Here we demonstrate that the asparagine substitution of the aspartate associated with site III found in patients with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism or alternating hemiplegia of childhood causes a dramatic reduction of Na(+) affinity in the α1-, α2-, and α3-isoforms of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, whereas other substitutions of this aspartate are much less disruptive. This is likely due to interference by the amide function of the asparagine side chain with Na(+)-coordinating residues in site III. Remarkably, the Na(+) affinity of site III aspartate to asparagine and alanine mutants is rescued by second-site mutation of a glutamate in the extracellular part of the fourth transmembrane helix, distant to site III. This gain-of-function mutation works without recovery of the lost cooperativity and selectivity of Na(+) binding and does not affect the E1-E2 conformational equilibrium or the maximum phosphorylation rate. Hence, the rescue of Na(+) affinity is likely intrinsic to the Na(+) binding pocket, and the underlying mechanism could be a tightening of Na(+) binding at Na(+) site II, possibly via movement of transmembrane helix four. The second-site mutation also improves Na(+),K(+) pump function in intact cells. Rescue of Na(+) affinity and Na(+) and K(+) transport by second-site mutation is unique in the history of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and points to new possibilities for treatment of neurological patients carrying Na(+),K(+)-ATPase mutations. PMID:25713066

  6. Slip casting alumina with Na-CMC

    SciTech Connect

    Ruys, A.J.; Sorrell, C.C.

    1996-11-01

    Many forming methods are in common use for engineering ceramics. Of these, slip casting is an ideal forming method because of its low cost, simplicity and flexibility, potential for uniform particle packing and suitability to the production of articles of intricate shape. Slip casting nonclay materials, such as alumina, requires the use of both a deflocculant and a binder. There are many commercially available deflocculants and binders that can be tested in alumina casting slips. However, determination of a suitable deflocculant/binder combination and quantification of the optimal additions of the deflocculant/binder pair can be time consuming. Certain deflocculants are capable of acting as binders. One such additive is sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-cmc), a cellulose ether. Na-cmc is a powerful binder. It is a member of the carbohydrate binder group--the binder group with the strongest binding power. It is capable of acting as a deflocculant in glazes and nonclay casting slips.

  7. Na+-driven bacterial flagellar motors.

    PubMed

    Imae, Y; Atsumi, T

    1989-12-01

    Bacterial flagellar motors are the reversible rotary engine which propels the cell by rotating a helical flagellar filament as a screw propeller. The motors are embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane, and the energy for rotation is supplied by the electrochemical potential of specific ions across the membrane. Thus, the analysis of motor rotation at the molecular level is linked to an understanding of how the living system converts chemical energy into mechanical work. Based on the coupling ions, the motors are divided into two types; one is the H+-driven type found in neutrophiles such as Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and the other is the Na+-driven type found in alkalophilic Bacillus and marine Vibrio. In this review, we summarize the current status of research on the rotation mechanism of the Na+-driven flagellar motors, which introduces several new aspects in the analysis. PMID:2687262

  8. The complex lightcurve of 1992 NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, Wieslaw Z.; Harris, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    Amor asteroid 1992 NA was monitored during three nights at a large phase angle of -65 deg. The lightcurves obtained did not reveal a repeatable curve with two maxima and two minima. However, some features suggested a periodicity with three maxima and three minima. A satisfactory composite lightcurve of this form was obtained by means of an 'eyeball' fit and by Fourier analysis. Individual and composite lightcurves are presented. The observed colors are consistent with the C class.

  9. Thermodynamics of ion exchange between clinoptilolite and aqueous solutions of na +/k + and na +/ca 2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabalan, Roberto T.

    1994-11-01

    To provide a thermodynamic basis for understanding zeolite-water interactions in geologic systems, ion-exchange experiments were conducted at 25°C between clinoptilolite, which is the predominant zeolite mineral in altered pyroclastic and volcaniclastic rocks and aqueous mixtures of Na +/K + and Na +/Ca 2+. Isotherm points were obtained by equilibrating Na-clinoptilolite, which was prepared from clinoptilolite-rich tuff from Death Valley Junction, California, USA and Na +/K + and Na +/Ca 2+ chloride solutions having different ionic concentration ratios, but constant total normalities of 0.5, 0.05, or 0.005 N. The experimental data were interpreted using a Margules thermodynamic formulation for zeolite solid solutions, coupled with the Pitzer model for aqueous activity coefficients. The isotherm data for 0.5 N Na +/K + and Na +/Ca 2+ solutions were used to derive equilibrium constants and Gibbs free energies for the ion-exchange reactions, as well as parameters for the Margules model. Using the same parameters derived from the 0.5 N data, isotherms were calculated for the 0.05 and 0.005 N solutions. The predicted values agree very well with experimental data, including other data at 0.05 N solution concentration with nitrate as the supporting anion. The results of this study indicate that a Margules solid solution model for zeolites, coupled with an activity coefficient model for aqueous solutions (e.g., Pitzer model), can successfully describe and predict binary ion-exchange equilibria between aqueous solutions and the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite over a wide range of solution composition and concentration, and may provide a foundation for quantitative understanding of ion-exchange equilibria in multicomponent geochemical systems.

  10. Effects of altering the ATP/ADP ratio on pump-mediated Na/K and Na/Na exchanges in resealed human red blood cell ghosts

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Resealed human red blood cell ghosts were prepared to contain a range of ADP concentrations at fixed ATP concentrations and vice versa. ATP/ADP ratios ranging from approximately 0.2 to 50 were set and maintained (for up to 45 min) in this system. ATP and ADP concentrations were controlled by the addition of either a phosphoarginine- or phosphocreatine-based regenerating system. Ouabain- sensitive unidirectional Na efflux was determined in the presence and absence of 15 mM external K as a function of the nucleotide composition. Na/K exchange was found to increase to saturation with ATP (K 1/2 approximately equal to 250 microM), whereas Na/Na exchange (measured in K-free solutions) was a saturating function of ADP (K 1/2 approximately equal to 350 microM). The elevation of ATP from approximately 100 to 1,800 microM did not appreciably affect Na/Na exchange. In the presence of external Na and a saturating concentration of external K, increasing the ADP concentration at constant ATP was found to decrease ouabain-sensitive Na/K exchange. The decreased Na/K exchange that still remained when the ADP/ATP ratio was high was stimulated by removal of external Na. Assuming that under normal substrate conditions the reaction cycle of the Na/K pump is rate- limited by the conformational change associated with the release of occluded K [E2 X (K) X ATP----E1 X ATP + K], increasing ADP inhibits the rate of these transformations by competition with ATP for the E2(K) form. A less likely alternative is that inhibition is due to competition with ATP at the high-affinity site (E1). The acceleration of the Na/K pump that occurs upon removing external Na at high levels of ADP evidently results from a shift in the forward direction of the transformation of the intermediates involved with the release of occluded Na from E1P X (Na). Thus, the nucleotide composition and the Na gradient can modulate the rate at which the Na/K pump operates. PMID:3950576

  11. Dependence of intracellular Na/sup +/ concentration on apical and basolateral membrane Na/sup +/ influx in frog skin

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, J.S.; Helman, S.I.

    1985-11-01

    An isotopic method was developed to measure the intracellular Na/sup +/ content of the transepithelial Na/sup +/ transport pool of frog skin. Isolated epithelia (no corium) were labeled with /sup 24/Na either asymmetrically, from apical (Aa) or basolateral (Ab) solutions, or symmetrically (Aab). Transport pool Na/sup +/ could be identified from the kinetics of washout of /sup 24/Na carried out in the presence of 1 mM ouabain, 100 microM amiloride, and 1 mM furosemide that served to trap cold Na/sup +/ and /sup 24/Na within the transport pool. In control epithelia, Aab averaged 64.1 neq/cm/sup 2/ (13.9 mM), and maximal inhibition of apical membrane Na/sup +/ entry with 100 microM amiloride caused Aab to decrease to 24.3 neq/cm/sup 2/ (5.3 mM). Ouabain caused Aab to increase markedly to 303 neq/cm/sup 2/ in 30 min, whereas amiloride inhibition of apical membrane Na/sup +/ entry reduced markedly the rate of increase of Aab caused by ouabain. These data, in part, confirmed the existence of an important basolateral membrane permeability to Na/sup +/ that was measured in separate studies of the bidirectional /sup 24/Na fluxes at the basolateral membranes of the cells. Both sets of data were supportive of the idea that a significant Na/sup +/ recycling exists at the basolateral membranes of the cells that contributes to the Na/sup +/ load on the pump and Na/sup +/ recycling participates in the regulation of the Na/sup +/ concentration of the Na/sup +/ transport pool of these epithelial cells.

  12. A computational study of Na behavior on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Sopiha, Kostiantyn; Kulish, Vadym V.; Tan, Teck L.; Manzhos, Sergei; Persson, Clas

    2015-04-01

    We present the first ab initio and molecular dynamics study of Na adsorption and diffusion on ideal graphene that considers Na-Na interaction and dispersion forces. From density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the binding energy (vs. the vacuum reference state) of -0.75 eV is higher than the cohesive energy of Na metal (ENa metal cohesive energy (EcohDFT - D = - 1.21 eV) when dispersion correction is included (DFT-D), with Eb = -1.14 eV. Both DFT and DFT-D predict that the increase of Na concentration on graphene results in formation of Na complexes. This is evidenced by smaller Bader charge on Na atoms of Na dimer, 0.55e (0.48e for DFT) compared to 0.86e (for both DFT and DFT-D) for the single atom adsorption as well as by the formation of a Nasbnd Na bond identified by analysis of the electron density. These results suggest that ideal graphene is not a promising anode material for Na-ion batteries. Analysis of diffusion pathways for a Na dimer shows that the dimer remains stable during the diffusion, and computed migration barriers are significantly lower for the dimer than that for the single atom diffusion. This indicates that Na-Na interaction should be taken into account during the analysis of Na transport on graphene. Finally, we show that the typical defects (vacancy and divacancy) induce significant strengthening of the Nasbnd C interaction. In particular, the largest change to the interaction is computed for vacancy-defected graphene, where the found lowest binding energy (vs. the metal reference state) is about 1.15 eV (1.21 eV for DFT) lower than that for ideal graphene.

  13. A new low-voltage plateau of Na?V?(PO?)? as an anode for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jian, Zelang; Sun, Yang; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-04-04

    A low-voltage plateau at ~0.3 V is discovered during the deep sodiation of Na?V?(PO?)? by combined computational and experimental studies. This new low-voltage plateau doubles the sodiation capacity of Na?V?(PO?)?, turning it into a promising anode for Na-ion batteries.

  14. Formation of Na-Rich Chondrules by Melting of Na-Rich and Condensed (Ultra)-Refractory Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, S.; Bischoff, A.

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed 33 Na-rich chondrules (Na2O >4.0 wt%) from 15 different chondrites. These chondrules must have formed by melting of precursors including Na-rich materials (like nepheline) as well as condensed (ultra)-refractory components.

  15. pNaKtide inhibits Na/K-ATPase reactive oxygen species amplification and attenuates adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Komal; Maxwell, Kyle; Yan, Yanling; Liu, Jiang; Chaudhry, Muhammad A.; Getty, Morghan; Xie, Zijian; Abraham, Nader G.; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice fed a high-fat diet corroborated our in vitro observations. Administration of pNaKtide in these mice reduced body weight gain, restored systemic redox and inflammatory milieu, and, crucially, improved insulin sensitivity. Thus, we propose that inhibition of Na/K-ATPase amplification of oxidative stress may ultimately be a novel way to combat obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26601314

  16. Modification of carboxyl of Na+ channel inhibits aldosterone action on Na+ transport.

    PubMed

    Kipnowski, J; Park, C S; Fanestil, D D

    1983-12-01

    We investigated the effect of the carboxyl-selective reagent N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) on aldosterone stimulation of Na+ transport in the urinary bladder of the toad. Na+ transport, measured as the short-circuit current (SCC), was irreversibly inhibited by EEDQ in a dose- and time-dependent manner prior to addition of aldosterone. The greater the percentage inhibition by EEDQ (X), the smaller was the maximal increase of SCC after aldosterone (Y). This relationship gave the regression equation Y = 128.41 - 1.73X, r = -0.99 (n = 35). Evidence that the inhibition of SCC produced by EEDQ was limited to effects at the mucosal membrane was attested by the following: 1) EEDQ did not alter the stimulation by aldosterone of the osmotic water flow response to antidiuretic hormone; 2) whereas inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide prevented this effect of aldosterone; 3) amphotericin B fully restored SCC previously inhibited by EEDQ to the level produced in tissues not inhibited by EEDQ; 4) comparison of the effects of amiloride vs. EEDQ pretreatment on the SCC response to aldosterone and amphotericin B revealed nearly identical characteristics; 5) in contrast, amphotericin B stimulation of SCC was limited when Na+ transport was limited by antimycin A (an inhibitor of energy production) or by ouabain. The findings fail to provide positive evidence for the hypothesis that aldosterone induces the synthesis of new Na+ channels but are consistent with hormonal activation of previously existing but nonfunctioning Na+ channels. PMID:6140857

  17. Irreversible block of cardiac mutant Na+ channels by batrachotoxin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sho-Ya; Tikhonov, Denis B; Mitchell, Jane; Zhorov, Boris S; Wang, Ging Kuo

    2007-01-01

    Batrachotoxin (BTX) not only keeps the voltage-gated Na(+) channel open persistently but also reduces its single-channel conductance. Although a BTX receptor has been delimited within the inner cavity of Na(+) channels, how Na(+) ions flow through the BTX-bound permeation pathway remains unclear. In this report we tested a hypothesis that Na(+) ions traverse a narrow gap between bound BTX and residue N927 at D2S6 of cardiac hNa(v)1.5 Na(+) channels. We found that BTX at 5 microM indeed elicited a strong block of hNa(v)1.5-N927K currents (approximately 70%) after 1000 repetitive pulses (+50 mV/20 ms at 2 Hz) without any effects on Na(+) channel gating. Once occurred, this unique use-dependent block of hNa(v)1.5-N927K Na(+) channels recovered little at holding potential (-140 mV), demonstrating that BTX block is irreversible under our experimental conditions. Such an irreversible effect likewise developed in fast inactivation-deficient hNa(v)1.5-N927K Na(+) channels albeit with a faster on-rate; approximately 90% of peak Na(+) currents were abolished by BTX after 200 repetitive pulses (+50 mV/20 ms). This use-dependent block of fast inactivation-deficient hNa(v)1.5-N927K Na(+) channels by BTX was duration dependent. The longer the pulse duration the larger the block developed. Among N927K/W/R/H/D/S/Q/G/E substitutions in fast inactivation-deficient hNa(v)1.5 Na(+) channels, only N927K/R Na(+) currents were highly sensitive to BTX block. We conclude that (a) BTX binds within the inner cavity and partly occludes the permeation pathway and (b) residue hNa(v)1.5-N927 is critical for ion permeation between bound BTX and D2S6, probably because the side-chain of N927 helps coordinate permeating Na(+) ions. PMID:18690024

  18. Na+ channel function, regulation, structure, trafficking and sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Izu, Ye; Shaw, Robin M; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Sack, Jon T; Abriel, Hugues; Aldrich, Richard W; Belardinelli, Luiz; Cannell, Mark B; Catterall, William A; Chazin, Walter J; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Deschenes, Isabelle; Grandi, Eleonora; Hund, Thomas J; Izu, Leighton T; Maier, Lars S; Maltsev, Victor A; Marionneau, Celine; Mohler, Peter J; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rasmusson, Randall L; Sobie, Eric A; Clancy, Colleen E; Bers, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second of a series of three reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on Na+ channel function and regulation, Na+ channel structure and function, and Na+ channel trafficking, sequestration and complexing. PMID:25772290

  19. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-15

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO{sub 2} and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 deg. C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m{sup 2}/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m{sup 2}/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of {approx}3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously. - Graphical Abstract: Novel Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composite.

  20. Specific oxidation pattern of soluble starch with TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Lu, Jiaojiao; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2016-08-01

    Oxidized starch, one of the most important starch derivatives, has many different properties and applications. Currently, there are two ways to produce oxidized starch, through specific and nonspecific oxidation. Specific oxidation using the stable nitroxyl radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl preparidinloxy (TEMPO), with NaBr and NaClO can produce oxidized starches with different properties under good quality control. In the current study, we examine the products of specifically oxidized starch. As the amount of oxidant and the temperature, two critical factors impacting the oxidation of starch were thoroughly investigated. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW), degree of oxidization (DO) and the detailed structures of corresponding products was accomplished using gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS). According to the analytical results, the oxidation patterns of starch treated with specific oxidant TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO were established. When high amounts of oxidant was applied, more glucose residues within starch were oxidized to glucuronic acids (higher DO) and substantial degradation to starch oligosaccharides was observed. By selecting a reaction temperature of 25°C a high DO could be obtained for a given amount of oxidant. The reducing end sugar residue within oxidized starch was itself oxidized and ring opened in all TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO reactions. Furthermore, extra oxidant generated additional novel structures in the reducing end residues of some products, particularly in low temperature reactions. PMID:27112871

  1. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  2. Gas-exposure enhanced Na* emission from Na-rich surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jun; Albridge, Royal; Barnes, Alan; Yang, Xinxing; Tolk, Norman

    1992-01-01

    The optical emission attributed to electronically desorbed excited sodium atoms from NaCl and Na-evaporated surfaces is shown to be enhanced by exposure of the surface to gaseous CO2 and N2. This is the first observation of enhancement of electron-simulated desorption of substrate atoms caused by the exposure of surfaces to gaseous molecules which do not contain the desorbed atoms. The large amount of excited-sodium yield at 60 K provides evidence for nonexistence of the secondary-electron excitation of thermally desorbed ground sodium.

  3. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Cong-Zhan; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2014-02-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically.

  4. AZT binding to Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ahmed-Ouameur, A; Neault, J-F; Claveau, S; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2005-01-01

    3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is the first effective drug used clinically for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The drug interactions with DNA and protein are associated with its mechanism of action in vivo. This study was designed to examine the interaction of AZT with the Na,K-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) in H2O and D2O solutions at physiological pH using drug concentration of 0.1 microM to 1 mM and final protein concentration of 0.5 to 1 mg/mL. Ultraviolet absorption and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy with its self-deconvolution, second-derivative resolution enhancement, and curve-fitting procedures were used to characterize the drug-binding mode, the drug-binding constant, and the effects of drug interaction on the protein secondary structure. Spectroscopic evidence showed that at low drug concentration (0.1 microM), AZT binds (H-bonding) mainly to the polypeptide C=O and C-N groups with two binding constants of K1 = 5.3 x 10(5) M(-1) and K2 = 9.8 x 10(3) M(-1). As drug content increased, AZT-lipid complex prevailed. At a high drug concentration (1 mM), drug binding resulted in minor protein secondary structural changes from that of the alpha-helix 19.8%; beta-pleated 25.6%; turn 9.1%; beta-antiparallel 7.5% and random 38%, in the free Na,K-ATPase to that of the alpha-helix 19%; beta-pleated 21.1%; turn 10.1%; beta-antiparallel 8.8% and random 41%, in the AZT-ATPase complexes. PMID:15673931

  5. Na(+),K (+)-ATPase as a docking station: protein-protein complexes of the Na(+),K (+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Linda; Tidow, Henning; Clausen, Michael J; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, or sodium pump, is well known for its role in ion transport across the plasma membrane of animal cells. It carries out the transport of Na(+) ions out of the cell and of K(+) ions into the cell and thus maintains electrolyte and fluid balance. In addition to the fundamental ion-pumping function of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, recent work has suggested additional roles for Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in signal transduction and biomembrane structure. Several signaling pathways have been found to involve Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which serves as a docking station for a fast-growing number of protein interaction partners. In this review, we focus on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a signal transducer, but also briefly discuss other Na(+),K(+)-ATPase protein-protein interactions, providing a comprehensive overview of the diverse signaling functions ascribed to this well-known enzyme. PMID:22695678

  6. The NA62 spectrometer acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorskiy, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Bendotti, J.; Danielsson, H.; Degrange, J.; Dixon, N.; Elsha, V.; Enik, T.; Glonti, L.; Gusakov, Y.; Kakurin, S.; Kekelidze, V.; Kislov, E.; Kolesnikov, A.; Koval, M.; Lichard, P.; Madigozhin, D.; Morant, J.; Movchan, S.; Perez Gomez, F.; Palladino, V.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Y.; Ruggiero, G.; Samsonov, V.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Sotnikov, A.

    2016-02-01

    The NA62 low mass spectrometer consists of 7000 straw tubes operating in vacuum. The front-end electronics is directly mounted on the detector and connected by a flexible PCB. The front-end board provides the amplification, shaping, discrimination and time measurements of the analogue signals from 16 channels. After digitisation the data is sent to a VME 9U read-out board. The data, once matched with the trigger, is sent to the next step and used by the trigger level 1 algorithm. The front-end and read-out systems of the detector will be presented along with the first results of the detector performances.

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide Induced Disruption of Na+ Homeostasis in the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dongman; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Kim, Dong H.; Xia, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of ionic balance is essential for neuronal functioning. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a known toxic environmental gaseous pollutant, has been recently recognized as a gasotransmitter involved in numerous biological processes and is believed to play an important role in the neural activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is unclear if it plays any role in maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the brain under physiological/pathophysiological conditions. Here, we report by directly measuring Na+ activity using Na+ selective electrodes in mouse cortical slices that H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) increased Na+ influx in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be partially blocked by either Na+ channel blocker or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker alone or almost completely abolished by coapplication of both blockers but not by non-NMDAR blocker. These data suggest that increased H2S in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia, potentially causes a disruption of ionic homeostasis by massive Na+ influx through Na+ channels and NMDARs, thus injuring neural functions. Activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR), which reduces Na+ currents/influx in normoxia, had no effect on H2S-induced Na+ influx, suggesting that H2S-induced disruption of Na+ homeostasis is resistant to DOR regulation and may play a major role in neuronal injury in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia. PMID:22474073

  8. Minimizing Load Effects on NA4 Gear Vibration Diagnostic Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2001-01-01

    NA4 is a vibration diagnostic parameter, developed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, for health monitoring of gears in helicopter transmissions. The NA4 reacts to the onset of gear pitting damage and continues to react to the damage as it spreads. This research also indicates NA4 reacts similarly to load variations. The sensitivity of NA4 to load changes will substantially affect its performance on a helicopter gearbox that experiences continuously changing load throughout its flight regimes. The parameter NA4 has been used to monitor gear fatigue tests at constant load. At constant load, NA4 effectively detects the onset of pitting damage and tracks damage severity. Previous research also shows that NA4 reacts to changes in load applied to the gears in the same way it reacts to the onset of pitting damage. The method used to calculate NA4 was modified to minimize these load effects. The modified NA4 parameter was applied to four sets of experimental data. Results indicate the modified NA4 is no longer sensitive to load changes, but remains sensitive to pitting damage.

  9. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    PubMed

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified. PMID:2458472

  10. Decomposition Kinetics of Titania Slag in Eutectic NaOH-NaNO3 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Zhi; Qi, Tao; Wang, Lina; Xue, Tianyan

    2016-02-01

    The decomposition kinetics and mechanism of titania slag in eutectic NaOH-NaNO3 system were studied in the temperature range 623 K to 723 K (350 °C to 450 °C). Decomposed products were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It has been identified that the main product is Na2TiO3 and the decomposition kinetics of titania slag followed a shrinking unreacted core model. It is proposed that the chemical reaction process was the rate determining step with apparent activation energy of 62.4 kJ/mol. NaNO3 was mainly acted as oxygen carrier and mass transport agent to lower the viscosity of the system. The purity of TiO2 obtained in the product was up to 99.3 pct. A flow diagram to produce TiO2 and to recycle the media was proposed.

  11. Ionic liquid electrolytes with various sodium solutes for rechargeable Na/NaFePO4 batteries operated at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wongittharom, Nithinai; Wang, Chueh-Han; Wang, Yi-Chen; Yang, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Jeng-Kuei

    2014-10-22

    NaFePO4 with an olivine structure is synthesized via chemical delithiation of LiFePO4 followed by electrochemical sodiation of FePO4. Butylmethylpyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMP-TFSI) ionic liquid (IL) with various sodium solutes, namely NaBF4, NaClO4, NaPF6, and NaN(CN)2, is used as an electrolyte for rechargeable Na/NaFePO4 cells. The IL electrolytes show high thermal stability (>350 °C) and nonflammability, and are thus ideal for high-safety applications. The highest conductivity and the lowest viscosity of the electrolyte are obtained with NaBF4. At an elevated temperature (above 50 °C), the IL electrolyte is more suitable than a conventional organic electrolyte for the sodium cell. At 75 °C, the measured capacity of NaFePO4 in a NaBF4-incorporated IL electrolyte is as high as 152 mAh g(-1) (at 0.05 C), which is near the theoretical value (154 mAh g(-1)). Moreover, 60% of this capacity can be retained when the charge-discharge rate is increased to 1 C. PMID:25295391

  12. Electrical Resistivity of Liquid Alkali Na-based Binary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2007-11-01

    The study of the electrical resistivity rL of alkali Na-based binary alloys Na1-xLix, Na1-xKx, Na1-xRbx and Na1-xCsx have been made by well-recognized model potential of Gajjar et al. The most recent exchange and correlation functions due to Farid et al (F) and Sarkar et al (S) are used for the first time in the study of electrical resistivity of liquid binary mixtures and found suitable for such study. The results, due to the inclusion of Sarkar et al's local field correction function, are found superior to those obtained due to Farid et al's local field correction function. Electrical resistivity of Na-based binary alloys compare well with the experimental data available in the literature.

  13. Simulation of Na D emission near Europa during eclipse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassidy, T.A.; Johnson, R.E.; Geissler, P.E.; Leblanc, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini imaging science subsystem observed Europa in eclipse during Cassini's Jupiter flyby. The disk-resolved observations revealed a spatially nonuniform emission in the wavelength range of 200-1050 nm (clear filters). By building on observations and simulations of Europa's Na atmosphere and torus we find that electron-excited Na in Europa's tenuous atmosphere can account for the observed emission if the Na is ejected preferentially from Europa's dark terrain. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Kirby, Brent W.; Xu, Wu; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-11-12

    In this study, we reported an intermediate-temperature (~150°C) sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery. With a reduced operating temperature, this novel battery can potentially reduce the cost and safety issues associated with the conventional high-temperature (300~350°C) Na-S battery. A dense β"-Al2O3 solid membrane and tetraglyme were utilized as the electrolyte separator and catholyte solvent in this battery. Solubility tests indicated that cathode mixture of Na2S4 and S exhibited extremely high solubility in tetraglyme (e.g., > 4.1 M for Na2S4 + 4 S). CV scans of Na2S4 in tetraglyme revealed two pairs of redox couples with peaks at around 2.22 and 1.75 V, corresponding to the redox reactions of polysulfide species. The discharge/charge profiles of the Na-S battery showed a slope region and a plateau, indicating multiple steps and cell reactions. In-situ Raman measurements during battery operation suggested that polysulfide species were formed in the sequence of Na2S5 + S → Na2S5 + Na2S4Na2S4 + Na2S2 during discharge and in a reverse order during charge. This battery showed dramatic improvement in rate capacity and cycling stability over room-temperature Na-S batteries, which makes it attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  15. Magnesium correction to the NaKCa chemical geothermometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Potter, R.W., II

    1979-01-01

    Equations and graphs have been devised to correct for the adverse effects of magnesium upon the Na-K-Ca chemical geothermometer. Either the equations or graphs can be used to determine appropriate temperature corrections for given waters with calculated NaKCa temperatures > 70??C and R 50 are probably derived from relatively cool aquifers with temperatures approximately equal to the measured spring temperature, irrespective of much higher calculated Na-K-Ca temperatures. ?? 1979.

  16. Integrated Control of Na Transport along the Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Schnermann, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The kidney filters vast quantities of Na at the glomerulus but excretes a very small fraction of this Na in the final urine. Although almost every nephron segment participates in the reabsorption of Na in the normal kidney, the proximal segments (from the glomerulus to the macula densa) and the distal segments (past the macula densa) play different roles. The proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle interact with the filtration apparatus to deliver Na to the distal nephron at a rather constant rate. This involves regulation of both filtration and reabsorption through the processes of glomerulotubular balance and tubuloglomerular feedback. The more distal segments, including the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), connecting tubule, and collecting duct, regulate Na reabsorption to match the excretion with dietary intake. The relative amounts of Na reabsorbed in the DCT, which mainly reabsorbs NaCl, and by more downstream segments that exchange Na for K are variable, allowing the simultaneous regulation of both Na and K excretion. PMID:25098598

  17. New solid conductors of Na/+/ and K/+/ ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Fielder, W. L.; Kautz, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    About 40 structure types for solid conductors of Na(+) and K(+) ions are surveyed. Five compounds in three structure types are discovered to be good solid conductors of alkali metal ions, capable of ion transport with conductivities in the vicinity of 0.00001/ohm-cm at 25 C. These compounds are a bcc form of NaSbO3, an orthorhombic layer structure of the composition 2M2O.3Nb2O5 with M equal to Na or K, and the Na pyrochlores NaTa2O5F and NaTaWO6. Ion exchange is required to produce each of these Na compounds. Only the 2K2O.3Nb2O5 can so far be synthesized directly from the oxides and thus is the only one which can be sintered readily. The niobate is about as good a conductor of K(+) ion as is K-beta alumina. The NaSbO3 compares well with Na beta at 280 C. A number of phase diagrams are developed.

  18. Mutant N143P Reveals How Na+ Activates Thrombin*

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Weiling; Chen, Zhiwei; Bush-Pelc, Leslie A.; Bah, Alaji; Gandhi, Prafull S.; Di Cera, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of thrombin activation by Na+ remains elusive. Its kinetic formulation requires extension of the classical Botts-Morales theory for the action of a modifier on an enzyme to correctly account for the contribution of the E*, E, and E:Na+ forms. The extended scheme establishes that analysis of kcat unequivocally identifies allosteric transduction of Na+ binding into enhanced catalytic activity. The thrombin mutant N143P features no Na+-dependent enhancement of kcat yet binds Na+ with an affinity comparable to that of wild type. Crystal structures of the mutant in the presence and absence of Na+ confirm that Pro143 abrogates the important H-bond between the backbone N atom of residue 143 and the carbonyl O atom of Glu192, which in turn controls the orientation of the Glu192-Gly193 peptide bond and the correct architecture of the oxyanion hole. We conclude that Na+ activates thrombin by securing the correct orientation of the Glu192-Gly193 peptide bond, which is likely flipped in the absence of cation. Absolute conservation of the 143–192 H-bond in trypsin-like proteases and the importance of the oxyanion hole in protease function suggest that this mechanism of Na+ activation is present in all Na+-activated trypsin-like proteases. PMID:19846563

  19. Kaolin-based geopolymers with various NaOH concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M.; Bnhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Khairul Nizar, I.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.

    2013-03-01

    Kaolin geopolymers were produced by the alkali-activation of kaolin with an activator solution (a mixture of NaOH and sodium silicate solutions). The NaOH solution was prepared at a concentration of 6-14 mol/L and was mixed with the sodium silicate solution at a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 0.24 to prepare an activator solution. The kaolin-to-activator solution mass ratio used was 0.80. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of NaOH concentration on the compressive strength of kaolin geopolymers at 80°C for 1, 2, and 3 d. Kaolin geopolymers were stable in water, and strength results showed that the kaolin binder had adequate compressive strength with 12 mol/L of NaOH concentration. When the NaOH concentration increased, the SiO2/Na2O decreased. The increased Na2O content enhanced the dissolution of kaolin as shown in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. However, excess in this content was not beneficial for the strength development of kaolin geopolymers. In addition, there was the formation of more geopolymeric gel in 12 mol/L samples. The XRD pattern of the samples showed a higher amorphous content and a more geopolymer bonding existed as proved by FTIR analysis.

  20. Study of OSL in NaF: Ca,Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2013-06-01

    Sodium Fluoride containing Cu+ ions was prepared by R.A.P. followed by melt-quenching technique. Results on photo, thermo and optically stimulated luminescence in NaF:Ca,Cu are reported. OSL sensitivity of NaF:Ca,Cu is approximately 2 times than that of standard phosphor LMP. The rate of OSL depletion for 90% decay for NaF:Ca,Cu is 0.3 times as that of OSL phosphor LMP. NaF:Ca,Cu thus deserves much more attention than it has received up till now.

  1. Resurgent Na+ current: a new avenue to neuronal excitability control.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jader S; Silva, Darizy F; Ribeiro, Luciano A; Araújo, Islânia G A; Magalhães, Nayara; Medeiros, Alessandra; Freitas, Christiane; Araujo, Izabella C; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2011-10-10

    Integrative and firing properties are important characteristics of neuronal circuits and these responses are determined in large part by the repertoire of ion channels they express, which can vary considerably between cell types. Recently, a new mode of operation of voltage dependent sodium channels has been described that generates a so-called resurgent Na+ current. Accumulating evidence suggests resurgent Na current participates in the generation of sub-threshold inward Na+ current causing membrane depolarization which provides the necessary drive to fire high-frequency action potentials. Recent studies indicate that resurgent Na+ current could be a more widespread feature than previously thought. PMID:21683085

  2. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  3. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  4. Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange and Na/sup +/-dependent transport systems in streptozotocin diabetic rat kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    El-Seifi, S.; Freiberg, J.M.; Kinsella, F.J.; Cheng, L.; Sacktor, B.

    1987-01-01

    The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat was used to test the hypothesis that Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity in the proximal tubule luminal membrane would be increased in association with renal hypertrophy, altered glomerular hemodynamics, enhanced filtered load and tubular reabsorption of /sup 22/Na/sup +/, and stimulated /sup 22/Na= pump activity in the basolateral membrane, previously reported characteristics of this experimental animal model. Amiloride-sensitive H/sup +/ gradient-dependent Na/sup +/ uptake and Na/sup +/ gradient-dependent H/sup +/ flux were increased in brush-border membrane vesicles from the streptozotocin-treated animals. Na/sup +/ gradient-dependent uptakes of phosphate, D-glucose, L-proline, and myoinositol were decreased in the drug-induced diabetic animals. These membrane transport alterations were not found when the streptozotocin-diabetic animals were treated with insulin.

  5. Colorimetric Assays of Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Sweadner, Kathleen J

    2016-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is a plasma membrane enzyme that catalyzes active ion transport by the hydrolysis of ATP. Its activity in vivo is determined by many factors, particularly the concentration of intracellular sodium ions. It is the target of the cardiac glycoside class of drugs and of endogenous regulators. Its assay is often an endpoint in the investigation of physiological processes, and it is a promising drug target. As described in this unit, its enzymatic activity can be determined in extracts from tissues by test tube assay using a spectrophotometer or (32)P-ATP. The protocols in this chapter measure inorganic phosphate as the end product of hydrolysis of ATP. PMID:26695025

  6. Pion and kaon freezeout in NA44

    SciTech Connect

    NA44 Collaboration

    1994-12-01

    The NA44 spectrometer is optimized for the study of single and two-particle particle spectra near mid-rapidity for transverse momenta below {approx} 1 GeV/c. A large fraction of all pairs in the spectrometer`s acceptance are at low relative momenta, resulting in small statistical uncertainties on the extracted size parameters. In addition, the spectrometer`s clean particle identification allows the authors to measure correlation functions for pions, kaons, and protons. This contribution will concentrate on the source size parameters determined from pion and kaon correlation functions. These size parameters will be compared to calculations from the RQMD event generator and also interpreted in the context of a hydrodynamic model. Finally, the measured single particle spectra will be examined from the viewpoint of hydrodynamics.

  7. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  8. Cardioprotective actions of KC 12291. I. Inhibition of voltage-gated Na+ channels in ischemia delays myocardial Na+ overload.

    PubMed

    Decking, U K; Hartmann, M; Rose, H; Brückner, R; Meil, J; Schrader, J

    1998-11-01

    To characterize KC 12291 (1-(5-phenyl-1,2, 4-thiadiazol-3-yl-oxypropyl)-3-[N-methyl-N-[2-(3,4-dimethoxy phenyl) ethyl] amino] propane hydrochloride), a newly synthezised inhibitor of voltage-gated Na+ channels, the effects of the agent on Na+ current and ischemia-induced Na+ overload were investigated in isolated cardiomyocytes, atria and saline-perfused hearts. As measured by the patch clamp technique, KC 12291 (1 microM) significantly reduced peak Na+ current after activation of voltage-gated Na+ channels in rat cardiomyocytes. Partial depolarization enhanced the inhibitory effects during steady state conditions of the channel. In isolated guinea pig atria, 1 microM KC 12291 had no effect on contractility under basal conditions but effectively delayed the onset and reduced the extent of anoxic contracture. The concentration-response curve was clearly shifted to the left when atria were partially depolarized by increased extracellular K+. As measured by 23Na NMR spectroscopy in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts, intracellular Na+ rose more than four-fold in a linear fashion during 60 min of low-flow ischemia. KC 12291 (1 microM) prevented Na+ overload within the initial 12 min of ischemia; thereafter the slope of Na+ accumulation was identical to controls. Electrical excitability of hearts, evaluated by intracardial ECG, completely ceased within 15 min after the onset of ischemia. KC 12291 (1 microM) accelerated this process by more than 6 min. The data provide first evidence that KC 12291 reduces Na+ influx through voltage-gated Na+ channels during ischemia and thus delays Na+ overload by enhancing the inexcitability of the heart. PMID:9840423

  9. RNA adducts with Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 - Stability and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Montazeri, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Selenium compounds are widely available in dietary supplements and have been extensively studied for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Low blood Se levels were found to be associated with an increased incidence and mortality from various types of cancers. Although many in vivo and clinical trials have been conducted using these compounds, their biochemical and chemical mechanisms of efficacy are the focus of much current research. This study was designed to examine the interaction of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 with RNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant RNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various sodium selenate and sodium selenite/polynucleotide (phosphate) ratios of 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. Fourier transform infrared, UV-Visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the drug binding modes, the binding constants, and the stability of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3-RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 bind to the major and minor grooves of RNA ( via G, A and U bases) with some degree of the Se-phosphate (PO 2) interaction for both compounds with overall binding constants of K(Na 2SeO 4-RNA) = 8.34 × 10 3 and K(Na 2SeO 3-RNA) = 4.57 × 10 3 M -1. The order of selenium salts-biopolymer stability was Na 2SeO 4-RNA > Na 2SeO 3-RNA. RNA aggregations occurred at higher selenium concentrations. No biopolymer conformational changes were observed upon Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 interactions, while RNA remains in the A-family structure.

  10. Expression of diverse Na+ channel messenger RNAs in rat myocardium. Evidence for a cardiac-specific Na+ channel.

    PubMed Central

    Sills, M N; Xu, Y C; Baracchini, E; Goodman, R H; Cooperman, S S; Mandel, G; Chien, K R

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the diversity of Na+ channel gene expression in intact cardiac tissue and purified myocardial cells. The screening of neonatal rat myocardial cell cDNA libraries with a conserved rat brain Na+ channel cDNA probe, resulted in the isolation and characterization of a putative rat cardiac Na+ channel cDNA probe (pCSC-1). The deduced amino acid sequence of pCSC-1 displayed a striking degree of homology with the eel, rat brain-1, and rat brain-2 Na+ channel, thereby identifying pCSC-1 as a related member of the family of Na+ channel genes. Northern blot analysis revealed the expression of a 7-kb CSC-1 transcript in rat cardiac tissue and purified myocardial cells, but little or no detectable expression of CSC-1 in rat brain, skeletal muscle, denervated skeletal muscle, or liver. Using RNase protection and Northern blot hybridization with specific rat brain Na+ channel gene probes, expression of the rat brain-1 Na+ channel was observed in rat myocardium, but no detectable expression of the rat brain-2 gene was found. This study provides evidence for the expression of diverse Na+ channel mRNAs in rat myocardium and presents the initial characterization of a new, related member of the family of Na+ channel genes, which appears to be expressed in a cardiac-specific manner. Images PMID:2544627

  11. Aldosterone regulation of intestinal Na absorption involves SGK-mediated changes in NHE3 and Na+ pump activity

    PubMed Central

    Musch, Mark W.; Lucioni, Alvaro; Chang, Eugene B.

    2008-01-01

    Aldosterone-induced intestinal Na+ absorption is mediated by increased activities of apical membrane Na+/H+ exchange (aNHE3) and basolateral membrane Na+-K+-ATPase (BLM-Na+-K+-ATPase) activities. Because the processes coordinating these events were not well understood, we investigated human intestinal Caco-2BBE cells where aldosterone increases within 2–4 h of aNHE3 and α-subunit of BLM-Na+-K+-ATPase, but not total abundance of these proteins. Although aldosterone activated Akt2 and serum glucorticoid kinase-1 (SGK-1), the latter through stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), only the SGK-1 pathway mediated its effects on Na+-K+-ATPase. Ouabain inhibition of the early increase in aldosterone-induced Na+-K+-ATPase activation blocked most of the apical NHE3 insertion, possibly by inhibiting Na+-K+-ATPase-induced changes in intracellular sodium concentration ([Na]i). Over the next 6–48 h, further increases in aNHE3 and BLM-Na+-K+-ATPase activity and total protein expression were observed to be largely mediated by aldosterone-activated SGK-1 pathway. Aldosterone-induced increases in NHE3 mRNA, for instance, could be inhibited by RNA silencing of SGK-1, but not Akt2. Additionally, aldosterone-induced increases in NHE3 promoter activity were blocked by silencing SGK-1 as well as pharmacological inhibition of PI3K. In conclusion, aldosterone-stimulated intestinal Na+ absorption involves two phases. The first phase involves stimulation of PI3K, which increases SGK-dependent insertion and function of BLM-Na+-K+-ATPase and subsequent increased membrane insertion of aNHE3. The latter may be caused by Na+-K+-ATPase-induced changes in [Na] or transcellular Na flux. The second phase involves SGK-dependent increases in total NHE3 and Na+-K+-ATPase protein expression and activities. The coordination of apical and BLM transporters after aldosterone stimulation is therefore a complex process that requires multiple time- and interdependent cellular processes. PMID:18801914

  12. Computational Study of Binding of μ-Conotoxin GIIIA to Bacterial Sodium Channels NaVAb and NaVRh.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dharmeshkumar; Mahdavi, Somayeh; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2016-03-29

    Structures of several voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels from bacteria have been determined recently, but the same feat might not be achieved for the mammalian counterparts in the near future. Thus, at present, computational studies of the mammalian NaV channels have to be performed using homology models based on the bacterial crystal structures. A successful homology model for the mammalian NaV1.4 channel was recently constructed using the extensive mutation data for binding of μ-conotoxin GIIIA to NaV1.4, which was further validated through studies of binding of other μ-conotoxins and ion permeation. Understanding the similarities and differences between the bacterial and mammalian NaV channels is an important issue, and the NaV1.4-GIIIA system provides a good opportunity for such a comparison. To this end, we study the binding of GIIIA to the bacterial channels NaVAb and NaVRh. The complex structures are obtained using docking and molecular dynamics simulations, and the dissociation of GIIIA is studied through umbrella sampling simulations. The results are compared to those obtained from the NaV1.4-GIIIA system, and the differences in the binding modes arising from the changes in the selectivity filters are highlighted. PMID:26959170

  13. Estimating the hydrogen ion concentration in concentrated NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, D.; Felmy, A.R.; Juracich, S.P.; Rao, F.

    1995-06-01

    Combination glass electrodes were tested for determining H{sup +} concentrations in concentrated pure and mixed NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, as well as natural brine systems. NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and mixtures of NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were analyzed. Correction factors for estimating pC{sub H}{sup +} (negative logarithm of H{sup +} concentration) were determined from measured/observed pH values. Required Gran-type titrations were done with HCl and/or NaOH. The titration method is described and a step-by-step procedure provided; it has been used previously for determining pC{sub H}{sup +} values of synthetic chloride-dominated brines. Precautions are required to determine correction factors for electrolytes that react with H{sup +} or OH{sup {minus}} [sulfate brines for titration with acid; magnesium brines for titration with base because of precipitation of Mg(OH)2]. Correction factors A (pC{sub H}{sup +} = pH{sub ob} + A) from HCl titrations were similar to those from NaOH titrations where the concentration of free H{sup +} was calculated using a thermodynamic model. These values should be applicable to solns with a very large range in measured pH values (2 to 12). Because a large number of solns were titrated with HCl and the A values are similar for HCl and NaOH titrations, the A values for NaCl and Na2SO4 solns were fit as a function of molality to allow extrapolation. For NaCl solns 0 to 6.0 M, A can be obtained by multiplying the molality by 0.159. For Na2SO4 solns 0 to 2.0 M, the values of A can be obtained from (0.221 {minus} 0.549X + 0.201X{sup 2}), where X is the molality of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Orion-Ross electrode evaluations indicated that the A values did not differ significantly for different electrodes. Results suggest that the data in this report can be used to estimate A values for different NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solns even for noncalibrated electrodes.

  14. The process of GaN single crystal growth by the Na flux method with Na vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Yamane, Hisanori; Iwata, Hirokazu; Sarayama, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    Ga melts were heated in a boron nitride crucible at 800 °C and 5 MPa of N 2 for 8-200 h with Na vapor. Colorless and transparent prismatic GaN single crystals grew from a Na-Ga melt which was formed by dissolution of Na from the gas phase. Nitrogen was probably introduced into the melt with Na. The time dependence of the Na fraction ( rNa=Na/(Na+Ga)) in the melts and the yields of GaN were investigated. rNa increased to 0.39-0.43 within 100 h, and then became almost constant at this value. The yield of GaN was less than 2% at 50 h. The yield increased linearly with heating time after 75 h, and reached 57% at 200 h. GaN single crystals with a size of 1.5 mm long were obtained on the bottom of the crucible wall. The largest crystals (3.0 mm-long and 1.2 mm-wide) grew at the edges of the melt and of the GaN crystal formation area near the bottom wall of the crucible.

  15. Alternative cycling modes of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the presence of either Na(+) or Rb(+).

    PubMed

    Monti, José L E; Montes, Mónica R; Rossi, Rolando C

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive study of the interaction between Na(+) and K(+) with the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase requires dissecting the incidence of alternative cycling modes on activity measurements in which one or both of these cations are absent. With this aim, we used membrane fragments containing pig-kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to perform measurements, at 25°C and pH=7.4, of ATPase activity and steady-state levels of (i) intermediates containing occluded Rb(+) at different [Rb(+)] in media lacking Na(+), and (ii) phosphorylated intermediates at different [Na(+)] in media lacking Rb(+). Most relevant results are: (1) Rb(+) can be occluded through an ATPasic cycling mode that takes place in the absence of Na(+) ions, (2) the kinetic behavior of the phosphoenzyme formed by ATP in the absence of Na(+) is different from the one that is formed with Na(+), and (3) binding of Na(+) to transport sites during catalysis is not at random unless rapid equilibrium holds. PMID:23357355

  16. Synthesis of NaYF4 and NaLuF4 Based Upconversion Nanocrystals and Comparison of Their Properties.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Juan; Yin, Dongguang; Song, Kailin; Wang, Chengcheng; Liu, Bing; Wu, Minghong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, four kinds of upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) have been successfully synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The morphology, crystalline phase, composition, grain size, upconversion luminescence and cell image of the UCNs were investigated. The properties of the NaLuF4-based UCNs were compared with the counterparts of NaYF4-based UCNs. It is found that the NaLuF4-based UCNs are apt to form hexagonal phase structures, while NaYF4-based UCNs of NaYF4:Yb, Er and NaYF4:Gd, Yb, Er are cubic and hexagonal phases respectively. The upconversion emission intensities of the NaLuF4-based UCNs are higher than that of NaYF4-based UCNs, and Gd3+ presented UCNs are higher than that of Gd3+ absented UCNs. The bioimaging application of NaLuF4:Gd, Yb, Er shows that bright upconversion luminescence can be observed when UCNs-labeled HeLa cells are excited with 980 nm light. PMID:26353495

  17. Kinetics and stoichiometry of coupled Na efflux and Ca influx (Na/Ca exchange) in barnacle muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Rasgado-Flores, H; Santiago, E M; Blaustein, M P

    1989-06-01

    Coupled Na+ exit/Ca2+ entry (Na/Ca exchange operating in the Ca2+ influx mode) was studied in giant barnacle muscle cells by measuring 22Na+ efflux and 45Ca2+ influx in internally perfused, ATP-fueled cells in which the Na+ pump was poisoned by 0.1 mM ouabain. Internal free Ca2+, [Ca2+]i, was controlled with a Ca-EGTA buffering system containing 8 mM EGTA and varying amounts of Ca2+. Ca2+ sequestration in internal stores was inhibited with caffeine and a mitochondrial uncoupler (FCCP). To maximize conditions for Ca2+ influx mode Na/Ca exchange, and to eliminate tracer Na/Na exchange, all of the external Na+ in the standard Na+ sea water (NaSW) was replaced by Tris or Li+ (Tris-SW or LiSW, respectively). In both Na-free solutions an external Ca2+ (Cao)-dependent Na+ efflux was observed when [Ca2+]i was increased above 10(-8) M; this efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]i = 0.3 microM (LiSW) to 0.7 microM (Tris-SW). The Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]o = 2.0 mM in LiSW and 7.2 mM in Tris-SW; at saturating [Ca2+]o, [Ca2+]i, and [Na+]i the maximal (calculated) Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was approximately 75 pmol#cm2.s. This efflux was inhibited by external Na+ and La3+ with IC50's of approximately 125 and 0.4 mM, respectively. A Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was also observed in Tris-SW. This Ca2+ influx also required [Ca2+]i greater than 10(-8) M. Internal Ca2+ activated a Nai-independent Ca2+ influx from LiSW (tracer Ca/Ca exchange), but in Tris-SW virtually all of the Cai-activated Ca2+ influx was Nai-dependent (Na/Ca exchange). Half-maximal activation was observed with [Na+]i = 30 mM. The fact that internal Ca2+ activates both a Cao-dependent Na+ efflux and a Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx in Tris-SW implies that these two fluxes are coupled; the activating (intracellular) Ca2+ does not appear to be transported by the exchanger. The maximal (calculated) Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was -25 pmol/cm2.s. At various [Na+]i between 6 and 106 mM, the ratio of the Cao-dependent Na+ efflux to the Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was 2.8-3.2:1 (mean = 3.1:1); this directly demonstrates that the stoichiometry (coupling ratio) of the Na/Ca exchange is 3:1. These observations on the coupling ratio and kinetics of the Na/Ca exchanger imply that in resting cells the exchanger turns over at a low rate because of the low [Ca2+]i; much of the Ca2+ extrusion at rest (approximately 1 pmol/cm2.s) is thus mediated by an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2769225

  18. A Putative Multisubunit Na+/H+ Antiporter from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hiramatsu, Toshiaki; Kodama, Kazuyo; Kuroda, Teruo; Mizushima, Tohru; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa

    1998-01-01

    We cloned several genes encoding an Na+/H+ antiporter of Staphylococcus aureus from chromosomal DNA by using an Escherichia coli mutant, lacking all of the major Na+/H+ antiporters, as the host. E. coli cells harboring plasmids for the cloned genes were able to grow in medium containing 0.2 M NaCl (or 10 mM LiCl). Host cells without the plasmids were unable to grow under the same conditions. Na+/H+ antiport activity was detected in membrane vesicles prepared from transformants. We determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned 7-kbp region. We found that seven open reading frames (ORFs) were necessary for antiporter function. A promoter-like sequence was found in the upstream region from the first ORF. One inverted repeat followed by a T-cluster, which may function as a terminator, was found in the downstream region from the seventh ORF. Neither terminator-like nor promoter-like sequences were found between the ORFs. Thus, it seems that the seven ORFs comprise an operon and that the Na+/H+ antiporter consists of seven kinds of subunits, suggesting that this is a novel type of multisubunit Na+/H+ antiporter. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the seven ORFs suggested that all of the proteins are hydrophobic. As a result of a homology search, we found that components of the respiratory chain showed sequence similarity with putative subunits of the Na+/H+ antiporter. We observed a large Na+ extrusion activity, driven by respiration in E. coli cells harboring the plasmid carrying the genes. The Na+ extrusion was sensitive to an H+ conductor, supporting the idea that the system is not a respiratory Na+ pump but an Na+/H+ antiporter. Introduction of the plasmid into E. coli mutant cells, which were unable to grow under alkaline conditions, enabled the cells to grow under such conditions. PMID:9852009

  19. Measurement of direct CP-violation with the experiments NA31 and NA48 at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, B. ); CERN, Edinburgh, Mainz, Orsay, Pisa and Siegen Collaboration

    1992-02-01

    The NA31 experiment has measured the CP violation parameter [var epsilon][prime]/[var epsilon]. The result of data collected in 1988 is Re([var epsilon][prime]/[var epsilon])=(1.7[plus minus]1.0)[times]10[sup [minus]3]. A preliminary result of data collected in 1989 is Re([var epsilon][prime]/[var epsilon])=(2.1[plus minus]0.9)[times]10[sup [minus]3]. Combining these two results with the original result from the 1986 data set we obtain Re([var epsilon][prime]/[var epsilon])=(2.3[plus minus]0.7)[times]10[sup [minus]3], which is a more than three standard deviation evidence for direct CP violation. A new experiment NA48 is under construction which aims for a significant reduction of the statistical and the systematical errors in order to reach a combined error not exceeding 2[times]10[sup [minus]4].

  20. Measurement of intravascular Na(+) during increased CBF using (23)Na NMR with a shift reagent.

    PubMed

    Ronen, I; Kim, S G

    2001-01-01

    Sodium ions are intimately involved with neural activity. Thus, it is highly desirable to devise a way of mapping brain activity via sodium imaging. Sodium ions exist in the extravascular and intravascular spaces. To separate the two components, the shift reagent Tm(DOTP)(5-) was intravenously introduced into rats. Intravascular sodium changes in the rat brain were measured during increased blood flow induced by hypercapnia using volume-localized (23)Na-NMR. The intravascular sodium changes, equivalent to cerebral blood volume changes, are significant during hypercapnia conditions and correlate well with the increase in arterial pCO(2). This suggests that the intravascular sodium change is dominant in total (23)Na spectroscopy or imaging of the brain during blood flow increase induced by external perturbation. PMID:11746937

  1. Structural basis for Na(+) transport mechanism by a light-driven Na(+) pump.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideaki E; Inoue, Keiichi; Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Kato, Yoshitaka; Ono, Hikaru; Konno, Masae; Hososhima, Shoko; Ishizuka, Toru; Hoque, Mohammad Razuanul; Kunitomo, Hirofumi; Ito, Jumpei; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Yamashita, Keitaro; Takemoto, Mizuki; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Taniguchi, Reiya; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Maturana, Andrés D; Iino, Yuichi; Yawo, Hiromu; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Kandori, Hideki; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2) is the first light-driven Na(+) pump discovered, and is viewed as a potential next-generation optogenetics tool. Since the positively charged Schiff base proton, located within the ion-conducting pathway of all light-driven ion pumps, was thought to prohibit the transport of a non-proton cation, the discovery of KR2 raised the question of how it achieves Na(+) transport. Here we present crystal structures of KR2 under neutral and acidic conditions, which represent the resting and M-like intermediate states, respectively. Structural and spectroscopic analyses revealed the gating mechanism, whereby the flipping of Asp116 sequesters the Schiff base proton from the conducting pathway to facilitate Na(+) transport. Together with the structure-based engineering of the first light-driven K(+) pumps, electrophysiological assays in mammalian neurons and behavioural assays in a nematode, our studies reveal the molecular basis for light-driven non-proton cation pumps and thus provide a framework that may advance the development of next-generation optogenetics. PMID:25849775

  2. Kinetic studies on Na+/K+-ATPase and inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase by ATP.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Yuwen, Liu; Jie, Li; Huilin, Li; Xi, Yang; Cunxin, Wang; Zhiyong, Wang

    2004-08-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.3) is an important membrane-bound enzyme. In this paper, kinetic studies on Na+/K+-ATPase were carried out under mimetic physiological conditions. By using microcalorimeter, a thermokinetic method was employed for the first time. Compared with other methods, it provided accurate measurements of not only thermodynamic data (deltarHm) but also the kinetic data (Km and Vmax). At 310.15K and pH 7.4, the molar reaction enthalpy (deltarHm) was measured as -40.514 +/- 0.9kJmol(-1). The Michaelis constant (Km) was determined to be 0.479 +/- 0.020 mM and consistent with literature data. The reliability of the thermokinetic method was further confirmed by colorimetric studies. Furthermore, a simple and reliable kinetic procedure was presented for ascertaining the true substrate for Na+/K+-ATPase and determining the effect of free ATP. Results showed that the MgATP complex was the real substrate with a Km value of about 0.5mM and free ATP was a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.253 mM. PMID:15558949

  3. Point mutations in alpha-subunit of human cardiac Na+ channels alter Na+ current kinetics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y F; Ke, Q; Wang, S Y; Yang, Y; Wang, G K; Morgan, J P; Leaf, A

    2001-02-16

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) prevent ischemia-induced fatal cardiac arrhythmias in animals and probably in humans. This action results from inhibition of ion currents for Na+, Ca2+, and possibly other ions. To extend understanding of this protection we are seeking a possible binding site for the PUFAs on the alpha-subunit of the human cardiac Na+ channel, hH1alpha, transiently expressed in HEK293t cells. Three mutated single amino acid substitutions with lysine were made in the alpha-subunit at Domain 4-Segment 6 (D4-S6) for F1760, Y1767 and at D1-S6 for N406. These are in the putative sites of binding of local anesthetics and batrachotoxin, respectively. The mutants F1760K, Y1767K, and N406K, separately and to different extents, affected the current density, the steady-state inactivation potential, accelerated inactivation, delayed recovery from inactivation, and affected voltage-dependent block, but did not affect activation of the hH1alpha. It is essential to learn that single point mutations in D1-S6 and D4-S6 alone significantly modify the kinetics of human cardiac hH1alpha Na+ currents. The effects of PUFAs on these mutant channels will be the subject of subsequent reports. PMID:11178958

  4. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y los síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y el tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  5. Planificar la transición a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  6. Personal de enfermería asume diversas funciones con expansión de programas de gestión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los profesionales de enfermería oncológica que ayudan a los pacientes durante todas las etapas de la atención oncológica, desde los exámenes de detección y el diagnóstico, hasta el tratamiento y la supervivencia.

  7. The pea gene NA encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sandra E; Elliott, Robert C; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Reid, James B

    2003-01-01

    The gibberellin (GA)-deficient dwarf na mutant in pea (Pisum sativum) has severely reduced internode elongation, reduced root growth, and decreased leaflet size. However, the seeds develop normally. Two genes, PsKAO1 and PsKAO2, encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases of the subfamily CYP88A were isolated. Both PsKAO1 and PsKAO2 had ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) activity, catalyzing the three steps of the GA biosynthetic pathway from ent-kaurenoic acid to GA(12) when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In addition to the intermediates ent-7alpha-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA(12)-aldehyde, some additional products of the pea KAO activity were detected, including ent-6alpha,7alpha-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and 7beta-hydroxykaurenolide. The NA gene encodes PsKAO1, because in two independent mutant alleles, na-1 and na-2, PsKAO1 had altered sequences and the five-base deletion in PsKAO1 associated with the na-1 allele cosegregated with the dwarf na phenotype. PsKAO1 was expressed in the stem, apical bud, leaf, pod, and root, organs in which GA levels have previously been shown to be reduced in na plants. PsKAO2 was expressed only in seeds and this may explain the normal seed development and normal GA biosynthesis in seeds of na plants. PMID:12529541

  8. Direct Measurement of {sup 21}Na+{alpha} Stellar Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Binh, D. N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kume, N.; Kato, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Tho, N. T.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2010-08-12

    The measurement of the resonant alpha scattering and the {sup 21}Na({alpha}, p) reaction were performed for the first time in inverse kinematics with the thick target method using a {sup 21}Na radioisotope (RI) beam. This paper reports the current result of alpha scattering measurement and its astrophysics implication.

  9. Direct Measurement of 21Na+α Stellar Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, D. N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kume, N.; Kato, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Tho, N. T.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2010-08-01

    The measurement of the resonant alpha scattering and the 21Na(α, p) reaction were performed for the first time in inverse kinematics with the thick target method using a 21Na radioisotope (RI) beam. This paper reports the current result of alpha scattering measurement and its astrophysics implication.

  10. Transepithelial Na+ transport and the intracellular fluids: a computer study.

    PubMed

    Civan, M M; Bookman, R J

    1982-01-01

    Computer simulations of tight epithelia under three experimental conditions have been carried out, using the rheogenic nonlinear model of Lew, Ferreira and Moura (Proc. Roy. Soc. London. B 206:53-83, 1979) based largely on the formulation of Koefoed-Johnsen and Ussing (Acta Physiol. Scand. 42: 298-308. 1958). First, analysis of the transition between the short-circuited and open-circuited states has indicated that (i) apical Cl- permeability is a critical parameter requiring experimental definition in order to analyze cell volume regulation, and (ii) contrary to certain experimental reports, intracellular Na+ concentration (ccNa) is expected to be a strong function of transepithelial clamping voltage. Second, analysis of the effects of lowering serosal K+ concentration (csK) indicates that the basic model cannot simulate several well-documented observations; these defects can be overcome, at least qualitatively, by modifying the model to take account of the negative feedback interaction likely to exist between the apical Na+ permeability and ccNa. Third, analysis of the strongly supports the concept that osmotically induced permeability changes in the apical intercellular junctions play a physiological role in conserving the body's stores of NaCl. The analyses also demonstrate that the importance of Na+ entry across the basolateral membrane is strongly dependent upon transepithelial potential, cmNa and csK; under certain conditions, net Na+ entry could be appreciably greater across the basolateral than across the apical membrane. PMID:7057462

  11. Resurgent current of voltage-gated Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda H; Raman, Indira M

    2014-01-01

    Resurgent Na+ current results from a distinctive form of Na+ channel gating, originally identified in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In these neurons, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channels responsible for action potential firing have specialized mechanisms that reduce the likelihood that they accumulate in fast inactivated states, thereby shortening refractory periods and permitting rapid, repetitive, and/or burst firing. Under voltage clamp, step depolarizations evoke transient Na+ currents that rapidly activate and quickly decay, and step repolarizations elicit slower channel reopening, or a ‘resurgent’ current. The generation of resurgent current depends on a factor in the Na+ channel complex, probably a subunit such as NaVβ4 (Scn4b), which blocks open Na+ channels at positive voltages, competing with the fast inactivation gate, and unblocks at negative voltages, permitting recovery from an open channel block along with a flow of current. Following its initial discovery, resurgent Na+ current has been found in nearly 20 types of neurons. Emerging research suggests that resurgent current is preferentially increased in a variety of clinical conditions associated with altered cellular excitability. Here we review the biophysical, molecular and structural mechanisms of resurgent current and their relation to the normal functions of excitable cells as well as pathophysiology. PMID:25172941

  12. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vereninov, Igor A.; Yurinskaya, Valentina E.; Model, Michael A.; Vereninov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1–10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential. PMID:27159324

  13. Inhibition of the Na,K pump by vanadate in high-Na solutions. Modification of the reaction mechanism by external Na acting at a high- affinity site

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We have examined vanadate inhibition of the Na,K pump in the presence of external Na (Nao). Nao protects against inhibition of the Na,K pump by vanadate, but not against inhibition by phosphate or arsenate. Protection by Nao is reversed by external K (Ko). Although the site at which Na exerts its protective effect has properties similar to the two transport sites for K at the outside of the pump, it is not one of the transport sites. The data can be qualitatively accounted for if it is postulated that there is a protective site, separate from the transport sites, at which Nao and Ko compete. When the site is empty or bound to K, vanadate combines with high affinity with pumps that have two K ions bound to the transport sites, but not with pumps that have Na bound to the protective site, even if K is bound to the transport sites. The protective site has a high affinity for both Na and K; the apparent K 1/2 for external Na is less than 2 mM, which is similar to that of a previously described site at which Nao inhibits a number of the partial reactions of the pump. Nao protects against vanadate inhibition of the K-K exchange in the absence of cell Na, and against vanadate inhibition of p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity of the pump in the absence of ATP. The protective site is a manifestation of an E2 conformation of the pump. The protective effect of Nao is not changed by altering the intracellular Mg2+ concentration. PMID:2443604

  14. Feasibility study for a secondary Na/S battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Schiff, R.; Brummer, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of a moderate temperature Na battery was studied. This battery is to operate at a temperature in the range of 100-150 C. Two kinds of cathode were investigated: (1) a soluble S cathode consisting of a solution of Na2Sn in an organic solvent and (2) an insoluble S cathode consisting of a transition metal dichalcogenide in contact with a Na(+)ion conducting electrolyte. Four amide solvents, dimethyl acetamide, diethyl acetamide, N-methyl acetamide and acetamide, were investigated as possible solvents for the soluble S cathode. Results of stability and electrochemical studies using these solvents are presented. The dialkyl substituted amides were found to be superior. Although the alcohol 1,3-cyclohexanediol was found to be stable in the presence of Na2Sn at 130 C, its Na2Sn solutions did not appear to have suitable electrochemical properties.

  15. Persistent human cardiac Na+ currents in stably transfected mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ging Kuo; Russell, Gabriella; Wang, Sho-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Miniature persistent late Na+ currents in cardiomyocytes have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The goals of this study are to establish a stable cell line expressing robust persistent cardiac Na+ currents and to test Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs for selective action against resting and open states. After transient transfection of an inactivation-deficient human cardiac Na+ channel clone (hNav1.5-CW with L409C/A410W double mutations), transfected mammalian HEK293 cells were treated with 1 mg/ml G-418. Individual G-418-resistant colonies were isolated using glass cylinders. One colony with high expression of persistent Na+ currents was subjected to a second colony selection. Cells from this colony remained stable in expressing robust peak Na+ currents of 996 ± 173 pA/pF at +50 mV (n = 20). Persistent late Na+ currents in these cells were clearly visible during a 4-second depolarizing pulse albeit decayed slowly. This slow decay is likely due to slow inactivation of Na+ channels and could be largely eliminated by 5 μM batrachotoxin. Peak cardiac hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC50 value of 2.27 ± 0.08 μM (n = 6). At clinic relevant concentrations, Class 1 antiarrhythmics are much more selective in blocking persistent late Na+ currents than their peak counterparts, with a selectivity ratio ranging from 80.6 (flecainide) to 3 (disopyramide). We conclude that (1) Class 1 antiarrhythmics differ widely in their resting- vs. open-channel selectivity, and (2) stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing large persistent hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents are suitable for studying as well as screening potent open-channel blockers. PMID:23695971

  16. A semiclassical study of laser-induced atomic fluorescence from Na2, K2 and NaK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, J.-M.; Bhattacharyya, D. K.; George, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    A semiclassical treatment of laser-induced atomic fluorescence for the alkali-dimer systems Na2, K2 and NaK is presented. The variation of the fluorescence intensity with the frequency of the exciting laser photon is studied and a comparison of theoretical results with a set of experimental data is presented.

  17. Genome Sequences of Cupriavidus metallidurans Strains NA1, NA4, and NE12, Isolated from Space Equipment.

    PubMed

    Monsieurs, Pieter; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Provoost, Ann; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Ott, C Mark; Leys, Natalie; Van Houdt, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans NA1, NA4, and NE12 were isolated from space and spacecraft-associated environments. Here, we report their draft genome sequences with the aim of gaining insight into their potential to adapt to these environments. PMID:25059868

  18. Genome Sequences of Cupriavidus metallidurans Strains NA1, NA4, and NE12, Isolated from Space Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Monsieurs, Pieter; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Provoost, Ann; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Ott, C. Mark; Leys, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans NA1, NA4, and NE12 were isolated from space and spacecraft-associated environments. Here, we report their draft genome sequences with the aim of gaining insight into their potential to adapt to these environments. PMID:25059868

  19. Studies of rotationally inelastic collisions of NaK and NaCs with Ar and He perturbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Faust, C.; Richter, K.; Wolfe, C. M.; Ashman, S.; Malenda, R. F.; Weiser, P.; Carlus, S.; Fragale, A.; Hickman, A. P.; Huennekens, J.

    2013-05-01

    We report studies of rotationally inelastic collisions of Ar and He atoms with the molecules NaK and NaCs prepared in various ro-vibrational levels of the A1Σ+ electronic state. We use laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and polarization labeling (PL) spectroscopy in a pump-probe, two step excitation process. The pump excites the molecule to a ro-vibrational level (v , J) in the A state. The probe laser is scanned over transitions to the 31 Π state in NaK or the 53 Π state in NaCs. In addition to strong direct lines, we observe weak satellite lines that arise from collision-induced transitions of the A state level (v , J) to (v , J + ΔJ) . The ratio of intensities of the satellite line to the direct line in LIF and PL yields information about population and orientation transfer. Preliminary results show a strong propensity for collisions with ΔJ =even for NaK; the propensity is larger for He than for Ar. Collisions of NaCs with He show a similar propensity, but collisions of NaCs with Ar do not. Theoretical calculations are also underway. For He-NaK, we have completed potential surface calculations using GAMESS and coupled channel scattering calculations of rotational energy transfer and transfer of orientation. Work supported by NSF and XSEDE.

  20. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  1. 23Na NMR Study of NASICON-type Compounds, Na1+xScxTi2-x(PO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Hirotsugu; Ueda, Takahiro; Miyakubo, Keisuke; Eguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Nobuo

    2000-02-01

    The structure of NASICON-type compounds, Na1+xScxTi2-x(PO4)3 (O ≤ x ≤ 2), and the dynamics of Na+ have been investigated by 23Na NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the 23Na 1D and 2D MQMAS spectra depend on the Na concentration, suggesting strongly that the Na+ ions are distributed between two crystallographically nonequivalent sites, one is a special position with axial symmetry, and the other a position of low symmetry. The chemical exchange between these different sites in the crystal takes place at room temperature, which may cause the high Na ion conduction of this material

  2. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  3. Hydrogen bond dynamics in aqueous NaBr solutions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungnam; Fayer, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen bond dynamics of water in NaBr solutions are studied by using ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy and polarization-selective IR pump–probe experiments. The hydrogen bond structural dynamics are observed by measuring spectral diffusion of the OD stretching mode of dilute HOD in H2O in a series of high concentration aqueous NaBr solutions with 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy. The time evolution of the 2D IR spectra yields frequency–frequency correlation functions, which permit quantitative comparisons of the influence of NaBr concentration on the hydrogen bond dynamics. The results show that the global rearrangement of the hydrogen bond structure, which is represented by the slowest component of the spectral diffusion, slows, and its time constant increases from 1.7 to 4.8 ps as the NaBr concentration increases from pure water to ≈6 M NaBr. Orientational relaxation is analyzed with a wobbling-in-a-cone model describing restricted orientational diffusion that is followed by complete orientational randomization described as jump reorientation. The slowest component of the orientational relaxation increases from 2.6 ps (pure water) to 6.7 ps (≈6 M NaBr). Vibrational population relaxation of the OD stretch also slows significantly as the NaBr concentration increases. PMID:17940023

  4. Activation of the Na+, K(+)-ATPase in Narcine brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, H; Nioka, S; Johnson, R G

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo activation and turnover rates of the sodium pump (Na+, K(+)-ATPase) were investigated in the electrocytes of the electric organ of the elasmobranch Narcine brasiliensis. The Narcine electric organ appears to be an excellent model for the study of sodium pump activation in an excitable tissue. The sodium transmembrane gradient and high-energy phosphagens were concurrently measured by 23Na and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The resting electric organ, which depends primarily on anaerobic metabolism, displays a high concentration of phosphocreatine (PCr). It has an intracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]i) of 20 +/- 10 milliequivalents/liter as estimated by NMR. Electrical stimulation of the nerves innervating the electric organ results in an increase in [Na+]i in the electrolyte and rapid depletion of PCr. Ouabain causes an 85% decrease in utilization of high-energy phosphagens, indicating that rapid PCr turnover in this tissue is mainly due to Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity. From these data we can determine that the rate of sodium pump turnover increases by greater than 3 orders of magnitude within several hundred milliseconds. In excised unstimulated electric organ slices, changes in [Na+]i equivalent to those occurring with stimulation, but induced by hyperosmolar conditions, do not result in increased PCr hydrolysis. We conclude that cholinergic stimulation of the electric organ causes a rapid and extremely large increase in sodium pump turnover, which is regulated predominantly by factors other than [Na+]i. Images PMID:2153976

  5. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Drabińska, Aneta Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  6. Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities of zebrafish NHE3b expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yusuke; Kato, Akira; Hirata, Taku; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (zNHE3b) is highly expressed in the apical membrane of ionocytes where Na+ is absorbed from ion-poor fresh water against a concentration gradient. Much in vivo data indicated that zNHE3b is involved in Na+ absorption but not leakage. However, zNHE3b-mediated Na+ absorption has not been thermodynamically explained, and zNHE3b activity has not been measured. To address this issue, we overexpressed zNHE3b in Xenopus oocytes and characterized its activity by electrophysiology. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to Na+-free media resulted in significant decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) and intracellular Na+ activity (aNai). aNai increased significantly when the cytoplasm was acidified by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. Activity of zNHE3b was inhibited by amiloride or 5-ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA). Although the activity was accompanied by a large hyperpolarization of ∼50 mV, voltage-clamp experiments showed that Na+/H+ exchange activity of zNHE3b is electroneutral. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to medium containing NH3/NH4+ resulted in significant decreases in pHi and aNai and significant increase in intracellular NH4+ activity, indicating that zNHE3b mediates the Na+/NH4+ exchange. In low-Na+ (0.5 mM) media, zNHE3b oocytes maintained aNai of 1.3 mM, and Na+-influx was observed when pHi was decreased by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. These results provide thermodynamic evidence that zNHE3b mediates Na+ absorption from ion-poor fresh water by its Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities. PMID:24401990

  7. Thyroid Na+/I- symporter. Mechanism, stoichiometry, and specificity.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, S; Loo, D D; Dai, G; Levy, O; Wright, E M; Carrasco, N

    1997-10-24

    The rat thyroid Na+/I- symporter (NIS) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using electrophysiological, tracer uptake, and electron microscopic methods. NIS activity was found to be electrogenic and Na+-dependent (Na+ > Li+ > H+). The apparent affinity constants for Na+ and I- were 28 +/- 3 mM and 33 +/- 9 microM, respectively. Stoichiometry of Na+/anion cotransport was 2:1. NIS was capable of transporting a wide variety of anions (I-, ClO3-, SCN-, SeCN-, NO3-, Br-, BF4-, IO4-, BrO3-, but perchlorate (ClO4-) was not transported. In the absence of anion substrate, NIS exhibited a Na+-dependent leak current (approximately 35% of maximum substrate-induced current) with an apparent Na+ affinity of 74 +/- 14 mM and a Hill coefficient (n) of 1. In response to step voltage changes, NIS exhibited current transients that relaxed with a time constant of 8-14 ms. Presteady-state charge movements (integral of the current transients) versus voltage relations obey a Boltzmann relation. The voltage for half-maximal charge translocation (V0.5) was -15 +/- 3 mV, and the apparent valence of the movable charge was 1. Total charge was insensitive to [Na+]o, but V0.5 shifted to more negative potentials as [Na+]o was reduced. NIS charge movements are attributed to the conformational changes of the empty transporter within the membrane electric field. The turnover rate of NIS was >/=22 s-1 in the Na+ uniport mode and >/=36 s-1 in the Na+/I- cotransport mode. Transporter density in the plasma membrane was determined using freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Expression of NIS in oocytes led to a approximately 2. 5-fold increase in the density of plasma membrane protoplasmic face intramembrane particles. On the basis of the kinetic results, we propose an ordered simultaneous transport mechanism in which the binding of Na+ to NIS occurs first. PMID:9341168

  8. Two-frequency lidar technique for mesospheric Na temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    She, C. Y.; Latifi, H.; Yu, J. R.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Bills, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new two-frequency lidar for measuring Na temperature profiles. The laser oscillator is tuned to the two operating frequencies by observing the Doppler-free structure of the Na D2 fluorescence spectrum in a vapor cell. The lidar technique and initial observations of the temperature profile between 82 and 102 km are described. Absolute temperature accuracies at the Na layer peak of better than + or - 3 K with a vertical resolution of 1 km and an integration period of approximately 5 min were achieved.

  9. 23Na and 35/37Cl as NMR probes of growth and shape of sodium taurodeoxycholate micellar aggregates in the presence of NaCl.

    PubMed

    Asaro, Fioretta; Feruglio, Luigi; Galantini, Luciano; Nardelli, Alessia

    2013-02-15

    The growth of the aggregates of the dihydroxylated bile salt sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) upon NaCl addition and the involvement of the counterion were investigated by NMR spectroscopy of monoatomic ionic species. (23)Na T(1) values from 0.015, 0.100, and 0.200 mol kg(-1) NaTDC solutions in D(2)O, at variable NaCl content, proved to be sensitive to the transition from primary to secondary aggregates, which occurs in the former sample, and to intermicellar interaction. Some (79)Br NMR measurements were performed on a 0.100 mol kg(-1) NaTDC sample added by NaBr in place of NaCl for comparison purposes. The (23)Na, (35)Cl, and (37)Cl double quantum filtered (DQF) patterns, from the 0.100 mol kg(-1) NaTDC sample, and (23)Na ones also from the 0.200 mol kg(-1) NaTDC one, in the presence of 0.750 mol kg(-1) NaCl, are a clear manifestation of motional anisotropy. Moreover, the DQF spectra of (23)Na and (37)Cl, which possess close quadrupole moments, display a striking similarity. The DQF lineshapes were simulated exploiting the Scilab environment to obtain an estimate of the residual quadrupole splitting magnitude. These results support the description of NaTDC micelles as cylindrical aggregates, strongly interacting at high ionic strengths, and capable of association with added electrolytes. PMID:23127873

  10. Ecotoxicological evaluation of three deicers (NaCl, NaFo, CMA)-effect on terrestrial organisms.

    PubMed

    Robidoux, P Y; Delisle, C E

    2001-02-01

    The use of chemical deicers such as sodium chloride (NaCl) has increased significantly during the past three decades. Deicers induce metal corrosion and alter the physicochemical properties of soils and water. Environmental damage caused by the use of NaCl has prompted government agencies to find alternative deicers. This article presents a comparative ecotoxicological study of three deicers on soil organisms. Sodium formiate (NaFo) and calcium-magnesium acetate (CMA) are the most interesting commercially available deicers based upon their characteristics and potential toxicity. Organisms used in this study were four species of macrophytes (cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Ordeum vulgare), red fescue grass (Festuca rubra), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)) and an invertebrate (Eisenia fetida). Using standardized and modified methods, the relative toxicity of deicers was CMA < NaFo congruent with NaCl. The results demonstrate that these chemicals could have similar impacts in terrestrial environments since similar quantities of NaFo and greater amounts of CMA are necessary to achieve the same efficiency as NaCl. The toxicity of the tested substances was lower in natural composted soil than in artificial substrate (silica or OECD soil), indicating decreased environmental bioavailability. The response of the organisms changed according to endpoint, species, and soil characteristics (artificial substrate as compared to natural organic soil). The most sensitive endpoint measured was macrophyte growth with Kentucky bluegrass being the most sensitive species. PMID:11161687

  11. The incommensurately modulated structures of the perovskites NaCeMnWO6 and NaPrMnWO6.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Susana; King, Graham; Nénert, Gwilherm; Ritter, C; Woodward, Patrick M

    2012-04-01

    The structures of the doubly ordered perovskites NaCeMnWO(6) and NaPrMnWO(6), with rock salt ordering of the Mn(2+) and W(6+)B-site cations and layered ordering of the Na(+) and (Ce(3+)/Pr(3+)) A-site cations, have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Both compounds possess incommensurately modulated crystal structures. In NaCeMnWO(6) the modulation vector (with reference to the ideal ABX(3) perovskite subcell) is q ≈ 0.067a* (∼58.7 Å) and in NaPrMnWO(6)q ≈ 0.046a* (∼85.3 Å). In both compounds the superstructures are primarily the two-dimensional chessboard type, although some crystals of NaCeMnWO(6) were found with one-dimensional stripes. In some crystals of NaPrMnWO(6) there is a coexistence of chessboards and stripes. Modeling of neutron diffraction data shows that octahedral tilting plays an important role in the structural modulation. PMID:22385521

  12. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of basic education teachers in the survey domain is a controversial issue and fully debated in the academy. The opportunity for a collective work that incorporated school teachers from a public school to a university's group of physics teaching at university allowed us to glimpse the redefinition of the function of a science teacher (a coauthor of this paper) by himself, such that now he includes research on the knowledge construction by students in his teacher practice. The formation of inter-institutional groups for action planning and research in these areas has proved productive for the task of knowledge construction to support educational processes in school, while the university enriches its collection of experiences critically validated, and can consider the results in teachers initial and continued education. The active participation of the teacher in a research group at the university led him to reflect on the possible didactical ways to be described, analyzed and communicated to other teachers. The construction of a pedagogy that took into account the mental models of students on the basic topics of astronomy, and the changes developed resulting from the lessons taught, led to far-reaching consequences on the pedagogy adopted by the teacher, who incorporates now a new vision of science and alternative forms to dialogue with students, essential components for a researcher in Science Education. La inclusión de los maestros de la escuela básica en el universo de la investigación es polémica y está en amplio debate en el mundo académico. La oportunidad de trabajo colectivo de los maestros de una escuela pública en Río de Janeiro con un grupo universitario de enseñanza de la física nos ha permitido vislumbrar la redefinición de la función de un maestro de ciencias (uno de los coautores de este documento) por él mismo, ahora para incluir la investigación sobre la construcción del conocimiento por los alumnos en su práctica como docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e continuada de professores. A participação ativa do professor num grupo de pesquisa na universidade o levou à reflexão sobre caminhos didáticos possíveis de serem descritos, analisados e comunicados a outros professores. A construção de uma pedagogia própria, levando em conta os modelos mentais dos alunos sobre temas básicos de Astronomia, e as mudanças promovidas a partir das aulas dadas, trouxeram amplas conseqüências sobre a pedagogia adotada pelo professor. Hoje a prática desse professor incorpora uma nova visão de ciência e formas alternativas de dialogar com os alunos, elementos indispensáveis a um pesquisador em Educação em Ciências.

  13. 23 Na and 17O NMR studies of hyperkagome Na4Ir3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shockley, Abigail; Bert, Fabrice; Orain, Jean-Christophe; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Mendels, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Na4Ir3O8 is a unique case of a 3D corner sharing triangular lattice which can be decorated with quantum spins. It has spurred a lot of theoretical interest as a spin liquid candidate of a new kind where the Hamiltonian might not be thought in terms of a simple Heisenberg case because of spin orbit coupling on the Ir 5d element. We present a comprehensive set of NMR data taken on both the 23Na and 17O sites. We have found that magnetic freezing of all Ir sites sets in below Tf ~ 7.5K ~ 0 . 019 J with a clear hyperfine field transferred from Ir moments and a drastic decrease of 1 /T1 . Above Tf, physical properties are expected to be a landmark of frustration in this exotic geometry. We will discuss our shift and relaxation data in the temperature range of 300K to 7.5 K in the light of published thermodynamic measurements (Y. Okamotoa et al, PRL 99 137207, 2007 and Y. Singh et al, PRB 88 220413(R), 2013) and comment on their implications for the already existing large body of theoretical work.

  14. Contributions of cellular leak pathways to net NaHCO3 and NaCl absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Preisig, P A; Alpern, R J

    1989-01-01

    Proton and formic acid permeabilities were measured in the in vivo microperfused rat proximal convoluted tubule by examining the effect on intracellular pH when [H] and/or [formic acid] were rapidly changed in the luminal or peritubular fluids. Apical and basolateral membrane H permeabilities were 0.52 +/- 0.07 and 0.67 +/- 0.18 cm/s, respectively. Using these permeabilities we calculate that proton backleak from the luminal fluid to cell does not contribute significantly to net proton secretion in the early proximal tubule, but may contribute in the late proximal tubule. Apical and basolateral membrane formic acid permeabilities measured at extracellular pH 6.62 were 4.6 +/- 0.5 X 10(-2) and 6.8 +/- 1.5 X 10(-2) cm/s, respectively. Control studies demonstrated that the formic acid permeabilities were not underestimated by either the simultaneous movement of formate into the cell or the efflux of formic acid across the opposite membrane. The measured apical membrane formic acid permeability is too small to support all of transcellular NaCl absorption in the rat by a mechanism that involves Na/H-Cl/formate transporters operating in parallel with formic acid nonionic diffusion. PMID:2542374

  15. Determinants of substrate and cation transport in the human Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC3.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Avner; Sun, Nina N; Colas, Claire; Pajor, Ana M

    2014-06-13

    Metabolic intermediates, such as succinate and citrate, regulate important processes ranging from energy metabolism to fatty acid synthesis. Cytosolic concentrations of these metabolites are controlled, in part, by members of the SLC13 gene family. The molecular mechanism underlying Na(+)-coupled di- and tricarboxylate transport by this family is understood poorly. The human Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC3 (SLC13A3) is found in various tissues, including the kidney, liver, and brain. In addition to citric acid cycle intermediates such as α-ketoglutarate and succinate, NaDC3 transports other compounds into cells, including N-acetyl aspartate, mercaptosuccinate, and glutathione, in keeping with its dual roles in cell nutrition and detoxification. In this study, we construct a homology structural model of NaDC3 on the basis of the structure of the Vibrio cholerae homolog vcINDY. Our computations are followed by experimental testing of the predicted NaDC3 structure and mode of interaction with various substrates. The results of this study show that the substrate and cation binding domains of NaDC3 are composed of residues in the opposing hairpin loops and unwound portions of adjacent helices. Furthermore, these results provide a possible explanation for the differential substrate specificity among dicarboxylate transporters that underpin their diverse biological roles in metabolism and detoxification. The structural model of NaDC3 provides a framework for understanding substrate selectivity and the Na(+)-coupled anion transport mechanism by the human SLC13 family and other key solute carrier transporters. PMID:24808185

  16. Characterization and antibacterial activity of silver exchanged regenerated NaY zeolite from surfactant-modified NaY zeolite.

    PubMed

    Salim, Mashitah Mad; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading. PMID:26652350

  17. Measurement of 21Na(α,p)24Mg stellar reaction using a 21Na RI-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, D. N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Tho, N. T.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2012-11-01

    We performed an experiment of the 21Na(αp)24Mg reaction for the first time by a direct measurement with a thick target method. The studied energy was covered for high temperature conditions in X-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae. The 21Na(αp)24Mg reaction could make a branch of the extended αp-process and could be important to understand the production of 22Na during the hydrogen explosion at high temperature, like in X-ray bursts, and the 44Ti production from core-collapse supernovae.

  18. Na double-edge magneto-optic filter for Na lidar profiling of wind and temperature in the lower atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wentao; Chu, Xinzhao; Williams, B P; Harrell, S D; Wiig, Johannes; She, C-Y

    2009-01-15

    A Na double-edge magneto-optic filter is proposed for incorporation into the receiver of a three-frequency Na Doppler lidar to extend its wind and temperature measurements into the lower atmosphere. Two prototypes based on cold- and hot-cell designs were constructed and tested with laser scanning and quantum mechanics modeling. The hot-cell filter exhibits superior performances over the cold-cell filter containing buffer gas. Lidar simulations, metrics, and error analyses show that simultaneous wind and temperature measurements are feasible in the altitude range of 20-50 km using the hot-cell filter and reasonable Na lidar parameters. PMID:19148254

  19. On the Structure and Chemical Bonding of Si62- and Si62- in NaSi6- Upon Na+ Coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Zubarev, Dmitry Y.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Cui, Lifeng; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai S.

    2006-03-23

    Photoelectron spectroscopy was combined with ab initio calculations to elucidate the structure and bonding in Si62- and NaSi6-. Well-resolved electronic transitions were observed in the photoelectron spectra of Si6- and NaSi6- at three photon energies (355, 266, and 193 nm). The spectra of NaSi6- were observed to be similar to those of Si6- except that the electron binding energies of the former are lower, suggesting that the Si6 motif in NaSi6- is structurally and electronically similar to that of Si6-. The electron affinity of Si6 and NaSi6 were measured fairly accurately to be 2.23 ± 0.03 eV and 1.80 ± 0.05 eV, respectively. Global minimum structure searches for Si62- and NaSi6- were performed using Gradient Embedded Genetic Algorithm followed by B3LYP, MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations. Vertical electron detachment energies (VDEs) were calculated for the lowest Si6- and NaSi6- structures at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(2df), ROVGF/6-311+G(2df), UOVGF/6-311+G(2d), TD B3LYP/6-311+G(2df) levels of theory. Experimental VDEs were used to verify the global minimum structure for NaSi6-. Though the octahedral Si62-, analogous to the closo-form of borane B6H62-, is the most stable form for the bare hexa-silicon dianion, it is not the kernel for the NaSi6- global minimum. The most stable isomer of NaSi6- is based on a Si62- motif, which is distorted into C2v symmetry similar to the ground state structure of Si6-. The octahedral Si62- coordinated by a Na+ is a low-lying isomer and was also observed experimentally. The chemical bonding in Si62- and NaSi6- was understood using NBO, molecular orbital, and ELF analysis.

  20. Na2MoO2As2O7

    PubMed Central

    Jouini, Raja; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Disodium molybdenum dioxide diarsenate, Na2MoO2As2O7, has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The structure is built up from MoAs2O12 linear units sharing corners to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels running along the a-axis direction in which the Na+ cations are located. In this framework, the AsV atoms are tetra­hedrally coordinated and form an As2O7 group. The MoVI atom is displaced from the center of an octa­hedron of O atoms. Two Na+ cations are disordered about inversion centres. Structural relationships between different compounds: A 2MoO2As2O7 (A = K, Rb), AMOP2O7 (A = Na, K, Rb; M = Mo, Nb) and MoP2O7 are discussed. PMID:23468669

  1. Signaling pathways in induced naïve pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shoudong; Liu, Dahai; Ying, Qi-Long

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells have become powerful tools for both research and regenerative medicine. To date, however, only mouse and rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs)/induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the ability to contribute to the formation of germline-competent chimeras. These stem cells are thus considered as 'naïve' pluripotent stem cells. Several signaling pathways have been identified to play a critical role in the induction and maintenance of this naïve pluripotent state. Understanding how these pathways induce and maintain naïve pluripotency will likely lead to the generation of germline-competent naïve ESCs/iPSCs from humans and animals phylogenetically close to humans. PMID:25173148

  2. Multiple functions of Na,K-ATPase in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sigrid A; Barwe, Sonali P; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2005-09-01

    The Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), or sodium pump, has been well studied for its role in the regulation of ion homeostasis in mammalian cells. Recent studies suggest that Na,K-ATPase might have multiple functions such as a role in the regulation of tight junction structure and function, induction of polarity, regulation of actin dynamics, control of cell movement, and cell signaling. These functions appear to be modulated by Na,K-ATPase enzyme activity as well as protein-protein interactions of the alpha and beta subunits. In this review we attempt to differentiate functions associated with enzyme activity and subunit interactions. In addition, the consequence of impaired Na,K-ATPase function or reduced subunit expression levels in kidney diseases such as cancer, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and ischemic nephropathy are discussed. PMID:16139688

  3. Degradation Of Carbon/Phenolic Composites By NaOH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. M.; Semmel, M. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of sodium hydroxide contamination level on physical and chemical properties of phenolic resin and carbon/phenolic composites described in report. NaOH degrades both carbon and phenolic components of carbon/phenolic laminates.

  4. Tb/Na tobermorite: Thermal behaviour and high temperature products

    SciTech Connect

    Garra, Walter; Marchetti, Fabio; Merlino, Stefano

    2009-06-15

    By heating a sample of Tb/Na tobermorite we obtained a phase which was identified through its X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, as terbium silicate apatite. Subsequently this compound has been directly prepared by solid state reaction and we carried out a structural refinement from XRD data in space group P6{sub 3}/m obtaining cell parameters a=9.39199(4) A and c=6.84041(5) A. Terbium silicate apatite heated in melted NaF led to Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7} crystals. - Graphical Abstract: By heating over 900 deg. C Tb/Na tobermorite a terbium silicate apatite was obtained. The same product has been independently prepared and structurally characterized from powder diffraction data. Attempts of crystallizing terbium silicate apatite from melted NaF led to Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7} crystals.

  5. Neutral Phospholipids Stimulate Na,K-ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Haviv, Haim; Habeck, Michael; Kanai, Ryuta; Toyoshima, Chikashi; Karlish, Steven J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins interact with phospholipids either via an annular layer surrounding the transmembrane segments or by specific lipid-protein interactions. Although specifically bound phospholipids are observed in many crystal structures of membrane proteins, their roles are not well understood. Na,K-ATPase is highly dependent on acid phospholipids, especially phosphatidylserine, and previous work on purified detergent-soluble recombinant Na,K-ATPase showed that phosphatidylserine stabilizes and specifically interacts with the protein. Most recently the phosphatidylserine binding site has been located between transmembrane segments of αTM8–10 and the FXYD protein. This paper describes stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity of the purified human α1β1 or α1β1FXYD1 complexes by neutral phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, or phosphatidylethanolamine. In the presence of phosphatidylserine, soy phosphatidylcholine increases the Na,K-ATPase turnover rate from 5483 ± 144 to 7552 ± 105 (p < 0.0001). Analysis of α1β1FXYD1 complexes prepared with native or synthetic phospholipids shows that the stimulatory effect is structurally selective for neutral phospholipids with polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains, especially dilinoleoyl phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. By contrast to phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine destabilizes the Na,K-ATPase. Structural selectivity for stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and destabilization by neutral phospholipids distinguish these effects from the stabilizing effects of phosphatidylserine and imply that the phospholipids bind at distinct sites. A re-examination of electron densities of shark Na,K-ATPase is consistent with two bound phospholipids located between transmembrane segments αTM8–10 and TMFXYD (site A) and between TM2, -4, -6, -and 9 (site B). Comparison of the phospholipid binding pockets in E2 and E1 conformations suggests a possible mechanism of stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity by the neutral phospholipid. PMID:23430748

  6. Na + Xe collisions in the presence of two nonresonant lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vries, P. L.; Chang, C. H.; George, T. F.; Laskowski, B.; Stallcop, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Na+Xe collisions in the presence of two distinct laser fields (rhodamine 110 and Nd:glass) are investigated with reference to the response to nonresonant radiation of alkali metals collisionally perturbed by a buffer gas. It is found that the excited Na-asterisk (4s)+Xe state is produced with a measurable cross section due to two-photon absorption with field intensities as low as 10 MW/sq cm.

  7. Status and plans of the NA61/SHINE physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Czopowicz, T.

    2012-06-15

    One of the NA61/SHINE experiment's goals is to discover the critical point of strongly interacting matter and study the properties of the onset of deconfinement. This is to be achieved by performing a two-dimensional phase diagram (T- Micro-Sign {sub B}) scan-measuring hadron production in collisions of various beam particles and targets at various beam energies. NA61/SHINE also collects data for the T2K experiment, which are just about to be published.

  8. Na+-glycine cotransport in canalicular liver plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Moseley, R H; Ballatori, N; Murphy, S M

    1988-08-01

    By use of purified rat canalicular liver plasma membrane (cLPM) vesicles, the present study determined the driving forces for glycine transport across this membrane domain. Initial rates of [3H]glycine uptake (10 microM) in cLPM vesicles were stimulated by an inwardly directed Na+ gradient but not by a K+ gradient. Na+ gradient-dependent uptake of glycine demonstrated cation specificity for Na+, dependence on extravesicular Cl-, stimulation by an intravesicular-negative membrane potential, and inhibition by dissipation of the Na+ gradient with gramicidin D. Na+ gradient-dependent glycine cotransport also demonstrated greater sensitivity to inhibition by sarcosine than 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid. Accelerated exchange diffusion of [3H]glycine was demonstrated in the presence of Na+ when cLPM vesicles were preloaded with glycine but not with L-alanine or L-proline. Substrate velocity analysis of net Na+-dependent [3H]glycine uptake over the range of amino acid concentrations from 5 microM to 5 mM demonstrated two saturable transport systems, one of high capacity (2.2 +/- 0.2 nmol.mg protein-1.15 s-1) and low affinity (11.2 +/- 1.7 mM) and one of low capacity (51 +/- 14 pmol.mg protein.15 s-1) and comparatively high affinity (66 +/- 12 microM). These results indicate that, in addition to previously described neutral and anionic amino acid transport systems, Na+ gradient-dependent glycine transport mechanisms are present on the canalicular domain of the liver plasma membrane. These canalicular reabsorptive mechanisms may serve to reclaim some of the glycine generated within the canalicular lumen from the intrabiliary hydrolysis of glutathione. PMID:3407780

  9. An empirical NaKCa geothermometer for natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical method of estimating the last temperature of water-rock interaction has been devised. It is based upon molar Na, K and Ca concentrations in natural waters from temperature environments ranging from 4 to 340??C. The data for most geothermal waters cluster near a straight line when plotted as the function log ( Na K) + ?? log [ ??? (Ca) Na] vs reciprocal of absolute temperature, where ?? is either 1 3 or 4 3 depending upon whether the water equilibrated above or below 100??C. For most waters tested, the method gives better results than the Na K methods suggested by other workers. The ratio Na K should not be used to estimate temperature if ??? ( MCa) MNa is greater than 1. The Na K values of such waters generally yield calculated temperatures much higher than the actual temperature at which water interacted with the rock. A comparison of the composition of boiling hot-spring water with that obtained from a nearby well (170??C) in Yellowstone Park shows that continued water-rock reactions may occur during ascent of water even though that ascent is so rapid that little or no heat is lost to the country rock, i.e. the water cools adiabatically. As a result of such continued reaction, waters which dissolve additional Ca as they ascend from the aquifer to the surface will yield estimated aquifer temperatures that are too low. On the other hand, waters initially having enough Ca to deposit calcium carbonate during ascent may yield estimated aquifer temperatures that are too high if aqueous Na and K are prevented from further reaction with country rock owing to armoring by calcite or silica minerals. The Na-K-Ca geothermometer is of particular interest to those prospecting for geothermal energy. The method also may be of use in interpreting compositions of fluid inclusions. ?? 1973.

  10. High Capacity Na+/H+ Exchange Activity in Mineralizing Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Slack, Nicole M.; Friedman, Peter A.; Blair, Harry C.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoblasts synthesize bone in polarized groups of cells sealed by tight junctions. Large amounts of acid are produced as bone mineral is precipitated. We addressed the mechanism by which cells manage this acid load by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) in non-transformed osteoblasts in response to weak acid or bicarbonate loading. Basal pHi in mineralizing osteoblasts was ∼7.3 and decreased by ∼ 1.4 units upon replacing extracellular Na+ with N-methyl-d-glucamine. Loading with 40 mM acetic or propionic acids, in normal extracellular Na+, caused only mild cytosolic acidification. In contrast, in Na+-free solutions, weak acids reduced pHi dramatically. After Na+ reintroduction, pHi recovered rapidly, in keeping with Na+/H+exchanger (NHE) activity. Sodium-dependent pHi recovery from weak acid loading was inhibited by amiloride with the Ki consistent with NHEs. NHE1 and NHE6 were expressed strongly, and expression was upregulated highly, by mineralization, in human osteoblasts. Antibody labeling of mouse bone showed NHE1 on basolateral surfaces of all osteoblasts. NHE6 occurred on basolateral surfaces of osteoblasts mainly in areas of mineralization. Conversely, elevated HCO3- alkalinized osteoblasts, and pH recovered in medium containing CI-, with or without Na+, in keeping with Na+-independent CI-/HCO3- exchange. The exchanger AE2 also occurred on the basolateral surface of osteoblasts, consistent with CI-/HCO3- exchange for elimination of metabolic carbonate. Overexpression of NHE6 or knockdown of NHE1 in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells confirmed roles of NHE1 and NHE6 in maintaining pHi. We conclude that in mineralizing osteoblasts, slightly basic basal pHi is maintained, and external acid load is dissipated, by high-capacity Na+/H+ exchange via NHE1 and NHE6. PMID:21413028

  11. Monoclonal antibody to phosphatidylserine inhibits Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Stekhoven, F M; Tijmes, J; Umeda, M; Inoue, K; De Pont, J J

    1994-08-24

    A monoclonal IgG, directed to phosphatidylserine (PS1G3), partially (40-50%) inhibited Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity (forward running reaction cycle) without affecting the K0.5 values for Na+,K+ and MgATP. The Hill or interaction coefficients (nH) for Na+ and K+ for this reaction were reduced from 3.0 to 1.6 and from 1.6 to 0.8, respectively. The K(+)-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity (p-NPPase), which is a partial reaction sequence of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase system (but in the backward running mode), was inhibited more strongly (about 70%) due to an increase in K+/substrate antagonism. In this system K0.5 and nH values for both p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) and K+ were increased by the mAb. At the maximally inhibitory concentration of PS1G3 the Vmax of the p-NPPase was also reduced. Partial reactions, which were inhibited by PS1G3, are: (1) the Na(+)-activated phosphorylation (non-competitive vs. Na+), (2) the Rb+ occlusion (competitive vs. Rb+). Partial reactions not harmed by PS1G3 are: (3) the K(+)-dependent dephosphorylation, (4) the K(+)-dependent E1 + K+<-->E2K transition. We conclude that PtdSer is involved in cation occlusion, possibly by forming part of the access gate. PMID:8075130

  12. Amelioration of NaCl stress in Pisum sativum Linn.

    PubMed

    el-Mashad, A A; Kamel, E A

    2001-05-01

    Activity of endogenous auxins and growth inhibitors, gibberellins and cytokinins was observed in the extracts of seedlings of Pisum sativum under NaCl stress. After 6 days of germination, when Pisum sativum seedlings were subjected to low concentration of NaCl (50 mM) or boron (10 ppm) increased the endogenous growth regulating substances. Higher concentration of NaCl (150 mM) decreased endogenous level of growth regulators, length of the root and shoot, and fresh and dry weights of seedlings, whereas boron increased the parameters except endogenous growth regulators. Mitotic index and some abnormalities were observed in the treated plants. SDS-PAGE banding pattern of Pisum sativum seedlings extracted in tris-glycine and tris-HCl showed that lower concentration of NaCl increased the number of protein bands, while the higher concentration decreased these protein bands. Combination of boron and NaCl (150 mM) caused an increase in total number of protein bands compared with the total number of bands recorded by using NaCl (150 mM) alone. PMID:11510132

  13. 23Na and 1H NMR Microimaging of Intact Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olt, Silvia; Krötz, Eva; Komor, Ewald; Rokitta, Markus; Haase, Axel

    2000-06-01

    23Na NMR microimaging is described to map, for the first time, the sodium distribution in living plants. As an example, the response of 6-day-old seedlings of Ricinus communis to exposure to sodium chloride concentrations from 5 to 300 mM was observed in vivo using 23Na as well as 1H NMR microimaging. Experiments were performed at 11.75 T with a double resonant 23Na-1H probehead. The probehead was homebuilt and equipped with a climate chamber. T1 and T2 of 23Na were measured in the cross section of the hypocotyl. Within 85 min 23Na images with an in-plane resolution of 156 × 156 μm were acquired. With this spatial information, the different types of tissue in the hypocotyl can be discerned. The measurement time appears to be short compared to the time scale of sodium uptake and accumulation in the plant so that the kinetics of salt stress can be followed. In conclusion, 23Na NMR microimaging promises great potential for physiological studies of the consequences of salt stress on the macroscopic level and thus may become a unique tool for characterizing plants with respect to salt tolerance and salt sensitivity.

  14. Interactions of local anesthetics with voltage-gated Na+ channels.

    PubMed

    Nau, C; Wang, G K

    2004-09-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels are dynamic transmembrane proteins responsible for the rising phase of the action potential in excitable membranes. Local anesthetics (LAs) and structurally related antiarrhythmic and anticonvulsant compounds target specific sites in voltage-gated Na+ channels to block Na+ currents, thus reducing excitability in neuronal, cardiac, or central nervous tissue. A high-affinity LA block is produced by binding to open and inactivated states of Na+ channels rather than to resting states and suggests a binding site that converts from a low- to a high-affinity conformation during gating. Recent findings using site-directed mutagenesis suggest that multiple S6 segments together form an LA binding site within the Na+ channel. While the selectivity filter may form the more extracellular-located part of this binding site, the role of the fast inactivation gate in LA binding has not yet been resolved. The receptor of the neurotoxin batrachotoxin (BTX) is adjacent to or even overlaps with the LA binding site. The close proximity of the LA and BTX binding sites to residues critical for inactivation, together with gating transitions through S6 segments, might explain the strong impact of LAs and BTX on inactivation of voltage-gated Na+ channels and might help elucidate the mechanisms underlying voltage- and frequency-dependent LA block. PMID:15635807

  15. Effect of diet upon the erythrocyte Na,K pump.

    PubMed

    DeLuise, M; Izumo, H; Grace, E E; Flier, J S

    1983-04-01

    The number of erythrocyte Na,K-ATPase pump units has been found to be reduced in some populations of obese humans, but the effect of dietary factors upon the status of the erythrocyte pump has not been delineated. We have measured the number of Na,K-ATPase pump units by [3H]ouabain binding and the activity of the pump by ouabain-inhibitable 86rubidium uptake in response to nutritional maneuvers in several patient groups. There was no consistent change in the number or activity of Na,K-ATPase units in response to 1) an acute 600-cal meal, 2) a 3-day fast or refeeding after a fast in normal weight or obese subjects, 3) 2 weeks of hypocaloric (600 cal) feeding in obese subjects. Individuals with anorexia nervosa were also not significantly different from age- and sex-matched control subjects with respect to the erythrocyte Na,K pump. It is concluded that the circulating erythrocyte does not regulate the number or activity of Na,K pump units in response to short or medium term nutritional maneuvers. Differences between obese and thin populations with respect to the Na,K pump are not likely to be secondary to nutritional differences between the two groups. PMID:6300164

  16. NaChBac: The Long Lost Sodium Channel Ancestor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In excitable cells, the main mediators of sodium conductance across membranes are voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs). Eukaryotic NaVs are essential elements in neuronal signaling and muscular contraction and in humans have been causally related to a variety of neurological and cardiovascular channelopathies. They are complex heavily glycosylated intrinsic membrane proteins present in only trace quantities that have proven to be challenging objects of study. However, in recent years, a number of simpler prokaryotic sodium channels have been identified, with NaChBac from Bacillus halodurans being the most well-characterized to date. The availability of a bacterial NaV that is amenable to heterologous expression and functional characterization in both bacterial and mammalian systems has provided new opportunities for structure–function studies. This review describes features of NaChBac as an exemplar of this class of bacterial channels, compares prokaryotic and eukaryotic NaVs with respect to their structural organization, pharmacological profiling, and functional kinetics, and discusses how voltage-gated ion channels may have evolved to deal with the complex functional demands of higher organisms. PMID:21770445

  17. Excitation mechanisms in moderate-energy Na+-Ar collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Tanuma, H.; Shimakura, N.

    1995-09-01

    By means of differential energy-transfer measurements, excitation mechanisms in Na+-Ar collisions have been studied at laboratory collision energies of 50<=Elab<=1500 eV. In these experiments, doubly differential cross sections have been measured over nearly the whole angular range in the center-of-mass system by simultaneously detecting both scattered and recoiled particles (Na+, Na, Ar+, and Ar) at laboratory angles of 2°<=θ<=92°. The Na+ ions and Na atoms scattered inelastically were observed at reduced angles of τ>3.5 keV deg and collision energies of Elab>500 eV. For energies of 5001000 eV, two-electron excitation as well as one-electron excitation were observed. The electronic transitions in the Na+-Ar collisions are classified into two types of excitation mechanisms. One type is the one-electron transition that takes place at internuclear distances of R

  18. Na-caseinate/oil/water systems: emulsion morphology diagrams.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M

    2012-09-01

    The concentrated (dispersed phase 50-70 wt%) composition space of Na-caseinate, a family of milk proteins, stabilised emulsions was investigated for three different oils: soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer continuous phase. The variation of emulsion stability and microstructure were explored using static light scattering, diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, cryo-scanning electron microscopy, rheology and the time varying macroscopic phase separation of the emulsions. For soybean oil and palm olein a rich diversity of emulsion microstructures and stabilities are realised. Five emulsion domains, each having a different microstructure and macroscopic stability have been identified within the composition space probed. For the lowest concentrations of emulsifier bridging flocculation is evident and emulsions are of low stability. Increasing Na-caseinate concentration leads to an increased stability and the existence of distinct individual oil droplets, visualised using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Further increases in Na-caseinate concentration reduce emulsion stability due to depletion flocculation. Na-caseinate self-assembly is then initiated. At sufficiently high Na-caseinate and/or oil concentrations the continuous phase of the emulsion is a three-dimensional protein network and emulsion stability is again enhanced. At the limits of the emulsion composition space a gel-like paste is formed. The diversity of emulsion microstructure is reduced when tetradecane is the discrete phase. Na-caseinate self-assembly is limited and there is no evidence for formation of a protein network. PMID:22709624

  19. Temperature-dependent chemical shift and relaxation times of (23)Na in Na(4)HTm[DOTP].

    PubMed

    Shapiro, E M; Borthakur, A; Bansal, N; Leigh, J S; Reddy, R

    2000-03-01

    We describe the characterization of a (23)Na temperature-dependent chemical shift and relaxation rates in the complex, Na(4)HTm[DOTP]. This is the first characterization of a (23)Na temperature-dependent chemical shift in a nonmetallic sample. The (23)Na temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficient is approximately -0. 5 PPM/ degrees C for both an aqueous solution and a 6% agarose gel of this compound. This is 50 times the magnitude of the temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficient of water protons. The relaxation times, T(1), T(2f), and T(2s) increased by 0.1, 0.01, and 0.05 ms/ degrees C, respectively. Applications of these unique properties for designing an MRI technique for monitoring heat deposition in tissue and tissue phantoms are discussed. PMID:10698662

  20. Temperature-Dependent Chemical Shift and Relaxation Times of 23Na in Na 4HTm[DOTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Erik M.; Borthakur, Arijitt; Bansal, Navin; Leigh, John S.; Reddy, Ravinder

    2000-03-01

    We describe the characterization of a 23Na temperature-dependent chemical shift and relaxation rates in the complex, Na4HTm[DOTP]. This is the first characterization of a 23Na temperature-dependent chemical shift in a nonmetallic sample. The 23Na temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficient is ∼-0.5 PPM/°C for both an aqueous solution and a 6% agarose gel of this compound. This is 50 times the magnitude of the temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficient of water protons. The relaxation times, T1, T2f, and T2s increased by 0.1, 0.01, and 0.05 ms/°C, respectively. Applications of these unique properties for designing an MRI technique for monitoring heat deposition in tissue and tissue phantoms are discussed.

  1. EPR of gamma irradiation induced radicals in NaHCO 3, CsHCO 3 and Na 2CO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köksal, F.; Köseoğ; Lu, R.

    2000-01-01

    In this study gamma irradiated NaHCO 3, CsHCO 3 and Na 2CO 3 were investigated at room temperature. The radicals induced by gamma irradiation in NaHCO 3 were found to be C rad O -3, HC rad O 3 and C rad O -2; in CsHCO 3 the species were attributed to HC rad O 3; and in Na 2CO 3 to C rad O -3 and C rad O -2 radicals. The hyperfine parameters for the hydrogen in HC rad O 3, and the 13C nucleus in C rad O -2 radical have been determined. The results were compared with literature data for similar compounds and the EPR properties of the C rad O -2 radical were discussed.

  2. Probabilistic Models to Predict Listeria monocytogenes Growth at Low Concentrations of NaNO2 and NaCl in Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Eunji; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Ha, Jimyeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Sejeong; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    This study developed probabilistic models to describe Listeria monocytogenes growth responses in meat products with low concentrations of NaNO2 and NaCl. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated in NBYE (nutrient broth plus 0.6% yeast extract) supplemented with NaNO2 (0-141 ppm) and NaCl (0-1.75%). The inoculated samples were then stored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 4, 7, 10, 12, and 15℃ for up to 60 d. Growth response data [growth (1) or no growth (0)] for each combination were determined by turbidity. The growth response data were analyzed using logistic regression to predict the growth probability of L. monocytogenes as a function of NaNO2 and NaCl. The model performance was validated with the observed growth responses. The effect of an obvious NaNO2 and NaCl combination was not observed under aerobic storage condition, but the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 on the inhibition of L. monocytogenes growth generally increased as NaCl concentration increased under anaerobic condition, especially at 7-10℃. A single application of NaNO2 or NaCl significantly (p<0.05) inhibited L. monocytogenes growth at 4-15℃, but the combination of NaNO2 or NaCl more effectively (p<0.05) inhibited L. monocytogenes growth than single application of either compound under anaerobic condition. Validation results showed 92% agreement between predicted and observed growth response data. These results indicate that the developed model is useful in predicting L. monocytogenes growth response at low concentrations of NaNO2 and NaCl, and the antilisterial effect of NaNO2 increased by NaCl under anaerobic condition. PMID:26877642

  3. The effect of Na+ and K+ on the thermal denaturation of Na+ and + K+-dependent ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, T H

    1983-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the physical nature of the Na+ and K+ forms of the Na+ + K+-dependent ATPase, thermal-denaturation studies were conducted in different types of ionic media. Thermal-denaturation measurements were performed by measuring the regeneration of ATPase activity after slow pulse exposure to elevated temperatures. Two types of experiments were performed. First, the dependence of the thermal-denaturation rate on Na+ and K+ concentrations was examined. It was found that both cations stabilized the pump protein. Also, K+ was a more effective stabilizer of the native state than was Na+. Secondly, a set of thermodynamic parameters was obtained by measuring the temperature-dependence of the thermal-denaturation rate under three ionic conditions: 60 mM-K+, 150 mM-Na+ and no Na+ or K+. It was found that ion-mediated stabilization of the pump protein was accompanied by substantial increases in activation enthalpy and entropy, the net effect being a less-pronounced increase in activation free energy. PMID:6309139

  4. Upconversion improvement by the reduction of Na?-vacancies in Mn? doped hexagonal NaYbF?:Er? nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dongping; Gao, Dangli; Chong, Bo; Liu, Xuanzuo

    2015-03-01

    Hexagonal-phase NaYbF4:Er(3+) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been synthesized via a co-precipitation method in high-boiling-point solvents, and remarkably enhanced upconversion luminescence, particularly in red emission bands (650-670 nm) in NaYbF4:Er(3+) UCNPs, has been achieved by Mn(2+) doping. The underlying reason for luminescence enhancement by Mn(2+) doping is explored by a series of controlled experiments, and a mechanism of enhancement based on the decrease of Na(+)-vacancies and organic adsorption is proposed. The Mn(2+) substitution disturbs the equilibrium of the charge and crystal lattice in the hexagonal-phase NaYbF4:Er(3+) UCNPs, which makes the Na(+)-vacancies that quenched luminescence become filled with Na(+) or Mn(2+) to offset the imbalance of the charge and electron cloud distortion. In addition, the Mn(2+) doping at the surface of UCNPs could reduce the organic adsorption on the surface of the UCNPs by an extra F(-) ion on the grain surface resulting in luminescence enhancement. Therefore, the Mn(2+)-doping approach provides a facile strategy for improvement of luminescence, which will impact on the field of bioimaging based on UCNP nanoprobes. PMID:25622805

  5. Na sup + uptake into colonic enterocyte membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, R.J.; Garty, H.; Benos, D.J.; Rummel, W. Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham )

    1988-04-01

    Na{sup +} uptake was studied in colonic enterocyte membrane vesicles prepared from normal and dexamethasone-treated rats. Vesicles from rats treated with dexamethasone demonstrated a fivefold greater {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake compared with vesicles from normal rats. Most of the tracer uptake in membranes derived from treated rats occurred through a conductive, amiloride-blockable pathway located in vesicles with low native K{sup +} permeability and high Cl{sup {minus}} permeability. Kinetic analysis of the amiloride inhibition curve revealed the presence of two amiloride-blockable pathways, one with a high affinity accounting for 85% of the uptake, and one with a low affinity accounting for only 12% of the uptake. Only the low-affinity pathway was detected with vesicles from normal rats. The high sensitivity to amiloride, the dependence on dexamethasone pretreatment, and the relative permeabilities to K{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} indicate that most of the {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake in membranes derived from treated rats is through a Na{sup +}-specific channel located in apical membrane vesicles. Preincubation of the isolated cells from dexamethasone-treated rats at 37{degree}C in Ca{sup 2+}-free solutions before homogenization and membrane vesicle purification caused a 5- to 10-fold increase in amiloride-blockable {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake compared with vesicles derived from cells maintained at 0{degree}C. The addition of Ca{sup 2+}, but not of Mg{sup 2+}, to the incubation solution markedly reduced this temperature-dependent enhancement in {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake. These results suggest that Na{sup +} transport in colonic enterocytes from dexamethasone-treated rats is regulated by a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, temperature-sensitive process which causes a sustained change in the apical membrane.

  6. A sodium calcium arsenate, NaCa(AsO(4)).

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinru; Sun, Wei; Mi, Jin-Xiao; Pan, Yuanming

    2011-12-01

    The title compound, NaCa(AsO(4)), was synthesized using a hydro-thermal method at 633-643 K. It has a dense structure composed of alternating layers of distorted [CaO(6)] octa-hedra and layers of [AsO(4)] tetra-hedra and distorted [NaO(6)] octa-hedra, stacked along the a axis. The As, Ca and two O atoms lie on the mirror plane at y = 1/4 (i.e. 4c), while the Na atom lies on an inversion centre (1/2, 1/2, 0) (i.e. 4b). Each distorted [CaO(6)] octa-hedron shares four equatorial common O vertices with four neighboring octa-hedra, forming a layer parallel to (100), whereas each distorted [NaO(6)] octa-hedron shares two opposite edges with two neighboring ones, forming a chain running along [010]. Each isolated [AsO(4)] tetra-hedron shares two edges with two different [NaO(6)] octa-hedra in one [NaO(6)] chain and a vertex with another chain. Simultaneously the above [AsO(4)] tetra-hedron located in a four-membered [CaO(6)] ring shares one edge of its base facet with one [CaO(6)] octa-hedron and three corners with three other [CaO(6)] octa-hedra of one [CaO(6)] layer, and the remaining apex is shared with another [CaO(6)] layer. [NaO(6)] octa-hedra and [CaO(6)] octa-hedra are linked to each other by sharing edges and vertices. PMID:22199467

  7. The Expression Pattern of the Na(+) Sensor, Na(X) in the Hydromineral Homeostatic Network: A Comparative Study between the Rat and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Nehmé, Benjamin; Henry, Mélaine; Mouginot, Didier; Drolet, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The Scn7a gene encodes for the specific sodium channel Na(X), which is considered a primary determinant of sodium sensing in the brain. Only partial data exist describing the Na(X) distribution pattern and the cell types that express Na(X) in both the rat and mouse brain. To generate a global view of the sodium detection mechanisms in the two rodent brains, we combined Na(X) immunofluorescence with fluorescent cell markers to map and identify the Na(X)-expressing cell populations throughout the network involved in hydromineral homeostasis. Here, we designed an anti-Na(X) antibody targeting the interdomain 2-3 region of the Na(X) channel's α-subunit. In both the rat and mouse, Na(X) immunostaining was colocalized with vimentin positive cells in the median eminence and with magnocellular neurons immunopositive for neurophysin associated with oxytocin or vasopressin in both the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Na(X) immunostaining was also detected in neurons of the area postrema. In addition to this common Na(X) expression pattern, several differences in Na(X) immunostaining for certain structures and cell types were found between the rat and mouse. Na(X) was present in both NeuN and vimentin positive cells in the subfornical organ and the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis of the rat whereas Na(X) was only colocalized with vimentin positive cells in the mouse circumventricular organs. In addition, Na(X) immunostaining was specifically observed in NeuN immunopositive cells in the median preoptic nucleus of the rat. Overall, this study characterized the Na(X)-expressing cell types in the network controlling hydromineral homeostasis of the rat and mouse. Na(X) expression pattern was clearly different in the nuclei of the lamina terminalis of the rat and mouse, indicating that the mechanisms involved in systemic and central Na(+) sensing are specific to each rodent species. PMID:22833716

  8. The Expression Pattern of the Na+ Sensor, NaX in the Hydromineral Homeostatic Network: A Comparative Study between the Rat and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nehmé, Benjamin; Henry, Mélaine; Mouginot, Didier; Drolet, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The Scn7a gene encodes for the specific sodium channel NaX, which is considered a primary determinant of sodium sensing in the brain. Only partial data exist describing the NaX distribution pattern and the cell types that express NaX in both the rat and mouse brain. To generate a global view of the sodium detection mechanisms in the two rodent brains, we combined NaX immunofluorescence with fluorescent cell markers to map and identify the NaX-expressing cell populations throughout the network involved in hydromineral homeostasis. Here, we designed an anti-NaX antibody targeting the interdomain 2–3 region of the NaX channel’s α-subunit. In both the rat and mouse, NaX immunostaining was colocalized with vimentin positive cells in the median eminence and with magnocellular neurons immunopositive for neurophysin associated with oxytocin or vasopressin in both the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. NaX immunostaining was also detected in neurons of the area postrema. In addition to this common NaX expression pattern, several differences in NaX immunostaining for certain structures and cell types were found between the rat and mouse. NaX was present in both NeuN and vimentin positive cells in the subfornical organ and the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis of the rat whereas NaX was only colocalized with vimentin positive cells in the mouse circumventricular organs. In addition, NaX immunostaining was specifically observed in NeuN immunopositive cells in the median preoptic nucleus of the rat. Overall, this study characterized the NaX-expressing cell types in the network controlling hydromineral homeostasis of the rat and mouse. NaX expression pattern was clearly different in the nuclei of the lamina terminalis of the rat and mouse, indicating that the mechanisms involved in systemic and central Na+ sensing are specific to each rodent species. PMID:22833716

  9. C-peptide, Na+,K(+)-ATPase, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vague, P; Coste, T C; Jannot, M F; Raccah, D; Tsimaratos, M

    2004-01-01

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non-insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene. A polymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, mainly secondary to the lack of C-peptide, plays probably a role in the development of diabetic complications. Arguments have been developed showing that the diabetes-induced decrease in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity compromises microvascular blood flow by two mechanisms: by affecting microvascular regulation and by decreasing red blood cell deformability, which leads to an increase in blood viscosity. C-peptide infusion restores red blood cell deformability and microvascular blood flow concomitantly with Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. The defect in ATPase is strongly related to diabetic neuropathy. Patients with neuropathy have lower ATPase activity than those without. The diabetes-induced impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is identical in red blood cells and neural tissue. Red blood cell ATPase activity is related to nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal and the tibial nerve of diabetic patients. C-peptide infusion to diabetic rats increases endoneural ATPase activity in rat. Because the defect in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is also probably involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy, physiological C-peptide infusion could be beneficial for the prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:15198370

  10. Results of tests of weathered K5NA closeout material in the MSFC Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    The application of K5NA over hypolon was investigated. The effects of using K5NA over painted cork surfaces, the effects of weathering on the unpainted K5NA surfaces are determined, and the use of water versus solvent for tooling K5NA in place were compared. It is concluded that: (1) K5NA can be applied to hypalon surfaces; (2) K5NA can be left unpainted; and (3) K5NA can be tested with water or solvent.

  11. Links between hydrothermal environments, pyrophosphate, na(+), and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Holm, Nils G; Baltscheffsky, Herrick

    2011-10-01

    The discovery that photosynthetic bacterial membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) catalyzed light-induced phosphorylation of orthophosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) and the capability of PPi to drive energy requiring dark reactions supported PPi as a possible early alternative to ATP. Like the proton-pumping ATPase, the corresponding membrane-bound PPase also is a H(+)-pump, and like the Na(+)-pumping ATPase, it can be a Na(+)-pump, both in archaeal and bacterial membranes. We suggest that PPi and Na(+) transport preceded ATP and H(+) transport in association with geochemistry of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. Life may have started in connection with early plate tectonic processes coupled to alkaline hydrothermal activity. A hydrothermal environment in which Na(+) is abundant exists in sediment-starved subduction zones, like the Mariana forearc in the W Pacific Ocean. It is considered to mimic the Archean Earth. The forearc pore fluids have a pH up to 12.6, a Na(+)-concentration of 0.7 mol/kg seawater. PPi could have been formed during early subduction of oceanic lithosphere by dehydration of protonated orthophosphates. A key to PPi formation in these geological environments is a low local activity of water. PMID:21461648

  12. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material nearmore » an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.« less

  13. Thermodynamics of NaOH(aq) in hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1987-04-01

    Apparent molar volumes and osmotic coefficients of NaOH solutions, calculated from critically evaluated literature data on volumes and vapor pressures, were used to fit the Pitzer equations to yield ion-interaction parameters as a function of temperature and pressure. These parameters allow the calculation of osmotic activity coefficients from 0-350/sup 0/C, saturation pressure to about 400 bars and 0-10 molal NaOH, and volumetric properties at saturation pressure over the same temperature and concentration range. Because the parameters for osmotic and activity coefficients above 300/sup 0/C are based on less precise data, and because of possible ion-pairing above this temperature, calculated values above 300/sup 0/C are considered only as best estimates available at this time. Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution calculated for NaOH are combined with literature data for NaCl, HCl, and H/sub 2/O to yield the pressure dependence of the ionization of water to 200/sup 0/C, and are also combined with the potentiometric data of SWEETON et al. (1974) on the ionization of water to calculate the infinitely dilute partial molar volume of HCl to 300/sup 0/C. Specific volumes of NaOH solutions at saturation pressure and up to 350/sup 0/C are also calculated and tabulated.

  14. Thermodynamics of NaOH(aq) in hydrothermal solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabalan, Roberto T.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1987-04-01

    Apparent molar volumes and osmotic coefficients of NaOH solutions, calculated from critically evaluated literature data on volumes and vapor pressures, were used to fit the Pitzer equations to yield ion-interaction parameters as a function of temperature and pressure. These parameters allow the calculation of osmotic and activity coefficients from 0-350°C, saturation pressure to about 400 bars and 0-10 molal NaOH, and volumetric properties at saturation pressure over the same temperature and concentration range. Because the parameters for osmotic and activity coefficients above 300°C are based on less precise data, and because of possible ion-pairing above this temperature, calculated values above 300°C are considered only as best estimates available at this time. Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution calculated for NaOH are combined with literature data for NaCl, HCl, and H 2O to yield the pressure dependence of the ionization of water to 200°C, and are also combined with the potentiometric data of Sweeton et al. (1974) on the ionization of water to calculate the infinitely dilute partial molar volume of HCl to 300°C. Specific volumes of NaOH solutions at saturation pressure and up to 350°C are also calculated and tabulated.

  15. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. Here we investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form. PMID:26027504

  16. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.

  17. Estragole blocks neuronal excitability by direct inhibition of Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Alves, K.S.; Ferreira-da-Silva, F.W.; Peixoto-Neves, D.; Viana-Cardoso, K.V.; Moreira-Júnior, L.; Oquendo, M.B.; Oliveira-Abreu, K.; Albuquerque, A.A.C.; Coelho-de-Souza, A.N.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Estragole is a volatile terpenoid, which occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of many plants. It has several pharmacological and biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of estragole on neuronal excitability. Intact and dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats were used to record action potential and Na+ currents with intracellular and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Estragole blocked the generation of action potentials in cells with or without inflexions on their descendant (repolarization) phase (Ninf and N0 neurons, respectively) in a concentration-dependent manner. The resting potentials and input resistances of Ninf and N0 cells were not altered by estragole (2, 4, and 6 mM). Estragole also inhibited total Na+ current and tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 3.2 and 3.6 mM, respectively). Kinetic analysis of Na+ current in the presence of 4 mM estragole showed a statistically significant reduction of fast and slow inactivation time constants, indicating an acceleration of the inactivation process. These data demonstrate that estragole blocks neuronal excitability by direct inhibition of Na+ channel conductance activation. This action of estragole is likely to be relevant to the understanding of the mechanisms of several pharmacological effects of this substance. PMID:24345915

  18. Effects of Osmoprotectants upon NaCl Stress in Rice.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, A. B.; Engler, JdA.; Iyer, S.; Gerats, T.; Van Montagu, M.; Caplan, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Plants accumulate a number of osmoprotective substances in response to NaCl stress, one of them being proline (Pro). While characterizing some of the changes in solute accumulation in NaCl-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.), we identified several other potential osmoprotectants. One such substance, trehalose, begins to accumulate in small amounts in roots after 3 d. We performed a series of experiments to compare the effects of Pro and trehalose on ion accumulation to determine whether the two chemicals protect the same physiological processes. We found that Pro either has no effect or, in some cases, exasperates the effect of NaCl on growth inhibition, chlorophyll loss, and induction of a highly sensitive marker for plant stress, the osmotically regulated salT gene. By contrast, low to moderate concentrations of trehalose reduce Na+ accumulation, salT expression, and growth inhibition. Somewhat higher concentrations (10 mM) prevent NaCl-induced loss of chlorophyll in blades, preserve root integrity, and enhance growth. The results of this study indicate that during osmotic stress trehalose or carbohydrates might be more important for rice than Pro. PMID:12223797

  19. LiNa5Mo9O30

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Hamadi; Ennajeh, Ines; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The tite compound, lithium penta­sodium nona­molybdate, LiNa5Mo9O30, was synthesized by solid-state reaction. The three-dimensional [Mo9O30]6− framework is built up from MoO6 octa­hedra and MoO5 bipyramids, linked together by edges and corners. The framework delimits two types of inter­secting tunnels running along [100] and [010] in which the Na+ and Li+ ions are located. The asymmetric unit contains one Mo, one Na and one Li site located on a twofold rotation axis. The crystal studied was a racemic twin with site a twin ratio of 0.51 (10):0.49 (10). Relationships between the structures of K2Mo3O10, K2Mo4O13, Cs2Mo7O22, Na6Mo10O33 and Na6Mo11O36 compounds are discussed. PMID:23284311

  20. High-NA HPCS optical fibers for medical diagnosis and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnik, Bolesh J.

    2010-02-01

    Hard Plastic Clad Silica (HPCS) optical fibers with pure silica cores have been developed which are robust and have NA(Numerical Aperture)>0.50. Improved clad only HPCS fibers have been produced for both new 'standard' and 'high' NA versions. Based on new cladding formulations, the 'standard' NA fiber has an NA of 0.41, while the new ultrahigh NA fiber has an NA of 0.54. Mechanical strength and preliminary fatigue data are presented along with spectral characterization data. For the first time significant results were obtained for clad only high NA fibers, The fibers are useful for diagnostic and surgical applications. Short to medium length time to failure results, indicate that the static fatigue parameters of the new high numerical aperture (NA) optical fibers are at least as good as those for former standard NA (0.37) HPCS fibers, which is an advance from previous results on the older formulation high NA fibers.

  1. The Na(+) transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na(+) accumulation in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien James; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na(+) -selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na(+) concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na(+) from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na(+) from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na(+) exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes. PMID:25158883

  2. EDITORIAL: TaCoNa-Photonics 2008 TaCoNa-Photonics 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Busch, Kurt; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on theoretical and computational nano-photonics features papers presented at the first International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Nano-Photonics (TaCoNa-Photonics 2008) held in Bad Honnef, Germany, 3-5 December 2008. The workshop covered a broad range of topics related to current developments and achievements in this interdisciplinary area of research. Since the late 1960s, the word `photonics' has been understood as the science of generating, controlling, and detecting light. Nowadays, a routine fabrication of complex structures with micro- and nano-scale dimensions opens up many new and exciting possibilities in photonics. The science of generating, routing and detecting light in micro- and nano-structured matter, `nano-photonics', is becoming more important both in research and technology and offers many promising applications. The inherently sub-wavelength character of the structures that nano-photonics deals with challenges modern theoretical and computational physics and engineering with many nontrivial questions: Up to what length-scale can one use a macroscopic phenomenological description of matter? Where is the interface between the classical and quantum description of light in nano-scale structures? How can one combine different physical systems, different time- and length-scales in a single computational model? How can one engineer nano-structured materials in order to achieve the desired optical properties for particular applications? Any attempt at answering these kinds of questions is impossible without the joint efforts of physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and programmers. This is the reason why the major goal of the TaCoNa-Photonics workshops is to provide a forum where theoreticians and specialists in numerical methods from all branches of physics, engineering sciences and mathematics can compare their results, report on novel results and breakthroughs, and discuss new challenges ahead. In order to intensify theoretical discussions and to put them on `solid' ground it was decided to invite world-leading experts in experimental photonics for plenary talks. Over three days, the workshop has brought together more than 70 specialists in theoretical and computational nano-photonics. The workshop took place in the historical `Physikzentrum Bad Honnef', whose unique atmosphere supported a multitude of highly interesting debates and discussions that often lasted until midnight and beyond. Different theoretical and numerical aspects of light generation, control and detection in general inhomogeneous media, photonic crystals, plasmonic structures, metamaterials and integrated optical systems were covered in 15 invited talks and 52 contributed oral and posters presentations. The plenary talks were given by Professor M Wegener (metamaterials) and Professor W Barnes (plasmonics). This special section is a cross-sectional selection of papers which were submitted by the authors of invited and contributed oral presentations. It also includes two papers of the winners of the Best Poster Awards. We hope that these papers will enhance the interest of the scientific community regarding nano-photonics in general and regarding the TaCoNa-Photonics workshop series in particular. It is our distinct pleasure to acknowledge the generous financial support of our sponsors: Karlsruhe School of Optics & Photonics (KSOP) (Germany), U.S. Army International Technology Center-Atlantic, Research Division (USA), and the Office of Naval Research Global (USA). Without the organizational assistance from the International Department of the Universität Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany) this event would simply have been impossible.

  3. Na(+) dependence and the role of glutamate receptors and Na(+) channels in ion fluxes during hypoxia of rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Somjen, G G

    2000-10-01

    Spreading depression (SD) as well as hypoxia-induced SD-like depolarization in forebrain gray matter are characterized by near complete depolarization of neurons. The biophysical mechanism of the depolarization is not known. Earlier we reported that simultaneous pharmacological blockade of all known major Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels prevents hypoxic SD. We now recorded extracellular voltage, Na(+), and K(+) concentrations and the intracellular potential of individual CA1 pyramidal neurons during hypoxia of rat hippocampal tissue slices after substituting Na(+) in the bath by an impermeant cation, or in the presence of channel blocking drugs applied individually and in combination. Reducing extracellular Na(+) concentration [Na(+)](o) to 90 mM postponed the hypoxia-induced extracellular DC-potential deflection (DeltaV(o)) and reduced its amplitude, and it also postponed the SD-like depolarization of neurons. After lowering [Na(+)](o) to 25 mM, SD-like DeltaV(o) became very small, indicating that an influx of Na(+) is required for SD; influx of Ca(2+) ions alone is not sufficient. We then asked whether the SD-related Na(+) current flows through glutamate-controlled and/or through voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Administration of either the non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), or the NMDA receptor antagonist (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) postponed the hypoxic DeltaV(o) and depressed its amplitude but the effect of the combined administration of these two drugs was not greater than that of either alone. During the early phase of hypoxia, before SD onset, [K(+)](o) increased faster and reached a much higher level in the presence of glutamate antagonists than in their absence. The [K(+)](o) level reached at the height of hypoxic SD was, however, not affected. When TTX was added to DNQX and CPP, SD was prevented in half the trials. When SD did occur, it was greatly delayed, yet eventually neurons depolarized to the same extent as in normal solution. The SD-related sudden drop in [Na(+)](o) was depressed by only 19% in the presence of the three drugs, indicating that Na(+) can flow into cells through pathways other than ionotropic glutamate receptors and TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels. We conclude that, when they are functional, glutamate-receptor-mediated and voltage-gated Na(+) currents are the major generators of the self-regenerative rapid depolarization, but in their absence other pathways can sometimes take their place. The final level of SD-like depolarization is determined by positive feedback and not by the number of channels available. A schematic flow chart of the events generating hypoxic SD is discussed. PMID:11024079

  4. Towards ultracold ground-state NaRb molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Li, Xiaoke; Lu, Bo; Wang, Fudong; Ye, Xin; Wang, Dajun

    2015-05-01

    The ground-state 23Na87Rb molecule is chemically stable and has a permanent electric dipole moment as large as 3.3 Debye. These properties make it a promising candidate for investigating dipolar quantum gases. Recently, we have realized weakly bound 23Na87Rb Feshbach molecules via magneto-association. Here, we will present our results on excited-state molecular spectroscopy investigation starting with these Feshbach molecules. The prospects of transferring 23Na87Rb to the absolute ground state will also be discussed. This work is supported by Hong Kong Research Grants Council (General Research Fund Projects 403111, 404712 and the ANR/RGC Joint Research Scheme ACUHK403/13).

  5. Local structure analysis of NaNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Y.; Fu, D.; Kohara, S.

    2014-04-01

    NaNbO3 has an antiferroelectric structure at room temperature and finds important technological applications. It exhibits an unusual complex sequence of temperature-and pressure-driven structural phase transitions. NaNbO3 shows unambiguous evidence for the presence of the ferroelectric R3c phase coexisting with an antiferroelectric phase (Pbcm) over a wide range of temperatures. We have carried out atomic pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis on NaNbO3 to understand the phase transitions. High-energy X-ray PDF using powder samples were carried out at the SPring-8, which is provided to become rhombohedral structure if A-site atoms did order and to become orthorhombic structure if A-site atoms did disorder.

  6. NA-ESMD modeling of photoinduced dynamics in conjugated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Tammie; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Chernyak, Vladimir; Roitberg, Adrian; Tretiak, Sergei

    2011-03-01

    The evolution of electronic excitations in optically active molecules can generally be defined by non-adiabatic (NA) dynamics. A number of fundamental and complex processes are associated with NA dynamics. To treat ultrafast excited state dynamics we have developed a non-adiabatic excited state molecular dynamics (NA-ESMD) framework incorporating quantum transitions. Our calculations combine the Collective Electronic Oscillator (CEO) package with the Tully's fewest switches algorithm for surface hopping, and the actual potential energy surfaces of the excited states are used. This method is applied to model the photoinduced dynamics of distyrylbenzene. Our analysis shows intricate details of vibronic relaxation and identifies specific slow and fast nuclear motions that are strongly coupled to the electronic degrees of freedom. Non-adiabatic relaxation of the highly excited mAg state is predicted to occur on a femtosecond timescale at room temperature and on a picosecond timescale at low temperature.

  7. Sodium Chloride, NaCl/ϵ: New Force Field.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Azcatl, Raúl; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2016-03-10

    A new computational model for sodium chloride, the NaCl/ϵ, is proposed. The force field employed for the description of the NaCl is based on a set of radial particle-particle pair potentials involving Lennard-Jones (LJ) and Coulombic forces. The parametrization is obtained by fitting the density of the crystal and the density and the dielectric constant of the mixture of the salt with water at a diluted solution. Our model shows good agreement with the experimental values for the density and for the surface tension of the pure system, and for the density, the viscosity, the diffusion, and the dielectric constant for the mixture with water at various molal concentrations. The NaCl/ϵ together with the water TIP4P/ϵ models provide a good approximation for studying electrolyte solutions. PMID:26890321

  8. Binding energy and structure of e{sup +}Na

    SciTech Connect

    Shertzer, J.; Ward, S. J.

    2010-06-15

    We calculate the nonadiabatic binding energy and geometry of the weakly bound state of e{sup +}Na. We use the Peach model potential, which includes both the dipole and an effective quadrupole term in the polarization, to describe the interaction of the electron and positron with the ion core. The effective three-body Schroedinger equation is solved with the finite element method. Because the model potential gives rise to three spurious states, the true ground state of e{sup +}Na is embedded in a dense spectrum of spurious states. We develop a method for extracting the correct ground state for e{sup +}Na, even when the energy is nearly degenerate with a spurious level. The calculated value for the binding energy is consistent with other calculations.

  9. Gamma-ray limits on Na-22 production in novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, Mark D.; Share, Gerald H.; Chupp, Edward L.; Kanbach, Gottfried

    1988-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1987 by the gamma-ray spectrometer aboard the SMM are analyzed to search for annual increases at 1.275 MeV as evidence of Na-22 decay in the Galactic center region and in the ejecta of recent individual novae. No evidence of any 1.275 MeV emission of celestial origin is found. A limit of 3 x 10 to the -6th solar mass is placed on the accumulated Na-22 from many novae occurring near the Galactic center, and a limit of 7 x 10 to the -7th solar mass is placed on the mass of Na-22 ejected by the closest of the recent neon-rich novae.

  10. NaCl ion detection using a silica toroid microcavity.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Jiro; Kobayashi, Misako; Saito, Ryusuke; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2015-07-10

    An optical-microcavity-based sensor is an important building block for an optofluidics system, because it allows us to fabricate small devices with high sensitivity. Here we describe the detection of NaCl and pH in water using a silica toroid microcavity. First we demonstrate the detection of NaCl particles, and show that a detection sensitivity of 0.38 mM is possible with a sample volume of 0.03 nl. Then, we report the detection of NaCl ions in liquid and demonstrate a sensitivity of 3.20 mM and also, in principle, the detection of pH with a sensitivity of 0.14 pH. Finally, we integrate a tapered optical fiber, a silica toroid microcavity, and a fluidic channel for future optofluidics applications. PMID:26193419

  11. Na+ channels get anchored...with a little help.

    PubMed

    Rasband, Matthew N

    2008-12-15

    Neurons have high densities of voltage-gated Na(+) channels that are restricted to axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier, where they are responsible for initiating and propagating action potentials. New findings (Bréchet, A., M.-P. Fache, A. Brachet, G. Ferracci, A. Baude, M. Irondelle, S. Pereira, C. Leterrier, and B. Dargent. 2008. J. Cell Biol. 183:1101-1114) reveal that phosphorylation of several key serine residues by the protein kinase CK2 regulates Na(+) channel interactions with ankyrin G. The presence of CK2 at the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier provides a mechanism to regulate the specific accumulation and retention of Na(+) channels within these important domains. PMID:19075107

  12. Na+ channels get anchored…with a little help

    PubMed Central

    Rasband, Matthew N.

    2008-01-01

    Neurons have high densities of voltage-gated Na+ channels that are restricted to axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier, where they are responsible for initiating and propagating action potentials. New findings (Bréchet, A., M.-P. Fache, A. Brachet, G. Ferracci, A. Baude, M. Irondelle, S. Pereira, C. Leterrier, and B. Dargent. 2008. J. Cell Biol. 183:1101–1114) reveal that phosphorylation of several key serine residues by the protein kinase CK2 regulates Na+ channel interactions with ankyrin G. The presence of CK2 at the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier provides a mechanism to regulate the specific accumulation and retention of Na+ channels within these important domains. PMID:19075107

  13. Na3Al(AsO4)2

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar Bourguiba, Noura; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the title compound tris­odium aluminium bis­(arsenate), Na3Al(AsO4)2, is built up from AlO4 and AsO4 corner-sharing tetra­hedra, forming an undulating two-dimensional framework parallel to (100). The layers are constituted of large Al6As6O36 rings made up from six AlO4 and AsO4 tetra­hedra in which two sodium cations are situated, the third sodium cation being located in the inter­layer space. The structural relationships between the title compound and Na3Fe(PO4)2, NaAlCo(PO4)2 and Al5Co3(PO4)8 are discussed. PMID:23424394

  14. Solvation of Na+, K+, and Their Dimers in Helium

    PubMed Central

    An der Lan, Lukas; Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Jochum, Roland; Denifl, Stephan; Echt, Olof; Scheier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Helium atoms bind strongly to alkali cations which, when embedded in liquid helium, form so-called snowballs. Calculations suggest that helium atoms in the first solvation layer of these snowballs form rigid structures and that their number (n) is well defined, especially for the lighter alkalis. However, experiments have so far failed to accurately determine values of n. We present high-resolution mass spectra of Na+Hen, K+Hen, Na2+Hen and K2+Hen, formed by electron ionization of doped helium droplets; the data allow for a critical comparison with several theoretical studies. For sodium and potassium monomers the spectra indicate that the value of n is slightly smaller than calculated. Na2+Hen displays two distinct anomalies at n=2 and n=6, in agreement with theory; dissociation energies derived from experiment closely track theoretical values. K2+Hen distributions are fairly featureless, which also agrees with predictions. PMID:22374575

  15. HARP and NA61 (SHINE) hadron production experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Boris A.

    2009-11-25

    The hadroproduction experiments HARP and NA61 (SHINE) as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. Recent HARP measurements have already been used for precise predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First preliminary data from NA61 are of significant importance for a precise prediction of a new neutrino beam at J-PARC to be used for the first stage of the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61 provide a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadroproduction models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  16. The stability of sodalite in the system NaAlSiO sub 4 -NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Z.D. ); Helffrich, G.R. ); Bohlen, S.R. ); Essene, E.J. )

    1989-08-01

    The reaction sodalite = {beta}-nepheline + NaCl (s) was reversed in solid-medium apparatus and the reaction sodalite = carnegieite + NaCl (l) was reversed at 1 bar (1,649-1,652 K). The experimental reversals between 923 K and 973 K can be fit with a dP/dT of {minus}11 bar/K, suggesting that the excess entropy for sodalite is present only above 923 K. A phase diagram for the NaAlSiO{sub 4}-NaCl system that is consistent with the measured thermochemical data and the experiments between 973 and 1,650 K can be generated if the 61.7 J/mol{center dot}K entropy contribution is included in the S{sup 0}{sub 298} of sodalite. This entropy contribution must be removed below 973 K for the experiments to fit with calculations. Previously unreported thermodynamic data estimated in this study are {Delta}G{sup 0}{sub 298} for sodalite ({minus}12,697 kJ/mol) and carnegieite (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) ({minus}1,958 kJ/mol), S{sup 0}{sub 298} of carnegieite (129.6 J/mol{center dot}K) and compressibility of NaCl{sub liquid} (V{sup P}{sub 298} (cm{sup 3}) = 31.6{center dot}(1 - 24.7{center dot}10{sup {minus}3}{center dot}P + 800{center dot}10{sup {minus}6}{center dot}P{sup 2}))(T in K; P in kbar). Sodalite is a high-temperature, low-pressure phase, stable well above the solidus in sodic silica-undersaturated magmas enriched in NaCl, and its presence constrains NaCl activities in magmas. Estimates of minimum NaCl (l) activities in the Mont St-Hilaire sodalite syenites are 0.05 at 1,073 K and 0.13 at 1,273 K. Density calculations are consistent with the field observations that sodalite phenocrysts will float in a nepheline syenite liquid. This explains the enrichment of sodalite in the upper levels of the sodalite syenites at Mont St.Hilaire and elsewhere.

  17. TNP-8N3-ADP photoaffinity labeling of two Na,K-ATPase sequences under separate Na+ plus K+ control.

    PubMed

    Ward, Douglas G; Taylor, Mark; Lilley, Kathryn S; Cavieres, José D

    2006-03-14

    ATP has high- and low-affinity effects on the sodium pump and other P-type ATPases. We have approached this question by using 2',3'-O-(trinitrophenyl)-8-azidoadenosine 5'-diphosphate (TNP-8N(3)-ADP) to photoinactivate and label Na,K-ATPase, both in its native state and after covalent FITC block of its high-affinity ATP site. With the native enzyme, the photoinactivation rate constant increases hyperbolically with a K(D(TNP-8N)3(-)(ADP)) of 0.11 microM; TNP-ATP and ATP protect the site with high affinities. The inactivation does not require Na(+), but K(+) inhibits with a K(K)' of 12 microM; Na(+) reverses this effect, with a K(Na) of 0.17 mM. This pattern suggests that Na(+) and K(+) are binding at sites in their "intracellular" conformation. It was known that FITC did not abolish the reverse phosphorylation by P(i), or the K(+)-phosphatase activity, and that TNP-8N(3)-ADP could subsequently photoinactivate the latter with >100-fold lower affinity; in that case, the cation sites acted as if facing outward [Ward, D. G., and Cavieres, J. D. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 14277-14284, 33759-33765]. Native and FITC-modified enzymes have now been photolabeled with TNP-8N(3)-[alpha-(32)P]ADP and alpha-chain soluble tryptic peptides separated by reverse-phase HPLC. With native Na,K-ATPase, three labeled peaks lead to the unique sequence alpha-(470)Ile-Val-Glu-Ile-Pro-Phe-Asn-Ser-Thr-Asn-X-Tyr-Gln-Leu-Ser-Ile-His-Lys(487), the dropped residue being alphaLys480. With the FITC enzyme, instead, two independent labeling and purification cycles return the sequence alpha-(721)Ala-Asp-Ile-Gly-Val-Ala-Met-Gly-Ile-Ala-Gly-Ser-Asp-Val-Ser-Lys(736). These results suggest that Na,K-ATPase also has a low-affinity nucleotide binding region, one that is under distinctive allosteric control by Na(+) and K(+). Moreover, the cation effects seem compatible with a slow, passive Na(+)/K(+) carrier behavior of the FITC-modified sodium pump. PMID:16519541

  18. Shoot Na+ Exclusion and Increased Salinity Tolerance Engineered by Cell Type–Specific Alteration of Na+ Transport in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Inge S.; Gilliham, Matthew; Jha, Deepa; Mayo, Gwenda M.; Roy, Stuart J.; Coates, Juliet C.; Haseloff, Jim; Tester, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield globally. The Na+ toxicity of many crop plants is correlated with overaccumulation of Na+ in the shoot. We have previously suggested that the engineering of Na+ exclusion from the shoot could be achieved through an alteration of plasma membrane Na+ transport processes in the root, if these alterations were cell type specific. Here, it is shown that expression of the Na+ transporter HKT1;1 in the mature root stele of Arabidopsis thaliana decreases Na+ accumulation in the shoot by 37 to 64%. The expression of HKT1;1 specifically in the mature root stele is achieved using an enhancer trap expression system for specific and strong overexpression. The effect in the shoot is caused by the increased influx, mediated by HKT1;1, of Na+ into stelar root cells, which is demonstrated in planta and leads to a reduction of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity tolerance. By contrast, plants constitutively expressing HKT1;1 driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter accumulated high shoot Na+ and grew poorly. Our results demonstrate that the modification of a specific Na+ transport process in specific cell types can reduce shoot Na+ accumulation, an important component of salinity tolerance of many higher plants. PMID:19584143

  19. A new low-voltage plateau of Na3V2(PO4)(3) as an anode for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, ZL; Sun, Y; Ji, XL

    2015-01-01

    A low-voltage plateau at similar to 0.3 V is discovered for the deep sodiation of Na3V2(PO4)(3) by combined computational and experimental studies. This new low-voltage plateau doubles the sodiation capacity of Na3V2(PO4)(3), thus turning it into a promising anode for Na-ion batteries.

  20. The voltage-gated Na+ channel NaVBP has a role in motility, chemotaxis, and pH homeostasis of an alkaliphilic Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masahiro; Xu, Haoxing; Guffanti, Arthur A; Wei, Yi; Zvi, Lior; Clapham, David E; Krulwich, Terry A

    2004-07-20

    The prokaryotic voltage-gated Na(+) channel, NaChBac, is one of a growing channel superfamily of unknown function. Here we show that Na(V)BP, the NaChBac homologue encoded by ncbA in alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, is a voltage-gated Na(+) channel potentiated by alkaline pH. Na(V)BP has roles in motility, chemotaxis, and pH homeostasis at high pH. Reduced motility of bacteria lacking functional Na(V)BP was reversed by restoration of the native channel but not by a mutant Na(V)BP engineered to be Ca(2+)-selective. Motile ncbA mutant cells and wild-type cells treated with a channel inhibitor exhibited behavior opposite to the wild type in response to chemoeffectors. Mutants lacking functional Na(V)BP were also defective in pH homeostasis in response to a sudden alkaline shift in external pH under conditions in which cytoplasmic [Na(+)] is limiting for this crucial process. The defect was exacerbated by mutation of motPS, the motility channel genes. We hypothesize that activation of Na(V)BP at high pH supports diverse physiological processes by a combination of direct and indirect effects on the Na(+) cycle and the chemotaxis system. PMID:15243157

  1. The voltage-gated Na+ channel NaVBP has a role in motility, chemotaxis, and pH homeostasis of an alkaliphilic Bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Masahiro; Xu, Haoxing; Guffanti, Arthur A.; Wei, Yi; Zvi, Lior; Clapham, David E.; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2004-01-01

    The prokaryotic voltage-gated Na+ channel, NaChBac, is one of a growing channel superfamily of unknown function. Here we show that NaVBP, the NaChBac homologue encoded by ncbA in alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, is a voltage-gated Na+ channel potentiated by alkaline pH. NaVBP has roles in motility, chemotaxis, and pH homeostasis at high pH. Reduced motility of bacteria lacking functional NaVBP was reversed by restoration of the native channel but not by a mutant NaVBP engineered to be Ca2+-selective. Motile ncbA mutant cells and wild-type cells treated with a channel inhibitor exhibited behavior opposite to the wild type in response to chemoeffectors. Mutants lacking functional NaVBP were also defective in pH homeostasis in response to a sudden alkaline shift in external pH under conditions in which cytoplasmic [Na+] is limiting for this crucial process. The defect was exacerbated by mutation of motPS, the motility channel genes. We hypothesize that activation of NaVBP at high pH supports diverse physiological processes by a combination of direct and indirect effects on the Na+ cycle and the chemotaxis system. PMID:15243157

  2. Synthesis, photophysical properties, and photocatalytic applications of Bi doped NaTaO3 and Bi doped Na2Ta2O6 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanhere, Pushkar; Tang, Yuxin; Zheng, Jianwei; Chen, Zhong

    2013-12-01

    Phase formation and photophysical properties of bismuth doped sodium tantalum oxide (perovskite, defect pyrochlore) nanoparticles prepared by a hydrothermal method were studied in detail. It was revealed that the synthesis conditions like NaOH concentration and bismuth precursor (NaBiO3·2H2O) markedly affect the crystal structure of sodium tantalum oxide. At low NaOH concentration and high bismuth precursor (NaBiO3·2H2O) content, Bi doped Na2Ta2O6 (defect pyrochlore) phase was predominantly formed, while at higher NaOH concentration, Bi doped NaTaO3 (perovskite) phase was formed. It was observed that the defect pyrochlore (Bi doped Na2Ta2O6) phase was formed and stabilized by the presence of dopant precursor (NaBiO3·2H2O). The chemical analysis of the samples confirmed the doping of Bi3+ cations in both phases. Doping of bismuth enabled visible light absorption up to 500 nm in perovskite and defect pyrochlore type sodium tantalum oxide. Bi doped NaTaO3 samples showed better performance for the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B than that of Bi doped Na2Ta2O6, under visible light irritation (λ>420 nm). The present results shed light on phase formation of sodium tantalate and these results are useful in understanding properties of NaTaO3 based compounds, synthesized by the hydrothermal method.

  3. Do the naïve know best? The predictive power of naïve ratings of couple interactions.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Katherine J W; Baucom, Brian R; Christensen, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    We examined the utility of naïve ratings of communication patterns and relationship quality in a large sample of distressed couples. Untrained raters assessed 10-min videotaped interactions from 134 distressed couples who participated in both problem-solving and social support discussions at each of 3 time points (pre-therapy, post-therapy, and 2-year follow-up) during a randomized clinical trial of behavioral couple therapy. Teams of naïve raters observed a particular type of discussion from the 3 time points at a single sitting in a random order and rated dyadic interaction patterns (negative reciprocity, positive reciprocity, wife demand/husband withdraw, husband demand/wife withdraw, and mutual avoidance) and the overall relationship quality of couples. These naïve ratings were strongly and consistently associated with both levels of, and changes in, trained observational codes and self-reported relationship satisfaction. Naïve ratings of couples accounted for similar--and at times superior--amounts of variance in both concurrent relationship satisfaction and divorce at 5-year follow-up when compared with trained ratings. These findings offer compelling support for the use of naïve raters in research with couples and also suggest important future directions that are applicable to both research and practice with distressed couples. PMID:22708571

  4. Plant response to Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios under saline conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This research was undertaken to more clearly determine plant response to saline-sodic waters. In the first experiment, the response of wheat and sorghum to different K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios at different osmotic potentials was investigated. The plants were grown in outdoor solution culture tanks containing polyethylene glycol and/or NaCl as osmoticum with 1/2 strength Hoagland as the base nutrient solution. The mass of the root system for both wheat and sorghum was determined primarily by the osmotic potential. However, root elongation was controlled primarily by the Na/sup +/ concentration. Sorghum root elongation rates decreased with increasing Na/sup +/ while those for wheat increased. Sodium was not translocated out of the sorghum root system until a critical Na/sup +/ root saturation level of .6 moles/kg was obtained. The second experiment was designed to investigate the water, nutrient and growth responses of the second crop of wheat in a wheat-sorghum-wheat rotation to zonal saline-sodic conditions.

  5. Do the Naïve Know Best? The Predictive Power of Naïve Ratings of Couple Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Katherine J.W.; Baucom, Brian R.; Christensen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We examined the utility of naïve ratings of communication patterns and relationship quality in a large sample of distressed couples. Untrained raters assessed 10-minute videotaped interactions from 134 distressed couples who participated in both problem solving and social support discussions at each of three time points (pre-therapy, post-therapy, and 2-year follow-up) during a randomized clinical trial of behavioral couple therapy. Teams of naïve raters observed a particular type of discussion from the three time points at one sitting in a random order and rated dyadic interaction patterns (negative reciprocity, positive reciprocity, wife demand/husband withdraw, husband demand/wife withdraw, and mutual avoidance) and the overall relationship quality of couples. These naïve ratings were strongly and consistently associated with both levels of, and changes in, trained observational codes and self-reported relationship satisfaction. Naïve ratings of couples accounted for similar – and at times superior – amounts of variance in both concurrent relationship satisfaction and divorce at 5-year follow-up when compared with trained ratings. These findings offer compelling support for the use of naïve raters in research with couples, and also suggest important future directions that are applicable to both research and practice with distressed couples. PMID:22708571

  6. Phase equilibria and NaCu 2O 2 crystal growth in the Na-Cu-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljuk, A. N.; Kulakov, A. B.; Sofin, M.; Capogna, L.; Lin, C. T.; Jansen, M.; Keimer, B.

    2005-02-01

    The phase equilibria in the Cu-rich part of the Na-Cu-O phase diagram have been investigated by DTA-TG and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods at different oxygen pressures. Part of the preliminary Na-Cu-O phase diagram has been built up, and the low-stability-limit of the NaCu 2O 2 phase was established. Based on these data single crystals of NaCu 2O 2 compound were obtained for the first time by the self-flux technique. Powder and single crystal XRD measurements verify the high quality of prepared crystals. All crystals have the orthorhombic structure: a=6.2087(1) Å, b=2.9343(1) Å and c=13.0648(3) Å. The magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements carried out on the NaCu 2O 2 single crystals in the temperature range 2-325 K showed clear evidence of antiferromagnetism at T=12.25 K.

  7. Measurement of the low-energy Na+-Na total collision rate in an ion-neutral hybrid trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, D. S.; Wells, J. E.; Kwolek, J. M.; Blümel, R.; Narducci, F. A.; Smith, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of the total elastic and resonant charge-exchange ion-atom collision rate coefficient kia of cold sodium (Na) with optically dark low-energy Na+ ions in a hybrid ion-neutral trap. To determine kia, we measured the trap loading and loss rates from both a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT) and a linear radio-frequency quadrupole Paul trap. We found the total rate coefficient to be 7.4 ±1.9 ×10-8 cm3/s for the type-I Na MOT immersed within an ≈140 -K ion cloud and 1.10 ±0.25 ×10-7 cm3/s for the type-II Na MOT within an ≈1070 -K ion cloud. Our measurements show excellent agreement with previously reported theoretical fully quantal ab initio calculations. In the process of determining the total rate coefficient, we demonstrate that a MOT can be used to probe an optically dark ion cloud's spatial distribution within a hybrid trap.

  8. Na,K-ATPase and epithelial tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sigrid A; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2009-01-01

    Tight junctions are unique organelles in polarized epithelial and endothelial cells that regulate the flow of solutes and ions across the epithelial barrier. The structure and functions of tight junctions are regulated by a wide variety of signaling and molecular mechanisms. Several recent studies in mammals, drosophila, and zebrafish reported a new role for Na,K-ATPase, a well-studied ion transporter, in the modulation of tight junction development, permeability, and polarity. In this review, we have attempted to compile these new reports and suggest a model for a conserved role of Na,K-ATPase in the regulation of tight junction structure and functions. PMID:19273189

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence in doped NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, S. U.; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    NaCl:Ca,Cu,P NaCl:Mg,Cu,P OSL phosphors are synthesized. Intense OSL is observed in these samples which is 14 times more than Al2O3:C. Same samples coated with PVA (poly vinyl actetae) polymer also show similar OSL properties and these coated samples are found to be less susceptible to the moisture due to protected layer of hydrophobic polymer. These coated samples may be useful as OSL dosimetersdue to high sensitivity and less or no susceptibility to moisture.

  10. Structural Integrity and Microstructure of NA^+ Conducting Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinska, Kristina; Kalita, Patricia; Hemmers, Oliver; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Shebanova, Olga; Yang, Wenge; Mariotto, Gino

    2010-03-01

    Oxides with the general formula of Na1+x Zr2 Six P3-x O12 , known as Nasicon, are fast Na+ ion-conducting materials with important electrochemical applications and many functional properties, often attributed to their unique structural features. Comparative, in situ studies of the limits of structural integrity were performed for selected Nasicon materials, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and diamond anvil cell technology. We show how different processing conditions produce crystalline structures with specific morphology. We discuss the bulk modulus, the compressibility and the influence of the volume fraction of primary and secondary crystalline phases on the overall Nasicon structural integrity.

  11. Cooperative activation of action potential Na+ ionophore by neurotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, W A

    1975-01-01

    Four neurotoxins that activate the action potential Na+ ionophore of electrically excitable neuroblastoma cells interact with two distinct classes of sites, one specific for the alkaloids veratridine, batrachotoxin, and aconitine, and the second specific for scorpion toxin. Positive heterotropic cooperativity is observed between toxins bound at these two classes of sites. Tetrodotoxin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of activation by each of these toxins (KI = 4-8 nM). These results suggest the existence of three functionally separable components of the action potential Na+ ionophore: two regulatroy components, which bind activating neurotoxins and interact allosterically in controlling the activity of a third ion-transport component, which binds tetrodotoxin. PMID:1057169

  12. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways, enzyme changes in diverse neurological diseases as well as during aging, have been summarized. Issues refer mainly to Na+, K+-ATPase studies in ischemia, brain injury, depression and mood disorders, mania, stress, Alzheimer´s disease, learning and memory, and neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy. PMID:25018677

  13. Grain Refinement of an Extruded Mg Alloy via Na Microalloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Nicole; TerBush, Jessica R.; Setty, Mohan; Barnett, Matthew R.

    2013-06-01

    The effect of 0.3 wt pct Na on the microstructure of extruded alloy Mg-2Sn-1Zn is examined. We report that Na stabilizes the Mg2Sn phase, resulting in its precipitation during extrusion under conditions where a solid solution is otherwise expected. This effect appears to be thermodynamic in nature and is different from the kinetic enhancement of low- temperature aging reported by Mendis et al. [Phil. Mag. Letters, 86 (2006), 443]. The precipitates of the current study enable useful refinement of the grain size.

  14. Radiation damage in NaCl. IV. Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Groote, J.C.; Weerkamp, J.R.W.; Seinen, J.; den Hartog, H.W. )

    1994-10-01

    Raman-scattering experiments on heavily irradiated pure and doped NaCl crystals are described. The experiments have been performed at room temperature and at approximately 25 K. The crystals had been irradiated up to a maximum dose of 95 Grad by means of electrons from a Van de Graaff accelerator. The Raman spectra show the set of phonon peaks corresponding to the NaCl modes. At low frequencies the reduced Raman intensity shows a clear power-law dependence on the frequency, [ital I][sub red]([omega])[proportional to][omega][sup [nu

  15. Clean demarcation of cartilage tissue 23Na by inversion recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Peng; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2008-08-01

    Monitoring the sodium concentration in vivo using 23Na MRI can be an important tool for assessing the onset of tissue disorders. Practical clinical 23Na MRI methods furthermore often do not allow one to use sufficiently small voxel sizes such that only the tissue of interest is seen, but a large signal contamination can arise from sodium in synovial fluid. Here we demonstrate that applying an inversion recovery (IR) technique allows one to distinctly select either the cartilage-bound or the free sodium for visualization in an image. The results are validated both ex vivo and in vivo.

  16. Possible selective adsorption of enantiomers by Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friebele, E.; Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-01-01

    Racemic amino acids including (D,L) alpha-alamine, (D,L) alpha-aminobutyric acid, (D,L) valine, and (D,L) norvaline were incubated with Na-montmorillonite at 100% CEC at three hydrogen ion concentrations, and amino acid adsorption was determined by ion exchange chromatography. Enantiomers were analyzed by gas chromatography. Differences in the quantities of D and L enantiomers in any of the fractions was no larger than a few percent. Although a large difference in the adsorption of the amino acid enantiomers was not observed, the analysis may indicate a small preferential adsorption (0.5-2%) of L-amino acids by Na-montmorillonite.

  17. Russian Scientific-Educational Project: Kazan-GeoNa-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Alibekova, N.

    2012-09-01

    For the further successful development of educational and scientific - educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan is offered the national project - the International Center of the Science and the Internet of Technologies. "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - "GeoNa" is developed - wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur), which includes a modern complex of conference halls (up to 4 thousand places), the Center the Internet of Technologies, 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, training a complex «Spheres of Knowledge», botanical and landscape oases.

  18. Russian Scientific-Educational Project: Kazan-GeoNa-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Alibekova, N.

    2011-10-01

    For the further successful development of educational and scientific - educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan is offered the national project - the International Center of the Science and the Internet of Technologies. "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - "GeoNa" is developed - wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur), which includes a modern complex of conference halls (up to 4 thousand places), the Center the Internet of Technologies, 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, training a complex «Spheres of Knowledge», botanical and landscape oases.

  19. Brain Na(+), K(+)-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease.

    PubMed

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-06-01

    Na(+)/K(+) pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5'-triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K(+) with the exit of Na(+) from cells, being the responsible for Na(+)/K(+) equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca(2+) mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na(+), K(+)-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways, enzyme changes in diverse neurological diseases as well as during aging, have been summarized. Issues refer mainly to Na(+), K(+)-ATPase studies in ischemia, brain injury, depression and mood disorders, mania, stress, Alzheimer´s disease, learning and memory, and neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy. PMID:25018677

  20. Regulation of cough by neuronal Na(+)-K(+) ATPases.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J; Farmer, David G S

    2015-06-01

    The Na(+)-K(+) ATPases play an essential role in establishing the sodium gradients in excitable cells. Multiple isoforms of the sodium pumps have been identified, with tissue and cell specific expression patterns. Because the vagal afferent nerves regulating cough must be activated at sustained high frequencies of action potential patterning to achieve cough initiation thresholds, it is a certainty that sodium pump function is essential to maintaining cough reflex sensitivities in health and in disease. The mechanisms by which Na(+)-K(+) ATPases regulate bronchopulmonary vagal afferent nerve excitability are reviewed as are potential therapeutic strategies targeting the sodium pumps in cough. PMID:26048736

  1. Interstellar Na I and Ca II absorption in intercloud regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The weak interstellar absorption lines of Na I, Ca II, and H I formed in the intercloud medium toward eight nearly unreddened stars are analyzed. Compared with the corresponding column densities within a standard cloud, the Na I/H column-density ratio is smaller by a factor probably in excess of 17, while the Ca II/H column-density ratio is about normal. These results imply that the local intercloud medium extensively contains low-density H I regions in which the temperature is at least about 2500 K and the depletion of calcium is less severe than in the clouds, by a factor of 20.

  2. Synthesis and decomposition of Li3Na(NH2)4 and investigations of Li-Na-N-H based systems for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Lars H; Wang, Peikun; Wu, Guotao; Xiong, Zhitao; Besenbacher, Flemming; Chen, Ping; Jensen, Torben R

    2016-01-21

    Previous studies have shown modified thermodynamics of amide-hydride composites by cation substitution, while this work systematically investigates lithium-sodium-amide, Li-Na-N-H, based systems. Li3Na(NH2)4 has been synthesized by combined ball milling and annealing of 3LiNH2-NaNH2 with LiNa2(NH2)3 as a minor by-product. Li3+xNa1-x(NH2)4 releases NaNH2 and forms non-stoichiometric Li3+xNa1-x(NH2)4 before it melts at 234 °C, as observed by in situ powder X-ray diffraction. Above 234 °C, Li3+xNa1-x(NH2)4 releases a mixture of NH3, N2 and H2 while a bi-metallic lithium sodium imide is not observed during decomposition. Hydrogen storage performances have been investigated for the composites Li3Na(NH2)4-4LiH, LiNH2-NaH and NaNH2-LiH. Li3Na(NH2)4-4LiH converts into 4LiNH2-NaH-3LiH during mechanochemical treatment and releases 4.2 wt% of H2 in multiple steps between 25 and 340 °C as revealed by Sievert's measurements. All three investigated composites have a lower peak temperature for H2 release as compared to LiNH2-LiH, possibly owing to modified kinetics and thermodynamics, due to the formation of Li3Na(NH2)4 and LiNa2(NH2)3. PMID:26672440

  3. Toward a cold hybrid-trap measurement of charge-exchange between Na and Ca+: Na excited state fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, James E.; Goodman, Douglas S.; Kwolek, Jonathan M.; Blumel, Reinhold; Narducci, Frank A.; Smith, Winthrop W.

    2015-05-01

    We present progress towards the measurement of the charge-exchange collision rate coefficient between neutral sodium and ionic calcium. The rate constant for charge exchange between ground state sodium and calcium ion has been previously calculated and predicts a lifetime in our system of the order of days. Experiments by our group show a much larger charge exchange collision rate, probably from the excited 3P state of sodium. Therefore, an accurate measurement of the charge exchange collision rate constant will require an accurate value for the excited state fraction of the Na MOT. We have developed a technique for making a model-independent measurement of the excited state fraction of a MOT inside a hybrid trap. We compare the measured excited state fraction using this technique with measurements assuming a two-level model of the atom. In addition, we review our recent measurement of the total elastic and resonant charge exchange collision rate between Na and Na+.

  4. Na+-dependent and Na+-independent betaine transport across the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cano, Mercedes; Calonge, Mara L; Ilundin, Anunciacin A

    2015-10-01

    The low renal excretion of betaine indicates that the kidney efficiently reabsorbs the betaine filtered by the glomeruli but the mechanisms involved in such a process have been scarcely investigated. We have detected concentrative and non-concentrative betaine transport activity in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from rat renal cortex and medulla. The concentrative system is the Sodium/Imino-acid Transporter 1 (SIT1) because it is Na+- and Cl--dependent, electrogenic and is inhibited by an anti-SIT1 antibody. Its apparent affinity constant for betaine, Kt, is 1.10.5 mM and its maximal transport velocity, Vmax, 0.50.1 nmol betaine/mg protein/s. Inhibitors of the Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake are L-proline (75%) and cold betaine, L-carnitine and choline (40-60%). Neither creatine, TEA, taurine, ?-alanine, GABA nor glycine significantly inhibited Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake. The non-concentrative betaine transport system is Na+- and H+-independent, electroneutral, with a Kt for betaine of 477 ?M and a Vmax of 7.81 pmol betaine/mg protein/s. Its transport activity is nearly abolished by betaine, followed by L-carnitine (70-80%) and proline (40-50%), but a difference from the Na+/Cl-/betaine transport is that it is inhibited by TEA (approx. 50%) and unaffected by choline. The underlying carrier functions as an antiporter linking betaine entry into the BBMV with the efflux of either L-carnitine or betaine, an exchange unaffected by the anti-SIT1 antibody. As far as we know this is the first work reporting that betaine crosses the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium by SIT1 and by a Na+- and H+-independent transport system. PMID:26028423

  5. Infrared reflectance spectra of Na2S with contaminant Na2CO3 - Effects of adsorbed H2O and CO2 and relation to studies of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    A previously reported laboratory determination of the IR spectrum of Na2S is presently noted to have been incorrectly interpreted, due to the inadvertent contamination of the sample with Na2CO3. New Na2S spectra are presented, and the Na2CO3 spectrum is examined in order to demonstrate that this phase is the primary sample contaminant. Na2S is a candidate surface component on the Jupiter satellite, Io, in view of its apparent high IR brightness and spectral neutrality in the 1-5 micron range.

  6. The Na+-responsive ntp operon is indispensable for homeostatis of K+ and Na+ in Enterococcus hirae at limited proton potential.

    PubMed

    Kawano, M; Igarashi, K; Kakinuma, Y

    1998-09-01

    Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 grew well in Na+-deficient, low-K+ medium, but growth was inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Growth inhibition and decrease of cellular K+ levels in the presence of CCCP were relieved by the addition of Na+ and a high concentration of K+. In contrast, in the mutant defective in Na+-ATPase or the NtpJ component of the KtrII K+ uptake system, CCCP-induced growth inhibition was rescued by a high concentration of K+ but not of Na+. These transporters are thus indispensable for homeostatis of K+ and Na+ at low proton potential. PMID:9733699

  7. Spin assignments to excited states in 22Na through a 24Mg(p,3He)22Na reaction measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, K. Y.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chipps, K.; Hatarik, Robert; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Liang, J Felix; Matei, Catalin; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Pain, S. D.; Pittman, S. T.; Smith, Michael Scott

    2010-10-01

    The level structure of 22Na has been studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility in Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the 24Mg(p,3He)22Na reaction. 41 and 41.5 MeV proton beams were generated by 25 MV tandem accelerator and bombarded isotopically enriched 24Mg targets. Angular distributions of recoiling 3He particles were extracted by using a segmented annular silicon strip detector array. Spins and parities for ten levels were constrained through a distorted wave Born approximation analysis of angular distributions including three above the proton threshold at 6.739 MeV.

  8. Magnetic properties of ternary sodium oxides Na LnO 2 ( Ln=rare earths)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yuta; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2003-11-01

    Magnetic properties of ternary sodium oxides Na LnO 2 ( Ln=rare earths) are investigated. Their crystal structures are grouped into three types of structures, which are α-LiFeO 2, β-LiFeO 2, and α-NaFeO 2, depending on the size of rare earths. Their magnetic susceptibilities and specific heats have been measured from 1.8 to 300 K. Among them, NaGdO 2, NaDyO 2, and NaHoO 2 show antiferromagnetic transitions at 2.4, 2.2, and 2.4 K, respectively, and NaNdO 2 transforms to the ferromagnetic state below 2.4 K. NaSmO 2, NaErO 2, and NaYbO 2 exhibit a magnetic anomaly below 1.8 K.

  9. Intracellular and extracellular concentrations of Na+ modulate Mg2+ transport in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Michiko; Tursun, Pulat; Konishi, Masato

    2005-11-01

    Apparent free cytoplasmic concentrations of Mg2+ ([Mg2+]i) and Na+ ([Na+]i) were estimated in rat ventricular myocytes using fluorescent indicators, furaptra (mag-fura-2) for Mg2+ and sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate for Na+, at 25 degrees C in Ca2+-free conditions. Analysis included corrections for the influence of Na+ on furaptra fluorescence found in vitro and in vivo. The myocytes were loaded with Mg2+ in a solution containing 24 mM Mg2+ either in the presence of 106 mM Na+ plus 1 mM ouabain (Na+ loading) or in the presence of only 1.6 mM Na+ to deplete the cells of Na+ (Na+ depletion). The initial rate of decrease in [Mg2+]i from the Mg2+-loaded cells was estimated in the presence of 140 mM Na+ and 1 mM Mg2+ as an index of the rate of extracellular Na+-dependent Mg2+ efflux. Average [Na+]i, when estimated from sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate fluorescence in separate experiments, increased from 12 to 31 mM and 47 mM after Na+ loading for 1 and 3 h, respectively, and decreased to approximately 0 mM after 3 h of Na+ depletion. The intracellular Na+ loading significantly reduced the initial rate of decrease in [Mg2+]i, on average, by 40% at 1 h and by 64% at 3 h, suggesting that the Mg2+ efflux was inhibited by intracellular Na+ with 50% inhibition at approximately 40 mM. A reduction of the rate of Mg2+ efflux was also observed when Na+ was introduced into the cells through the amphotericin B-perforated cell membrane (perforated patch-clamp technique) via a patch pipette that contained 130 mM Na+. When the cells were heavily loaded with Na+ with ouabain in combination with intracellular perfusion from the patch pipette containing 130 mM Na+, removal of extracellular Na+ caused an increase in [Mg2+]i, albeit at a very limited rate, which could be interpreted as reversal of the Mg2+ transport, i.e., Mg2+ influx driven by reversed Na+ gradient. Extracellular Na+ dependence of the rate of Mg2+ efflux revealed that the Mg2+ efflux was activated by extracellular Na+ with half-maximal activation at 55 mM. These results contribute to a quantitative characterization of the Na+-Mg2+ exchange in cardiac myocytes. PMID:16085772

  10. Coincident detection of CSF Na+ and osmotic pressure in osmoregulatory neurons of the supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Voisin, D L; Chakfe, Y; Bourque, C W

    1999-10-01

    Behavioral and neuroendocrine responses underlying systemic osmoregulation are under the concerted control of centrally located osmoreceptors and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Na+ concentration ([Na+]) detectors. Although the process underlying osmoreception is understood, the mechanism by which [Na+] is detected and integrated with cellular information derived from osmoreceptors is unknown. Here, we show that shifts in extracellular [Na+] ([Na+]0) cause proportional changes in the relative Na+ permeability of mechanosensitive cation channels responsible for signal transduction in the osmosensory neurons of the supraoptic nucleus. This effect causes the generation of Na+ specific receptor potentials under isotonic conditions and modulates osmoreceptor potentials and electrical responsiveness during osmotic perturbation. These results provide a cellular basis for Na+-sensing and for the coordinated detection of CSF [Na+] and osmolality in central osmoregulatory neurons. PMID:10571238

  11. Na2TeS3, Na2TeSe3-mP24, and Na2TeSe3-mC48: Crystal Structures and Optical and Electrical Properties of Sodium Chalcogenidotellurates(IV).

    PubMed

    Pompe, Constantin; Preitschaft, Christian; Weihrich, Richard; Pfitzner, Arno

    2015-12-01

    Pure samples of Na2TeS3 and Na2TeSe3 were synthesized by the reactions of stoichiometric amounts of the elements Na, Te, and Q (Q = S, Se) in the ratio 2:1:3. Both compounds are highly air- and moisture-sensitive. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Yellow Na2TeS3 crystallizes in the space group P21/c. Na2TeSe3 exists in a low-temperature modification (Na2TeSe3-mP24, space group P21/c) and a high-temperature modification (Na2TeSe3-mC48, space group C2/c); both modifications are red. Density functional theory calculations confirmed the coexistence of both modifications of Na2TeSe3 because they are very close in energy (ΔE = 0.18 kJ mol(-1)). To the contrary, hypothetic Na2TeS3-mC48 is significantly less favored (ΔE = 1.8 kJ mol(-1)) than the primitive modification. Na2TeS3 and Na2TeSe3-mP24 are isotypic to Li2TeS3, whereas Na2TeSe3-mC48 crystallizes in its own structure type, which was first described by Eisenmann and Zagler. The title compounds have two common structure motifs. Trigonal TeQ3 pyramids form layers, and the Na atoms are surrounded by a distorted octahedral environment of chalcogen atoms. Raman spectra are dominated by the vibration modes of the TeQ3 units. The activation energies of the total conductivity of the title compounds range between 0.68 eV (Na2TeS3) and 1.1 eV (Na2TeSe3). Direct principal band gaps of 1.20 and 1.72 eV were calculated for Na2TeSe3 and Na2TeS3, respectively. The optical band gaps are in the range from 1.38 eV for Li2TeSe3 to 2.35 eV for Na2TeS3. PMID:26600068

  12. Regulation of renal Na+,K(+)-ATPase in rat thick ascending limb during K+ depletion: evidence for modulation of Na+ affinity.

    PubMed Central

    Buffin-Meyer, B; Marsy, S; Barlet-Bas, C; Cheval, L; Younes-Ibrahim, M; Rajerison, R; Doucet, A

    1996-01-01

    1. NaCl reabsorption along the loop of Henle is reduced in K(+)-depleted rats. Because Na+,K(+)-ATPase energizes this transport and because K+ depletion is known to induce an upregulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase in most tissues, the regulation of this enzyme was investigated at the level of single thick ascending limbs of the loop of Henle freshly microdissected from rats fed either a normal (control rats) or a low-K+ diet (LK rats). 2. Within 2 weeks of K+ depletion, Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity and [3H]ouabain binding were increased by 30-50% in the medullary portion of the thick ascending limb (MTAL). 3. Despite this increase in the number of Na+,K(+)-ATPase units, the transport capacity of the Na+,K+ pump, determined by ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake in the presence of an extracellular concentration of Rb+ mimicking the kalaemia determined in control (4.0 mM Rb+) and LK rats (2.3 mM Rb+), was reduced in MTAL from LK rats. 4. Inhibition of the Na+,K+ pump was not accounted for by changes in either extracellular K+ or intracellular Na+ concentrations, but by a decrease in the pump affinity for Na+. 5. Because this change in the apparent affinity of the Na+,K+ pump for Na+ was detectable in intact but not in permeabilized MTAL cells, it is probably induced by a rapidly reversible cytosolic factor. PMID:8683462

  13. Multiple quantum filtered 23Na NMR in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart: Ratio of triple/double quantum filtered signals correlates with [Na]i

    PubMed Central

    Eykyn, Thomas R.; Aksentijević, Dunja; Aughton, Karen L.; Southworth, Richard; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the potential of multiple quantum filtered (MQF) 23Na NMR to probe intracellular [Na]i in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart. In the presence of Tm(DOTP) shift reagent the triple quantum filtered (TQF) signal originated largely from the intracellular sodium pool with a 32 ± 6% contribution of the total TQF signal arising from extracellular sodium, whilst the rank 2 double-quantum filtered signal (DQF), acquired with a 54.7° flip-angle pulse, originated exclusively from the extracellular sodium pool. Given the different cellular origins of the 23Na MQF signals we propose that the TQF/DQF ratio can be used as a semi-quantitative measure of [Na]i in the mouse heart. We demonstrate a good correlation of this ratio with [Na]i measured with shift reagent at baseline and under conditions of elevated [Na]i. We compare the measurements of [Na]i using both shift reagent and TQF/DQF ratio in a cohort of wild type mouse hearts and in a transgenic PLM3SA mouse expressing a non-phosphorylatable form of phospholemman, showing a modest but measurable elevation of baseline [Na]i. MQF filtered 23Na NMR is a potentially useful tool for studying normal and pathophysiological changes in [Na]i, particularly in transgenic mouse models with altered Na regulation. PMID:26196304

  14. Multiple quantum filtered (23)Na NMR in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart: Ratio of triple/double quantum filtered signals correlates with [Na]i.

    PubMed

    Eykyn, Thomas R; Aksentijević, Dunja; Aughton, Karen L; Southworth, Richard; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the potential of multiple quantum filtered (MQF) (23)Na NMR to probe intracellular [Na]i in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart. In the presence of Tm(DOTP) shift reagent the triple quantum filtered (TQF) signal originated largely from the intracellular sodium pool with a 32±6% contribution of the total TQF signal arising from extracellular sodium, whilst the rank 2 double-quantum filtered signal (DQF), acquired with a 54.7° flip-angle pulse, originated exclusively from the extracellular sodium pool. Given the different cellular origins of the (23)Na MQF signals we propose that the TQF/DQF ratio can be used as a semi-quantitative measure of [Na]i in the mouse heart. We demonstrate a good correlation of this ratio with [Na]i measured with shift reagent at baseline and under conditions of elevated [Na]i. We compare the measurements of [Na]i using both shift reagent and TQF/DQF ratio in a cohort of wild type mouse hearts and in a transgenic PLM(3SA) mouse expressing a non-phosphorylatable form of phospholemman, showing a modest but measurable elevation of baseline [Na]i. MQF filtered (23)Na NMR is a potentially useful tool for studying normal and pathophysiological changes in [Na]i, particularly in transgenic mouse models with altered Na regulation. PMID:26196304

  15. Effects of Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 on molybdenum and tungsten electrodes for the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Wheeler, B. L.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Loveland, M. E.; Bankston, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of adding Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to porous Mo and W electrodes, respectively, on the performance and impedance characteristics of the electrodes in an alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) were investigated. It was found that corrosion of the porous electrode by Na2MoO4 or Na2WO4 to form Na2MO3O6 and WO2, respectively, and recrystallization of the Mo or W as the salt evaporates, result in major morphological changes including a loss of columnar structure and a significant increase in porosity. This effect is more pronounced in Na2MoO4/Mo electrodes, due to the lower stability of Na2MoO4.

  16. Cellular localization and kinetic properties of Na(V)1.9-, Na(V)1.8-, and Na(V)1.7-like channel subtypes in Helix pomatia.

    PubMed

    Kiss, T; László, Z; Pirger, Z

    2012-02-17

    This article concerns the kinetics, selectivity, and distribution of the Na(V)1.9, Na(V)1.8, and Na(V)1.7 channel subtypes in the CNS of the snail, Helix pomatia. Within the snail brain, Na(V)1.9- and Na(V)1.8-like channel subtypes are widely expressed, with particularly high levels in the pedal, cerebral, and buccal ganglia. The suboesophageal ganglion contains equal amounts of neurons labeled with Na(V)1.9, 1.8, and 1.7 antibodies. Our data show that different types of ion channels are localized to discrete neurons and regions of the neuronal membrane affecting by this way the physiology of synaptic transmission or nerve conduction. Based on the voltage dependence and kinetics, the non- or slowly inactivating currents were observed in identified and nonidentified neurons of the snail CNS attributed to separate Na-channel subtypes. These observations provide the first evidence for the presence of the composite Na-current in snail neurons. The significance of Na(V)1.9 channels in gastropod neurons is assigned to regulating the subthreshold membrane depolarization. First time, we have demonstrated that in addition to the Na(V)1.2-like channels most of the neurons contain Na(V)1.8- or 1.7-like channels carrying the composite inward sodium current. In this way, neurons containing different sets of channels differently are regulated, which allows further dynamic modulation of neuronal activity. The neuronal soma membrane revealed low ion selectivity of the Na-channels with slow kinetics, which is a general property of gastropod molluscs. In addition, the relative similarity of the biophysical properties of voltage-gated currents between vertebrates and invertebrates may reflect a structural similarity existing between Na-channel subtypes pointing to a common evolutionary origin. PMID:22155263

  17. NaK release model for MASTER-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, Carsten; Flegel, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Krag, Holger; Klinkrad, Heiner; Vörsmann, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Sodium-potassium droplets from the primary coolant loop of Russian orbital reactors have been released into space. These droplets are called NaK droplets. Sixteen nuclear powered satellites of the type RORSAT launched between 1980 and 1988 activated a reactor core ejection system, mostly between 900 and 950 km altitude. The core ejection causes an opening of the primary coolant loop. The liquid coolant consists of eutectic sodium-potassium alloy and has been released into space during these core ejections. The NaK coolant has been forming droplets up to a diameter of 5.5 cm. NaK droplets have been modeled before in ESA's MASTER Debris and Meteoroid Environment Model. The approach is currently revised for the MASTER-2009 upgrade. A mathematical improvement is introduced by substituting the current size distribution function by the modified Rosin-Rammler equation. A bimodal size distribution is derived which is based on the modified mass based Rosin-Rammler equation. The equation is modified by truncating the size range and normalizing over the finite range between the size limits of the smallest and the biggest droplet. The parameters of the model are introduced and discussed. For the validation of the NaK release model, sixteen release events are simulated. The resulting size distribution is compared with radar measurement data. The size distribution model fits well with revised published measurement data of radar observations. Results of orbit propagation simulation runs are presented in terms of spatial density.

  18. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage <3.7 V. The porous structure, high electro-conductivity, and good wettability of electrolyte to cathode lead to reduced electrochemical polarization of the battery and further result in high performance. Our work provides an alternative approach towards clean recycling and utilization of CO2 . PMID:27089434

  19. Pharmacologic characterization of the Na+ ionophores in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, A; Podleski, T R

    1976-01-01

    We present a pharmacologic characterization of the Na+ ionophores present in L6 myotubes in vitro. Action potentials are abolished by replacement of the external Na+ by Tris. The amplitude of the action potential is generally resistant to high concentrations of tetrodotoxin (10(-5) M) and saxitoxin (10(-6 M), but the effect of these agents is highly variable. Veratridine (10(-4 M) consistently induces, as a short-term effect, a marked prolongation of the falling phase of the action potential. As a long-term effect, veratridine consistently induces a Na+-dependent reduction in the resting potential of the cell. The effects of veratridine on the action potential are not antagonized by tetrodotoxin or saxitoxin. However, the effects of veratridine on the resting potential are strongly antagonized by tetrodotoxin (10(-5) M) and fully inhibited by saxitoxin (10(-6) M). Significantly, under conditions where saxitoxin has fully inhibited the effects of veratridine on the resting potential, the myotubes are capable of generating overshooting action potentials. In contrast to their sensitivity to veratridine, L6 myotubes are insensitive to 10(-5) M alpha-dihydro-grayanotoxin-II. These results are discussed in the contexts of developmental significance and current views about Na+ ionophores. PMID:1063416

  20. Results from NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Usai, G.; Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.

    2006-07-11

    The NA60 experiment studies open charm and prompt dimuon production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS. During 2003 the experiment collected data in Indium-Indium collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon. In this paper the first results on low mass dimuons, intermediate mass dimuons and J/{psi} suppression are presented.

  1. Multimodal action of single Na+ channels in myocardial mouse cells.

    PubMed Central

    Böhle, T; Benndorf, K

    1995-01-01

    Unitary Na+ currents of myocardial mouse cells were studied at room temperature in 10 cell-attached patches, each containing one and only one channel. Small-pore patch pipettes (resistance 10-97 M omega when filled with 200% Tyrode's solution) with exceptionally thick walls were used. Observed were both rapidly inactivating (6 patches) and slowly inactivating (3 patches) Na+ currents. In one patch, a slow transition from rather fast to slow inactivation was detected over a time of 0.5 h. A short and a long component of the open-channel life time were recorded at the beginning, but only a short one at the end of the experiment. Concomitantly, the first latency was slowed. Amplitude histograms showed that the electrochemical driving force across the pore of the channel did not change during this time. In three patches, a fast and repetitive switching between different modes of Na+ channel action could be clearly identified by plotting the long-time course of the averaged current per trace. The ensemble-averaged current formed in each mode was different in kinetics and amplitude. Each mode had a characteristic mean open-channel life time and distribution of first latency, but the predominant single-channel current amplitude was unaffected by mode switches. It is concluded that two types of changes in kinetics may happen in a single Na+ channel: fast and reversible switches between different modes, and a slow loss of inactivation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 7 PMID:7711232

  2. Separating Silicon From Si/NaF Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjurjo, A.; Nanis, L.

    1982-01-01

    New method of extracting silicon from mixture produced when silicon tetrafluoride is reduced by sodium takes advantage of lower melting point of NaF. Method is effective at temperatures up to 400 degrees C below melting point of Si. Results in energy and economic savings: simpler and smaller furnaces, less volatization loss, and high percentage of separation.

  3. Substituting KCl for NaCl in fresh Queso Fresco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the sodium level in cheese is challenging when a signature salty flavor is expected, such as in high-moisture Queso Fresco (QF). Fresh starter-free QF was fine milled and dry salted at different levels of NaCl and KCl to obtain total salt levels of 1.5 to 2.0%. The treatments contained 1....

  4. Bilingual Education at Dzil Na'oodilii Community School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Roy E.

    Proceedings of a Navajo Bilingual Education Conference held April 26 and 27, 1985, are summarized in this report which focuses on the implementation of Navajo language and cultural education at the Dzlith Na O Dith Hle Community School (DCS). The paper begins by stating that the conference was intended to assist educators in understanding and…

  5. Results from CERN experiment NA36 on strangeness production

    SciTech Connect

    NA36 Collaboration

    1991-12-01

    Measurements of the production of strange particles in the reactions S + Pb and S + S at beam momentum 200GeV/c per nucleon are presented. A short description of CERN experiment NA36 and the methods of raw data analysis, is followed by physics results concentrating on the dependence of strange particle production on multiplicity. Transverse momentum distributions are also presented.

  6. Transcriptional Regulation of the Intestinal Luminal Na+ and Cl− Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Malakooti, Jaleh; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial apical membrane Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE2, NHE3) and Cl−/HCO3− exchangers (DRA and PAT-1) are key luminal membrane transporters involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. During the past decade, there has been a surge of studies focusing on short-term regulation of these electrolyte transporters particularly for NHE3 regulation. However, the long-term regulation of the electrolyte transporters involving transcriptional mechanisms and transcription factors that govern their basal regulation or dysregulation in diseased states has only now started to unfold with the cloning and characterization of their gene promoters. This review updates the readers with a detailed analysis of the core promoters of NHE2, NHE3, DRA and PAT-1 and outlines the transcription factors involved in their basal regulation as well as in response to both physiological (butyrate, protein kinases, probiotics) and pathophysioloical (cytokines and high levels of serotonin) stimuli. The available information on the transcriptional regulation of the recently identified NHE8 isoform is also highlighted. This review, therefore, bridges a gap in our knowledge of the transcriptional mechanisms underlying the alterations in the gene expression of intestinal epithelial luminal membrane Na+ and Cl− transporters involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption. An understanding of the mechanisms of modulation of gene expression of these transporters is important for a better assessment of the pathophysiology of diarrhea associated with inflammatory and infectious diseases and may aid in designing better management protocols. PMID:21726200

  7. Neutral Na in comets tails: a chemical story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, Y.; Pauzat, F.; Mousis, O.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Leblanc, F.; Ali-Dib, M.; Doronin, M.; Zicler, E.; Doressoundiram, A.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the neutral sodium comet tail discovered in comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 is still a matter of discussion. Here we propose a scenario which is based on chemical grounds. The starting point is the chemical trapping of the Na+ ion in the refractory material during the condensation phase of the protosolar nebula, followed by its incorporation in the building blocks of the comets parent bodies. In the next step, the Na+ ions are washed out of the refractory material by the water formed by the melting of the ice due to the heat released in the radioactive decay of short period elements. When the water freezes again, the Na+ ion looses its positive charge to evolve progressively toward a neutral atom when approaching the surface of the ice. As shown by high-level numerical simulations based on first principle periodic density functional theory (DFT) to describe the solid structure of the ice, it is a neutral Na that is ejected with the sublimation of the ice top layer.

  8. Beta-Neutrino Correlation in Laser-Trapped ^21Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, P. A.; Abo-Shaeer, J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Freedman, S. J.; Maruyama, R.

    2007-10-01

    We have re-measured aβ-ν in ^21Na in a magneto-optic trap. We measure the momentum spectrum of the recoil nuclei by time- of-flight, using low-energy electrons shaken off by the recoil as a start signal. This scheme is a factor of 25 more efficient than our previous experiment (N.D. Scielzo et al., PRL 93, 102501 (2004)). We also detect autoionized Na2, formed via photoassociation in our MOT. We believe that our previous measurement was erroneous because of contributions to the data from beta decays occuring in molecular Na. We have characterized the molecule formation rate as a function of trap population, and detected autoionized ^21Na2^+. We have acquired data using much smaller trapped samples, for which the molecular fraction of the decay events is an order of magnitude smaller, and we have taken data using a dark MOT, in which molecule formation is suppressed by three orders of magnitude. Our new result is inconsistent with our previous measurement, agrees with the calculated value of aβ-ν=0.554(2), with absolute uncertainty about 0.006.

  9. Formation of oriented membrane multilayers of Na/K-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pachence, J.M.; Knott, R.; Edelman, I.S.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Wallace, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The isolated membrane-bound enzyme retains its ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis activity, and produces ATP-dependent Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ fluxes when incorporated into phospholipid vesicles. The ultimate goal of this work is to determine its low resolution structure using both X-ray and neutron diffraction. A number of methods were used to impart lamellar stacking order to highly purified pig Na/K-ATPase membranes. Upon partial dehydration, x-ray diffraction from Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers at 98% relative humidity yielded discrete reflections of 118 A periodicity, diffracting to 1/14.8 A/sup -1/, additionally, continuous diffraction to 1/10 A/sup -1/ was obtained. Subjecting the membrane multilayers to high magnetic fields improved the quality of the lamellar diffraction dramatically. Neutron diffraction studies of the partially dehydrated Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers detected a mosaic spread of 2/sup 0/ when the samples were subjected to a magnetic field of 5 Tesla perpendicular to the membrane surface; the reflections were narrower than the camera line width; hence, the lattice disorder has also decreased significantly, although only four orders were measured.

  10. Stainless Steel NaK Circuit Integration and Fill Submission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne E.

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has been tasked by the Marshall Space Flight Center Nuclear Systems Office to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit. The system, which was originally designed to hold a eutectic mixture of sodium potassium (NaK), was redesigned to hold lithium; but due to a shift in focus, it is once again being prepared for use with NaK. Changes made to the actively pumped, high temperature loop include the replacement of the expansion reservoir, addition of remotely operated valves, and modification of the support table. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and a spill reservoir. A 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a full design) was selected for fabrication and test. This document summarizes the integration and fill of the pumped liquid metal NaK flow circuit.

  11. Phosphate derivatives of thiamine and Na+ channel in conducting membranes.

    PubMed

    Schoffeniels, E; Dandrifosse, G; Bettendorff, L

    1984-07-01

    The results show that thiamine derivatives are copurified with the specific proteins forming the Na+ channel in conducting membranes. Therefore, thiamine derivatives could well play a specific role in the molecular aspects of bioelectrogenesis , an interpretation that could help explain the neurological symptoms observed in human pathology as well as in animals experimentally rendered deficient in vitamin B1. PMID:6327918

  12. Altered erythrocyte Na-K pump in anorectic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquali, R.; Strocchi, E.; Malini, P.; Casimirri, F.; Ambrosioni, E.; Melchionda, N.; Labo, G.

    1985-07-01

    The status of the erythrocyte sodium pump was evaluated in a group of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and a group of healthy female control subjects. Anorectic patients showed significantly higher mean values of digoxin-binding sites/cell (ie, the number of Na-K-ATPase units) with respect to control subjects while no differences were found in the specific /sup 86/Rb uptake (which reflects the Na-K-ATPase activity) between the two groups. A significant correlation was found between relative weight and the number of Na-K-ATPase pump units (r = -0.66; P less than 0.0001). Anorectic patients showed lower serum T3 concentrations (71.3 +/- 53 ng/dL) with respect to control subjects (100.8 +/- 4.7 ng/dL; P less than 0.0005) and a significant negative correlation between T3 levels and the number of pump units (r = -0.52; P less than 0.003) was found. This study therefore shows that the erythrocyte Na-K pump may be altered in several anorectic patients. The authors suggest that this feature could be interrelated with the degree of underweight and/or malnutrition.

  13. Polarization of an atomic Na beam by laser optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.W.; Cusma, J.T.

    1984-05-25

    A highly polarized atomic /sup 23/Na beam is produced by optical pumping using either a multimode cw dye laser or a single mode ring dye laser followed by a double pass acousto-optic modulator. Electron spin polarizations of 0.72 to 0.90 are obtained.

  14. Project ELaNa and NASA's CubeSat Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrobot, Garrett Lee

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA program to use expendable lift vehicles (ELVs) to launch nanosatellites for the purpose of enhancing educational research. The Education Launch of Nanosatellite (ELaNa) project, run out of the Launch Services Program is requesting proposals for CubeSat type payload to provide information that will aid or verify NASA Projects designs while providing higher educational research

  15. Luminal Na+/H+ exchange in the proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Bobulescu, I. Alexandru

    2010-01-01

    The proximal tubule is critical for whole-organism volume and acid–base homeostasis by reabsorbing filtered water, NaCl, bicarbonate, and citrate, as well as by excreting acid in the form of hydrogen and ammonium ions and producing new bicarbonate in the process. Filtered organic solutes such as amino acids, oligopeptides, and proteins are also retrieved by the proximal tubule. Luminal membrane Na+/H+ exchangers either directly mediate or indirectly contribute to each of these processes. Na+/H+ exchangers are a family of secondary active transporters with diverse tissue and subcellular distributions. Two isoforms, NHE3 and NHE8, are expressed at the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule. NHE3 is the prevalent isoform in adults, is the most extensively studied, and is tightly regulated by a large number of agonists and physiological conditions acting via partially defined molecular mechanisms. Comparatively little is known about NHE8, which is highly expressed at the lumen of the neonatal proximal tubule and is mostly intracellular in adults. This article discusses the physiology of proximal Na+/H+ exchange, the multiple mechanisms of NHE3 regulation, and the reciprocal relationship between NHE3 and NHE8 at the lumen of the proximal tubule. PMID:18853182

  16. Physiological role and regulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger.

    PubMed

    Malo, Mackenzie E; Fliegel, Larry

    2006-11-01

    In mammalian eukaryotic cells, the Na+/H+ exchanger is a family of membrane proteins that regulates ions fluxes across membranes. Plasma membrane isoforms of this protein extrude 1 intracellular proton in exchange for 1 extracellular sodium. The family of Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) consists of 9 known isoforms, NHE1-NHE9. The NHE1 isoform was the first discovered, is the best characterized, and exists on the plasma membrane of all mammalian cells. It contains an N-terminal 500 amino acid membrane domain that transports ions, plus a 315 amino acid C-terminal, the intracellular regulatory domain. The Na+/H+ exchanger is regulated by both post-translational modifications including protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation, plus by a number of regulatory-binding proteins including phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, calcineurin homologous protein, ezrin, radixin and moesin, calmodulin, carbonic anhydrase II, and tescalcin. The Na+/H+ exchanger is involved in a variety of complex physiological and pathological events that include regulation of intracellular pH, cell movement, heart disease, and cancer. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the physiological role and regulation of this protein. PMID:17218973

  17. Na+-H+ exchange activity in taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Vinnikova, Anna K; Alam, Rammy I; Malik, Shahbaz A; Ereso, Glenn L; Feldman, George M; McCarty, John M; Knepper, Mark A; Heck, Gerard L; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2004-03-01

    mRNA for two Na(+)-H(+)-exchanger isoforms 1 and 3 (NHE-1 and NHE-3) was detected by RT-PCR in fungiform and circumvallate taste receptor cells (TRCs). Anti-NHE-1 antibody binding was localized to the basolateral membranes, and the anti-NHE-3 antibody was localized in the apical membranes of fungiform and circumvallate TRCs. In a subset of TRCs, NHE-3 immunoreactivity was also detected in the intracellular compartment. For functional studies, an isolated lingual epithelium containing a single fungiform papilla was mounted with apical and basolateral sides isolated and perfused with nominally CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-free physiological media (pH 7.4). The TRCs were monitored for changes in intracellular pH (pH(i)) and Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) using fluorescence ratio imaging. At constant external pH, 1) removal of basolateral Na(+) reversibly decreased pH(i) and [Na(+)](i); 2) HOE642, a specific blocker, and amiloride, a nonspecific blocker of basolateral NHE-1, attenuated the decrease in pH(i) and [Na(+)](i); 3) exposure of TRCs to basolateral NH(4)Cl or sodium acetate pulses induced transient decreases in pH(i) that recovered spontaneously to baseline; 4) pH(i) recovery was inhibited by basolateral amiloride, 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride (MIA), 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA), HOE642, and by Na(+) removal; 5) HOE642, MIA, EIPA, and amiloride inhibited pH(i) recovery with K(i) values of 0.23, 0.46, 0.84, and 29 microM, respectively; and 6) a decrease in apical or basolateral pH acidified TRC pH(i) and inhibited spontaneous pH(i) recovery. The results indicate the presence of a functional NHE-1 in the basolateral membranes of TRCs. We hypothesize that NHE-1 is involved in sour taste transduction since its activity is modulated during acid stimulation. PMID:14602837

  18. Light-driven Na(+) pump from Gillisia limnaea: a high-affinity Na(+) binding site is formed transiently in the photocycle.

    PubMed

    Balashov, Sergei P; Imasheva, Eleonora S; Dioumaev, Andrei K; Wang, Jennifer M; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Lanyi, Janos K

    2014-12-01

    A group of microbial retinal proteins most closely related to the proton pump xanthorhodopsin has a novel sequence motif and a novel function. Instead of, or in addition to, proton transport, they perform light-driven sodium ion transport, as reported for one representative of this group (KR2) from Krokinobacter. In this paper, we examine a similar protein, GLR from Gillisia limnaea, expressed in Escherichia coli, which shares some properties with KR2 but transports only Na(+). The absorption spectrum of GLR is insensitive to Na(+) at concentrations of ≤3 M. However, very low concentrations of Na(+) cause profound differences in the decay and rise time of photocycle intermediates, consistent with a switch from a "Na(+)-independent" to a "Na(+)-dependent" photocycle (or photocycle branch) at ∼60 μM Na(+). The rates of photocycle steps in the latter, but not the former, are linearly dependent on Na(+) concentration. This suggests that a high-affinity Na(+) binding site is created transiently after photoexcitation, and entry of Na(+) from the bulk to this site redirects the course of events in the remainder of the cycle. A greater concentration of Na(+) is needed for switching the reaction path at lower pH. The data suggest therefore competition between H(+) and Na(+) to determine the two alternative pathways. The idea that a Na(+) binding site can be created at the Schiff base counterion is supported by the finding that upon perturbation of this region in the D251E mutant, Na(+) binds without photoexcitation. Binding of Na(+) to the mutant shifts the chromophore maximum to the red like that of H(+), which occurs in the photocycle of the wild type. PMID:25375769

  19. Light-Driven Na+ Pump from Gillisia limnaea: A High-Affinity Na+ Binding Site Is Formed Transiently in the Photocycle

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A group of microbial retinal proteins most closely related to the proton pump xanthorhodopsin has a novel sequence motif and a novel function. Instead of, or in addition to, proton transport, they perform light-driven sodium ion transport, as reported for one representative of this group (KR2) from Krokinobacter. In this paper, we examine a similar protein, GLR from Gillisia limnaea, expressed in Escherichia coli, which shares some properties with KR2 but transports only Na+. The absorption spectrum of GLR is insensitive to Na+ at concentrations of ≤3 M. However, very low concentrations of Na+ cause profound differences in the decay and rise time of photocycle intermediates, consistent with a switch from a “Na+-independent” to a “Na+-dependent” photocycle (or photocycle branch) at ∼60 μM Na+. The rates of photocycle steps in the latter, but not the former, are linearly dependent on Na+ concentration. This suggests that a high-affinity Na+ binding site is created transiently after photoexcitation, and entry of Na+ from the bulk to this site redirects the course of events in the remainder of the cycle. A greater concentration of Na+ is needed for switching the reaction path at lower pH. The data suggest therefore competition between H+ and Na+ to determine the two alternative pathways. The idea that a Na+ binding site can be created at the Schiff base counterion is supported by the finding that upon perturbation of this region in the D251E mutant, Na+ binds without photoexcitation. Binding of Na+ to the mutant shifts the chromophore maximum to the red like that of H+, which occurs in the photocycle of the wild type. PMID:25375769

  20. Na+ Interaction with the Pore of Shaker B K+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lagunas, Froylán

    2001-01-01

    The Shaker B K+ conductance (GK) collapses (in a reversible manner) if the membrane is depolarized and then repolarized in, 0 K+, Na+-containing solutions (Gómez-Lagunas, F. 1997. J. Physiol. 499:3–15; Gómez-Lagunas, F. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:2988–2998). In this work, the role of Na+ ions in the collapse of GK in 0-K+ solutions, and in the behavior of the channels in low K+, was studied. The main findings are as follows. First, in 0-K+ solutions, the presence of Na+ ions is an important factor that speeds the collapse of GK. Second, external Na+ fosters the drop of GK by binding to a site with a Kd = 3.3 mM. External K+ competes, in a mutually exclusive manner, with Nao+ for binding to this site, with an estimated Kd = 80 μM. Third, NMG and choline are relatively inert regarding the stability of GK; fourth, with [Ko+] = 0, the energy required to relieve Nai+ block of Shaker (French, R.J., and J.B. Wells. 1977. J. Gen. Physiol. 70:707–724; Starkus, J.G., L. Kuschel, M. Rayner, and S. Heinemann. 2000. J. Gen. Physiol. 110:539–550) decreases with the molar fraction of Nai+ (XNa,i), in an extent not accounted for by the change in ΔμNa. Finally, when XNa,i = 1, GK collapses by the binding of Nai+ to two sites, with apparent Kds of 2 and 14.3 mM. PMID:11723158

  1. Semi-volatiles at Mercury: Sodium (Na) and potassium (K)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A.

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of evidence now suggest that Mercury is a planet rich in moderately-volatile elements such as Na and K. Recent mid-infrared spectral observations of Mercury's equatorial and mid-latitude region near 120 degrees mercurian longitude indicate the presence of plagioclase feldspar. Spectra of Mercury's surface exhibit spectral activity similar to labradorite (plagioclase feldspar with NaAlSi3O8: 30-50 percent) and bytownite (NaAlSi3O8: 10-30 percent). These surface studies were stimulated by the relatively large abundance of Na and K observed in Mercury's atmosphere. An enhanced column of K is observed at the longitudes of Caloris Basin and of the antipodal terrain. Extreme heating at these 'hot' longitudes and severe fracturing suffered from the large impact event could lead to enhanced outgassing from surface or subsurface materials. Alternatively, sputtering from a surface enriched in K could be the source of the observed enhancement. Recent microwave measurements of Mercury also give indirect evidence of a mercurian regolith less FeO-rich than the Moon. An anomalously high index of refraction derived from the whole-disk integrated phase curve of Danjon may also be indicative of surface sulfides contributing to a regolith that is moderately volatile-rich. The recent exciting observations of radar-bright spots at high latitudes also indicate that a substance of high volume scattering, like ice, is present in shadowed regions. Other radar-bright spots have been seen at locations of Na enhancements on the atmosphere. All combined, these pieces of evidence point to a planet that is not severely depleted in volatiles or semi-volatiles.

  2. Distinct local anesthetic affinities in Na+ channel subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, D W; Nie, L; George, A L; Bennett, P B

    1996-01-01

    Lidocaine is a widely used local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug that is believed to exert its clinically important action by blocking voltage-gated Na+ channels. Studies of Na+ channels from different species and tissues and the complexity of the drug-channel interaction create difficulty in understanding whether there are Na+ channel isoform specific differences in the affinity for lidocaine. Clinical usage suggests that lidocaine selectively targets cardiac Na+ channels because it is effective for the treatment of arrhythmias with few side effects on muscle or neuronal channels except at higher concentrations. One possibility for this selectivity is an intrinsically higher drug-binding affinity of the cardiac isoform. Alternatively, lidocaine may appear cardioselective because of preferential interactions with the inactivated state of the Na+ channel, which is occupied much longer in cardiac cells. Recombinant skeletal muscle (hSkM1) and cardiac sodium channels (hH1) were studied under identical conditions, with a whole-cell voltage clamp used to distinguish the mechanisms of lidocaine block. Tonic block at high concentrations of lidocaine (0.1 mM) was greater in hH1 than in hSkM1. This was also true for use-dependent block, for which 25-microM lidocaine produced an inhibition in hH1 equivalent to 0.1 mM in the skeletal muscle isoform. Pulse protocols optimized to explore inactivated-state block revealed that hSkM1 was five to eight times less sensitive to block by lidocaine than was hH1. The results also indicate that relatively more open-state block occurs in hSkM1. Thus, the cardiac sodium channel is intrinsically more sensitive to inhibition by lidocaine. PMID:8785328

  3. Interfacial electronic structure of Na deposited on rubrene thin film studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lin, Hong-Cheu; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2015-12-01

    The electronic structure of rubrene doped with various concentrations of Na was studied by synchrotron-radiation photoemission. Three stages of development were found with increasing Na concentration; Na penetrating deep into the organic film, followed by development of gap states, and ended with a metallic Na film. The charge transfer from Na to rubrene resulted in a vacuum-level shift. By doping Na into rubrene, we could control the IP of the organic molecule, which is favorable for application in organic semiconductor devices.

  4. Na0.44MnO2 nanorods as a cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avci, Sevda; Oz, Erdinc; Demirel, Serkan; Altin, Emine; Altin, Serdar; Bayri, Ali; Yakinci, Eyyuphan

    2014-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have dominated the rechargeable battery market because of their high energy and power capability. On the other hand, sodium is one of the more abundant elements on Earth unlike Li. Moreover, Na has similar chemical properties to Li, indicating that Na-ion batteries can be an alternative to Li counterparts. With that respect, we have synthesized Na0.44MnO2 nanorods as cathode materials for Na-ion batteries. We have investigated the effects of structural, electrical, and magnetic properties on battery performance. We report the synthesis conditions and growth mechanism of the nanorods. The structure and the morphology of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Temperature dependent structural changes were determined via in situ X-ray diffraction and TG-DTA measurements showing structural changes above room temperature. This work is funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey with Grant No:112M487.

  5. Framework structured Na4Mn4Ti5O18 as an electrode for Na-ion storage hybrid devices.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, M; Hemalatha, K; Ramesha, K; Prakash, A S

    2015-08-28

    In this study, framework structured Na4Mn4Ti5O18 possessing S-shaped tunnels for sodium intercalation is reported as an electrode for hybrid sodium ion batteries. Galvanostatic cycling of Na4Mn4Ti5O18vs. Na in the voltage region from 1.5 V to 3.95 V exhibits a capacity of 102 mA h g(-1) at 0.1C rate corresponding to a specific capacitance of 149 F g(-1) with a capacity retention of 90% over 50 cycles. The electrochemical analysis using CV measurements revealed the charge storage involving intercalation and pseudocapacitance. For instance, total charge storage of 345 C g(-1) is observed at 0.01 mV s(-1), which is attributed to 63% intercalation and 37% capacitance. Na4Mn4Ti5O18 was also studied for sodium ion storage in an aqueous medium. It delivered a capacity of 36 mA h g(-1) (144 F g(-1)) in the voltage window of 0-0.8 V. PMID:26205120

  6. 3% NaCl and 7.5% NaCl/dextran 70 in the resuscitation of severely injured patients.

    PubMed Central

    Holcroft, J W; Vassar, M J; Turner, J E; Derlet, R W; Kramer, G C

    1987-01-01

    Cardiovascular resuscitation of the severely injured patient in the field remains unsatisfactory because large volumes of intravenous fluid are needed to keep up with ongoing blood losses and because only small volumes of fluid can be given. In the first study reported here, small volumes (less than or equal to 12 mL/kg) of 3% NaCl were given to patients who were having surgery for severe injuries. The 3% NaCl restored blood pressure, pH, and urine output with approximately one half of the cumulative fluid requirement of patients who received isotonic fluids (p less than 0.05). In a second study, 7.5% NaCl/dextran 70, 250 mL, was given in a prospective, randomized, and double-blinded trial to injured patients in the field. Blood pressure in the hypertonic/hyperoncotic group increased 49 mmHg during transport (p less than 0.005); blood pressure in patients given lactated Ringer's solution increased 19 mmHg (NS). Survival favored the hypertonic/hyperoncotic group. The 7.5% NaCl/dextran 70 solution appears particularly promising for treatment of injured patients in the field. PMID:2443087

  7. The Na(x) Channel: What It Is and What It Does.

    PubMed

    Noda, Masaharu; Hiyama, Takeshi Y

    2015-08-01

    Na(x), which is preferentially expressed in the glial cells of sensory circumventricular organs in the brain, is a sodium channel that is poorly homologous to voltage-gated sodium channels. We previously reported that Na(x) is a sodium concentration ([Na(+)])-sensitive, but not a voltage-sensitive channel that is critically involved in body-fluid homeostasis. Na(x)-knockout mice do not stop ingesting salt even when dehydrated and transiently develop hypernatremia. [Na(+)] in body fluids is strictly controlled at 135 to 145 mM in mammals. Although the set point must be within this range, Na(x) was shown to have a threshold value of ~150 mM for extracellular [Na(+)] ([Na(+)]o) for activation in vitro. Therefore, the [Na(+)]o dependency of Na(x) in vivo is presumably modified by an as yet unidentified mechanism. We recently demonstrated that the [Na(+)]o dependency of Na(x) in the subfornical organ was adjusted to the physiological range by endothelin-3. Pharmacological experiments revealed that endothelin receptor B signaling was involved in this modulation of Na(x) gating through protein kinase C and ERK1/2 activation. In addition, we identified a case of essential hypernatremia caused by autoimmunity to Na(x). Occurrence of a ganglioneuroma composed of Schwann-like cells that robustly expressed Na(x) was likely to induce the autoimmune response in this patient. An intravenous injection of the immunoglobulin fraction of the patient's serum, which contained anti-Na(x) antibodies, into mice reproduced the patient's symptoms. This review provides an overview of the physiological functions of Na(x) by summarizing our recent studies. PMID:24962095

  8. Validation of estimating food intake in gray wolves by 22Na turnover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Duquette, L.S.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied 22sodium (22Na) turnover as a means of estimating food intake in 6 captive, adult gray wolves (Canis lupus) (2 F, 4 M) over a 31-day feeding period. Wolves were fed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) meat only. Mean mass-specific exchangeable Na pool was 44.8 .+-. 0.7 mEq/kg; there was no differeence between males and females. Total exchangeable Na was related (r2 = 0.85, P < 0.009) to body mass. Overall, 22Na turnover overestimated Na intake by 9.8 .+-. 2.4% after 32 days. Actual Na intake was similar in males and females; however, Na turnover (P < 0.05) and the discrepancy (P < 0.01) between turnover and actual Na intake were greater in females than males. From Day 8 to the end of the study, the absolute difference (mEq) between Na intake and Na turnover remained stable. Sodium turnover (mEq/kg/day) was a reliable (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) estimator of food consumption (g/kg/day) in wolves over a 32-day period. Sampling blood and weighing wolves every 1-4 days permitted identification of several potential sources of error, including changes in size of exchangeable Na pools, exchange of 22Na with gastrointestinal and bone Na, and rapid loss of the isotope by urinary excretion.

  9. Hygroscopic properties of NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles as reacted inorganic sea-salt aerosol surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, D.; Kim, H.; Park, G.; Li, X.; Eom, H.-J.; Ro, C.-U.

    2014-12-01

    NaCl in fresh sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles can partially or fully react with atmospheric NOx / HNO3, so internally mixed NaCl and NaNO3 aerosol particles can co-exist over a wide range of mixing ratios. Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles at ten mixing ratios (mole fractions of NaCl (XNaCl) = 0.1 to 0.9) were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, derive experimental phase diagrams for deliquescence and efflorescence, and understand the efflorescence mechanism. During the humidifying process, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) showed only one phase transition at their mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 67.9( 0.5)%. On the other hand, particles with other mixing ratios showed two distinct deliquescence transitions, i.e., the eutonic component dissolved at MDRH and the remainder in the solid phase dissolved completely at their DRHs depending on the mixing ratios, resulting in a phase diagram composed of four different phases, as predicted thermodynamically. During the dehydration process, NaCl-rich particles (XNaCl > 0.38) showed two-stage efflorescence transitions: the first stage was purely driven by the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the second stage at the mutual efflorescence RH (MERH) of the eutonic components, with values in the range of 30.0-35.5%. Interestingly, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) also showed two-stage efflorescence with NaCl crystallizing first followed by heterogeneous nucleation of the remaining NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. NaNO3-rich particles XNaCl ? 0.3) underwent single-stage efflorescence transitions at ERHs progressively lower than the MERH, because of the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the almost simultaneous heterogeneous nucleation of NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. SEM/EDX elemental mapping indicated that the effloresced NaCl-NaNO3 particles at all mixing ratios were composed of a homogeneously crystallized NaCl moiety in the center, surrounded either by the eutonic component (for XNaCl > 0.38) or NaNO3 (for XNaCl ? 0.38). During the humidifying or dehydration process, the amount of eutonic composed part drives particle/droplet growth or shrinkage at the MDRH or MERH (second ERH), respectively, and the amount of remnant pure salts (NaCl or NaNO3 in NaCl- or NaNO3-rich particles, respectively) drives the second DRHs or first ERHs, respectively. Therefore, their behavior can be a precursor to the optical properties and direct radiative forcing for these atmospherically relevant mixture particles representing the coarse, reacted inorganic SSAs. In addition, the NaCl-NaNO3 mixture aerosol particles can maintain an aqueous phase over a wider RH range than the genuine SSA surrogate (i.e., pure NaCl particles), making their heterogeneous chemistry more probable.

  10. Hygroscopic properties of NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles as reacted inorganic sea-salt aerosol surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, D.; Kim, H.; Park, G.; Li, X.; Eom, H.-J.; Ro, C.-U.

    2015-03-01

    NaCl in fresh sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles can partially or fully react with atmospheric NOx/HNO3, so internally mixed NaCl and NaNO3 aerosol particles can co-exist over a wide range of mixing ratios. Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles at 10 mixing ratios (mole fractions of NaCl (XNaCl) = 0.1 to 0.9) were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, derive experimental phase diagrams for deliquescence and efflorescence, and understand the efflorescence mechanism. During the humidifying process, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) showed only one phase transition at their mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 67.9 (±0.5)% On the other hand, particles with other mixing ratios showed two distinct deliquescence transitions; i.e., the eutonic component dissolved at MDRH, and the remainder in the solid phase dissolved completely at their DRHs depending on the mixing ratios, resulting in a phase diagram composed of four different phases, as predicted thermodynamically. During the dehydration process, NaCl-rich particles (XNaCl > 0.38) showed a two stage efflorescence transition: the first stage was purely driven by the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the second stage at the mutual efflorescence RH (MERH) of the eutonic components, with values in the range of 30.0-35.5%. Interestingly, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) also showed two-stage efflorescence, with NaCl crystallizing first followed by heterogeneous nucleation of the remaining NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. NaNO3-rich particles (XNaCl ≤ 0.3) underwent single-stage efflorescence transitions at ERHs progressively lower than the MERH because of the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the almost simultaneous heterogeneous nucleation of NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. SEM/EDX elemental mapping indicated that the effloresced NaCl-NaNO3 particles at all mixing ratios were composed of a homogeneously crystallized NaCl moiety in the center, surrounded either by the eutonic component (for XNaCl > 0.38) or NaNO3 (for XNaCl ≤ 0.38). During the humidifying or dehydration process, the amount of eutonic composed part drives particle/droplet growth or shrinkage at the MDRH or MERH (second ERH), respectively, and the amount of pure salts (NaCl or NaNO3 in NaCl- or NaNO3-rich particles, respectively) drives the second DRHs or first ERHs, respectively. Therefore, their behavior can be a precursor to the optical properties and direct radiative forcing for these atmospherically relevant mixture particles representing the coarse, reacted inorganic SSAs. In addition, the NaCl-NaNO3 mixture aerosol particles can maintain an aqueous phase over a wider RH range than pure NaCl particles as SSA surrogate, making their heterogeneous chemistry more probable.

  11. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    INTEX-NA is an integrated atmospheric chemistry field experiment to be performed over North America using the NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft as its primary platforms. It seeks to understand the exchange of chemicals and aerosols between continents and the global troposphere. The constituents of interest are ozone and its precursors (hydrocarbons, NOX and HOX), aerosols, and the major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). INTEX-NA will provide the observational database needed to quantify inflow, outflow, and transformations of chemicals over North America. INTEX-NA is to be performed in two phases. Phase A will take place during the period of May-August 2004 and Phase B during March-June 2006. Phase A is in summer when photochemistry is most intense and climatic issues involving aerosols and carbon cycle are most pressing, and Phase B is in spring when Asian transport to North America is at its peak. INTEX-NA will coordinate its activities with concurrent measurement programs including satellites (e. g. Terra, Aura, Envisat), field activities undertaken by the North American Carbon Program (NACP), and other U.S. and international partners. However, it is being designed as a 'stand alone' mission such that its successful execution is not contingent on other programs. Synthesis of the ensemble of observation from surface, airborne, and space platforms, with the help of global/regional models is an important It is anticipated that approximately 175 flight hours for each of the aircraft (DC-8 and P-3B) will be required for each Phase. Principal operational sites are tentatively selected to be Bangor, ME; Wallops Island, VA; Seattle, WA; Rhinelander, WI; Lancaster, CA; and New Orleans, LA. These coastal and continental sites can support large missions and are suitable for INTEX-NA objectives. The experiment will be supported by forecasts from meteorological and chemical models, satellite observations, surface networks, and enhanced O3,-sonde releases. In addition to characterizing Atlantic-outflow and Pacific-inflow, INTEX-NA will characterize air masses transported between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. INTEX-NA will be the first continental scale inflow, outflow, and transformation experiment to be performed over North America. It will provide the most comprehensive observational data set to date to understand the O3/NOX/HOX/aerosol photochemical system and the carbon cycle. One of the critical needs of the carbon cycle research is to obtain large-scale vertical and horizontal concentration gradients of CO2, throughout the troposphere over continental source/sink regions. INTEX-NA is ideally suited to perform this role. Coastal and continental operational sites will allow us to develop a curtain profile of greenhouse gases (e. g. CO2,) and other key pollutants across North America. Such information is central to our quantitative understanding of chemical budgets on the continental scale. We expect to provide a number of satellite under-flights over land and water to test and validate observations from the appropriate satellite platform (e. g. Aura). We plan to develop strong collaborations with other national and international observational programs. Results from INTEX-NA should directly benefit the development of environmental policy for air quality and climate change.

  12. Role of Ile-554 in lithium binding by the Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter, NaDC1†

    PubMed Central

    Pajor, Ana M.; Sun, Nina N.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transport of citric acid cycle intermediates, such as succinate and citrate, is mediated by the NaDC1 transporter located on the apical membrane of kidney proximal tubule and small intestine cells. Our previous study showed that transmembrane helix (TM) 11 of NaDC1 is important for sodium and lithium binding, as well as for determining citrate affinity (Biochemistry 38:6151, 1999). In the present study, 21 amino acids in TM11 and the extracellular loop of NaDC1 were mutated one at a time to cysteine. All of the mutants were well expressed on the plasma membrane, but many of them had decreased transport activity. The G550C, W561C and L568C mutants were inactive, suggesting that these residues may be critical for function. None of the cysteine mutants was sensitive to inhibition by the membrane impermeant cysteine reagents, MTSET or MTSES, suggesting that the helix is inaccessible to the extracellular solvent. Although NaDC1 is inhibited by low concentrations of lithium in the presence of sodium, the I554C mutant was stimulated by lithium with a K0.5 of 4.8 mM. The I554C mutant also had decreased affinity for sodium. We conclude that TM 11 is likely to be an outer helix in NaDC1 that contains several residues critical for transport. Ile-554 in the middle of the helix may be an important determinant of cation affinity and selectivity, in particular the high affinity cation binding site that recognizes lithium. PMID:20845974

  13. Increased vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity in Salicornia bigelovii Torr. in response to NaCl.

    PubMed

    Parks, Graham E; Dietrich, Margaret A; Schumaker, Karen S

    2002-05-01

    Shoots of the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii are larger and more succulent when grown in highly saline environments. This increased growth and water uptake has been correlated with a large and specific cellular accumulation of sodium. In glycophytes, sensitivity to salt has been associated with an inability to remove sodium ions effectively from the cytoplasm in order to protect salt-sensitive metabolic processes. Therefore, in Salicornia bigelovii efficient vacuolar sequestration of sodium may be part of the mechanism underlying salt tolerance. The ability to compartmentalize sodium may result from a stimulation of the proton pumps that provide the driving force for increased sodium transport into the vacuole via a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. In current studies, increased vacuolar pyrophosphatase activity (hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate and proton translocation) and protein accumulation were observed in Salicornia bigelovii grown in high concentrations of NaCl. Based on sodium-induced dissipation of a pyrophosphate-dependent pH gradient in vacuolar membrane vesicles, a Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity was identified and characterized. This activity is sodium concentration-dependent, specific for sodium and lithium, sensitive to methyl-isobutyl amiloride, and independent of an electrical potential. Vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity varied as a function of plant growth in salt. The affinity of the transporter for Na(+) is almost three times higher in plants grown in high levels of salt (K(m)=3.8 and 11.5 mM for plants grown in high and low salt, respectively) suggesting a role for exchange activity in the salt adaptation of Salicornia bigelovii. PMID:11971917

  14. Sequential growth of sandwiched NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb core-shell-shell nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huang-Yong; Ding, Bin-Bin; Ma, Yin-Chu; Sun, Shi-Qi; Tao, Wei; Guo, Yan-Chuan; Guo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Xian-Zhu; Qian, Hai-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Upconversion (UC) nanostructures have attracted much interest for their extensive biological applications. In this work, we describe a sequential synthetic route to prepare sandwiched NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb core-shell upconversion nanoparticles. The as-prepared products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEM 2100F), respectively. The as-prepared core-shell nanoparticles of NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb are composed of elliptical nanoparticles with a length of 80 nm and width of 42 nm, which show efficient upconversion fluorescence excited at 808 nm indicating the formation of core-shell-shell sandwiched nanostructures. In addition, the as-prepared sandwiched NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb core-shell upconversion nanoparticles also show strong upconversion fluorescence excited at 980 nm. Amphiphilic mPEG2k-b-PEBEP6K copolymers (denoted as PPE) were chosen to transfer these hydrophobic UCNPs into the aqueous phase for biological application. In vitro photodynamic therapy of cancer cells show that the viability of cells incubated with the nanoparticles loaded with MC 540 was significantly lower as compared to the nanoparticles without photosensitizers exposed to NIR laser.

  15. Heterogeneous reactions of HNO3(g) + NaCl(s) yields HCl(g) + NaNO3(s) and N2O5(g) + NaCl(s) yields ClNO2(g) + NaNO3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun; Timonen, Raimo S.; Keyser, Leon F.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1995-01-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of HNO3(g) + NaCl(s) yields HCl(g) + NaNO3(s) (eq 1) and N2O5(g) + NaCl(s) yields ClNO2(g) + NaNO3(S) (eq 2) were investigated over the temperature range 223-296 K in a flow-tube reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Either a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) or an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer (EIMS) was used to provide suitable detection sensitivity and selectivity. In order to mimic atmospheric conditions, partial pressures of HNO3 and N2O5 in the range 6 x 10(exp -8) - 2 x 10(exp -6) Torr were used. Granule sizes and surface roughness of the solid NaCl substrates were determined by using a scanning electron microscope. For dry NaCl substrates, decay rates of HNO3 were used to obtain gamma(1) = 0.013 +/- 0.004 (1sigma) at 296 K and > 0.008 at 223 K, respectively. The error quoted is the statistical error. After all corrections were made, the overall error, including systematic error, was estimated to be about a factor of 2. HCl was found to be the sole gas-phase product of reaction 1. The mechanism changed from heterogeneous reaction to predominantly physical adsorption when the reactor was cooled from 296 to 223 K. For reaction 2 using dry salts, gamma(2) was found to be less than 1.0 x 10(exp -4) at both 223 and 296 K. The gas-phase reaction product was identified as ClNO2 in previous studies using an infrared spectrometer. An enhancement in reaction probability was observed if water was not completely removed from salt surfaces, probably due to the reaction of N2O5(g) + H2O(s) yields 2HNO3(g). Our results are compared with previous literature values obtained using different experimental techniques and conditions. The implications of the present results for the enhancement of the hydrogen chloride column density in the lower stratosphere after the El Chichon volcanic eruption and for the chemistry of HCl and HNO3 in the marine troposphere are discussed.

  16. Stabilization of Na,K-ATPase by ionic interactions.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Elfrieda; Fedosova, Natalya U; Ferencz, Csilla; Marsh, Derek; Pali, Tibor; Esmann, Mikael

    2008-04-01

    The effect of ions on the thermostability and unfolding of Na,K-ATPase from shark salt gland was studied and compared with that of Na,K-ATPase from pig kidney by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and activity assays. In 1 mM histidine at pH 7, the shark enzyme inactivates rapidly at 20 degrees C, as does the kidney enzyme at 42 degrees C (but not at 20 degrees C). Increasing ionic strength by addition of 20 mM histidine, or of 1 mM NaCl or KCl, protects both enzymes against this rapid inactivation. As detected by DSC, the shark enzyme undergoes thermal unfolding at lower temperature (Tm approximately 45 degrees C) than does the kidney enzyme (Tm approximately 55 degrees C). Both calorimetric endotherms indicate multi-step unfolding, probably associated with different cooperative domains. Whereas the overall heat of unfolding is similar for the kidney enzyme in either 1 mM or 20 mM histidine, components with high mid-point temperatures are lost from the unfolding transition of the shark enzyme in 1 mM histidine, relative to that in 20 mM histidine. This is attributed to partial unfolding of the enzyme due to a high hydrostatic pressure during centrifugation of DSC samples at low ionic strength, which correlates with inactivation measurements. Addition of 10 mM NaCl to shark enzyme in 1 mM histidine protects against inactivation during centrifugation of the DSC sample, but incubation for 1 h at 20 degrees C prior to addition of NaCl results in loss of components with lower mid-point temperatures within the unfolding transition. Cations at millimolar concentration therefore afford at least two distinct modes of stabilization, likely affecting separate cooperative domains. The different thermal stabilities and denaturation temperatures of the two Na,K-ATPases correlate with the respective physiological temperatures, and may be attributed to the different lipid environments. PMID:18187035

  17. Preferential Interaction of Na+ over K+ to Carboxylate-functionalized Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elucidating mechanistic interactions between specific ions (Na+/ K+) and nanoparticle surfaces to alter particle stability in polar media has received little attention. We investigated relative preferential binding of Na+ and K+ to carboxylate-functionalized silver nanoparticles ...

  18. Na+ accumulation in root symplast of sunflower plants exposed to moderate salinity is transpiration-dependent.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Jos Manuel; Fournier, Jos Mara; Benlloch, Manuel; Rodrguez-Navarro, Alonso

    2008-08-25

    Twenty-day-old sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv Sun-Gro 380) grown hydroponically under controlled conditions were used to study the effect of transpiration on Na(+) compartmentalization in roots. The plants were exposed to low Na(+) concentrations (25 mM NaCl) and different environmental humidity conditions over a short time period (8.5 h). Under these conditions, Na(+) was accumulated primarily in the root, but only the Na(+) accumulated in the root symplast was dependent on transpiration, while the Na(+) accumulated in both the shoot and the root apoplast exhibited a low transpiration dependence. Moreover, Na(+) content in the root apoplast was reached quickly (0.25 h) and increased little with time. These results suggest that, in sunflower plants under moderate salinity conditions, Na(+) uptake in the root symplast is mediated by a transport system whose activity is enhanced by transpiration. PMID:18166246

  19. Synthesis of NaB5C bulk ceramics by reaction sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morito, Haruhiko; Anzai, Jun; Kimura, Takuma; Yamane, Hisanori

    2015-09-01

    Bulk ceramics of NaB5C were prepared by heating compact bodies of amorphous boron (B) and carbon black (C) powders with Na at 1073 K. The obtained bulk ceramics retained the rectangular shape of their original compacts. The obtained samples had a density of 80.1 ± 0.6% of the theoretical density of NaB5C. NaB5C bulk ceramics were also prepared by heating compacts comprised of B and C powders and Na. The addition of Na to the starting compact bodies increased the relative bulk density to 83.5 ± 0.4%. A fracture bending strength of 195 MPa was measured for the NaB5C bulk sample prepared from the compact of Na, B, and C.

  20. Obstáculos a la adherencia y retención en los sistemas de salud público y privado según pacientes y personal de salud

    PubMed Central

    Arístegui, Inés; Dorigo, Analía; Bofill, Lina; Bordatto, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernández; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones., Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Introducción el Programa Nacional de Sida garantiza el acceso universal a los antirretrovirales, aun así las personas que reciben medicamentos a través del sistema público no logran obtener una carga viral indetectable en la misma proporción que los pacientes del sistema privado. Este estudio cualitativo tiene como objeto identificar los factores asociados a la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención de VIH de los sistemas de salud público y privado de Buenos Aires, según las percepciones de pacientes y del personal de salud. Métodos se registraron datos cualitativos de 12 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a informantes clave y 4 grupos focales de pacientes y personal de salud tanto del sistema público como privado. Se codificaron y analizaron temas predeterminados sobre adherencia, utilizando el software QRS Nvivo9® de análisis de datos cualitativos. Resultados pacientes y personal de salud de ambos sistemas coinciden en la importancia del estigma asociado al VIH, la relación médicopaciente, la comunicación entre ambos y la división de responsabilidades en relación al tratamiento como aspectos fundamentales para la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención. Se observan diferencias entre los sistemas en la forma en que algunos de estos aspectos actúan. Las barreras estructurales se presentan como principales obstáculos del sistema público. Discusión se resalta la necesidad de intervenciones focalizadas en la díada médico-paciente que considere las particularidades de cada sistema de atención para facilitar el compromiso del paciente en la adherencia. PMID:26878024

  1. Ondas gravitatorias de transiciones de fase cosmológicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, L.

    There are several projects to build Gravitational Waves (GWs) spaceborne detectors as NGO/eLISA, which could be launched before 2022. A frequency signal in the detection range (0.1 mHz - 1 Hz) would be generated in the electroweak scale. This talk focuses on GWs generation from the electroweak phase transition. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Difusión en el espacio de fases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, C. M.; Cincotta, P. M.; Simó, C.

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of diffusive processes in multidimensional Hamiltonian systems. By means of a rather simple model, we give evidence that for moderate-to-strong chaotic systems the stochastic motion remains confined to disjoint domains on the energy surface, at least for mild motion times. We show that only for extremely large time-scales and for rather large perturbations, does the chaotic component appear almost fully connected through the relics of the resonance structure. The discussion whether diffusion over the energy surface could actually occur in asteroidal or galaxy dynamics is also included.

  3. Both Na+-K+ ATPase and Na +-H+ exchanger are immediately active upon post-ischemic reperfusion in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Van Emous, J G; Schreur, J H; Ruigrok, T J; Van Echteld, C J

    1998-02-01

    Limited time resolution has hampered proper evaluation of changes in intracellular Na+ (Na+i) in whole hearts upon post-ischemic reperfusion. In isolated rat hearts perfused at 37 degrees C, we studied the contribution of the Na+-K+ ATPase and the Na+-H+ exchanger to control of Na+i during reperfusion using 23Na NMR and the shift reagent Tm(DOTP)5- with a time resolution of 5 s. To assess activities of the Na +-K+ ATPase and the Na+-H+ exchanger, 250 micro mol/l ouabain and/or 3 micro mol/l EIPA, respectively, was added to the perfusate during the first 5 min of reperfusion, following 20 min of ischemia. When used, ouabain was also present for 2 min prior to ischemia. Na+i increased during ouabain perfusion prior to ischemia (132+/-5 and 133+/-4% of the pre-ischemic control value after 2 min, in ouabain and ouabain+EIPA hearts, respectively; mean+/-s.e.m.; n=6 per group) resulting in higher end-ischemic values in ouabain and ouabain+EIPA hearts (249+/-9 and 267+/-17% of the pre-ischemic control value, respectively) than in control and EIPA hearts (207+/-21 and 199+/-10% of the pre-ischemic control value, respectively). In ouabain, hearts Na+i started to rise directly upon reperfusion and amounted to 117+/-6% of the end-ischemic value after 60 s of reperfusion. In control hearts, however, Na+i dropped immediately and was 87+/-5% of the end-ischemic value after 60 s, indicating that the Na+-K+ ATPase resumed function directly upon reperfusion. The initial steep increase of Na+i upon reperfusion in ouabain hearts, which diminished after approximately 40 s to the rate of increase observed during ischemia, was absent in ouabain + EIPA hearts. This indicates the existence, although masked by Na+-K+ ATPase activity, of a Na+-H + exchange mediated Na+ influx upon reperfusion. If only EIPA was present during reperfusion the initial decrease in Na+i was faster than in control hearts, corroborating this finding. PMID:9515010

  4. A Versatile Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Zintl Phase Precursors: Na4Si4, Na4Ge4 and K4Ge4 as Examples

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuchu; Xu, Fen; Atkins, Tonya; Goforth, Andrea M.; Neiner, Doinita; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 are ideal chemical precursors for inorganic clathrate structures, clusters, and nanocrystals. The monoclinic Zintl phases, Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4, contain isolated homo-tetrahedranide [Si4]4− and [Ge4]4− clusters surrounded by alkali metal cations. In this study, a simple scalable route has been applied to prepare Zintl phases of composition Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 using the reaction between NaH and Si or Ge at low temperature (420 °C for Na4Si4 and 270 °C for Na4Ge4). The method was also applied to K4Ge4, using KH and Ge as raw materials, to show the versatility of this approach. The influence of specific reaction conditions on the purity of these Zintl phases has been studied by controlling five factors: the method of reagent mixing (manual or ball milled), the stoichiometry between raw materials, the reaction temperature, the heating time and the gas flow rate. Moderate ball-milling and excess NaH or KH facilitate the formation of pure Na4Si4, Na4Ge4 or K4Ge4 at 420 °C (Na4Si4) or 270 °C (both M4Ge4 compounds, M = Na, K). TG/DSC analysis of the reaction of NaH and Ge indicates that ball milling reduces the temperature for reaction and confirms the formation temperature. This method provides large quantities of high quality Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 without the need for specialized laboratory equipment, such as Schlenk lines, niobium/tantalum containers, or an arc welder, thereby expanding the accessibility and chemical utility of these phases by making them more convenient to prepare. This new synthetic method may also be extended to lithium-containing Zintl phases (LiH is commercially available) as well as to alkali metal-tetrel Zintl compounds of other compositions, e.g. K4Ge9. PMID:19921060

  5. Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using Large Area NaSICON Structures (LANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Balagopal, S.; Bhavaraju, S.

    2009-03-31

    This report presents the results of a 5-day test of an electrochemical bench-scale apparatus using a proprietary (NAS-GY) material formulation of a (Na) Super Ion Conductor (NaSICON) membrane in a Large Area NaSICON Structures (LANS) configuration. The primary objectives of this work were to assess system performance, membrane seal integrity, and material degradation while removing Na from Group 5 and 6 tank waste from the Hanford Site.

  6. The NA62 Liquid Krypton calorimeter readout architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Ryjov, V.; De Simone, N.; Venditti, S.

    2016-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at the CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator studies the ultra-rare decays of charged kaons. The high-resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) electromagnetic calorimeter of the former NA48 experiment [2] is a key component of the experiment photon-veto system. The new LKr readout system comprises 14,000 14-bit ADC acquisition channels, 432× 1 Gbit Ethernet data request and readout links routed by 28× 10 Gbit network switches to the experiment computer farm, and timing, trigger and control (TTC) distribution system. This paper presents the architecture of the LKr readout and TTC systems, the overall performance and the first successfully collected experiment physics data.

  7. Study of the K???? decay by the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeroni, C.; Romano, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gersabeck, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savri, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kholodenko, S.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retire, F.

    2014-05-01

    A study of the dynamics of the rare decay K???? has been performed on a sample of 232 decay candidates, with an estimated background of 17.41.1 events, collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2007. The results are combined with those from a measurement conducted by the NA48/2 Collaboration at CERN. The combined model-independent branching ratio in the kinematic range z=(>0.2 is BMI(z>0.2)=(0.9650.063)10-6, and the combined branching ratio in the full kinematic range assuming a Chiral Perturbation Theory description is B(K)=(1.0030.056)10-6. A detailed comparison of the results with the previous measurements is performed.

  8. Robert K. Crane—Na+-glucose cotransporter to cure?

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kirk L.

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Robert K. Crane made major contributions to our understanding of carbohydrate metabolism and transport of the intestine over a very long and productive career. This Perspective examines, briefly, his early life and academic positions, but more importantly, this Perspective highlights his contributions to the understanding of coupled Na+-glucose absorption by the small intestine. I discuss how his early hypothesis of a “cotransport” of sodium and glucose ushered in and provided the physiological explanation for the clinical treatment of acute diarrhea and cholera when using oral rehydration therapy (ORT). ORT saves millions of lives each year. Certainly, humankind is better off because of Crane's hypothesis of the Na+-glucose cotransporter that he put forth over 50 years ago? PMID:23525627

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence in doped NaF.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, S U; Patil, R R; Kulkarni, M S; Bhatt, B C; Moharil, S V

    2016-05-01

    OSL in doped NaF is studied. Study shows that NaF:Mg,Cu,P phosphor possess good OSL properties having sensitivity comparable to that of commercially available Al2O3:C (Landauer Inc.). For the luminescence averaged over 3s the obtained OSL is 37% of that commercial available Al2O3:C. Of the several phosphors investigated, phosphor with impurities concentration Mg(0.01mol%), Cu(0.2mol%), P(1mol%) shows good OSL sensitivity good linearity in the 10mGy to 1Gy dose range and negligible fading. This sample shows a intense single TL peak around 350°C which gets depleted by 14% after the OSL readout. This imply that maximum OSL is coming from deep traps giving stability to the signal. The ease of preparation along with other good OSL properties will make this phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry applications using OSL. PMID:26926379

  10. Performance comparison of MoNA and LISA neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purtell, Kimberly; Rethman, Kaitlynne; Haagsma, Autumn; Finck, Joseph; Smith, Jenna; Snyder, Jesse

    2010-11-01

    In 2002 eight primarily undergraduate institutions constructed and tested the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) which has been used to detect high energy neutrons at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Nine institutions have now designed, constructed and tested the Large-area multi-Institutional Scintillator Array (LISA) neutron detector which will be used at the NSCL and the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). Both detectors are comprised of 144 detector modules. Each module is a 200 x 10 x 10 cm^3 bar organic plastic scintillator with a photomultiplier tube mounted on each end. Using cosmic rays and a gamma source, we compared the performance of MoNA and LISA by using the same electronics to check light attenuation, position resolution, rise times, and cosmic ray peak widths. Results will be presented.

  11. Imaging performance of the EUV high NA anamorphic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ingen Schenau, Koen; Bottiglieri, Gerardo; van Schoot, Jan; Neumann, Jens-Timo; Roesch, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the predicted imaging performance for an anamorphic EUV high NA (>0.5) exposure system with a 4x magnification in X orientation and a 8x magnification in Y orientation. It has a half field size with which the productivity requirements can be maintained. The main findings of the study are that horizontal and vertical features have very similar process window sizes despite magnification difference. A new definition of the Mask Error Factor (MEF) is introduced that is more relevant for anamorphic imaging; it shows that reticle CD errors have 2x larger impact for vertical compared to horizontal features. For dark field horizontal two-bar trenches relatively small mask induced focus shift was observed compared to the 0.33NA case, probably due to the relatively small Mask Angle of Incidence in the Y orientation with the 8x magnification. Finally a Ni type absorber has potential to further improve imaging performance.

  12. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  13. Maui mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MALT) Na lidar enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Chad G.; Swenson, Gary R.; Dragic, Peter; Liu, Alan

    2005-10-01

    Na Wind/Temperature lidar offers a method to study the dynamics and thermal structure of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MALT) through Doppler methods. The University of Illinois system has been operated at both the USAF Starfire Optical Range in Albuquerque, NM (94, 98-00') and at the USAF AMOS Maui facilities with receiving mirrors that are 3.5 m in diameter. An autonomous receiving system is being developed which will provide unrestricted and continuous operational capabilities. The bi-static operational receivers will be coupled with multiple fibers so that Na (589 nm) returns from the MALT region and Rayleigh (355 nm) returns from the stratosphere and mesosphere can be received simultaneously. The system will be described with attention to increased efficiencies in the receiver.

  14. Development and application of Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Takahiro; Kita, Satomi

    2004-04-01

    The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) is an ion transporter that exchanges Na+ and Ca2+ in either Ca2+ efflux or Ca2+ influx mode, depending on the ion gradients across the plasma membrane and the membrane potential. In heart, smooth muscle cells, neurons, and nephron cells, the NCX is thought to play an important role in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Recently, a novel selective inhibitor (KB-R7943 and SEA0400) of the Ca2+ influx mode of the NCX has been developed. NCX inhibitor is expected to be a pharmaceutical agent that offers effective protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in several organs such as heart and kidney. Here, we summarize pharmacological profiles of KB-R7943 and SEA0400, the molecular mechanism of its action, and its future prospect as a novel pharmaceutical agent. PMID:15124919

  15. The tunnel manganese oxide Na4.32Mn9O18: a new Na+ site discovered by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qingxin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Qiliang; Liu, Xiaoyang

    2011-02-01

    The title compound, tetrasodium nonamanganese octadecaoxide, Na(4.32)Mn(9)O(18), was synthesized by reacting Mn(2)O(3) with NaCl. One Mn atom occupies a site of 2/m symmetry, while all other atoms sit on mirror planes. The compound is isostructural with Na(4)Ti(4)Mn(5)O(18) and suggestive of Mn(3+)/Mn(4+) charge ordering. It has a double-tunnel structure built up from double and triple chains of MnO(6) octahedra and single chains of MnO(5) square pyramids by corner sharing. Disordered Na(+) cations occupy four crystallographic sites within the tunnels, including an unexpected new Na(+) site discovered inside the large S-shaped tunnel. A local-ordering model is used to show the possible Na(+) distribution, and the unit-cell evolution during charging/discharging is explained on the basis of this local-ordering model. PMID:21285490

  16. Mass spectrometric determination of partial pressures of ions in the saturated vapor over the NaF-Na3AlF6 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, S. V.; Chilingarov, N. S.; Borshchevsky, A. Ya; Sidorov, L. N.

    2004-01-01

    Mass spectrometric determination of absolute partial pressures of basic charged species Na2F+ and AlF4- in the saturated vapor over the NaF-Na3AlF6 system (1:1 molar ratio) was carried out in the 974-1090 K temperature range. The ion pressures were 5-8 orders of magnitude lower than the pressures of basic molecular components NaAlF4 and NaF. Particular attention was given to the equality of device sensitivity constants for positive and negative ions. Absolute device calibration was carried out using the measured ion currents Na2F+ and AlF4- and the equilibrium constant of heterolytic dissociation available in the literature.

  17. In-situ FTIR-ATR spectroscopic observation on the dynamic efflorescence/deliquescence processes of Na2SO4 and mixed Na2SO4/glycerol droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Hong-Nan; Luan, Ye-Mei; Tan, See-Hua; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2014-02-01

    The FTIR-ATR spectra of Na2SO4 and mixed Na2SO4/glycerol (1:1) aerosols are monitored in the dehumidifying and humidifying process. It shows that glycerol suppresses both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation of Na2SO4/glycerol aerosols on the ZnSe substrate, while the water uptake of surrounding glycerol leads to lower deliquescence relative humidity of mixed Na2SO4/glycerol aerosols. In mixed Na2SO4/glycerol aerosols, glycerol restrains the formation of contact ion pairs between Na+ and SO42-, resulting in the delay of the efflorescence relative humidity. And glycerol molecular conformations transform from γγ to αα type in the dehumidifying process.

  18. Na8Au9.8(4)Ga7.2 and Na17Au5.87(2)Ga46.63: The diversity of pseudo 5-fold symmetries in the Na-Au-Ga system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Corbett, John D.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2013-11-01

    The Na-rich part (~30% Na) of the Na-Au-Ga system between NaAu2, NaGa4, and Na22Ga39 has been found to contain the ternary phases Na8Au9.8(4)Ga7.2 (I) and Na17Au5.87(2)Ga46.63 (II), according to the results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. I is orthorhombic, Cmcm, a=5.3040(1), b=24.519(5), c=14.573(3) Å, and contains a network of clusters with local 5-fold symmetry along the a-axis. Such clusters are frequent building units in decagonal quasicrystals and their approximants. II is rhombohedral, R3¯m, a=16.325(2), c=35.242(7) Å, and contains building blocks that are structurally identical to the Bergman-type clusters as well as fused icosahedral units known with active metals, triels and late transition elements. II also contains a polycationic network with elements of the clathrate V type structure. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on idealized models of I and II indicate that both compounds are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the corresponding Fermi levels. The overall Hamilton bond populations are generally dominated by Au-Ga and Au-Au bonds in I and by Ga-Ga bonds in II; moreover, the Na-Au and Na-Ga contributions in I are unexpectedly large, ~20% of the total. A similar involvement of sodium in covalent bonding has also been found in the electron-richer i-Na13Au12Ga15 quasicrystal approximant.

  19. Cosmogenic radionuclide production in NaI(Tl) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2015-02-01

    The production of long-lived radioactive isotopes in materials due to the exposure to cosmic rays on Earth surface can be an hazard for experiments demanding ultra-low background conditions, typically performed deep underground. Production rates of cosmogenic isotopes in all the materials present in the experimental set-up, as well as the corresponding cosmic rays exposure history, must be both well known in order to assess the relevance of this effect in the achievable sensitivity of a given experiment. Although NaI(Tl) scintillators are being used in experiments aiming at the direct detection of dark matter since the first nineties of the last century, very few data about cosmogenic isotopes production rates have been published up to date. In this work we present data from two 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) detectors, developed in the frame of the ANAIS project, which were installed inside a convenient shielding at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory just after finishing surface exposure to cosmic rays. The very fast start of data taking allowed to identify and quantify isotopes with half-lives of the order of tens of days. Initial activities underground have been measured and then production rates at sea level have been estimated following the history of detectors; values of about a few tens of nuclei per kg and day for Te isotopes and 22Na and of a few hundreds for I isotopes have been found. These are the first direct estimates of production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in NaI crystals. A comparison of the so deduced rates with calculations using typical cosmic neutron flux at sea level and a carefully selected description of excitation functions will be also presented together with an estimate of the corresponding contribution to the background at low and high energies, which can be relevant for experiments aiming at rare events searches.

  20. Background understanding and improvement in NaI scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Beltrán, B.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; García, E.; Gómez, H.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzón, G.; Martínez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    Sodium Iodide scintillators are very interesting particle and radiation detectors. Low background requirements could limit their application in a variety of fields. We report the e.orts to understand and reduce the background in a set of 14 NaI detectors, stored underground since 1988, undertaken in the frame of the ANAIS experiment [1] in several directions, including PSD techniques, Monte Carlo simulations and detector upgrading.

  1. Meeting Specifications Of Antares NaCl Laser Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughan, V. E.; Krus, D. J.

    1981-09-01

    This is a review article describing some of the techniques employed in meeting certain specifications for the fabrication of Antares 18" diameter NaC1 laser windows. Specifically, a pressure test for strength and window stability is described as well as a method for non-contact measurement of wedge angle and wedge direction utilizing a Fizeau 18" interferometer. Also the procedure followed at Harshaw in the mounting of windows is outlined.

  2. Prospects for observation at CERN in NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, F.; the NA62 Collaboration; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Aliberti, R.; Ambrosino, F.; Angelucci, B.; Antonelli, A.; Anzivino, G.; Arcidiacono, R.; Azhinenko, I.; Balev, S.; Bendotti, J.; Biagioni, A.; Biino, C.; Bizzeti, A.; Blazek, T.; Blik, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Bolotov, V.; Bonaiuto, V.; Bragadireanu, M.; Britton, D.; Britvich, G.; Brook, N.; Bucci, F.; Butin, F.; Capitolo, E.; Capoccia, C.; Capussela, T.; Carassiti, V.; Cartiglia, N.; Cassese, A.; Catinaccio, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Cenci, P.; Cerny, V.; Cerri, C.; Chikilev, O.; Ciaranfi, R.; Collazuol, G.; Cooke, P.; Cooper, P.; Corradi, G.; Cortina Gil, E.; Costantini, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Coward, D.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J.; Dalpiaz, P.; Danielsson, H.; Degrange, J.; De Simone, N.; Di Filippo, D.; Di Lella, L.; Dixon, N.; Doble, N.; Duk, V.; Elsha, V.; Engelfried, J.; Enik, T.; Falaleev, V.; Fantechi, R.; Federici, L.; Fiorini, M.; Fry, J.; Fucci, A.; Fulton, L.; Gallorini, S.; Gatignon, L.; Gianoli, A.; Giudici, S.; Glonti, L.; Goncalves Martins, A.; Gonnella, F.; Goudzovski, E.; Guida, R.; Gushchin, E.; Hahn, F.; Hallgren, B.; Heath, H.; Herman, F.; Hutchcroft, D.; Iacopini, E.; Jamet, O.; Jarron, P.; Kampf, K.; Kaplon, J.; Karjavin, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kholodenko, S.; Khoriauli, G.; Khudyakov, A.; Kiryushin, Yu; Kleinknecht, K.; Kluge, A.; Koval, M.; Kozhuharov, V.; Krivda, M.; Kudenko, Y.; Kunze, J.; Lamanna, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Leitner, R.; Lenci, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Lichard, P.; Lietava, R.; Litov, L.; Lomidze, D.; Lonardo, A.; Lurkin, N.; Madigozhin, D.; Maire, G.; Makarov, A.; Mannelli, I.; Mannocchi, G.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Massarotti, P.; Massri, K.; Matak, P.; Mazza, G.; Menichetti, E.; Mirra, M.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Morant, J.; Morel, M.; Moulson, M.; Movchan, S.; Munday, D.; Napolitano, M.; Newson, F.; Norton, A.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Obraztsov, V.; Padolski, S.; Page, R.; Palladino, V.; Pardons, A.; Pedreschi, E.; Pepe, M.; Perez Gomez, F.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrucci, F.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pietreanu, D.; Pinzino, J.; Pivanti, M.; Polenkevich, I.; Popov, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu; Protopopescu, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Raggi, M.; Riedler, P.; Romano, A.; Rubin, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Russo, V.; Ryjov, V.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Samsonov, V.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Sargeni, F.; Schifano, S.; Semenov, V.; Sergi, A.; Serra, M.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Sotnikov, A.; Sougonyaev, V.; Sozzi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Spinella, F.; Staley, R.; Statera, M.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szilasi, N.; Tagnani, D.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valente, P.; Vasile, M.; Vassilieva, V.; Velghe, B.; Veltri, M.; Venditti, S.; Vormstein, M.; Wahl, H.; Wanke, R.; Wertelaers, P.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Wrona, B.; Yushchenko, O.; Zamkovsky, M.; Zinchenko, A.

    2015-07-01

    The rare decays are excellent processes to probe the Standard Model and indirectly search for new physics complementary to the direct LHC searches. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect and analyse O(1013) kaon decays before the CERN long-shutdown 2 (in 2018). This will allow to measure the branching ratio to a level of 10% accuracy. The experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a first run in autumn 2014.

  3. The Offline Software Framework of the NA61/SHINE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Roland; Laszlo, Andras; Marcinek, Antoni; Paul, Tom; Szuba, Marek; Unger, Michael; Veberic, Darko; Wyszynski, Oskar

    2012-12-01

    NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN SPS using the upgraded NA49 hadron spectrometer. Among its physics goals are precise hadron production measurements for improving calculations of the neutrino beam flux in the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment as well as for more reliable simulations of cosmic-ray air showers. Moreover, p+p, p+Pb and nucleus+nucleus collisions will be studied extensively to allow for a study of properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter. Currently NA61/SHINE uses the old NA49 software framework for reconstruction, simulation and data analysis. The core of this legacy framework was developed in the early 1990s. It is written in different programming and scripting languages (C, pgi-Fortran, shell) and provides several concurrent data formats for the event data model, which includes also obsolete parts. In this contribution we will introduce the new software framework, called Shine, that is written in C++ and designed to comprise three principal parts: a collection of processing modules which can be assembled and sequenced by the user via XML files, an event data model which contains all simulation and reconstruction information based on STL and ROOT streaming, and a detector description which provides data on the configuration and state of the experiment. To assure a quick migration to the Shine framework, wrappers were introduced that allow to run legacy code parts as modules in the new framework and we will present first results on the cross validation of the two frameworks.

  4. Glycosaminoglycan polymerization may enable osmotically inactive Na+ storage in the skin.

    PubMed

    Titze, Jens; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Schafflhuber, Markus; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Porst, Markus; Schwind, Karl H; Dietsch, Peter; Hilgers, Karl F

    2004-07-01

    Osmotically inactive skin Na(+) storage is characterized by Na(+) accumulation without water accumulation in the skin. Negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may be important in skin Na(+) storage. We investigated changes in skin GAG content and key enzymes of GAG chain polymerization during osmotically inactive skin Na(+) storage. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 0.1% or 8% NaCl diet for 8 wk. Skin GAG content was measured by Western blot analysis. mRNA content of key dermatan sulfate polymerization enzymes was measured by real-time PCR. The Na(+) concentration in skin was determined by dry ashing. Skin Na(+) concentration during osmotically inactive Na(+) storage was 180-190 mmol/l. Increasing skin Na(+) coincided with increasing GAG content in cartilage and skin. Dietary NaCl loading coincided with increased chondroitin synthase mRNA content in the skin, whereas xylosyl transferase, biglycan, and decorin content were unchanged. We conclude that osmotically inactive skin Na(+) storage is an active process characterized by an increased GAG content in the reservoir tissue. Inhibition or disinhibition of GAG chain polymerization may regulate osmotically inactive Na(+) storage. PMID:14975935

  5. Role of carboxyl group in Na+-entry step at apical membrane of toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Park, C S; Kipnowski, J; Fanestil, D D

    1983-12-01

    Mucosal addition of N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) and some lipid-soluble carbodiimides, agents which are selective for carboxyl groups, irreversibly inhibited Na+ transport as measured by short-circuit current (SCC) in the urinary bladder of the toad. The inhibition of Na+ transport by EEDQ had the following characteristics: 1) the inhibition was accompanied by a significant increase in the transepithelial electrical resistance; 2) the decrease in SCC was accounted for by a comparable decrease in 22Na+ influx without effect on Na+ efflux; 3) amphotericin B produced complete recovery of SCC inhibited with EEDQ but not with antimycin A or ouabain; 4) mucosal EEDQ decreased the amiloride-sensitive reversal of Na+ current that is induced by serosal nystatin in the absence of mucosal Na+; 5) vasopressin and acid mucosal pH caused an increase in SCC in proportion to the SCC remaining after EEDQ inhibition; and 6) Vmax of the SCC was decreased without alteration in the apparent Km for Na+. Based on these characteristics of EEDQ inhibition of Na+ transport, we infer that a carboxyl group of the Na+ channel is involved in the Na+-entry step across the apical membrane of "tight" epithelia. The inhibition of Na+ transport with EEDQ most likely involves closing the Na+ channel through a chemical reaction involving a carboxyl group of the channel. PMID:6140855

  6. Characterization of butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption in the rat distal colon.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Binder HJ; Mehta P

    1990-12-01

    Recent studies have established that mucosal butyrate stimulates electroneutral sodium-chloride (Na-Cl) absorption in the distal colon of the rat and a model in which Na-hydrogen (H) and Cl-butyrate exchanges are coupled has been proposed as the mechanism of butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption. These studies were designed to examine butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption in experimental conditions in which HCO3-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption is inhibited: in Na-depleted (aldosterone-treated) animals and in the presence of increased mucosal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption was markedly reduced in Na-depleted rats. In contrast, the inhibition of both net Na and net Cl absorption by 5 mM serosal theophylline was significantly less in butyrate-containing, HCO3-free Ringer solution than in butyrate-free- HCO3-containing Ringer solution. These studies indicate that cyclic AMP does not inhibit butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption and we propose that the mechanism of cyclic AMP inhibition of HCO3-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption may be a result of its inhibition of Cl-HCO3, not Na-H exchange.

  7. Characterization of butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption in the rat distal colon.

    PubMed

    Binder, H J; Mehta, P

    1990-12-01

    Recent studies have established that mucosal butyrate stimulates electroneutral sodium-chloride (Na-Cl) absorption in the distal colon of the rat and a model in which Na-hydrogen (H) and Cl-butyrate exchanges are coupled has been proposed as the mechanism of butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption. These studies were designed to examine butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption in experimental conditions in which HCO3-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption is inhibited: in Na-depleted (aldosterone-treated) animals and in the presence of increased mucosal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption was markedly reduced in Na-depleted rats. In contrast, the inhibition of both net Na and net Cl absorption by 5 mM serosal theophylline was significantly less in butyrate-containing, HCO3-free Ringer solution than in butyrate-free- HCO3-containing Ringer solution. These studies indicate that cyclic AMP does not inhibit butyrate-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption and we propose that the mechanism of cyclic AMP inhibition of HCO3-dependent electroneutral Na-Cl absorption may be a result of its inhibition of Cl-HCO3, not Na-H exchange. PMID:2080102

  8. Kinetic Behavior of Salmonella on Low NaNO2 Sausages during Aerobic and Vacuum Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jimyeong; Gwak, Eunji; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beomyoung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth kinetics of Salmonella spp. in processed meat products formulated with low sodium nitrite (NaNO2). A 5-strain mixture of Salmonella spp. was inoculated on 25-g samples of sausages formulated with sodium chloride (NaCl) (1.0%, 1.25%, and 1.5%) and NaNO2 (0 and 10 ppm) followed by aerobic or vacuum storage at 10℃ and 15℃ for up to 816 h or 408 h, respectively. The bacterial cell counts were enumerated on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar, and the modified Gompertz model was fitted to the Salmonella cell counts to calculate the kinetic parameters as a function of NaCl concentration on the growth rate (GR; Log CFU/g/h) and lag phase duration (LPD; h). A linear equation was then fitted to the parameters to evaluate the effect of NaCl concentration on the kinetic parameters. The GR values of Salmonella on sausages were higher (p<0.05) with 10 ppm NaNO2 concentration than with 0 ppm NaNO2. The GR values of Salmonella decreased (p<0.05) as NaCl concentration increased, especially at 10℃. This result indicates that 10 ppm NaNO2 may increase Salmonella growth at low NaCl concentrations, and that NaCl plays an important role in inhibiting Salmonella growth in sausages with low NaNO2. PMID:27194936

  9. Thermodynamic Effects of Na on the Morphology of PbTe-PbS Nanostructured Thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, Jeff; He, Jiaqing; Blum, Ivan; Girard, Steven; Zhao, Li-Dong; Seidman, David; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Dravid, Vinayak; Wolverton, Chris; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Casillas, Gilberto; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The creation of nanostructures via phase separation provides a mechanism for decreasing the lattice thermal conductivity and increasing the figure of merit of bulk thermoelectric materials like PbTe-PbS. The addition of Na to PbTe-PbS drastically alters the morphology of PbS precipitates in the system. To see if this change in morphology can be attributed to equilibrium thermodynamics, we use first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the energetics of Na partitioning between PbTe and PbS and Na segregation at PbTe/PbS interfaces. We calculate a variety of Na defects in PbTe and PbS and find that the lowest energy defect in both PbTe and PbS is Na substituted for Pb. From the Na defect formation energies, we find the solubility limit of Na in PbTe and PbS, as well as the partitioning coefficient between PbTe and PbS. We find that Na partitions to PbS over PbTe, in agreement with experiment. We calculate Na segregation energies by substituting Na for Pb at the PbTe/PbS interface and find that Na segregates at the PbTe-side of the interface, in qualitative agreement with atom-probe tomography analysis. Applying the Gibbs adsorption isotherm to Na segregation, we find a corresponding decrease in interfacial energy leading to a change in morphology.

  10. Na+ and Li+ NASICON Superionic Conductors Thick Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perthuis, H.; Velasco, G.; Colomban, Ph.

    1984-05-01

    For microionic applications, superionic conductors have been elaborated in the form of thick films, using silk-screen printable powders. Na3Zr2Si2PO12, Na3.1Zr1.55Si2.3P0.7O11 and Li0.8Zr1.8Ta0.2(PO4)3 compositions are synthesized by a sol-gel process involving hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions of metal-organic alcoholic solutions. A thermal treatment (600°C-800°C) allows to obtain very fine particles (<1 μm) with the pure NASICON phase. Inks are prepared with these powders, an organic binder, volatile fluidifying agents and mineralizers. The layers, about 50 μm in thickness, are achieved by successive deposits and sinterings (950°C-1050°C) onto alumina substrates. Films conductivity is determined by the complex impedance method. Values measured at 300°C (Na+: σ˜10-2 Ω-1cm-1, EA{=}0.25 eV, Li+: σ˜5 10-4 Ω-1cm-1, EA{=}0.5 eV) reach those obtained with well-densified ceramics. An anisotropic behaviour related to microstructure is pointed out.

  11. Role of epithelial Na+ channels in endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongqing; Liang, Shenghui; Wang, Su; Tang, Chengchun; Yao, Bin; Wan, Wenhui; Zhang, Hailing; Jiang, Hui; Ahmed, Asif; Zhang, Zhiren; Gu, Yuchun

    2016-01-15

    An increasing number of mechano-sensitive ion channels in endothelial cells have been identified in response to blood flow and hydrostatic pressure. However, how these channels respond to flow under different physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. Our results show that epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) colocalize with hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2) within the caveolae on the apical membrane of endothelial cells and are sensitive to stretch pressure and shear stress. ENaCs exhibited low levels of activity until their physiological environment was changed; in this case, the upregulation of HO-1, which in turn facilitated heme degradation and hence increased the carbon monoxide (CO) generation. CO potently increased the bioactivity of ENaCs, releasing the channel from inhibition. Endothelial cells responded to shear stress by increasing the Na(+) influx rate. Elevation of intracellular Na(+) concentration hampered the transportation of l-arginine, resulting in impaired nitric oxide (NO) generation. Our data suggest that ENaCs that are endogenous to human endothelial cells are mechano-sensitive. Persistent activation of ENaCs could inevitably lead to endothelium dysfunction and even vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:26621031

  12. Electrode polarization impedance in weak NaCl aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Mirtaheri, Peyman; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Orjan G

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we characterize the polarization impedance behavior of several common metals in diluted NaCl solution operated at low current densities. The objective was to provide a useful reference for those wishing to calculate the electrode polarization impedance in diluted NaCl solutions. Serial equivalent resistance (R) and capacitance (C) for silver, aluminum, gold, platinum, and medical stainless-steel were measured as a function of frequency (10(-2)-10(3) Hz) and NaCl concentration (2.4-77.0 mmol/L). The ratio of electrode polarization impedance with respect to the bulk resistance was calculated and plotted against concentration for each metal. Such a ratio shows the effect of the electrode polarization contribution as a function of electrolyte concentration when the bulk resistance of the solution changes. All metals showed a decrease of serial resistance Rp and capacitance Cp as a function of frequency. The medical stainless-steel electrode showed largest impedance values at lower frequencies compared to the other electrodes, and was concentration independent at all frequencies. Aluminum had smallest polarization impedance at low frequencies. Pure gold and platinum behaved similar with the exception that the serial resistance for gold showed a lower value at higher frequencies. PMID:16366232

  13. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Gunion, R.F.

    2008-09-18

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-{micro}m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured {sigma} values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA.

  14. Actinic EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno. B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Huh, S.

    2008-03-24

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-{micro}m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured {sigma} values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA.

  15. Electrophysiological comparison of insecticide and alkaloid agonists of Na channels.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, M D; Schwarz, J R; Holan, G; Hille, B

    1987-07-01

    Macroscopic currents in Na channels were recorded from adult frog skeletal muscle under voltage clamp as various toxins were added to the bathing medium. Veratridine, cevadine, and 3-(4-ethoxybenzoyl)-veracevine modified the Na channels in a use-dependent manner during depolarizations and held them open for 3, 2.4, and 1.2 s, respectively, at -90 mV. The three alkaloids modified channels in the same way. Activation gating was shifted about -100 mV by the modification, and reversible closing of the channels by strong hyperpolarizations slowed reversal of the modification. The synthetic insecticides deltamethrin, EDO, GH739, and GH414 also modified channels during depolarizations that opened channels. The modification lasted 3 s with deltamethrin, but only 3-5 ms with the others. Hyperpolarization speeded the shutting off of current in insecticide-modified channels, but no reversible activation gating could be demonstrated. The ionic selectivity, PNa/PNH4, of channels was decreased by all of the toxins. This ratio was 0.11 in normal channels, 0.26 in insecticide-modified channels, and 0.7-1.6 in veratrum-alkaloid-modified channels. During use-dependent modification, the veratrum alkaloids reduced the total Na current markedly, while deltamethrin did not. Thus, alkaloid and insecticide modifications share many features but differ in how much the conducting properties of the pore are changed and whether the channel can close reversibly while the toxin remains bound. PMID:2442297

  16. Electrophysiological comparison of insecticide and alkaloid agonists of Na channels

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Macroscopic currents in Na channels were recorded from adult frog skeletal muscle under voltage clamp as various toxins were added to the bathing medium. Veratridine, cevadine, and 3-(4-ethoxybenzoyl)- veracevine modified the Na channels in a use-dependent manner during depolarizations and held them open for 3, 2.4, and 1.2 s, respectively, at -90 mV. The three alkaloids modified channels in the same way. Activation gating was shifted about -100 mV by the modification, and reversible closing of the channels by strong hyperpolarizations slowed reversal of the modification. The synthetic insecticides deltamethrin, EDO, GH739, and GH414 also modified channels during depolarizations that opened channels. The modification lasted 3 s with deltamethrin, but only 3-5 ms with the others. Hyperpolarization speeded the shutting off of current in insecticide-modified channels, but no reversible activation gating could be demonstrated. The ionic selectivity, PNa/PNH4, of channels was decreased by all of the toxins. This ratio was 0.11 in normal channels, 0.26 in insecticide-modified channels, and 0.7-1.6 in veratrum-alkaloid-modified channels. During use-dependent modification, the veratrum alkaloids reduced the total Na current markedly, while deltamethrin did not. Thus, alkaloid and insecticide modifications share many features but differ in how much the conducting properties of the pore are changed and whether the channel can close reversibly while the toxin remains bound. PMID:2442297

  17. An Examination of Photochemistry Based on INTEX-NA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, J. R.; Crawford, J.; Chen, G.; Brune, W.; Ren, X.; Cohen, R.; Bertram, T.; Fried, A.; Walega, J.; Heikes, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Huey, G.; Wennberg, P.; Crounse, J.; Kwan, A.

    2005-12-01

    Measurements made from the NASA DC8 aircraft over the North American continent and just off its east coast during the summertime 2004 INTEX-NA campaign provide an unprecedented array of photochemical observations for evaluation. This presents the opportunity for detailed analysis of photochemistry over a region that is influenced by significant urban and industrial pollution. The upper tropospheric environment is further influenced by convection and lightning production of NOx. A photochemical box model constrained by INTEX-NA observations of long-lived gases is used to predict radical concentrations. Radical predictions are then compared to measurements to test the fidelity of current photochemical theory, subject to the assumption that concentrations are controlled by local photochemistry. Analysis of the INTEX-NA data shows that discrepancies in the model-to-measurement comparison exist for several trace gases, including HO2 and other species that are dependent on HOx (e.g., peroxides, pernitric acid, aldehydes). While in some cases, discrepancies in the form of model underprediction can be explained by the neglect of convective transport, in many cases, discrepancies are contradictory between the species. Further, for some species such as peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and acetaldehyde, both photochemistry and convective transport fall well short of explaining observed upper tropospheric concentrations.

  18. An electrochemical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of Na 2Mo 2O 7 and Na 2NiO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Tom; Krishnamurthy, D.; Gnanasekaran, T.

    1997-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the compounds Na 2Mo 2O 7 and Na 2NiO 2 were determined by using the high temperature galvanic cells Pt,Ar + Co 2 + O 2, Na 2CO 3 |INASICONI|Na 2Mo 2O 7 + Na2MoO 4, O 2 + CO 2 + Ar,Pt (I) and Pt,Ar, Ni + NiO + Na 2NiO 2 |INASICON|Na 2Mo2O 1 + Na 2MoO 2 + MoO 2, Ar,Pt (II) in the temperature range 650-800 K and 673-773 K, respectively. The reversible emf of cell-I, at P CO 2 = 112.6 and 282 Pa, and cell-II can be expressed as EI'( PCO 2 = 112.6 Pa) = - 282.7 + 1.13T (± 2) mV, EI'( PCO 2 = 282 Pa) = - 274.7 + 1.081 T (± 2) mV and EII = 1383 + -.230T (± 1.5) mV, respectively. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of Na 2Mo 2O 7, and Na 2NiO 2 from elements computed from the emf's of the cells and auxiliary information from the literature are expressed as Δ fGm°. <Na 2Mo 2O 7> = -2240.0 + 0.618T (±2) kJ mol -1 and Δ fGm°<Na 2NiO 2> = -684.1 + 0.257T (±7) kJ mol -1, respectively.

  19. Probabilistic Models to Predict the Growth Initiation Time for Pseudomonas spp. in Processed Meats Formulated with NaCl and NaNO2

    PubMed Central

    Park, Beomyoung; Oh, Mihwa

    2014-01-01

    This study developed probabilistic models to determine the initiation time of growth of Pseudomonas spp. in combinations with NaNO2 and NaCl concentrations during storage at different temperatures. The combination of 8 NaCl concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%) and 9 NaNO2 concentrations (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 ppm) were prepared in a nutrient broth. The medium was placed in the wells of 96-well microtiter plates, followed by inoculation of a five-strain mixture of Pseudomonas in each well. All microtiter plates were incubated at 4, 7, 10, 12, and 15℃ for 528, 504, 504, 360 and 144 h, respectively. Growth (growth initiation; GI) or no growth was then determined by turbidity every 24 h. These growth response data were analyzed by a logistic regression to produce growth/no growth interface of Pseudomonas spp. and to calculate GI time. NaCl and NaNO2 were significantly effective (p<0.05) on inhibiting Pseudomonas spp. growth when stored at 4-12℃. The developed model showed that at lower NaCl concentration, higher NaNO2 level was required to inhibit Pseudomonas growth at 4-12℃. However, at 15℃, there was no significant effect of NaCl and NaNO2. The model overestimated GI times by 58.2±17.5 to 79.4±11%. These results indicate that the probabilistic models developed in this study should be useful in calculating the GI times of Pseudomonas spp. in combination with NaCl and NaNO2 concentrations, considering the over-prediction percentage. PMID:26761668

  20. Synthesis and Structures of the New Group IV Chalcogenides NaCuTiS 3 and NaCuZr Q3 ( Q = S, Se, Te)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuetto, Michael F.; Keane, Patricia M.; Ibers, James A.

    1993-08-01

    The new compounds NaCuTiS 3 and NaCuZr Q3 ( Q = S, Se, Te) have been synthesized through reaction of the elements with a Na 2Qn flux. The compounds NaCuTiS 3, NaCuZrSe 3, and NaCuZrTe 3 crystallize in space group D162h- Pnma of the orthorhombic system with four formula units in cells of dimensions a = 12.738(10), b = 3.554(3), c = 9.529(8) Å for NaCuTiS 3; a = 13.392(5), b = 3,833(1), c = 10.250(4) Å for NaCuZrSe 3; a = 14.34(4), b = 4.06(1), c = 10.93(3) Å for NaCuZrTe 3 ( T = 113 K). NaCuZrS 3 crystallizes in space group D172h - Cmcm of the orthorhombic system with four formula units in a cell of dimensions a = 3.688(1), b = 12.838(5), c = 9.726(3) Å. The structures of all four compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray methods. The structures are composed of 2∞[Cu MQ-3] ( M = Ti, Q = S; M = Zr, Q = S, Se, Te) layers separated by Na + cations. The Cu atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated and the M atoms are octahedrally coordinated. NaCuZrS 3 is isostructural with the recently reported series of compounds KCuZrQ 3 ( Q = S, Se, Te). NaCuTiS 3, NaCuZrSe 3, and NaCuZrTe 3 represent a new structure type with the 2∞ [Cu MQ-3] layer being composed of alternating pairs of Cu Q4 tetrahedra and M Q6 octahedra in the [001] direction. The Na 1 cations are coordinated by seven chalcogen atoms in a monocapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.

  1. Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals: from synthesis, growth mechanism to analysis of Na-ion intercalation/deintercalation abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengcheng; Zhou, Dehua; Zhu, Kongjun; Wu, Qingliu; Wang, Yifeng; Tai, Guoan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals were synthesized successfully by a two-step hydrothermal method. Observations using electron microscopy revealed that the obtained NaV2O5 mesocrystals were composed of nanobelts with the preferential growth direction of [010]. The precise crystal structure was further confirmed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. Based on analysis of crystal structure and microscopy, a reaction and growth mechanism, hydrolysis-condensation (oxolation and olation)-ion exchange-self-assembly, was proposed and described in detail. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements were used to analyze the Na-ions intercalation/deintercalation abilities in NaV2O5, and indicated that Na-ions were difficult to extract. Importantly, the DFT theoretical calculation results, which showed that the migration energy of Na-ions was so huge that migration of Na-ions was quite difficult, can explain and support well the results of the electrochemical measurements.Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals were synthesized successfully by a two-step hydrothermal method. Observations using electron microscopy revealed that the obtained NaV2O5 mesocrystals were composed of nanobelts with the preferential growth direction of [010]. The precise crystal structure was further confirmed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. Based on analysis of crystal structure and microscopy, a reaction and growth mechanism, hydrolysis-condensation (oxolation and olation)-ion exchange-self-assembly, was proposed and described in detail. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements were used to analyze the Na-ions intercalation/deintercalation abilities in NaV2O5, and indicated that Na-ions were difficult to extract. Importantly, the DFT theoretical calculation results, which showed that the migration energy of Na-ions was so huge that migration of Na-ions was quite difficult, can explain and support well the results of the electrochemical measurements. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Flow charts of hydrothermal methods utilized in this work; XRD pattern that reveals the influence of reaction time on products obtained in the one-step hydrothermal method; XRD and Raman patterns that suggest the influence of reaction temperature on products obtained in the two-step hydrothermal method; SEM images that show the influence of the second step time on the morphology of products obtained in the two-step hydrothermal method; energy spectra that show the atomic content change of products with increasing reaction time; detailed refined data of NaV2O5; Raman active modes of the NaV2O5 nanobelts. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05179g

  2. Complex transition metal hydrides incorporating ionic hydrogen: thermal decomposition pathway of Na2Mg2FeH8 and Na2Mg2RuH8.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Terry D; Matsuo, Motoaki; Li, Guanqiao; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2015-03-28

    Complex transition metal hydrides have potential technological application as hydrogen storage materials, smart windows and sensors. Recent exploration of these materials has revealed that the incorporation of anionic hydrogen into these systems expands the potential number of viable complexes, while varying the countercation allows for optimisation of their thermodynamic stability. In this study, the optimised synthesis of Na2Mg2TH8 (T = Fe, Ru) has been achieved and their thermal decomposition properties studied by ex situ Powder X-ray Diffraction, Gas Chromatography and Pressure-Composition Isotherm measurements. The temperature and pathway of decomposition of these isostructural compounds differs considerably, with Na2Mg2FeH8 proceeding via NaMgH3 in a three-step process, while Na2Mg2RuH8 decomposes via Mg2RuH4 in a two-step process. The first desorption maxima of Na2Mg2FeH8 occurs at ca. 400 °C, while Na2Mg2RuH8 has its first maxima at 420 °C. The enthalpy and entropy of desorption for Na2Mg2TH8 (T = Fe, Ru) has been established by PCI measurements, with the ΔHdes for Na2Mg2FeH8 being 94.5 kJ mol(-1) H2 and 125 kJ mol(-1) H2 for Na2Mg2RuH8. PMID:25732233

  3. Investigation of influence of NaOH and NaCl activating solutions on bentonite stabilization in suspension fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef; Mikła, Daniel; Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Skut, Jakub

    2010-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Regular plants growth and their metabolic activity are determined by the macro- (C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl, Ni). The role of these elements is very important, the excess as well as the deficiency have the negative influence on their development [1]. In order to increase yields and quality of crops a mineral, organic and mineral-organic fertilizers are applied. In the last years suspension fertilizers have been of great significance, taking the agricultural benefits into consideration. Suspension fertilizers are products of a new generation on account of higher nutrients concentrations than in the majority of other fertilizers, what makes them more efficient. Suspension fertilizers differ from solid fertilizers in more regular distribution on field. Nutrients are more concentrated what is economically relevant on account of the facilitated transportation. Examinations indicated, that nutrients from suspension fertilizers are more available than from solid fertilizers. The high concentration of nutrients in fertilizer is obtained by introducing a substance which holds them regularly in the suspension. Bentonites are the substances used for stabilization of suspension fertilizers most often [2,3]. Bentonites belong to ore of clay minerals, primarily made from minerals of smectite group, montmorillonite especially [4]. Bentonite loams were formulated as a result of Aluminium Silicate-bearing Rocks weathering and subsequent sedimentation in the aqueous environment. Characteristic features of rocks of the smectite group are their ability to absorb water (swelling), to form thixotrophic suspensions which aren't undergoing sedimentation process for a long time; as well as susceptibility to absorb cations and organic substances [4,5]. Therefore investigations have been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of application of diverse loamy raw materials as suspension stabilizers for fertilizer purposes. In this paper research aimed at activating Jaroszów bentonite were presented. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS The studies on activating clay minerals were carried out using the exchange of Ca2+, K+, Mg2+ ions to Na+ ions. For activation process the NaOH and NaCl solutions of concentrations 0,1M and 2,0M respectively were applied. For the purposes mentioned above 5g of weighed portion of mineral were introduced into four 250 ml conical flasks, two of them were filled with 100 ml of 0,1M and 2.0 M NaOH solution. Two remaining flasks were filled with 100 ml of 0,1M and 2.0 M NaCl solution. The samples preparred acoording to this instructions were shaken for 1 and 8 hours, and subsequently subjected to a vacuum filtration in order to separete solid fraction from filtrate. Mineral which remaied on the filter was dried in temperature of 110oC for 2 hours. 1g of dried mineral was collected for further examinations, mixed with 100 ml of distilled water and poured into the 25 ml measuring cylinder. Then every day for 14 days a change of the volume of deposit, suspension and pure solution above the suspension have been measured. 3. RESULTS DISCUSSION "Jaroszów" bentonite, activated with Na+ ions using 0,1M NaOH solution constitutes the most beneficial agent stabilizing the solid phase in the aqueous environment. The time factor didn't have considerable influence on bentonite activation. Results were similar for 1h as well as 8h. The addition of NaOH sustained suspension on respectively high level, about 80% vol., after 14 measurement days.

  4. Electrochemical Behavior of Silicon in the (NaCl-KCl-NaF-SiO2) Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zongying; Li, Yungang; He, Xiaofeng; Liang, Jinglong

    2010-10-01

    The electrochemical behavior of silicon was investigated in a molten salts system including saturation silicon dioxide. Silicon was electrodeposited and MoSi2 was formed on the employed molybdenum working electrode by the diffusivities of silicon and the substrate metals. Transient electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to study the reaction mechanism at the molybdenum electrode. Cyclic voltammograms showed the possibility of electrodeposition of Si at -0.64 V versus Pt reference electrode in a NaCl-KCl-NaF-SiO2 system at 1073 K (800 °C). The electrodeposition of Si is single-step charge-transfer process and the cathode process is irreversible. Chronoamperometry studies indicated that electrocrystallization of Si is controlled by progressive nucleation with a three-dimensional growth mechanism.

  5. Na+-induced Ca2+ influx through reverse mode of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in mouse ventricular cardiomyocyte

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhen-Yu; Ban, Tao; Fan, Yao; Chen, Wei-Ran; Sun, Hong-Li; Chen, Hanying; Qiao, Quo-Fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Dobutamine is commonly used for clinical management of heart failure and its pharmacological effects have long been investigated as inotropics via β–receptor activation. However, there is no electrophysiological evidence if dobutamine contributes inotropic action due at least partially to the reverse mode of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) activation. Methods Action potential (AP), voltage-gated Na+ (INa), Ca2+ (ICa), and K+ (Ito and IK1) currents were observed using whole-cell patch technique before and after dobutamine in ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from adult mouse hearts. Another sets of observation were also performed with Kb-r7943 or in the solution without [Ca2+]o. Results Dobutamine (0.1–1.0 μM) significantly enhanced the AP depolarization with prolongation of AP duration (APD) in a concentration-dependent fashion. The density of INawas also increased concentration-dependently without alternation of voltage-dependent steady-status of activation and inactivation, reactivation as well. Whereas, the activities for ICa, Ito, and IK1 were not changed by dobutamine. Intriguingly, the dobutamine-mediated changes in AP repolarization were abolished by 3 μM Kb-r7943 pretreatment or by simply removing [Ca2+]o without affecting accelerated depolarization. Additionally, the ratio of APD50/APD90 was not significantly altered in the presence of dobutamine, implying that effective refractory period was remain unchanged. Conclusion This novel finding provides evidence that dobutamine upregulates of voltage-gated Na+ channel function and Na+ influx-induced activation of the reverse mode of NCX, suggesting that dobutamine may not only accelerate ventricular contraction via fast depolarization but also cause Ca2+ influx, which contributes its positive inotropic effect synergistically with β-receptor activation without increasing the arrhythmogenetic risk. PMID:26314851

  6. Search for solid conductors of Na/+/ and K/+/ ions - Five new conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Kautz, H.; Fielder, W.; Fordyce, J.

    1975-01-01

    Five new conductors of positive Na and K ions, for use as separators in high energy secondary batteries, have been discovered. They include: (1) the pyrochlores NaTaWO6 and NaTa2O5F; (2) the bcc form of NaSbO3; and (3) the niobates 2Na2O-3Nb2O5 and 2K2O-3Nb2O5, with the alkali ions probably in open layers of the completely determined structure. On the basis of approximately 40 structure types, generalizations have been made regarding the relation between structure and ionic transport.

  7. Calculation of the interspecies s-wave scattering length in an ultracold Na-Rb vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.B.; Bhattacharya, M.; Bigelow, N.P.

    2003-10-01

    We report the calculation of the interspecies scattering length for the sodium-rubidium (Na-Rb) system. We present improved hybrid potentials for the singlet X{sup 1}{sigma} {sup +} and triplet a{sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} ground states of the NaRb molecule, and calculate the singlet and triplet scattering lengths a{sub s} and a{sub t} for the isotopomers {sup 23}Na{sup 87}Rb and {sup 23}Na{sup 85}Rb. Using these values, we assess the prospects for producing a stable two-species Bose-Einstein condensate in the Na-Rb system.

  8. Structure and electrochemistry of NaFePO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F cathode materials prepared via mechanochemical route

    SciTech Connect

    Kosova, N.V.; Podugolnikov, V.R.; Devyatkina, E.T.; Slobodyuk, A.B.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F is prepared by mechanochemically assisted solid state synthesis. • The crystal and local structure are studied by XRPD, FTIR, Mössbauer, and NMR. • Na{sup +}/Li{sup +} ion exchange is completed with the formation of NaLiFePO{sub 4}F. • The average D{sub Li} (10{sup −15} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}) is determined from GITT measurements. - Abstract: Nanostructured NaFePO{sub 4} (space group Pmnb) and Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F (space group Pbcn) were prepared by a quick and facile mechanochemically assisted solid state synthesis. Low-crystalline Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F was formed as a result of direct mechanochemical reaction of NaFePO{sub 4} with NaF. It crystallizes upon subsequent heating to 600 °C and decomposes at higher temperatures. Crystal and local structure were analyzed by XRD using Rietveld refinement, FTIR, Mössbauer, and NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical properties were studied by galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells and GITT. Although NaFePO{sub 4} showed some electrochemical activity, neither electrochemical nor chemical Na{sup +}/Li{sup +} exchange was observed by XRD. On contrary, electrochemical and chemical Na{sup +}/Li{sup +} ion exchange occurred in the case of Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F and accomplished with the NaLiFePO{sub 4}F formation. Li{sup +} diffusion coefficient in NaLiFePO{sub 4}F at different delithiated/lithiated states was determined from GITT. Carbon-coated Na{sub 2}FePO{sub 4}F shows discharge capacity of 116 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C rate within the 2.0–4.2 V voltage range and a good cyclability.

  9. Temperature-dependent solubility transition of Na?SO? in water and the effect of NaCl therein: solution structures and salt water dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bharmoria, Pankaj; Gehlot, Praveen Singh; Gupta, Hariom; Kumar, Arvind

    2014-11-01

    Dual, aqueous solubility behavior of Na2SO4 as a function of temperatures is still a natural enigma lying unresolved in the literature. The solubility of Na2SO4 increases up to 32.38 C and decreases slightly thereafter at higher temperatures. We have thrown light on this phenomenon by analyzing the Na2SO4-water clusters (growth and stability) detected from temperature-dependent dynamic light scattering experiments, solution compressibility changes derived from the density and speed of sound measurements, and water structural changes/Na2SO4 (ion pair)-water interactions observed from the FT-IR and 2D DOSY (1)H NMR spectroscopic investigations. It has been observed that Na2SO4-water clusters grow with an increase in Na2SO4 concentration (until the solubility transition temperature) and then start decreasing afterward. An unusual decrease in cluster size and solution compressibility has been observed with the rise in temperature for the Na2SO4 saturated solutions below the solubility transition temperature, whereas an inverse pattern is followed thereafter. DOSY experiments have indicated different types of water cluster species in saturated solutions at different temperatures with varying self-diffusion coefficients. The effect of NaCl (5-15 wt %) on the solubility behavior of Na2SO4 at different temperatures has also been examined. The studies are important from both fundamental and industrial application points of view, for example, toward the clean separation of NaCl and Na2SO4 from the effluent streams of textile and tannery industries. PMID:25313635

  10. A study of the behaviour of the NaI/KI column density ratio in the interstellar medium using the Na ultraviolet doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, S. N.; Bates, B.; Beckman, J. E.; Killow, C. J.; Barrena, R.; Kennedy, D. C.; Rodríguez Alamo, J.

    2002-07-01

    Here we make a new study of the behaviour of the NaI/KI column density ratio in the interstellar medium, using a sample of new observations of 28 stars obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) in 1996 and 1997, and previously published observations (obtained by some of the authors) of 21 stars. The sightlines cover a range of distances and directions, including into the Galactic halo. We make use of new observations of the NaI ultraviolet (UV) doublet for some 18 stars. This doublet is much weaker than the NaI D doublet and so is less susceptible to saturation effects, and it is well known that it can be used to obtain more accurate NaI column densities with a smaller error range. We find an average N(NaI)/N(KI) ratio from the NaI UV data of about 90, which is rather higher than that found previously by Hobbs and Lequeux. The Na UV-KI ratio shows a small increase in value with increasing column density, while we also find a sample of low N(NaI)/N(KI) ratio clouds generally seen towards distant objects on high-latitude sightlines that reach into the halo, so that the ratio decreases more sharply at lower column densities. As the values of the ratio for these halo clouds (10-20) bracket the cosmic Na/K abundance ratio, we suggest that these ratios result from a harder radiation field in the lower halo, such that the ionized fractions of NaI and KI become similar. Clearly caution needs to be applied in using any kind of `standard value' for the NaI/KI column density ratio.

  11. Imaging of intracellular sodium with shift reagent aided (23)Na CSI in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Weidensteiner, Claudia; Horn, Michael; Fekete, Elsbeth; Neubauer, Stefan; von Kienlin, Markus

    2002-07-01

    23Na chemical shift imaging (CSI) in conjunction with shift reagents was used to obtain images of intracellular (Na(i)) and extracellular sodium (Na(e)) in isolated rat hearts. It was demonstrated that the increase of Na(i) concentration in ischemic myocardium can be detected with this technique. 3D acquisition-weighted (23)Na CSI datasets with a nominal spatial resolution of 1.7 x 1.7 x 2.9 mm were acquired in 30 min in normoxic hearts and in globally or locally ischemic hearts. The shift reagent Tm(DOTP)(5-) was used to discriminate Na(i) and Na(e) signals. Na(i) maps could be generated in ischemic hearts, but not in normoxic hearts as the signal-to-noise ratio is too low. The Na(i) signal increased by more than 100% and the Na(e) signal decreased by more than 50% in myocardium of globally ischemic hearts (n = 3) compared to normoxic hearts (n = 3). In hearts with an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (n = 3), there was a local Na(i) signal increase in the anterior wall in the range of 60-110% compared to remote, normoxic tissue. PMID:12111935

  12. Flux growth and optical properties of Na 3La 9O 3(BO 3) 8 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunge; Wu, Yicheng; Zhang, Guochun; Fu, Peizhen; Bai, Xiaoyan

    2006-07-01

    Na 3La 9O 3(BO 3) 8 (NLBO) crystals were grown by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method from three new fluxes: Na 2O-B 2O 3-Li 2O, Na 2O-B 2O 3-NaF-LiF and Na 2O-B 2O 3-NaF, respectively. The volatility was investigated. The results showed that the Na 2O-B 2O 3-NaF flux is more suitable than others for growing NLBO crystals. The suitable molar ratio for Na 3La 9O 3(BO 3) 8, Na 2CO 3, H 3BO 3 and NaF is 1.0:(7.5˜5.0):(6.5˜5.0):(8.8˜35.0) with the growth temperature at 920˜980 °C. NLBO crystal size was up to 35×22×10 mm 3. The shortest SHG wavelengths for type-I and type-II phase-matching (PM) are 288 nm and 395 nm, respectively.

  13. Salt and gene expression: evidence for [Na+]i/[K+]i-mediated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Sergei N; Hamet, Pavel

    2015-03-01

    Our review focuses on the recent data showing that gene transcription and translation are under the control of signaling pathways triggered by modulation of the intracellular sodium/potassium ratio ([Na+]i/[K+]i). Side-by-side with sensing of osmolality elevation by tonicity enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP, NFAT5), [Na+]i/[K+]i-mediated excitation-transcription coupling may contribute to the transcriptomic changes evoked by high salt consumption. This novel mechanism includes the sensing of heightened Na+ concentration in the plasma, interstitial, and cerebrospinal fluids via augmented Na+ influx in the endothelium, immune system cells, and the subfornical organ, respectively. In these cells, [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio elevation, triggered by augmented Na+ influx, is further potentiated by increased production of endogenous Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitors documented in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:25479826

  14. The Na-Cu-O phase diagram in the Cu-rich part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, Andrei B.; Maljuk, Andrei N.; Sofin, Mikhail; Lin, Chengtian T.; Keimer, Bernhard; Jansen, Martin

    2004-10-01

    We report the thermogravimetry data of NaCu2O2 and NaCuO compounds in Ar/O2 gas mixtures with different oxygen contents accompanied by X-ray analysis. Preliminary synthetic approaches for compounds in the Na-Cu-O system were developed. Combined with X-ray diffractometry of a number of specimens synthesized with compositions corresponding to the oxygen-poor area of diagram, these data enabled us to determine the Cu-rich part of the Na-Cu-O phase diagram. The low-stability-limit line of NaCu2O2 in lg(pO2)-1/T axes has been established. The Cu2O-NaCuO eutectic is considered as a possible flux for NaCu2O2 single crystal growth.

  15. Preparation of zeolite NaA for CO2 capture from nickel laterite residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tao; Liu, Li-ying; Xiao, Penny; Che, Shuai; Wang, He-ming

    2014-08-01

    Zeolite NaA was successfully prepared from nickel laterite residue for the first time via a fusion-hydrothermal procedure. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite NaA were characterized with a range of experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the structures of the produced zeolites were dependent on the molar ratios of the reactants and hydrothermal reaction conditions, so the synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain pure zeolite NaA. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the prepared zeolite NaA was also measured and analyzed. The results showed that zeolite NaA could be prepared with reasonable purity, it had physicochemical properties comparable with zeolite NaA made from other methods, and it had excellent gas adsorption properties, thus demonstrating that zeolite NaA could be prepared from nickel laterite residue.

  16. Characterization of NaCl tolerance in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough through experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aifen; Baidoo, Edward; He, Zhili; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Baumohl, Jason K; Benke, Peter; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Xie, Ming; Song, Rong; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Keasling, Jay D; Wall, Judy D; Stahl, David A; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough strains with significantly increased tolerance to NaCl were obtained via experimental evolution. A NaCl-evolved strain, ES9-11, isolated from a population cultured for 1200 generations in medium amended with 100 mM NaCl, showed better tolerance to NaCl than a control strain, EC3-10, cultured for 1200 generations in parallel but without NaCl amendment in medium. To understand the NaCl adaptation mechanism in ES9-11, we analyzed the transcriptional, metabolite and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of strain ES9-11 with 0, 100- or 250 mM-added NaCl in medium compared with the ancestral strain and EC3-10 as controls. In all the culture conditions, increased expressions of genes involved in amino-acid synthesis and transport, energy production, cation efflux and decreased expression of flagellar assembly genes were detected in ES9-11. Consistently, increased abundances of organic solutes and decreased cell motility were observed in ES9-11. Glutamate appears to be the most important osmoprotectant in D. vulgaris under NaCl stress, whereas, other organic solutes such as glutamine, glycine and glycine betaine might contribute to NaCl tolerance under low NaCl concentration only. Unsaturation indices of PLFA significantly increased in ES9-11. Branched unsaturated PLFAs i17:1 ω9c, a17:1 ω9c and branched saturated i15:0 might have important roles in maintaining proper membrane fluidity under NaCl stress. Taken together, these data suggest that the accumulation of osmolytes, increased membrane fluidity, decreased cell motility and possibly an increased exclusion of Na+ contribute to increased NaCl tolerance in NaCl-evolved D. vulgaris. PMID:23575373

  17. Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump in chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Deepak, K.; Kahn, T.

    1987-05-01

    This review summarizes the evidence for the defect in Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump in chronic renal failure, considers the role of various factors in causing this defect, and discusses the clinical implications thereof. Intracellular Na is elevated in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and muscle cells from some patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Recent evidence suggest that this elevation of cell Na may be, in large part, a consequence of decreased number of Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump units per cell. Maintenance dialysis over a period of weeks ameliorates the defect in intracellular Na/sup +/, and this improvement is contemporaneous with an increase in the number of Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump sites per cell. In erythrocytes with normal cell Na/sup +/, acute hemodialysis increases the rate of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ and /sup 42/K/sup +/ transport. Many factors such as the presence of retained toxic metabolite or circulating inhibitor in the uremic plasma, or biochemical changes produced by acute hemodialysis, may explain this finding. In cells with high cell Na/sup +/, the pump-mediated /sup 42/K/sup +/ transport is normalized at the expense of a raised cell Na/sup +/. The decreased muscle membrane potential in uremic subjects has been attributed to a decreased activity of Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump. The authors discuss the role of hormonal abnormalities and circulating inhibitors, which may cause an acute inhibition of the pump and of other factors such as K/sup +/ depletion, which may cause more chronic alterations. The implications of alteration of Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ pump transport and raised cell Na/sup +/ on other non-pump-mediated transport pathways are discussed. Raised cell Na/sup +/ may be a marker for the adequacy of maintenance dialysis in patients with end-stage renal failure.

  18. Na+/H+ Exchange Activity in the Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S.

    2003-01-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt. PMID:12805632

  19. The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide decreases Na+ transport across pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Althaus, M; Urness, KD; Clauss, WG; Baines, DL; Fronius, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The transepithelial absorption of Na+ in the lungs is crucial for the maintenance of the volume and composition of epithelial lining fluid. The regulation of Na+ transport is essential, because hypo- or hyperabsorption of Na+ is associated with lung diseases such as pulmonary oedema or cystic fibrosis. This study investigated the effects of the gaseous signalling molecule hydrogen sulphide (H2S) on Na+ absorption across pulmonary epithelial cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ion transport processes were electrophysiologically assessed in Ussing chambers on H441 cells grown on permeable supports at air/liquid interface and on native tracheal preparations of pigs and mice. The effects of H2S were further investigated on Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in vitro. Membrane abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase was determined by surface biotinylation and Western blot. Cellular ATP concentrations were measured colorimetrically, and cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations were measured with Fura-2. KEY RESULTS H2S rapidly and reversibly inhibited Na+ transport in all the models employed. H2S had no effect on Na+ channels, whereas it decreased Na+/K+-ATPase currents. H2S did not affect the membrane abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase, its metabolic or calcium-dependent regulation, or its direct activity. However, H2S inhibited basolateral calcium-dependent K+ channels, which consequently decreased Na+ absorption by H441 monolayers. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H2S impairs pulmonary transepithelial Na+ absorption, mainly by inhibiting basolateral Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. These data suggest that the H2S signalling system might represent a novel pharmacological target for modifying pulmonary transepithelial Na+ transport. PMID:22352810

  20. Na+ transport by human placental brush border membranes: are there several mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Brunette, M G; Leclerc; Claveau, D

    1996-04-01

    Na+ transport was evaluated in brush border membrane vesicles isolated from the human placental villous tissue. Na+ uptake was assayed by the rapid filtration technique in the presence and the absence of an uphill pH gradient. Amiloride strongly decreased Na+ uptake whether a pH gradient was present or not. In pH gradient conditions (pH 7.5 in and 9.0 out), 1 mM amiloride decreased the 10 mM Na+ uptake by 84%. In the absence of pH gradient (pH 7.5 in and out), Na+ uptake was lower but still sensitive to amiloride. The Lineweaver-Burk plot of Na+ uptake consistently showed a single kinetics. Increasing the pH gradient decreased Km values of the amiloride-sensitive Na+ uptake, leaving the Vmax unchanged. In the absence of a pH gradient, the amiloride sensitive Na+ transport was maximal at pH 7.5. Here again, a single kinetics was observed, and pH influenced exclusively the Km of Na+. Since ethylisopropylamiloride, the specific Na/H exchanger inhibitor mimicked the effects of amiloride, decreasing by 98% the 10 mM Na+ uptake, whereas benzamil, the Na+ channel blocker, had no effect, it was concluded that the amiloride sensitive Na+ uptake was predominantly or exclusively due to a Na+-H+ exchanger activity. K+ in trans-position significantly decreased the amiloride sensitive uptake. In contrast, the presence of the cation in cis-position had no effect. The amiloride resistant Na+ transport was neither influenced by pH, nor saturable. Incubation of the placental tissue with 100 microM or 1 mM dibutyryl cAMP, 0.1 or 1 microM phorbol myristate acetate, 10(-7) M insulin, 10(-10) M angiotensin II, or 10(-8) M human parathyroid hormone (PTH) did not influence Na+ transport by subsequently prepared brush border membranes. Finally, we failed to demonstrate any Na+-H+ exchange activity in the basal plasma membrane. These results indicate that (1) in the absence of cosubstrates such as phosphate and aminoacids, the Na+-H+ exchange is probably the unique mechanism of Na+ transport by the placental brush border membrane, (2) the placental isoform of the exchanger is not regulated by PTH, angiotensin, nor insulin and, therefore, is different from the isoform present in the renal brush border membrane, and (3) there is no exchanger activity in the basal plasma membrane. PMID:8698842

  1. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: Functional significance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na+ and lose K+, leading to a rise in extracellular K+ ([K+]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na+,K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+,K+ pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K+. As a result of their electrogenic action, Na+,K+ pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na+,K+-pump function and the capacity of the Na+,K+ pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na+,K+-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na+,K+-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na+,K+ pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [3H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na+,K+-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na+ and K+ fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na+ loading or intense excitation, all the Na+,K+ pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na+,K+-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na+,K+ pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K+ deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na+,K+-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their number in response to exercise and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone but have not involved their quantification in molar units. Determination of ATPase activity in homogenates and plasma membranes obtained from muscle has shown ouabain-suppressible stimulatory effects of Na+ and K+. PMID:24081980

  2. Composition and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase in Na2Ti3O7 electrodes for Na-ion batteries: XPS and Auger parameter analysis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Márquez, Miguel A; Zarrabeitia, Maider; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Eguía-Barrio, Aitor; Rojo, Teófilo; Casas-Cabanas, Montse

    2015-04-15

    Na2Ti3O7 is considered a promising negative electrode for Na-ion batteries; however, poor capacity retention has been reported and the stability of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) could be one of the main actors of this underperformance. The composition and evolution of the SEI in Na2Ti3O7 electrodes is hereby studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To overcome typical XPS limitations in the photoelectron energy assignments, the analysis of the Auger parameter is here proposed for the first time in battery materials characterization. We have found that the electrode/electrolyte interface formed upon discharge, mostly composed by carbonates and semicarbonates (Na2CO3, NaCO3R), fluorides (NaF), chlorides (NaCl) and poly(ethylene oxide)s, is unstable upon electrochemical cycling. Additionally, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies prove the reaction of the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF) binder with sodium. The powerful approach used in this work, namely Auger parameter study, enables us to correctly determine the composition of the electrode surface layer without any interference from surface charging or absolute binding energy calibration effects. As a result, the suitability for Na-ion batteries of binders and electrolytes widely used for Li-ion batteries is questioned here. PMID:25811538

  3. Measurements of the liquidus surface and solidus transitions of the NaCl-UCl3 and NaCl-UCl3-CeCl3 phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooby, E. S.; Nelson, A. T.; White, J. T.; McIntyre, P. M.

    2015-11-01

    NaCl-UCl3-PuCl3 is proposed as the fuel salt for a number of molten salt reactor concepts. No experimental data exists for the ternary system, and limited data is available for the binary compositions of this salt system. Differential scanning calorimetry is used in this study to examine the liquidus surface and solidus transition of a surrogate fuel-salt (NaCl-UCl3-CeCl3) and to reinvestigate the NaCl-UCl3 eutectic phase diagram. The results of this study show good agreement with previously reported data for the pure salt compounds used (NaCl, UCl3, and CeCl3) as well as for the eutectic points for the NaCl-UCl3 and NaCl-CeCl3 binary systems. The NaCl-UCl3 liquidus surface produced in this study predicts a 30-40 °C increase on the NaCl-rich side of the binary phase diagram. The increase in liquidus temperature could prove significant to molten salt reactor modeling.

  4. Impact of surface roughness on the electrical parameters of industrial high efficiency NaOH-NaOCl textured multicrystalline silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, P.K.; Pujahari, R.M.; Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Devi; Varandani, D.; Mehta, B.R.

    2010-09-15

    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution (1:1 ratio by volume) based texturization process at 80-82 C is an easy, low cost and comparatively new and convenient option for fabrication of any multicrystalline silicon (mC-Si) solar cell. In the present study atomic force microscope is used to observe the intragrain surface in a miniscule area (3 {mu}m x 3 {mu}m) of NaOH-NaOCl textured surface by two and three dimensional analysis, roughness analysis and section analysis. The r.m.s value of the surface parameter of 7.0 nm ascertains the smoothness of the textured surface and further the surface reflectivity is minimized to 4-6% in the 500-1000 nm wavelength range by a proper silicon nitride anti-reflection coating. Comparing with the standard HF-HNO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}COOH acid textured cell, the NaOH-NaOCl textured cell shows a comparatively lower value of series resistance of 7.17 m{omega}, higher value of shunt resistance of 18.4 {omega} to yield a fill factor of 0.766 leading to more than 15% cell efficiency in the industrial cell processing line. This AFM study yields different surface roughness parameters for the NaOH-NaOCl textured wafers which can be used as a reference standard for optimized texturing. (author)

  5. A double-tuned 1H/23Na dual resonator system for tissue sodium concentration measurements in the rat brain via Na-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Tabbert, Martin; Junge, Sven; Gallagher, Lindsay; Mhairi Macrae, I.; Fagan, Andrew J.

    2010-12-01

    A method for quantifying the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the rat brain from 23Na-MR images was developed. TSC is known to change in a variety of common human diseases and holds considerable potential to contribute to their study; however, its accurate measurement in small laboratory animals has been hindered by the extremely low signal to noise ratio (SNR) in 23Na images. To address this, the design, construction and characterization of a double-tuned 1H/23Na dual resonator system for 1H-guided quantitative 23Na-MRI are described. This system comprises an SNR-optimized surface detector coil for 23Na image acquisition, and a volume resonator producing a highly homogeneous B1 field (<5% inhomogeneity) for the Na channel across the rat head. The resonators incorporated channel-independent balanced matching and tuning capabilities with active decoupling circuitry at the 23Na resonance frequency. A quantification accuracy of TSC of <10 mM was achieved in Na-images with 1.2 µl voxel resolution acquired in 10 min. The potential of the quantification technique was demonstrated in an in vivo experiment of a rat model of cerebral stroke, where the evolution of the TSC was successfully monitored for 8 h after the stroke was induced.

  6. Paramagnetism and improved upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb,Er/NaGdF4 nanocomposites synthesized by a boiling water seed-mediated route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao-Qing; Li, Ao-Ju; Guo, Wei; Tian, Peng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Zhong-Xin; Cao, Yang; Sun, Zhong-Liang

    2016-03-01

    In a route boiling water served as reaction medium, a stoichiometric amount of rare-earth compound and fluoride are put into this system to form α-NaYF4:Yb, Er nuclei. Then prepared sample is heated at elevated temperature to improve the fluorescence intensity, and next a NaGdF4 shell grows on the surface of NaYF4 nuclei. NaYF4:Yb,Er/NaGdF4 core-shell structured upconversion nanoparticles (CSUCNPs) have been successfully synthesized by above route. The use of boiling water decreases the cubic-to-hexagonal phase transition temperature of NaYF4:Yb,Er to 350°C and increases its upconversion (UC) luminescence intensity. A heterogeneous NaGdF4 epitaxially growing on the surface of Ln3+-doped NaYF4 not only improves UC luminescence, but also creates a paramagnetic shell, which can be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The solution of CSUCNPs shows bright green UC fluorescence under the excitation at 980 nm in a power density only about 50 mW·cm-2. A broad spectrum with a dominant resonance at g of about 2 is observed by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of CSUCNPs. Above properties suggest that the obtained CSUCNPs could be potential candidates for dual-mode optical/magnetic bioapplications.

  7. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Behavior of B and Na Through the Contact of B-Doped Silicon with Na2O-SiO2 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarian, Jafar; Tranell, Gabriella; Tangstad, Merete

    2013-06-01

    Boron (B) is the most problematic impurity to be removed in the processes applied for the production of solar grade silicon. Boron removal from liquid silicon by sodium-silicate slags is experimentally studied and it is indicated that B can be rapidly removed within short reaction times. The B removal rate is higher at higher temperatures and higher Na2O concentrations in the slag. Based on the experimental results and thermodynamic calculations, it is proposed that B removal from silicon phase takes place through its oxidation at the slag/Si interfacial area by Na2O and that the oxidized B is further gasified from the slag through the formation of sodium metaborate (Na2B2O4) at the slag/gas interfacial area. The overall rate of B removal is mainly controlled by these two chemical reactions. However, it is further proposed that the B removal rate from silicon depends on the mass transport of Na in the system. Sodium is transferred from slag to the molten silicon through the silicothermic reduction of Na2O at the slag/Si interface and it simultaneously evaporates at the Si/gas interfacial area. This causes a Na concentration rise in silicon and its further decline after reaching a maximum. A major part of the Na loss from the slag is due to its carbothermic reduction and formation of Na gas.

  8. Rechargeable Na/Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] and Na[sub 15]Pb[sub 4]/Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yanping; Doeff, M.M.; Visco, S.J.; Jonghe, L.C. De . Materials Sciences Div.)

    1993-10-01

    Cells using polyethylene oxide as a sodium ion conducting electrolyte, P2 phase Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] as the positive electrode and either sodium or sodium/lead alloy as the negative electrode were assembled, discharged, and cycled. Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] intercalates sodium over a range of x = 0.3--0.9, giving theoretical energy densities of 1,600 Wh/liter (for sodium) or 1,470 Wh/liter (for sodium/lead alloy). Cells could be discharged at rates up to 2.5 mA/cm[sup 2] corresponding to 25% depth of discharge and typically were discharged and charged at 0.5 mA/cm[sup 2] (100% depth of discharge) or approximately 1--2 C rate. Over one hundred cycles to 60% utilization or more, and two hundred shallower cycles at this rate have been obtained in this laboratory. Experimental evidence suggests that the cathode is the limiting factor in determining cycle life and not the Na/PEO interface as previously thought. Estimates of practical energy and power densities based on the cell performance and the following configuration are presented: 30--45 w/o electroactive material in the positive electrode, a twofold excess of sodium, 10 [mu]m separators, and 5 [mu]m current collectors composed of metal coated plastic. On the basis of these calculations, practical power densities of 335 W/liter for continuous discharge at 0.5 mA/cm[sup 2] and up to 2.7 kW/liter for short periods of time should be attainable. This level of performance approaches or exceeds that seen for some lithium/polymer systems under consideration for electric vehicle applications, but with a lower anticipated cost.

  9. Kinetics of veratridine action on Na channels of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sutro, JB

    1986-01-01

    Veratridine bath-applied to frog muscle makes inactivation of INa incomplete during a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse and leads to a persistent veratridine-induced Na tail current. During repetitive depolarizations, the size of successive tail currents grows to a plateau and then gradually decreases. When pulsing is stopped, the tail current declines to zero with a time constant of approximately 3 s. Higher rates of stimulation result in a faster build-up of the tail current and a larger maximum value. I propose that veratridine binds only to open channels and, when bound, prevents normal fast inactivation and rapid shutting of the channel on return to rest. Veratridine-modified channels are also subject to a "slow" inactivation during long depolarizations or extended pulse trains. At rest, veratridine unbinds with a time constant of approximately 3 s. Three tests confirm these hypotheses: (a) the time course of the development of veratridine-induced tail currents parallels a running time integral of gNa during the pulse; (b) inactivating prepulses reduce the ability to evoke tails, and the voltage dependence of this reduction parallels the voltage dependence of h infinity; (c) chloramine-T, N-bromoacetamide, and scorpion toxin, agents that decrease inactivation in Na channels, each greatly enhance the tail currents and alter the time course of the appearance of the tails as predicted by the hypothesis. Veratridine-modified channels shut during hyperpolarizations from -90 mV and reopen on repolarization to -90 mV, a process that resembles normal activation gating. Veratridine appears to bind more rapidly during larger depolarizations. PMID:2419478

  10. Ab initio cluster study of crystalline NaF

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    A highly-accurate ab initio cluster model of crystalline NaF has been constructed to explore the limits of cluster methods in the treatment of ionic solids. The focus of this model was the characterization of the lattice environment and its influence on the easily-polarizable fluorine anion. The model consisted of a central all-electron fluorine anion coordinated by pseudopotentials, to represent the nearest-neighbor sodium cations, and a finite array of point charges chosen to generate the correct crystal field from the surrounding infinite ionic lattice. The wavefunction and properties of the anion were calculated using the restricted Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction techniques from quantum chemistry. An extensive analysis of basis set incompleteness errors in the anion wavefunction was performed. Important features were identified in the embedded anion, such as its distortion under the influence of the lattice compressions, its stabilization from the Madelung potential, and its changes in size due to electron correlations. Bulk properties of the rocksalt-structure (B1) NaF crystal were derived from the total mode energies, calculated as a function of the crystal volume. The properties included the zero-pressure lattice constant, cohesive energy, and bulk modulus, and the pressure-volume equation-of-state. A series of test calculations explored the relationships, and their underlying physical mechanisms, between the features of the embedded anion and the bulk properties of the crystal. These features often produced opposing changes in the properties, demonstrating the importance of a thorough and systematic treatment of the embedded anion. The most thorough test calculation gave bulk properties that were within 1% of experiment. Using an embedded anion model for the high-pressure cesium-chloride (B2) phase of NaF, the B1-to-B2 structural transition was correctly predicted at 25 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimental values of 23 to 27 GPa.

  11. Topological analysis of the Na+/H+ exchanger.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongsheng; Basu, Arghya; Li, Xiuju; Fliegel, Larry

    2015-10-01

    The mammalian Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a ubiquitously expressed integral membrane protein present in mammalian cells. It is made up of a hydrophobic 500 amino acid membrane domain that transports and removes protons from within cells, and a regulatory intracellular cytosolic domain made of approximately 315 amino acids. Determining the structure of NHE1 is critical for both an understanding of the Na+/H+ exchange mechanism of transport, and in the design of new improved inhibitors for use in treatment of several diseases in which it is involved. Differing models of the NHE1 protein have been proposed. The first model suggested by two groups proposes that amino acids 1-500 form a 12 transmembrane segment spanning region in which amino acids 1-127 form two transmembrane segments, and amino acids 315-411 form a single transmembrane segment with membrane associated segments. A second model based on the structure of the Escherichia coli Na+/H+ exchanger protein proposes an overall similar topology, but suggests amino acids 1-127 are removed as a signal sequence and are not present in the mature protein. It also suggests a different topology of amino acids 315-411 to form three transmembrane segments. We used cysteine scanning accessibility and examination of glycosylation of the mature protein to characterize the NHE1 protein. Our results demonstrate that the model of NHE1 is correct which suggests that amino acids 1-127 form two transmembrane segments that remain connected to the mature protein, and the segment between amino acids 315-411 is one transmembrane segment. PMID:26215741

  12. Excimer lasers for superhigh NA 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzel, Rainer; Albrecht, Hans S.; Lokai, Peter; Zschocke, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Thomas; Bragin, Igor; Schroeder, Thomas; Reusch, Christian; Spratte, Stefan

    2003-06-01

    Excimer lasers are widely used as the light source for microlithography scanners. The volume shipment of scanner systems using 193nm is projected to begin in year 2003. Such tools will directly start with super high numerical aperture (NA) in order to take full advantage of the 193nm wavelength over the advanced 248nm systems. Reliable high repetition rate laser light sources enabling high illumination power and wafer throughput are one of the fundamental prerequisites. In addition these light sources must support a very high NA imaging lens of more than 0.8 which determines the output spectrum of the laser to be less than 0.30 pm FWHM. In this paper we report on our recent progress in the development of high repetition rate ultra-narrow band lasers for high NA 193nm microlithography scanners. The laser, NovaLine A4003, is based on a Single Oscillator Ultral Line-narrowed (SOUL) design which yields a bandwidth of less than 0.30pm FWHM. The SOUL laser enables superior optical performance without adding complexity or cost up to the 4 kHz maximum repetition rate. The A4003's high precision line-narrowing optics used in combination with the high repetition rate of 4 kHz yields an output power of 20 W at an extremely narrow spectral bandwidth of less than 0.30 pm FWHM and highest spectral purity of less than 0.75 pm for the 95% energy content. We present performance and reliability data and discuss the key laser parameters. Improvements in the laser-internal metrology and faster regulation control result in better energy stability and improved overall operation behavior. The design considerations for line narrowing and stable laser operation at high repetition rates are discussed.

  13. NaV3O8 nanosheet@polypyrrole core-shell composites with good electrochemical performance as cathodes for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hongyan; Liu, Yongchang; Shang, Minghui; Lu, Tianyu; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang

    2015-05-01

    Novel NaV3O8 nanosheet@polypyrrole core-shell composites have been successfully prepared for the first time via a chemical oxidative polymerization method. Based on the morphological and microstructural characterization, it was found that polypyrrole (PPy) was uniformly wrapped on the surfaces of the NaV3O8 nanosheets. When used as a cathode for Na-ion batteries, the as-synthesized NaV3O8@10% PPy composite showed significantly improved cycling performance (with a discharge capacity of 99 mA h g-1 after 60 cycles at 80 mA g-1) and better rate capacity (with a discharge capacity of 63 mA h g-1 at a high current density of 640 mA g-1) than pristine NaV3O8 nanosheets. The greatly enhanced performance benefits from the unique core-shell structure, where the PPy coating not only prevents the pulverization and aggregation of the lamellar NaV3O8 nanosheets during cycling, which can improve the cycling stability, but also enhances the electrical conductivity of the composite, which can facilitate Na+ ion diffusion.Novel NaV3O8 nanosheet@polypyrrole core-shell composites have been successfully prepared for the first time via a chemical oxidative polymerization method. Based on the morphological and microstructural characterization, it was found that polypyrrole (PPy) was uniformly wrapped on the surfaces of the NaV3O8 nanosheets. When used as a cathode for Na-ion batteries, the as-synthesized NaV3O8@10% PPy composite showed significantly improved cycling performance (with a discharge capacity of 99 mA h g-1 after 60 cycles at 80 mA g-1) and better rate capacity (with a discharge capacity of 63 mA h g-1 at a high current density of 640 mA g-1) than pristine NaV3O8 nanosheets. The greatly enhanced performance benefits from the unique core-shell structure, where the PPy coating not only prevents the pulverization and aggregation of the lamellar NaV3O8 nanosheets during cycling, which can improve the cycling stability, but also enhances the electrical conductivity of the composite, which can facilitate Na+ ion diffusion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02064f

  14. Purification of Na,K-ATPase from Pig Kidney.

    PubMed

    Fedosova, Natalya U

    2016-01-01

    The method of purification of Na,K-ATPase from pig kidney is based on a differential centrifugation and SDS-treatment of a microsomal preparation. The yield is 0.4 mg protein per 1 g tissue with the specific (ouabain-sensitive) activity of 25-28 μmol Pi/min per mg protein and nucleotide binding capacity of 3 nmol/mg. The protein/lipid ratio is 1/1 (mg/mg) with a protein purity of ~80 %. PMID:26695017

  15. Reconstitution of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in Nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Jonas Lindholt; Fedosova, Natalya U; Nissen, Poul; Boesen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiscs are disc-shaped self-assembled lipid bilayers encircled by membrane scaffolding proteins derived from Apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A-1). They constitute a versatile tool for studying membrane proteins since reconstitution into nanodiscs allows studies of the membrane proteins in detergent-free aqueous solutions in a lipid bilayer. Here, we apply the technique to the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) from pig kidney using Membrane Scaffolding Protein 1 D1 (MSP1D1). Contrary to other reports, the nanodiscs obtained by our protocol are built up of the native lipids originally present in the detergent solubilized sample together with the NKA. PMID:26695051

  16. The Level-0 calorimetric trigger of the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Barbanera, M.; Bizzarri, M.; Bonaiuto, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Checcucci, B.; De Simone, N.; Fantechi, R.; Federici, L.; Fucci, A.; Lupi, M.; Paoluzzi, G.; Papi, A.; Piccini, M.; Ryjov, V.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Sargeni, F.; Venditti, S.

    2016-02-01

    The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS aims at measuring the branching ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+ → π+ ν bar nu (expected 10-10) with a 10% background. Since an high-intensity kaon beam is required to collect enough statistics, the Level-0 trigger plays a fundamental role in both the background rejection and in the particle identification. The calorimetric trigger collects data from various calorimeters and it is able to identify clusters of energy deposit and determine their position, fine-time and energy. This paper describes the complete hardware commisioning and the setup of the trigger for the 2015 physics data taking.

  17. Project ELaNa and NASA's CubeSat Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrobot, Garrett Lee

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA program to use expendable lift vehicles (ELVs) to launch nanosatellites for the purpose of enhancing educational research. The Education Launch of Nanosatellite (ELaNa) project, run out of the Launch Services Program is requesting proposals for CubeSat type payload to provide information that will aid or verify NASA Projects designs while providing opportunities for higher educational research. Some of the challenges involved with the program are discussed, and there is brief discussion about requirements for participation in the program, and the number of flight opportunities available for the launch of the Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (PPOD).

  18. Novel colossal magnetoresistance in NaCr2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hiroya

    2013-08-01

    NaCr2O4 was recently discovered using a high-pressure synthesis to occur in a calcium-ferrite-type structure, where one-dimensional electronic correlations and geometrical frustrations can coexist. It shows unconventional colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) at temperatures below antiferromagnetic ordering temperature of T N = 125 K. The CMR effect is progressively enhanced with decreasing temperature with no thermal or field hysteresis. Spin frustration and holes in oxygen ions may be the origins of the observation of the CMR effect in the compound.

  19. Observation of {sup 19}Na states by inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegriti, M. G.; Angulo, C.; Casarejos, E.; Couder, M.; Achouri, N. L.; Angelique, J. C.; Orr, N. A.; Berthoumieux, E.; Descouvemont, P.; Ray, I.; Stefan, I. G.

    2007-11-30

    The low-energy levels of {sup 19}Na were studied in the center-of-mass energy (E{sub CM}) range from 2.6 to 3.4 MeV, by using the elastic and inelastic scattering methods in inverse kinematics. The {sup 18}Ne+p scattering reactions, leading to the ground state and the first excited state of {sup 18}Ne, were investigated by using a 66 MeV radioactive {sup 18}Ne beam and a polyethylene (CH{sub 2}){sub n} target. The experimental methods and the set-up are described and preliminary results are presented.

  20. QINS studies of water diffusion in Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Duchosal, Michael; Hugh Powell, D.; Lechner, R. E.; Rufflé, Benoit

    2000-03-01

    We have used quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering (QINS) to study the diffusion of interlayer water in partially orientated Na-montmorillonite samples. In order to observe the anisotropy of the motion we performed measurements for two orthogonal sample orientations and for two different energy resolutions. Fits to the spectra yield phenomenological translational line widths which, for the 135° orientation, can be fitted by a two-dimensional Chudley-Elliott model with a diffusion coefficient D=1.3×10 -9 m 2 s -1and a mean square jump distance l=1.7 Å.

  1. Digital pulse processing for NaI(Tl) detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fulvio, A.; Shin, T. H.; Hamel, M. C.; Pozzi, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    We apply two different post-processing techniques to digital pulses induced by photons in a NaI(Tl) detector and compare the obtained energy resolution to the standard analog approach. Our digital acquisition approach is performed using a single-stage acquisition with a fast digitizer. Both the post-processing techniques we propose rely on signal integration. In the first, the pulse integral is calculated by directly numerically integrating the pulse digital samples, while in the second the pulse integral is estimated by a model-based fitting of the pulse. Our study used a 7.62 cm×7.62 cm cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector that gave a 7.60% energy resolution (at 662 keV), using the standard analog acquisition approach, based on a pulse shaping amplifier. The new direct numerical integration yielded a 6.52% energy resolution. The fitting approach yielded a 6.55% energy resolution, and, although computationally heavier than numerical integration, is preferable when only the early samples of the pulse are available. We also evaluated the timing performance of a fast-slow detection system, encompassing an EJ-309 and a NaI(Tl) scintillator. We use two techniques to determine the pulse start time: constant fraction discrimination (CFD) and adaptive noise threshold timing (ANT), for both the analog and digital acquisition approach. With the analog acquisition approach, we found a system time resolution of 5.8 ns and 7.3 ns, using the constant fraction discrimination and adaptive noise threshold timing, respectively. With the digital acquisition approach, a time resolution of 1.2 ns was achieved using the ANT method and 3.3 ns using CFD at 50% of the maximum, to select the pulse start time. The proposed direct digital readout and post-processing techniques can improve the application of NaI(Tl) detectors, traditionally considered 'slow', for fast counting and correlation measurements, while maintaining a good measurement of the energy resolution.

  2. Analysis of Cl and Na in Hyperimmune Sera by NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.

    2011-08-01

    The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.

  3. Polarizabilities of Li and Na in Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H. W.; Kar, Sabyasachi

    2012-07-15

    We have carried out calculations to investigate the effect of Debye plasmas on the dipole, quadrupole, octupole polarizabilities of lithium and sodium atoms using the symplectic algorithm in the framework of the pseudo-state summation technique. The polarizabilities of alkali-metal atoms for various Debye lengths are reported for the first time in the literature. The behavior of the transition energies and oscillator strengths for Li and Na in plasma environments is also presented. In free atomic cases, our calculated results are in good agreement with the reported theoretical and experimental results.

  4. Geodetic satellite observations in North American (solution NA-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.; Reilly, J. P.; Soler, T.

    1972-01-01

    A new detailed geoidal map with claimed accuracies of plus or minus 2 meters (on land), based on gravimetric and satellite data, was presented. With the new geoid and the orthometric heights given, more reliable height constraints were calculated and applied. The basic purpose of this experiment was to compute the new solution NA9 by defining the origin of the system, from the point of view of error propagation, in the most favorable position applying inner constraints and imposing new weighted height constraints to all of the stations. The major differences with respect to formerly published adjustments are presented.

  5. Na2EuAs2S5, NaEuAsS4, and Na4Eu(AsS4)2: controlling the valency of arsenic in polysulfide fluxes.

    PubMed

    Bera, Tarun K; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-04-01

    The reactivity of europium with As species in Lewis basic alkali-metal polysulfide fluxes was investigated along with compound formation and the As(3+)/As(5+) interplay vis--vis changes in the flux basicity. The compound Na(2)EuAs(2)S(5) containing trivalent As(3+) is stabilized from an arsenic-rich polysulfide flux. It crystallizes in the monoclinic centrosymmetric space group P2(1)/c. Na(2)EuAs(2)S(5) has [As(2)S(5)](4-) units, built of corner sharing AsS(3) pyramids, which are coordinated to Eu(2+) ions to give a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure. A sodium polysulfide flux with comparatively less arsenic led to the As(5+) containing compounds NaEuAsS(4) (orthorhombic, Ama2) and Na(4)Eu(AsS(4))(2) (triclinic, P1) depending on Na(2)S/S ratio. The NaEuAsS(4) and Na(4)Eu(AsS(4))(2) have a three-dimensional (3D) structure built of [AsS(4)](3-) tetrahedra coordinated to Eu(2+) ions. All compounds are semiconductors with optical energy gaps of ?2 eV. PMID:22414216

  6. X-ray and {sup 23}Na NMR investigations on Na{sup +}- and Na{sup +}/La{sup 3+}-{Beta}{double_prime}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.; Balzer-Joellenbeck, G.; Urland, W.

    1996-03-01

    The structure of a Na{sup +}/La{sup 3+}-{Beta}{double_prime}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal (degree of exchange {xi} = 80%) has been investigated by conventional single crystal X-ray diffraction methods at room temperature. The lanthanide ions occupy eightfold coordinated mO (9d) as well as sevenfold coordinated BR sites (6c). Remaining Na{sup +} ions were found exclusively in BR positions. {sup 23}Na NRM reasurements were performed at room temperature before and after the exchange procedure. Two distinct {sup 23}Na signals differing in angular dependence of the second order quadrupole resonance shifts were recorded for the pure Na{sup +}-{Beta}{sup {double_prime}}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal whereas in the case of the doped isomorph only one signal was detected. The {sup 23}Na NMR signals were assigned to the two possible positions for the Na{sup +} ions in the conduction planes.

  7. Hybrid functional study of the NASICON-type Na3V2(PO4)3: crystal and electronic structures, and polaron-Na vacancy complex diffusion.

    PubMed

    Bui, Kieu My; Dinh, Van An; Okada, Susumu; Ohno, Takahisa

    2015-11-11

    The crystal and electronic structures, electrochemical properties and diffusion mechanism of NASICON-type Na3V2(PO4)3 have been investigated based on the hybrid density functional Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06). A polaron-Na vacancy complex model for revealing the diffusion mechanism is proposed for the first time in the field of Na-ion batteries. The bound polaron is found to favorably form at the first nearest V site to the Na vacancy. Consequently, the movement of the Na vacancy will be accompanied by the polaron. Three preferable diffusion pathways are revealed; these are two intra-layer diffusion pathways and one inter-layer pathway. The activation barriers for the intra-layer and inter-layer pathways are 353 meV and 513 meV, respectively. For further comparison, the generalized gradient approximation with an onsite Coulomb Hubbard U (GGA+U) is also employed. PMID:26509737

  8. Reevaluation of the 22Na(p,gamma) reaction rate: implications for the detection of 22Na gamma rays from novae.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D G; Lister, C J; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Moore, E F; Rehm, K E; Truett, B; Wuosmaa, A H; Freer, M; Fulton, B R; José, J

    2004-01-23

    Understanding the processes which create and destroy 22Na is important for diagnosing classical nova outbursts. Conventional 22Na(p,gamma) studies are complicated by the need to employ radioactive targets. In contrast, we have formed the particle-unbound states of interest through the heavy-ion fusion reaction, 12C(12C,n)23Mg and used the Gammasphere array to investigate their radiative decay branches. Detailed spectroscopy was possible and the 22Na(p,gamma) reaction rate has been reevaluated. New hydrodynamical calculations incorporating the upper and lower limits on the new rate suggest a reduction in the yield of 22Na with respect to previous estimates, implying a reduction in the maximum detectability distance for 22Na gamma rays from novae. PMID:14753860

  9. Direct measurements of ²²Na(p,γ)²³Mg resonances and consequences for ²²Na production in classical novae.

    PubMed

    Sallaska, A L; Wrede, C; García, A; Storm, D W; Brown, T A D; Ruiz, C; Snover, K A; Ottewell, D F; Buchmann, L; Vockenhuber, C; Hutcheon, D A; Caggiano, J A

    2010-10-01

    The radionuclide 22Na is a potential astronomical observable that is expected to be produced in classical novae in quantities that depend on the thermonuclear rate of the 22Na(p,γ)23Mg reaction. We have measured the strengths of low-energy 22Na(p,γ)23Mg resonances directly and absolutely using a radioactive 22Na target. We find the strengths of resonances at Ep=213, 288, 454, and 610 keV to be higher than previous measurements by factors of 2.4-3.2, and we exclude important contributions to the rate from proposed resonances at Ep=198, 209, and 232 keV. The 22Na abundances expected in the ejecta of classical novae are reduced by a factor of ≈2. PMID:21230896

  10. Growth mechanism and magnetic and electrochemical properties of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods as cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, S.; Oz, E.; Altin, E.; Altin, S.; Bayri, A.; Kaya, P.; Turan, S.; Avci, S.

    2015-07-15

    Nanorods of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} are a promising cathode material for Na-ion batteries due to their large surface area and single crystalline structure. We report the growth mechanism of Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods via solid state synthesis and their physical properties. The structure and the morphology of the Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and tunneling electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The growth mechanism of the rods is investigated and the effects of vapor pressure and partial melting of Na-rich regions are discussed. The magnetic measurements show an antiferromagnetic phase transition at 25 K and the μ{sub eff} is determined as 3.41 and 3.24 μ{sub B} from the χ–T curve and theoretical calculation, respectively. The electronic configuration and spin state of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} are discussed in detail. The electrochemical properties of the cell fabricated using the nanorods are investigated and the peaks in the voltammogram are attributed to the diffusion of Na ions from different sites. Na intercalation process is explained by one and two Margules and van Laar models. - Highlights: • We synthesized Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} nanorods via a simple solid state reaction technique. • Our studies show that excess Na plays a crucial role in the nanorod formation. • Magnetization measurements show that Mn{sup 3+} ions are in LS and HS states. • The electrochemical properties of the cell fabricated using the nanorods are investigated. • Na intercalation process is explained by one and two Margules and van Laar models.

  11. Cross-species conservation of open-channel block by Na channel β4 peptides reveals structural features required for resurgent Na current.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Amanda H; Raman, Indira M

    2011-08-10

    Voltage-gated Na channels in many neurons, including several in the cerebellum and brainstem, are specialized to allow rapid firing of action potentials. Repetitive firing is facilitated by resurgent Na current, which flows upon repolarization as Na channels recover through open states from block by an endogenous protein. The best candidate blocking protein to date is Na(V)β4. The sequence of this protein diverges among species, however, while high-frequency firing is maintained, raising the question of whether the proposed blocking action of the Na(V)β4 cytoplasmic tail has been conserved. Here, we find that, despite differences in the Na(V)β4 sequence, Purkinje cells isolated from embryonic chick have resurgent currents with kinetics and amplitudes indistinguishable from those in mouse Purkinje cells. Furthermore, synthetic peptides derived from the divergent Na(V)β4 cytoplasmic tails from five species have the capacity to induce resurgent current in mouse hippocampal neurons, which lack a functional endogenous blocking protein. These data further support a blocking role for Na(V)β4 and also indicate the relative importance of different residues in inducing open-channel block. To investigate the contribution of the few highly conserved residues to open-channel block, we synthesized several mutant peptides in which the identities and relative orientations of a phenylalanine and two lysines were disrupted. These mutant peptides produced currents with vastly different kinetics than did the species-derived peptides, suggesting that these residues are required for an open-channel block that approximates physiological resurgent Na current. Thus, if other blocking proteins exist, they may share these structural elements with the Na(V)β4 cytoplasmic tail. PMID:21832183

  12. Cross-species conservation of open-channel block by Na channel β4 peptides reveals structural features required for resurgent Na current

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda H.; Raman, Indira M.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na channels in many neurons, including several in the cerebellum and brainstem, are specialized to allow rapid firing of action potentials. Repetitive firing is facilitated by resurgent Na current, which flows upon repolarization as Na channels recover through open states from block by an endogenous protein. The best candidate blocking protein to date is NaVβ4. The sequence of this protein diverges among species, however, while high-frequency firing is maintained, raising the question of whether the proposed blocking action of the NaVβ4 cytoplasmic tail has been conserved. Here, we find that, despite differences in the NaVβ4 sequence, Purkinje cells isolated from embryonic chick have resurgent currents with kinetics and amplitudes indistinguishable from those in mouse Purkinje cells. Furthermore, synthetic peptides derived from the divergent NaVβ4 cytoplasmic tails from five species have the capacity to induce resurgent current in mouse hippocampal neurons, which lack a functional endogenous blocking protein. These data further support a blocking role for NaVβ4, and also indicate the relative importance of different residues in inducing open-channel block. To investigate the contribution of the few highly conserved residues to open-channel block, we synthesized several mutant peptides in which the identities and relative orientations of a phenylalanine and two lysines were disrupted. These mutant peptides produced currents with vastly different kinetics than did the species-derived peptides, suggesting that these residues are required for an open-channel block that approximates physiological resurgent Na current. Thus, if other blocking proteins exist, they may share these structural elements with the NaVβ4 cytoplasmic tail. PMID:21832183

  13. The voltage-gated Na+ channel NaVBP co-localizes with methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein at cell poles of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, Shun; Sato, Takako; Trimmer, James S; Spiller, Benjamin W; Clapham, David E; Krulwich, Terry A; Kawagishi, Ikuro; Ito, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    Na(V)BP, found in alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, is a member of the bacterial voltage-gated Na(+) channel superfamily. The alkaliphile requires Na(V)BP for normal chemotaxis responses and for optimal pH homeostasis during a shift to alkaline conditions at suboptimally low Na(+) concentrations. We hypothesized that interaction of Na(V)BP with one or more other proteins in vivo, specifically methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), is involved in activation of the channel under the pH conditions that exist in the extremophile and could underpin its role in chemotaxis; MCPs transduce chemotactic signals and generally localize to cell poles of rod-shaped cells. Here, immunofluorescence microscopy and fluorescent protein fusion studies showed that an alkaliphile protein (designated McpX) that cross-reacts with antibodies raised against Bacillus subtilis McpB co-localizes with Na(V)BP at the cell poles of B. pseudofirmus OF4. In a mutant in which Na(V)BP-encoding ncbA is deleted, the content of McpX was close to the wild-type level but McpX was significantly delocalized. A mutant of B. pseudofirmus OF4 was constructed in which cheAW expression was disrupted to assess whether this mutation impaired polar localization of McpX, as expected from studies in Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and, if so, whether Na(V)BP would be similarly affected. Polar localization of both McpX and Na(V)BP was decreased in the cheAW mutant. The results suggest interactions between McpX and Na(V)BP that affect their co-localization. The inverse chemotaxis phenotype of ncbA mutants may result in part from MCP delocalization. PMID:18048917

  14. The Voltage-Gated Na+ Channel NaVBP Co-localizes with Methyl-Accepting Chemotaxis Protein at Cell Poles of Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4

    PubMed Central

    Fujinami, Shun; Sato, Takako; Trimmer, James S.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Clapham, David E.; Krulwich, Terry A.; Kawagishi, Ikuro; Ito, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Summary NaVBP is the member of the bacterial voltage-gated Na+ channel superfamily found in alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. The alkaliphile requires NaVBP for normal chemotaxis responses and for optimal pH homeostasis during a shift to alkaline conditions at sub-optimally low [Na+]. We hypothesized that interaction of NaVBP with one or more other proteins in vivo, specifically methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), is involved in activation of the channel under the pH conditions that exist in the extremophile and could underpin its role in chemotaxis; MCPs transduce chemotactic signals and generally localize to cell poles of rod-shaped cells. Here, immunofluorescence microscopy and fluorescent protein fusion studies showed that an alkaliphile protein (designated McpX) that cross-reacts with antibodies raised against Bacillus subtilis McpB co-localizes with NaVBP at the cell poles of B. pseudofirmus OF4. In a mutant in which NaVBP-encoding ncbA is deleted, the content of McpX was close to the wild-type level but McpX was significantly delocalized. A mutant of B. pseudofirmus OF4 was constructed in which cheAW expression was disrupted to assess whether this mutation impaired polar localization of McpX, as expected from studies in Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and, if so, whether NaVBP would be similarly affected. Polar localization of both McpX and NaVBP was decreased in the cheAW mutant. The results suggest interactions between McpX and NaVBP that affect their co-localization. The inverse chemotaxis phenotype of ncbA mutants may result in part from MCP delocalization. PMID:18048917

  15. Co-intercalation of Mg(2+) and Na(+) in Na0.69Fe2(CN)6 as a High-Voltage Cathode for Magnesium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Youngjin; Arumugam, Durairaj; Woo, Sang Won; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Choi, Nam-Soon; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the advantages of low cost and good safety, magnesium metal batteries get the limelight as substituent for lithium ion batteries. However, the energy density of state-of-the-art magnesium batteries is not high enough because of their low operating potential; thus, it is necessary to improve the energy density by developing new high-voltage cathode materials. In this study, nanosized Berlin green Fe2(CN)6 and Prussian blue Na0.69Fe2(CN)6 are compared as high-voltage cathode materials for magnesium batteries. Interestingly, while Mg(2+) ions cannot be intercalated in Fe2(CN)6, Na0.69Fe2(CN)6 shows reversible intercalation and deintercalation of Mg(2+) ions, although they have the same crystal structure except for the presence of Na(+) ions. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that Mg(2+) ions are more stable in Na(+)-containing Na0.69Fe2(CN)6 than in Na(+)-free Fe2(CN)6, indicating Na(+) ions in Na0.69Fe2(CN)6 plays a crucial role in stabilizing Mg(2+) ions. Na0.69Fe2(CN)6 delivers reversible capacity of approximately 70 mA h g(-1) at 3.0 V vs Mg/Mg(2+) and shows stable cycle performance over 35 cycles. Therefore, Prussian blue analogues are promising structures for high-voltage cathode materials in Mg batteries. Furthermore, this co-intercalation effect suggests new avenues for the development of cathode materials in hybrid magnesium batteries that use both Mg(2+) and Na(+) ions as charge carriers. PMID:26967192

  16. A new diabatic representation of the coupled potential energy surfaces for Na(3p P-2) + H2 yields Na(3s S-2) + H2 or NaH + H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halvick, Philippe; Truhlar, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    A diabatic representation is presented of the coupled potential-energy surfaces for Na(3p P-2) + H2 yields Na (3s S-2) + H2 or NaH + H. The representation is designed to yield, upon diagonalization, realistic values for the two lowest energy adiabatic states at both asymptotes of the chemical reaction as well as near the conical intersection in the three-body interaction region. It is economical to evaluate and portable. It is suitable for dynamics calculations on both the quenching process and the electronically nonadiabatic chemical reaction.

  17. Alpha adrenergic modulation of the Na/sup +/ pump of canine vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Navran, S.S.; Adair, S.E.; Allen, J.C.; Seidel, C.L.

    1986-03-01

    Some vasoactive agents, eg. beta adrenergic agonists and forskolin, stimulate the Na/sup 7/ pump by a cAMP- dependent mechanism. The authors have now demonstrated that phenylephrine (PE) stimulates the Na/sup 7/ pump in intact blood vessels as quantitated by an increased ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake. The stimulation is dose-dependent (ED/sub 50/, 3 x 10/sup -6/M) and blocked by phentolamine (I/sub 50/, 10/sup -7/M), prazosin (I/sub 50/, 10/sup -8/M) yohimbine (I/sub 50/, 10/sup -6/M) or elevated intracellular Na/sup +/. These data suggest that the Na/sup +/ pump stimulation is mediated through alpha/sub 1/ receptors which produce an influx of extracellular Na/sup +/. In vascular smooth muscle cell cultures PE stimulates the Na/sup +/ pump, but only when cells have been deprived of fetal calf serum (FCS). Since FCS is known to stimulate Na/sup +/influx, in the continuous presence of FCS, these cells may already be Na/sup +/-loaded and therefore refractory to further stimulation by alpha-adrenergic agents. Unlike those vasorelaxants whose mechanism involves stimulation of the Na/sup +/ pump, alpha adrenergic agents are vasoconstrictors and therefore the role of Na/sup +/ pump stimulation in this case may be as a mechanism of feedback inhibition of contractility.

  18. Strategies for maintaining Na? balance in zebrafish (Danio rerio) during prolonged exposure to acidic water.

    PubMed

    Kumai, Yusuke; Bahubeshi, Amin; Steele, Shelby; Perry, Steve F

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the capacity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to regulate whole body Na? levels during exposure to acidic (pH 3.8-4.0) water. Exposure to acidic water significantly affected the mRNA levels of 14 claudin and two occludin isoforms, tight junction proteins thought to be involved in regulating paracellular efflux. Despite these changes, Na? efflux as well as uptake of polyethylene glycol (PEG), a marker for paracellular pathway, was persistently elevated during the 2-week period of acid exposure, although there was a transient recovery between 12- and 72-h. Pre-exposing fish to acidic water for 2 weeks failed to attenuate the increase in Na? efflux associated with acute exposure to acidic water of low [Ca?]. However, during recovery in water of circumneutral pH following exposure to acidic water, normal rates of Na? efflux were restored within 5h. The rate of Na? uptake was significantly elevated between 4 and 7 days of exposure to acidic water; the increase was associated with significant increases in maximal Na? uptake capacity (J(MAX)Na?) and affinity constant (K(M)). These results demonstrate that in acidic water, zebrafish maintain their whole body Na? balance primarily by regulating Na? uptake, rather than Na? efflux. PMID:21600298

  19. Na+ channel-mediated Ca2+ entry leads to glutamate secretion in mouse neocortical preplate

    PubMed Central

    Platel, J.-C.; Boisseau, S.; Dupuis, A.; Brocard, J.; Poupard, A.; Savasta, M.; Villaz, M.; Albrieux, M.

    2005-01-01

    Before synaptogenesis, early excitability implicating voltage-dependent and transmitter-activated channels is known to be crucial for neuronal development. We previously showed that preplate (PP) neurons of the mouse neocortex express functional Na+ channels as early as embryonic day 12. In this study, we investigated the role of these Na+ channels in signaling during early development. In the neocortex of embryonic-day-13 mice, activation of Na+ channels with veratridine induced a large Ca2+ response throughout the neocortex, even in cell populations that lack the Na+ channel. This Na+-dependent Ca2+ activity requires external Ca2+ and is completely blocked by inhibitors of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers. Moreover, veratridine-induced Ca2+ increase coincides with a burst of exocytosis in the PP. In parallel, we show that Na+ channel stimulation enhances glutamate secretion in the neocortical wall. Released glutamate triggers further Ca2+ response in PP and ventricular zone, as indicated by the decreased response to veratridine in the presence of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and NMDA-receptor inhibitors. Therefore, the combined activation of the Na+ channel and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger triggers Ca2+ signaling in the PP neurons, leading to glutamate secretion, which amplifies the signal and serves as an autocrine/paracrine transmitter before functional synapses are formed in the neocortex. Membrane depolarization induced by glycine receptors activation could be one physiological activator of this Na+ channel-dependent pathway. PMID:16357207

  20. Fabrication and formation studies on single-walled CA/NaCS-WSC microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2016-02-01

    The micron-sized calcium alginate/sodium cellulose sulfate-water soluble chitosan (CA/NaCS-WSC) microcapsules were prepared by membrane emulsification method using sodium alginate (NaAlg), NaCS and WSC as raw materials. The CA/NaCS microspheres prepared dispersed well and held spherical shape with an emulsifier volume ratio of 7:3 (Span 80:Tween 80) and a concentration of cross-linking agent of 1.5% (w/v) calcium chloride and 5% (w/v) sodium chloride. The CA/NaCS-WSC microcapsules had a spherical shape with average diameter of 62.36±13.87μm. A fluorescent ring could be seen obviously on the surface of CA/NaCS-WSC microcapsules under confocal microscope, when WSC was labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate. The discussion on the formation studies implied that Ca(2+) could diffuse into the droplets of NaAlg/NaCS forming CA/NaCS microspheres, while NaCS could react with WSC forming a polyelectrolyte complexes film. The microcapsules prepared with typical wall-capsule/core structure could be used to develop micron-sized drug delivery carriers. PMID:26652447

  1. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhi-Yong; Su, Yi-Ji; Teng, Nian-Jun; Chen, Su-Mei; Sun, Hai-Nan; Li, Chu-Ling; Chen, Fa-Di

    2013-01-01

    Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris Variegate were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris Variegate leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris Variegate had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris Variegate under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris Variegate had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris Variegate chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris Variegate. Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance. PMID:24235883

  2. Non-reciprocal interactions between K+ and Na+ ions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Szczerba, Mark W.; Schulze, Lasse M.; Britto, Dev T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of sodium and potassium ions in the context of the primary entry of Na+ into plant cells, and the subsequent development of sodium toxicity, has been the subject of much recent attention. In the present study, the technique of compartmental analysis with the radiotracers 42K+ and 24Na+ was applied in intact seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of K+ in the growth medium will reduce both rapid, futile Na+ cycling at the plasma membrane, and Na+ build-up in the cytosol of root cells, under saline conditions (100 mM NaCl). We reject this hypothesis, showing that, over a wide (400-fold) range of K+ supply, K+ neither reduces the primary fluxes of Na+ at the root plasma membrane nor suppresses Na+ accumulation in the cytosol. By contrast, 100 mM NaCl suppressed the cytosolic K+ pool by 47–73%, and also substantially decreased low-affinity K+ transport across the plasma membrane. We confirm that the cytosolic [K+]:[Na+] ratio is a poor predictor of growth performance under saline conditions, while a good correlation is seen between growth and the tissue ratios of the two ions. The data provide insight into the mechanisms that mediate the toxic influx of sodium across the root plasma membrane under salinity stress, demonstrating that, in the glycophyte barley, K+ and Na+ are unlikely to share a common low-affinity pathway for entry into the plant cell. PMID:18562445

  3. Formation of titanate nanostructures under different NaOH concentration and their application in wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiquan; Cao Yongge; Deng Zhonghua; Tong Hao

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the concentration of NaOH on the formation and transformation of various titanate nanostructures were studied. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. Nanotubes can only be obtained under moderate NaOH conditions, and should transform into nanowires with prolonged hydrothermal treatment, and their formation rate is accelerated by increasing NaOH concentration. Low concentration of NaOH results in the direct formation of nanowires, while extra high concentration of NaOH leads to the formation of amorphous nanoparticles. Adsorption and photocatalysis studies show that titanate nanowires and nanotubes might be potential adsorbents for the removal of both heavy metal ions and dyes and photocatalysts for the removal of dyes from wastewater. -- Graphical abstract: The morphologies of the titanates depend deeply on the concentration of NaOH. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. The application of these titanate nanostructures in the wastewater treatment was studied. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Effect of NaOH concentration on the structures of various titanates was reported. {yields} Three different formation mechanisms were presented with increasing NaOH concentration. {yields} Various titanates were used as adsorbents/photocatalysts in wastewater treatment.

  4. Sodium diffusion in metals observed by the 23Na(p,γ) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrmacher, M.; Lieb, K. P.

    1992-05-01

    Resonant nuclear reaction analysis (RNRA) provides a convenient and precise method of measuring concentration profiles of light elements in near surface regions. The 23Na(p,γ)24Mg resonance at 309 keV was used to study supersaturated Na-solutions in polycrystalline Al, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni and Ta after Na+ implantation at 250 keV and thermal annealings. Outdiffusion of Na at high temperatures was observed for all hosts, and different stages during this process were identified. Na diffuses into the region of correlated radiation damage where precipitation occurs and finally Na migrates to the surface where it evaporates. In all metals the loss of Na was observed to occur within a small temperature interval around a critical temperature T1. It turned out that T1 essentially depends on the melting temperature Tm and the structure of the host lattice. Half of the implanted Na-content had left the matrix at 0.53(2)Tm for bcc-metals and at 0.70(2)Tm for fcc-metals. A possible influence of the analyzing proton beam and the role of implanted and dissolved hydrogen in the vicinity of the implanted Na profile was also studied. In fact, hydrogen from the bulk migrates to and is trapped at the Na precipitates.

  5. Crystal and electronic structures of nitridophosphate compounds as cathode materials for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debbichi, M.; Lebègue, S.

    2015-08-01

    Using density-functional theory, we have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of two promising compounds that can be used as cathode materials, namely, Na2Fe2P3O9N and Na3TiP3O9N . When Na is extracted, we found the volume change to be quite small, with values of ˜-0.6 % for Na3TiP3O9N and -5 % for Na2Fe2P3O9N . Our calculated voltages with the Hubbard-type correction (GGA+U) approximation are 2.93 V for Na3TiP3O9N /Na2TiP3O9N and 2.68 V for Na2Fe2P3O9N /NaFe2P3O9N , in good agreement with the experimental data. Our results confirm that these compounds are very promising for rechargeable Na-ion batteries.

  6. Cholinergic stimulation of the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase as revealed by microphysiometry.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D L; Olson, J C; Parce, J W; Owicki, J C

    1993-01-01

    The activation of a wide range of cellular receptors has been detected previously using a novel instrument, the microphysiometer. In this study microphysiometry was used to monitor the basal and cholinergic-stimulated activity of the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (the Na+/K+ pump) in the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line TE671. Manipulations of Na+/K+ ATPase activity with ouabain or removal of extracellular K+ revealed that this ion pump was responsible for 8.8 +/- 0.7% of the total cellular energy utilization by those cells as monitored by the production of acid metabolites. Activation of the pump after a period of inhibition transiently increased the acidification rate above baseline, corresponding to increases in intracellular [Na+] ([Na+]i) occurring while the pump was off. The amplitude of this transient was a function of the total [Na+]i excursion in the absence of pump activity, which in turn depended on the duration of pump inhibition and the Na+ influx rate. Manipulations of the mode of energy metabolism in these cells by changes of the carbon substrate and use of metabolic inhibitors revealed that, unlike some other cells studied, the Na+/K+ ATPase in TE671 cells does not depend on any one mode of metabolism for its adenosine triphosphate source. Stimulation of cholinergic receptors in these cells with carbachol activated the Na+/K+ ATPase via an increase in [Na+]i rather than a direct activation of the ATPase. PMID:8386019

  7. [Effects of NaCl on the growth and alkaloid content of Catharanthus roseus seedlings].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Zhao-Pu; Liu, Ling; Liu, Chong

    2008-10-01

    Catharanthus roseus seedlings were grown in 1/2 Hoagland solution containing 0-250 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, and their fresh and dry mass, malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll contents, tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and vindoline, catharanthine, vincristine and vinblastine contents were measured after 7 days. The results showed that NaCl markedly decreased the fresh and dry mass but increased the MDA content. The chlorophyll content had no difference with the control when the concentration of NaCl was 50 mmol x L(-1), but decreased with increasing NaCl concentration when the NaCl concentration was above 50 mmol x L(-1). There was a significant enhancement of POD activity under NaCl stress. The TDC activity was the highest when the concentration of NaCl was 50 mmol x L(-1), but decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. The vindoline, catharanthine, vincristine, and vinblastine contents were the highest under 50 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress, with the values being 4.61, 3.56, 1.19, and 2.95 mg x g(-1), respectively, and significant higher than the control and other treatments. Salt stress could restrain the growth of C. roseus seedlings, but promote the metabolism of alkaloid and increase the alkaloid content. 50 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl had the greatest promotion effect on the alkaloid content of C. roseus seedlings. PMID:19123347

  8. Linking salinity stress tolerance with tissue-specific Na+ sequestration in wheat roots

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Honghong; Shabala, Lana; Liu, Xiaohui; Azzarello, Elisa; Zhou, Meixue; Pandolfi, Camilla; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Bose, Jayakumar; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress tolerance is a physiologically complex trait that is conferred by the large array of interacting mechanisms. Among these, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has always been considered as one of the key components differentiating between sensitive and tolerant species and genotypes. However, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has been rarely considered in the context of the tissue-specific expression and regulation of appropriate transporters contributing to Na+ removal from the cytosol. In this work, six bread wheat varieties contrasting in their salinity tolerance (three tolerant and three sensitive) were used to understand the essentiality of vacuolar Na+ sequestration between functionally different root tissues, and link it with the overall salinity stress tolerance in this species. Roots of 4-day old wheat seedlings were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 3 days, and then Na+ distribution between cytosol and vacuole was quantified by CoroNa Green fluorescent dye imaging. Our major observations were as follows: (1) salinity stress tolerance correlated positively with vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability in the mature root zone but not in the root apex; (2) contrary to expectations, cytosolic Na+ levels in root meristem were significantly higher in salt tolerant than sensitive group, while vacuolar Na+ levels showed an opposite trend. These results are interpreted as meristem cells playing a role of the “salt sensor;” (3) no significant difference in the vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability was found between sensitive and tolerant groups in either transition or elongation zones; (4) the overall Na+ accumulation was highest in the elongation zone, suggesting its role in osmotic adjustment and turgor maintenance required to drive root expansion growth. Overall, the reported results suggest high tissue-specificity of Na+ uptake, signaling, and sequestration in wheat roots. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed. PMID:25750644

  9. The role of cAMP-mediated intracellular signaling in regulating Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kumai, Yusuke; Kwong, Raymond W. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, the role of cAMP in stimulating Na+ uptake in larval zebrafish was investigated. Treating larvae at 4 days postfertilization (dpf) with 10 μM forskolin or 1 μM 8-bromo cAMP significantly increased Na+ uptake by three-fold and twofold, respectively. The cAMP-dependent stimulation of Na+ uptake was probably unrelated to protein trafficking via microtubules because pretreatment with 200 μM colchicine or 30 μM nocodazole did not attenuate the magnitude of the response. Na+ uptake was stimulated markedly following acute (2 h) exposure to acidic water. The acid-induced increase in Na+ uptake was accompanied by a twofold elevation in whole body cAMP levels and attenuated by inhibiting PKA with 10 μM H-89. Knockdown of Na+-H+ exchanger 3b (NHE3b) attenuated, but did not abolish, the stimulation of Na+ uptake during forskolin treatment. In glial cell missing 2 morphants, in which the role of NHE3b in Na+ uptake is diminished and the Na+-Cl− cotransporter (NCC) becomes the predominant route of Na+ entry, forskolin treatment continued to increase Na+ uptake. These data suggest that at least NHE3b and NCC are targeted by cAMP in zebrafish larvae. Staining of larvae with fluorescent forskolin and propranolol revealed the presence of transmembrane adenylyl cyclase within multiple subtypes of ionocytes expressing β-adrenergic receptors. Taken together, results of the present study demonstrate that cAMP-mediated intracellular signaling may regulate multiple Na+ transporters and plays an important role in regulating Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae during acute exposure to an acidic environment. PMID:24259461

  10. Altered expression of renal AQPs and Na(+) transporters in rats with lithium-induced NDI.

    PubMed

    Kwon, T H; Laursen, U H; Marples, D; Maunsbach, A B; Knepper, M A; Frokiaer, J; Nielsen, S

    2000-09-01

    Lithium (Li) treatment is often associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). The changes in whole kidney expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), -2, and -3 as well as Na-K-ATPase, type 3 Na/H exchanger (NHE3), type 2 Na-Pi cotransporter (NaPi-2), type 1 bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (BSC-1), and thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (TSC) were examined in rats treated with Li orally for 4 wk: protocol 1, high doses of Li (high Na(+) intake), and protocol 2, low doses of Li (identical food and normal Na(+) intake in Li-treated and control rats). Both protocols resulted in severe polyuria. Semiquantitative immunoblotting revealed that whole kidney abundance of AQP2 was dramatically reduced to 6% (protocol 1) and 27% (protocol 2) of control levels. In contrast, the abundance of AQP1 was not decreased. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the dramatic downregulation of AQP2 and AQP3, whereas AQP4 labeling was not reduced. Li-treated rats had a marked increase in urinary Na(+) excretion in both protocols. However, the expression of several major Na(+) transporters in the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule was unchanged in protocol 2, whereas in protocol 1 significantly increased NHE3 and BSC-1 expression or reduced NaPi-2 expression was associated with chronic Li treatment. In conclusion, severe downregulation of AQP2 and AQP3 appears to be important for the development of Li-induced polyuria. In contrast, the increased or unchanged expression of NHE3, BSC-1, Na-K-ATPase, and TSC indicates that these Na(+) transporters do not participate in the development of Li-induced polyuria. PMID:10966935

  11. NaOH-modified ceramic honeycomb with enhanced formaldehyde adsorption and removal performance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaguo; Li, Xinyang; Xu, Zhihua; Xiao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    NaOH-modified ceramic honeycombs (Na-CH) were simply prepared by impregnating ceramic honeycombs (CH) into NaOH aqueous solution. It was clearly shown that the surface modification incurs higher specific surface area and smaller grain sizes of the CH without destruction of their integrity. Moreover, the introduced surface NaOH can trigger Cannizzaro disproportionation of surface-absorbed formaldehyde (HCHO) on Na-CH, resulting in catalytic transformation of HCHO into less-toxic formate and methoxy salts. The NaOH concentration during impregnating treatment has a great influence on HCHO adsorption and removal efficiency, while the impregnation time and temperature have little influence on the efficiency. When the CH was impregnated in 1 M NaOH aqueous solution for 0.5 h at room temperature, the HCHO removal efficiency at ambient temperature can reach about 80% with an initial HCHO concentration of 250 ppm. Moreover, the used Na-CH can be facilely regenerated via 1 min blow using a common electric hair dryer, with the generation of less toxic HCOOH and CH3OH and recovery of NaOH. Using such a mild, fast, and practical regeneration method, the regenerated Na-CH showed slight degradation in adsorption and removal capability toward HCHO. The enhanced performance of Na-CH obtained was attributed to the presence of NaOH and increase of specific surface area and surface hydroxyl groups. Considering no demand of noble metal for HCHO removal at ambient temperature and practical reusable capability of Na-CH under mild conditions, this work may provide some new insights into the design and fabrication of advanced catalysts for indoor air purification. PMID:23895134

  12. Slc26a9--anion exchanger, channel and Na+ transporter.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min-Hwang; Plata, Consuelo; Zandi-Nejad, Kambiz; Sindić, Aleksandra; Sussman, Caroline R; Mercado, Adriana; Broumand, Vadjista; Raghuram, Viswanathan; Mount, David B; Romero, Michael F

    2009-04-01

    The SLC26 gene family encodes anion transporters with diverse functional attributes: (a) anion exchanger, (b) anion sensor, and (c) anion conductance (likely channel). We have cloned and studied Slc26a9, a paralogue expressed mostly in lung and stomach. Immunohistochemistry shows that Slc26a9 is present at apical and intracellular membranes of lung and stomach epithelia. Using expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and ion-sensitive microelectrodes, we discovered that Slc26a9 has a novel function not found in any other Slc26 proteins: cation coupling. Intracellular pH and voltage measurements show that Slc26a9 is a nCl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger, suggesting roles in gastric HCl secretion or pulmonary HCO(3)(-) secretion; Na(+) electrodes and uptakes reveal that Slc26a9 has a cation dependence. Single-channel measurements indicate that Slc26a9 displays discrete open and closed states. These experiments show that Slc26a9 has three discrete physiological modes: nCl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger, Cl(-) channel, and Na(+)-anion cotransporter. Thus, the Slc26a9 transporter channel is uniquely suited for dynamic and tissue-specific physiology or regulation in epithelial tissues. PMID:19365592

  13. Slc26A9 - anion exchanger, channel and Na+ transporter

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Min-Hwang; Plata, Consuelo; Zandi-Nejad, Kambiz; Sinđić, Aleksandra; Sussman, Caroline R.; Mercado, Adriana; Broumand, Vadjista; Raghuram, Viswanathan; Mount, David B.; Romero, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The SLC26 gene family encodes anion transporters with diverse functional attributes: (a) anion exchanger, (b) anion sensor and (c) anion conductance (likely channel). We have cloned and studied Slc26a9, a paralog expressed mostly in lung and stomach. Immunohistochemistry shows that Slc26a9 is present at apical and intracellular membranes of lung and stomach epithelia. Using expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and ion-sensitive microelectrodes, we discovered that Slc26a9 has a novel function not found in any other Slc26 proteins – cation coupling. Intracellular pH and voltage measurements show that Slc26a9 is a nCl--HCO3- exchanger, suggesting roles in gastric HCl secretion or pulmonary HCO3- secretion; Na+ electrodes and uptakes reveal that Slc26a9 has a cation-dependence. Single channel measurements indicate that Slc26a9 displays discrete open and close states. These experiments show that Slc26a9 has three discrete physiological modes: nCl--HCO3- exchanger, Cl- channel, and Na+-anion cotransporter. Thus, the Slc26a9 transporter-channel is uniquely suited for dynamic and tissue-specific physiology or regulation in epithelial tissues. PMID:19365592

  14. MINOS Calibration and NA49 Hadronic Production Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, Robert James

    2003-08-01

    An overview of the current status of the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is presented. MINOS is a long-baseline experiment with two detectors situated in North America. The near detector is based at the emission point of the NuMI beam at Fermilab, Chicago, the far detector is 735 km downstream in a disused iron mine in Soudan, Minnesota. A third detector, the calibration detector, is used to cross-calibrate these detectors by sampling different particle beams at CERN. A detailed description of the design and construction of the light-injection calibration system is included. Also presented are experimental investigations into proton-carbon collisions at 158 GeV/c carried out with the NA49 experiment at CERN. The NA49 experiment is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) based experiment situated at CERN's North Area. It is a well established experiment with well known characteristics. The data gained from this investigation are to be used to parameterize various hadronic production processes in accelerator and atmospheric neutrino production. These hadronic production parameters will be used to improve the neutrino generation models used in calculating the neutrino oscillation parameters in MINOS.

  15. Structural characterisation of Na2ZrO3.

    PubMed

    Bastow, T J; Hobday, M E; Smith, M E; Whitfield, H J

    1994-04-01

    A combination of X-ray and electron diffraction, electron microscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to elucidate the structure and the ordering of Na2ZrO3. The diffraction data confirm a monoclinic crystal structure. A sample prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction of the components is shown by both X-ray diffraction and electron microscope imaging to have an extremely high concentration of planar defects associated with stacking disorder of the planes along the c-axis. The incidence of these defects is significantly reduced in a sample recrystallised from a bismuth oxide flux. NMR indicates that the local coordinations are well defined in both samples but with some sharpening of the spectra from the recrystallised sample indicative of the increase of long-range order. The 23Na magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra clearly show three distinct sites with widely differing quadrupolar interaction parameters that can be related to the known site symmetries. Two distinct oxygen resonances are observed in the MAS NMR spectrum from an 17O-enriched sample while the static 91Zr NMR spectrum can be simulated with one set of interaction parameters. PMID:7834313

  16. Paleothermometry of NaCl as evidenced from thermoluminescence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartia, R. K.

    2009-09-01

    The firing temperature of ancient ceramic artifacts, i.e. the paleothermometry of these materials has been estimated by various techniques including thermoluminescence (TL) and, more recently, Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) where the OSL response of quartz to firing temperature is used. In this work we report the paleothermometry of sodium chloride (NaCl) by studying the TL response of the material as a function of annealing temperatures in the range of 100-500 C. Annealing/measurement has been done in a commercial TL/OSL reader (Model No. Ris TL/OSL reader TL-DA-15) in a nitrogen atmosphere. Sodium chloride (NaCl) has been selected as the candidate to test the feasibility of the technique since in this system TL peaks are correlated with the thermal annealing of F-centers unlike the case of quartz where a one to one correlation with all the glow peaks and thermal annealing of defects has not been possible.

  17. Correction of the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 Genome Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Bert; Scott, LaTia Etheredge

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial genome annotations are accumulating rapidly in the GenBank database and the use of automated annotation technologies to create these annotations has become the norm. However, these automated methods commonly result in a small, but significant percentage of genome annotation errors. To improve accuracy and reliability, we analyzed the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 genome utilizing computer programs Artemis and MICheck to manually examine the third codon position GC content, alignment to a third codon position GC frame plot peak, and matches in the GenBank database. We identified 11 new genes, modified the start site of 113 genes, and changed the reading frame of 38 genes that had been incorrectly annotated. Furthermore, our manual method of identifying protein-coding genes allowed us to remove 112 non-coding regions that had been designated as coding regions. The improved NA1000 genome annotation resulted in a reduction in the use of rare codons since noncoding regions with atypical codon usage were removed from the annotation and 49 new coding regions were added to the annotation. Thus, a more accurate codon usage table was generated as well. These results demonstrate that a comparison of the location of peaks third codon position GC content to the location of protein coding regions could be used to verify the annotation of any genome that has a GC content that is greater than 60%. PMID:24621776

  18. Feedback inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated Na+ transport in the rabbit cortical collecting duct via Na(+)-dependent basolateral Ca++ entry.

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, M D

    1991-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) transiently stimulates Na+ transport in the rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD). However, the sustained effect of both AVP and its putative second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), on Na+ transport in the rabbit CCD is inhibitory. Because maneuvers that increase [Ca++]i inhibit Na+ transport, the effects of AVP and cell-permeable cAMP analogues, on [Ca++]i were investigated in fura-2-loaded in vitro microperfused rabbit CCDs. Low-dose AVP (23-230 pM) selectively stimulated Ca++ influx, whereas 23 nM AVP additionally released calcium from intracellular stores. 8-chlorophenylthio-cAMP (8CPTcAMP) and 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) also increased CCD [Ca++]i. The 8CPTcAMP-stimulated [Ca++]i increase was totally dependent on basolateral [Ca++]. In the absence of cAMP, peritubular Na+ removal produced a marked increase in [Ca++]i, which was also dependent on bath [Ca++], suggesting the existence of basolateral Na+/Ca++ exchange. Luminal Na+ removal in the absence of cAMP did not alter CCD [Ca++]i, but it completely blocked the cAMP-stimulated [Ca++]i increase. Thus the cAMP-dependent Ca++ increase is totally dependent on both luminal Na+ and basolateral Ca++, suggesting the [Ca++]i increase is secondary to cAMP effects on luminal Na+ entry and its coupling to basolateral Na+/Ca++ exchange. 8CPTcAMP inhibits lumen-to-bath 22Na flux [JNa(l-b)] in CCDs bathed in a normal Ca++ bath (2.4 mM). However, when bath Ca++ was lowered to 100 nM, a maneuver that also blocks the 8CPTcAMP [Ca++]i increase, 8CPTcAMP stimulated, rather than inhibited JNa(l-b). These results suggest that cAMP formation initially stimulates CCD Na+ transport, and that increased apical Na+ entry secondarily activates basolateral Ca++ entry. The cAMP-dependent [Ca++]i increase leads to inhibition Na+ transport in the rabbit CCD. PMID:1658041

  19. Potassium depletion increases luminal Na+/H+ exchange and basolateral Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransport in rat renal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Soleimani, M.; Bergman, J.A.; Hosford, M.A.; McKinney, T.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Most HCO3- reabsorption in proximal tubules occurs via electroneutral Na+/H+ exchange in brush border membranes (BBMS) and electrogenic Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransport in basolateral membranes (BLMS). Since potassium depletion (KD) increases HCO3- reabsorption in proximal tubules, we evaluated these transport systems using BBM and BLM vesicles, respectively, from control (C) and KD rats. Feeding rats a potassium deficient diet for 3-4 wk resulted in lower plasma (K+) (2.94 mEq/liter, KD vs. 4.47 C), and higher arterial pH (7.51 KD vs. 7.39 C). KD rats gained less weight than C but had higher renal cortical weight. Influx of 1 mM 22Na+ at 5 s (pHo 7.5, pHi 6.0, 10% CO2, 90% N2) into BLM vesicles was 44% higher in the KD group compared to C with no difference in equilibrium uptake. The increment in Na+ influx in the KD group was DIDS sensitive, suggesting that Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransport accounted for the observed differences. Kinetic analysis of Na+ influx showed a Km of 8.2 mM in KD vs. 7.6 mM in C and Vmax of 278 nmol/min/mg protein in KD vs. 177 nmol/min/mg protein in C. Influx of 1 mM 22Na+ at 5 s (pHo 7.5, pHi 6.0) into BBM vesicles was 34% higher in the KD group compared to C with no difference in equilibrium uptake. The increment in Na+ influx in the KD group was amiloride sensitive, suggesting that Na+/H+ exchange was responsible for the observed differences. Kinetic analysis of Na+ influx showed a Km of 6.2 mM in KD vs. 7.1 mM in C and Vmax of 209 nmol/min/mg protein in KD vs. 144 nmol/min/mg protein in C. Uptakes of Na(+)-dependent (3H)glucose into BBM and (14C)succinate into BLM vesicles were not different in KD and C groups, suggesting that the Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransporter activities were specifically altered in KD.

  20. Differential regulation of the renal sodium-phosphate cotransporters NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIc, and PiT-2 in dietary potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Breusegem, Sophia Y; Takahashi, Hideaki; Giral-Arnal, Hector; Wang, Xiaoxin; Jiang, Tao; Verlander, Jill W; Wilson, Paul; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Sutherland, Eileen; Caldas, Yupanqui; Blaine, Judith T; Segawa, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Barry, Nicholas P; Levi, Moshe

    2009-08-01

    Dietary potassium (K) deficiency is accompanied by phosphaturia and decreased renal brush border membrane (BBM) vesicle sodium (Na)-dependent phosphate (P(i)) transport activity. Our laboratory previously showed that K deficiency in rats leads to increased abundance in the proximal tubule BBM of the apical Na-P(i) cotransporter NaPi-IIa, but that the activity, diffusion, and clustering of NaPi-IIa could be modulated by the altered lipid composition of the K-deficient BBM (Zajicek HK, Wang H, Puttaparthi K, Halaihel N, Markovich D, Shayman J, Beliveau R, Wilson P, Rogers T, Levi M. Kidney Int 60: 694-704, 2001; Inoue M, Digman MA, Cheng M, Breusegem SY, Halaihel N, Sorribas V, Mantulin WW, Gratton E, Barry NP, Levi M. J Biol Chem 279: 49160-49171, 2004). Here we investigated the role of the renal Na-P(i) cotransporters NaPi-IIc and PiT-2 in K deficiency. Using Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR, we found that, in rats and in mice, K deficiency is associated with a dramatic decrease in the NaPi-IIc protein abundance in proximal tubular BBM and in NaPi-IIc mRNA. In addition, we documented the presence of a third Na-coupled P(i) transporter in the renal BBM, PiT-2, whose abundance is also decreased by dietary K deficiency in rats and in mice. Finally, electron microscopy showed subcellular redistribution of NaPi-IIc in K deficiency: in control rats, NaPi-IIc immunolabel was primarily in BBM microvilli, whereas, in K-deficient rats, NaPi-IIc BBM label was reduced, and immunolabel was prevalent in cytoplasmic vesicles. In summary, our results demonstrate that decreases in BBM abundance of the phosphate transporter NaPi-IIc and also PiT-2 might contribute to the phosphaturia of dietary K deficiency, and that the three renal BBM phosphate transporters characterized so far can be differentially regulated by dietary perturbations. PMID:19493963

  1. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-02-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are also outlined, where graphene oxide was employed as dehydration agent and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) was used to unzip wood fiber. Furthermore, surface modification by atomic layer deposition technology is introduced, where we discover that a thin layer of Al2O3 can function to encapsulate Sn nanoparticles, leading to a much enhanced cycling performance. We also highlight recent work about the phosphorene/graphene anode, which outperformed other anodes in terms of capacity. The aromatic organic anode is also studied as anode with very high initial sodiation capacity. Furthermore, electrochemical intercalation of Na ions into reduced graphene oxide is applied for fabricating transparent conductors, demonstrating the great feasibility of Na ion intercalation for optical applications. PMID:26783764

  2. The violet emissions produced by laser excitation of Na vapor in the 570-595 nm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Chen, J. K.

    1982-12-01

    Atomic Na and molecular Na2 emissions in the violet region have been observed when Na vapor in a heatpipe (1000 to 10 to the 16th atmos/cu cm) is irradiated with a pulsed dye laser with output wavelength in the 570-597 nm region. The Na atomic emissions probably results from recombination of Na(+) and e(-) and energy-pooling involving highly excited atoms and molecules, while the diffuse violet emission bands are probably produced through collisions among excited Na atoms and Na2 molecules.

  3. Structure and basic magnetic properties of the honeycomb lattice compounds Na 2Co 2TeO 6 and Na 3Co 2SbO 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viciu, L.; Huang, Q.; Morosan, E.; Zandbergen, H. W.; Greenbaum, N. I.; McQueen, T.; Cava, R. J.

    2007-03-01

    The synthesis, structure, and basic magnetic properties of Na 2Co 2TeO 6 and Na 3Co 2SbO 6 are reported. The crystal structures were determined by neutron powder diffraction. Na 2Co 2TeO 6 has a two-layer hexagonal structure (space group P6 322) while Na 3Co 2SbO 6 has a single-layer monoclinic structure (space group C2/ m). The Co, Te, and Sb ions are in octahedral coordination, and the edge sharing octahedra form planes interleaved by sodium ions. Both compounds have full ordering of the Co 2+ and Te 6+/Sb 5+ ions in the ab plane such that the Co 2+ ions form a honeycomb array. The stacking of the honeycomb arrays differ in the two compounds. Both Na 2Co 2TeO 6 and Na 3Co 2SbO 6 display magnetic ordering at low temperatures, with what appears to be a spin-flop transition found in Na 3Co 2SbO 6.

  4. Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals: from synthesis, growth mechanism to analysis of Na-ion intercalation/deintercalation abilities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengcheng; Zhou, Dehua; Zhu, Kongjun; Wu, Qingliu; Wang, Yifeng; Tai, Guoan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Qilin

    2016-01-21

    Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals were synthesized successfully by a two-step hydrothermal method. Observations using electron microscopy revealed that the obtained NaV2O5 mesocrystals were composed of nanobelts with the preferential growth direction of [010]. The precise crystal structure was further confirmed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. Based on analysis of crystal structure and microscopy, a reaction and growth mechanism, hydrolysis-condensation (oxolation and olation)-ion exchange-self-assembly, was proposed and described in detail. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements were used to analyze the Na-ions intercalation/deintercalation abilities in NaV2O5, and indicated that Na-ions were difficult to extract. Importantly, the DFT theoretical calculation results, which showed that the migration energy of Na-ions was so huge that migration of Na-ions was quite difficult, can explain and support well the results of the electrochemical measurements. PMID:26673118

  5. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na3OBr and Na4OI2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wen, Ting; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Pravica, Michael; Yang, Wenge; Zhao, Yusheng

    2016-01-01

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na3OBr and Na4OI2, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na3OBr and Na4OI2, respectively. The cubic Na3OBr structure and tetragonal Na4OI2 with intergrowth K2NiF4 structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na4OI2 exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20-80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.

  6. Mechanism of potassium ion uptake by the Na+/K+-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Juan P.; Rui, Huan; Basilio, Daniel; Das, Avisek; Roux, Benoît; Latorre, Ramon; Bezanilla, Francisco; Holmgren, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    The Na+/K+-ATPase restores sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) electrochemical gradients dissipated by action potentials and ion-coupled transport processes. As ions are transported, they become transiently trapped between intracellular and extracellular gates. Once the external gate opens, three Na+ ions are released, followed by the binding and occlusion of two K+ ions. While the mechanisms of Na+ release have been well characterized by the study of transient Na+ currents, smaller and faster transient currents mediated by external K+ have been more difficult to study. Here we show that external K+ ions travelling to their binding sites sense only a small fraction of the electric field as they rapidly and simultaneously become occluded. Consistent with these results, molecular dynamics simulations of a pump model show a wide water-filled access channel connecting the binding site to the external solution. These results suggest a mechanism of K+ gating different from that of Na+ occlusion.

  7. Mechanism of potassium ion uptake by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan P; Rui, Huan; Basilio, Daniel; Das, Avisek; Roux, Benoît; Latorre, Ramon; Bezanilla, Francisco; Holmgren, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase restores sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) electrochemical gradients dissipated by action potentials and ion-coupled transport processes. As ions are transported, they become transiently trapped between intracellular and extracellular gates. Once the external gate opens, three Na(+) ions are released, followed by the binding and occlusion of two K(+) ions. While the mechanisms of Na(+) release have been well characterized by the study of transient Na(+) currents, smaller and faster transient currents mediated by external K(+) have been more difficult to study. Here we show that external K(+) ions travelling to their binding sites sense only a small fraction of the electric field as they rapidly and simultaneously become occluded. Consistent with these results, molecular dynamics simulations of a pump model show a wide water-filled access channel connecting the binding site to the external solution. These results suggest a mechanism of K(+) gating different from that of Na(+) occlusion. PMID:26205423

  8. Mechanism of potassium ion uptake by the Na+/K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan P.; Rui, Huan; Basilio, Daniel; Das, Avisek; Roux, Benoît; Latorre, Ramon; Bezanilla, Francisco; Holmgren, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Na+/K+-ATPase restores sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) electrochemical gradients dissipated by action potentials and ion-coupled transport processes. As ions are transported, they become transiently trapped between intracellular and extracellular gates. Once the external gate opens, three Na+ ions are released, followed by the binding and occlusion of two K+ ions. While the mechanisms of Na+ release have been well characterized by the study of transient Na+ currents, smaller and faster transient currents mediated by external K+ have been more difficult to study. Here we show that external K+ ions travelling to their binding sites sense only a small fraction of the electric field as they rapidly and simultaneously become occluded. Consistent with these results, molecular dynamics simulations of a pump model show a wide water-filled access channel connecting the binding site to the external solution. These results suggest a mechanism of K+ gating different from that of Na+ occlusion. PMID:26205423

  9. Adsorption of small NaCl clusters on surfaces of silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsler, Maximilian; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Goedecker, Stefan; Neelov, Alexey; Genovese, Luigi

    2009-11-01

    We have studied possible adsorption geometries of neutral NaCl clusters on the disordered surface of a large silicon model tip used in non-contact atomic force microscopy. The minima hopping method was used to determine low energy model tip configurations as well as ground state geometries of isolated NaCl clusters. The combined system was treated with density functional theory. Alkali halides have proven to be strong structure seekers and tend to form highly stable ground state configurations whenever possible. The favored adsorption geometry for four Na and four Cl atoms was found to be an adsorption of four NaCl dimers due to the formation of Cl-Si bonds. However, for larger NaCl clusters, the increasing energy required to dissociate the cluster into NaCl dimers suggests that adsorption of whole clusters in their isolated ground state configuration is preferred.

  10. Mechanisms of the Regulation of the Intestinal Na+/H+Exchanger NHE3

    PubMed Central

    He, Peijian; Yun, C. Chris

    2010-01-01

    A major of Na+ absorptive process in the proximal part of intestine and kidney is electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ by Na+/H+ exchanger type 3 (NHE3). During the past decade, significant advance has been achieved in the mechanisms of NHE3 regulation. A bulk of the current knowledge on Na+/H+ exchanger regulation is based on heterologous expression of mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers in Na+/H+ exchanger deficient fibroblasts, renal epithelial, and intestinal epithelial cells. Based on the reductionist's approach, an understanding of NHE3 regulation has been greatly advanced. More recently, confirmations of in vitro studies have been made using animals deficient in one or more proteins but in some cases unexpected findings have emerged. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of recent progress in the regulation and functions of NHE3 present in the luminal membrane of the intestinal tract. PMID:20011065

  11. Palytoxin effects through interaction with the Na,K-ATPase in Xenopus oocyte.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Horisberger, J D

    1997-06-16

    Palytoxin (PTX) is known to bind to Na,K-ATPase, to inhibit its activity, and to induce cation conductance, but the mechanism of these effects is still poorly understood. In Xenopus oocytes, PTX induced a large cation conductance, an effect that could be prevented or reversed by ouabain for oocytes expressing Xenopus Na,K-pumps but not with those expressing Bufo Na,K-pumps. In both cases patch-clamp experiments demonstrated a 7-8 pS channel in the presence of PTX. A large PTX-induced conductance could be observed with minimal Na,K-pump inhibition. From the single PTX-induced channel and macroscopic whole oocyte conductance, and the number of Na,K-pumps, we can conclude that PTX-induced conductance occurs through a direct interaction of PTX with a small number of Na,K-pumps. PMID:9224696

  12. Cu2Sb thin films as anode for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic; Allcorn, Eric; Manthiram, Arumugam; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    Cu2Sb thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are evaluated as an anode material for Na-ion batteries. The starting material is composed of nanocrystallites with the desired tetragonal P4/nmm structure. The study of the reaction mechanism reveals the formation of an amorphous/nanocrystalline phase of composition close to Na3Sb as the final reaction product. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) material is mostly composed of carbonates (Na2CO3, NaCO3R). The Cu2Sb anode possesses moderate capacity retention with a reversible storage capacity (250 mAh/g) close to the theoretical value (323 mAh/g), an average reaction potential of around 0.55 V vs. Na/Na+, and a high rate performance (10 C-rate).

  13. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination are necessary for Na,K-ATPase endocytosis during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Laura A.; Welch, Lynn C.; Zhou, Guofei; Ben-Saadon, Ronen; Ciechanover, Aaron; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2007-01-01

    As a cellular adaptative response, hypoxia decreases Na,K-ATPase activity by triggering the endocytosis of its α1 subunit in alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we present evidence that the ubiquitin conjugating system is important in the Na,K-ATPase endocytosis during hypoxia and ubiquitination of Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit occurs at the basolateral membrane. Endocytosis and ubiquitination were prevented when the Ser 18 in the PKC phosphorylation motif of the Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit was mutated to an alanine, suggesting that phosphorylation at Ser-18 is required for ubiquitination. Mutation of the four lysines surrounding Ser 18 to arginine prevented Na,K-ATPase ubiquitination and endocytosis during hypoxia; however, only one of them was sufficient to restore hypoxia-induced endocytosis. We provide evidence that ubiquitination plays an important role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia by regulating Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit endocytosis. PMID:17532187

  14. Formation of titanate nanostructures under different NaOH concentration and their application in wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiquan; Cao, Yongge; Deng, Zhonghua; Tong, Hao

    2011-03-01

    The effects of the concentration of NaOH on the formation and transformation of various titanate nanostructures were studied. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. Nanotubes can only be obtained under moderate NaOH conditions, and should transform into nanowires with prolonged hydrothermal treatment, and their formation rate is accelerated by increasing NaOH concentration. Low concentration of NaOH results in the direct formation of nanowires, while extra high concentration of NaOH leads to the formation of amorphous nanoparticles. Adsorption and photocatalysis studies show that titanate nanowires and nanotubes might be potential adsorbents for the removal of both heavy metal ions and dyes and photocatalysts for the removal of dyes from wastewater.

  15. Formation of Frustrated Lewis Pairs in Ptx -Loaded Zeolite NaY.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeju; Choi, Yong Nam; Lim, Dae-Woon; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kim, Yong-Il; Cho, In Hwa; Kang, Hyun Wook; Seo, Jung-Hye; Jeon, Cheolho; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2015-10-26

    The formation of a frustrated Lewis pair consisting of sodium hydride (Na(+) H(-) ) and a framework-bound hydroxy proton O(H(+) ) is reported upon H2 treatment of zeolite NaY loaded with Pt nanoparticles (Ptx /NaY). Frustrated Lewis pair formation was confirmed using in situ neutron diffraction and spectroscopic measurements. The activity of the intrazeolite NaH as a size-selective catalyst was verified by the efficient esterification of acetaldehyde (a small aldehyde) to form the corresponding ester ethyl acetate, whereas esterification of the larger molecule benzaldehyde was unsuccessful. The frustrated Lewis pair (consisting of Na(+) H(-) and O(H(+) )) generated within zeolite NaY may be a useful catalyst for various catalytic reactions which require both H(-) and H(+) ions, such as catalytic hydrogenation or dehydrogenation of organic compounds and activation of small molecules. PMID:26480339

  16. On the formation of Na nanoparticles in femtosecond-laser irradiated glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Nan; Su Dong; Spence, John C. H.; Qiu Jianrong

    2010-03-15

    This work discusses the response of Na to both high-energy electrons and femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) pulses in the soda-lime glass. The evidence for different responses of Na to high-energy electron irradiation between glasses with and without fs-laser irradiation suggests that the chemical and/or physical states of Na in the fs-laser irradiated glass are different from those in the original glass. Fs-laser pulses in the glass may be able to neutralize Na, which may form clusters. These results suggest that close attention should be paid to the defects associated with Na when optical or physical data are interpreted in fs-laser irradiated Na glasses.

  17. Complexation of pectin with macro- and microelements. Antianemic activity of Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe complexes.

    PubMed

    Minzanova, S T; Mironov, V F; Vyshtakalyuk, A B; Tsepaeva, O V; Mironova, L G; Mindubaev, A Z; Nizameev, I R; Kholin, K V; Milyukov, V A

    2015-12-10

    New water-soluble pectin complexes with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) on the basis of pectin biopolymer have been synthesized and successfully tested on white rats. For a starting, we have obtained a sodium pectate to enhance solubility of target complexes as a whole. Shortly afterwards, running the reaction of ligand exchange of Nа(+) ions with corresponding s-, d- metal cations we were able to synthesize new pectin complexes. The ranges of s-, d-metals salts concentrations were detected experimentally, in which the selective formation of water-soluble complexes occurred. Antianemic effect of new pectin complexes with Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe was investigated on white rats with posthemorrhagic anemia. Under the effect of complexes, the improvement of animals and prevention of erythropoiesis disorders were observed. Antianemic effect of the complexes manifested itself in the doses equivalent to 25% or 50% of the iron daily rate, recommended in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia with the drugs based on iron sulphate. PMID:26428154

  18. Electronic structures and second hyperpolarizabilities of alkaline earth metal complexes end-capped with NA2 (A = H, Li, Na).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Paramita; Nandi, Prasanta K

    2016-05-14

    The ground state structures and NLO properties of a number of alkaline earth metal complexes end-capped with NA2 groups (A = H, Li, Na) are calculated by employing the CAM-B3LYP, wB97XD and B2PLYP functionals along with MP2 and CCSD(T) for 6-311++G(d,p), 6-311++G(3df,3pd), aug-cc-pVTZ, aug-pc-2 and Hypol basis sets. The complexes are found to be significantly stable. The magnitude of second hyperpolarizability enhances appreciably with increase in the number of magnesium and calcium atoms in the chain, which has been indicated by the power law dependence γ = a + bn(c) with c values ranging from 2.4-4.3 for Mg and 2.4-3.7 for Ca complexes, respectively. The largest second-hyperpolarizability (10(9) au) is obtained for the complex Ca7(NNa2)2 at the CAM-B3LYP level. The two state model has been used to explain the variation of hyperpolarizabilities. PMID:27088138

  19. Wigner crystallization in Na3Cu2O4 and Na8Cu5O10 chain compounds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, P.; Sofin, M.; Mayr, M.; Jansen, M.

    2006-03-01

    We report the synthesis of novel doped edge-sharing chain compounds Na3Cu2O4 and Na8Cu5O10, which form insulating states with commensurate charge order [1]. We identify these systems as one-dimensional Wigner lattices, where the charge order is determined by the long-range Coulomb interaction and the number of holes in the d-shell of Cu. Our interpretation is supported by X-ray structure data as well as by an analysis of magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data. Remarkably, due to large second neighbor Cu-Cu hopping, these systems allow for an unambiguous distinction between the classical Wigner lattice and the 4kF charge-density wave of quantum mechanical origin. Finally, we briefly discuss the domain-wall type charge excitations and the theoretical expectation for the optical conductivity of 1D Wigner lattices [2]. [1] P. Horsch, M. Sofin, M. Mayr, and M. Jansen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 076403 (2005). [2] M. Mayr and P. Horsch, (unpublished).

  20. Na8Au9.8(4)Ga7.2 and Na17Au15.87(2)Ga46.63: The diversity of pseudo 5-fold 0 Cross Mark symmetries in the Na-Au-Ga system

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Corbett, John D.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2013-08-29

    The Na-rich part (similar to 30% Na) of the Na-Au-Ga system between NaAu2, NaGa4, and Na(22)Ga39 has been found to contain the ternary phases NasAug(8)(4)Ga-7.2 (I) and NavAu(5.87(2))Ga46.63 (II), according to the results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. I is orthorhombic, Cmcm, a= 5.3040(1), b=24.519(5), c=14.573(3) A, and contains a network of clusters with local 5-fold symmetry along the a-axis. Such clusters are frequent building units in decagonal quasicrystals and their approximants. II is rhombohedral, a =16.325(2), c=35.242(7) A, and contains building blocks that are structurally. identical to the Bergman-type clusters as well as fused icosahedral units known with active metals, triels and late transition elements. II also contains a polycationic network with elements of the clathrate V type structure. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on idealized models of I and II indicate that both compounds are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the corresponding Fermi levels. The overall Hamilton bond populations are generally dominated by Au-Ga and Au-Au bonds in I and by Ga-Ga bonds in II; moreover, the Na-Au and Na-Ga contributions in I are unexpectedly large, 20% of the total. A similar involvement of sodium in covalent bonding has also been found in the electron-richer i-Nai(3)Aui(2)Gai(5) quasicrystal approximant. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative studies of CdS, CdS:Al, CdS:Na and CdS:(Al-Na) thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, S.; Atasoy, Y.; Tomakin, M.; Bacaksız, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the spray pyrolysis technique was used to prepare pure CdS, 4 at.% Al-doped CdS, 4 at.% Na-doped CdS and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doped CdS thin films. It was found from X-ray diffraction data that all the specimens showed hexagonal wurtzite structure with the preferred orientation of (101). Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that 4 at.% Al-doping caused a grain growth in the morphology of CdS thin films whereas the 4 at.% Na-doping and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping led to porous structure with small grains. The band gap value of CdS thin films increased to 2.42 eV after 4 at.% Al-doping. However, it reduced to 2.30 eV and 2.08 eV for 4 at.% Na-doping and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping, respectively. The room temperature photoluminescence measurements illustrated that the peak intensity of CdS thin films enhanced with 4 at.% Al-doping while 4 at.% Na-doping and (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping caused a decline in the intensity. The maximum carrier concentration and minimum resistivity were obtained for 4 at.% Al-doped CdS thin films, which is associated with the grain growth. Furthermore, (4 at.% Al, 4 at.% Na)-co-doping gave rise to a slight reduction in the carrier concentration and a slight increment in the resistivity. As a result, it can be said that 4 at.% Al-doped CdS thin films exhibited the best electrical and optical properties, which is important for the opto-electronic applications.

  2. Experimental and regional variations in Na+‐dependent and Na+‐independent phosphate transport along the rat small intestine and colon

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Joanne; Lee, Grace J.; Nadaraja, Sobiya P.; Debnam, Edward S.; Unwin, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the importance of extracellular phosphate in many essential biological processes, the mechanisms of phosphate transport across the epithelium of different intestinal segments remain unclear. We have used an in vitro method to investigate phosphate transport at the brush border membrane (BBM) of intact intestinal segments and an in vivo method to study transepithelial phosphate absorption. We have used micromolar phosphate concentrations known to favor NaPi‐IIb‐mediated transport, and millimolar concentrations that are representative of the levels we have measured in luminal contents, to compare the extent of Na+‐dependent and Na+‐independent phosphate transport along the rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and proximal and distal colon. Our findings confirm that overall the jejunum is the main site of phosphate absorption; however, at millimolar concentrations, absorption shows ~30% Na+‐dependency, suggesting that transport is unlikely to be mediated exclusively by the Na+‐dependent NaPi‐IIb co‐transporter. In the ileum, studies in vitro confirmed that relatively low levels of phosphate transport occur at the BBM of this segment, although significant Na+‐dependent transport was detected using millimolar levels of phosphate in vivo. Since NaPi‐IIb protein is not detectable at the rat ileal BBM, our data suggest the presence of an as yet unidentified Na+‐dependent uptake pathway in this intestinal segment in vivo. In addition, we have confirmed that the colon has a significant capacity for phosphate absorption. Overall, this study highlights the complexities of intestinal phosphate absorption that can be revealed using different phosphate concentrations and experimental techniques. PMID:25626876

  3. Synergistic alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation of rat proximal nephron Na+/H+ exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Gesek, F.A.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.; Strandhoy, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Both alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors have been localized to the renal cortex, with the majority of binding sites on the proximal tubule. Because the major regulator of Na+ uptake into the proximal tubule is the Na+/H+ exchanger, and because alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors stimulate it in other tissues, we tested the hypothesis that both alpha adrenoceptor subtypes can increase Na+ uptake into the proximal nephron by stimulating the Na+/H+ antiporter. Enhancement of Na+ transport by agonists was studied in isolated rat proximal tubules by determining the uptake of 22Na that was suppressible by the Na+/H+ inhibitor, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA). The phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, (0.1 microM), directly stimulated the antiporter through protein kinase C and increased EIPA-suppressible 22Na uptake 250% above control. The alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonists, cirazoline and phenylephrine, in addition to the mixed agonist, norepinephrine, maximally stimulated uptake by 226 to 232% at 1 microM concentrations. alpha-2 agonists produced a range of maximal stimulations at 1 microM from 65% with guanabenz to 251% with B-HT 933. Increases in 22Na uptake by agonists were inhibited by selective adrenergic antagonists and by EIPA. The drugs did not change the EIPA-resistant component of 22Na uptake. Inasmuch as the adrenoceptor subtypes likely stimulated Na+/H+ exchange by differing intracellular pathways impinging upon common transport steps, we examined whether simultaneous stimulation of both pathways was additive. Submaximal concentrations (5 nM each) of alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists in combination synergistically enhanced 22Na uptake to a level similar to 1 microM concentrations of adrenoceptor agonists alone or in combination.

  4. Evidence for Na+-Independent HCO3? Uptake by the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis1

    PubMed Central

    Espie, George S.; Canvin, David T.

    1987-01-01

    At low levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkaline pH the rate of photosynthesis by air-grown cells of Synechococcus leopoliensis (UTEX 625) was enhanced 7- to 10-fold by 20 millimolar Na+. The rate of photosynthesis greatly exceeded the CO2 supply rate and indicated that HCO3? was taken up by a Na+-dependent mechanism. In contrast, photosynthesis by Synechococcus grown in standing culture proceeded rapidly in the absence of Na+ and exceeded the CO2 supply rate by 8 to 45 times. The apparent photosynthetic affinity (K) for DIC was high (6-40 micromolar) and was not markedly affected by Na+ concentration, whereas with air-grown cells K (DIC) decreased by more than an order of magnitude in the presence of Na+. Lithium, which inhibited Na+-dependent HCO3? uptake in air-grown cells, had little effect on Na+-independent HCO3? uptake by standing culture cells. A component of total HCO3? uptake in standing culture cells was also Na+-dependent with a K (Na+) of 4.8 millimolar and was inhibited by lithium. Analysis of 14C-fixation during isotopic disequilibrium indicated that standing culture cells also possessed a Na+-independent CO2 transport system. The conversion from Na+-independent to Na+-dependent HCO3? uptake was readily accomplished by transferring cells grown in standing to growth in cultures bubbled with air. These results demonstrated that the conditions experienced during growth influenced the mode by which Ssynechococcus acquired HCO3? for subsequent photosynthetic fixation. PMID:16665385

  5. Na-dependent Li-transport in primary nerve cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Szentistványi, I; Janka, Z; Joó, F; Rimanóczy, A; Juhász, A; Latzkovits, L

    1979-07-01

    Primary cultures from chick embryonic brain were used to study the steady state distribution of lithium. The intra/extracellular Li+ ratio decreased by enhancing the external Na+ concentration. Ouabain did not influence this unequality. A phloretin-sensitive component was revealed in the Li uptake at low Na+ concentration. The findings might suggest the existence of a Na+-dependent Li+ countertransport system in these brain cell cultures. PMID:575197

  6. Active and passive Na+ fluxes across the basolateral membrane of rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Eaton, D C; Frace, A M; Silverthorn, S U

    1982-01-01

    The apical membrane of rabbit urinary bladder can be functionally removed by application of nystatin at high concentration if the mucosal surface of the tissue is bathed in a saline which mimics intracellular ion concentrations. Under these conditions, the tissue is as far as the movement of univalent ions no more than a sheet of basolateral membrane with some tight junctional membrane in parallel. In this manner the Na+ concentration at the inner surface of the basolateral membrane can be varied by altering the concentration in the mucosal bulk solution. When this was done both mucosal-to-serosal 22Na flux and net change in basolateral current were measured. The flux and the current could be further divided into the components of each that were either blocked by ouabain or insensitive to ouabain. Ouabain-insensitive mucosal-to-serosal Na+ flux was a linear function of mucosal Na+ concentration. Ouabain-sensitive Na+ flux and ouabain-sensitive, Na+-induced current both display a saturating relationship which cannot be accounted for by the presence of unstirred layers. If the interaction of Na+ with the basolateral transport process is assumed to involve the interaction of some number of Na+ ions, n, with a maximal flux, MMAX, then the data can be fit by assuming 3.2 equivalent sites for interaction and a value for MMAX of 287.8 pM cm-2 sec-1 with an intracellular Na concentration of 2.0 mM Na+ at half-maximal saturation. By comparing these values with the ouabain-sensitive, Na+-induced current, we calculate a Na+ to K+ coupling ratio of 1.40 +/- 0.07 for the transport process. PMID:6286973

  7. Effect of vasopressin on Na+-K+-ATPase activity in rat cortical collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Tomita, K; Owada, A; Iino, Y; Yoshiyama, N; Shiigai, T

    1987-11-01

    Vasopressin (V) causes a sustained increase in Na reabsorption and K secretion in isolated cortical collecting ducts (CCD) from rats. Because increased Na reabsorption may be associated with increased Na+-K+-ATPase activity, we investigated effects of V, given either in vivo or in vitro, on Na+-K+-ATPase activity in isolated nephron segments of rats. Na+-K+-ATPase activities were measured by coupling the hydrolysis of ATP to the production of a fluorescent nucleotide. In addition to CCD, other microdissected structures were medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle's loop, cortical thick ascending limbs of Henle's loop, and outer medullary collecting duct. To determine the time course of the response, Na+-K+-ATPase activities were measured in CCD 1 h, 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days after intramuscular administrations of V. There was a significant increase in Na+-K+-ATPase activity in CCD after in vivo V administration for 7 days but not in any other segment. The activities increased after 3 days of administration of V. For in vitro experiments, CCD were incubated with 10(-6) M V for 1-3 h. Na+-K+-ATPase activities did not change after 1- or 3-h exposure of V in CCD in vitro. We conclude that prolonged V administration in vivo increases Na+-K+-ATPase activity in CCD. Because, in vitro exposure to V does not increase Na+-K+-ATPase activity, we conclude that rapid V-dependent increases in Na and K transport previously demonstrated in isolated perfused tubules are not dependent on a change in maximal Na+-K+-ATPase activity. PMID:2825537

  8. Dysregulation of epithelial Na+ absorption induced by inhibition of the kinases TORC1 and TORC2

    PubMed Central

    Mansley, Morag K; Wilson, Stuart M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although the serum and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 (SGK1) appears to be involved in controlling epithelial Na+ absorption, its role in this physiologically important ion transport process is undefined. As SGK1 activity is dependent upon target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)-catalysed phosphorylation of SGK1-Ser422, we have explored the effects of inhibiting TORC2 and/or TORC1 upon the hormonal control of Na+ absorption. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Na+ absorption was quantified electrometrically in mouse cortical collecting duct cells (mpkCCD) grown to confluence on permeable membranes. Kinase activities were assessed by monitoring endogenous protein phosphorylation, with or without TORC1/2 inhibitors (TORIN1 and PP242) and the TORC1 inhibitor: rapamycin. KEY RESULTS Inhibition of TORC1/2 (TORIN1, PP242) suppressed basal SGK1 activity, prevented insulin- and dexamethasone-induced SGK1 activation, and caused modest (10–20%) inhibition of basal Na+ absorption and substantial (∼80%) inhibition of insulin/dexamethasone-induced Na+ transport. Inhibition of TORC1 did not impair SGK1 activation or insulin-induced Na+ transport, but did inhibit (∼80%) dexamethasone-induced Na+ absorption. Arginine vasopressin stimulated Na+ absorption via a TORC1/2-independent mechanism. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Target of rapamycin complex 2, but not TORC1, is important to SGK1 activation. Signalling via phosphoinositide-3-kinase/TORC2/SGK1 can explain insulin-induced Na+ absorption. TORC2, but not TORC1, is also involved in glucocorticoid-induced SGK1 activation but its role is permissive. Glucocorticoid-induced Na+ transport displayed a requirement for TORC1 activity. Therefore, TORC1 and TORC2 contribute to the regulation of Na+ absorption. Pharmacological manipulation of TORC1/2 signalling may provide novel therapies for Na+-sensitive hypertension. PMID:20735411

  9. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate acutely inhibits and chronically stimulates Na/H antiporter in OKP cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cano, A; Preisig, P; Alpern, R J

    1993-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone, dopamine, alpha-adrenergic catecholamines, and angiotensin II regulate renal Na excretion, at least in part through modulation of acute cyclic (c)AMP-induced proximal tubule Na/H antiporter inhibition. The present studies examined the effect of chronic increases in cell cAMP on Na/H antiporter activity in OKP cells. Whereas 8-bromo cAMP acutely inhibited Na/H antiporter activity, chronic application for 6 h led to a 24% increase in Na/H antiporter activity measured 16-20 h after cAMP removal. This chronic persistent activation of the Na/H antiporter required > 2 h exposure. This effect was not a nonspecific effect of 8-bromo cAMP, in that addition of forskolin or forskolin + 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine for 6 h also led to a chronic persistent increase in Na/H antiporter activity. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide prevented 8-bromo cAMP-induced Na/H antiporter stimulation. Although 8-bromo cAMP addition decreased cell pH by 0.15-0.20 pH U, Na/H antiporter stimulation could be dissociated from cell acidification. In summary, while cAMP acutely inhibits Na/H antiporter activity, it chronically increases antiporter activity. This chronic activation occurs with exogenous addition or endogenous generation of cAMP. These results imply that for hormones that modulate renal Na excretion and proximal tubule Na/H antiporter activity via cAMP and protein kinase A, acute effects may not predict chronic effects. PMID:7691881

  10. Actinic EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.

    2008-08-06

    Operating at EUV wavelengths, the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a zoneplate microscope that provides high quality aerial image measurements in routine operations for SEMATECH member companies. We have upgraded the optical performance of the AIT to provide multiple image magnifications, and several inspection NA values up to 0.35 NA equivalent (0.0875 mask-side). We report on the improved imaging capabilities including resolution below 100-nm on the mask side (25 nm, 4x wafer equivalent). EUV reticles are intricate optical systems made from of several materials with wavelength-specific optical properties. The combined interactions of the substrate, multilayer-stack, buffer layer and absorber layer produce a reflected EUV optical field that is challenging to model accurately, and difficult to fully assess without actinic at-wavelength inspection. Understanding the aerial image from lithographic printing alone is complicated by photoresist properties. The AIT is now used to investigate mask issues such as amplitude and phase defect printability, pattern repair techniques, contamination, inspection damage, and mask architecture. The AIT has a 6{sup o} illumination angle, and high-resolution exposure times are typically 20 seconds per image. The AIT operates semi-automatically capturing through-focus imaging series with step sizes as small as 0.1 {micro}m (0.5-0.8 {micro}m are typical), and a step resolution of 0.05 {micro}m. We believe it is the most advanced EUV mask inspection tool in operation today. In the AIT, an EUV image of the mask is projected by a zoneplate lens with high magnification (680-910x) onto a CCD camera. The CCD over-samples the image, providing equivalent pixel sizes down to 15 nm in mask coordinates-several image pixels per resolution element. The original AIT zoneplate specifications were designed to emulate the resolution of a 0.25-NA 4x stepper, and thorough benchmarking analysis of the aberrations, flare, contrast-transfer function, and coherence was published in 2007 [1] (see Fig 1). Recent upgrades have also included changes to improve the illumination uniformity and increase the partial coherence {sigma} value. Five different zoneplate lenses are installed side-by-side to enable the AIT to emulate various stepper optical properties (see Fig. 2).

  11. Collisional transfer of population and orientation in NaK.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, C M; Ashman, S; Bai, J; Beser, B; Ahmed, E H; Lyyra, A M; Huennekens, J

    2011-05-01

    Collisional satellite lines with |ΔJ| ≤ 58 have been identified in recent polarization spectroscopy V-type optical-optical double resonance (OODR) excitation spectra of the Rb(2) molecule [H. Salami et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 022515 (2009)]. Observation of these satellite lines clearly requires a transfer of population from the rotational level directly excited by the pump laser to a neighboring level in a collision of the molecule with an atomic perturber. However to be observed in polarization spectroscopy, the collision must also partially preserve the angular momentum orientation, which is at least somewhat surprising given the extremely large values of ΔJ that were observed. In the present work, we used the two-step OODR fluorescence and polarization spectroscopy techniques to obtain quantitative information on the transfer of population and orientation in rotationally inelastic collisions of the NaK molecules prepared in the 2(A)(1)Σ(+)(v' = 16, J' = 30) rovibrational level with argon and potassium perturbers. A rate equation model was used to study the intensities of these satellite lines as a function of argon pressure and heat pipe oven temperature, in order to separate the collisional effects of argon and potassium atoms. Using a fit of this rate equation model to the data, we found that collisions of NaK molecules with potassium atoms are more likely to transfer population and destroy orientation than collisions with argon atoms. Collisions with argon atoms show a strong propensity for population transfer with ΔJ = even. Conversely, collisions with potassium atoms do not show this ΔJ = even propensity, but do show a propensity for ΔJ = positive compared to ΔJ = negative, for this particular initial state. The density matrix equations of motion have also been solved numerically in order to test the approximations used in the rate equation model and to calculate fluorescence and polarization spectroscopy line shapes. In addition, we have measured rate coefficients for broadening of NaK 3(1)Π ← 2(A)(1)Σ(+)spectral lines due to collisions with argon and potassium atoms. Additional broadening, due to velocity changes occurring in rotationally inelastic collisions, has also been observed. PMID:21548681

  12. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  13. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razak, Rafiza; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  14. Involvement of Na,K-pump in SEPYLRFamide-mediated reduction of cholinosensitivity in Helix neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pivovarov, Arkady S.; Foreman, Richard C.; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    SEPYLRFamide acts as an inhibitory modulator of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in Helix lucorum neurones. Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na,K-pump, (0.1 mM, bath application) decreased the ACh-induced inward current (ACh-current) and increased the leak current. Ouabain decreased the modulatory SEPYLRFamide effect on the ACh-current. There was a correlation between the effects of ouabain on the amplitude of the ACh-current and on the modulatory peptide effect. Ouabain and SEPYLRFamide inhibited the activity of Helix aspersa brain Na,K-ATPase. Activation of Na,K-pump by intracellular injection of 3 M Na acetate or 3 M NaCl reduced the modulatory peptide effect on the ACh-current. An inhibitor of Na/Ca-exchange, benzamil (25 μM, bath application), and an inhibitor of Ca2+-pump in the endoplasmic reticulum, thapsigargin (TG, applied intracellularly), both prevented the effect of ouabain on SEPYLRFamide-mediated modulatory effect. Another inhibitor of Ca2+-pump in the endoplasmic reticulum, cyclopiazonic acid (applied intracellularly), did not prevent the effect of ouabain on SEPYLRFamide-mediated modulatory effect. These results indicate that Na,K-pump is responsible for the SEPYLRFamide-mediated inhibition of ACh receptors in Helix neurons. Na/Ca-exchange and intracellular Ca2+ released from internal pools containing TG-sensitive Ca2+-pump are involved in the Na,K-pump pathway for the SEPYLRFamide-mediated inhibition of ACh receptors. PMID:17049630

  15. Physiological Characterization of Two Genes for Na+ Exclusion in Durum Wheat, Nax1 and Nax21

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard A.; Davenport, Romola J.; Munns, Rana

    2006-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum Desf.) Line 149 contains two novel major genes for excluding Na+ from leaf blades, named Nax1 and Nax2. The genes were separated into families containing a single gene and near-isogenic homozygous lines were selected. Lines containing either Nax1 or Nax2 had lower rates of Na+ transport from roots to shoots than their near-isogenic pairs due to lower rates of net loading of the xylem, not to lower rates of net uptake from the soil or higher rates of retranslocation in the phloem. Nax1 and Nax2 lines also had higher rates of K+ transport from root to shoot, resulting in an enhanced discrimination of K+ over Na+. Lines containing Nax1 differed from those containing Nax2 by unloading Na+ from the xylem as it entered the shoot so that Na+ was retained in the base of the leaf, leading to a high sheath to blade ratio of Na+ concentration. Gradients in tissue concentrations of Na+ along the leaf suggested that Na+ was continually removed from the xylem. The Nax2 line did not retain Na+ in the base of the leaf, suggesting that it functioned only in the root. The Nax2 gene therefore has a similar function to Kna1 in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). PMID:17028150

  16. Na(x)-deficient mice show normal vasopressin response to dehydration.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Ayano; Hiyama, Takeshi Y; Noda, Masaharu

    2010-03-26

    In dehydrated animals, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) is released from the nerve terminals of magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) into the systemic circulation at the posterior pituitary. Increases in sodium (Na+)-level and osmolality in body fluids upon dehydration are reportedly sensed by a Na+-sensor and/or an osmosensor, respectively. However, it is still unknown whether both are involved in the regulation of production and/or release of VP. Na(x) is the cerebral Na+-level sensor and Na(x)-knockout mice do not stop ingesting salt even when dehydrated. Here we examined VP production/release in Na(x)-knockout mice, and found that they are normal in the VP response to dehydration or intraperitoneal-administration with hypertonic saline. In situ hybridization using an intron-specific probe showed that VP gene expression in the SON did not differ from wild-type mice when dehydrated. Also, there was no significant difference in the activity of subfornical organ neurons projecting to the SON between the two genotypes when stimulated by water deprivation. Furthermore, Na(x)-knockout mice showed a normal response in urine excretion to dehydration. All these results indicate that the information of Na+-level increase detected by Na(x) does not contribute to the control of VP production/release. PMID:20138121

  17. Natural variability in Drosophila larval and pupal NaCl tolerance.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Craig A L; Oster, Sara; Busto, Macarena; Mackay, Trudy F C; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2016-05-01

    The regulation of NaCl is essential for the maintenance of cellular tonicity and functionality, and excessive salt exposure has many adverse effects. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a good osmoregulator and some strains can survive on media with very low or high NaCl content. Previous analyses of mutant alleles have implicated various stress signaling cascades in NaCl sensitivity or tolerance; however, the genes influencing natural variability of NaCl tolerance remain for the most part unknown. Here, we use two approaches to investigate natural variation in D. melanogaster NaCl tolerance. We describe four D. melanogaster lines that were selected for different degrees of NaCl tolerance, and present data on their survival, development, and pupation position when raised on varying NaCl concentrations. After finding evidence for natural variation in salt tolerance, we present the results of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping of natural variation in larval and pupal NaCl tolerance, and identify different genomic regions associated with NaCl tolerance during larval and pupal development. PMID:26874056

  18. Expression of cardiac sarcolemmal Na sup + -Ca sup 2+ exchange activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Longoni, S.; Coady, M.J.; Ikeda, T.; Philipson, K.D. )

    1988-12-01

    Injection of Xenopus laevis oocytes with rabbit heart poly(A){sup +}RNA results in expression of Na{sup +} inside (Na{sub i}{sup +})-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake activity. The activity was measured by first loading the oocytes with Na{sup +} using nystatin and then incubating the oocytes in K{sup +} or Na{sup +} medium containing {sup 45}Ca. The expressed Na{sup +} gradient-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake was five to eight times that observed with water-injected oocytes or with poly(A){sup +}RNA-injected oocytes for which the Na{sup +} load step had been omitted. Induced activity was related to the amount of RNA injected and was insensitive to nifedipine. Fractionation of the poly(A){sup +}RNA on a sucrose gradient determined that the active message had a size range between 3 and 8 kb. The properties of the Na{sup +} gradient-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake indicated that Na{sup +}-Ca{sup 2+} exchange activity had been expressed in X. laevis oocytes. The result may be useful for cloning and identifying the molecular component responsible for Na{sup +}-Ca{sup 2+} exchange.

  19. The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.; Rieksts, G. A.; Palmer, R. F.; Gillis, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium-22 has been studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with Na-22, which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The Na-22 not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high, but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The Na-22 tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

  20. 23Na NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE RELAXATION STUDIES OF SODIUM ION INTERACTION WITH SOLUBLE RNA*

    PubMed Central

    James, Thomas L.; Noggle, Joseph H.

    1969-01-01

    Interactions between 23Na+ and soluble RNA in aqueous solution are studied with the use of 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance. At low concentrations of NaCl, the interactions obey a simple equilibrium model with a formation constant log (Kf)3 = 2.8 ± 0.3. The relaxation rate of the bound sodium is found to be T1B-1 = 222 ± 19 sec-1 compared to that of free sodium T1F-1 = 17.5 sec-1. At high NaCl concentrations, the system deviates from the model, possibly owing to aggregation of the soluble RNA. PMID:5256995

  1. The relation of Na and Cl extrusion in Opsanus beta, the Gulf toadfish, acclimated to seawater.

    PubMed

    Kormanik, G A; Evans, D H

    1982-12-10

    A model has been proposed by Silva et al. ('77) to describe the manner by which Cl extrusion occurs across the gills of the eel and seawater fish in general. Aspects of the model include (1) passive distribution of Na across the gill surface, and (2) Cl extrusion dependent on Na-K-ATPase and thus dependent on the transport of Na. In order to test various aspects of this model, we examined, using the appropriate radiotracers, the relationship of Na and Cl efflux in the gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta. The model of Silva et al. does not apply to the toadfish because (1) Na cannot be passively distributed across the gills of the toadfish, because the transepithelial potential is several millivolts negative with respect to seawater, and (2) Cl efflux (unlike Na efflux) is not dependent on external K. Additionally, Cl efflux is dependent on the seawater Na concentration, and both Na and Cl efflux are dependent on seawater HCO3. Thus Na and Cl efflux appear to be linked in the toadfish, but not as proposed in the model suggested by Silva et al. PMID:7153723

  2. Adaptation of Bacillus FTU and Escherichia coli to alkaline conditions: the Na(+)-motive respiration.

    PubMed

    Avetisyan, A V; Dibrov, P A; Semeykina, A L; Skulachev, V P; Sokolov, M V

    1991-12-01

    Mechanisms of Na+ transport into the inside-out subcellular vesicles of alkalo- and halotolerant Bacillus FTU and of Escherichia coli grown at different pH have been studied. Both microorganisms growing at pH 7.5 are shown to possess a system of the respiration-dependent Na+ transport which (i) is inhibited by protonophorous uncoupler, by delta pH-discharging agent diethylammonium (DEA) acetate, by micromolar cyanide arresting the H(+)-motive respiratory chain, and by amiloride, and (ii) is resistant to the Na+/H+ antiporter monensin and to Ag+, inhibitor of the Na(+)-motive respiratory chain. Growth at pH 8.6 strongly changes the activator and inhibitor pattern. Now (1) protonophore stimulates the Na+ transport, (2) DEA acetate is without effect in the absence of protonophore and is stimulating in its presence, (3) amiloride and low cyanide are ineffective, (4) monensin and Ag+ completely arrest the Na+ accumulation in the vesicles. Independent of pH of the growth medium, (a) valinomycin is stimulatory for the Na+ transport, (b) Na+ ionophore ETH 157 is inhibitory and, (c) Na+ transport can be supported by NADH----fumarate as well as by ascorbate (TMPD)----O2 electron transfers. Growth at alkaline pH results in the appearance of ascorbate (TMPD) oxidation resistant to low and sensitive to high cyanide concentrations. These relationships are in agreement with the concept (Skulachev, V.P. (1984) Trends Biochem. Sci. 9, 483-485) that adaptation to alkaline conditions in bacteria growing in the high [Na+] media causes substitution of Na+ for H+ as a coupling ion. The obtained data indicate that under alkaline conditions, Na+ can be pumped from the cell by the Na(+)-motive respiratory chain with neither H(+)-motive respiration nor the Na+/H+ antiporter involved. In the Na(+)-motive respiratory chain of Bac. FTU or E. coli, two Na+ pumps are localized, one in its initial and the other in its terminal spans. PMID:1751551

  3. First-principles study of amorphous carbon: a promising candidate for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsis, Konstantinos; Legrain, Fleur; Manzhos, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    The perspective of a widespread use of clean but intermittent sources of electricity (wind and solar) as well as that of hybrid electric vehicles calls for alternatives to Li-ion batteries as Li resources are limited. Na being abundant, cheap, and a relatively light and small atom, Na-ion batteries have attracted a lot of interest the past few years. However, while most of the Na-ion batteries studies focus on the positive electrode, the negative electrode remains little investigated and an efficient anode providing all a good capacity, a high cycle life, and a descent rate of charge/discharge, is still not available. The efficient electrode materials for Li, in particular diamond Si and graphite C, have been shown to not allow the intercalation of Na [1, 2]. Computational studies report positive intercalation energies [3, 4] and therefore suggest that the insertion of Na into the crystalline framework (C and Si) is thermodynamically not favored: Na atoms prefer to gather into Na clusters rather than to intercalate into the crystalline phase. Amorphization of Si was found to be a valid strategy to improve the interaction between Si and Na [3]. We investigate here the effects of amorphization of C on its storage properties vis-à-vis Na (as well as Li for reference).

  4. Laser driven channels of reactive collisions in Na plus Cd vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, M.; De Filippo, G.; Fuso, F.; Gruber, D.; Windholz, L.; Musso, M.

    1994-09-01

    We report the observation of reactive collisions involving laser excited metastable 5p 3P 1 Cd atoms and ground state Na 2 molecules. As result of these collisions the NaCd intermetallic excimer is formed in a bound excited electronic state and its typical bound-free emission to the ground state is detected. Experimental comparison of this new collision channel with the photochemical production of NaCd in collisions between electronically excited Na 2 and ground state Cd atoms is presented.

  5. Organophosphate inhibition of avian salt gland Na, K-ATPase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C., Jr.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    1. Adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were given freshwater or saltwater (1.5% NaCl) for 11 days and half of each group was also given an organophosphate (17 p.p.m. fenthion) in the diet on days 6-11. 2. After 11 days, ducks drinking saltwater had lost more weight and had higher plasma Na and uric acid concentrations and osmolalities than birds drinking freshwater. 3. Saltwater treatment stimulated the salt gland to increased weight and Na, K-ATPase activity. 4. Fenthion generally reduced plasma and brain cholinesterase activity and depressed cholinesterase and Na, K-ATPase activities in salt glands of birds drinking saltwater.

  6. A new high-energy cathode for a Na-ion battery with ultrahigh stability.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Uk; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kwon, Hyung-Soon; Kim, Byoungkook; Kim, Jongsoon; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Inkyung; Yoo, Han-Ill; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-18

    Large-scale electric energy storage is a key enabler for the use of renewable energy. Recently, the room-temperature Na-ion battery has been rehighlighted as an alternative low-cost technology for this application. However, significant challenges such as energy density and long-term stability must be addressed. Herein, we introduce a novel cathode material, Na1.5VPO4.8F0.7, for Na-ion batteries. This new material provides an energy density of ~600 Wh kg(-1), the highest value among cathodes, originating from both the multielectron redox reaction (1.2 e(-) per formula unit) and the high potential (~3.8 V vs Na(+)/Na) of the tailored vanadium redox couple (V(3.8+)/V(5+)). Furthermore, an outstanding cycle life (~95% capacity retention for 100 cycles and ~84% for extended 500 cycles) could be achieved, which we attribute to the small volume change (2.9%) upon cycling, the smallest volume change among known Na intercalation cathodes. The open crystal framework with two-dimensional Na diffusional pathways leads to low activation barriers for Na diffusion, enabling excellent rate capability. We believe that this new material can bring the low-cost room-temperature Na-ion battery a step closer to a sustainable large-scale energy storage system. PMID:23952799

  7. Topotactic Transformation Route to Monodisperse ?-NaYF4:Ln(3+) Microcrystals with Luminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Shao, Baiqi; Feng, Yang; Song, Yan; Jiao, Mengmeng; L, Wei; You, Hongpeng

    2016-02-15

    A novel nonorganic wet route for direct synthesis of uniform hexagonal ?-NaYF4:Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu, Tb, Ce/Tb, Yb/Er, and Yb/Tm) microcrystals with various morphologies has been developed wherein the intermediate routine cubic-hexagonal (? ? ?) phase transfer process was avoided. The morphology can be effectively tuned into hexagonal disc, prism, and novel hierarchical architectures by systematically fine manipulating the Na2CO3/F(-) feeding ratio. It has been found that the routine ? ? ? phase transfer for NaYF4 was not detected during the growth, while NaY(CO3)F2 emerged in the initial reaction stage and fast transformed into ?-NaYF4 via a novel topotactic transformation behavior. Detailed structural analysis showed that ?-NaYF4 preferred the [001] epitaxial growth direction of NaY(CO3)F2 due to the structural matching of [001]NaY(CO3)F2//[0001]?-NaYF4. Besides, the potential application of the as-prepared products as phosphors is emphasized by demonstrating multicolor emissions including downconversion, upconversion, and energy transfer (Ce-Tb) process by lanthanides doping. PMID:26841071

  8. TTX-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channels are expressed in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Berra-Romani, Roberto; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Matteson, Donald R

    2005-07-01

    The presence and properties of voltage-gated Na+ channels in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were studied using whole cell patch-clamp recording. SMCs from mouse and rat mesenteric arteries were enzymatically dissociated using two dissociation protocols with different enzyme combinations. Na+ and Ca2+ channel currents were present in myocytes isolated with collagenase and elastase. In contrast, Na+ currents were not detected, but Ca2+ currents were present in cells isolated with papain and collagenase. Ca2+ currents were blocked by nifedipine. The Na+ current was insensitive to nifedipine, sensitive to changes in the extracellular Na+ concentration, and blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC50 at 4.3 nM. The Na+ conductance was half maximally activated at -16 mV, and steady-state inactivation was half-maximal at -53 mV. These values are similar to those reported in various SMC types. In the presence of 1 microM batrachotoxin, the Na+ conductance-voltage relationship was shifted by 27 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction, inactivation was almost completely eliminated, and the deactivation rate was decreased. The present study indicates that TTX-sensitive, voltage-gated Na+ channels are present in SMCs from the rat and mouse mesenteric artery. The presence of these channels in freshly isolated SMC depends critically on the enzymatic dissociation conditions. This could resolve controversy about the presence of Na+ channels in arterial smooth muscle. PMID:15961372

  9. Reduced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in erythrocyte membranes from patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Bedin, M; Estrella, C H; Ponzi, D; Duarte, D V; Dutra-Filho, C S; Wyse, A T; Wajner, M; Wannmacher, C M

    2001-07-01

    Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was determined in erythrocyte membranes from 12 phenylketonuric patients of both sexes, aged 8.8 +/- 5.0 y, with plasma phenylalanine levels of 0.64 +/- 0.31 mM. The in vitro effects of phenylalanine and alanine on the enzyme activity in erythrocyte membranes from healthy individuals were also investigated. We observed that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was decreased by 31% in erythrocytes from phenylketonuric patients compared with normal age-matched individuals (p < 0.01). We also observed a significant negative correlation between erythrocyte Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity and plasma phenylalanine levels (r = -0.65; p < 0.05). All PKU patients with plasma phenylalanine levels higher than 0.3 mM had erythrocyte Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity below the normal range. Phenylalanine inhibited in vitro erythrocyte Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity by 22 to 34%, whereas alanine had no effect on this activity. However, when combined with phenylalanine, alanine prevented Na(+) K(+)-ATPase inhibition. Considering that reduction of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity occurs in various neurodegenerative disorders leading to neuronal loss, our previous observations showing a significant reduction of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in brain cortex of rats subjected to experimental phenylketonuria and the present results, it is proposed that determination of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in erythrocytes may be a useful peripheral marker for the neurotoxic effect of phenylalanine in phenylketonuria. PMID:11420419

  10. Control of ion selectivity in LeuT: two Na+ binding sites with two different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Noskov, Sergei Y; Roux, Benoît

    2008-03-28

    The x-ray structure of LeuT, a bacterial homologue of Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters, provides a great opportunity to better understand the molecular basis of monovalent cation selectivity in ion-coupled transporters. LeuT possesses two ion binding sites, NA1 and NA2, which are highly selective for Na(+). Extensive all-atom free-energy molecular dynamics simulations of LeuT embedded in an explicit membrane are performed at different temperatures and various occupancy states of the binding sites to dissect the molecular mechanism of ion selectivity. The results show that the two binding sites display robust selectivity for Na(+) over K(+) or Li(+), the competing ions of most similar radii. Of particular interest, the mechanism primarily responsible for selectivity for each of the two binding sites appears to be different. In NA1, selectivity for Na(+) over K(+) arises predominantly from the strong electrostatic field arising from the negatively charged carboxylate group of the leucine substrate coordinating the ion directly. In NA2, which comprises only neutral ligands, selectivity for Na(+) is enforced by the local structural restraints arising from the hydrogen-bonding network and the covalent connectivity of the polypeptide chain surrounding the ion according to a "snug-fit" mechanism. PMID:18280500

  11. Nucleation and Growth of Eutectic Si in Al-Si Alloys with Na Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. H.; Barrirero, J.; Engstler, M.; Aboulfadl, H.; Mücklich, F.; Schumacher, P.

    2015-03-01

    Al-5 wt pct Si-based alloys with Na additions (19 and 160 ppm) have been produced by controlled sand casting and melt spinning. Entrained droplet technique and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to investigate the nucleation behavior of eutectic Si. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used to investigate the distribution of Na atoms within eutectic Si and at the interfaces between eutectic Si and eutectic Al. It was found that (i) only 19 ppm Na addition results into a high undercooling (49 K (49 °C)) of the entrained eutectic droplet. However, further increasing Na addition up to 160 ppm exerts no positive effect on the nucleation of eutectic Si, instead a decreased undercooling (29 K (29 °C)) was observed. (ii) Na addition suppresses the growth of eutectic Si due to the Na segregation at the interface between eutectic Si and eutectic Al, and (iii) Na addition promotes significant multiple Si twins, which can be attributed to the proposed adsorption of Na atoms at the intersection of Si twins and along the <112>Si growth direction of Si. The present investigation demonstrates, for the first time, a direct observation on the distribution of Na atoms within eutectic Si and thereby provides strong experimental supports to the well-accepted impurity-induced twinning growth mechanism and poisoning of the twin plane re-entrant edge growth mechanism.

  12. Conservation of Ca2+/Calmodulin Regulation across Na and Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Johny, Manu; Yang, Philemon S.; Niu, Jacqueline; Yang, Wanjun; Joshi-Mukherjee, Rosy; Yue, David T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Voltage-gated Na and Ca2+channels comprise distinct ion-channel superfamilies, yet the carboxy tails of these channels exhibit high homology hinting at a long-shared and purposeful module. For different Ca2+ channels, carboxyl-tail inter actions with calmodulin do elaborate robust and similar forms of Ca2+ regulation. However, Na channels have only shown subtler Ca2+modulation that differs among reports, challenging attempts at unified understanding. Here, by rapid Ca2+photoreleaseon to Na channels, we reset this view of Na channel regulation. For cardiac muscle channels (NaV1.5), reported effects from which most mechanistic proposals derive, we observe no Ca2+modulation. Conversely, for skeletal-muscle channels (NaV1.4), we uncover fast Ca2+ regulation eerily similar to that of Ca2+ channels. Channel opathic myotonia mutations halve NaV1.4 Ca2+ regulation, and transplanting the NaV1.4 carboxy tail onto Ca2+ channels recapitulates Ca2+ regulation. Thus we argue for the persistence and physiological relevance of an ancient Ca2+ regulatory module across Na and Ca2+ channels. PMID:24949975

  13. Thyroid hormones increase Na -H exchange activity in renal brush border membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, J.; Sacktor, B.

    1985-06-01

    Na -H exchange activity, i.e., amiloride-sensitive Na and H flux, in renal proximal tubule brush border (luminal) membrane vesicles was increased in the hyperthyroid rat and decreased in the hypothyroid rat, relative to the euthyroid animal. A positive correlation was found between Na -H exchange activity and serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The thyroid status of the animal did not alter amiloride-insensitive Na uptake. The rate of passive pH gradient dissipation was higher in membrane vesicles from hyperthyroid rats compared to the rate in vesicles from hypothyroid animals, a result which would tend to limit the increase in Na uptake in vesicles from hyperthyroid animals. Na -dependent phosphate uptake was increased in membrane vesicles from hyperthyroid rats; Na -dependent D-glucose and L-proline uptakes were not changed by the thyroid status of the animal. The effect of thyroid hormones in increasing the uptake of Na in the brush border membrane vesicle is consistent with the action of the hormones in enhancing renal Na reabsorption.

  14. High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Kim, Jin Yong; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-15

    High temperature (250-350°C) sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are attractive energy storage devices for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications. Currently, two technologies are commercially available in NBBs, e.g., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. In this study, we investigated the combination of these two chemistries with a mixed cathode. In particular, the cathode of the cell consisted of molten NaAlCl4 as a catholyte and a mixture of Ni, NaCl and Na2S as active materials. During cycling, two reversible plateaus were observed in cell voltage profiles, which matched electrochemical reactions for Na-S and Na-NiCl2 redox couples. An irreversible reaction between sulfur species and Ni was identified during initial charge at 280°C, which caused a decrease in cell capacity. The final products on discharge included Na2Sn with 1< n <