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Sample records for pacific northwest natural

  1. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  2. Pacific Northwest: paradise lost

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.V.

    1980-04-18

    An influx of new residents to the Pacific Northwest is changing social patterns and is endangering the region's valued wilderness and resources. A growing population and a feeling that the national govenment is more exploitive than conserving of its resources combines with a political tension between progressive populism and conservative Mormon influences to make residents wary of either newcomers or new prosperity. The abundant hydro power is threatened as power demand increases and utilities, industries, and the state and local governments compete for their fair share. A plan to restructure the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been introduced in Congress to give it a single appointed administrator with the authority to decide how power will be distributed and which new power sources to develop. Concern about the two national nuclear waste repositories at Hanford and Idaho Falls led to a six-month moratorium at Hanford to warn the government that the site was not intended to be a permanent solution. A legislative proposal to set up regional nuclear parks will not relieve the Pacific Northwest's problems for some time. Leaders blame the policymakers for looking on the area as too remote and underpopulated to worry about. 18 references (DCK)

  3. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory CALIOPE overview

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, R.S.; Kelly, J.F.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1995-03-01

    This overview covers progress in the following areas in which Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributes to the CALIOPE Program: (1) Fabrication of electro-optic modulators to generate FM-coding on IR lasers in the 8-12 and 3-5 {mu}m regions. (2) IR spectroscopy of signature species, abnormal isotopic distributions, hydrolysis and kinetics of effluents interacting with the atmosphere, and reflectance measurements of natural surfaces. (3) Systems analysis of FM-DIAL concepts, including lateral phase coherence and MTF measurements, and laboratory tests of detector technology and demodulation methods. (4) Field tests of FM-DIAL, covering field validation of portable diode laser concepts, FM-CO{sub 2} interrogation of Hanford sites, and signal returns from natural specular surfaces. (5) Ancillary matters: ground-truthing at Hanford (and RSTR?), countermeasures, and new laser design concepts.

  5. Raindrop Characteristics in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest, influenced by maritime air masses for most of the year, generally exhibits low rainfall intensities. The drop-size characteristics of such low-intensity storms are rarely studied. An investigation of natural drop sizes and their distribution was conducted at the Palouse ...

  6. Optical characteristics of natural waters protect amphibians from UV-B in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palen, Wendy J.; Schindler, David E.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bury, R. Bruce; Diamond, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been proposed as a major environmental stressor leading to global amphibian declines. Prior experimental evidence from the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) indicating the acute embryonic sensitivity of at least four amphibian species to UV-B has been central to the literature about amphibian decline. However, these results have not been expanded to address population-scale effects and natural landscape variation in UV-B transparency of water at amphibian breeding sites: both necessary links to assess the importance of UV-B for amphibian declines. We quantified the UV-B transparency of 136 potential amphibian breeding sites to establish the pattern of UV-B exposure across two montane regions in the PNW. Our data suggest that 85% of sites are naturally protected by dissolved organic matter in pond water, and that only a fraction of breeding sites are expected to experience UV-B intensities exceeding levels associated with elevated egg mortality. Thus, the spectral characteristics of natural waters likely mediate the physiological effects of UV-B on amphibian eggs in all but the clearest waters. These data imply that UV-B is unlikely to cause broad amphibian declines across the landscape of the American Northwest.

  7. Assessing Earthquake Risks in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-10-01

    Megaquakes, which are subduction earthquakes with magnitudes of 8 or greater, occur about every 500 years on average along the Cascadia Subduction Zone in the Pacific Northwest. The earthquakes and related tsunamis can cause enormous damage. However, they may not be the most urgent seismic threat in the region, according to John Clague, a professor and expert on natural hazards at Simon Fraser University (SFU) in British Columbia.

  8. OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL WATERS PROTECT AMPHIBIANS FROM UV-B IN THE U.S. PACIFIC NORTHWEST: A REPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been proposed that UV-B is a cause of malfomations seen in amphibians. This document comments on the paper which discusses the concept that the optical characteristics of water may protect amphibians in the U.S. Pacific Northwest from the harmful effects of UV-B.

  9. OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL WATERS PROTECT AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS FROM UV-B IN THE US PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been proposed as a major environmental stressor leading to global amphibian declines. Prior experimental evidence from the US Pacific Northwest (PNW) indicating the acute embryonic sensitivity of at least 4 amphibian specie...

  10. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  11. Isotope hydrology and baseflow geochemistry in natural and human-altered watersheds in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Brooks, Erin S; Elliot, William J; Boll, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a stable isotope hydrology and geochemical analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA. Isotope ratios were used to estimate mean transit times (MTTs) in natural and human-altered watersheds using the FLOWPC program. Isotope ratios in precipitation resulted in a regional meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 7.42·δ(18)O + 0.88 (n = 316; r(2) = 0.97). Isotope compositions exhibited a strong temperature-dependent seasonality. Despite this seasonal variation, the stream δ(18)O variation was small. A significant regression (τ = 0.11D(-1.09); r(2) = 0.83) between baseflow MTTs and the damping ratio was found. Baseflow MTTs ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 years (human-altered), 0.7 to 1.7 years (mining-altered), and 0.7 to 3.2 years (forested). Greater MTTs were represented by more homogenous aqueous chemistry whereas smaller MTTs resulted in more dynamic compositions. The isotope and geochemical data presented provide a baseline for future hydrological modelling in the inland PNW. PMID:25692981

  12. Resident perceptions of natural resources between cities and across scales in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the global population becomes increasingly urban, research is needed to explore how local culture, land use, andpolicy will influence urban natural resource management. We used a broad-scale comparative approach and survey of residents within the Portland (Oregon)-Vancouver (W...

  13. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  14. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  15. Pacific Northwest and Alaska bioenergy program glossary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    A glossary of terms for the bioenergy program of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska is presented. A table with physical constants for individual gases most frequently found in fuel gases is also presented in this publication.

  16. Sources of plutonium to the tropical Northwest Pacific Ocean (1943-1999) identified using a natural coral archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Patric; Asami, Ryuji; Iryu, Yasufumi; Worsfold, Paul; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Choi, Min-Seok

    2011-03-01

    The Pu isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, were determined in annually-banded skeletons of an accurately dated (1943-1999) modern coral ( Porites lobata) from Guam Island to identify historical Pu sources to the tropical Northwest Pacific Ocean. Activity concentrations of 239+240Pu and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios were determined in the dated coral bands using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Close-in fallout from the former US Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands and global fallout were identified as the two main sources. The Guam site was dominated by PPG close-in fallout in the 1950s, with an average 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratio of 0.315 ± 0.005. In addition, a higher 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratio (0.456 ± 0.020) was observed that could be attributed to fallout from the "Ivy Mike" thermonuclear detonation in 1952. The atom ratio decreased in the 1960s and 1970s due to increase in the global fallout with a low 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratio (˜0.18). Recent coral bands (1981-1999) are dominated by the transport of remobilised Pu, with high 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios, from the Marshall Islands to Guam Island along the North Equatorial Current (NEC). This remobilised Pu was estimated to comprise 69% of the total Pu in the recent coral bands, although its contribution was variable over time.

  17. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  18. Pulse crop diseases in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United Nations declared that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses (IYP). This UN declaration of IYP will certainly increase awareness of pulses and likely position pulses as a primary source of protein and other essential nutrients for human diets. The US Pacific Northwest region (Idaho, Or...

  19. Verticillium wilt in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is a serious disease of many economically important agricultural and horticultural crops in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). The disease affects herbaceous annuals and perennials as well as woody trees and shrubs. Plants affected by Verticillium wilt exhibit chlorosis, wilting, defolia...

  20. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  1. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  2. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  3. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.2 Pacific Northwest marketing area....

  5. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  6. Anthropogenic Elevation Change in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prush, V. B.; Lohman, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has emerged as a valuable tool for studying crustal deformation signals. Its applications to studies of tectonic and non-tectonic sources are varied, including earthquakes and fault-related processes, volcanic deformation, vegetation structure, and anthropogenic signals. In addition to studies of crustal deformation, the sensitivity of interferometric phase to topography makes InSAR a superb tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). While much of the focus of InSAR research in recent years has been on deformation, changes in the elevation of the ground surface can be of great scientific or societal interest as well. Examples include elevation and volume change due to anthropogenic processes such as landfill and open-pit mining operations, and natural processes such as glacier thinning or terrain alteration resulting from effusive volcanic eruptions. Our study describes two elevation change signals observed in the Pacific Northwest that are of anthropogenic origin. Using the baseline-dependent nature of the topographic component of interferometric phase, we have determined a proxy for canopy height using coherent interferometric phase differences between adjacent logged and forested regions, as well as a means for determining estimates of the amount and time history of material displaced during mining operations at the Centralia Coal Mine in Centralia, Washington. Quantifying the amount of surface change due to anthropogenic activities is not only critical for tracking the altering landscape of the Pacific Northwest and reducing the observed error in interferograms attributable to elevation change. Deforestation is one of the most significant contributors to global carbon emissions, and quantifying changes in vegetation structure can assist in efforts to monitor and mitigate the effects of deforestation on climate change. Similarly, mining operations can have a lasting

  7. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 4

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-18

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 237,030 customers remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 8 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington.

  8. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 5

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-19

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 186,627 customers remain without power. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 6 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below.

  9. Regional crustal structures of Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Connard, G.; Couch, R.; Farooqui, S.; Pitts, G.S.; O'Malley, R.

    1986-04-01

    Long-wavelength gravity anomalies combined with regional seismic refraction data, obtained during the last two decades, allow a regional mapping of crustal thickness variations in the Pacific Northwest and the adjacent continental margin. When the effects of these variations in crustal thickness are removed from the gravity data, the residual gravity anomalies outline major upper crustal structures in the Pacific Northwest. Residual gravity anomalies show that the Cascade Range in Oregon fills a major north-south-trending graben. The graben is approximately 60 km wide and 160 km long, and is oriented approximately N10/sup 0/E. Its well-developed western wall exhibits a throw of 2-3 km. The Cascade Range and its associated graben overlie a prominent northeast-southwest structural trend that demarks a Mesozoic orocline. The oroclinal structure extends from the continental margin northwest of the Klamath Mountains in southwestern Oregon through the Blue Mountains in northeastern Oregon, and separates the late Mesozoic to early Tertiary basins of central Oregon and central Washington. A large regional gravity high observed over the Columbia basin in central Washington is attributed to both the thick surface layer of flood basalts and an anomalous lower crust. Gravity data integrated with seismic refraction and geologic data yield a computed model of the crustal structure of the Columbia Plateau. Removing the basalt layer of the model reveals a rift topography or complex graben structure that connects with or adjoins the Cascade graben on the southwest side of the basin and the Chiwaukun, Methow, and Republic grabens on the north side of the basin. These structures in the Pacific Northwest reflect generally east-west extension and wrench tectonics.

  10. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 3

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-17

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 468,200 customers, including Canada, remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 16 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below. The Olympic pipeline reports that the pipeline is operational; however, pipeline throughput remains reduced since one substation along the line remains without power. Complete power restoration is expected later today. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel distribution and production.

  11. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 6

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-20

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 134,868 customers remain without power. The number of outages is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent less than 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy and Seattle City Light.

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1997--2002

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research fundamental knowledge is created of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. Legacy environmental problems are solved by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, today`s environmental needs are addressed with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and the technical foundation is being laid for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also applies its capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. Brief summaries are given of the various tasks being carried out under these broad categories.

  13. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  14. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 2

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-16

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006 resulting in major power outagesin the region. The storm is now moving off into southern Canada. A new weather disturbance nearing the Northwest coast may generate a few rain and snow showers across the Seattle and Portland areas today, but widespread active weather is not expected. There are roughly 950,000 customers in the region (including Canada) without power as a result of the Pacific Northweststorms, down from a peak of 1.8 million customers. This represents about 26 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. As of 12:30 PM EST, the Renton Control Center for the Olympic Pipeline (petroleum products) had power restored. The pipeline, serviced by Puget Sound Energy, was shut down after it lost power during the storm. According to a pipeline official, the pipeline is expected to restart in approximately 2-3 hours with some reduced throughput later today. SeaTac International Airport receives jet fuel from the pipeline; however, it’s been reported that the airport has approximately eight days of jet fuel inventories on hand. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel production. There are some temporary and minor distribution at retail gas stations due to lack of power. Fuel delivery is also slowed in some areas due to delays on some roads. ESF #12 has not been deployed

  15. Pacific Northwest geothermal - Review and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, W.

    1980-11-01

    Activities associated with geothermal exploration and development in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington are reviewed. A geothermal electric plant on the Raft River is almost operational. Tests for space heating projects at Rexburg and in the City of Boise continue. The State of Oregon conducts its regional temperature gradient drilling program, and a number of shallow wells were drilled in 1979 and 1980. Deep well drilling (projected to 5,000 to 7,000 ft.) is pursued at Mount Hood. The eruption of Mount St. Helens has increased interest in the geothermal resources in Washington. A study of the warm and hot water potential on the northwest flank of Mount Ranier is negotiated. Possible space heating sources in 22 cities, towns, and hamlets in the Columbia Basin have been identified. Deleterious environmental impact on the forest regions of the Pacific Northwest is one reason for the Federal leasing problems. The electric power situation will be critical in the Northwest in 1983, as no additional power will probably be available to utilities from the Bonneville Power Administration. Indigenous U.S. energy sources can be developed and exploration activity can be increased if federal lease processing is greatly expedited.

  16. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  17. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  18. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Across the Pacific Northwest region of North America, many runs of wild (in contrast to hatchery-bred) salmon have declined and some have been extirpated. Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, socially divisive, and ...

  19. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs

  20. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions

  1. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to

  2. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 7

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-21

    Despite a small storm that came through the area last night with wind gusts peaking at 45 MPH, progress continues to be made in restoring power to customers who lost power during the December 14-15 storms which hit the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 95,971 customers remain without power, down from 1.8 million customers. The wind storm which affected the area yesterday was not as bad as previously expected, with the majority of the customer outages in the BC Hydro region, and 3,000 additional customer outages in the Puget Sound Energy service area. The customers without power represent 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy, BC Hydro, and Seattle City Light.

  3. Descriptors of natural thermal regimes in streams and their responsiveness to change in the Pacific Northwest of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy

    2013-01-01

    characteristics or descriptors of thermal regimes in streams. The descriptors we provide herein can be applied across hydro-ecological regions to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in thermal regimes. Evaluation of coherence and synchrony of different components of thermal regimes can facilitate identification of impacts of regional climate variability or local human or natural influences.

  4. WILL CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECT BIODIVERSITY IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST FORESTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global climate change could have significant consequences for biological diversity in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forested ecosystems, particularly in areas already threatened by anthropogenic activities and the resultant habitat modification and fragmentation. he forests of the Paci...

  5. Landsat: 25 Years in the Pacific Northwest Forest

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows a sequence of Landsat-based data in the Pacific Northwest. There is one data set for each year representing an aggregate of the approximate peak of the growing season (arou...

  6. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  7. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have been ...

  8. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  9. FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  10. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: FORECASTING THEIR STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  11. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population) have declined and some have been e...

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for CY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ceffalo, G.M.; Oxley, C.L.; Wright, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    This report provides summary results of the CY 1990 ALARA Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Information has been included regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, and the nonradiological ALARA program.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change {number_sign}3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services` current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change {number sign}3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services' current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  15. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC...

  16. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC...

  17. ANIMAL-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch (EPA, Newport, OR) is to determine the effects of habitat alteration by stressors on ecological resources in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries. Research being conducted in support of this mission includes identifying critical hab...

  18. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  19. Assessment of Geothermal Resources for Electric Generation in the Pacific Northwest, Draft Issue Paper for the Northwest Power Planning Council

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, John D.; Kellerman, L.M.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1989-09-26

    This document reviews the geothermal history, technology, costs, and Pacific Northwest potentials. The report discusses geothermal generation, geothermal resources in the Pacific Northwest, cost and operating characteristics of geothermal power plants, environmental effects of geothermal generation, and prospects for development in the Pacific Northwest. This report was prepared expressly for use by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The report contains numerous references at the end of the document. [DJE-2005

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  1. Statistical evaluation of Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Consumption Survey weather data

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses an issue relating to energy consumption and conservation in the residential sector. BPA has obtained two meteorological data bases for use with its 1983 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES). One data base consists of temperature data from weather stations; these have been aggregated to form a second data base that covers the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climatic divisions. At BPA's request, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a household energy use model for both electricity and natural gas in order to determine whether the statistically estimated parameters of the model significantly differ when the two different meteorological data bases are used.

  2. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  3. IMPLEMENTING REGIONAL SCALE MONITORING IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION OF THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vast forest greeted the early non-native explorers and settlers as they traversed the Pacific Northwest, currently the states of Washington, Oregon and Northern California, west of the Cascade Mountains. This natural resource supported an ever-expanding logging industry, with su...

  4. Pacific Northwest History: A Library Research Unit Emphasizing Multicultural Perspectives. Multicultural Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Wanda Buckner; And Others

    Designed for high school students, this unit provides library activities for six topics in Pacific Northwest history. Although the references are located in the Renton High School (Olympia, Washington) library, the lessons are appropriate for anyone with access to the materials. The six topics are natural environment, Indians, western frontier,…

  5. Spring wheat tolerance and resistance to Heterodera avenae in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae reduces wheat yields in the Pacific Northwest. Previous evaluations of cultivar resistance had been in controlled environments. Cultivar tolerance had not been evaluated. Seven spring wheat trials were conducted in naturally infested fields in three states ...

  6. REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS: THE FUTURE OF SALMON IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  7. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  8. Towards Managing Stemphylium Blight of Lentil in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stemphylium blight of lentil, caused by the fungus Stemphylium botryosum, has recently emerged as a disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, particularly on the recently released lentil cultivar ‘Morena’. The first step toward managing the disease is to correctly identify early signs of the diseas...

  9. Secondary Climate Change Education in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, P. Troy; Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is an important issue students should understand to be productive members of society. The objectives were to evaluate the instruction and teacher perceptions relating to CC in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) secondary (7-12) classes across disciplines. The teacher perceptions, instructional frequency, perceived barriers to…

  10. Green Mansions: The Evergreen Forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philipek, Frances; Smith, Shelley; Brook, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ecosystem in Pacific Northwest Coastal America and investigates land management issues. Discusses the impact of canopy trees on temperature and the forest itself. Explains fungi's relationship with trees and presents activities on stream flow, wood, volcanoes, and plants for the classroom. (YDS)

  11. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 2. Technical appendix

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The technical appendix presents the technical aspects of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: the survey questionnaire, exhibit cards, instructions for interviewers, and a description of the survey plan. A description of the sample plan (method used to determine which 4000 households) is given. (MCW)

  12. HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: TWEAKING THE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) has recently been documented in Pacific Northwest forests, but the controls governing this process and its importance to shallow-rooted species are poorly understood. Our objective in this study was to manipulate the soil-root system to tease apart ...

  13. Glutenin alleles in U.S. Pacific Northwest Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study included 226 commercial cultivars and elite breeding lines from the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Two or more individual seeds of each variety were extracted for high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and analyzed using SDS-PAGE. Bands were assigned visually and with the aid of image ...

  14. Integrated Management of Jointed Goatgrass in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jointed goatgrass (JGG) was first discovered in Washington near Hay in 1917. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) JGG decreases soil health, grain quantity and quality, and increases marketing expenses. Since the initiation of the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program in the western United States,...

  15. Winter safflower, a potential alternative crop for the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dryland cropping system in the Pacific Northwest is dominated by a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system that occupies more than 90% of the dryland hectares. Success in finding a viable alternative crop has been limited because the annual precipitation in this region varies from less than 1...

  16. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: THE MOST LIKELY FUTURE AND SOME ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of...

  17. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: IN SEARCH OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds...

  18. Assessment of Straw Biomass Feedstock Resources in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw is produced as a coproduct of cereal grain and grass seed production on 6.2 million acres in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Some of this straw residue is returned to the soil for conservation purposes, but markets for excess straw are limited. As a consequence, much of this straw was burne...

  19. Soil and Water Challenges for Pacific Northwest Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and water conservation has been a major concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest since the onset of farming 125 years ago. Some of the highest historic water erosion rates in the USA have occurred on steep slopes in the Palouse region where soil loss averaged 45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and could reach 450 ...

  20. Glutenin alleles in U.S. Pacific Northwest wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), comprised of the states of Washington, Idaho and Oregon, produces about 8 million metric tonnes of wheat annually. This region is somewhat unique in that it grows winter and spring wheats, hard and soft wheats, white and red-grained wheats, and club and lax-head (‘c...

  1. Growth of switchgrass as biofuel in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been grown as a seed crop in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for more than 20 years but monitoring for adaptability as forage or research into biomass for ethanol production had been lacking until about five years ago. During the past five years we have established ei...

  2. 77 FR 54575 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 34381). Western is extending the existing transmission service rates to allow sufficient... service rates via publication of a Federal Register notice on June 11, 2012 (77 FR 34381). The... Area Power Administration Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project--Rate Order No....

  3. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project, Central Arizona Project, and Parker-Davis Project--Rate Order No. WAPA... Western Area Power Administration (Western) Transmission Projects to Enter into WestConnect's...

  4. FROST CONTROL IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The basic physics of frost protection in orchards and vineyard in the Pacific Northewest USA are presented. Various frost protection techniques are discussed and compared. Potential emerging technologies in cold temperature modification are also discussed for potential applications in New Zealand k...

  5. 2013 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (2013 White Book) is BPA's latest projection of the Pacific Northwest regional retail loads, contract obligations, contract purchases, and resource capabilities. The 2013 White Book is a snapshot of conditions as of October 1, 2013, documenting the loads and resources for the Federal system and region for the 10-year study period OY 2014 through 2023. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). Starting with the 2012 White Book, BPA changed the annual production schedule for future White Books. BPA is scheduled to publish a complete White Book, which includes a Federal System Needs Assessment analysis, every other year (even years). In the odd-numbered years, BPA will publish a biennial summary update (Supplement) that only contains major changes to the Federal System and Regional System analyses that have occurred since the last White Book. http://www.bpa.gov/power/pgp/whitebook/2013/index.shtml.

  6. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  7. Classification of species attributes for Pacific Northwest freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaroban, D.W.; Mulvey, M.P.; Maret, T.R.; Hughes, R.M.; Merritt, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    Fish assemblages integrate physical and chemical habitat conditions and are used to evaluate the condition of water resources in the Pacific Northwest. To facilitate such evaluations, we classified each of the 132 freshwater fish species known to occur in the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon, Washington) by its origin, overall pollution tolerance, adult habitat, adult feeding, and water temperature preference. Recommendations from regional fishery experts, published literature, and the aggregate experience of the authors were used to classify species. The attribute classifications were responsive to human disturbance of aquatic habitats when applied to fish assemblages sampled from throughout the region. Our attribute classification of fish species promotes use of fish assemblages to evaluate water resource conditions regionally and fosters greater acceptance of biological measures of water resource quality.

  8. Will climate change affect biodiversity in pacific northwest forests

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, S.; Rosenbaum, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Global climate change could have significant consequences for biological diversity in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forested ecosystems, particularly in areas already threatened by anthropogenic activities and the resultant habitat modification and fragmentation. The forests of the Pacific Northwest have a high biological diversity, not only in terms of tree species, but also in terms of herbs, bryophytes and hepatophytes, algae, fungi, protist, bacteria, and many groups of vertebrates and invertebrates. Global circulation and vegetation model projections of global climate change effects on PNW forests include reductions in species diversity in low elevation forests as well as elevational and latitudinal shifts in species ranges. As species are most likely to be stressed at the edges of their ranges, plant and animal species with low mobility, or those that are prevented from migrating by lack of habitat corridors, may become regionally extinct. Endangered species with limited distribution may be especially vulnerable to shifts in habitat conditions.

  9. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  12. Drought in the Pacific Northwest, 1920-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, M.; Nijssen, B.; Mao, Y.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Drought, which is usually defined as an extended period of water supply deficit, is one of the costliest natural hazards. Agricultural, fisheries, hydropower generation and water resource management are all directly affected by droughts. Droughts are usually classified as meteorological, agricultural, or hydrological. The first type is defined based on precipitation and the latter two are connected with hydrological variables (soil moisture and runoff). Because observations of soil moisture and (spatially distributed) runoff are sparse, agricultural and hydrological drought is more difficult to quantify, and hydrological models are often used in their analysis. Nonetheless, the temporal and spatial characteristics of these types of drought are not well understood. Based on hydrological model simulation results for a period of nearly a century, we evaluate the historical characteristics of drought over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, defined as the Columbia River basin and coastal drainages. Major droughts in the 1930s, 1977 and early 2000s caused substantial economic losses to the region. We used the VIC macroscale hydrology model to simulate 94 years (1920-2013) of runoff and soil moisture over the region. In order to minimize the effects of model error, we interpret results as percentiles that are calculated according to simulation outputs distribution. We explore in particular the characteristics of drought in the PNW. The main results are: 1, the dry time period are more likely to be included in a drought event while the onset are usually earlier; 2, little snow-melting can lead to hydrological drought (below-normal streamflow) in that year; 3, the spatial pattern of agricultural drought frequency is highly related with precipitation and soil moisture persistence.

  13. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Weston, D P; Asbell, A M; Hecht, S A; Scholz, N L; Lydy, M J

    2011-10-01

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 °C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 °C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. PMID:21592636

  14. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  15. Synthetic testing of the Pacific Northwest earthquake early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B. W.; Schmidt, D. A.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.; Gomberg, J. S.; Jamison, D.; Minson, S. E.; Hartog, J. R.; Kress, V. C.; Malone, S. D.; Usher, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone poses one of the greatest risks for a megaquake in the continental United States and, because of this, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) at the University of Washington is building a joint seismic and geodetic earthquake early warning system. Our two-stage approach to earthquake early warning includes: (1) detection and initial characterization using strong-motion and broadband data from the PNSN with the ElarmS package, and (2) geodetic modeling modules using GPS data from the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA) and combined seismogeodetic (GPS + strong-motion) data. Because of Cascadia's relatively low seismicity rate and the paucity of data from plate boundary earthquakes, we have prioritized the development of a test system and the creation of several large simulated events. The test system permits us to: (1) replay segments of actual seismic waveform data recorded from the PNSN and neighboring networks to represent both earthquakes and noise conditions, and (2) broadcast synthetic data into the system to simulate signals we anticipate from earthquakes for which we have no actual ground motion recordings. The test system lets us also simulate various error conditions (latent and/or out-of-sequence data, telemetry drop-outs, etc.) and to explore how best to mitigate them. Here, we report on the performance of the joint early warning system and the geodetic modeling modules in a simulated real-time mode using simulated 5-Hz displacements from plausible Cascadian earthquake scenarios. The simulations are created using the FK integration method for hypothetical source models for a wide array of possible faulting types and magnitudes. The results show that the geodetic modeling modules are able to properly characterize the simulated events, and we discuss the limitations with respect to latency, network architecture, and earthquake location throughout the Pacific Northwest.

  16. An index of biological integrity (IBI) for Pacific Northwest rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Maret, T.R.; Hughes, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) is a commonly used measure of relative aquatic ecosystem condition; however, its application to coldwater rivers over large geographic areas has been limited. A seven-step process was used to construct and test an IBI applicable to fish assemblages in coldwater rivers throughout the U.S. portion of the Pacific Northwest. First, fish data from the region were compiled from previous studies and candidate metrics were selected. Second, reference conditions were estimated from historical reports and minimally disturbed reference sites in the region. Third, data from the upper Snake River basin were used to test metrics and develop the initial index. Fourth, candidate metrics were evaluated for their redundancy, variability, precision, and ability to reflect a wide range of conditions while distinguishing reference sites from disturbed sites. Fifth, the selected metrics were standardized by being scored continuously from 0 to 1 and then weighted as necessary to produce an IBI ranging from 0 to 100. The resulting index included 10 metrics: number of native coldwater species, number of age-classes of sculpins Cottus spp., percentage of sensitive native individuals, percentage of coldwater individuals, percentage of tolerant individuals, number of alien species, percentage of common carp Cyprinus carpio individuals, number of selected salmonid age-classes, catch per unit effort of coldwater individuals, and percentage of individuals with selected anomalies. Sixth, the IBI responses were tested with additional data sets from throughout the Pacific Northwest. Last, scores from two minimally disturbed reference rivers were evaluated for longitudinal gradients along the river continuum. The IBI responded to environmental disturbances and was spatially and temporally stable at over 150 sites in the Pacific Northwest. The results support its use across a large geographic area to describe the relative biological condition of coolwater and

  17. Seismic survey probes urban earthquake hazards in Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, M. A.; Brocher, T. M.; Hyndman, R. D.; Trehu, A. M.; Weaver, C. S.; Creager, K. C.; Crosson, R. S.; Parsons, T.; Cooper, A. K.; Mosher, D.; Spence, G.; Zelt, B. C.; Hammer, P. T.; ten Brink, U.; Pratt, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Childs, J. R.; Cochrane, G. R.; Chopra, S.; Walia, R.

    A multidisciplinary seismic survey earlier this year in the Pacific Northwest is expected to reveal much new information about the earthquake threat to U.S. and Canadian urban areas there. A disastrous earthquake is a very real possibility in the region.The survey, known as the Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS), engendered close cooperation among geologists, biologists, environmental groups, and government agencies. It also succeeded in striking a fine balance between the need to prepare for a great earthquake and the requirement to protect a coveted marine environment while operating a large airgun array.

  18. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  19. Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging.

  20. Seismic survey probes urban earthquake hazards in Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Brocher, T.M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Trehu, A.M.; Weaver, C.S.; Creager, K.C.; Crosson, R.S.; Parsons, T.; Cooper, A. K.; Mosher, D.; Spence, G.; Zelt, B.C.; Hammer, P.T.; Childs, J. R.; Cochrane, G.R.; Chopra, S.; Walia, R.

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary seismic survey earlier this year in the Pacific Northwest is expected to reveal much new information about the earthquake threat to U.S. and Canadian urban areas there. A disastrous earthquake is a very real possibility in the region. The survey, known as the Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS), engendered close cooperation among geologists, biologists, environmental groups, and government agencies. It also succeeded in striking a fine balance between the need to prepare for a great earthquake and the requirement to protect a coveted marine environment while operating a large airgun array.

  1. Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging.

  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  4. Vegetable oil as an agricultural fuel for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D.L.; Thomas, V.M.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.; Bettis, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Five million barrels of liquid fuel are needed annually for the continued production of agricultural commoditiese on the 12.7 million cultivated acres in the Pacific Northwest Region. Because most energy intensive operations in the agricultural industry are done by diesel engines, the technology to produce a substitute for diesel must be developed and vegetable oil appears to hold great promise as an alternative fuel. The vegetable oils potential as an alternative liquid fuel in the region is described. Rapidly rising fuel costs could make this new fuel not only economically feasible but necessary to ensure the region's continued agriculture production.

  5. Thresholds for protecting Pacific Northwest ecosystems from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: state of knowledge report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, Tonnie; Blett, Tamara; Porter, Ellen; Geiser, Linda; Graw, Rick; McMurray, Jill; Perakis, Steven S.; Rochefort, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service manage areas in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington – collectively referred to in this report as the Pacific Northwest - that contain significant natural resources and provide many recreational opportunities. The agencies are mandated to protect the air quality and air pollution-sensitive resources on these federal lands. Human activity has greatly increased the amount of nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere, resulting in elevated amounts of nitrogen being deposited in park and forest ecosystems. There is limited information in the Pacific Northwest about the levels of nitrogen that negatively affect natural systems, i.e., the critical loads. The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service, with scientific input from the U.S. Geological Survey, have developed an approach for accumulating additional nitrogen critical loads information in the Pacific Northwest and using the data in planning and regulatory arenas. As a first step in that process, this report summarizes the current state of knowledge about nitrogen deposition, effects, and critical loads in the region. It also describes ongoing research efforts and identifies and prioritizes additional data needs.

  6. 1998 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: 1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and 2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. The load forecast is derived by using economic planning models to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract

  7. Characterizing Inland Pacific Northwest American Viticultural Areas with Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Ian-Huei; Davenport, Joan R.; Rupp, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    American Viticultural Areas are officially recognized appellations for wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). They represent not only geographic identification for growers, but also economic significance through price premiums for grapes from desirable appellations and wines sourcing grapes from such appellations. Petitions for establishment and official descriptions of American Viticultural Areas in the inland Pacific Northwest have traditionally relied on general descriptions of physical attributes and data from point measurements, namely weather stations. Examination of spatial datasets in a geographic information system provides a more holistic means of assessing viticultural areas and a spatially continuous representation of an area. Comparison of spatial datasets to official appellation descriptions largely corroborate petitioners' claims, often with greater detail, but also highlight some shortcomings of official appellation descriptions. By focusing on spatial data representing environmental factors most important to wine grape production, viticultural areas can be described more thoroughly and accurately and appellations may be more appropriately delineated. We examined inland Pacific Northwest American Viticultural Areas with a geographic information system approach, illustrating the utility of spatial datasets in characterization and delineation of American Viticultural Areas. PMID:23614001

  8. Geospatial Habitat Analysis in Pacific Northwest Coastal Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Amy B. ); Thom, Ronald M. ); Rumrill, Steven; Miller, L M.

    2003-08-01

    We assessed historical changes in the location and amount of estuarine habitat in three of the four largest coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest (Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Coos Bay) as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS). To accomplish this, navigation charts, hydrographic survey data, maps, and published descriptions were used to gain information on the location of the shoreline, bathymetry, and vegetated habitats, which was then digitized and subjected to geospatial analysis using a geographic information system. In addition, we used present-day elevational boundaries for marshes, flats, and eelgrass meadows to help define habitat areas where they were not indicated on historical maps. The analysis showed that tidal flats have decreased in all study areas; potential eelgrass habitat has increased in Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay and decreased slightly in Coos Bay; tidal wetland area has declined in all three coastal estuaries, with increases in localized areas due to filling and sedimentation; and dramatic changes have occurred at the mouths of Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay. As has been shown before, these data illustrate that direct physical alteration (filling and diking) has resulted in large changes to habitats. However, indirect impacts from forest practices in the watershed, as well as variation in climatic factors and oceanographic processes, may also have contributed to changes. The information provides more evidence for managing estuarine habitats in the region and a employing a historical template to plan habitat restoration in the future.

  9. Validation Efforts of the Pacific Northwest River Restoration Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, J. M.; Katz, S. L.; Morehead, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    The improvement of science in river restoration relies heavily on the evaluation of previously established projects in order to assess the ecosystem response and project outcome (Bernhard et al, 2005). To facilitate this, there needs to be competent project tracking and documentation of outcomes. In the Pacific Northwest, the National Marine Fisheries Service's Northwest Fisheries Science Center has compiled a database containing over 26,000 restoration actions at 36,000 locations in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana (Katz, et al. in review). Recent efforts have been undertaken to validate this database through selection of random samples for telephone interviews and field site visits. 47 project managers were interviewed via telephone regarding their restoration activities within four project category intents. In addition, six Columbia River sub-basins were selected for site validation sampling of 170 projects. The basins included for site validations are the Lemhi and Pahsimeroi Rivers in Idaho, the Methow and Entiat Rivers in Washington, and the Upper and Lower John Day Rivers in Oregon. Survey results are presented with statistical estimators to validate the database. Regional trends in river restoration were found to exist and differences were found between reporting agencies and on the smaller, local scale. The implementation of restoration activities is examined to see if projects are being instigated as intended and case studies are examined to reveal lessons learned from practitioners. In general, the effectiveness of various river restoration activities in the Pacific Northwest would be better charted through standardization in project tracking and documentation. References Bernhardt, E. S., Palmer, M. A., Allan, J. D., Alexander, G., Barnas, K., Brooks, S., Carr, J., Clayton, S., Dahm, C., Follstad-Shah, J., Galat, D., Gloss, S., Goodwin, P., Hart, D., Hassett, B., Jenkinson, J., Katz, S., Kondolf, G. M., Lake, P. S., Lave, R., Meyer, J. L., O

  10. Effects of climate change on Pacific Northwest water-related resources: Summary of preliminary findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Sands, R.D.; Vail, L.W.; Chatters, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Case Study is a multi-agency analysis of atmospheric/climatic change impacts on the Pacific Northwest (which includes Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of the Columbia River Basin in Western Montana). The purpose of the case study, which began in fiscal year 1991, was to develop and test analytical tools, as well as to develop an assessment of the effects of climate change on climate-sensitive natural resources of the Pacific Northwest and economic sectors dependent on them. The overall study, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, was a broad-based, reconnaissance-level study to identify potential climate impacts on agriculture, coastal resources, forest resources, and irrigation in the Pacific Northwest. DOE participated in the reconnaissance study, with responsibility for hydroelectric and water supply issues. While this report briefly discusses a broader array of water issues, attention is mainly focused on three aspects of the water study: (1) the effects of the region`s higher temperatures on the demand for electric power (which in turn puts additional demand on hydroelectric resources of the region); (2) the effects of higher temperatures and changes, both in precipitation amounts and seasonality, on river flows and hydroelectric supply; and (3) the effect of higher temperatures and changed precipitation amounts and seasonality on salmonid resources -- particularly the rearing conditions in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin. Because the meaning of regional climate forecasts is still quite uncertain, most of the preliminary findings are based on sensitivity analyses and historical analog climate scenarios.

  11. Powdery mildews on weeds in the Pacific Northwest: a miscellany of new records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erysiphye polygoni on Rumex crispus, documented previously in California, is reported for the first time in the Pacific Northwest. Podosphaera (Sphaerotheca) fusca is reported in the Pacific Northwest for the first time on Taraxacum laevigatum, a host record documented previously in Europe. New ho...

  12. Supplemental Pacific Northwest History Materials: Overcoming Racism and Sexism. Multicultural Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chestnut, Stephen Lawrence

    Twenty-four units which focus on the contribution of women and minority group members to the development of the Pacific Northwest provide supplementary material for high school social studies classes. The lives of 12 women are treated in separate units. Other topics include the Pacific Northwest 100 years ago, the temperance movement, oral history…

  13. 1999 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands—firm loads—are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and “contracted for” resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of

  14. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  15. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  16. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. These stresses include increased temperatures, sea level rise, and high nutrient inputs, all of which may directly affect the productivi...

  17. Radium distribution and indoor radon in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, J.S.; Otton, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Aerial gamma-ray data were compiled to produce a map showing the distribution of radium (226Ra) in near-surface materials in the Pacific Northwest, (Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, and parts of Montana, Wyoming, California, Nevada, and Utah). A comparison of measurements of indoor concentration levels of radon (222Rn) in homes with the apparent surface concentration of radium shows that aerial gamma-ray data provide a first order estimate of the relative amounts of indoor radon for township-sized areas where soils have low to moderate permeability. Townships with average indoor radon levels above the general trend of the data are almost all characterized by soils that have higher intrinsic permeabilities. -Authors

  18. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  19. High dose calibrations at the pacific northwest laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, J. C.; Fox, R. A.

    1989-04-01

    he need is increasing for both high radiation exposures and calibration measurements that provide traceability of such exposures to national standards. The applications of high exposures include: electronic component damage studies, sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. Accurate high exposure measurements are difficult to obtain and cannot, in general, be carried out with a single dose measurement system or technique because of the wide range of doses and the variety of materials involved. This paper describes the dosimetric measurement and calibration techniques used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that make use of radiochromic dye films, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), ionization chambers and calorimetric dosimeters. The methods used to demonstrate the consistency of PNL calibrations with national standards will also be discussed.

  20. Validation of Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes at the Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicz, K. A.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Comeleo, R. L.; Wigington, P. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between the physical properties of a catchment (form) and climatic forcing of precipitation and energy control how water is partitioned, stored, and conveyed through a catchment (function). Hydrologic Landscapes (HLs) were previously developed across Oregon and describe climatic and physical properties for over 5000 assessment units. This approach was then extended to the three Pacific Northwest states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho (PNW HL). The HLs were developed using the National Hydrography Dataset's WBD HU12 scale and are comprised of classification components describing climate, climate seasonality, aquifer permeability, terrain, and soil permeability. To compare the PNW HL classification to catchment hydrologic behavior, HLs were aggregated to catchment scale to compare against the input/output of water in the catchment. HL aggregation must preserve information on the location of the HL within the catchment outlet (upstream vs. downstream) and properties of that HL (i.e. water source vs. sink). Catchment function was investigated by use of hydrologic signatures, which are attributes of long-term time series of water into and out of the catchment. Signatures include Runoff Ratio, Baseflow Index, Snow Ratio, and Recession Coefficients. This study has three primary objectives: 1) derivation of hydrologic signatures to capture the hydrologic behavior for catchments in the Pacific Northwest: 2) development of methodology to aggregate HLs to the catchment scale; and 3) statistical analysis of signature values and trends with respect to aggregated HL classification. We hypothesize that we will find: 1) strong relationships between aggregated HLs and hydrologic signatures; 2) signatures related to water balance are explained by climatic conditions; and 3) signatures describing flow paths are predicted by terrain, soil, and aquifer permeability. This study examined 230 catchments to achieve objectives and test hypotheses stated.

  1. On subduction zone earthquakes and the Pacific Northwest seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Dae H.

    1991-12-01

    A short review of subduction zone earthquakes and the seismicity of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States is provided for the purpose of a basis for assessing issues related to earthquake hazard evaluations for the region. This review of seismotectonics regarding historical subduction zone earthquakes and more recent seismological studies pertaining to rupture processes of subduction zone earthquakes, with specific references to the Pacific Northwest, is made in this brief study. Subduction zone earthquakes tend to rupture updip and laterally from the hypocenter. Thus, the rupture surface tends to become more elongated as one considers larger earthquakes (there is limited updip distance that is strongly coupled, whereas rupture length can be quite large). The great Aleutian-Alaska earthquakes of 1957, 1964, and 1965 had rupture lengths of greater than 650 km. The largest earthquake observed instrumentally, the M{sub W} 9.5, 1960 Chile Earthquake, had a rupture length over 1000 km. However, earthquakes of this magnitude are very unlikely on Cascadia. The degree of surface shaking has a very strong dependency on the depth and style of rupture. The rupture surface during a great earthquake shows heterogeneous stress drop, displacement, energy release, etc. The high strength zones are traditionally termed asperities and these asperities control when and how large an earthquake is generated. Mapping of these asperities in specific subduction zones is very difficult before an earthquake. They show up more easily in inversions of dynamic source studies of earthquake ruptures, after an earthquake. Because seismic moment is based on the total radiated-energy from an earthquake, the moment-based magnitude M{sub W} is superior to all other magnitude estimates, such as M{sub L}, m{sub b}, M{sub bLg}, M{sub S}, etc Probably, just to have a common language, non-moment magnitudes should be converted to M{sub W} in any discussions of subduction zone earthquakes.

  2. Biomass resources for electric generation in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstetter, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Biomass fuels offer a unique energy resource for electric generation in the Pacific Northwest. They are produced as a coproduct from our needs for food, fiber, and structural materials. Many of the fuels are considered as waste products from the major manufacturing process and are available for the cost of transportation. About 1,055 PJ (1,000 TBtu) of biomass residues are generated each year in the Pacific Northwest. Traditional sources of biomass fuels include forest residues, wood manufacturing residues, agricultural field residues, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Woody residues have a long history of being used for electric generation, especially from cogeneration facilities located at pulp mills. MSW facilities were built in the 1980s but interest has declined with the availability of large regional landfills. Forest residues and agricultural field residues are not used in the region but are used in increasing amounts for electric generation in California. Other biomass resources include spent pulping liquors, biogas from animal manure and landfills, and residues from fiber plantations. A major question addressed in this paper is the future availability and cost of biomass fuels. Biomass fuels offer several environmental advantages. With the exception of MSW they are inherently clean burning. Their low sulfur and nitrogen content permits burning without the need for acid gas scrubbers. Their carbon dioxide emissions on an energy basis are comparable to coal but there is one important difference. The biological growth of biomass fuels consumes carbon dioxide as part of the photosynthetic process and thus their net contribution to global warming is zero. The utility industry has increased its interest in biomass fuels because of the carbon dioxide advantages.

  3. Identifying block structure in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. C.; Wells, R. E.

    2015-11-01

    We have identified block structure in the Pacific Northwest (west of 116°W between 38°N and 49°N) by clustering GPS stations so that the same Euler vector approximates the velocity of each station in a cluster. Given the total number k of clusters desired, the clustering procedure finds the best assignment of stations to clusters. Clustering is calculated for k = 2-14. In geographic space, cluster boundaries that remain relatively stable as k is increased are tentatively identified as block boundaries. That identification is reinforced if the cluster boundary coincides with a geologic feature. Boundaries identified in Northern California and Nevada are the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, the west side of the Northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Bartlett Springs Fault. Three blocks cover all of Oregon and Washington. The principal block boundary there extends west-northwest along the Brothers Fault Zone, then north and northwest along the eastern boundary of Siletzia, the accreted oceanic basement of the forearc. East of this boundary is the Intermountain block; its eastern boundary undefined. A cluster boundary at Cape Blanco subdivides the forearc along the faulted southern margin of Siletzia. South of Cape Blanco, the Klamath Mountains-Basin and Range block, extends east to the Central Nevada Seismic Belt and south to the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. The Siletzia block, north of Cape Blanco, coincides almost exactly with the accreted Siletz terrane. The cluster boundary in the eastern Olympic Peninsula may mark permanent shortening of Siletzia against the Intermountain block.

  4. Identifying block structure in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Wells, Ray E.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified block structure in the Pacific Northwest (west of 116°W between 38°N and 49°N) by clustering GPS stations so that the same Euler vector approximates the velocity of each station in a cluster. Given the total number k of clusters desired, the clustering procedure finds the best assignment of stations to clusters. Clustering is calculated for k= 2 to 14. In geographic space, cluster boundaries that remain relatively stable as k is increased are tentatively identified as block boundaries. That identification is reinforced if the cluster boundary coincides with a geologic feature. Boundaries identified in northern California and Nevada are the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, the west side of the Northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Bartlett Springs Fault. Three blocks cover all of Oregon and Washington. The principal block boundary there extends west-northwest along the Brothers Fault Zone, then north and northwest along the eastern boundary of Siletzia, the accreted oceanic basement of the forearc. East of this boundary is the Intermountain block, its eastern boundary undefined. A cluster boundary at Cape Blanco subdivides the forearc along the faulted southern margin of Siletzia. South of Cape Blanco the Klamath Mountains-Basin and Range block extends east to the Central Nevada Seismic Belt and south to the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. The Siletzia block north of Cape Blanco coincides almost exactly with the accreted Siletz terrane. The cluster boundary in the eastern Olympic Peninsula may mark permanent shortening of Siletzia against the Intermountain block.

  5. Experimental Warming and Precipitation Effects on Plant Community Composition, Productivity, Nutrient Availability, and Soil Respiration in Pacific Northwest Prairies along a Natural Climate Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgham, S. D.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Tomaszewski, T.; Reynolds, L.; Goklany, M.; Wilson, H.; Johnson, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change effects on soil respiration and carbon stores in grasslands globally may have significant implications for future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Climate change may also may negatively impact native plant species and favor exotic species. We are experimentally increasing temperature by 3 degrees C and increasing precipitation by 25% above ambient in three upland prairie sites along a natural climate gradient from southwestern Oregon to central-western Washington to determine how future climate change will affect (i) plant community composition and the relative success of native versus introduced plant species and (ii) above- and belowground carbon and nutrient dynamics. Sixty plots (20 at each site) were restored by mowing, raking, and herbicide application followed by the sowing of the same 34 native grass and forb species in each plot. Differences in total cover, net primary productivity, and community composition were much greater among sites than among treatments within sites in both 2010--the establishment year, and 2011-the first full year of treatment. Strong successional dynamics occurred over the two years as competition intensified, but these were dependent on a site-treatment interaction, with lower native plant survival in heated plots because of competitive exclusion by exotic, invasive plants. A strong treatment - season interaction in canopy cover (as determined by canopy reflectance) also occurred, with heating causing greater cover during the wet season and lower cover during the dry season. This effect was strongest in the southernmost site which experiences earlier and more intense drought conditions. There were also strong site, treatment, and season interactions on nutrient availability as determined by cation-anion exchange resins. Heating increased nutrient availability in all but the northernmost site during the growing season, and that site also had much lower nutrient availability, but overall availability and

  6. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  7. Distribution of intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) with bathymetry in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and non-vegetated substrates in three coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) were determined using color infrared (CIR) aerial orthophotography during daylight low tides. Comparison of the digital classif...

  8. Applicability of Hydrologic Landscapes for Model Calibration at the Watershed Scale in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) at the assessment unit scale has provided a solid conceptual classification framework to relate and transfer hydrologically meaningful information between watersheds without access to streamflow time series. A collection of tec...

  9. A GUIDE TO MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS AND NONVEGETATED HABITATS IN ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides technical guidance for planning and implementing the production of aerial photomaps of intertidal vegetative habitats in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest USA (PNW). The focus is on methods of documenting the intertidal distribution of the seagras...

  10. WILD SALMON RESTORATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FORECASTING THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforst have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  11. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON FISH AND AMPHIBIANS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical habitat degradation has been implicated as a major contributor to the historic decline of salmonids in Pacific Northwest streams. Native aquatic vertebrate assemblages in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range consist primarily of coldwater salmonids, cottids, and amphib...

  12. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Manipulations on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global climate change will have a large impact on the three predominate drivers of estuarine seagrass productivity, temperature, light and nutrients. I experimentally evaluate the response of Pacific Northwest Z. marina to interactive effects of temperature and nutrient conditio...

  13. Indoor air quality measurements in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, B.H.; Brown, J.T.; Geisling-Sobotka, K.; Froehlich, D.A.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Harrison, J.; Revzan, K.L.

    1986-06-01

    A Bonneville Power Administration-funded study monitored ventilation rates and a variety of indoor air pollutants in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings. The buildings ranged in age from 6 months to 90 years, in size from 864 to 34,280 m/sup 2/, and occupancy from 25 to 2500 people. Building average formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were below the 20 ppB detection limit in 48% of the buildings. Nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) concentration averages ranged from 5 ppB to 43 ppB and were lower than outdoor concentrations in 8 of 13 buildings. At only one site, an elementary school classroom, did carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) exceed 1000 ppM. Radon (Rn) levels were elevated in one building with an average concentration of 7.4 pCiL/sup -1/. Respirable particles (RSP) concentrations in smoking areas in 32 buildings had a geometric mean of 44 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and ranged up to 308 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ at one site. In non-smoking areas the geometric mean RSP was 15 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. Outside air ventilation rates did not appear to be the single dominant parameter in determining indoor pollutant concentrations. Measured pollutant concentrations in 2 ''complaint'' buildings were below accepted guidelines. The cause of the complaints was not identified.

  14. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  15. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a program to monitor the waste water from PNL-operated research and development facilities on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the program is to collect data to assess administrative controls and to determine whether discharges to the process sewer meet sewer criteria. Samples have been collected on a regular basis from the major PNL facilities on the Hanford Site since March 1994. A broad range of analyses has been performed to determine the primary constituents in the liquid effluent. The sampling program is briefly summarized in the paper. Continuous monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow also provides data on the liquid effluent streams. In addition to sampling and monitoring, the program is evaluating the dynamics of the waste stream with dye studies and is evaluating the use of newer technologies for potential deployment in future sampling/monitoring efforts. Information collected to date has been valuable in determining sources of constituents that may be higher than the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This facility treats the waste streams before discharge to the Columbia River.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Catalysis Highlights for FY2007

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Bruce C.

    2007-11-15

    To reduce the nation’s dependence on imported oil, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal and private agencies are investing in understanding catalysis. This report focuses on catalysis research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its collaborators. Using sophisticated instruments in DOE’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility, research was conducted to answer key questions related to the nation’s use of automotive fuels. Research teams investigated how hydrogen can be safely stored and efficiently released, critical questions to use this alternative fuel. Further, they are answering key questions to design molecular catalysts to control the transfer of hydrogen atoms, hydrides, and protons important to hydrogen production. In dealing with today’s fuels, researchers examined adsorption of noxious nitrous oxides in automotive exhaust. Beyond automotive fuel, researchers worked on catalysts to harness solar power. These catalysts include the rutile and anatase forms of titanium dioxide. Basic research was conducted on designing catalysts for these and other applications. Our scientists examined how to build catalysts with the desired properties atom by atom and molecule by molecule. In addition, this report contains brief descriptions of the outstanding accomplishments of catalysis experts at PNNL.

  17. Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Halter, J M; Sullivan, R G; Bevan, J L

    1982-08-01

    This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that several techniques presently used require excessive manpower, time, and energy. Many times more material is removed than necessary, increasing the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. These evaluations generated the basic criteria for developing a suitable concrete removal technique: provide a convenient method for cleaning surfaces (such as those contaminated by a small spill); reduce the contaminated waste volume that has to be placed into controlled storage; remove surfaces quickly; and minimize personal exposure to potentially harmful radiation or toxic materials. Removal to 1/4 to 1/2 in. of contaminated surface layer is sufficient for cleanup of most facilities. Two unique decontamination methods have been developed: the concrete spaller and the water cannon. The concrete spaller is the most efficient technique: it removes the concrete surface faster than the water cannons and at a lower cost (as little as $3.00/ft/sup 2/ of concrete surface). However, the .458 magnum water cannon may be well suited for small or hard-to-reach locations.

  18. Pacific northwest vowels: A Seattle neighborhood dialect study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Jennifer K.; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia

    2005-04-01

    According to current literature a large region encompassing nearly the entire west half of the U.S. belongs to one dialect region referred to as Western, which furthermore, according to Labov et al., ``... has developed a characteristic but not unique phonology.'' [http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono-atlas/NationalMap/NationalMap.html] This paper will describe the vowel space of a set of Pacific Northwest American English speakers native to the Ballard neighborhood of Seattle, Wash. based on the acoustical analysis of high-quality Marantz CDR 300 recordings. Characteristics, such as low back merger and [u] fronting will be compared to findings by other studies. It is hoped that these recordings will contribute to a growing number of corpora of North American English dialects. All participants were born in Seattle and began their residence in Ballard between ages 0-8. They were recorded in two styles of speech: individually reading repetitions of a word list containing one token each of 10 vowels within carrier phrases, and in casual conversation for 40 min with a partner matched in age, gender, and social mobility. The goal was to create a compatible data set for comparison with current acoustic studies. F1 and F2 and vowel duration from LPC spectral analysis will be presented.

  19. Time of Emergence of Climate Extremes in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, C.; Salathe, E. P., Jr.; Snover, A. K.; Yu, R.

    2014-12-01

    The time at which a climate variable emerges from the noise of climate variability, or "time of emergence" (ToE), is explored from a stakeholder-driven perspective. Using both global and statistically downscaled climate model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and hydrologic model results, management-relevant measures of the climate and environment are analyzed for the Pacific Northwest (PNW), within the broader context of the continental United States. The specific climate variables were selected through meetings with key regional resource managers at federal, state, and local agencies, and generally relate to exceptional events in temperature, precipitation, and streamflow. Uncertainty in ToE calculations is also examined due to three sources: 1) statistical estimation of emergence 2) future emission scenarios (rcp4.5 and rcp8.5) and 3) multi-model ensemble spread. In the PNW, results show that for temperature related climate variables, ToE is likely within the next 50 years, with a strong positive trend, regardless of emission scenario. Precipitation related variables show a much later ToE, with a weak positive signal despite some model disagreement in direction of change. As this data is intended for socio-economic stakeholders in the PNW, a web tool has been designed to allow for visualizing and analyzing ToE for multiple climate variables and the associated probability statistics across the PNW domain. This information will help guide resource managers in the prioritization and timing of climate change adaption activities.

  20. Mapping "At Risk" Snow in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolin, A. W.; Daly, C.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most visible and widely felt impacts of climate change is the change (mostly loss) of low elevation snow cover in the mid-latitudes. Snow cover that accumulates at temperatures close to the ice-water phase transition is at greater risk to climate warming than cold climate snow packs because it affects both precipitation phase and ablation rates. Changes in such climatologically sensitive snow packs can impact hydropower generation, reservoir storage, rain-on-snow floods, and winter recreation. Using a climatologically based global snow cover classification (Sturm et al., 1995) "at risk" snow is defined as lower elevation maritime and alpine snow classes. This original classification was produced globally at 0.5-degree resolution and used monthly means of temperature and precipitation as well as vegetation cover to map snow climates. In this work, the classification is updated for the Pacific Northwest region using fields of temperature and precipitation from PRISM as well as MODIS-derived global maps of vegetation cover. This new classification has significantly improved grid resolution (4 km x 4 km) and is able to clearly identify regions of ephemeral and lower elevation maritime and alpine snow that are thought to be at risk in a climate warming scenario. Results indicate that the economic impacts of this shift from snow- to rain-dominated winter precipitation that lower elevation ski areas in the region would experience significant negative impacts.

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tilden, Harold T.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Lowry, Kami L.; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Mendez, Keith M.; Raney, Elizabeth A.; Chamness, Michele A.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  2. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  3. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pacific oyster

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, G.B.; Van Der Raay, B.; Troutt, D.

    1988-09-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessments. The Pacific oyster is found in the estuarine waters of California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. It is sought both commercially and recreationally. Washington leads all other areas combined with a commercial production of 5.5 million pounds valued at $3.8 million. This is 26% of Washington State's total shellfish production value. These are very prolific animals, releasing up to 70 million eggs per year. Larvae are sensitive to a variety of environmental conditions, primarily temperature and salinity, and to pollutants including sulphite waste liquor. Growth is rapid and most noticeable in the third and fourth years. Along with other shellfish, Pacific oysters may accumulate toxin from /ital Gonyaulax cantenella/ (responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning), but they lose the toxin more rapidly than other shellfish. Optimum water temperature for adults is 20/degree/C and optimum salinities are above 20 ppt for adults. Ambient temperature is the single most critical item to breeding success in the Pacific Northwest.

  4. Mesoscale variability of deep currents in the Northwest Pacific Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Oka, E.; Yanagimoto, D.; Fujio, S.; Kurogi, M.; Hasumi, H.

    2014-12-01

    mooring observations conducted near 30°N, 146°40'E in the late 1970's. In the Northwest Pacific Basin, simulated EKE was highest at the Kuroshio Extension, and a high-EKE area extended about 500 km north and south of it.

  5. Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years: Initial results of the Sino-German Pacific Ocean Experiment (SiGePax)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerrit; Lembke-Jene, Lester; Scholz, Patrick; Gong, Xun; Max, Lars; Tiedemann, Ralf; Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Liu, Yanguang; Wu, Yonghua; Ge, Shulan

    2016-04-01

    Arctic and Subarctic Regions are most sensitive to climate change, and reversely provide dramatic feedbacks to the global climate. Paleoclimate studies in these regions are of vital importance for a better understanding of the natural processes in the climate system prior to the influences of human activities. With a focus on discovering paleoceanographic evolutions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years, we show first results of the German-Sino cooperation programme SiGePax. We present a collection of sediment cores covering climatical key regions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Our climate simulations provide the first step towards 'Data-Model Syntheses', which are crucial for exploring the underlying mechanisms of observed changes in proxy records. Analyses of Holocene sea surface temperature records on a basin-wide scale show a spatially heterogenous, but no simple warming or cooling pattern, indicating that extratropical atmospheric dynamics is involved. The temperature data are compared to model scenarios. We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration, with a regional focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean to provide the underlying dynamics. We find that the Okhotsk Sea is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice cover, where due to brine release, the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water is formed, contributing to North Pacific Intermediate Water.

  6. Classification of Regional Patterns of Environmental Drivers and Benthic Habitats in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    While increased anthropogenic nutrient loading of coastal ecosystems is a growing ecological and economic problem both in the U.S. and globally, the extent of such excess nutrient loading in Pacific Northwest estuaries is poorly known. To help determine the vulnerability of Pacif...

  7. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section`s Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee`s dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance.

  9. Customer satisfaction assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DN Anderson; ML Sours

    2000-03-23

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. This report presents the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of two major sections: Strategic Value and Project Performance. Both sections contain a set of questions that can be answered with a 5-point Likert scale response. The strategic value section consists of five questions that are designed to determine if a project directly contributes to critical future national needs. The project Performance section consists of nine questions designed to determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. A statistical model for customer survey data is developed and this report discusses how to analyze the data with this model. The properties of the statistical model can be used to establish a gold standard or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then to assess progress. The gold standard is defined using laboratory management input--answers to four questions, in terms of the information obtained from the customer survey: (1) What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? (2) What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? (3) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? (4) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? To be able to provide meaningful answers to these questions, the PNNL customer survey will need to be fully implemented for several years, thus providing a link between management perceptions of laboratory performance and customer survey data.

  10. Customer Satisfaction Assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N.; Sours, Mardell L.

    2000-03-20

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. We present the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of 2 major sections, Strategic Value and Project Performance. The Strategic Value section of the questionnaire consists of 5 questions that can be answered with a 5 point Likert scale response. These questions are designed to determine if a project is directly contributing to critical future national needs. The Project Performance section of the questionnaire consists of 9 questions that can be answered with a 5 point Likert scale response. These questions determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. Many approaches could be used to analyze customer survey data. We present a statistical model that can accurately capture the random behavior of customer survey data. The properties of this statistical model can be used to establish a "gold standard'' or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then assess progress. The gold standard is defined from input from laboratory management --- answers to 4 simple questions, in terms of the information obtained from the CSAP customer survey, define the standard: *What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? *What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? *What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? *What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? We discuss how to analyze CSAP customer survey data with this model. Our discussion will include "lessons learned" and issues that can invalidate this type of assessment.

  11. Ecology of estuarine channels of the Pacific Northwest coast: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Simenstad, C.A.

    1983-12-01

    This report on the estuarine channel habitats of the Pacific Northwest is one of a series of community profiles that synthesize useful information about specific natural coastal habitats. This profile will assist environmental scientists and biologists and coastal planners and managers who are interested in the open-water channels of coastal estuaries from the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington, south to Cape Mendocino, California. The profile describes the geomorphological, hydrological, chemical, and biological components and natural processes of the channels, their energy interchange, and interactions among adjacent habitats. In combination these habitat components and their interactions dictate the ecological structures and functions of the channels. The subject materials of the various chapters are integrated and summarized in the last chapter, and considerations for habitat management are identified. 523 references, 31 figures, 13 tables.

  12. Dynamics of the Pacific Northwest Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic imaging resolves a complex structure beneath the Pacific Northwest (PNW) that is interpreted as: an high-velocity piece of accreted (~50 Ma) Farallon lithosphere that deepens from being exposed (at coast, where it is called Siletzia) to lower crust in SE Washington and then descending vertically to ~600 km as a 'curtain' beneath central Idaho; a stubby Juan de Fuca slab (to <250 km in most places, and with a gap beneath much of Oregon); and very slow 'fingers' above the slab with an especially anomalous volume beneath central Oregon. The evacuation of asthenosphere with the descending Juan de Fuca slab presents an interesting problem. Typical corner-flow supply is prevented because the mantle wind blows eastward. A stagnation line between mantle drawn west into the mantle wedge and that flowing east in the far field may exist near the Farallon curtain. Other sources of supply to the Cascadia mantle wedge include: mantle flowing north beneath California, entrained with the Pacific Plate; flow from below the Juan de Fuca slab, perhaps especially through the Oregon gap; toroidal flow around the southern edge of the slab; and possible up-flow beneath the backarc. Anisotropy studies suggest the importance of toroidal flow. PNW lithosphere stress is dominated by N-S compression, a result of the Sierra Nevada driving the PNW into British Columbia; this push, and oblique subduction, are responsible for PNW clockwise rotation. Modeled (in 2D, map view) north-directed tractions on the Cascadia mega-thrust average ~4 TN per meter of along-strike fault length, or probably a shear stress of ~40 MPa over much of the locked mega-thrust (i.e., much more shear stress than the typical earthquake stress drop of 1-10 MPa). Normal to the coast, southern Cascadia is relatively tensional (where margin-normal compression is less than typical ridge push by ~4 TN/m of along-strike fault length) whereas northern Cascadia is compressional. This indicates that the southern Cascadia

  13. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  14. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Heather M; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F; Wintner, Sabine P; Fordham, Sonja V; Fisk, Aaron T; Hussey, Nigel E

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL) and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated research to

  15. The Last Frontier: Catch Records of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Heather M.; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F.; Wintner, Sabine P.; Fordham, Sonja V.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Hussey, Nigel E.

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126–602 cm total length (TL) and 16–2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  16. Possible effects of competition on electricity consumers in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1998-01-01

    In part, the impetus for restructuring the U.S. electricity industry stems from the large regional disparities in electricity prices. Indeed, industry reforms are moving most rapidly in high-cost states, such as California and those in the Northeast. Legislators, regulators, and many others in states that enjoy low electricity prices, on the other hand, ask whether increased competition will benefit consumers in their states. This report quantifies the effects of increased competition on electricity consumers and producers in two regions, the Pacific Northwest and California. California`s generating costs are roughly double those of the Northwest. We use a new strategic-planning model called Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) to conduct these analyses. Specifically, we analyzed four cases: a pre-competition base case intended to represent conditions as they might exist under current regulation in the year 2000, a post-competition case in which customer loads and load shapes respond to real-time electricity pricing, a sensitivity case in which natural-gas prices are 20% higher than in the base case, and a sensitivity case in which the hydroelectric output in the Northwest is 20% less than in the base case. The ORCED analyses suggest that, absent regulatory intervention, retail competition would increase profits for producers in the Northwest and lower prices for consumers in California at the expense of consumers in the Northwest and producers in California. However, state regulators may be able to capture some or all of the increased profits and use them to lower electricity prices in the low-cost region. Perhaps the most straightforward way to allocate the costs and benefits to retail customers is through development of transition-cost charges or credits. With this option, the consumers in both regions can benefit from competition. The magnitude and even direction of bulk-power trading between regions depends strongly on the amount of hydroelectric

  17. Generating Electric Power in the Pacific Northwest. Implications of Alternative Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernin, Christopher G.; Bernstein, Mark A.; Mejia, Andrea; Shih, Howard; Rueter, Fred

    2002-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest faces some critical energy issues over the next 20 years. There is significant uncertainty about energy supplies, energy prices, and the implications of competitive energy markets. Therefore, as energy demands continue to rise, it is important for the states in the region to understand the risks and opportunities of different energy supply and demand options. This report addresses issues in electricity supply and demand for four states in the Pacific Northwest: Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. For much of the past 50 years, these states have relied heavily on hydroelectric power to meet their energy needs, and this inexpensive electricity has helped keep electricity rates low in the region, compared with the rest of the United States. However, the region cannot add much new hydroelectric capacity, so increasing demands for electricity in the future will have to be met by other sources. It is expected that the bulk of new electricity-generating capacity will come from natural-gas-fired power plants. While the combined share of electricity generated by hydroelectric and natural-gas-fired plants is expected to remain the same through 2010 (together, they provide 86 percent of the capacity in the region, the remainder being provided primarily by coal and nuclear plants), the proportion generated by natural gas will rise dramatically. Table S.1 summarizes the shares of current and future expected generating capacity in the region. The changes in the shares provided by the two major sources will have a number of consequences for the states in the region.

  18. Investigating alongshore wind trends in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylhouwer, B.; Ianson, D. C.; Kohfeld, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal upwelling regions are important for both global fisheries populations and the carbon cycle. Alongshore winds draw up cold, relatively acidic and nutrient-rich water from intermediate depths and enhance primary productivity that supports over 20% of global fish stocks and can create large air-sea carbon fluxes. Coastal winds can also be seasonal, alternating between upwelling-favourable and either a relaxed or downwelling-favourable state throughout the year. Climate change is expected to enhance coastal winds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as sea-land pressure gradients intensify, and the associated change in upwelling could deliver more acidic water onto continental shelves during vulnerable life stages for many marine organisms. The goal of our study is to quantify the magnitude and temporal changes in coastal marine winds since 1979 along the PNW from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Oregon. Daily wind speed and direction data were collected from 12 meteorological buoy and lighthouse stations from 1983 to the present, covering a study area from 45.16°N to 50.91°N and within 100 km of the coastline. Due to significant gaps in data from all but 3 stations, North American Regional Re-analysis (NARR) data from 12 locations spanning the study area was also collected to supplement our analysis. Through our analysis, we have determined objective criteria for selecting the regional upwelling and downwelling seasons based on the annual accumulating total of upwelling-favourable alongshore wind stress. Our seasonal transitions follow previously published qualitative estimates made off the coast of Vancouver Island. Our analyses show no change in the timing or duration of seasons since 1979, although they do indicate significant inter-annual variability. Intra-season analyses show greater upwelling in the summer season and greater downwelling in the winter season, with no significant changes in the spring or fall transitional periods. Our results indicate

  19. Teleseismic receiver function imaging of the Pacific Northwest, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eager, Kevin Charles

    The origins of widespread Cenozoic tectonomagmatism in the Pacific Northwest, United States likely involve complex dynamics including subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate and mantle upwelling processes, all of which are reflected in the crust and upper mantle. To provide an improved understanding of these processes, I analyze P-to- S converted phases using the receiver function method to image topographic variations on regional seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle, which provides constraints on mantle thermal structure, and the crust-mantle interface, which provides constraints on crustal thickness and composition. My results confirm complexity in the Juan de Fuca slab structure as found by regional tomographic studies, including limited evidence of the slab penetrating the transition zone between the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. Evidence is inconclusive for a simple mantle plume beneath the central Oregon High Lava Plains, but indicates a regional increase in mantle temperatures stretching to the east. This result implies the inflow of warm material, either from around the southern edge of the Juan de Fuca plate as it descends into the mantle, or from a regional upwelling to the east related to the Yellowstone hotspot. Results for regional crustal structure reveal thin (˜31 km) crust beneath the High Lava Plains relative to surrounding regions that exhibit thicker (35+ km) crust. The thick (≥ 40 km) crust of the Owyhee Plateau has a sharp western boundary and normal Poisson's ratio, a measure of crustal composition. I find a slightly thickened crust and low Poisson's ratio between Steens Mountain and the Owyhee Plateau, consistent with residuum from source magma of the Steens flood basalts. Central and southern Oregon exhibit very high Poisson's ratios and low velocity zones within the crust, suggesting a degree of intracrustal partial melt not seen along the center of the age-progressive High Lava Plains magmatic track, perhaps due to crustal melt

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for Calendar Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1994 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program performance at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes data regarding performance in the area of personnel exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, control of contaminated areas, minimization of radioactive waste, and control of radioactive releases. In CY 1994: (1) The collective total effective dose equivalent to PNL employees during 1994 was 55 person-rem. The Field Dosimetry Services of the Radiological Control Department, Technical Support Section, projected that no PNL employee`s dose would exceed 2 rem based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the projection-by the end of CY 1994. The maximum dose to any individual was 1.11 rem. (2) There were 34 instances of skin and personal-clothing contamination events for PNL employees during 1994. Eighteen of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building; eleven occurred at the 325 Building; two occurred in the 327 Building; one occurred in the 326 Building; one occurred in the 3708 Building; and one occurred in the RTL Building. (3) PNL facilities contained 12 Airborne Radioactivity Areas, and 60 Contamination Areas and High Contamination Areas. The area of the Airborne Radioactivity Areas was 383 m{sup 2}(4125 ft{sup 2}). The area of the Contamination Areas was 5290 m{sup 2}(56,947 ft{sup 2}). The area of the High Contamination Areas was 266 m{sup 2}(2863 ft{sup 2}). (4) PNL disposed of 10.5 m{sup 3}(371 ft{sup 3}) of compacted low level waste. Also disposed was 423 m{sup 3} (14,949 ft{sup 3}) of noncompacted low level and mixed waste that was not subject to volume reduction. The total radioactivity of the disposed waste was 1217 Ci. (5) PNL facilities released 165.2 Ci of noble gas, 3.0E-5 Ci of airborne particulate radioactive material, and 12.2 Ci of tritium to the environment.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Moraski, R.V.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  2. Simulated potential evapotranspiration over the Pacific Northwest and implications for forests in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, M. M.; Littell, J. S.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2009-12-01

    As part of a comprehensive database of hydrologic data and climate change scenarios for the greater Pacific Northwest (including the Columbia River basin and coastal drainages in Washington and Oregon), gridded daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) is offered for the first time as output from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. PET is the amount of water that would be transpired by vegetation, provided unlimited water supply, and has been widely used in ecological research as a reference value of land surface water stress (e.g. in characterizations of climate interactions with forest processes). PET in the VIC model is computed using a Penman Monteith approach that requires estimates of solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, as well as vegetation characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI), aerodynamic resistance and vegetation resistances, including architectural and canopy resistance. Using different assumptions for these inputs, the hydrologic database provides five types of PET variables, including PET from natural vegetation, PET from natural vegetation with no canopy resistance, open water PET, and PET for short (grass) and tall (alfalfa) reference crops. We evaluate simulated PET by the VIC model through a comparison with available observed data and other datasets as well as investigate PET as it relates to forest processes. Using PET as a indicator of water stress and multi-model climate change scenarios for low and medium emissions scenarios (B1 and A1B, respectively) from the 2007 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on forests of the Pacific Northwest and the potential for use of the PET dataset as an indicator of forest stress.

  3. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  4. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  5. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  6. Collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, L.K.; Eakin, D.E.

    1981-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify potential methods for the collection, transportation and storage of agricultural and forest residues in the Pacific Northwest. Information was gathered from available literature and through contacts with researchers, equipment manufacturers, and other individuals involved in forest and agricultural activities. This information was evaluated, combined, and adapted for situations existing in the Pacific Northwest. A number of methods for collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues using currently available technology are described. Many of these methods can be applied to residue fuel materials along with their current uses in the forest and agricultural industries.

  7. Interactions between fuel choice and energy-efficiency in new homes in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    In recent years the Bonneville Power Administration has instituted programs to prompt the implementation of the residential Model Conservation Standards (MCS) issued by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1983. These standards provide alternative methods for designing and constructing homes to cost effectively reduce residential energy consumption. Authority exists to apply them only to new, electrically heated homes. Because they apply to electrically heated homes, concerns have arisen about how the standards might affect buyers' decisions to purchase a new home, in particular, their choice of a heating fuel. Early data suggested that electricity started losing market share in Tacoma about when the MCS went into effect in 1984, and recent data have shown that about half of electricity's share of the new home market has shifted to natural gas. This decline in electric heating was consistent with concerns about the possible detrimental effect of the cost of MCS on sales of electrically heated homes. A desire to understand the causes of the perceived decline in electricity's market share was part of the impetus for this study. Multiple techniques and data sources are used in this study to examine the relationship between residential energy-efficiency and fuel choice in the major metropolitan areas in Washington: Spokane, Clark, Pierce, and King Counties. Recent regional surveys have shown that electricity is the predominant space heating fuel in the Pacific Northwest, but it appears to be losing its dominance in some markets such as Tacoma.

  8. Analysis of Extreme Events in Regional Climate Model Simulations for the Pacific Northwest using weatherathome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, R. J.; Mote, P.; Weber, J.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most prominent impacts of climate change over the Pacific Northwest is the potential for an elevated number of extreme precipitation events over the region. Planning for natural hazards such as increasing number of floods related to high-precipitation events have, in general, focused on avoiding development in floodplains and conditioning development to withstand inundation with a minimum of losses. Nationwide, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates that about one quarter of its payments cover damage that has occurred outside mapped floodplains. It is clear that traditional flood-based planning will not be sufficient to predict and avoid future losses resulting from climate-related hazards such as high-precipitation events. In order to address this problem, the present study employs regional climate model output for future climate change scenarios to aid with the development of a map-based inventory of future hazard risks that can contribute to the development of a "planning-scale" decision support system for the Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development (DLCD). Climate model output is derived from the climateprediction.net (CPDN) weatherathome project, an innovative climate science experiment that utilizes volunteer computers from users worldwide to produce hundreds of thousands superensembles of regional climate simulations of the Western United States climate from 1950 to 2050. The spatial and temporal distribution of extreme weather events are analyzed for the Pacific Northwest to diagnose the model's capabilities as an input for map products such as impacts on hydrology. Special attention is given to intensity and frequency of Atmospheric River events in historical and future climate contexts.

  9. Effects of Climate Change on Flood Frequency in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergel, D. R.; Stumbaugh, M. R.; Lee, S. Y.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    A key concern about climate change as related to water resources is the potential for changes in hydrologic extremes, including flooding. We explore changes in flood frequency in the Pacific Northwest using downscaled output from ten Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) for historical forcings (1950-2005) and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 (2006-2100). We use archived output from the Integrated Scenarios Project (ISP) (http://maca.northwestknowledge.net/), which uses the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method for statistical downscaling. The MACA-downscaled GCM output was then used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model with a 1/16th degree spatial resolution and a daily time step. For each of the 238 HUC-08 areas within the Pacific Northwest (USGS Hydrologic Region 15), we computed, from the ISP archive, the series of maximum daily runoff values (surrogate for the annual maximum flood), and then the mean annual flood. Finally, we computed the ratios of the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 mean annual floods to their corresponding values for the historical period. We evaluate spatial patterns in the results. For snow-dominated watersheds, the changes are dominated by reductions in flood frequency in basins that currently have spring-dominant floods, and increases in snow affected basins with fall-dominant floods. In low elevation basins west of the Cascades, changes in flooding are more directly related to changes in precipitation extremes. We further explore the nature of these effects by evaluating the mean Julian day of the annual maximum flood for each HUC-08 and how this changes between the historical and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios.

  10. Paleomagnetism of Early and Middle Pleistocene Cataclysmic Flood Deposits in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluhar, C. J.; Burns, S. F.; Carpenter, B.; Yazzie, K.; Melton, D.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence is growing that cataclysmic floods, such as jokulhlaups, have scoured parts of the Pacific Northwest not only during the last glacial maximum (such as the Missoula Floods), but also during earlier parts of the Quaternary. These floods left large erosional features in the "Channeled Scablands" such as colossal flood gravel bars, as well as sediments deposited in backflooded tributary valleys. Evidence for pre-last-glacial cataclysmic floods in the region includes very-well-developed paleosols capping flood deposits, middle Pleistocene U-series disequilibrium dates on some flood sediments, and reversed-paleomagnetic-polarity flood sediments, indicating early Pleistocene age. We document additional evidence for ancient cataclysmic floods at two site, near The Dalles, OR and Othello, WA. The Dalles site consists of 8 flood sediment - capping Stage I to III calcic paleosol couplets, with the third unit from the top containing tephra of the Dibekulewe volcanic ash (0.5 Ma). The sandy nature of the proposed flood sediments is too coarse-grained to attribute to aeolian transport. The Othello site consists of 2 meters of caliche over 40 cm of ancient flood sands and fine gravels We collected paleomagnetic samples from both sites, conducting low temperature cycling (LT), alternating field (AF), and thermal demagnetization experiments on them. These experiments indicate that most samples contain: 1) a large magnetization component in multi-domain magnetite (demagnetized by LT), 2) a large component in goethite (demagnetized by 150°C), and 3) a primary magnetization in pseudo-single and single domain magnetite. The Dalles site spans the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal (0.78 Ma). These and previously published data indicate that one or more mechanisms for generating cataclysmic floods have existed in the Pacific Northwest for much of the Quaternary.

  11. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  12. 77 FR 49854 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Oregon Portion of the Pacific Northwest Rail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The federally designated PNWRC has been the subject of high-speed passenger rail... Pacific Northwest Rail Corridor (Portland to Eugene) AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S... Oregon portion of the Pacific Northwest Rail Corridor (PNWRC). The objective of the Tier 1 EIS is...

  13. The Specific Features of Pollution Transport in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diansky, Nikolay; Fomin, Vladimir; Gusev, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    Two calculations of pollutant dispersal in the Northwest Pacific Ocean are presented: (1) during possible shipwrecks in the process of spent nuclear fuel transportation from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and (2) pollutant spread from the Japanese coast after the Fukushima 1 nuclear disaster on March 11, 2011. The circulation was simulated using a σ - coordinate ocean model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) developed at the INM RAS. The INMOM is based on the primitive equations using the spherical σ - coordinate system with a free ocean surface. The INMOM was realized for the Pacific Ocean basin from the equator to the Bering Strait with a high 1/8° spatial resolution for reproducing the mesoscale ocean variability. The pollutant dispersal in the case of possible shipwrecks was estimated for currents for a statistically average year with atmospheric forcing from Common Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE) for normal year data. The pollution spread from the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant (NPP) was estimated for currents calculated with the real atmospheric forcing in accordance with the NCEP GFS (0.5 degree grid). The simulation period of pollutant dispersal from Fukushima 1 was 17 days: from March 11 to 28, 2011. The results of numerical simulation show that pollutant dispersal from the Fukushima 1 spread eastward according to the Kuroshio. Moreover, exceeding of natural background radiation level was simulated in the narrow region of the Japanese coast with width of less than 50 km.

  14. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients - November 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of temperature and nutrient quantity on Z. marina growth and physiology. Ma...

  15. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST FORESTS VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the limitations of the models used in the climate change analyses, some overall conclusions can be made concerning climate change impacts on Northwest forests. he foremost of these is that the distribution and composition of forests in Washington and Oregon could change s...

  16. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF SLOW SAND FILTERS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper was prepared as a review of slow sand filtration design and operating practices at 13 filtration plants constructed between 1958 and 1988 in the Pacific Northwest. t represents an attempt to learn from the past in order to do a better job in the future. mong the topics...

  17. Crop Response to Hybrid Poplar Alternative Soilless Substrate Component for Pacific Northwest Ornamental Container Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir bark (DFB) is the primary component used in soilless substrate to grow woody ornamental plants in the Pacific Northwest. Bark is a by-product of the timber industry and is used for landscape mulch, a soilless substrate component, or bio-energy. The decline in the housing market and rise ...

  18. SALMON IN CRISIS: IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  19. RELATING FINE ROOT BIOMASS TO SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The additive contribution of fine root biomass for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) to the stand average fine root biomass were estimated for eight conifer stands in the Pacific Northwest. Base...

  20. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has ...

  1. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service - August 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has r...

  2. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Proceedings, Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages, Volume 28, Part 2: Second Language Teaching 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseller, David P., Editor

    The twenty-eight papers that make up the second part of the proceedings of the twenty-eighth annual meeting of the Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages cover a wide range of topics relating to foreign language teaching and linguistic theory: German culture and civilization; sexism in language; bilingual education; bilingualism and…

  4. Integrated weed management systems identified for jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jointed goatgrass is an invasive winter annual grass weed that is a particular problem in the low- to intermediate-rainfall zones of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). For the most part, single-component research has been the focus of previous jointed goatgrass studies. In 1996, an integrated field syst...

  5. Non-wadeable river bioassessment: spatial variation of benthic diatom assemblages in Pacific Northwest rivers, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current bioassessment efforts are focused on small wadeable streams, at least partly because assessing ecological conditions in non-wadeable large rivers poses many additional challenges. In this study, we sampled 20 sites in each of seven large rivers in the Pacific Northwest, U...

  6. Taxonomic complexity of powdery mildew pathogens found on lentil and pea in the US Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classification of powdery mildews found on lentil and pea in greenhouse and field production conditions in the US Pacific Northwest was investigated using morphological and molecular characters. Isolates collected from lentil plants grown in the greenhouse or field displayed morphologies in substant...

  7. Soil and water conservation in the Pacific Northwest through no-tillage and intensified crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) summer fallow rotation typically practiced in the intermediate precipitation zone [300-450 mm (12-18 in)] of the inland Pacific Northwest has proven to be economically stable for producers in this region. However multiple tillage operations are used to control...

  8. Genetic diversity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from various crops from the US Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes white mold on many crops resulting in significant economical losses. Despite extensive studies on population variation of this pathogen in many crops, the populations of S. sclerotiorum in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW) have not been extensively studied. The PNW har...

  9. THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  10. Introducing winter canola to the winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers in the low-rainfall, winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest are in need of an alternative crop to diversify their markets, manage pests, and increase wheat yields. Winter canola may be a viable crop option for growers in the region. However, agronomic research for winter canol...

  11. Feral rye (Secale cereal) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) feral rye is a predominant winter annual grass weed in the low-rainfall region where a winter wheat-tillage fallow rotation has been practiced for more than 130 yrs and winter canola has been introduced recently. A 3-yr study was conducted in Washington to determine th...

  12. Ecological Factors Influencing Pea Aphid Outbreaks in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long term data set involving 26 years of ambient temperature data and pea aphid population cycles in grain legumes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), and presented in an invited chaper for a book on global warming and aphid biodiversity, shows that outbreaks of this aphid and subsequent crop los...

  13. DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRIETERIA FOR ESTUARIES WITH VARIABLE OCEAN INPUTS: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest have major intraannual and within estuary variation in sources and magnitudes of nutrient inputs. To develop an approach for setting nutrient criteria for these systems, we conducted a case study for Yaquina Bay, OR based on a synthesis of resea...

  14. Impact of rolling and phosphorous acid on root rot of dry peas in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rolling soil after planting is standard in dry pea production areas in the Pacific Northwest but can increase compaction resulting in increase of root rot by oomycetes and other pathogens. Phosphorous acid has been used to manage oomycete pathogens, therefore, the impact of not rolling soil after s...

  15. 78 FR 7665 - Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain...

  16. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...

  17. YAQUINA ESTUARY NUTRIENT CRITERIA CASE STUDY: GUIDANCE FOR DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRITERIA IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an introduction to the Yaquina Estuary Nutrient Case Study which includes considerations for development of estuarine nutrient criteria in the Pacific Northwest. As part of this effort, a database of historic and recent data has been assembled consistin...

  18. Soil properties governing soil erosion affected by cropping systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the low-precipitation zone (<300 mm annual precipitation) of the inland US Pacific Northwest, no-tillage spring cereal rotations are being examined as alternatives to the traditional winter wheat - summer fallow rotation to control wind erosion. There is limited information, however, regarding t...

  19. Men, Not Money: E. W. Scripps and the Penny Newspapers of the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Mike

    E.W. Scripps's penny newspapers brought a new style of public service journalism to the Pacific Northwest's four largest cities--Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, and Portland--in the turbulent years of the Progressive movement from 1899 to 1912. Minimal investment, tight cost controls, and the idea that a small, condensed newspaper could be more popular…

  20. Oysters and aquaculture practices affect eelgrass density and productivity in a Pacific Northwest estuary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is widely recognized that bivalve aquaculture can have negative impacts on eelgrass through disturbance. In some bays in the Pacific Northwest (USA), certain oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture practices have been restricted to protect native eelgrass (Zostera marina). We argue that aquacultur...

  1. US EPA Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research: A Pacific Northwest Demonstration Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 2-page fact sheet is a communication product aimed at EPA clients, cooperators and stakeholders. It describes ecosystem services research being conducted in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) by the EPA Western Ecology Division, in association with EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Com...

  2. Non-Indigenous Benthic Species in the Estuaries of the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the abundance of non-indigenous species (NIS) in the estuarine soft-bottom communities of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. NIS are one of the many stressors that can influence the ecological condition of estuarine waters.

  3. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Collegiality at Protestant Christian Universities in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…

  4. Geographies of Indigenous Leaders: Landscapes and Mindscapes in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This essay features three stories of "place-based" leadership in two Indigenous communities in the Pacific Northwest. Author Michael Marker weaves together stories from Nisga'a Elders in the Nass Valley of British Columbia, Coast Salish Elders in Washington State, and his own experiences as a researcher, teacher educator, and community…

  5. Genetic diversity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from various crops from the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes white mold on many crops resulting in significant economical losses. Despite extensive studies on population variation of this pathogen in many crops, the populations of S. sclerotiorum in the U. S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) have not been extensively studied. The PNW ...

  6. Potential climate change impacts on tidal wetland plant and algal assemblages in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tidal wetlands along the coast of the Pacific Northwest provide wildlife habitat and support important ecosystem functions such as primary productivity. The future structure and function of these ecosystems may be altered by sea-level rise (SLR) or other climate change effects. W...

  7. Application of a Eutrophic Condition Index to Benthic Macroalgal Accumulation in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of benthic macroalgal accumulation in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest, USA, were conducted over a 12-year period, including aerial mapping and ground surveys. The results were applied to an assessment framework for eutrophication developed by the European Unio...

  8. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEAGRASSES, BENTHIC MACROALGAE AND NUTRIENTS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest estuaries are characterized by large tidal ranges (2-3 m) that routinely expose submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) such as seagrass and benthic macroalgae. The dominant native seagrass in PNW estuaries is the eelgrass Zostera marina. However, in recent decades...

  9. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  10. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel - CERF 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  11. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  12. Current Status of Grapvine Viruses in the Pacific Northwest Vineyards of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wine grape industry in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States, consisting of Washington, Oregon and Idaho, is emerging as one of the country’s leading producers of premium wine. Samples from a total of about 2000 individual grapevines were collected from twenty-eight red- and white-ber...

  13. Field Monitoring for Grapevine leafroll virus and Mealybug in Pacific Northwest Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a recent increase in concern for the spread of viruses in vineyards of the Pacific Northwest. This concern is heightened by the increasing incidence and spread of viruses and insect vectors in the California grape industry to our south. Viruses can cause decreases in fruit quality, vi...

  14. Developing Blueberry Plants with Shock Virus Tolerance for the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest, Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) causes short term blighting of flowers and young leaves in young and established blueberry fields, resulting in yield loss for one or two years. After the initial shock phase, plants recover and do not exhibit symptoms again. The virus is pol...

  15. Inferred origin of several Native American potatoes from the Pacific Northwest using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest and Alaska of the USA have grown potatoes in their gardens for many generations. However, the origin of these potatoes was unclear. In this study, the origin of several potatoes collected from Native gardens, including two potatoes, “Ozette” (fro...

  16. Predicting change in eelgrass distribution due to sea level rise in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted...

  17. Agronomics and economics of no-till facultative wheat in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the 1900’s, winter wheat rotated with dust-mulch summer fallow(WW/SF) has been the dominant production practice in the low-precipitation zone (<305 mm) of the Pacific Northwest. The WW/SF system has developed several problems including reduced crop yields and quality caused by increased weeds...

  18. Potential Climate-Induced Runoff Changes and Associated Uncertainty in Four Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger investigation into potential impacts of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries. These were the Coquille River estuary, the South Slough of Coos Bay, and the Yaquina Bay...

  19. DIALECT CHECKLIST - PACIFIC NORTHWEST. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL FOR ELEVENTH GRADE UNIT ON "LINGUISTIC GEOGRAPHY AND DIALECT."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    THE CHECKLIST WAS DESIGNED TO STUDY CHARACTERISTIC WORD USAGE IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. THE STUDENT IS ASKED TO CIRCLE THE WORD IN A GROUP OF WORDS WHICH HE ORDINARILY USES TO DESIGNATE A SPECIFIC THING. FOR INSTANCE--SELF OVER FIREPLACE - MANTEL, MANTEL BOARD, MANTEL PIECE, SHELF, CHILDHOOD WORD FOR MOTHER - MA, MAMA, MOM, MOTHER, MOMMY. ONE…

  20. Improving the Outcomes of Science Education for the Pacific Northwest. Science and Mathematics Initiatives. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This report represents an effort to stimulate regional discussion and delineate issues of relevance for educators concerned with science education in the Pacific Northwest. It suggests topics of inquiry germane to the context of national initiatives and regional, state, and local challenges. Information is needed to understand "where we are" in…

  1. Bed Stability and sedimentation associated with human disturbances in Pacific Northwest streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate anthropogenic sedimentation in United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest coastal streams, we applied an index of relative bed stability (LRBS*) to summer low flow survey data collected using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessme...

  2. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Potato Tuberworm in the Columbia Basin of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A landscape-scale study from 2004-2006 investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of a new pest to the Columbia Basin of the Pacific Northwest, the potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). Male P. operculella were monitored in spring, summer, and fall each year with a pheromone trap...

  3. Soil and Water Conservation Challenges for Agriculture in the Inland Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and water conservation has been a major concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest since the onset of farming 125 years ago. Some of the highest historic water erosion rates in the USA have occurred on steep slopes in the Palouse region where soil loss averaged 45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and could reach 450...

  4. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. ...

  5. Molecular Variability of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 in the Pacific Northwest Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is the most economically important viral disease in the Pacific Northwest. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-1 (GLRaV-1) is one of six GLRaVs documented so far in the region. A study was undertaken to determine molecular variability of GLRaV-1 collected from two w...

  6. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  7. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).

  8. Preconstruction schedules, costs, and permit requirements for electric power generating resources in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Smith, S.A.; Thurman, A.G.; Watts, R.L.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-07-01

    This report was prepared for the Generation Programs Branch, Office of Energy Resources, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The principal objective of the report is to assemble in one document preconstruction cost, schedule, and permit information for twelve specific generating resources. The report is one of many documents that provide background information for BPA's Resource Program, which is designed to identify the type and amount of new resources that BPA may have to add over the next twenty years to maintain an adequate and reliable electric power supply in the Pacific Northwest. A predecessor to this report is a 1982 report prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Northwest Power Planning Council (the Council''). The 1982 report had a similar, but not identical, content and format. 306 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    SciTech Connect

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  10. RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

  11. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  12. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  13. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  14. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  15. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1984-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional energy resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy resources. The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of generic studies including Contaminant Characterizations and Transformation; Boundary Layer Meteorology; and Dispersion, Deposition and Resupension of Atmospheric Contaminants.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB. (MDF)

  18. Plutonium isotopes in settling particles: transport and scavenging of Pu in the western Northwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2006-07-01

    We examined the vertical distributions of 239+240Pu activity and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in settling particles and quantified the particulate 239+240Pu fluxes in the water column in the western Northwest Pacific. Settling particle samples were collected using sediment traps. Plutonium isotopes were analyzed using a sector field high-resolution ICP-MS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that both Pu activity and Pu isotope ratio data have been obtained for settling particles in the Pacific Ocean. The high (>0.18) 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in settling particles indicate that plutonium from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) source in the central Pacific is transported toward the western Northwest Pacific. Evidence indicates that Pu scavenging onto the settling particles is strongly dependent upon the bulk mass flux. The results suggest that advective lateral transport of dissolved Pu from the open ocean to the ocean margin and removal of Pu into the margin sediments by particle scavenging is a common phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean. Plutonium can be considered as a useful tracer to study the transport and fate of other contaminants that readily adsorb to particles in marine environments. PMID:16856723

  19. Surface-Water Nutrient Conditions and Sources in the United States Pacific Northwest1

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Daniel R; Johnson, Henry M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was used to perform an assessment of surface-water nutrient conditions and to identify important nutrient sources in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (U.S.) for the year 2002. Our models included variables representing nutrient sources as well as landscape characteristics that affect nutrient delivery to streams. Annual nutrient yields were higher in watersheds on the wetter, west side of the Cascade Range compared to watersheds on the drier, east side. High nutrient enrichment (relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended nutrient criteria) was estimated in watersheds throughout the region. Forest land was generally the largest source of total nitrogen stream load and geologic material was generally the largest source of total phosphorus stream load generated within the 12,039 modeled watersheds. These results reflected the prevalence of these two natural sources and the low input from other nutrient sources across the region. However, the combined input from agriculture, point sources, and developed land, rather than natural nutrient sources, was responsible for most of the nutrient load discharged from many of the largest watersheds. Our results provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to environmental managers in future water-quality planning efforts. PMID:22457584

  20. Low thermal tolerances of stream amphibians in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for riparian and forest management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature has a profound effect on survival and ecology of amphibians. In the Pacific Northwest, timber harvest is known to increase peak stream temperatures to 24??C or higher, which has potential to negatively impact cold-water stream amphibians. I determined the Critical Thermal Maxima (CT max) for two salamanders that are endemic to the Pacific Northwest. Rhyacotriton variegatus larvae acclimated at 10??C had mean CTmax of 26.7 ?? 0.7 SD??C and adults acclimated at 11??C had mean CT max of 27.9 ?? 1.1??C. These were among the lowest known values for any amphibian. Values were significantly higher for larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus acclimated at 14??C (x = 29.1 ?? 0.2??C). Although the smallest R. variegatus had some of the lowest values, size of larvae and adults did not influence CTmax in this species. Current forest practices retain riparian buffers along larger fish-bearing streams; however, such buffers along smaller headwaters and non-fish bearing streams may provide favorable habitat conditions for coldwater-associated species in the Pacific Northwest. The current study lends further evidence to the need for protection of Northwest stream amphibians from environmental perturbations. Forest guidelines that include riparian buffer zones and configurations of upland stands should be developed, while monitoring amphibian responses to determine their success. ?? 2008 Brill Academic Publishers.

  1. Effect of different surface forcings on the circulation and stratification in a global model with focus on the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Patrick; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    The subarctic oceans like the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, the Labrador Sea or the Greenland-Irminger-Norwegian (GIN) Sea react particularly sensitive to global climate changes and have the potential to reversely regulate climate change by CO2 uptake in the other areas of the world. So far, the natural processes in the Arctic and Subarctic system, especially of the Pacific realm, remains barely studied in terms of sedimentary records, but especially in terms of numerical modeling. In this study we focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific (e.g. the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Sea of Japan), which have nowadays a significant role in the climate system of the Northwest Pacific by influencing the atmospheric and oceanic circulation as well as the hydrology of the Pacific water masses. Especially the Sea of Okhotsk is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice coverage, where in autumn and winter due to massive sea ice formation and brine rejection, the Sea of Okhotsk Intermediate Water (SOIW) is formed contributing to the mid-depth (500-1000m) water layer of the North Pacific known as newly formed North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration with a regional focus on the marginal sea of the Northwest Pacific Ocean with a resolution of up to 8 km. As a preliminary study we compare the influence of the Comprehensive Ocean Ice Reference Experiment version 2 (COREv2) and ECMWF Era 40/interim forcing data set on the general circulation and stratification of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. We evaluate the reliability of both forcing data sets based on a comparison with observational derived data from the World Ocean Atlas 2013.

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of Pu in the Northwest Pacific Ocean using modern coral archives.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Patric; Andersen, Morten B; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Worsfold, Paul; Hyeong, Kiseong; Choi, Min-Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-04-01

    Historical (239)Pu activity concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were determined in skeletons of dated modern corals collected from three locations (Chuuk Lagoon, Ishigaki Island and Iki Island) to identify spatial and temporal variations in Pu inputs to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The main Pu source in the Northwest Pacific is fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing which consists of global fallout and close-in fallout from the former US Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands. PPG close-in fallout dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as was observed with higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) at the Ishigaki site. Specific fallout Pu contamination from the Nagasaki atomic bomb and the Ivy Mike thermonuclear detonation at the PPG were identified at Ishigaki Island from the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios of 0.07 and 0.46, respectively. During the 1960s and 1970s, global fallout was the major Pu source to the Northwest Pacific with over 60% contribution to the total Pu. After the cessation of the atmospheric nuclear tests, the PPG again dominated the Pu input due to the continuous transport of remobilised Pu from the Marshall Islands along the North Equatorial Current and the subsequent Kuroshio Current. The Pu contributions from the PPG in recent coral bands (1984 onwards) varied over time with average estimated PPG contributions between 54% and 72% depending on location. PMID:21890207

  3. Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest and its Impact on Energy Planning : Preliminary Report of Findings.

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, John E.

    1987-09-01

    The Climatological Handbook, Columbia Basin States'' (Environmental Science Services Administration) outlines extreme weather occurrences in the Pacific Northwest from the time records were dept up to December 1968. In the Climatological Handbook severe weather occurrences are categorized by wet spells, droughts, hot spells, cold spells and various storms (wind, snow, rain, and hail) for each of the 4 states of the northwest. The updated information in Section 3 is not categorized by the type of event, but the events are listed by state in chronological order.

  4. Coxiella burnetii infection of marine mammals in the Pacific Northwest, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Raverty, Stephen A; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Self, Joshua S; Akmajian, Adrianne M; Jeffries, Steven J; Huggins, Jessica; Drew, Clifton P; Zaki, Sherif R; Massung, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans are commonly exposed via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria derived from the waste products of domesticated sheep and goats, and particularly from products generated during parturition. However, many other species can be infected with C. burnetii, and the host range and full zoonotic potential of C. burnetii is unknown. Two cases of C. burnetii infection in marine mammal placenta have been reported, but it is not known if this infection is common in marine mammals. To address this issue, placenta samples were collected from Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Coxiella burnetii was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the placentas of Pacific harbor seals (17/27), harbor porpoises (2/6), and Steller sea lions (1/2) collected in the Pacific Northwest. A serosurvey of 215 Pacific harbor seals sampled in inland and outer coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest showed that 34.0% (73/215) had antibodies against either Phase 1 or Phase 2 C. burnetii. These results suggest that C. burnetii infection is common among marine mammals in this region. PMID:22247392

  5. Assessment of harbor seal predation on adult salmonids in a Pacific Northwest estuary.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bryan E; Riemer, Susan D; Brown, Robin F; Ougzin, Aicha M; Bucklin, Katherine A

    2007-03-01

    The populations of many native species have increased or expanded in distribution in recent decades, sometimes with negative consequences to sympatric native species that are rarer or less adaptable to anthropogenic changes to the environment. An example of this phenomenon from the Pacific Northwest is predation by locally abundant pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) on threatened, endangered, or otherwise depleted salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. We used survey sampling methodology, acoustic telemetry, and molecular genetics to quantify the amount of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) predation on a depressed run of coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to determine whether some seals consumed a disproportionately higher number of salmonids than others. Based on a probability sample totaling 759.5 h of observation, we estimated that seals consumed 1161 adult salmonids (95% CI = 503-1818 salmonids) during daylight hours over an 18.9-km estuarine study area in Oregon during an 84-d period in fall 2002. Simultaneous tracking of 56 seals via an acoustic telemetry array indicated that a small proportion of marked seals (12.5%) exhibited behavior that was consistent with specialization on salmonids. These seals spent the majority of their time in the riverine portion of the study area and did so disproportionately more at night than day. Genetic analysis of 116 salmonid structures recovered from 11 seal fecal samples suggested that coho salmon accounted for approximately one-half of total salmonid consumption. Though subject to considerable uncertainty, the combined results lead us to infer that seals consumed 21% (range = 3-63%) of the estimated prespawning population of coho salmon. We speculate that the majority of the predation occurred upriver, at night, and was done by a relatively small proportion of the local seal population. Understanding the extent and nature of pinniped predation can provide important inputs into risk assessments and other modeling efforts designed to

  6. Relative Influence of Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Scott; Schrlau, Jill; Butler, Jack; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Harding, Anna; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010-2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant's contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations. PMID:26151337

  7. Relative Influence of Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010–2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant’s contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations. PMID:26151337

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  10. Population Growth of Pratylenchus penetrans on Winter Cover Crops Grown in the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Forge, T. A.; Ingham, R. E.; Kaufman, D.; Pinkerton, J. N.

    2000-01-01

    Population growth of Pratylenchus penetrans on 13 fall and winter cover crops was studied in the greenhouse and field. All crops except oat cv. Saia supported population growth of P. penetrans in greenhouse experiments, although the response of P. penetrans to oat cv. Saia varied considerably between experiments. The mean ratio of the final population density/initial population density (Pf/Pi) after 16 weeks for P. penetrans added to a greenhouse soil mix was 0.09, whereas Pf/Pi values after 10 weeks for two experiments with naturally infested soil were 0.95 and 2.3. Although P. penetrans increased on sudangrass cv. Trudan 8 and sudangrass × sorghum hybrid cv. SS 222, subsequent incorporation of sudangrass vegetation into soil reduced P. penetrans populations to preplant levels. Field experiments were inconclusive but suggested that oat cv. Saia or rye cv. Wheeler may be better choices for winter cover than weed-contaminated fallow or other crops on P. penetrans-infested sites in the Pacific Northwest. PMID:19270948