Science.gov

Sample records for pacific salmon populations

  1. Genetic changes from artificial propagation of Pacific salmon affect the productivity and viability of supplemented populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Rubin, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    Although several studies have shown genetic differences between hatchery and wild anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), none has provided compelling evidence that artificial propagation poses a genetic threat to conservation of naturally spawning populations. When the published studies and three studies in progress are considered collectively, however, they provide strong evidence that the fitness for natural spawning and rearing can be rapidly and substantially reduced by artificial propagation. This issue takes on great importance in the Pacific Northwest where supplementation of wild salmon populations with hatchery fish has been identified as an important tool for restoring these populations. Recognition of negative aspects may lead to restricted use of supplementation, and better conservation, better evaluation, and greater benefits when supplementation is used.

  2. Can intense predation by bears exert a depensatory effect on recruitment in a Pacific salmon population?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Thomas P; Cunningham, Curry J; Randall, Jessica; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-10-01

    It has long been recognized that, as populations increase in density, ecological processes affecting growth and survival reduce per capita recruitment in the next generation. In contrast to the evidence for such "compensatory" density dependence, the alternative "depensatory" process (reduced per capita recruitment at low density) has proven more difficult to demonstrate in the field. To test for such depensation, we measured the spawner-recruit relationship over five decades for a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population in Alaska breeding in high-quality, unaltered habitat. Twenty-five years of detailed estimates of predation by brown bears, Ursus arctos, revealed strong density dependence in predation rate; the bears killed ca. 80% of the salmon in years of low salmon spawning abundance. Nevertheless, the reconstructed spawner-recruit relationship, adjusted to include salmon intercepted in the commercial fishery, provided no evidence of demographic depensation. That is, in years when few salmon returned and the great majority were killed by bears, the few that spawned were successful enough that the population remained highly productive, even when those killed by bears were included as potential spawners. We conclude that the high quality of breeding habitat at this site and the productive nature of semelparous Pacific salmon allowed this population to avoid the hypothesized depressed recruitment from depensatory processes expected at low density. The observed lack of demographic depensation is encouraging from a conservation standpoint because it implies that depleted populations may have the potential to rebound successfully given suitable spawning and rearing habitat, even in the presence of strong predation pressure. PMID:25154755

  3. Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

  4. Population differentiation in Pacific salmon: local adaptation, genetic drift, or the environment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkison, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Morphological, behavioral, and life-history differences between Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations are commonly thought to reflect local adaptation, and it is likewise common to assume that salmon populations separated by small distances are locally adapted. Two alternatives to local adaptation exist: random genetic differentiation owing to genetic drift and founder events, and genetic homogeneity among populations, in which differences reflect differential trait expression in differing environments. Population genetics theory and simulations suggest that both alternatives are possible. With selectively neutral alleles, genetic drift can result in random differentiation despite many strays per generation. Even weak selection can prevent genetic drift in stable populations; however, founder effects can result in random differentiation despite selective pressures. Overlapping generations reduce the potential for random differentiation. Genetic homogeneity can occur despite differences in selective regimes when straying rates are high. In sum, localized differences in selection should not always result in local adaptation. Local adaptation is favored when population sizes are large and stable, selection is consistent over large areas, selective diffeentials are large, and straying rates are neither too high nor too low. Consideration of alternatives to local adaptation would improve both biological research and salmon conservation efforts.

  5. POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  6. THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  7. PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

  8. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  9. The utilization of a Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by three populations of charr Salvelinus spp.

    PubMed

    Denton, K P; Rich, H B; Moore, J W; Quinn, T P

    2010-09-01

    The L(F) -at-age trajectories differentiated two populations of Dolly Varden charr Salvelinus malma and a population of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from the eastern end of Iliamna Lake, Alaska. Salvelinus malma from the Pedro Bay ponds were the smallest for a given age, followed by Salvelinus alpinus from the lake, and S. malma from the Iliamna River were much larger. The utilization of a large sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by the three Salvelinus spp. populations was then investigated by comparing diet data and mixing model (MixSIR) outputs based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Stomach contents indicated that both S. malma populations fed on O. nerka products, especially eggs and larval Diptera that had scavenged O. nerka carcasses, whereas S. alpinus fed on a variety of prey items such as three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus and snails. Stable-isotope analysis corroborated the diet data; the two S. malma populations incorporated more O. nerka-derived nutrients into their tissues than did S. alpinus from the lake, although all populations showed substantial utilization of O. nerka-derived resources. Salvelinus alpinus also seemed to be much more omnivorous, as shown by stable-isotope mixing models, than the S. malma populations. The dramatic differences in growth rate between the two S. malma populations, despite similar trophic patterns, indicate that other important genetic or environmental factors affect their life history, including proximate temperature controls and ultimate predation pressures. PMID:20840627

  10. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have been ...

  11. FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  12. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: FORECASTING THEIR STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  13. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population) have declined and some have been e...

  14. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and...

  15. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and...

  16. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  17. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  18. Centennial-scale fluctuations and regional complexity characterize Pacific salmon population dynamics over the past five centuries.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lauren A; Schindler, Daniel E; Lisi, Peter J; Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Leavitt, Peter R; Bunting, Lynda; Finney, Bruce P; Selbie, Daniel T; Chen, Guangjie; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Lisac, Mark J; Walsh, Patrick B

    2013-01-29

    Observational data from the past century have highlighted the importance of interdecadal modes of variability in fish population dynamics, but how these patterns of variation fit into a broader temporal and spatial context remains largely unknown. We analyzed time series of stable nitrogen isotopes from the sediments of 20 sockeye salmon nursery lakes across western Alaska to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in salmon abundance over the past ∼500 y. Although some stocks varied on interdecadal time scales (30- to 80-y cycles), centennial-scale variation, undetectable in modern-day catch records and survey data, has dominated salmon population dynamics over the past 500 y. Before 1900, variation in abundance was clearly not synchronous among stocks, and the only temporal signal common to lake sediment records from this region was the onset of commercial fishing in the late 1800s. Thus, historical changes in climate did not synchronize stock dynamics over centennial time scales, emphasizing that ecosystem complexity can produce a diversity of ecological responses to regional climate forcing. Our results show that marine fish populations may alternate between naturally driven periods of high and low abundance over time scales of decades to centuries and suggest that management models that assume time-invariant productivity or carrying capacity parameters may be poor representations of the biological reality in these systems. PMID:23322737

  19. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  20. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  1. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  2. Adaptive potential of a Pacific salmon challenged by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Nicolas J.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Heath, John W.; Neff, Bryan D.

    2015-02-01

    Pacific salmon provide critical sustenance for millions of people worldwide and have far-reaching impacts on the productivity of ecosystems. Rising temperatures now threaten the persistence of these important fishes, yet it remains unknown whether populations can adapt. Here, we provide the first evidence that a Pacific salmon has both physiological and genetic capacities to increase its thermal tolerance in response to rising temperatures. In juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a 4 °C increase in developmental temperature was associated with a 2 °C increase in key measures of the thermal performance of cardiac function. Moreover, additive genetic effects significantly influenced several measures of cardiac capacity, indicative of heritable variation on which selection can act. However, a lack of both plasticity and genetic variation was found for the arrhythmic temperature of the heart, constraining this upper thermal limit to a maximum of 24.5 +/- 2.2 °C. Linking this constraint on thermal tolerance with present-day river temperatures and projected warming scenarios, we predict a 17% chance of catastrophic loss in the population by 2100 based on the average warming projection, with this chance increasing to 98% in the maximum warming scenario. Climate change mitigation is thus necessary to ensure the future viability of Pacific salmon populations.

  3. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  4. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  5. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  6. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with good manufacturing practice; and then washing. Canned Pacific salmon is prepared in one of... good manufacturing practices. (iii) “Minced salmon” consists of salmon which has been minced or...

  7. Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

  8. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  9. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  10. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  11. Evolutionary history of Pacific salmon in dynamic environments

    PubMed Central

    Waples, Robin S; Pess, George R; Beechie, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary evolution of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) is best viewed in the context of the evolutionary history of the species and the dynamic ecosystems they inhabit. Speciation was complete by the late Miocene, leaving c. six million years for intraspecific diversification. Following the most recent glacial maximum, large areas became available for recolonization. Current intraspecific diversity is thus the product of recent evolution overlaid onto divergent historical lineages forged during recurrent episodes of Pleistocene glaciation. In northwestern North America, dominant habitat features have been relatively stable for the past 5000 years, but salmon ecosystems remain dynamic because of disturbance regimes (volcanic eruptions, landslides, wildfires, floods, variations in marine and freshwater productivity) that occur on a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These disturbances both create selective pressures for adaptive responses by salmon and inhibit long-term divergence by periodically extirpating local populations and creating episodic dispersal events that erode emerging differences. Recent anthropogenic changes are replicated pervasively across the landscape and interrupt processes that allow natural habitat recovery. If anthropogenic changes can be shaped to produce disturbance regimes that more closely mimic (in both space and time) those under which the species evolved, Pacific salmon should be well-equipped to deal with future challenges, just as they have throughout their evolutionary history. PMID:25567626

  12. PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES OF THE WORLD: STATUS, PROSPECTS, AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific have declined significantly from historic levels, but not as dramatically as have Atlantic salmon. Hatchery production has been used to maintain some runs in the southern region of the range (e.g., Japan, Kor...

  13. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Across the Pacific Northwest region of North America, many runs of wild (in contrast to hatchery-bred) salmon have declined and some have been extirpated. Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, socially divisive, and ...

  14. NORTH PACIFIC SALMON MONITORING WORKSHOP I - SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of the first North Pacific Salmon Monitoring Workshop was to initiate development of an economically feasible monitoring strategy that could serve as a warning system for detecting changes in the status of Pacific Rim salmon. This is a summary of the workshop held Fe...

  15. Range-wide selection of catchments for Pacific salmon conservation.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Malin L; Springmeyer, Dane B; Goslin, Matthew N; Augerot, Xanthippe

    2009-06-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are declining in quality globally, but a lack of data inhibits identification of areas valuable for conservation across national borders. We developed a biological measure of conservation value for six species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in catchments of the northern Pacific across Canada, China, Japan, Russia, and the United States. We based the measure on abundance and life-history richness and a model-based method that filled data gaps. Catchments with high conservation value ranged from California to northern Russia and included catchments in regions that are strongly affected by human development (e.g., Puget Sound). Catchments with high conservation value were less affected by agriculture and dams than other catchments, although only 1% were within biodiversity reserves. Our set of high-value areas was largely insensitive to simulated error, although classification remained uncertain for 3% of catchments. Although salmon face many threats, we propose they will be most likely to exhibit resilience into the future if a complementary mosaic of conservation strategies can be proactively adopted in catchments with healthy salmon populations. Our analysis provides an initial map of where these catchments are likely to be located. PMID:19220368

  16. [Microbiologic study of low quality raw material obtained from Pacific salmon].

    PubMed

    Shul'gin, Iu P; Galkina, L M; Shul'gina, L V; Pliusnin, V V

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined the microflora in the regions occupied with food fish and food manufacture from Pacific salmon in order to establish its interrelations with other characteristics of the quality. With this purpose in view sea and river water in the places of catching, freshly catched salmon and salted food were studied for the presence of putrefactive bacteria, potentially pathogenic for hydrobionts and man. The data obtained have demonstrated that the main causes of the deterioration of the quality of raw material and food manufactured from Pacific salmon are of bacterial nature. Salmon with micropunctate or large skin ulcerations induced by the causative agent Aeromonas hydrophila was discovered to contain substances with pronounced toxic properties. It is concluded that salmon affected with this microorganism cannot be used for nutrition of the population without thermal treatment. PMID:2660405

  17. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  18. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  19. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  20. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  1. RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

  2. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: THE MOST LIKELY FUTURE AND SOME ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of...

  3. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: IN SEARCH OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds...

  4. Characterization of bone from red salmon and Pacific cod frames

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 estimated harvests of Pacific cod and all salmon species from Alaska waters was 207,000 mt and 322,000 mt, respectively. If all the harvest would be processed to boneless fillets it is estimated the amounts of frames produced would be 37,000 mt from cod and 58,000 mt from salmon. There is ...

  5. On signals of phase transitions in salmon population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krkošek, Martin; Drake, John M

    2014-06-01

    Critical slowing down (CSD) reflects the decline in resilience of equilibria near a bifurcation and may reveal early warning signals (EWS) of ecological phase transitions. We studied CSD in the recruitment dynamics of 120 stocks of three Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) species in relation to critical transitions in fishery models. Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) exhibited increased variability and autocorrelation in populations that had a growth parameter, r, close to zero, consistent with EWS of extinction. However, models and data for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) indicate that portfolio effects from heterogeneity in age-at-maturity may obscure EWS. Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) show intermediate results. The data do not reveal EWS of Ricker-type bifurcations that cause oscillations and chaos at high r. These results not only provide empirical support for CSD in some ecological systems, but also indicate that portfolio effects of age structure may conceal EWS of some critical transitions. PMID:24759855

  6. What`s at stake in the Pacific Northwest salmon debate? Jobs, hydropower, agriculture, fish harvests...species survival

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, A.M.

    1995-03-01

    This article highlights the debate about the pacific salmon in the Pacific Northwest. The population levels of all salmonid species are down precipitously, with some listed as endangered, but no one has come up with a salmon restoration plan that is perceived to be both effective and painless to all the human parties with a vested interest. The Salmon issue touches everyone in the region directly or indirectly. Discussed are the following general topics: devising a plan for the salmon and the politics of planning and the problem of how the four fundamental areas, hydropower, habitat, hatcheries, and harvest, need to be prioritized.

  7. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  8. 75 FR 14135 - Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... contained in the Federal Register notice of February 11, 2008 (73 FR 7696), are applicable to this... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC16 Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of funding availability. SUMMARY: NOAA announces the availability of Pacific...

  9. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  10. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  11. Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (p<0.05). CSP performed slightly better than FSP at inhibiting salmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40°C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. PMID:25624255

  12. Techno-Arrogance and Halfway Technologies: Salmon Hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meffe, Gary K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to recover Pacific salmonid fisheries with hatcheries as an example of a human attitude toward nature that places technological mastery over nature at the forefront of our approach to many environmental problems. Points out how this approach addresses the symptoms but not the causes of the salmon population decline. Suggests…

  13. Reconstruction of Pacific salmon abundance from riparian tree-ring growth.

    PubMed

    Drake, D C; Naiman, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    We use relationships between modern Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) escapement (migrating adults counted at weirs or dams) and riparian tree-ring growth to reconstruct the abundance of stream-spawning salmon over 150-350 years. After examining nine sites, we produced reconstructions for five mid-order rivers and four salmon species over a large geographic range in the Pacific Northwest: chinook (O. tschwatcha) in the Umpqua River, Oregon, USA; sockeye (O. nerka) in Drinkwater Creek, British Columbia, Canada; pink (O. gorbuscha) in Sashin Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; chum (O. keta) in Disappearance Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; and pink and chum in the Kadashan River, southeastern Alaska, USA. We first derived stand-level, non-climatic growth chronologies from riparian trees using standard dendroecology methods and differencing. When the chronologies were compared to 18-55 years of adult salmon escapement we detected positive, significant correlations at five of the nine sites. Regression models relating escapement to tree-ring growth at the five sites were applied to the differenced chronologies to reconstruct salmon abundance. Each reconstruction contains unique patterns characteristic of the site and salmon species. Reconstructions were validated by comparison to local histories (e.g., construction of dams and salmon canneries) and regional fisheries data such as salmon landings and aerial surveys and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climate index. The reconstructions capture lower-frequency cycles better than extremes and are most useful for determination and comparison of relative abundance, cycles, and the effects of interventions. Reconstructions show lower population cycle maxima in both Umpqua River chinook and Sashin Creek pink salmon in recent decades. The Drinkwater Creek reconstruction suggests that sockeye abundance since the mid-1990s has been 15-25% higher than at any time since 1850, while no long-term deviations from natural cycles are

  14. Estimating the future decline of wild coho salmon populations resulting from early spawner die-offs in urbanizing watersheds of the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Spromberg, Julann A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2011-10-01

    Since the late 1990 s, monitoring efforts evaluating the effectiveness of urban stream restoration projects in the greater metropolitan area of Seattle, Washington, USA, have detected high rates of premature mortality among adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in restored spawning habitats. Affected animals display a consistent suite of symptoms (e.g., disorientation, lethargy, loss of equilibrium, gaping, fin splaying) that ultimately progresses to death on a timescale of a few hours. Annual rates of prespawn mortality observed over multiple years, across several drainages, have ranged from approximately 20% to 90% of the total fall run within a given watershed. Current weight-of-evidence suggests that coho prespawn mortality is caused by toxic urban stormwater runoff. To evaluate the potential consequences of current and future urbanization on wild coho salmon, we constructed life-history models to estimate the impacts of prespawn mortality on coho populations and metapopulations. At the low (20%) and high (90%) ends of the range of observed mortality, model results indicated the mean time to extinction of localized coho populations in 115 and 8 y, respectively. The presence of productive source populations (i.e., unaffected by prespawn mortality) within a metapopulation reduced local extinction risk. However, as more populations within a metapopulation become affected by spawner die-offs prior to spawning, the source population's productivity declined. These simple models demonstrate the potential for rapid losses from coho populations in urbanizing watersheds. Because the models do not account for possible impacts of toxic runoff to other coho life stages, they likely underestimate the cumulative impacts of nonpoint source pollution on wild populations. PMID:21786416

  15. Analyzing variations in life-history traits of Pacific salmon in the context of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecquerie, Laure; Johnson, Leah R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2011-11-01

    To determine the response of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.) populations to environmental change, we need to understand impacts on all life stages. However, an integrative and mechanistic approach is particularly challenging for Pacific salmon as they use multiple habitats (river, estuarine and marine) during their life cycle. Here we develop a bioenergetic model that predicts development, growth and reproduction of a Pacific salmon in a dynamic environment, from an egg to a reproducing female, and that links female state to egg traits. This model uses Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to predict how life history traits vary among five species of Pacific salmon: Pink, Sockeye, Coho, Chum and Chinook. Supplemented with a limited number of assumptions on anadromy and semelparity and external signals for migrations, the model reproduces the qualitative patterns in egg size, fry size and fecundity both at the inter- and intra-species levels. Our results highlight how modeling all life stages within a single framework enables us to better understand complex life-history patterns. Additionally we show that body size scaling relationships implied by DEB theory provide a simple way to transfer model parameters among Pacific salmon species, thus providing a generic approach to study the impact of environmental conditions on the life cycle of Pacific salmon.

  16. Freshwater ecosystems and resilience of Pacific salmon: Habitat Management based on natural variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisson, P.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Reeves, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed processes generate highly variable environmental conditions and population responses, i.e., multiple life histories, that are often not considered in restoration. Examples from several locations underscore the importance of natural variability to the resilience of Pacific salmon. The implication is that habitat restoration efforts will be more likely to foster salmon resilience if they consider processes that generate and maintain natural variability in fresh water. We identify three specific criteria for management based on natural variability: the capacity of aquatic habitat to recover from disturbance, a range of habitats distributed across stream networks through time sufficient to fulfill the requirements of diverse salmon life histories, and ecological connectivity. In light of these considerations, we discuss current threats to habitat resilience and describe how regulatory and restoration approaches can be modified to better incorporate natural variability. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  17. Are inland wolf-ungulate systems influenced by marine subsidies of Pacific salmon?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.; Farley, Sean D.; Stricker, C.A.; Demma, D.J.; Roffler, G.H.; Miller, D.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf-prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland wolf-ungulate food webs far from the coast. We conducted stable-isotope analyses for nitrogen and carbon to evaluate the contribution of salmon to diets of wolves in Denali National Park and Preserve, 1200 river-km from tidewater in interior Alaska, USA. We analyzed bone collagen from 73 wolves equipped with radio collars during 1986-2002 and evaluated estimates of salmon in their diets relative to the availability of salmon and ungulates within their home ranges. We compared wolf densities and ungulate : wolf ratios among regions with differing salmon and ungulate availability to assess subsidizing effects of salmon on these wolf-ungulate systems. Wolves in the northwestern flats of the study area had access to spawning salmon but low ungulate availability and consumed more salmon (17% ?? 7% [mean ?? SD]) than in upland regions, where ungulates were sixfold more abundant and wolves did or did not have salmon spawning areas within their home ranges (8% ?? 6% and 3% ?? 3%, respectively). Wolves were only 17% less abundant on the northwestern flats compared to the remainder of the study area, even though ungulate densities were 78% lower. We estimated that biomass from fall runs of chum (O. keta) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon on the northwestern flats was comparable to the ungulate biomass there, and the contribution of salmon to wolf diets was similar to estimates reported for coastal wolves in southeast Alaska. Given the ubiquitous consumption of salmon by wolves on the northwestern flats and the abundance of salmon there, we conclude that wolf numbers in this region were enhanced by the allochthonous subsidy provided by

  18. Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M; Quinn, Thomas P

    2011-07-01

    Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

  19. WILD SALMON RESTORATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FORECASTING THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforst have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  20. Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high

  1. Evaluations of alternative methods for monitoring and estimating responses of salmon productivity in the North Pacific to future climatic change and other processes: A simulation study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of the relative influence of climate change, compared to other human activities, on dynamics of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations can help management agencies take appropriate management actions. We used empirically based simulation modelling of 48 sockeye...

  2. Effects of Salmon-Derived Nutrients and Habitat Characteristics on Population Densities of Stream-Resident Sculpins

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Noel R.; Reynolds, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Movement of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries can have important effects on food webs and population dynamics. An example from the North Pacific Rim is the connection between productive marine ecosystems and freshwaters driven by annual spawning migrations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp). While a growing body of research has highlighted the importance of both pulsed nutrient subsidies and disturbance by spawning salmon, their effects on population densities of vertebrate consumers have rarely been tested, especially across streams spanning a wide range of natural variation in salmon densities and habitat characteristics. We studied resident freshwater prickly (Cottus asper), and coastrange sculpins (C. aleuticus) in coastal salmon spawning streams to test whether their population densities are affected by spawning densities of pink and chum salmon (O. gorbuscha and O. keta), as well as habitat characteristics. Coastrange sculpins occurred in the highest densities in streams with high densities of spawning pink and chum salmon. They also were more dense in streams with high pH, large watersheds, less area covered by pools, and lower gradients. In contrast, prickly sculpin densities were higher in streams with more large wood and pools, and less canopy cover, but their densities were not correlated with salmon. These results for coastrange sculpins provide evidence of a numerical population response by freshwater fish to increased availability of salmon subsidies in streams. These results demonstrate complex and context-dependent relationships between spawning Pacific salmon and coastal ecosystems and can inform an ecosystem-based approach to their management and conservation. PMID:26030145

  3. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    SciTech Connect

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  4. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...) submitted Amendments 10, 11, and 12 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off... comprehensively revise and update the FMP to reflect the Council's salmon management policy and Federal...

  5. The Lummi Indians and the Canadian/American Pacific Salmon Treaty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxberger, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Explores the probable impact of the 1985 international Pacific Salmon Treaty on the Lummi tribe's catch of Fraser River salmon and economic well-being. Discusses the 1974 Boldt Decision, which allocated half of Washington State's salmon catch to treaty tribes, and contradictions in the federal government's conception of international treaties. (SV)

  6. REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS: THE FUTURE OF SALMON IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  7. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Weston, D P; Asbell, A M; Hecht, S A; Scholz, N L; Lydy, M J

    2011-10-01

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 °C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 °C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. PMID:21592636

  8. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  9. Transcriptomic responses to high water temperature in two species of Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Sierocinski, Thomas; Pavlidis, Paul; Miller, Kristi M

    2014-02-01

    Characterizing the cellular stress response (CSR) of species at ecologically relevant temperatures is useful for determining whether populations and species can successfully respond to current climatic extremes and future warming. In this study, populations of wild-caught adult pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon from the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada, were experimentally treated to ecologically relevant 'cool' or 'warm' water temperatures to uncover common transcriptomic responses to elevated water temperature in non-lethally sampled gill tissue. We detected the differential expression of 49 microarray features (29 unique annotated genes and one gene with unknown function) associated with protein folding, protein synthesis, metabolism, oxidative stress and ion transport that were common between populations and species of Pacific salmon held at 19°C compared with fish held at a cooler temperature (13 or 14°C). There was higher mortality in fish held at 19°C, which suggests a possible relationship between a temperature-induced CSR and mortality in these species. Our results suggest that frequently encountered water temperatures ≥19°C, which are capable of inducing a common CSR across species and populations, may increase risk of upstream spawning migration failure for pink and sockeye salmon. PMID:24567748

  10. THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

  11. Global Assessment of Extinction Risk to Populations of Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Peter S.; Goslin, Matthew; Gross, Mart R.; Irvine, James R.; Augerot, Xanthippe; McHugh, Peter A.; Bugaev, Victor F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon. Methods/Principal Findings We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species' range. Of these, 5 (5%) are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67%) and found that 17 of these (27%) are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions. Conclusions/Significance Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct. PMID:22511930

  12. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  13. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries...

  14. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...NMFS issues regulations to implement Amendment 12 to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of Alaska (FMP). Amendment 12 comprehensively revises and updates the FMP to reflect the North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) salmon management policy and to comply with Federal law. This action is necessary to revise specific regulations and remove......

  15. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. ...

  16. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of

  17. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance. PMID:25685190

  18. Evaluating tributary restoration potential for Pacific salmon recovery.

    PubMed

    Budy, Phaedra; Schaller, Howard

    2007-06-01

    Although habitat restoration can play a key role in the conservation of imperiled species, for animals that demonstrate long migrations and complex life histories, reliance on physical restoration of isolated habitat patches comes with considerable uncertainty. Nevertheless, within freshwater ecosystems, stream restoration has become a major conservation focus, with millions of dollars spent annually on efforts aimed at recovering degraded habitat and imperiled riverine species. Within this context, we addressed fundamental uncertainties of the focus on tributary restoration for recovery of salmon: (1) Is there potential for improving habitat in tributaries? (2) What magnitude of early survival improvement can be expected based on stream restoration? and (3) Will incremental increases in early survival be sufficient to ensure viability overall? We combined simple mechanistic habitat models, population viability measures, and categorical filters to quantify "restoration potential," expressed as increased total life-cycle survival in response to restored tributary condition, across 32 populations composing five major population groups (MPG). A wide gap remains between how much survival improvement is needed vs. what is likely to occur; restoration potential meets the necessary minimum increase needed for only four populations within one MPG. The remaining populations (84%, 4 MPG) still fall far below the survival increase needed for future viability. In addition, across all populations and groups, a 171% increase (on average) in total life-cycle survival is needed; only approximately 106% appears possible. A recovery strategy for these salmon that relies largely on tributary restoration to mitigate for known mortality imposed at other life stages (e.g., migration through hydropower dams) is risky with a low probability of success. We demonstrate an approach for completing an a priori evaluation of restoration potential linked to population viability, such that

  19. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Gene expression profiling and environmental contaminant assessment of migrating Pacific salmon in the Fraser River watershed of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Dubetz, Cory; Macpherson, Nancy; Sampson, Tracy; Kelly, Barry C; Helbing, Caren C

    2010-05-01

    The health and physiological condition of anadromous salmon is of concern as their upriver migration requires navigation of human-impacted waterways and metabolism of stored energy reserves containing anthropogenic contaminants. Such factors may affect reproductive success of fish stocks. This study investigates chemical contaminant burdens and select gene expression profiles in Pacific Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon which traverse the Fraser River watershed during their spawning migration. Chemical analyses of muscle tissue and eggs of salmon collected from the lower Fraser River (pre-migration) and from upstream spawning grounds (post-migration) during the 2007 migration revealed the presence of numerous chemical contaminants, including PCBs, dioxins/furans, pesticides, and heavy metals. However, muscle tissue residue concentrations were well below human health consumption guidelines and 2,3,7,8 TCDD toxic equivalents (SigmaTEQs) in salmon eggs, calculated using WHO toxic equivalency factors (WHO-TEFs) for fish health, did not exceed the 0.3pgg(-1) wet weight toxicological threshold level previously associated with 30% egg mortality in salmon populations. Quantitative real-time PCR probes were generated and used to assess differences in abundance of key mRNA transcripts encoding nine gene products associated with reproduction, stress, metal toxicity, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Gene expression profiles were characterized in liver and muscle tissue of pre- and post-migration Sockeye and Chinook salmon. The results of stock-matched animals indicate that dynamic changes in mRNA levels occur for a number of genes in both species during migration and suggest that Sockeye salmon exhibit a greater level of biological stress compared to the Chinook salmon population. Using a male-specific genotypic marker, we found that out of the 154 animals examined, one Sockeye was genotypically male but phenotypically female

  1. Influence of breeding habitat on bear predation and age at maturity and sexual dimorphism of sockeye salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, Thomas P; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Bishop, Susan; Overberg, Kristi; Rogers, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Age structure and morphology differ among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. Sexual selection and reproductive capacity (fecundity and egg size) generally favor large (old), deep-bodied fish. We hypothesized that natural selection from physical access to spawning grounds and size-biased predation by bears, Ursus spp., opposes such large, deep-bodied salmon. Accordingly, size and shape of salmon should vary predictably among spawning habitats. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the age composition and body depth of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, and the intensity of predation in a range of breeding habitats in southwestern Alaska. Stream width was positively correlated with age at maturity and negatively correlated with predation level. However, salmon spawning on lake beaches were not consistently old, indicating that different factors affect age in riverine- and beach-spawning populations. Body depths of male and female salmon were positively correlated with water depth across all sites, as predicted. However, the mouths of some streams were so shallow that they might select against large or deep-bodied salmon, even in the absence of bear predation. Taken together, the results indicated that habitat has direct and indirect effects (via predation) on life history and morphology of mature salmon.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms across a species' range: implications for conservation studies of Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Seeb, L W; Templin, W D; Sato, S; Abe, S; Warheit, K; Park, J Y; Seeb, J E

    2011-03-01

    Studies of the oceanic and near-shore distributions of Pacific salmon, whose migrations typically span thousands of kilometres, have become increasingly valuable in the presence of climate change, increasing hatchery production and potentially high rates of bycatch in offshore fisheries. Genetics data offer considerable insights into both the migratory routes as well as the evolutionary histories of the species. However, these types of studies require extensive data sets from spawning populations originating from across the species' range. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been particularly amenable for multinational applications because they are easily shared, require little interlaboratory standardization and can be assayed through increasingly efficient technologies. Here, we discuss the development of a data set for 114 populations of chum salmon through a collaboration among North American and Asian researchers, termed PacSNP. PacSNP is focused on developing the database and applying it to problems of international interest. A data set spanning the entire range of species provides a unique opportunity to examine patterns of variability, and we review issues associated with SNP development. We found evidence of ascertainment bias within the data set, variable linkage relationships between SNPs associated with ancestral groupings and outlier loci with alleles associated with latitude. PMID:21429175

  3. EST and mitochondrial DNA sequences support a distinct Pacific form of salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Ryosuke; Yasuike, Motoshige; Leong, Jong; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Cooper, Glenn A; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Robb, Adrienne; Davidson, William S; Jones, Simon R M; Koop, Ben F

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid sequences from approximately 15,000 salmon louse expressed sequence tags (ESTs), the complete mitochondrial genome (16,148bp) of salmon louse, and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from 68 salmon lice collected from Japan, Alaska, and western Canada support a Pacific lineage of Lepeophtheirus salmonis that is distinct from that occurring in the Atlantic Ocean. On average, nuclear genes are 3.2% different, the complete mitochondrial genome is 7.1% different, and 16S rRNA and COI genes are 4.2% and 6.1% different, respectively. Reduced genetic diversity within the Pacific form of L. salmonis is consistent with an introduction into the Pacific from the Atlantic Ocean. The level of divergence is consistent with the hypothesis that the Pacific form of L. salmonis coevolved with Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus spp.) and the Atlantic form coevolved with Atlantic salmonids (Salmo spp.) independently for the last 2.5-11 million years. The level of genetic divergence coincides with the opportunity for migration of fish between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins via the Arctic Ocean with the opening of the Bering Strait, approximately 5 million years ago. The genetic differences may help explain apparent differences in pathogenicity and environmental sensitivity documented for the Atlantic and Pacific forms of L. salmonis. PMID:18574633

  4. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  5. Sex and proximity to reproductive maturity influence the survival, final maturation, and blood physiology of Pacific salmon when exposed to high temperature during a simulated migration.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Martins, Eduardo G; Clark, Timothy D; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Miller, Kristina M

    2012-01-01

    Some Pacific salmon populations have been experiencing increasingly warmer river temperatures during their once-in-a-lifetime spawning migration, which has been associated with en route and prespawn mortality. The mechanisms underlying such temperature-mediated mortality are poorly understood. Wild adult pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon were used in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effects of elevated water temperature on mortality, final maturation, and blood properties under controlled conditions that simulated a "cool" (13°C) and "warm" (19°C) freshwater spawning migration. After 10 d at 13°C, observed mortality was 50%-80% in all groups, which suggested that there was likely some mortality associated with handling and confinement. Observed mortality after 10 d at 19°C was higher, reaching ≥98% in male pink salmon and female pink and sockeye salmon. Thus, male sockeye salmon were the most thermally tolerant (54% observed mortality). Model selection supported the temperature- and sex-specific mortality patterns. The pink salmon were closer to reproductive maturation and farther along the senescence trajectory than sockeye salmon, which likely influenced their survival and physiological responses throughout the experiment. Females of both species held at 19°C had reduced plasma sex steroids compared with those held at 13°C, and female pink salmon were less likely to become fully mature at 19° than at 13°C. Male and female sockeye salmon held at 19°C had higher plasma chloride and osmolality than those held at 13°C, indicative of a thermally related stress response. These findings suggest that sex differences and proximity to reproductive maturity must be considered when predicting thermal tolerance and the magnitude of en route and prespawn mortality for Pacific salmon. PMID:22237290

  6. IBSEM: An Individual-Based Atlantic Salmon Population Model

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Marco; Heino, Mikko; Gilbey, John; Araki, Hitoshi; Svåsand, Terje; Glover, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Ecology and genetics can influence the fate of individuals and populations in multiple ways. However, to date, few studies consider them when modelling the evolutionary trajectory of populations faced with admixture with non-local populations. For the Atlantic salmon, a model incorporating these elements is urgently needed because many populations are challenged with gene-flow from non-local and domesticated conspecifics. We developed an Individual-Based Salmon Eco-genetic Model (IBSEM) to simulate the demographic and population genetic change of an Atlantic salmon population through its entire life-cycle. Processes such as growth, mortality, and maturation are simulated through stochastic procedures, which take into account environmental variables as well as the genotype of the individuals. IBSEM is based upon detailed empirical data from salmon biology, and parameterized to reproduce the environmental conditions and the characteristics of a wild population inhabiting a Norwegian river. Simulations demonstrated that the model consistently and reliably reproduces the characteristics of the population. Moreover, in absence of farmed escapees, the modelled populations reach an evolutionary equilibrium that is similar to our definition of a ‘wild’ genotype. We assessed the sensitivity of the model in the face of assumptions made on the fitness differences between farm and wild salmon, and evaluated the role of straying as a buffering mechanism against the intrusion of farm genes into wild populations. These results demonstrate that IBSEM is able to capture the evolutionary forces shaping the life history of wild salmon and is therefore able to model the response of populations under environmental and genetic stressors. PMID:26383256

  7. IBSEM: An Individual-Based Atlantic Salmon Population Model.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Marco; Heino, Mikko; Gilbey, John; Araki, Hitoshi; Svåsand, Terje; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    Ecology and genetics can influence the fate of individuals and populations in multiple ways. However, to date, few studies consider them when modelling the evolutionary trajectory of populations faced with admixture with non-local populations. For the Atlantic salmon, a model incorporating these elements is urgently needed because many populations are challenged with gene-flow from non-local and domesticated conspecifics. We developed an Individual-Based Salmon Eco-genetic Model (IBSEM) to simulate the demographic and population genetic change of an Atlantic salmon population through its entire life-cycle. Processes such as growth, mortality, and maturation are simulated through stochastic procedures, which take into account environmental variables as well as the genotype of the individuals. IBSEM is based upon detailed empirical data from salmon biology, and parameterized to reproduce the environmental conditions and the characteristics of a wild population inhabiting a Norwegian river. Simulations demonstrated that the model consistently and reliably reproduces the characteristics of the population. Moreover, in absence of farmed escapees, the modelled populations reach an evolutionary equilibrium that is similar to our definition of a 'wild' genotype. We assessed the sensitivity of the model in the face of assumptions made on the fitness differences between farm and wild salmon, and evaluated the role of straying as a buffering mechanism against the intrusion of farm genes into wild populations. These results demonstrate that IBSEM is able to capture the evolutionary forces shaping the life history of wild salmon and is therefore able to model the response of populations under environmental and genetic stressors. PMID:26383256

  8. Journey of the Oncorhynchus: A Story of the Pacific Northwest Salmon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-06-01

    This report tells the story of the Pacific Northwest salmon in words that children can understand. The life cycle of chinook salmon is depicted through pictures and elementary language from the egg to juvenile fish in fresh water, to maturing fish in the ocean, and the adults migrating back up to spawning grounds in the Columbia River. This can be very useful in the education of children.

  9. Infections by Renibacterium salmoninarum and Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin are associated with reduced growth of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sandell, T A; Teel, D J; Fisher, J; Beckman, B; Jacobson, K C

    2015-04-01

    We examined 1454 juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), captured in nearshore waters off the coasts of Washington and Oregon (USA) from 1999 to 2004 for infection by Renibacterium salmoninarum, Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin and skin metacercariae. The prevalence and intensities for each of these infections were established for both yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. Two metrics of salmon growth, weight residuals and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, were determined for salmon infected with these pathogens/parasites, both individually and in combination, with uninfected fish used for comparison. Yearling Chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum had significantly reduced weight residuals. Chinook salmon infected with skin metacercariae alone did not have significantly reduced growth metrics. Dual infections were not associated with significantly more severe effects on the growth metrics than single infections; the number of triple infections was very low and precluded statistical comparison. Overall, these data suggest that infections by these organisms can be associated with reduced juvenile Chinook salmon growth. Because growth in the first year at sea has been linked to survival for some stocks of Chinook salmon, the infections may therefore play a role in regulating these populations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. PMID:24720546

  10. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Buckley, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8??C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6??C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts. Extended

  11. THe Pacific Northwest in 2010: An alternative futures perspective on salmon recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  12. DETECTING PERSISTENT CHANGE IN THE HABITAT OF SALMON-BEARING STREAMS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the northwestern United States, there is considerable interest in the recovery of salmon populations listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. A critical component of any salmon recovery effort is the improvement of stream habitat that supports vario...

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Athos, Jaime I.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2004-07-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. We were able to develop an analytical method for optimizing the detection of spawning events in Chinook salmon using EMG signals. The method developed essentially captured the consistently greater frequency of higher EMG values associated with females cover digging immediately following spawning. However, females implanted with EMG tags retained the majority of their eggs, which significantly reduced their reproductive success compared to non-tagged females. Future work will include increased sample sizes, and modified tagging methods to reduce negative effects on reproductive success. Upper Columbia River sockeye salmon exposed to the odorants PEA, L-threonine, Larginine and L-glutamate were able to learn and remember these odorants as maturing adults up to 2.5 years after exposure. These results suggest that the alevin and smolt stages are both important developmental periods for successful olfactory imprinting. Furthermore, the period of time that fish are exposed to imprinting odors may be important for successful imprinting. Experimental fish exposed to imprinting odors as smolts for six or one weeks successfully imprinted to these odors but imprinting could not be demonstrated in smolts exposed to odors for only one day. A 2-3 C reduction in seawater rearing temperature during the fall and winter prior to final maturation had little effect on reproductive development of spring Chinook salmon. Body size at spawning and total ovary mass were similar between temperature treatments. The percentage of fertilized eggs was significantly higher for females exposed to the ambient temperature compared

  14. A fish of many scales: extrapolating sublethal pesticide exposures to the productivity of wild salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David H; Spromberg, Julann A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2009-12-01

    For more than a decade, numerous pesticides have been detected in river systems of the western United States that support anadromous species of Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over the same interval, several declining wild salmon populations have been listed as either threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because pesticides occur in surface waters that provide critical habitat for ESA-listed stocks, they are an ongoing concern for salmon conservation and recovery throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. Because pesticide exposures are typically sublethal, a key question is whether toxicological effects at (or below) the scale of the individual animal ultimately reduce the productivity and recovery potential of wild populations. In this study we evaluate how the sublethal impacts of pesticides on physiology and behavior can reduce the somatic growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and, by extension, subsequent size-dependent survival when animals migrate to the ocean and overwinter in their first year. Our analyses focused on the organophosphate and carbamate classes of insecticides. These neurotoxic chemicals have been widely detected in aquatic environments. They inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme in the salmon nervous system that regulates neurotransmitter-mediated signaling at synapses. Based on empirical data, we developed a model that explicitly links sublethal reductions in acetylcholinesterase activity to reductions in feeding behavior, food ration, growth, and size at migration. Individual size was then used to estimate size-dependent survival during migration and transition to the sea. Individual survival estimates were then integrated into a life-history population projection matrix and used to calculate population productivity and growth rate. Our results indicate that short-term (i.e., four-day) exposures that are representative of seasonal pesticide use may be sufficient to reduce the

  15. SALMON IN CRISIS: IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  16. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... 161.170)) (73 FR 12180, March 6, 2008). The agency issued the permit to facilitate market testing of a... original permit (73 FR 12180, March 6, 2008). FDA is inviting interested persons to participate in the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity...

  17. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 2, 2012 (77 FR 19605) with comments invited through June 1, 2012... Amendment 12 (77 FR 19605, April 2, 2012). Proposed Rule To implement Amendment 12, this proposed rule would... current FMP conserves and manages the Pacific salmon commercial and sport fisheries that occur in...

  18. COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

  19. Oxygen uptake in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.: when ecology and physiology meet.

    PubMed

    Eliason, E J; Farrell, A P

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades, a substantial amount of research has examined how cardiorespiratory physiology supports the diverse activities performed throughout the life cycle of Pacific salmon, genus Oncorhynchus. Pioneering experiments emphasized the importance of aerobic scope in setting the functional thermal tolerance for activity in fishes. Variation in routine metabolism can have important performance and fitness consequences as it is related to dominance, aggression, boldness, territoriality, growth rate, postprandial oxygen consumption, life history, season, time of day, availability of shelter and social interactions. Wild fishes must perform many activities simultaneously (e.g. swim, obtain prey, avoid predators, compete, digest and reproduce) and oxygen delivery is allocated among competing organ systems according to the capacity of the heart to deliver blood. For example, salmonids that are simultaneously swimming and digesting trade-off maximum swimming performance in order to support the oxygen demands of digestion. As adult Pacific salmonids cease feeding in the ocean prior to their home migration, endogenous energy reserves and cardiac capacity are primarily partitioned among the demands for swimming upriver, sexual maturation and spawning behaviours. Furthermore, the upriver spawning migration is under strong selection pressure, given that Pacific salmonids are semelparous (single opportunity to spawn). Consequently, these fishes optimize energy expenditures in a number of ways: strong homing, precise migration timing, choosing forward-assist current paths and exploiting the boundary layer to avoid the strong currents in the middle of the river, using energetically efficient swimming speeds, and recovering rapidly from anaerobic swimming. Upon arrival at the spawning ground, remaining energy can be strategically allocated to the various spawning behaviours. Strong fidelity to natal streams has resulted in reproductively isolated populations that

  20. Adaptive divergence in embryonic thermal plasticity among Atlantic salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Côte, J; Roussel, J-M; Le Cam, S; Guillaume, F; Evanno, G

    2016-08-01

    In the context of global changes, the long-term viability of populations of endangered ectotherms may depend on their adaptive potential and ability to cope with temperature variations. We measured responses of Atlantic salmon embryos from four populations to temperature variations and used a QST -FST approach to study the adaptive divergence among these populations. Embryos were reared under two experimental conditions: a low temperature regime at 4 °C until eyed-stage and 10 °C until the end of embryonic development and a high temperature regime with a constant temperature of 10 °C throughout embryonic development. Significant variations among populations and population × temperature interactions were observed for embryo survival, incubation time and length. QST was higher than FST in all but one comparison suggesting an important effect of divergent selection. QST was also higher under the high-temperature treatment than at low temperature for length and survival due to a higher variance among populations under the stressful warmer treatment. Interestingly, heritability was lower for survival under high temperature in relation to a lower additive genetic variance under that treatment. Overall, these results reveal an adaptive divergence in thermal plasticity in embryonic life stages of Atlantic salmon suggesting that salmon populations may differentially respond to temperature variations induced by climate change. These results also suggest that changes in temperature may alter not only the adaptive potential of natural populations but also the selection regimes among them. PMID:27177256

  1. Signals of climate, conspecific density, and watershed features in patterns of homing and dispersal by Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Westley, Peter A H; Dittman, Andrew H; Ward, Eric J; Quinn, Thomas P

    2015-10-01

    It is widely assumed that rates of dispersal in animal populations are plastic in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cues, yet the factors influencing this plasticity are rarely known. This knowledge gap is surprising given the important role of dispersal in facilitating range shifts that may allow populations to persist in a rapidly changing global climate. We used two decades of tagging and recapture data from 19 hatchery populations of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon) in the Columbia River, USA, to quantify the effects of regional and local climate conditions, density dependence, watershed features such as area and position on the landscape, and direct anthropogenic influence on dispersal rates by adult salmon during the breeding season. We found that the probability of dispersal, termed "straying" in salmon, is plastic in'response to multiple factors and that populations showed varied responses that were largely idiosyncratic. A regional climate index (Pacific Decadal Oscillation), water temperatures in the mainstem Columbia River that was commonly experience by populations during migration, water temperatures in local subbasins unique to each population during the breeding season, migration distance, and density dependence had the strongest effects on dispersal. Patterns of dispersal plasticity in response to commonly experienced conditions were consistent with gene by environment interactions, though we are tentative about this interpretation given the domesticated history of these populations. Overall, our results warn against attempts to predict future range shifts of migratory species without considering population-specific dispersal plasticity, and also caution against the use of few populations to infer species-level patterns. Ultimately, our results provide evidence that analyses that examine the response of dispersal to single factors may be misleading. PMID:26649402

  2. Conservation physiology in practice: how physiological knowledge has improved our ability to sustainably manage Pacific salmon during up-river migration

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Steven J.; Hinch, Scott G.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Clark, Timothy D.; Eliason, Erika J.; Crossin, Glenn T.; Raby, Graham D.; Jeffries, Ken M.; Lapointe, Mike; Miller, Kristi; Patterson, David A.; Farrell, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conservation physiology, practical examples of how physiology has helped to understand or to solve conservation problems remain scarce. Over the past decade, an interdisciplinary research team has used a conservation physiology approach to address topical conservation concerns for Pacific salmon. Here, we review how novel applications of tools such as physiological telemetry, functional genomics and laboratory experiments on cardiorespiratory physiology have shed light on the effect of fisheries capture and release, disease and individual condition, and stock-specific consequences of warming river temperatures, respectively, and discuss how these findings have or have not benefited Pacific salmon management. Overall, physiological tools have provided remarkable insights into the effects of fisheries capture and have helped to enhance techniques for facilitating recovery from fisheries capture. Stock-specific cardiorespiratory thresholds for thermal tolerances have been identified for sockeye salmon and can be used by managers to better predict migration success, representing a rare example that links a physiological scope to fitness in the wild population. Functional genomics approaches have identified physiological signatures predictive of individual migration mortality. Although fisheries managers are primarily concerned with population-level processes, understanding the causes of en route mortality provides a mechanistic explanation and can be used to refine management models. We discuss the challenges that we have overcome, as well as those that we continue to face, in making conservation physiology relevant to managers of Pacific salmon. PMID:22566681

  3. The importance of genetic verification for determination of Atlantic salmon in north Pacific waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.; Williams, I.; Sage, G.K.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic analyses of two unknown but putative Atlantic salmon Salmo salar captured in the Copper River drainage, Alaska, demonstrated the need for validation of morphologically unusual fishes. Mitochondrial DNA sequences (control region and cytochrome b) and data from two nuclear genes [first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequence and growth hormone (GH1) amplification product] indicated that the fish caught in fresh water on the Martin River was a coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, while the other fish caught in the intertidal zone of the Copper River delta near Grass Island was an Atlantic salmon. Determination of unusual or cryptic fish based on limited physical characteristics and expected seasonal spawning run timing will add to the controversy over farmed Atlantic salmon and their potential effects on native Pacific species. It is clear that determination of all putative collections of Atlantic salmon found in Pacific waters requires validation. Due to uncertainty of fish identification in the field using plastic morphometric characters, it is recommended that genetic analyses be part of the validation process. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. The Salmonid Rivers Observatory Network: Defining Reference Conditions for Salmon Rivers Around the Pacific.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, S. D.; Stanford, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Salmonid Rivers Observatory River Project (SaRON) is a multi-year, multi-disciplinary project which has been assessing the state of intact, pristine salmon rivers around the Pacific Rim. The goal of this research is to illuminate the natural ecological functions of these dynamic and diverse systems as well as use the information to describe targets for restoration of impacted rivers. Our research has shown that the Shifting Habitat Mosaic (SHM) of unconstrained floodplain reaches is important in structuring the freshwater and riparian components of salmon ecosystems. The amount and productivity of available habitat in flood plains is a primary control on salmon abundance. Our research around the Pacific Rim has found that channel complexity is correlated with salmon abundance. Juvenile fish density linearly increased, R2=0.95, with a greater number of channel separations and returns. Some rivers with high habitat values had low salmon abundances. For example, the Kitlope River in British Columbia has channel complexity, 0.09 nodes per square km of watershed area, showing high habitat availability. Thus, our model predicted 3.48 fish per square meter but measured values 0.56 fishes per square meter. Paleolimnological study demonstrated a legacy over-harvest in this system, explaining the discrepancy between the actual and reference value. These results will be establishing reference values and ranges in natural variation.

  5. Assessing sufficiency of thermal riverscapes for resilient salmon and steelhead populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilient salmon populations require river networks that provide water temperature regimes sufficient to support a diversity of salmonid life histories across space and time. Efforts to protect, enhance and restore watershed thermal regimes for salmon may target specific location...

  6. Indirect genetic effects underlie oxygen-limited thermal tolerance within a coastal population of chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Nicolas J; Anttila, Katja; Chen, Zhongqi; Heath, John W; Farrell, Anthony P; Neff, Bryan D

    2014-08-22

    With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the heritable variation underlying thermal tolerance is critical for understanding the potential for adaptation to climate change. We examined the evolutionary potential of thermal tolerance within a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by conducting a full-factorial breeding design and measuring the thermal performance of cardiac function and the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of offspring from each family. Additive genetic variation in offspring phenotype was mostly negligible, although these direct genetic effects explained 53% of the variation in resting heart rate (fH). Conversely, maternal effects had a significant influence on resting fH, scope for fH, cardiac arrhythmia temperature and CTmax. These maternal effects were associated with egg size, as indicated by strong relationships between the mean egg diameter of mothers and offspring thermal tolerance. Because egg size can be highly heritable in chinook salmon, our finding indicates that the maternal effects of egg size constitute an indirect genetic effect contributing to thermal tolerance. Such indirect genetic effects could accelerate evolutionary responses to the selection imposed by rising temperatures and could contribute to the population-specific thermal tolerance that has recently been uncovered among Pacific salmon populations. PMID:25009055

  7. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.

    PubMed

    Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to

  8. Variation in responses to spawning Pacific salmon among three south-eastern Alaska streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaloner, D.T.; Lamberti, G.A.; Merritt, R.W.; Mitchell, N.L.; Ostrom, P.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    1. Pacific salmon are thought to stimulate the productivity of the fresh waters in which they spawn by fertilising them with marine-derived nutrients (MDN). We compared the influence of salmon spawners on surface streamwater chemistry and benthic biota among three southeastern Alaska streams. Within each stream, reaches up- and downstream of barriers to salmon migration were sampled during or soon after spawners entered the streams. 2. Within streams, concentrations of dissolved ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), abundance of epilithon (chlorophyll a and ash-free dry mass) and biomass of chironomids were significantly higher in reaches with salmon spawners. In contrast, biomass of the mayflies Epeorus spp. and Rhithrogena spp. was significantly higher in reaches lacking spawners. 3. Among streams, significant differences were found in concentrations of dissolved ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate and SRP, abundance of epilithon, and the biomass of chironomids and Rhithrogena. These differences did not appear to reflect differences among streams in spawner density, nor the changes in water chemistry resulting from salmon spawners. 4. Our results suggest that the 'enrichment' effect of salmon spawners (e.g. increased streamwater nutrient concentrations) was balanced by other concurrent effects of spawners on streams (e.g. sediment disturbance). Furthermore, the collective effect of spawners on lotic ecosystems is likely to be constrained by conditions unique to individual streams, such as temperature, background water chemistry and light attenuation.

  9. FACTS, FANTASIES, AND FORECASTS: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the far western contiguous United States (California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline has taken place over the past 150 years, but there have been decades when the numbers increased. Overall...

  10. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  11. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Rinella, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  12. ECOLOGICAL AND WATER QUALITY CONSEQUENCES OF NUTRIENT ADDITION FOR SALMON RESTORATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon runs have declined over the past two centuries in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Reduced inputs of salmon-derived organic matter and nutrients (SDN) may limit freshwater production and thus establish a negative feedback loop affecting future generations of...

  13. Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of δ15N and δ13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. Results Invertebrates varied predictably in δ15N with enrichment of 3–8‰ below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing δ15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in δ13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. Conclusions Enrichment of δ15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of δ13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in δ15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines. PMID:11914157

  14. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  15. Linking oceanic food webs to coastal production and growth rates of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), using models on three scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Kerim Y.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; King, Jacquelynne R.; Megrey, Bernard A.; Myers, Katherine W.

    2005-03-01

    Three independent modeling methods—a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ) model (NEMURO), a food web model (Ecopath/Ecosim), and a bioenergetics model for pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)—were linked to examine the relationship between seasonal zooplankton dynamics and annual food web productive potential for Pacific salmon feeding and growing in the Alaskan subarctic gyre ecosystem. The linked approach shows the importance of seasonal and ontogenetic prey switching for zooplanktivorous pink salmon, and illustrates the critical role played by lipid-rich forage species, especially the gonatid squid Berryteuthis anonychus, in connecting zooplankton to upper trophic level production in the subarctic North Pacific. The results highlight the need to uncover natural mechanisms responsible for accelerated late winter and early spring growth of salmon, especially with respect to climate change and zooplankton bloom timing. Our results indicate that the best match between modeled and observed high-seas pink salmon growth requires the inclusion of two factors into bioenergetics models: (1) decreasing energetic foraging costs for salmon as zooplankton are concentrated by the spring shallowing of pelagic mixed-layer depth and (2) the ontogenetic switch of salmon diets from zooplankton to squid. Finally, we varied the timing and input levels of coastal salmon production to examine effects of density-dependent coastal processes on ocean feeding; coastal processes that place relatively minor limitations on salmon growth may delay the seasonal timing of ontogenetic diet shifts and thus have a magnified effect on overall salmon growth rates.

  16. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  17. Elevated streamflows increase dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter: Implications of climate change in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike; Bumbaco, Karin A.

    2012-01-01

    A 4-year evaluation was conducted to determine the proportion of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch passing Cowlitz Falls Dam, on the Cowlitz River, Washington, during winter. River and reservoir populations of coho salmon parr were monitored using radiotelemetry to determine if streamflow increases resulted in increased downstream movement and dam passage. This was of interest because fish that pass downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam become landlocked in Riffe Lake and are lost to the anadromous population. Higher proportions of reservoir-released fish (0.391-0.480) passed Cowlitz Falls Dam than did river-released fish (0.037-0.119). Event-time analyses demonstrated that streamflow increases were important predictors of dam passage rates during the study. The estimated effect of increasing streamflows on the risk of dam passage varied annually and ranged from 9% to 75% for every 28.3 m3/s increase in streamflow. These results have current management implications because they demonstrate the significance of dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter months when juvenile fish collection facilities are typically not operating. The results also have future management implications because climate change predictions suggest that peak streamflow timing for many watersheds in the Pacific Northwest will shift from late spring and early summer to winter. Increased occurrence of intense winter flood events is also expected. Our results demonstrate that juvenile coho salmon respond readily to streamflow increases and initiate downstream movements during winter months, which could result in increased passage at dams during these periods if climate change predictions are realized in the coming decades.

  18. Pesticides and PCBs in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) from Puget Sound, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, S.M.; West, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife initiated a long-term study to monitor levels of contaminants in two species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) and other marine fishes of Puget Sound. The study is one component of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP), a multi-agency effort to assess the environmental health of Puget Sound. Here the authors summarize results from their ongoing study of O. tshawytscha and O. kisutch. Samples of muscle tissue were collected for chemical analyses from adult salmon that were purchased from licensed fish buyers or treaty tribal fisherman. From 1992 through 1994, both salmon species were sampled at seven fishing areas in marine waters and river mouths of Puget Sound. 4,4-DDE and 4,4-DDD, metabolites of the pesticide DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) were consistently detected in both species and were consistently higher in O. tshawytscha. Low to moderate concentrations of DDT metabolites (3 to 59 ug/kg wet weight) were detected in the salmon samples but were seldom detected in other fish species sampled by PSAMP. Total PCBs concentrations (Arochlor 1254 + 1260) ranged from 10 to 211 ug/kg wet weight in 0. tshawytscha, with many samples containing PCBs concentrations similar to those detected in benthic flatfish, (Pleuronectes vetulus), sampled from urbanized embayments. A stepwise linear regression model was used to identify parameters correlated with accumulation of PCBs and DDT metabolites in salmon. In addition to species differences, factors such as fish age, percent lipids and sampling location may affect the accumulation of these contaminants. Results of this study are contrasted with contaminant levels previously reported for Canadian and Alaskan Pacific salmon. Possible sources of contaminants are outlined.

  19. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  20. Evidence for geomagnetic imprinting as a homing mechanism in Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Emily M; Quinn, Thomas P; Klimley, A Peter; Noakes, David L G

    2013-02-18

    In the final phase of their spawning migration, Pacific salmon use chemical cues to identify their home river, but how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic. To test the hypothesis that salmon imprint on the magnetic field that exists where they first enter the sea and later seek the same field upon return, we analyzed a 56-year fisheries data set on Fraser River sockeye salmon, which must detour around Vancouver Island to approach the river through either a northern or southern passageway. We found that the proportion of salmon using each route was predicted by geomagnetic field drift: the more the field at a passage entrance diverged from the field at the river mouth, the fewer fish used the passage. We also found that more fish used the northern passage in years with warmer sea surface temperature (presumably because fish were constrained to more northern latitudes). Field drift accounted for 16% of the variation in migratory route used, temperature 22%, and the interaction between these variables 28%. These results provide the first empirical evidence of geomagnetic imprinting in any species and imply that forecasting salmon movements is possible using geomagnetic models. PMID:23394828

  1. Genetic Structure of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus Keta) Populations in the Lower Columbia River: Are Chum Salmon in Cascade Tributaries Remnant Populations?

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Maureen P.; Pichahchy, A.E.; Von Bargen, J.F.; Young, S.F.

    2004-09-01

    Prior to the 1950's, the lower Columbia River drainage supported a run of over a million chum salmon composed of at least 16 populations. By the late 1950's, over-fishing and habitat destruction had decreased the run to as little as a few hundred fish. With the exception of Grays River in the coastal region of the Columbia River and an aggregation of chum salmon spawning in creeks and the mainstem near Bonneville Dam in the Columbia Gorge region, most populations were considered extinct. However, over the years, WDFW biologists detected chum salmon spawning in tributaries originating in the Cascade Range: the Cowlitz, Lewis, and Washougal rivers. Further, chum salmon in the Cowlitz River appeared to have summer and fall run-timings. To assess whether Cascade spawners were strays from Grays River and Gorge regions or remnants of former populations, chum salmon from the Coastal, Cascade and Gorge regions were characterized genetically at 17 microsatellite loci. With the exception of Washougal River chum salmon, which grouped strongly with the Gorge genetic group, significant heterogeneity in genotype distributions were detected between regions and genotype distributions overlapped among collections within regions. In a neighbor-joining consensus tree, regional groups occupied branches with over 77% bootstrap support. In assignment tests, over 63% of individuals were correctly assigned back to region of origin although an average of 29% assigned to river of origin. Genetic distinction of Cascade region chum salmon was similar to distinction of Coastal and Gorge chum salmon and the Cascade region chum salmon had twice the number of private regional alleles. Further, the Cowlitz River supports the only summer chum salmon run in the Columbia River drainage. We propose that chum salmon in the Cascade region are remnants of original populations. We attribute the strong divergence between regional groups to diverse ecological conditions in each region, which promoted

  2. Variation in the population structure of Yukon River chum and coho salmon: Evaluating the potential impact of localized habitat degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, J.B.; Spearman, W.J.; Sage, G.K.; Miller, S.J.; Flannery, B.G.; Wenburg, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    We used microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA-RFLP) analyses to test the hypothesis that chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and coho salmon O. kisutch in the Yukon River, Alaska, exhibit population structure at differing spatial scales. If the hypothesis is true, then the risk of losing genetic diversity because of habitat degradation from a gold mine near a Yukon River tributary could differ between the two species. For each species, collections were made from two tributaries in both the Innoko and Tanana rivers, which are tributaries to the lower and middle Yukon River. The results revealed a large difference in the degree and spatial distribution of population structure between the two species. For chum salmon, the microsatellite loci (F-statistic [FST] = 0.021) and mtDNA (F ST = -0.008) revealed a low degree of interpopulation genetic diversity on a relatively large geographic scale. This large-scale population structure should minimize, although not eliminate, the risk of genetic diversity loss due to localized habitat degradation. For coho salmon, the microsatellites (FST = 0.091) and mtDNA (FST = 0.586) revealed a high degree of interpopulation genetic diversity on a relatively small geographic scale. This small-scale population structure suggests that coho salmon are at a relatively high risk of losing genetic diversity due to lo-calized habitat degradation. Our study underscores the importance of a multispecies approach for evaluating the potential impact of land-use activities on the genetic diversity of Pacific salmon.

  3. Constructive Discontent: Our Best Hope for Saving Pacific Salmon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Calls for unity among those trying to protect Western salmonids under threat of extinction. Identifies key issues dominating fisheries management and areas that represent opportunities for progress in environmental protection. Discusses policies currently used and proposed in the Pacific Northwest. (LZ)

  4. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Sockeye salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, G.B.; Risher, R.; Thomas, G.L. . Cooperative Fishery Research Unit)

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. Sockeye salmon always spawn in a lake associated with a river or in the outlet river. The young fish use the lakes for rearing. The brilliant red flesh is highly prized by commercial and sport fishermen. Washington State and the Columbia River are the southern limit of reproducing populations of sockeye salmon. Sockeye salmon are primarily plankton feeders. They appear to thrive best at temperatures of 10--15{degree}C. Ocean distribution does not appear to be limited by salinity. Adults require gravel with adequate water circulation for successful spawning and egg hatching. 100 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Genetic stock identification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations in the southern part of the European range

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anadromous migratory fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have significant economic, cultural and ecological importance, but present a complex case for management and conservation due to the range of their migration. Atlantic salmon exist in rivers across the North Atlantic, returning to their river of birth with a high degree of accuracy; however, despite continuing efforts and improvements in in-river conservation, they are in steep decline across their range. Salmon from rivers across Europe migrate along similar routes, where they have, historically, been subject to commercial netting. This mixed stock exploitation has the potential to devastate weak and declining populations where they are exploited indiscriminately. Despite various tagging and marking studies, the effect of marine exploitation and the marine element of the salmon lifecycle in general, remain the "black-box" of salmon management. In a number of Pacific salmonid species and in several regions within the range of the Atlantic salmon, genetic stock identification and mixed stock analysis have been used successfully to quantify exploitation rates and identify the natal origins of fish outside their home waters - to date this has not been attempted for Atlantic salmon in the south of their European range. Results To facilitate mixed stock analysis (MSA) of Atlantic salmon, we have produced a baseline of genetic data for salmon populations originating from the largest rivers from Spain to northern Scotland, a region in which declines have been particularly marked. Using 12 microsatellites, 3,730 individual fish from 57 river catchments have been genotyped. Detailed patterns of population genetic diversity of Atlantic salmon at a sub-continent-wide level have been evaluated, demonstrating the existence of regional genetic signatures. Critically, these appear to be independent of more commonly recognised terrestrial biogeographical and political boundaries, allowing reporting

  6. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  7. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on

  8. Changes in Habitat and Populations of Steelhead Trout, Coho Salmon, and Chinook Salmon in Fish Creek, Oregon; Habitat Improvement, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everest, Fred H.; Hohler, David B.; Cain, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, began in 1982 as a cooperative venture between the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1987) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Benefit-cost analysis of habitat improvements.

  9. Stream Physical Characteristics Impact Habitat Quality for Pacific Salmon in Two Temperate Coastal Watersheds.

    PubMed

    Fellman, Jason B; Hood, Eran; Dryer, William; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming is likely to cause both indirect and direct impacts on the biophysical properties of stream ecosystems especially in regions that support societally important fish species such as Pacific salmon. We studied the seasonal variability and interaction between stream temperature and DO in a low-gradient, forested stream and a glacial-fed stream in coastal southeast Alaska to assess how these key physical parameters impact freshwater habitat quality for salmon. We also use multiple regression analysis to evaluate how discharge and air temperature influence the seasonal patterns in stream temperature and DO. Mean daily stream temperature ranged from 1.1 to 16.4°C in non-glacial Peterson Creek but only 1.0 to 8.8°C in glacial-fed Cowee Creek, reflecting the strong moderating influence glacier meltwater had on stream temperature. Peterson Creek had mean daily DO concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 14.1 mg L(-1) suggesting future climate changes could result in an even greater depletion in DO. Mean daily stream temperature strongly controlled mean daily DO in both Peterson (R2=0.82, P<0.01) and Cowee Creek (R2=0.93, P<0.01). However, DO in Peterson Creek was mildly related to stream temperature (R2=0.15, P<0.01) and strongly influenced by discharge (R2=0.46, P<0.01) on days when stream temperature exceeded 10°C. Moreover, Peterson Creek had DO values that were particularly low (<5.0 mg L(-1)) on days when discharge was low but also when spawning salmon were abundant. Our results demonstrate the complexity of stream temperature and DO regimes in coastal temperate watersheds and highlight the need for watershed managers to move towards multi-factor risk assessment of potential habitat quality for salmon rather than single factor assessments alone. PMID:26222506

  10. Stream Physical Characteristics Impact Habitat Quality for Pacific Salmon in Two Temperate Coastal Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Fellman, Jason B.; Hood, Eran; Dryer, William; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming is likely to cause both indirect and direct impacts on the biophysical properties of stream ecosystems especially in regions that support societally important fish species such as Pacific salmon. We studied the seasonal variability and interaction between stream temperature and DO in a low-gradient, forested stream and a glacial-fed stream in coastal southeast Alaska to assess how these key physical parameters impact freshwater habitat quality for salmon. We also use multiple regression analysis to evaluate how discharge and air temperature influence the seasonal patterns in stream temperature and DO. Mean daily stream temperature ranged from 1.1 to 16.4°C in non-glacial Peterson Creek but only 1.0 to 8.8°C in glacial-fed Cowee Creek, reflecting the strong moderating influence glacier meltwater had on stream temperature. Peterson Creek had mean daily DO concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 14.1 mg L−1 suggesting future climate changes could result in an even greater depletion in DO. Mean daily stream temperature strongly controlled mean daily DO in both Peterson (R2=0.82, P<0.01) and Cowee Creek (R2=0.93, P<0.01). However, DO in Peterson Creek was mildly related to stream temperature (R2=0.15, P<0.01) and strongly influenced by discharge (R2=0.46, P<0.01) on days when stream temperature exceeded 10°C. Moreover, Peterson Creek had DO values that were particularly low (<5.0 mg L−1) on days when discharge was low but also when spawning salmon were abundant. Our results demonstrate the complexity of stream temperature and DO regimes in coastal temperate watersheds and highlight the need for watershed managers to move towards multi-factor risk assessment of potential habitat quality for salmon rather than single factor assessments alone. PMID:26222506

  11. Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific salmon habitat in southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Shanley, Colin S; Albert, David M

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March) was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1) and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation experiments, and finer

  12. Climate Change Sensitivity Index for Pacific Salmon Habitat in Southeast Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Shanley, Colin S.; Albert, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March) was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1) and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation experiments, and finer

  13. Strontium isotopes delineate fine-scale natal origins and migration histories of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Cerling, Thure E.; McPhee, Megan V.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Highly migratory organisms present major challenges to conservation efforts. This is especially true for exploited anadromous fish species, which exhibit long-range dispersals from natal sites, complex population structures, and extensive mixing of distinct populations during exploitation. By tracing the migratory histories of individual Chinook salmon caught in fisheries using strontium isotopes, we determined the relative production of natal habitats at fine spatial scales and different life histories. Although strontium isotopes have been widely used in provenance research, we present a new robust framework to simultaneously assess natal sources and migrations of individuals within fishery harvests through time. Our results pave the way for investigating how fine-scale habitat production and life histories of salmon respond to perturbations—providing crucial insights for conservation.

  14. Strontium isotopes delineate fine-scale natal origins and migration histories of Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sean R; Zimmerman, Christian E; Fernandez, Diego P; Cerling, Thure E; McPhee, Megan V; Wooller, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Highly migratory organisms present major challenges to conservation efforts. This is especially true for exploited anadromous fish species, which exhibit long-range dispersals from natal sites, complex population structures, and extensive mixing of distinct populations during exploitation. By tracing the migratory histories of individual Chinook salmon caught in fisheries using strontium isotopes, we determined the relative production of natal habitats at fine spatial scales and different life histories. Although strontium isotopes have been widely used in provenance research, we present a new robust framework to simultaneously assess natal sources and migrations of individuals within fishery harvests through time. Our results pave the way for investigating how fine-scale habitat production and life histories of salmon respond to perturbations-providing crucial insights for conservation. PMID:26601173

  15. Strontium isotopes delineate fine-scale natal origins and migration histories of Pacific salmon

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Sean R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Cerling, Thure E.; McPhee, Megan V.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Highly migratory organisms present major challenges to conservation efforts. This is especially true for exploited anadromous fish species, which exhibit long-range dispersals from natal sites, complex population structures, and extensive mixing of distinct populations during exploitation. By tracing the migratory histories of individual Chinook salmon caught in fisheries using strontium isotopes, we determined the relative production of natal habitats at fine spatial scales and different life histories. Although strontium isotopes have been widely used in provenance research, we present a new robust framework to simultaneously assess natal sources and migrations of individuals within fishery harvests through time. Our results pave the way for investigating how fine-scale habitat production and life histories of salmon respond to perturbations—providing crucial insights for conservation. PMID:26601173

  16. Importance of salmon to wildlife: Implications for integrated management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilderbrand, G.V.; Farley, Sean D.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Robbins, Charles T.

    2004-01-01

    Salmon (Oncorhynchuss pp.) are an importantr esourcef or terrestriawl ildlife. However, the salmon requirements of wildlife populations and the role wildlife play in nutrient transport across ecosystems are largely ignored in salmon and habitat management. Any activity that reduces the availability of or access to salmon by wildlife may adversely affect wildlife populations and, potentially, ecosystem-level processes. Thus, when the conservation of specific wildlife populations or healthy ecosystems is the management objective, allocation of salmon to wildlife should be considered. We provide an example of how such allocations could be calculated for a hypothetical bear population. Ultimately, salmon allocation for wildlife calls for integrated management of natural resources across agencies, across species, and across ecosystems. We summarize the current state of knowledge relativet o the interactionb etween Pacific salmon and the terrestriael cosystem, with special emphasis on the import of salmon to terrestrialw ildlife and the import of wildlife to terrestriala nd aquatic ecosystems

  17. Human influence on the spatial structure of threatened Pacific salmon metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Aimee H; Lindley, Steven T; Pess, George R; Feist, Blake E; Steel, E Ashley; McElhany, Paul

    2011-10-01

    To remain viable, populations must be resilient to both natural and human-caused environmental changes. We evaluated anthropogenic effects on spatial connections among populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) (designated as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act) in the lower Columbia and Willamette rivers. For several anthropogenic-effects scenarios, we used graph theory to characterize the spatial relation among populations. We plotted variance in population size against connectivity among populations. In our scenarios, reduced habitat quality decreased the size of populations and hydropower dams on rivers led to the extirpation of several populations, both of which decreased connectivity. Operation of fish hatcheries increased connectivity among populations and led to patchy or panmictic populations. On the basis of our results, we believe recolonization of the upper Cowlitz River by fall and spring Chinook and winter steelhead would best restore metapopulation structure to near-historical conditions. Extant populations that would best conserve connectivity would be those inhabiting the Molalla (spring Chinook), lower Cowlitz, or Clackamas (fall Chinook) rivers and the south Santiam (winter steelhead) and north fork Lewis rivers (summer steelhead). Populations in these rivers were putative sources; however, they were not always the most abundant or centrally located populations. This result would not have been obvious if we had not considered relations among populations in a metapopulation context. Our results suggest that dispersal rate strongly controls interactions among the populations that comprise salmon metapopulations. Thus, monitoring efforts could lead to understanding of the true rates at which wild and hatchery fish disperse. Our application of graph theory allowed us to visualize how metapopulation structure might respond to human activity. The method could be easily extended to evaluations of

  18. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  19. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... for the U.S. Live births for Asian or Pacific Islander population Number of births: 282,723 Births ...

  20. Modeling the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Pacific Salmon Culture Programs: An Example at Winthrop National Fish Hatchery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Kyle C.; Peterson, Douglas P.

    2014-09-01

    Hatcheries have long been used in an attempt to mitigate for declines in wild stocks of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), though the conservation benefit of hatcheries is a topic of ongoing debate. Irrespective of conservation benefits, a fundamental question is whether hatcheries will be able to function as they have in the past given anticipated future climate conditions. To begin to answer this question, we developed a deterministic modeling framework to evaluate how climate change may affect hatcheries that rear Pacific salmon. The framework considers the physiological tolerances for each species, incorporates a temperature-driven growth model, and uses two metrics commonly monitored by hatchery managers to determine the impacts of changes in water temperature and availability on hatchery rearing conditions. As a case study, we applied the model to the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. We projected that hatchery environmental conditions remained within the general physiological tolerances for Chinook salmon in the 2040s (assuming A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), but that warmer water temperatures in summer accelerated juvenile salmon growth. Increased growth during summer coincided with periods when water availability should also be lower, thus increasing the likelihood of physiological stress in juvenile salmon. The identification of these climate sensitivities led to a consideration of potential mitigation strategies such as chilling water, altering rations, or modifying rearing cycles. The framework can be refined with new information, but in its present form, it provides a consistent, repeatable method to assess the vulnerability of hatcheries to predicted climate change.

  1. Titre distribution patterns of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in ovarian fluids of hatchery and feral salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic mecrosis virus (IHNV) is enzootic in virtually all populations of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and in populations of chinook salmon, O. 1shawytscha (Walbaum), of the Sacramento River drainage in California. This disease is an obstacle in hatcheries using brood stocks from these populations. However, naturally spawning sockeye salmon are highly successful and are the most important commercially fished salmon species in the United States. Most of the commercial landings of sockeye salmon are of feral fish originating in Alaska. The success of natural populations of salmon in which IHNV is enzootic, and the recurrent outbreaks of the disease in hatchery fish, led us to compare IHNW prevalence rates in hatchery and feral salmon populations.

  2. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  3. Relationship between antigen concentration and bacterial load in Pacific salmon with bacterial kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Owen S; Anderson, James J

    2002-08-29

    Using data collected to test spawning female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch and O. tshawytscha for the presence and severity of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), a mathematical model of the relationship between bacterial load and antigen concentration in tissues and ovarian fluid is developed. Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of BKD, secretes large amounts of a 57 kDa protein ('p57'), its major soluble antigen, which eventually breaks down or is otherwise removed from free circulation. Bacterial load and soluble antigen concentration in tissues are strong indicators of fish health, while in ovarian fluid they are predictors of the success of offspring. Model results indicate either an exponentially increasing antigen removal rate or an exponentially decreasing per-bacterium antigen secretion rate with increasing antigen concentration. Possible mechanisms underlying the observed relationship include a nonlinear increasing autolytic rate of the 'p57' antigen and a bacterium-antigen interaction threshold which prevents bacterial antigen secretion. PMID:12363089

  4. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  5. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  6. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  7. Predictability of multispecies competitive interactions in three populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Houde, A L S; Wilson, C C; Neff, B D

    2015-04-01

    Juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from three allopatric populations (LaHave, Sebago and Saint-Jean) were placed into artificial streams with combinations of four non-native salmonids: brown trout Salmo trutta, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Non-additive effects, as evidenced by lower performance than predicted from weighted summed two-species competition trials, were detected for S. salar fork length (LF ) and mass, but not for survival, condition factor or riffle use. These data support emerging theory on niche overlap and species richness as factors that can lead to non-additive competition effects. PMID:25753912

  8. Founding events influence genetic population structure of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Lake Clark, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.; Sage, G.K.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    Bottlenecks can have lasting effects on genetic population structure that obscure patterns of contemporary gene flow and drift. Sockeye salmon are vulnerable to bottleneck effects because they are a highly structured species with excellent colonizing abilities and often occupy geologically young habitats. We describe genetic divergence among and genetic variation within spawning populations of sockeye salmon throughout the Lake Clark area of Alaska. Fin tissue was collected from sockeye salmon representing 15 spawning populations of Lake Clark, Six-mile Lake, and Lake Iliamna. Allele frequencies differed significantly at 11 microsatellite loci in 96 of 105 pairwise population comparisons. Pairwise estimates of FST ranged from zero to 0.089. Six-mile Lake and Lake Clark populations have historically been grouped together for management purposes and are geographically proximate. However, Six-mile Lake populations are genetically similar to Lake Iliamna populations and are divergent from Lake Clark populations. The reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clark populations relative to Six-mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations suggest a bottleneck associated with the colonization of Lake Clark by sockeye salmon. Geographic distance and spawning habitat differences apparently do not contribute to isolation and divergence among populations. However, temporal isolation based on spawning time and founder effects associated with ongoing glacial retreat and colonization of new spawning habitats contribute to the genetic population structure of Lake Clark sock-eye salmon. Nonequilibrium conditions and the strong influence of genetic drift caution against using estimates of divergence to estimate gene flow among populations of Lake Clark sockeye salmon.

  9. Recent physical connections may explain weak genetic structure in western Alaskan chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Michael R; Kondzela, Christine M; Martin, Patrick C; Finney, Bruce; Guyon, Jeffrey; Templin, William D; Decovich, Nick; Gilk-Baumer, Sara; Gharrett, Anthony J

    2013-07-01

    Low genetic divergence at neutral loci among populations is often the result of high levels of contemporary gene flow. Western Alaskan summer-run chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations demonstrate weak genetic structure, but invoking contemporary gene flow as the basis for the low divergence is problematic because salmon home to their natal streams and some of the populations are thousands of kilometers apart. We used genotypes from microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism loci to investigate alternative explanations for the current genetic structure of chum salmon populations from western Alaska. We also estimated current levels of gene flow among Kuskokwim River populations. Our results suggest that weak genetic structure is best explained by physical connections that occurred after the Holocene Thermal Maximum among the Yukon, Kuskokwim, and Nushagak drainages that allowed gene flow to occur among now distant populations. PMID:23919176

  10. Recent physical connections may explain weak genetic structure in western Alaskan chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Michael R; Kondzela, Christine M; Martin, Patrick C; Finney, Bruce; Guyon, Jeffrey; Templin, William D; DeCovich, Nick; Gilk-Baumer, Sara; Gharrett, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Low genetic divergence at neutral loci among populations is often the result of high levels of contemporary gene flow. Western Alaskan summer-run chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations demonstrate weak genetic structure, but invoking contemporary gene flow as the basis for the low divergence is problematic because salmon home to their natal streams and some of the populations are thousands of kilometers apart. We used genotypes from microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism loci to investigate alternative explanations for the current genetic structure of chum salmon populations from western Alaska. We also estimated current levels of gene flow among Kuskokwim River populations. Our results suggest that weak genetic structure is best explained by physical connections that occurred after the Holocene Thermal Maximum among the Yukon, Kuskokwim, and Nushagak drainages that allowed gene flow to occur among now distant populations. PMID:23919176

  11. Positive Darwinian selection in the piston that powers proton pumps in complex I of the mitochondria of Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Michael R; Bielawski, Joseph P; Gharrett, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation is well understood, but evolution of the proteins involved is not. We combined phylogenetic, genomic, and structural biology analyses to examine the evolution of twelve mitochondrial encoded proteins of closely related, yet phenotypically diverse, Pacific salmon. Two separate analyses identified the same seven positively selected sites in ND5. A strong signal was also detected at three sites of ND2. An energetic coupling analysis revealed several structures in the ND5 protein that may have co-evolved with the selected sites. These data implicate Complex I, specifically the piston arm of ND5 where it connects the proton pumps, as important in the evolution of Pacific salmon. Lastly, the lineage to Chinook experienced rapid evolution at the piston arm. PMID:21969854

  12. Positive Darwinian Selection in the Piston That Powers Proton Pumps in Complex I of the Mitochondria of Pacific Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Michael R.; Bielawski, Joseph P.; Gharrett, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation is well understood, but evolution of the proteins involved is not. We combined phylogenetic, genomic, and structural biology analyses to examine the evolution of twelve mitochondrial encoded proteins of closely related, yet phenotypically diverse, Pacific salmon. Two separate analyses identified the same seven positively selected sites in ND5. A strong signal was also detected at three sites of ND2. An energetic coupling analysis revealed several structures in the ND5 protein that may have co-evolved with the selected sites. These data implicate Complex I, specifically the piston arm of ND5 where it connects the proton pumps, as important in the evolution of Pacific salmon. Lastly, the lineage to Chinook experienced rapid evolution at the piston arm. PMID:21969854

  13. Assessing the Relative Importance of Local and Regional Processes on the Survival of a Threatened Salmon Population

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jessica A.; Teel, David J.; Peterson, William T.; Baptista, Antonio M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)) and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and a copepod community index (CCI)) accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998–2008 (R2>0.70). However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009–2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50–448% of observed value) compared with those

  14. Assessing the relative importance of local and regional processes on the survival of a threatened salmon population.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jessica A; Teel, David J; Peterson, William T; Baptista, Antonio M

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)) and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and a copepod community index (CCI)) accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998-2008 (R2>0.70). However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009-2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50-448% of observed value) compared with those based on

  15. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  16. Using Phylogenetic Analysis to Detect Market Substitution of Atlantic Salmon for Pacific Salmon: An Introductory Biology Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Erica; Gogarten, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    We describe a laboratory exercise developed for the cell and molecular biology quarter of a year-long majors' undergraduate introductory biology sequence. In an analysis of salmon samples collected by students in their local stores and restaurants, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to detect market substitution of Atlantic salmon…

  17. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon culture programs: an example at Winthrop National Fish Hatchery.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kyle C; Peterson, Douglas P

    2014-09-01

    Hatcheries have long been used in an attempt to mitigate for declines in wild stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), though the conservation benefit of hatcheries is a topic of ongoing debate. Irrespective of conservation benefits, a fundamental question is whether hatcheries will be able to function as they have in the past given anticipated future climate conditions. To begin to answer this question, we developed a deterministic modeling framework to evaluate how climate change may affect hatcheries that rear Pacific salmon. The framework considers the physiological tolerances for each species, incorporates a temperature-driven growth model, and uses two metrics commonly monitored by hatchery managers to determine the impacts of changes in water temperature and availability on hatchery rearing conditions. As a case study, we applied the model to the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. We projected that hatchery environmental conditions remained within the general physiological tolerances for Chinook salmon in the 2040s (assuming A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), but that warmer water temperatures in summer accelerated juvenile salmon growth. Increased growth during summer coincided with periods when water availability should also be lower, thus increasing the likelihood of physiological stress in juvenile salmon. The identification of these climate sensitivities led to a consideration of potential mitigation strategies such as chilling water, altering rations, or modifying rearing cycles. The framework can be refined with new information, but in its present form, it provides a consistent, repeatable method to assess the vulnerability of hatcheries to predicted climate change. PMID:24993792

  18. Spatio-Temporal Migration Patterns of Pacific Salmon Smolts in Rivers and Coastal Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Melnychuk, Michael C.; Welch, David W.; Walters, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Migrations allow animals to find food resources, rearing habitats, or mates, but often impose considerable predation risk. Several behavioural strategies may reduce this risk, including faster travel speed and taking routes with shorter total distance. Descriptions of the natural range of variation in migration strategies among individuals and populations is necessary before the ecological consequences of such variation can be established. Methodology/Principal Findings Movements of tagged juvenile coho, steelhead, sockeye, and Chinook salmon were quantified using a large-scale acoustic tracking array in southern British Columbia, Canada. Smolts from 13 watersheds (49 watershed/species/year combinations) were tagged between 2004–2008 and combined into a mixed-effects model analysis of travel speed. During the downstream migration, steelhead were slower on average than other species, possibly related to freshwater residualization. During the migration through the Strait of Georgia, coho were slower than steelhead and sockeye, likely related to some degree of inshore summer residency. Hatchery-reared smolts were slower than wild smolts during the downstream migration, but after ocean entry, average speeds were similar. In small rivers, downstream travel speed increased with body length, but in the larger Fraser River and during the coastal migration, average speed was independent of body length. Smolts leaving rivers located towards the northern end of the Strait of Georgia ecosystem migrated strictly northwards after ocean entry, but those from rivers towards the southern end displayed split-route migration patterns within populations, with some moving southward. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal a tremendous diversity of behavioural migration strategies used by juvenile salmon, across species, rearing histories, and habitats, as well as within individual populations. During the downstream migration, factors that had strong effects on travel

  19. Modeling the Oxygen Consumption Rates in Pacific Salmon and Steelhead: An Assessment of Current Models and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Geist, David R.; Welch, David W.

    2004-03-01

    Bioenergetic models of fish have been used to study a large number of processes. Like most models, bioenergetic models require the estimation of numerous parameters. As a consequence, they have often relied on parameters borrowed from other species or values extrapolated from other life stages or size-classes. The magnitude of the biases associated with these practices remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not metabolic rates could be extrapolated between closely related species and life stages. We focused on Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss, as the metabolic rates of these species have been well documented. Our analyses showed that models derived from closely related species did not accurately predict the metabolic rates of salmon, indicating that the practice of "species borrowing" should be avoided in assessing fish metabolic rates. Our work also showed that allometric equations of metabolic rates were not stable when measured over small size ranges and that biases could be introduced when these models are extrapolated to smaller or larger fish. In addition, we found that, except for steelhead, published models of Pacific salmon metabolic rate were inaccurate. Mean bias ranged from close to 0% to over 200% depending on size and water temperature, with about two-thirds of the bias values exceeding 20%. These biases could have large impacts on bioenergetic model predictions. Increased funding and scientific recognition of the need for additional basic research will be necessary to build more accurate bioenergetic models for Pacific salmon, especially models applied to the ocean phase of the life cycle.

  20. Temperature-associated population diversity in salmon confers benefits to mobile consumers.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Casey P; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Bentley, Kale T; Brooks, Gabriel T; Holtgrieve, Gordon W; McGlauflin, Molly T; Torgersen, Christian E; Seeb, James E

    2011-11-01

    Habitat heterogeneity can generate intraspecific diversity through local adaptation of populations. While it is becoming increasingly clear that population diversity can increase stability in species abundance, less is known about how population diversity can benefit consumers that can integrate across population diversity in their prey. Here we demonstrate cascading effects of thermal heterogeneity on trout-salmon interactions in streams where rainbow trout rely heavily on the seasonal availability of anadromous salmon eggs. Water temperature in an Alaskan stream varied spatially from 5 degrees C to 17.5 degrees C, and spawning sockeye salmon showed population differentiation associated with this thermal heterogeneity. Individuals that spawned early in cool regions of the 5 km long stream were genetically differentiated from those spawning in warmer regions later in the season. Sockeye salmon spawning generates a pulsed resource subsidy that supports the majority of seasonal growth in stream-dwelling rainbow trout. The spatial and temporal structuring of sockeye salmon spawn timing in our focal stream extended the duration of the pulsed subsidy compared to a thermally homogeneous stream with a single population of salmon. Further, rainbow trout adopted movement strategies that exploited the multiple pulses of egg subsidies in the thermally heterogeneous stream. Fish that moved to track the resource pulse grew at rates about 2.5 times higher than those that remained stationary or trout in the reference stream with a single seasonal pulse of eggs. Our results demonstrate that habitat heterogeneity can have important effects on the population diversity of dominant species, and in turn, influence their value to species that prey upon them. Therefore, habitat homogenization may have farther-reaching ecological effects than previously considered. PMID:22164832

  1. Temperature-associated population diversity in salmon confers benefits to mobile consumers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, Casey P.; Schindle, Daniel E.; Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Bentle, Kale T.; Brooks, Gabriel T.; Holtgrieve, Gordon W.; McGlauflin, Molly T.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Seeb, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity can generate intraspecific diversity through local adaptation of populations. While it is becoming increasingly clear that population diversity can increase stability in species abundance, less is known about how population diversity can benefit consumers that can integrate across population diversity in their prey. Here we demonstrate cascading effects of thermal heterogeneity on trout–salmon interactions in streams where rainbow trout rely heavily on the seasonal availability of anadromous salmon eggs. Water temperature in an Alaskan stream varied spatially from 5°C to 17.5°C, and spawning sockeye salmon showed population differentiation associated with this thermal heterogeneity. Individuals that spawned early in cool regions of the 5 km long stream were genetically differentiated from those spawning in warmer regions later in the season. Sockeye salmon spawning generates a pulsed resource subsidy that supports the majority of seasonal growth in stream-dwelling rainbow trout. The spatial and temporal structuring of sockeye salmon spawn timing in our focal stream extended the duration of the pulsed subsidy compared to a thermally homogeneous stream with a single population of salmon. Further, rainbow trout adopted movement strategies that exploited the multiple pulses of egg subsidies in the thermally heterogeneous stream. Fish that moved to track the resource pulse grew at rates about 2.5 times higher than those that remained stationary or trout in the reference stream with a single seasonal pulse of eggs. Our results demonstrate that habitat heterogeneity can have important effects on the population diversity of dominant species, and in turn, influence their value to species that prey upon them. Therefore, habitat homogenization may have farther-reaching ecological effects than previously considered.

  2. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations; FY 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, Nancy M.

    2003-01-30

    Adult and juvenile chum salmon were monitored from October 2001 through September 2002 to evaluate factors limiting production. In 2001, 6 and 69 adult chum salmon were captured in the Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs weirs, respectively. In 2001, 285 and 328 chum salmon carcasses were recovered during spawning ground surveys in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs, respectively. Twenty-eight fish captured in the mainstem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, and Hardy Creek were implanted with radio tags and tracked via an array of fixed aerial, underwater antennas and a mobile tracking unit. Using the Area-Under-the-Curve program population estimates of adult chum salmon were 835 in Hardy Creek and 617 in Hamilton Springs. Juvenile chum salmon migration was monitored from March-June 2002. Total catches for Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 103,315 and 140,220, respectively. Estimates of juvenile chum salmon emigration were 450,195 ({+-}21,793) in Hardy Creek and 561,462 ({+-}21,423) in Hamilton Springs.

  3. Stable isotope analysis of Pacific salmon: insight into trophic status and oceanographic conditions over the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satterfield, Franklin R.; Finney, Bruce P.

    Food web interactions and the response of Pacific salmon to physical processes in the North Pacific Ocean over interannual and interdecadal timescales are explored using naturally occurring stable isotope ratios of carbon ( 13C/ 12C) and nitrogen ( 15N/ 14N). Stable isotope analyses of five species of sexually mature North Pacific salmon from Alaska ( Oncorhynchus spp.) cluster into three groups: chinook salmon ( O. tshawytscha) have the highest values, followed by coho ( O. kisutch), with chum ( O. keta), sockeye ( O. nerka), and pink ( O. gorbuscha) together having the lowest values. Although detailed isotopic data on salmon prey are lacking, there are limited data on relevant prey items from areas in which they are found in high abundance. These data suggest that the characteristics of the sockeye, pink and chum we have analyzed are compatible with their diets including open ocean squid and zooplankton, which are in general agreement with stomach content analyses. Isotope relationships between muscle and scale show consistent relationships for both δ13C ( R2=0.98) and δ 15N ( R2=0.90). Thus, scales, which have been routinely archived for many systems, can be used for retrospective analyses. Archived sockeye salmon scales spanning 1966-1999 from Red Lake, Kodiak Island, Alaska were analyzed for their stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. The δ15N record displays a decreasing trend of ~3‰ from 1969-1982 and an increasing trend of ~3‰ from 1982-1992, while the variations in δ13C are relatively minor. These trends may result from factors such as shifts in trophic level of feeding and/or feeding location, or may originate at the base of the food web via changes in processes such as nutrient cycling or primary productivity. Detailed studies on prey isotopic variability and its controls are needed to distinguish between these factors, and thus to improve the use of stable isotope analysis as a tool to learn more about present and past ecosystem change

  4. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A.

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  5. Verification of SNPs Associated with Growth Traits in Two Populations of Farmed Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin Y.; Hamilton, Alastair; Guy, Derrick R.; Tinch, Alan E.; Bishop, Steve C.; Houston, Ross D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between genetic variants and traits of economic importance in aquaculture species is pertinent to selective breeding programmes. High-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled the discovery of large numbers of SNPs in Atlantic salmon, and high density SNP arrays now exist. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a high density SNP array (132K SNPs) has revealed the polygenic nature of early growth traits in salmon, but has also identified candidate SNPs showing suggestive associations with these traits. The aim of this study was to test the association of the candidate growth-associated SNPs in a separate population of farmed Atlantic salmon to verify their effects. Identifying SNP-trait associations in two populations provides evidence that the associations are true and robust. Using a large cohort (N = 1152), we successfully genotyped eight candidate SNPs from the previous GWAS, two of which were significantly associated with several growth and fillet traits measured at harvest. The genes proximal to these SNPs were identified by alignment to the salmon reference genome and are discussed in the context of their potential role in underpinning genetic variation in salmon growth. PMID:26703584

  6. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

    2014-05-01

    Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

  7. Interannual variability in stock abundance and body size of Pacific salmon in the central Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Y.; Azumaya, T.; Fukuwaka, M.; Davis, N.

    2002-10-01

    Variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and mean body size was examined for pink, chum and sockeye salmon collected with research gillnets in the central Bering Sea in July from 1972 to 2000. The CPUEs for all three species showed significant increasing trends, but with large interannual variability. The CPUE of pink salmon was higher in odd years than in even years, and abruptly increased in the odd years post-1989. Chum salmon also showed odd/even year fluctuations, which were out-of-phase with those of pink salmon. Sockeye salmon showed no biennial such fluctuations. The CPUEs of chum and sockeye salmon were higher during 1979-1984 and 1992-1998, but lower during 1985-1991, especially for younger age group such as ocean age 2 and 3. Data for sea surface temperature (SST) and abundances of chum and sockeye salmon during four periods (1972-1976, 1977-1984, 1985-1990, and 1991-2000) indicated a portion of chum and sockeye salmon were distributed in the northern Gulf of Alaska in 1985-1990, when SST in the Gulf of Alaska was low. However, the fish were more abundant in the Bering Sea in 1977-1984 and 1991-2000 when SST was relatively high in the Gulf of Alaska. Body size of pink salmon showed a significant decreasing trend. Chum and sockeye salmon also showed significant decreasing trends in body size at ocean age 3 and older ages, but not at ocean age 2. Significant negative relationships between CPUE and body size were found within species. No significant correlations were found between an Aleutian low pressure index (ALPI) with CPUE and body size, but the increases in CPUE around the late 1970s and early 1990s may be partly be the result of shifts in the distributions of chum and sockeye salmon caused by SST changes related to the regime shift in 1977 and 1989 identified by the ALPI.

  8. Footprints of Directional Selection in Wild Atlantic Salmon Populations: Evidence for Parasite-Driven Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Zueva, Ksenia J.; Lumme, Jaakko; Veselov, Alexey E.; Kent, Matthew P.; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of host-parasite co-adaptation have long been of interest in evolutionary biology; however, determining the genetic basis of parasite resistance has been challenging. Current advances in genome technologies provide new opportunities for obtaining a genome-scale view of the action of parasite-driven natural selection in wild populations and thus facilitate the search for specific genomic regions underlying inter-population differences in pathogen response. European populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exhibit natural variance in susceptibility levels to the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957, ranging from resistance to extreme susceptibility, and are therefore a good model for studying the evolution of virulence and resistance. However, distinguishing the molecular signatures of genetic drift and environment-associated selection in small populations such as land-locked Atlantic salmon populations presents a challenge, specifically in the search for pathogen-driven selection. We used a novel genome-scan analysis approach that enabled us to i) identify signals of selection in salmon populations affected by varying levels of genetic drift and ii) separate potentially selected loci into the categories of pathogen (G. salaris)-driven selection and selection acting upon other environmental characteristics. A total of 4631 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in Atlantic salmon from 12 different northern European populations. We identified three genomic regions potentially affected by parasite-driven selection, as well as three regions presumably affected by salinity-driven directional selection. Functional annotation of candidate SNPs is consistent with the role of the detected genomic regions in immune defence and, implicitly, in osmoregulation. These results provide new insights into the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in Atlantic salmon and will enable future searches for the specific genes involved. PMID

  9. The Riverscape Analysis Project: Using Remote Sensing to Leverage Salmon Science and Management Applications Around the Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, S.; Maumenee, N.; Lucotch, J.; Whited, D.; Bansack, T.; Kimball, J. S.; Stanford, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Salmonid Rivers Observatory Network (SaRON) is an intensive field research project which aims to describe the relation between salmon productivion and diversity in relation to environmental drivers and physical complexity of riverine shifting habitat mosaics. The Riverscape Analysis Project (RAP) is a spatially explicit remote sensing database which quantifies and ranks different combinations of physical landscape metrics around the Pacific Rim, displaying results through a publically accessible web based decision support framework designed to empower regional management and conservation efforts for wild salmon. The objective of our research is to explicitly describe and relate different habitat types and their potential fish production at a variety of scales and throughout the range of Pacific salmon, leveraging our field research through available satellite remote sensing and geospatial analysis. We find that rivers exhibit a range of physical, chemical, and biotic conditions consistent with the shifting habitat mosaic (SHM) concept. Landscape physical variables derived from global Landsat imagery and SRTM-DEM information explain 93.2% of observed variability in over 1500 watersheds across the Pacific Rim. We expect that it is these coarse scale differences in river typologies which are responsible for the fine scale differences in habitat conditions and juvenile salmon production. Therefore, we ranked rivers using landscape scale physical variables to prioritize them for management actions based on potential productivity. For example, the Kvichak River of Bristol Bay is highly ranked, 8th, based on its physical landscape structure as well as current human impacts. Currently, the Bristol Bay fishery is extremely productive. Habitat structure can be used not only to define reference conditions and management targets for how many fish we would expect a river to produce based on its potential habitat capacity, but it also provides new analytical tools to

  10. Asian and Pacific Islander Population by State: 1980. Census of Population Supplementary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patricia A.; And Others

    This report presents 1980 census data on the geographic distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States. The 1980 census was the first one to identify the total Asian and Pacific Islander population and its subgroups. Information on the total Asian and Pacific Islander population is shown for the United States, regions,…

  11. 76 FR 54216 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... salmon methodology and conservation objective changes in a joint work session, which is open to the public. DATES: The work session will be held Tuesday, October 4, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.,...

  12. 77 FR 58526 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... proposed salmon methodology changes in a joint work session, which is open to the public. DATES: The work..., 2012 from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. ADDRESSES: The work session will be held at the Shilo Inns Suites...

  13. Climate change and potential impacts on bristol bay sockeye salmon populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific research has shown that climate change has already caused detectable changes to ecosystems throughout Alaska. As warming is predicted to continue, it is likely to lead to changes in marine and freshwater aquatic ecosystems and impact sockeye salmon populations in Brist...

  14. Classification of physical habitat for Pacific Salmon in a Semi-Arid Basin in Northeast Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Daniel, S. J.; Webster, J.; Lambert, M.

    2010-12-01

    Currently, significant efforts are aimed at improving freshwater habitats that Pacific Salmon require for spawning and rearing. In order to inform fisheries management, we developed models based hydrologic and geomorphic variables that influences channel morphology across the Umatilla watershed in northeast Oregon. We calculate several DEM derived parameters include, channel slope, SD channel slope, base flow, sinuosity, floodplain width, valley slope, wavelength of the channel belt and the ratio of channel segment length to floodplain width. These parameters were used to produce both standard and statistically derived stream classifications. To estimate bed grain size, we used slope and cumulative drainage area measurements from 10 meter DEMs to solve the Shields equation (Buffington et al. 2004). We created both Montgomery and Buffington classifications (1997) and a statistical classifications using K-means clustering and fuzzy sets. Using parameters developed for the stream classification, we compare target segments to similar segments using a probability distribution. Models include CART and neural networks, that were evaluated, to predict spawning areas (redds) for Oncorhynchus mykiss (Summer Steelhead) and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Spring Chinook). Prediction of redds using classification and regression trees, with resampling, produce an R^2 of .68 for Summer Steelhead and an R^2 of .79 for Spring Chinook. Additionally, these results suggest that the sum segment length of Summer Steelhead redds distribution may increase from 1.3% (currently measured amount) to 4.2% (predicted potential) of the network. Outputs from the Spring Chinook model suggests a redds distribution change from 1.9% (currently measured amount) to 3.7% predicted potential) across the watershed. We used widely available spatial datasets to apply models over large areas to produce rapid, comparable stream habitat assessments.

  15. Spatial variation buffers temporal fluctuations in early juvenile survival for an endangered Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Thorson, James T; Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Copeland, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Spatial, phenotypic and genetic diversity at relatively small scales can buffer species against large-scale processes such as climate change that tend to synchronize populations and increase temporal variability in overall abundance or production. This portfolio effect generally results in improved biological and economic outcomes for managed species. Previous evidence for the portfolio effect in salmonids has arisen from examinations of time series of adult abundance, but we lack evidence of spatial buffering of temporal variability in demographic rates such as survival of juveniles during their first year of life. We therefore use density-dependent population models with multiple random effects to represent synchronous (similar among populations) and asynchronous (different among populations) temporal variability as well as spatial variability in survival. These are fitted to 25 years of survey data for breeding adults and surviving juveniles from 15 demographically distinct populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) within a single metapopulation in the Snake River in Idaho, USA. Model selection identifies the most support for the model that included both synchronous and asynchronous temporal variability, in addition to spatial variability. Asynchronous variability (log-SD = 0·55) is approximately equal in magnitude to synchronous temporal variability (log-SD = 0·67), but much lower than spatial variability (log-SD = 1·11). We also show that the pairwise correlation coefficient, a common measure of population synchrony, is approximated by the estimated ratio of shared and total variance, where both approaches yield a synchrony estimate of 0·59. We therefore find evidence for spatial buffering of temporal variability in early juvenile survival, although between-population variability that persists over time is also large. We conclude that spatial variation decreases interannual changes in overall juvenile production, which suggests that

  16. Modeling population responses of Chinook and coho salmon to suspended sediment using a life history approach.

    PubMed

    Araujo, H Andres; Cooper, Andrew B; MacIsaac, Erland A; Knowler, Duncan; Velez-Espino, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    This study develops a quantitative framework for estimating the effects of extreme suspended-sediment events (SSC>25 mg L(-1)) on virtual populations of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon in a coastal watershed of British Columbia, Canada. We used a life history model coupled with a dose-response model to evaluate the populations' responses to a set of simulated suspended sediments scenarios. Our results indicate that a linear increase in SSC produces non-linear declining trajectories in both Chinook and coho populations, but this decline was more evident for Chinook salmon despite their shorter fresh-water residence. The model presented here can provide insights into SSC impacts on population responses of salmonids and potentially assist resource managers when planning conservation or remediation strategies. PMID:25963631

  17. Fine-scale population structure in Atlantic salmon from Maine's Penobscot River drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spidle, A.P.; Bane, Schill W.; Lubinski, B.A.; King, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    We report a survey of micro satellite DNA variation in Atlantic salmon from the unimpounded lower reaches of Maine's Penobscot River. Our analysis indicates that Atlantic salmon in the Penobscot River are distinct from other populations that have little or no history of human-mediated repopulation, including two of its tributaries, Cove Brook and Kenduskeag Stream, another Maine river, the Ducktrap, and Canada's Miramichi and Gander rivers. Significant heterogeneity was detected in allele frequency among all three subpopulations sampled in the Penobscot drainage. The high resolution of the 12-locus suite was quantified using maximum likelihood assignment tests, which correctly identified the source of 90.4-96.1% of individuals from within the Penobscot drainage. Current populations are clearly isolated from each other, however we are unable to determine from the present data whether the populations in Cove Brook and Kenduskeag Stream are recently diverged from populations stocked into the Penobscot River over the last century, or are aboriginal in origin. The degree of population structure identified in the Penobscot drainage is noteworthy in light of its lengthy history of systematic restocking, the geographic proximity of the subpopulations, and the extent of the differentiation. Similar population structure on this extremely limited geographic scale could exist among Atlantic salmon runs elsewhere in Maine and throughout the species' range and should be taken into account for future management decisions.

  18. Nutrient fluxes and the recent collapse of coastal California salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jonathan W.; Hayes, Sean A.; Duffy, Walter; Gallagher, Sean; Michel, Cyril J.; Wright, David

    2011-01-01

    Migratory salmon move nutrients both in and out of fresh waters during the different parts of their life cycle. We used a mass-balance approach to quantify recent changes in phosphorus (P) fluxes in six coastal California, USA, watersheds that have recently experienced dramatic decreases in salmon populations. As adults, semelparous Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon imported 8.3 and 10.4 times more P from the ocean, respectively, than they exported as smolts, while iteroparous steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) imported only 1.6 times more than they exported as kelts and smolts. Semelparous species whose life histories led them to import more nutrients were also the species whose populations decreased the most dramatically in California in recent years. In addition, the relationship between import and export was nonlinear, with export being proportionally more important at lower levels of import. This pattern was driven by two density-dependent processes — smolts were larger and disproportionately more abundant at lower spawner abundances. In fact, in four of our six streams we found evidence that salmon can drive net export of P at low abundance, evidence for the reversal of the "conveyor belt" of nutrients.

  19. Evidence of recent signatures of selection during domestication in an Atlantic salmon population.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, A P; Yáñez, J M; Davidson, W S

    2016-04-01

    Selective breeding practices in Atlantic salmon aquaculture have been carried out intensively since the 1970s. Along with the phenotypic improvement of fish, we expect to observe genomic regions showing evidence of selection for traits related to growth and age at sexual maturation, as well as traits involved in the domestication process. This is mainly linked to the increase in the frequency of favourable alleles at loci that affect the traits of interest in the breeding population. In this study we searched for signatures of selection in the Cermaq Atlantic salmon broodstock, a Mowi strain, which was derived from wild Norwegian populations, and is now farmed in British Columbia, Canada. A 6.5K SNP array was used to genotype 202 fish from the Cermaq population, and the genotypes were compared with four wild populations from Norway. We used three methods based on FST values to detect signatures of selection. Forty four markers showing divergence in allele frequency were identified as outliers by the three detection methods, suggesting the presence of signatures of selection in the Cermaq population relative to their wild counterparts. Markers identified as outliers are associated with molecular functions that could be related to the selection for economically important traits (e.g., growth) as well as the domestication process (e.g., response to pathogens and environmental stressors). Of particular interest were three outlier markers that had been previously associated with grilsing (i.e., early sexual maturation) an undesirable trait, which has been heavily selected against in Atlantic salmon aquaculture. This study provides clear evidence of the presence of signatures of selection and domestication in a farmed Atlantic salmon population. PMID:26723557

  20. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  1. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  2. Population genomic analyses of early-phase Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) domestication/captive breeding

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Hannu; Vasemägi, Anti; McGinnity, Philip; Cross, Tom F; Primmer, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    Domestication can have adverse genetic consequences, which may reduce the fitness of individuals once released back into the wild. Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) populations are threatened by anthropogenic influences, and they are supplemented with captively bred fish. The Atlantic salmon is also widely used in selective breeding programs to increase the mean trait values for desired phenotypic traits. We analyzed a genomewide set of SNPs in three domesticated Atlantic salmon strains and their wild conspecifics to identify loci underlying domestication. The genetic differentiation between domesticated strains and wild populations was low (FST < 0.03), and domesticated strains harbored similar levels of genetic diversity compared to their wild conspecifics. Only a few loci showed footprints of selection, and these loci were located in different linkage groups among the different wild population/hatchery strain comparisons. Simulated scenarios indicated that differentiation in quantitative trait loci exceeded that in neutral markers during the early phases of divergence only when the difference in the phenotypic optimum between populations was large. This study indicates that detecting selection using standard approaches in the early phases of domestication might be challenging unless selection is strong and the traits under selection show simple inheritance patterns. PMID:25667605

  3. Alternative reproductive tactics increase effective population size and decrease inbreeding in wild Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Charles; Normandeau, Éric; Dionne, Mélanie; Richard, Antoine; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    While nonanadromous males (stream-resident and/or mature male parr) contribute to reproduction in anadromous salmonids, little is known about their impacts on key population genetic parameters. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Atlantic salmon mature male parr to the effective number of breeders (Nb) using both demographic (variance in reproductive success) and genetic (linkage disequilibrium) methods, the number of alleles, and the relatedness among breeders. We used a recently published pedigree reconstruction of a wild anadromous Atlantic salmon population in which 2548 fry born in 2010 were assigned parentage to 144 anadromous female and 101 anadromous females that returned to the river to spawn in 2009 and to 462 mature male parr. Demographic and genetic methods revealed that mature male parr increased population Nb by 1.79 and 1.85 times, respectively. Moreover, mature male parr boosted the number of alleles found among progenies. Finally, mature male parr were in average less related to anadromous females than were anadromous males, likely because of asynchronous sexual maturation between mature male parr and anadromous fish of a given cohort. By increasing Nb and allelic richness, and by decreasing inbreeding, the reproductive contribution of mature male parr has important evolutionary and conservation implications for declining Atlantic salmon populations. PMID:25553070

  4. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jennifer S; Myers, Ransom A

    2008-02-01

    Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries. PMID:18271629

  5. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  6. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations : FY2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Thomas A.

    2001-12-01

    Juvenile and adult chum salmon were monitored in fiscal year 2001 to continue evaluating factors limiting production. Total adult salmon caught (in weirs or by carcass surveys) in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs in 2000 was 25 and 130 fish, respectively. Fifty-two fish captured in the main stem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, Hardy Creek, or Bonneville Dam were implanted with radio tags and tracked with an array of fixed aerials and underwater antennae. Males tended to move greater distances than females. Population estimates in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 37{+-}2 and 157{+-}5, respectively. Chum smolt emigration began in Hamilton Springs 25 February 2001 and 2 March 2001 in Hardy Creek. Total catches in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 2,955 and 14,967, respectively. Population abundance estimates were 11,586{+-}1,836 in Hardy Creek and 84,520{+-}9,283 in Hamilton Springs.

  7. Growth and survival of pacific coho salmon smolts exposed as juveniles to pesticides within urban streams in western Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams, with concentrations often exceeding those reported in surface waters within agricultural areas. The authors studied growth, survival, and return rates of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts exposed to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of the pesticides most frequently reported within urban streams in western Washington State, USA, in fall through early spring. Exposure concentrations were selected to represent a reasonable worst-case scenario based on field monitoring data. Smolts were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail either from fertilization through swim-up (2007-2008) or from fertilization through smoltification (2007-2008 and 2008-2009), coded wire tagged, and released in 2008 and 2009. Pre-release endpoints (growth, survival, sex ratio, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, and gonado- and hepatosomatic indices) were not affected. However, the number of returning adults exposed to the cocktail to swim-up (0.90%, n = 42) was more than double that of unexposed controls (0.38%, n = 26) in 2008, whereas in 2009, fish exposed through smoltification returned in lower numbers (0.15%, n = 18) than controls (0.37%, n = 30). Variability in return rates among treatments between years was comparable to that observed in previous whole life cycle studies with Pacific salmon and other contaminants. Results suggest that exposure to pesticides in urban streams does not directly impair early life stages of coho salmon, and that additional studies incorporating releases of larger numbers of smolts across several years are necessary to adequately quantify effects on return rates. PMID:24687230

  8. Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, Number 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This UNESCO newsletter contains six sections concerned with various aspects of population education. Section 1 deals with workshops for monitoring and evaluating population education programs. Section 2 evaluates the programs of six Asia-Pacific countries (China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).…

  9. Development of a Method to Produce Freeze-Dried Cubes from 3 Pacific Salmon Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freeze-dried boneless skinless cubes of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon were prepared and physical properties evaluated. To minimize freeze-drying time, the kinetics of dehydration and processing yields were investigated. The physical ...

  10. A SALMON-CENTRIC VIEW OF THE 21ST CENTURY IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the far western contiguous United States (California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline has taken place over the past 150 years and, although there have been decades when the numbers increased,...

  11. EFFECTS OF AIR-SUPERSATURATED WATER ON SURVIVAL OF PACIFIC SALMON AND STEELHEAD SMOLTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and sockeye (O. nerka) salmon smolts and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) smolts were exposed to several concentrations of air-supersaturated water in the laboratory from March through June, 1974, the normal fish migration period in the Columbia River...

  12. Fishing for Effective Conservation: Context and Biotic Variation are Keys to Understanding the Survival of Pacific Salmon after Catch-and-Release.

    PubMed

    Raby, Graham D; Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Clark, Timothy D; Eliason, Erika J; Jeffries, Kenneth M; Cook, Katrina V; Teffer, Amy; Bass, Arthur L; Miller, Kristina M; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-10-01

    Acute stressors are commonly experienced by wild animals but their effects on fitness rarely are studied in the natural environment. Billions of fish are captured and released annually around the globe across all fishing sectors (e.g., recreational, commercial, subsistence). Whatever the motivation, release often occurs under the assumption of post-release survival. Yet, capture by fisheries (hereafter "fisheries-capture") is likely the most severe acute stressor experienced in the animal's lifetime, which makes the problem of physiological recovery and survival of relevance to biology and conservation. Indeed, fisheries managers require accurate estimates of mortality to better account for total mortality from fishing, while fishers desire guidance on strategies for reducing mortality and maintaining the welfare of released fish, to maximize current and future opportunities for fishing. In partnership with stakeholders, our team has extensively studied the effects of catch-and-release on Pacific salmon in both marine and freshwater environments, using biotelemetry and physiological assessments in a combined laboratory-based and field-based approach. The emergent theme is that post-release rates of mortality are consistently context-specific and can be affected by a suite of interacting biotic and abiotic factors. The fishing gear used, location of a fishery, water temperature, and handling techniques employed by fishers each can dramatically affect survival of the salmon they release. Variation among individuals, co-migrating populations, and between sexes all seem to play a role in the response of fish to capture and in their subsequent survival, potentially driven by pre-capture pathogen-load, maturation states, and inter-individual variation in responsiveness to stress. Although some of these findings are fascinating from a biological perspective, they all create unresolved challenges for managers. We summarize our findings by highlighting the patterns that

  13. It's a bear market: evolutionary and ecological effects of predation on two wild sockeye salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Lin, J E; Hard, J J; Naish, K A; Peterson, D; Hilborn, R; Hauser, L

    2016-05-01

    Predation can affect both phenotypic variation and population productivity in the wild, but quantifying evolutionary and demographic effects of predation in natural environments is challenging. The aim of this study was to estimate selection differentials and coefficients associated with brown bear (Ursus arctos) predation in wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations spawning in pristine habitat that is often subject to intense predation pressure. Using reconstructed genetic pedigrees, individual reproductive success (RS) was estimated in two sockeye salmon populations for two consecutive brood years with very different predation intensities across brood years. Phenotypic data on individual adult body length, body depth, stream entry timing and reproductive lifespan were used to calculate selection coefficients based on RS, and genetic variance components were estimated using animal models. Bears consistently killed larger and more recently arrived adults, although selection differentials were small. In both populations, mean RS was higher in the brood year experiencing lower predation intensity. Selection coefficients were similar across brood years with different levels of predation, often indicating stabilizing selection on reproductive lifespan as well as directional selection for longer reproductive lifespan. Despite these selection pressures, genetic covariation of morphology, phenology and lifespan appears to have maintained variation in spawner body size and stream entry timing in both populations. Our results therefore suggest considerable demographic but limited evolutionary effects of bear predation in the two study populations. PMID:26860201

  14. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  15. Population Estimates for Chum Salmon Spawning in the Mainstem Columbia River, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rawding, Dan; Hillson, Todd D.

    2003-11-15

    Accurate and precise population estimates of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning in the mainstem Columbia River are needed to provide a basis for informed water allocation decisions, to determine the status of chum salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and to evaluate the contribution of the Duncan Creek re-introduction program to mainstem spawners. Currently, mark-recapture experiments using the Jolly-Seber model provide the only framework for this type of estimation. In 2002, a study was initiated to estimate mainstem Columbia River chum salmon populations using seining data collected while capturing broodstock as part of the Duncan Creek re-introduction. The five assumptions of the Jolly-Seber model were examined using hypothesis testing within a statistical framework, including goodness of fit tests and secondary experiments. We used POPAN 6, an integrated computer system for the analysis of capture-recapture data, to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of standard model parameters, derived estimates, and their precision. A more parsimonious final model was selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Final chum salmon escapement estimates and (standard error) from seining data for the Ives Island, Multnomah, and I-205 sites are 3,179 (150), 1,269 (216), and 3,468 (180), respectively. The Ives Island estimate is likely lower than the total escapement because only the largest two of four spawning sites were sampled. The accuracy and precision of these estimates would improve if seining was conducted twice per week instead of weekly, and by incorporating carcass recoveries into the analysis. Population estimates derived from seining mark-recapture data were compared to those obtained using the current mainstem Columbia River salmon escapement methodologies. The Jolly-Seber population estimate from carcass tagging in the Ives Island area was 4,232 adults with a standard error of 79. This population estimate appears reasonable and precise but batch

  16. Self-sustaining populations, population sinks or aggregates of strays: chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wood River system, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jocelyn E; Hilborn, Ray; Quinn, Thomas P; Hauser, Lorenz

    2011-12-01

    Small populations can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary aspects of species distributions over space and time. In the Wood River system in Alaska, USA, small aggregates of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) spawn in an area dominated by sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Our objective was to determine whether these Chinook and chum salmon are reproductively isolated, self-sustaining populations, population sinks that produce returning adults but receive immigration, or strays from other systems that do not produce returning adults. DNA samples collected from adult chum salmon from 16 streams and Chinook salmon from four streams in the Wood River system over 3 years were compared to samples from large populations in the nearby Nushagak River system, a likely source of strays. For both species, microsatellite markers indicated no significant genetic differentiation between the two systems. Simulations of microsatellite data in a large source and a smaller sink population suggested that considerable immigration would be required to counteract the diverging effects of genetic drift and produce genetic distances as small as those observed, considering the small census sizes of the two species in the Wood River system. Thus, the Wood River system likely receives substantial immigration from neighbouring watersheds, such as the Nushagak River system, which supports highly productive runs. Although no data on population productivity in the Wood River system exist, our results suggest source-sink dynamics for the two species, a finding relevant to other systems where salmonid population sizes are limited by habitat factors. PMID:22026559

  17. Temporal variation of genetic composition in Atlantic salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin: influence of anthropogenic factors?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the temporal patterns of population genetic structure assist in evaluating the consequences of demographic and environmental changes on population stability and persistence. In this study, we evaluated the level of temporal genetic variation in 16 anadromous and 2 freshwater salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin (Russia) using samples collected between 1995 and 2008. To assess whether the genetic stability was affected by human activity, we also evaluated the effect of fishing pressure on the temporal genetic variation in this region. Results We found that the genetic structure of salmon populations in this region was relatively stable over a period of 1.5 to 2.5 generations. However, the level of temporal variation varied among geographical regions: anadromous salmon of the Kola Peninsula exhibited a higher stability compared to that of the anadromous and freshwater salmon from the Karelian White Sea coast. This discrepancy was most likely attributed to the higher census, and therefore effective, population sizes of the populations inhabiting the rivers of the Kola Peninsula compared to salmon of the Karelian White Sea coast. Importantly, changes in the genetic diversity observed in a few anadromous populations were best explained by the increased level of fishing pressure in these populations rather than environmental variation or the negative effects of hatchery escapees. The observed population genetic patterns of isolation by distance remained consistent among earlier and more recent samples, which support the stability of the genetic structure over the period studied. Conclusions Given the increasing level of fishing pressure in the Western White Sea Basin and the higher level of temporal variation in populations exhibiting small census and effective population sizes, further genetic monitoring in this region is recommended, particularly on populations from the Karelian rivers. PMID:24053319

  18. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Russian River Chinook and coho salmon Coyote Valley Dam (E. Fork Russian R.)Warm Springs Dam (Dry Cr.../a 18050002 CA San Pablo Bay Chinook and coho salmon San Pablo Dam (San Pablo Cr.) 18050003 CA...

  19. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Russian River Chinook and coho salmon Coyote Valley Dam (E. Fork Russian R.)Warm Springs Dam (Dry Cr.../a 18050002 CA San Pablo Bay Chinook and coho salmon San Pablo Dam (San Pablo Cr.) 18050003 CA...

  20. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Russian River Chinook and coho salmon Coyote Valley Dam (E. Fork Russian R.)Warm Springs Dam (Dry Cr.../a 18050002 CA San Pablo Bay Chinook and coho salmon San Pablo Dam (San Pablo Cr.) 18050003 CA...

  1. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Russian River Chinook and coho salmon Coyote Valley Dam (E. Fork Russian R.)Warm Springs Dam (Dry Cr.../a 18050002 CA San Pablo Bay Chinook and coho salmon San Pablo Dam (San Pablo Cr.) 18050003 CA...

  2. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Russian River Chinook and coho salmon Coyote Valley Dam (E. Fork Russian R.)Warm Springs Dam (Dry Cr.../a 18050002 CA San Pablo Bay Chinook and coho salmon San Pablo Dam (San Pablo Cr.) 18050003 CA...

  3. Modeling (137)Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon-resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2016-02-15

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for (137)Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that (137)Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of (137)Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. (137)Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the (137)Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of (137)Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term (137)Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current (137)Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term (137)Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring (137)Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of (137)Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution. PMID:26657356

  4. An inherited magnetic map guides ocean navigation in juvenile Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Scanlan, Michelle M; Billman, Eric J; O'Neil, Joseph P; Couture, Ryan B; Quinn, Thomas P; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-02-17

    Migratory marine animals exploit resources in different oceanic regions at different life stages, but how they navigate to specific oceanic areas is poorly understood. A particular challenge is explaining how juvenile animals with no prior migratory experience are able to locate specific oceanic feeding habitats that are hundreds or thousands of kilometers from their natal sites. Although adults reproducing in the vicinity of favorable ocean currents can facilitate transport of their offspring to these habitats, variation in ocean circulation makes passive transport unreliable, and young animals probably take an active role in controlling their migratory trajectories. Here we experimentally demonstrate that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) respond to magnetic fields like those at the latitudinal extremes of their ocean range by orienting in directions that would, in each case, lead toward their marine feeding grounds. We further show that fish use the combination of magnetic intensity and inclination angle to assess their geographic location. The "magnetic map" of salmon appears to be inherited, as the fish had no prior migratory experience. These results, paired with findings in sea turtles, imply that magnetic maps are phylogenetically widespread and likely explain the extraordinary navigational abilities evident in many long-distance underwater migrants. PMID:24508165

  5. Genotyping by sequencing resolves shallow population structure to inform conservation of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Larson, Wesley A; Seeb, Lisa W; Everett, Meredith V; Waples, Ryan K; Templin, William D; Seeb, James E

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in population genomics have made it possible to detect previously unidentified structure, obtain more accurate estimates of demographic parameters, and explore adaptive divergence, potentially revolutionizing the way genetic data are used to manage wild populations. Here, we identified 10 944 single-nucleotide polymorphisms using restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to explore population structure, demography, and adaptive divergence in five populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from western Alaska. Patterns of population structure were similar to those of past studies, but our ability to assign individuals back to their region of origin was greatly improved (>90% accuracy for all populations). We also calculated effective size with and without removing physically linked loci identified from a linkage map, a novel method for nonmodel organisms. Estimates of effective size were generally above 1000 and were biased downward when physically linked loci were not removed. Outlier tests based on genetic differentiation identified 733 loci and three genomic regions under putative selection. These markers and genomic regions are excellent candidates for future research and can be used to create high-resolution panels for genetic monitoring and population assignment. This work demonstrates the utility of genomic data to inform conservation in highly exploited species with shallow population structure. PMID:24665338

  6. The density dilemma: limitations on juvenile production in threatened salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Annika W.; Copeland, Timothy; Venditti, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Density-dependent processes have repeatedly been shown to have a central role in salmonid population dynamics, but are often assumed to be negligible for populations at low abundances relative to historical records. Density dependence has been observed in overall spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha production, but it is not clear how patterns observed at the aggregate level relate to individual populations within the basin. We used a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach to explore the degree of density dependence in juvenile production for nine Idaho populations. Our results indicate that density dependence is ubiquitous, although its strength varies between populations. We also investigated the processes driving the population-level pattern and found density-dependent growth and mortality present for both common life-history strategies, but no evidence of density-dependent movement. Overwinter mortality, spatial clustering of redds and limited resource availability were identified as potentially important limiting factors contributing to density dependence. The ubiquity of density dependence for these threatened populations is alarming as stability at present low abundance levels suggests recovery may be difficult without major changes. We conclude that density dependence at the population level is common and must be considered in demographic analysis and management.

  7. Provenance matters: thermal reaction norms for embryo survival among sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations.

    PubMed

    Whitney, C K; Hinch, S G; Patterson, D A

    2013-04-01

    Differences in thermal tolerance during embryonic development in Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were examined among nine populations in a controlled common-garden incubation experiment. Forcing embryonic development at an extreme temperature (relative to current values) of 16° C, representing a future climate change scenario, significantly reduced survival compared to the more ecologically moderate temperature of 10° C (55% v. 93%). Survival at 14° C was intermediate between the other two temperatures (85%). More importantly, this survival response varied by provenance within and between temperature treatments. Thermal reaction norms showed an interacting response of genotype and environment (temperature), suggesting that populations of O. nerka may have adapted differentially to elevated temperatures during incubation and early development. Moreover, populations that historically experience warmer incubation temperatures at early development displayed a higher tolerance for warm temperatures. In contrast, thermal tolerance does not appear to transcend life stages as adult migration temperatures were not related to embryo thermal tolerance. The intra-population variation implies potential for thermal tolerance at the species level. The differential inter-population variation in thermal tolerance that was observed suggests, however, limited adaptive potential to thermal shifts for some populations. This infers that the intergenerational effects of increasing water temperatures may affect populations differentially, and that such thermally mediated adaptive selection may drive population, and therefore species, persistence. PMID:23557297

  8. Genotyping by sequencing resolves shallow population structure to inform conservation of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Wesley A; Seeb, Lisa W; Everett, Meredith V; Waples, Ryan K; Templin, William D; Seeb, James E

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in population genomics have made it possible to detect previously unidentified structure, obtain more accurate estimates of demographic parameters, and explore adaptive divergence, potentially revolutionizing the way genetic data are used to manage wild populations. Here, we identified 10 944 single-nucleotide polymorphisms using restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to explore population structure, demography, and adaptive divergence in five populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from western Alaska. Patterns of population structure were similar to those of past studies, but our ability to assign individuals back to their region of origin was greatly improved (>90% accuracy for all populations). We also calculated effective size with and without removing physically linked loci identified from a linkage map, a novel method for nonmodel organisms. Estimates of effective size were generally above 1000 and were biased downward when physically linked loci were not removed. Outlier tests based on genetic differentiation identified 733 loci and three genomic regions under putative selection. These markers and genomic regions are excellent candidates for future research and can be used to create high-resolution panels for genetic monitoring and population assignment. This work demonstrates the utility of genomic data to inform conservation in highly exploited species with shallow population structure. PMID:24665338

  9. The influence of population dynamics and environmental conditions on salmon re-colonization after large-scale distrubance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pess, G. R.; Hilborn, R.; Kloehn, K.; Quinn, T.

    2010-12-01

    The transition from dispersal into unoccupied habitat to the establishment of a self-sustaining new population depends on the dynamics of the source and recipient populations, and the environmental conditions that facilitate or hinder exchange and successful reproduction. We used population growth rate, inter-annual variability estimates, habitat condition and size, hydrologic data, and an estimated dispersal effect to determine when colonizing pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) populations became self-sustaining after a long-term migration blockage (Hell’s Gate) was mitigated in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. We used pink salmon spawning data from 1947 to 1987 in 66 streams to define populations, population growth rates, and the level of dispersal to newly accessible habitats. We also quantified the distance from source populations, the amount of newly accessible habitat, and determined whether stream flow conditions impeded fish passage at Hell’s Gate. Population dynamics models fit to observed data indicated that the combination of an initially large source population in the Fraser River below Hell’s Gate, high intrinsic growth rates linked to favorable climate-driven conditions, a constant supply of dispersers, and large amounts of newly available habitat resulted in the development of self-sustaining pink salmon populations in the Fraser River upstream of the historic barrier. Self-sustaining populations were developed within years of barrier removal and have continued to help expand the overall population of Fraser River pink salmon. However, not all locations had the same productivity and the magnitude of exchange among them was partly mediated by river conditions that permit or impede passage. Both re-colonized abundance levels were reduced and population spatial structure shifted relative to historic population abundance and spatial structure estimates.

  10. Family size and effective population size in a hatchery stock of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, R.C.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Means and variances of family size measured in five year-classes of wire-tagged coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were linearly related. Population effective size was calculated by using estimated means and variances of family size in a 25-yr data set. Although numbers of age 3 adults returning to the hatchery appeared to be large enough to avoid inbreeding problems (the 25-yr mean exceeded 4500), the numbers actually contributing to the hatchery production may be too low. Several strategies are proposed to correct the problem perceived. Argument is given to support the contention that the problem of effective size is fairly general and is not confined to the present study population.

  11. WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

  12. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon are a valuable cultural and economic resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  13. Population diversity in Pacific herring of the Puget Sound, USA.

    PubMed

    Siple, Margaret C; Francis, Tessa B

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, functional, or habitat diversity can confer stability on populations via portfolio effects (PEs) that integrate across multiple ecological responses and buffer against environmental impacts. The prevalence of these PEs in aquatic organisms is as yet unknown, and can be difficult to quantify; however, understanding mechanisms that stabilize populations in the face of environmental change is a key concern in ecology. Here, we examine PEs in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Puget Sound (USA) using a 40-year time series of biomass data for 19 distinct spawning population units collected using two survey types. Multivariate auto-regressive state-space models show independent dynamics among spawning subpopulations, suggesting that variation in herring production is partially driven by local effects at spawning grounds or during the earliest life history stages. This independence at the subpopulation level confers a stabilizing effect on the overall Puget Sound spawning stock, with herring being as much as three times more stable in the face of environmental perturbation than a single population unit of the same size. Herring populations within Puget Sound are highly asynchronous but share a common negative growth rate and may be influenced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The biocomplexity in the herring stock shown here demonstrates that preserving spatial and demographic diversity can increase the stability of this herring population and its availability as a resource for consumers. PMID:26427990

  14. Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

    2012-11-01

    While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F(1) females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

  15. Bioaccumulation of HCHs and DDTs in organs of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Lukyanova, Olga N; Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K

    2016-08-01

    Concentrations of isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (α-, β-, γ-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were assessed in organs of the pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (Oncorhynchus keta), chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), caught near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. Pesticides have been found to accumulate in fish organs in the following: muscles < liver < eggs < male gonads. The highest concentrations in muscles and liver have been recorded from sockeye. Of the DDT group, only DDE has been detected. The average concentration of HCHs + DDE in the muscles of pink, chum, chinook, and sockeye was 141, 125, 1241, 1641 ng/g lipids, respectively; and in the liver, 279, 183, 1305, 3805 ng/g lipids, respectively. The total concentration of HCHs isomers was higher than that of DDE. Average HCHs + DDE concentration in organs of salmon from study area is lower than that in salmon from Pacific coast of North America. PMID:27219293

  16. Spatial Heterogeneity in Shallow Streambed Water Temperatures, Copper River Delta, Alaska: Implications for Understanding Landscape-Scale Climate Change Impacts to Pacific Salmon Egg Incubation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelfio, L. A.; Wondzell, S. M.; Reeves, G. H.; Mantua, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Shallow streambed water temperature is a driving factor for Pacific salmon egg incubation. Small (1 to 2 oC) increases in incubation period water temperature may accelerate embryo development. We collected year-round water temperature data at 14 salmon spawning areas on the Copper River Delta (CRD), a 100 km wide coastal foreland in Southcentral Alaska. Our data show considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity in shallow streambed water temperatures. Different water sources (precipitation vs. groundwater) and a spectrum of hydraulic conductivity and pressure head conditions were also observed. Landscape-scale patterns were not adequately characterized by typical watershed metrics including elevation, area, and slope. We found that catchment- and reach- scale geomorphology and surficial geology govern the surface-groundwater interactions that determine shallow streambed water temperature. The observed differences indicate that, across the CRD landscape, shallow streambed water temperature will not respond equally to projected climatic changes. Water temperature sensitivity to atmospheric conditions also varied by season, suggesting that year-round water temperature data are valuable for assessing potential climate change impacts to Pacific salmon in catchments where incubation period air temperatures are projected to exceed the freezing point with increasing frequency.

  17. 78 FR 5162 - Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Central Valley Spring-Run Chinook Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...On January 16, 2013, we, NMFS, published a proposed rule to designate a nonessential experimental population of Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act in portions of the San Joaquin River and a notice of availability for the draft environmental assessment associated with this action. The proposed rule contained incorrect dates for two of our......

  18. Does among-population variation in burst swimming performance of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka fry reflect early life migrations?

    PubMed

    Sopinka, N M; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Whitney, C K; Patterson, D A

    2013-11-01

    Using a fixed-speed test, burst swimming performance was found to vary among nine populations of emergent sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka fry reared in a common-garden environment. No consistent relationship was, however, detected between difficulty of fry migration (upstream v. downstream) to rearing areas and total burst swimming duration or bursting rate. PMID:24117961

  19. 50 CFR 226.217 - Critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... as defined by the ordinary high-water line (33 CFR 329.11). In areas where the ordinary high-water... Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). 226.217 Section 226.217 Wildlife...

  20. 50 CFR 226.217 - Critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... as defined by the ordinary high-water line (33 CFR 329.11). In areas where the ordinary high-water... Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). 226.217 Section 226.217 Wildlife...

  1. Genomic prediction in an admixed population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Moen, Thomas; Santi, Nina; Korsvoll, Sven A.; Kjøglum, Sissel; Meuwissen, Theo H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of genomic selection (GS) models was tested in an admixed population of Atlantic salmon, originating from crossing of several wild subpopulations. The models included ordinary genomic BLUP models (GBLUP), using genome-wide SNP markers of varying densities (1–220 k), a genomic identity-by-descent model (IBD-GS), using linkage analysis of sparse genome-wide markers, as well as a classical pedigree-based model. Reliabilities of the models were compared through 5-fold cross-validation. The traits studied were salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) resistance (LR), measured as (log) density on the skin and fillet color (FC), with respective estimated heritabilities of 0.14 and 0.43. All genomic models outperformed the classical pedigree-based model, for both traits and at all marker densities. However, the relative improvement differed considerably between traits, models and marker densities. For the highly heritable FC, the IBD-GS had similar reliability as GBLUP at high marker densities (>22 k). In contrast, for the lowly heritable LR, IBD-GS was clearly inferior to GBLUP, irrespective of marker density. Hence, GBLUP was robust to marker density for the lowly heritable LR, but sensitive to marker density for the highly heritable FC. We hypothesize that this phenomenon may be explained by historical admixture of different founder populations, expected to reduce short-range lice density (LD) and induce long-range LD. The relative importance of LD/relationship information is expected to decrease/increase with increasing heritability of the trait. Still, using the ordinary GBLUP, the typical long-range LD of an admixed population may be effectively captured by sparse markers, while efficient utilization of relationship information may require denser markers (e.g., 22 k or more). PMID:25484890

  2. Resource requirements of the Pacific leatherback turtle population.

    PubMed

    Jones, T Todd; Bostrom, Brian L; Hastings, Mervin D; Van Houtan, Kyle S; Pauly, Daniel; Jones, David R

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements) of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance). Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924-1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×10(6) t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0-3.7×10(6)) equivalent to 4.2×10(8) megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0-7.4×10(8)). Model estimates suggest 2-7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×10(6) t of jellyfish or 2.2×10(8) MJ per year). Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians); they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output. PMID:23071518

  3. Resource Requirements of the Pacific Leatherback Turtle Population

    PubMed Central

    Jones, T. Todd; Bostrom, Brian L.; Hastings, Mervin D.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.; Pauly, Daniel; Jones, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements) of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance). Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924–1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×106 t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0–3.7×106) equivalent to 4.2×108 megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0–7.4×108). Model estimates suggest 2–7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×106 t of jellyfish or 2.2×108 MJ per year). Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians); they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output. PMID:23071518

  4. Quantitative PCR analysis used to characterize physiological changes in brain tissue of senescent sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Storer, C S; Quinn, T P; Roberts, S B

    2013-10-01

    Senescence varies considerably among fishes, and understanding the evolutionary basis for this diversity has become an important area of study. For rapidly senescing species such as Pacific salmon, senescence is a complex process as these fish are initiating anorexia while migrating to natal spawning grounds, and die within days of reproduction. To better understand senescence in Pacific salmon we examined expression patterns for a suite of genes in brain tissue of pre-senescent and senescent sockeye salmon. Interestingly, a significant increase in expression of genes involved in telomere repair and immune activity was observed in senescent salmon. These data provide insight into physiological changes in salmon undergoing senescence and the factors contributing to variation in observed senescence rates among individuals and populations. PMID:23948798

  5. Genetic change for earlier migration timing in a pink salmon population.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Gharrett, Anthony J; Tallmon, David A

    2012-09-22

    To predict how climate change will influence populations, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms, particularly microevolution and phenotypic plasticity, that allow populations to persist in novel environmental conditions. Although evidence for climate-induced phenotypic change in populations is widespread, evidence documenting that these phenotypic changes are due to microevolution is exceedingly rare. In this study, we use 32 years of genetic data (17 complete generations) to determine whether there has been a genetic change towards earlier migration timing in a population of pink salmon that shows phenotypic change; average migration time occurs nearly two weeks earlier than it did 40 years ago. Experimental genetic data support the hypothesis that there has been directional selection for earlier migration timing, resulting in a substantial decrease in the late-migrating phenotype (from more than 30% to less than 10% of the total abundance). From 1983 to 2011, there was a significant decrease--over threefold--in the frequency of a genetic marker for late-migration timing, but there were minimal changes in allele frequencies at other neutral loci. These results demonstrate that there has been rapid microevolution for earlier migration timing in this population. Circadian rhythm genes, however, did not show any evidence for selective changes from 1993 to 2009. PMID:22787027

  6. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, James R.; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to <10% of their historical abundance, with subsequent declines of marine derived nutrients once provided by large salmon runs. We explored whether low densities (<0.001 spawners/m2) of naturally spawning Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) can affect ecosystem metabolism. We measured gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) continuously before, during, and after salmon spawning. We compared downstream reaches with low densities of spawning salmon to upstream reaches with fewer or no spawners in 3 mid-sized (4th-order) rivers in northern Washington. In addition, we measured chemical, physical, and biological factors that may be important in controlling rates of GPP and ER. We observed that low densities of spawning salmon can increase GPP by 46% during spawning, but values quickly return to those observed before spawning. No difference in ER was observed between up- and downstream reaches. Based on our results, salmon density, temperature, and the proximity to salmon redds were the most important factors controlling rates of GPP, whereas temperature was most important for ER. These results suggest that even at low spawning densities, salmon can stimulate basal resources that may propagate up the food web. Understanding how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  7. Comparison of genetic diversity in the recently founded Connecticut River Atlantic salmon population to that of its primary donor stock, Maine's Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to the Connecticut River (CR) from 1996 to 1999 were assayed for variability at nine microsatellite DNA loci. Heterozygosity and allele frequencies were compared to the anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to Maine's Penobscot River from 1998 to 2000. The Penobscot River was the primary source of the salmon used to found the previously extirpated population in the Connecticut River. While there were no significant differences in heterozygosity between the source population and the Connecticut River sea-run spawners, microsatellite allele frequencies were significantly different between the populations. Two techniques of estimating effective population size (Ne) suggested a healthy level of genetic variation in the Connecticut River population of anadromous Atlantic salmon. This is significant because the sea-run population is maintained almost entirely through hatchery production. Healthy ratios of Ne to N indicate that hatchery production has not resulted in excessive inbreeding to date. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Ellison, Stephen; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  9. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  10. Genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): validation in wild and farmed American and European populations.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J M; Naswa, S; López, M E; Bassini, L; Correa, K; Gilbey, J; Bernatchez, L; Norris, A; Neira, R; Lhorente, J P; Schnable, P S; Newman, S; Mileham, A; Deeb, N; Di Genova, A; Maass, A

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are required to elucidate genotype-phenotype associations and determine the molecular basis of important traits. In this work, we carried out de novo SNP discovery accounting for both genome duplication and genetic variation from American and European salmon populations. A total of 9 736 473 nonredundant SNPs were identified across a set of 20 fish by whole-genome sequencing. After applying six bioinformatic filtering steps, 200 K SNPs were selected to develop an Affymetrix Axiom(®) myDesign Custom Array. This array was used to genotype 480 fish representing wild and farmed salmon from Europe, North America and Chile. A total of 159 099 (79.6%) SNPs were validated as high quality based on clustering properties. A total of 151 509 validated SNPs showed a unique position in the genome. When comparing these SNPs against 238 572 markers currently available in two other Atlantic salmon arrays, only 4.6% of the SNP overlapped with the panel developed in this study. This novel high-density SNP panel will be very useful for the dissection of economically and ecologically relevant traits, enhancing breeding programmes through genomic selection as well as supporting genetic studies in both wild and farmed populations of Atlantic salmon using high-resolution genomewide information. PMID:26849107

  11. The between-population genetic architecture of growth, maturation, and plasticity in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Debes, Paul Vincent; Fraser, Dylan John; Yates, Matthew; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    The between-population genetic architecture for growth and maturation has not been examined in detail for many animal species despite its central importance in understanding hybrid fitness. We studied the genetic architecture of population divergence in: (i) maturation probabilities at the same age; (ii) size at age and growth, while accounting for maturity status and sex; and (iii) growth plasticity in response to environmental factors, using divergent wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Our work examined two populations and their multigenerational hybrids in a common experimental arrangement in which salinity and quantity of suspended sediments were manipulated to mimic naturally occurring environmental variation. Average specific growth rates across environments differed among crosses, maturity groups, and cross-by-maturity groups, but a growth-rate reduction in the presence of suspended sediments was equal for all groups. Our results revealed both additive and nonadditive outbreeding effects for size at age and for growth rates that differed with life stage, as well as the presence of different sex- and size-specific maturation probabilities between populations. The major implication of our work is that estimates of the genetic architecture of growth and maturation can be biased if one does not simultaneously account for temporal changes in growth and for different maturation probabilities between populations. Namely, these correlated traits interact differently within each population and between sexes and among generations, due to nonadditive effects and a level of independence in the genetic control for traits. Our results emphasize the challenges to investigating and predicting phenotypic changes resulting from between-population outbreeding. PMID:24473933

  12. Differences in dynamic response of California Current salmon species to changes in ocean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botsford, Louis W.; Lawrence, Cathryn A.; Forrest Hill, M.

    2005-01-01

    While changes in the northeast Pacific Ocean in the mid-1970s apparently caused changes in salmon population growth in the Gulf of Alaska and the California Current, the responses of California Current salmon species, coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon ( O. tshawytscha) differed. Coho salmon catches declined dramatically along the coasts of California, Oregon and Washington, while chinook salmon catches did not. This provides an opportunity for comparative analysis, a rarity in the study of long-term changes in the ocean. Here we test one possible explanation for that difference, that chinook salmon populations are inherently more persistent because chinook salmon populations spawn over a range of ages, while coho salmon spawn predominantly at age 3 yr. We extended a previous theoretical approach that had been used to assess the long-term response of salmon populations with various spawning age structures to different means and variances in environmental variability. New results indicate that populations with environmental variability at the age of return to freshwater have the same characteristic identified earlier for populations with variability in the age of entry: populations spawning at multiple ages are more persistent, but that increased persistence is gained in the first few percent of departure from all spawning at a single age. Thus, in both cases the results are too sensitive to values of uncertain parameters to depend on as an explanation of the differences in response. We also approached this question by subjecting model populations with coho and chinook salmon spawning age structures to an empirical estimate of actual marine survival of coho salmon over the years 1970-2002, asking the question, if chinook salmon had been subjected to the same ocean survivals would they have experienced the same decline. The differences in spawning age structure made little difference in population responses. The dominant factor influencing the

  13. Latitudinal variation in population structure of wintering Pacific Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Sedinger, J.S.; Ward, D.H.; Hagmeier, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Latitudinal variation in population structure during the winter has been reported in many migratory birds, but has been documented in few species of waterfowl. Variation in environmental and social conditions at wintering sites can potentially influence the population dynamics of differential migrants. We examined latitudinal variation in sex and age classes of wintering Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Brant are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient from Alaska to Mexico during the winter. Accordingly, migration distances for brant using different wintering locations are highly variable and winter settlement patterns are likely associated with a spatially variable food resource. We used resightings of brant banded in southwestern Alaska to examine sex and age ratios of birds wintering at Boundary Bay in British Columbia, and at San Quintin Bay, Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and San Ignacio Lagoon in Baja California from 1998 to 2000. Sex ratios were similar among wintering locations for adults and were consistent with the mating strategy of geese. The distribution of juveniles varied among wintering areas, with greater proportions of juveniles observed at northern (San Quintin Bay and Ojo de Liebre Lagoon) than at southern (San Ignacio Lagoon) locations in Baja California. We suggest that age-related variation in the winter distribution of Pacific Black Brant is mediated by variation in productivity among individuals at different wintering locations and by social interactions among wintering family groups.

  14. Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Robin S.; Teel, David J.; Aebersold, Paul B.

    1991-08-01

    This is the first report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River Basin.

  15. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  16. Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference. The Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference was held at Denpasar, Indonesia, August 19-27, 1992. The theme of the Conference was Population and Sustainable Development: Goals and Strategies into the Twenty-first Century. Prior to the Conference three preparatory seminars were held: on population, environment and sustainable development (Thailand, 1991); on migration and urbanization (Seoul, 1992); and on planning and implementation of family planning/family health and welfare programs (Beijing, 1992). The Conference, jointly sponsored by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), adopted the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development, which spells out regional goals and recommendations for population and sustainable development into the 21st century. The preamble recognizes that population plays a decisive role in all human endeavors, especially in safeguarding the environment and the pursuit of sustainable development. Population problems must be addressed on local, national, regional, and global levels. It is urged that all members make a commitment to incorporate population and environmental concerns into efforts to achieve sustainable development. The population goals should include attainment of replacement level fertility of about 2.2 children per woman by the year 2010. In the Asian countries the present average is 3.1 children per woman. The rate of infant mortality should also be reduced to 40 per 1000 live births during this period. A number of recommendations are also made concerning population, environment, and development; urbanization, internal and international migration; family planning and maternal and child health; population and human resources development; women and population; population and poverty alleviation; mortality and morbidity; aging; population data, research and information dissemination; and resource mobilization. PMID:12287994

  17. Elucidating dynamic responses of North Pacific fish populations to climatic forcing: Influence of life-history strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsu, A.; Aydin, K. Y.; King, J. R.; McFarlane, G. A.; Chiba, S.; Tadokoro, K.; Kaeriyama, M.; Watanabe, Y.

    2008-05-01

    In order to explore mechanistic linkages between low-frequency ocean/climate variability, and fish population responses, we undertook comparative studies of time-series of recruitment-related productivity and the biomass levels of fish stocks representing five life-history strategies in the northern North Pacific between the 1950s and the present. We selected seven species: Japanese sardine ( Sardinopus melanostictus) and California sardine ( Sardinopus sagax) (opportunistic strategists), walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma, intermediate strategist), pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, salmonic strategist), sablefish ( Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis) (periodic strategists) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias, equilibrium strategist). The responses in terms of productivity of sardine, pink salmon, sablefish and halibut to climatic regime shifts were generally immediate, delayed, or no substantial responses depending on the particular regime shift year and fish stock (population). In walleye pollock, there were some periods of high productivity and low productivity, but not coincidental to climatic regime shifts, likely due to indirect climate forcing impacts on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Biomass of zooplankton and all fish stocks examined, except for spiny dogfish whose data were limited, indicated a decadal pattern with the most gradual changes in periodic strategists and most intensive and rapid changes in opportunistic strategists. Responses of sardine productivity to regime shifts were the most intense, probably due to the absence of density-dependent effects and the availability of refuges from predators when sardine biomass was extremely low. Spiny dogfish were least affected by environmental variability. Conversely, spiny dogfish are likely to withstand only modest harvest rates due to their very low intrinsic rate of increase. Thus, each life-history strategy type had a unique response to climatic

  18. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0-8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological factors

  19. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon

    PubMed Central

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0–8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological

  20. Population dynamics in Asia and the Pacific: implications for development.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    This article is an excerpt from a recently published article on interactions between population and development in the "Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1993." Topics include the dynamics of change (growth, age structure, sex composition, migration); implications for specific development issues (population and education, population and health, population and employment, and population and the environment); and policy approaches (slowing growth, spatial distribution, and the role of women). The Asian focus is on population policy and fertility declines. Different conditions specific to each country and varying degrees of program success give rise to country-specific differences in rates of growth and declines in fertility. Population compositions and pressures on spatial distribution differ among countries. Development demands differ for education, health, employment, and environmental controls. A common feature is that population is integrated into social and economic development policies. The links between population and the environment are recognized and will be integrated into policy as knowledge emerges. The ESCAP region has about 58% of world population, and fertility has declined to 3.1 children per woman. Fertility declines do not result in demonstrable changes in the rate of population growth, because the proportion of reproductive age women has increased and will continue to do so until 2010. Reductions in fertility are balanced by mortality declines. The annual rate of increase has gradually slowed, however the absolute size is still huge. The goal of the Bali Declaration of 1992 is to reach replacement level fertility of 2.2 children per woman by 2010 in the ESCAP region. The UN median variant projects 2.4 children per woman by 2010. The countries unlikely to reach replacement level fertility are India, the Philippines, Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Age structure will determine the need for services. For example, South Asia will

  1. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  2. Costs of climate change: Economic value of Yakima River salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Scott, M.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Chatters, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    This work resulted from a continuing multidisciplinary analysis of species preservation and global change. The paper explores the economic cost of a potential regional warming as it affects one Pacific Northwest natural resource, the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshcawytscha). Climate change and planned habitat improvements impact the production and economic value of soling chinook salmon of the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. The paper presents a derivation of the total economic value of a chinook salmon, which includes the summation of the existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values of the fish. When currently available commercial, recreational, existence, and capital values for chinook salmon were applied to estimated population changes, the estimated change in the economic value per fish associated with reduction of one fish run proved significant.

  3. Comparing effects of transmitters within and among populations: application to swimming performance of juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Plumb, John M.; Fielding, Scott D.; Adams, Noah S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of fish to a transmitter depends on factors such as environmental conditions, fish morphology, life stage, rearing history, and tag design. However, synthesizing general trends across studies is difficult because each study focuses on a particular performance measure, species, life stage, and transmitter model. These differences motivated us to develop simple metrics that allow effects of transmitters to be compared among different species, populations, or studies. First, we describe how multiple regression analysis can be used to quantify the effect of tag burden (transmitter mass relative to fish mass) on measures of physiological performance. Next, we illustrate how the slope and intercept parameters can be used to calculate two summary statistics: θ, which estimates the tag burden threshold above which the performance of tagged fish begins to decline relative to untagged fish; and k, which measures the percentage change in performance per percentage point increase in tag burden. When θ = 0, k provides a single measure of the tag's effect that can be compared among species, populations, or studies. We apply this analysis to two different experiments that measure the critical swimming speed (U crit) of tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In both experiments, U crit declined as tag burden increased, but we found no significant threshold in swimming performance. Estimates of θ ranged from −0.6% to 2.1% among six unique treatment groups, indicating that swimming performance began to decline at a relatively low tag burden. Estimates of k revealed that U crit of tagged fish declined by −2.68% to −4.86% for each 1% increase in tag burden. Both θ and k varied with the tag's antenna configuration, tag implantation method, and posttagging recovery time. Our analytical approach can be used to gain insights across populations to better understand factors affecting the ability of fish to carry a transmitter.

  4. Population Viability of the Snake River Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 11 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Emlen, John Merritt

    1993-06-01

    A stochastic simulation model of spring chinook population dynamics was parameterized using 36 years of redd count data from five index streams on the middle fork of the Salmon River in Idaho. Two versions of the model, one in which spawning age structure was presumed to follow an evolutionarily stable strategy and another in which spawning age structure was constrained to observed values were examined. The models were then used to generate 1000 statistically representative population projections over the next 100 years to assess risk of extinction and prospects for stock rebuilding. Current levels of production and mortality appear to suffice for maintaining the status quo, virtually assuring persistence over the next 100 years, barring catastophes, but providing no hope for rebuilding. A doubling of the current population level over the next 100 years can be expected to follow an increase in {alpha} (density independent mortality or fry production) of 5 to 25%, but rebuilding to the population levels prevailing in the 1950`s will require an increase in {alpha} of at least 37%.

  5. Genetic stock identification of immature chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in the western Bering Sea, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minho; Kim, Suam; Low, Loh-Lee

    2016-03-01

    Genetic stock identification studies have been widely applied to Pacific salmon species to estimate stock composition of complex mixed-stock fisheries. In a September-October 2004 survey, 739 chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) specimens were collected from 23 stations in the western Bering Sea. We determined the genetic stock composition of immature chum salmon based on the previous mitochondria DNA baseline. Each regional estimate was computed based on the conditional maximum likelihood method using 1,000 bootstrap resampling and then pooled to the major regional groups: Korea - Japan - Primorie (KJP) / Russia (RU) / Northwest Alaska (NWA) / Alaska Peninsula - Southcentral Alaska - Southeast Alaska - British Columbia - Washington (ONA). The stock composition of immature chum salmon in the western Bering Sea was a mix of 0.424 KJP, 0.421 RU, 0.116 NWA, and 0.039 ONA stocks. During the study period, the contribution of Asian chum salmon stocks gradually changed from RU to KJP stock. In addition, North American populations from NWA and ONA were small but present near the vicinity of the Russian coast and the Commander Islands, suggesting that the study areas in the western Bering Sea were an important migration route for Pacific chum salmon originating both from Asia and North America during the months of September and October. These results make it possible to better understand the chum salmon stock composition of the mixed-stock fisheries in the western Bering Sea and the stock-specific distribution pattern of chum salmon on the high-seas.

  6. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner. PMID:23880060

  7. Immunization of pacific salmon: comparison of intraperitoneal injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida bacterins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antipa, Ross; Amend, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Two methods of immunizing fish, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and hyperosmotic infiltration, were compared for control of vibriosis and furunculosis in pen-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Both methods provided significant protection against vibriosis under field test conditions. In coho salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration provided the best protection and fastest rise in antibody titer of seven treatments tested. In chinook salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida vaccines resulted in 83.3% survival in comparison with 28.7% survival in controls. Both i.p. injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of V. anguillarum and A. salmonicida bacterins resulted in production of serum antibodies specific for each respective pathogen. Vaccination with bivalent V. anguillarum–A.salmonicida vaccines produced antibodies to both pathogens, and provided protection against vibriosis. Growth rates of vaccinated coho salmon were not significantly different from controls.

  8. Changes in the genetic structure of Atlantic salmon populations over four decades reveal substantial impacts of stocking and potential resiliency

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Charles; Guyomard, René; Bagliniere, Jean-Luc; Nikolic, Natacha; Evanno, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    While the stocking of captive-bred fish has been occurring for decades and has had substantial immediate genetic and evolutionary impacts on wild populations, its long-term consequences have only been weakly investigated. Here, we conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of 1428 Atlantic salmon sampled from 1965 to 2006 in 25 populations throughout France to investigate the influence of stocking on the neutral genetic structure in wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. On the basis of the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci, we found that the overall genetic structure among populations dramatically decreased over the period studied. Admixture rates among populations were highly variable, ranging from a nearly undetectable contribution from donor stocks to total replacement of the native gene pool, suggesting extremely variable impacts of stocking. Depending on population, admixture rates either increased, remained stable, or decreased in samples collected between 1998 and 2006 compared to samples from 1965 to 1987, suggesting either rising, long-lasting or short-term impacts of stocking. We discuss the potential mechanisms contributing to this variability, including the reduced fitness of stocked fish and persistence of wild locally adapted individuals. PMID:23919174

  9. Synchronous centennial-scale variability in abundance of remote sardine populations in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwae, M.; Takashige, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Sagawa, T.; Takeoka, H.

    2012-12-01

    A number of studies have identified evidence for connections between Pacific climate decadal variability and variations in Pacific marine ecosystems which are typically shown in abundance of remote sardine and anchovy species off Japan, California, Peru, and Chile as well as Alaska salmon species. The variations in climate indices and abundance of sardine and anchovy species most likely have 50-70 year cycles and therefore these natural perturbations in climates and Pacific ecosystems should be considered for developing predictive models of fisheries productions and the managements. Despite the importance of natural perturbations for long-term predictions, one issue, whether synchronous centennial-variations in remote Pacific fisheries productions in response to climate variability exists in the past, has not been questioned, because there has never been long-term reconstructed time series in the western North Pacific. Here we present well preserved, fossil fish scale-based abundance record of Japanese sardine over the last 1100 years reconstructed from a seasonal anoxic basin in the western Seto Inland Sea near their spawning areas in the western North Pacific. A comparison of our record with other previous records clearly showed centennial-scale variations in abundance of sardine species off Japan, California, and Chile, characterized by centennial-scale alternations between low abundance regimes and high abundance regimes in which multidecadal fluctuations with large amplitudes occurred once or several times. High abundance regimes from 1450 to 1650 AD and after 1800 AD and a low abundance regime from 1650 to 1800 AD corresponded to low frequency patterns of PDO index reconstructed from tree-ring records in North America. This indicates that connections between Pacific climate variability and variations in Pacific marine ecosystems exist not only on multidecadal timescales but on centennial timescales. Three to four hundred-yr periodicity of the Pacific climate

  10. Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration.

    PubMed

    Battin, James; Wiley, Matthew W; Ruckelshaus, Mary H; Palmer, Richard N; Korb, Elizabeth; Bartz, Krista K; Imaki, Hiroo

    2007-04-17

    Throughout the world, efforts are under way to restore watersheds, but restoration planning rarely accounts for future climate change. Using a series of linked models of climate, land cover, hydrology, and salmon population dynamics, we investigated the impacts of climate change on the effectiveness of proposed habitat restoration efforts designed to recover depleted Chinook salmon populations in a Pacific Northwest river basin. Model results indicate a large negative impact of climate change on freshwater salmon habitat. Habitat restoration and protection can help to mitigate these effects and may allow populations to increase in the face of climate change. The habitat deterioration associated with climate change will, however, make salmon recovery targets much more difficult to attain. Because the negative impacts of climate change in this basin are projected to be most pronounced in relatively pristine, high-elevation streams where little restoration is possible, climate change and habitat restoration together are likely to cause a spatial shift in salmon abundance. River basins that span the current snow line appear especially vulnerable to climate change, and salmon recovery plans that enhance lower-elevation habitats are likely to be more successful over the next 50 years than those that target the higher-elevation basins likely to experience the greatest snow-rain transition. PMID:17412830